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Sample records for western xinjiang nw

  1. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

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    Yun Li

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  2. Chromian spinels in highly altered ultramafic rocks from the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange, Xinjiang, NW China

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    Qiu, Tian; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2018-06-01

    The Sartohay ophiolitic mélange is located in western Junggar (Xinjiang province, NW China), which is a major component of the core part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Chromian spinels in serpentinite, talc schist, carbonate-talc schist and listwaenite in Sartohay ophiolitic mélange retain primary compositions with Cr# of 0.39-0.65, Mg# = 0.48-0.67, and Fe3+# evolution of chromian spinels in highly altered ultramafic rocks from the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange. Chromian spinels in serpentinite and talc schist were rimmed by Cr-magnetite, which was dissolved completely during transformation from serpentinite/talc schist to listwaenite. Chromian spinels were then transformed into Fe2+-rich chromite in shear zones, which characterized by high fluid/rock ratios. This Fe2+-rich chromite and/or chromian spinels could then be transformed into Fe3+-rich chromite in oxidizing conditions at shallow levels.

  3. A review of mineral systems and associated tectonic settings of northern Xinjiang, NW China

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    Franco Pirajno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of mineral systems in northern Xinjiang, NW China, focussing on the Tianshan, West and East Junggar and Altay orogenic belts, all of which are part of the greater Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. The CAOB is a complex collage of ancient microcontinents, island arcs, oceanic plateaux and oceanic plates, which were amalgamated and accreted in Early Palaeozoic to Early Permian times. The establishment of the CAOB collage was followed by strike-slip movements and affected by intraplate magmatism, linked to mantle plume activity, best exemplified by the 250 Ma Siberian Traps and the 280 Ma Tarim event. In northern Xinjiang, there are numerous and economically important mineral systems. In this contribution we describe a selection of representative mineral deposits, including subduction-related porphyry and epithermal deposits, volcanogenic massive sulphides and skarn systems. Shear zone-hosted Au lodes may have first formed as intrusion-related and subsequently re-worked during strike-slip deformation. Intraplate magmatism led to the emplacement of concentrically zoned (Alaskan-style mafic–ultramafic intrusions, many of which host orthomagmatic sulphide deposits. A huge belt of pegmatites in the Altay orogen, locally hosts world-class rare metal deposits. Roll-front, sandstone-hosted U mineralisation completes the rich mineral endowment of the northern Xinjiang terranes.

  4. Pollen and phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China.

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    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP.

  5. Source characteristics and tectonic setting of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang, NW China: Insights from the petrology and geochemistry of the Lubei mafic-ultramafic intrusion

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    Chen, Bao-Yun; Yu, Jin-Jie; Liu, Shuai-Jie

    2018-05-01

    The newly discovered Lubei sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion forms the western extension of the Huangshan-Jin'erquan mafic-ultramafic intrusion belt in East Tianshan, NW China. The Lubei intrusion comprises hornblende peridotite, lherzolite, and harzburgite in its southern portion, gabbro in its middle portion, and hornblende gabbro in its northern portion. Intrusive relationships indicate that three magma pulses were involved in the formation of the intrusion, and that they were likely evolved from a common primitive magma. Estimated compositions of the Lubei primitive magma are similar to those of island arc calc-alkaline basalt except for the low Na2O and CaO contents of the Lubei primitive magma. This paper reports on the mineral compositions, whole-rock major and trace element contents, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of the Lubei intrusion, and a zircon LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb age for hornblende gabbro. The Lubei intrusion is characterized by enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements, depletion in high-field-strength elements, and marked negative Nb and Ta anomalies, with enrichment in chondrite-normalized light rare earth elements. It exhibits low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70333-0.70636 and low (143Nd/144Nd)i ratios of 0.51214-0.51260, with positive εNd values of +4.01 to +6.33. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages yielded a weighted-mean age of 287.9 ± 1.6 Ma for the Lubei intrusion. Contemporaneous mafic-ultramafic intrusions in different tectonic domains in North Xinjiang show similar geological and geochemical signatures to the Lubei intrusion, suggesting a source region of metasomatized mantle previously modified by hydrous fluids from the slab subducted beneath the North Xinjiang region in the early Permian. Metasomatism of the mantle was dominated by hydrous fluids and was related to subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere during the Paleozoic. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest that the mantle source was a mixture of depleted mid

  6. Peat δ13Ccelluose-recorded wetting trend during the past 8000 years in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China

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    Zhang, Dongliang; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Yunpeng; Lan, Bo; Ran, Min; Mu, Guijin

    2018-05-01

    There have been large discrepancies in the proposed mechanisms accounting for the wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. To validate or invalidate the widely reported wetting trend, we obtained a carbon isotope of cellulose (δ13Ccelluose)-recorded warm-season moisture history from a Narenxia (NRX) peat core in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China. The δ13Ccelluose-recorded warm-season moisture reconstruction of the NRX peat core provides a strong support to the widely-reported proposition that the climate was generally dry before ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP and was changed to a wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. The wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP well resembles the increasing trend of the reconnaissance drought index (RDI) that was calculated on the basis of pollen-inferred temperature and precipitation data from the same core. The resemblance implies that the wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years resulted from the combined effect of temperature and precipitation.

  7. Microseismicity, tectonics and seismic potential in the Western Himalayan segment, NW Himalaya, India

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    Parija, Mahesh Prasad; Kumar, Sushil; Tiwari, V. M.; Rao, N. Purnachandra; Kumar, Narendra; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Singh, Ishwar

    2018-06-01

    The tectonics and seismic potential of the western Himalayan segment (30-33°N; 76-80°E) of the NW Himalayan (India) region have been determined in this study. 423 earthquakes were located in the NW Himalaya between 2004 and 2013 using more than 4495 P and 4453 S differential travel times to determine the moment tensors for 8 (Mw ≥ 4.0) of these earthquakes using their broadband regional waveforms. The geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) plane which varies along the strike of the Himalaya in flat and ramp segments with a dip ranging between ∼2.5 to ∼4° to ∼19° below the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in the south to the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) in the north has also been deduced in this study. Two crustal ramps were reported in this study with a depth variance below the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) between 12 to 22 km and 28 to 40 km depth respectively. The estimated earthquake potential prevailing in the western Himalayan seismic gap lying between the epicentral zone of the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake reveals that the total amount of energy released since the last great event is only a fraction (3-5%) of the accommodated energy i.e.1.1E+28 dyne-cm/yr. This suggests that if an earthquake hits this NW Himalayan segment in the future, its magnitude might be around Mw ≥ 8.0.

  8. Relationships between the West Asian subtropical westerly jet and summer precipitation in northern Xinjiang

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    Zhao, Yong; Wang, MinZhong; Huang, AnNing; Li, HongJun; Huo, Wen; Yang, Qing

    2014-05-01

    The relation between the spatial and temporal variations of the West Asian subtropical westerly jet (WASWJ) and the summer precipitation in northern Xinjiang has been explored using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the summer precipitation data at 43 stations in northern Xinjiang during 1961 to 2007. Results show that the position of the WASWJ is more important than its strength in influencing the summer precipitation in northern Xinjiang. When the jet position is further south, the anomalous southwesterly flow crossing the Indian subcontinent along the southern foothill of the Tibetan Plateau is favorable for the southwestward warm and wet air penetrating from low latitudes into Central Asia and northern Xinjiang and more rainfall formation. Further analysis shows that the interannual variations of the jet position are well correlated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO). In the weak AO years, the middle to upper troposphere becomes colder than normal and results in an anomalous cyclonic circulation at 200 hPa over Western and Central Asia, which enhances the westerly wind over middle and low latitudes and leads to the WASWJ located further south.

  9. The indentification of Jueluotage V-type structure in Xinjiang and its orderness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Maolong; Sun Wenpeng; Cai Wenbo; Xu Daoyi

    2005-01-01

    Based on the interpretation of satellite image and field checking in Jueluotage area, Xinjiang, it is thought that the sublatitudinal arc fault zones have been formed since Mesozoic through the evolution of the NWW-trending and NEE-trending faults occurring in pre-Mesozoic time. These three sets of faults comprise the Jueluotage 'V-type structure' formed by the NW-trending structural stress field and drastically activated since Neocene. The Jueluotage V-type structure is expressed in time as an ordered process, and in space as an ordered arrangement and an ordered evolution direction, and characterizes the Information Ordered Series (IOS) of the evolution process of fault structure. (authors)

  10. Xinjiang Studies: The Third Wave

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    Peter C. Perdue

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kwangmin Kim. Borderland Capitalism: Turkestan Produce, Qing Silver, and the Birth of an Eastern Market. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2016. 312 pp. $65 (cloth. Rian Thum. The Sacred Routes of Uyghur History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014. 336 pp. $40 (cloth. David J. Brophy. Uyghur Nation: Reform and Revolution on the Russia-China Frontier. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016. 368 pp. $40 (cloth. Judd Kinzley. Production and Power in China’s Far West: Gold, Wool, and Oil in the Transformation of Xinjiang, 1893–1965. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming. Justin M. Jacobs. Xinjiang and the Modern Chinese State. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2016. 320 pp. $50 (cloth. Tom Cliff. Oil and Water: Being Han in Xinjiang. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2016. 280 pp. $90 (cloth; $30 (paper/e-book.

  11. The Uyghur Insurgency in Xinjiang: The Success Potential

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    2015-06-12

    franchise in Xinjiang. The TIP works under the global umbrella of AQ as envisioned by Abu Musab. The TIP, apart from utilizing the training and...from global terrorist organizations and the visible effects of this decision can be viewed in Xinjiang post 2008. This thesis evaluates the Uyghur...the situation in Xinjiang. The Uyghur insurgents sought support from global terrorist organizations and the visible effects of this decision can be

  12. Boundaries, Discrimination, and Interethnic Conflict in Xinjiang, China

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    Enze Han

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region has been afflicted by Uighur political activism and ethnic violence for the past few decades. Interethnic relations between the Uighurs and Han Chinese have been extremely tense. Why is Xinjiang so vulnerable to interethnic violence? Why are intergroup
    dynamics between the Uighurs and Han Chinese so volatile? This paper examines Uighur–Han Chinese relations in contemporary Xinjiang and probes conditions that facilitate interethnic violence. Utilizing Fredrik Barth’s approach to ethnicity that emphasizes boundaries, this paper examines in detail how the rigid interethnic boundary between the Uighurs and Han Chinese has been constructed and strengthened in Xinjiang. Perceived differences have generated mutual distrust and discrimination between the two groups that make intergroup communication and understanding difficult and therefore very limited. In situations such as that in Xinjiang, where a rigid intergroup boundary is in place and civic engagements across groups are lacking, intergroup conflict is
    extremely hard to avoid.

  13. The Role of the Uighur Diaspora in the Struggle for Independence of Xinjiang

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    A S Mavlonova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains analysis of the activities of the Uighur diaspora abroad and its role in struggle for independence of Xinjiang. The author comes into conclusion that the role of the Uighur organizations located and incorporated in the western countries in activization of separatist in Xinjiang is huge. Such organizations are financed by the governments of the western countries, mainly by the United States. The most popular organization among them is “The World Uyghur Congress”, headed by Rebiya Kadeer. Despite the various internal disagreements, Uigur organizations located on the territory of western countries, pay special attention to the issue of self-determination and respecting of the rights of Uigurs in China. As a result of stabilization and improving of relations between Central Asian countries and China and formation of joint security system of countries within The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the governments of the countries follow the policy based on the principle of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Additionally, according to the author the fact that China has obtained support from the Central Asian countries in avoiding of separatism helps to keep Uighur organizations under strict control of the officials. Currently the Uigur diaspora is divided into many organizations established during the last several decades. The attempts to establish the single powerful organization that would support interests of the Uighur people and would be able to influence the world community were not successful.

  14. Copy number variations and genetic admixtures in three Xinjiang ethnic minority groups.

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    Lou, Haiyi; Li, Shilin; Jin, Wenfei; Fu, Ruiqing; Lu, Dongsheng; Pan, Xinwei; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-04-01

    Xinjiang is geographically located in central Asia, and it has played an important historical role in connecting eastern Eurasian (EEA) and western Eurasian (WEA) people. However, human population genomic studies in this region have been largely underrepresented, especially with respect to studies of copy number variations (CNVs). Here we constructed the first CNV map of the three major ethnic minority groups, the Uyghur, Kazakh and Kirgiz, using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. We systematically compared the properties of CNVs we identified in the three groups with the data from representatives of EEA and WEA. The analyses indicated a typical genetic admixture pattern in all three groups with ancestries from both EEA and WEA. We also identified several CNV regions showing significant deviation of allele frequency from the expected genome-wide distribution, which might be associated with population-specific phenotypes. Our study provides the first genome-wide perspective on the CNVs of three major Xinjiang ethnic minority groups and has implications for both evolutionary and medical studies.

  15. Expression of sheep pathogen Babesia sp. Xinjiang rhoptry-associated protein 1 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

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    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Yu, Peifa; Pan, Yuping; Zhai, Bintao; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Ovine babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of small ruminants. The ovine parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China. In this study, recombinant full-length XJrRAP-1aα2 (rhoptry-associated protein 1aα2) and C-terminal XJrRAP-1aα2 CT of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were expressed and used to evaluate their diagnostic potential for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infections by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purified XJrRAP-1aα2 was tested for reactivity with sera from animals experimentally infected with Babesia sp. Xinjiang and other haemoparasites using Western blotting and ELISA. The results showed no cross-reactivities between XJrRAP-1aα2 CT and sera from animals infected by other pathogens. High level of antibodies against RAP-1a usually lasted 10 weeks post-infection (wpi). A total of 3690 serum samples from small ruminants in 23 provinces located in 59 different regions of China were tested by ELISA. The results indicated that the average positive rate was 30·43%, and the infections were found in all of the investigated provinces. This is the first report on the expression and potential use of a recombinant XJrRAP-1aα2 CT antigen for the development of serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia sp. Xinjiang.

  16. The Composition Analysis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Xinjiang and Its Antifatigue Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jieying; Chen, Longfei; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Zhu, Song; Fan, Liuping

    2017-01-01

    Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein conte...

  17. Paleozoic–early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

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    Rui, Zongyao; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Qiu, Yumin; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, Franco; Yun, Grace

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic–early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe–Cu–Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen–Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan

  18. Uyghurs in Xinjiang: United or Divided Against the PRC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    them). Uyghurs have responded in stressing even more so their distinction from the Han Chinese people and culture. However, despite this improved...UyghurLanguageUnderAttack.pdf. 10 Justin Rudelson and William Jankowiak. “ Acculturation and Resistance: Xinjiang Identities in Flux,” in Xinjiang: China’s Muslim...the Uyghur people. Rudelson and Jankowiak argue that the responses of the Uyghurs are varied and divided—ranging from acculturation , to non-violent

  19. The Composition Analysis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Xinjiang and Its Antifatigue Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein content and amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids such as Valine and Isoleucine related to the effect of antifatigue. It also has considerable minerals ions such as Ca and Mg. Besides, bioactive ingredients such as maca amide, glucosinolate, and alkaloid of Xinjiang maca are similar to those of maca from other areas, which qualify the biological value of Xinjiang maca. The results of mice model suggest that maca has a dose-dependent antifatigue activity by decreasing blood lactic acid, as well as increasing liver glycogen content and the forced swimming time.

  20. The Empirical Analysis of the Dynamic Prices Relationship between Cotton Spot Market and Futures Market in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the causal relationship between the cotton spot,and the tendency and impact of prices of futures markets in Xinjiang by using ADF test,co-integration analysis,Granger causality test and other econometric methods in order to discuss the interacted relationship between futures market prices of cotton and spot market prices since the futures of cotton in Xinjiang go public.The results of empirical analysis show that the spot market prices of cotton and the futures market prices in Xinjiang fluctuate prominently in the short run and tend to counterpoise in the long run;the futures market of cotton plays the role of leading the spot market prices of cotton in Xinjiang,while the spot market prices of cotton in Xinjiang impacts little on the futures market prices.The corresponding countermeasures are put forward.The government should continuously perfect the construction of the futures market of cotton in Xinjiang,so as to exert the function of price discovery and the function of hedging,and promote the development of cotton industry in Xinjiang.

  1. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China

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    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  2. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    .... Two justifications ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim...

  3. MNS, Duffy, and Kell blood groups among the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G Y; Du, X L; Shan, J J; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, Q H

    2017-03-15

    Human blood groups are a significant resource for patients, leading to a fierce international competition in the screening of rare blood groups. Some rare blood group screening programs have been implemented in western countries and Japan, but not particularly in China. Recently, the genetic background of ABO and Rh blood groups for different ethnic groups or regions in China has been focused on increasingly. However, rare blood groups such as MN, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, and Diego are largely unexplored. No systematic reports exist concerning the polymorphisms and allele frequencies of rare blood groups in China's ethnic minorities such as Uygur and Kazak populations of Xinjiang, unlike those on the Han population. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the allele frequencies of rare blood groups, namely, MNS, Duffy, Kell, Dombrock, Diego, Kidd, Scianna, Colton, and Lutheran in the Uygur population of Xinjiang Single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction was performed for genotyping and statistical analysis of 9 rare blood groups in 158 Uygur individuals. Allele frequencies were compared with distribution among other ethnic groups. Observed and expected values of genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. Genotype frequencies obeyed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.5) and allele frequencies were stable. Of all subjects detected, 4 cases carried the rare phenotype S - s - of MNS blood group (frequency of 0.0253), and 1 case carried the phenotype Jk a-b- (frequency of 0.0063). Frequencies of the four groups, MNS, Duffy, Dombrock, and Diego, in the Uygur population differed from those in other ethnic groups. Gene distribution of the Kell, Kidd, and Colton was similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations, though there were some discrepancies. Gene distribution of Scianna and Lutheran groups showed monomorphism similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations. These findings could contribute to the investigation of the origin, evolution, and

  4. NW CSC annual report fiscal year 2013

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    Bisbal, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 as one of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC encompasses Washing-ton, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana and has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. With guidance from its Executive Stakeholder Advisory Committee (ESAC), the NW CSC and its partner LCCs are addressing the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Climate Science Centers tap into the scientific expertise of both the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and academic institutions. The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium with the capacity to generate climate science and tools in a coordinated fashion, serving stakeholders across the Northwest region. This consortium is primarily represented by Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Id-ho (UI), and the University of Washington (UW). The academic consortium and USGS provide capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts and vulnerability assessment, modeling, adaptation planning, and advanced information technology, all necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. University members also recruit and train graduate students and early-career scientists. This Annual Report summarizes progress for the goals set out in the NW CSC Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 (http://www.doi.gov/csc/northwest/upload/Northwest-CSC-Strategic-Plan.cfm) and the NW CSC Work-plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 (October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013). The report follows the structure of the Strategic Plan, which describes the five core services (Executive, Science, Data, Communications, and Education and Training) provided by the NW CSC in support of the stated vision: Our Vision: To become nationally recognized as a best-practice model for the provision

  5. Study on new energy development planning and absorptive capability of Xinjiang in China considering resource characteristics and demand prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hai; Miao, Xujuan; Liu, Jinpeng; Wu, Meng; Zhao, Xuehua

    2018-02-01

    Xinjiang, as the area where wind energy and solar energy resources are extremely rich, with good resource development characteristics, can provide a support for regional power development and supply protection. This paper systematically analyzes the new energy resource and development characteristics of Xinjiang and carries out the demand prediction and excavation of load characteristics of Xinjiang power market. Combing the development plan of new energy of Xinjiang and considering the construction of transmission channel, it analyzes the absorptive capability of new energy. It provides certain reference for the comprehensive planning of new energy development in Xinjiang and the improvement of absorptive capacity of new energy.

  6. Isolated, but transnational: the glocal nature of Waldensian ethnobotany, Western Alps, NW Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, Giada; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-05-07

    An ethnobotanical field study on the traditional uses of wild plants for food as well as medicinal and veterinary plants was conducted in four Waldensian valleys (Chisone, Germanasca, Angrogna, and Pellice) in the Western Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy. Waldensians represent a religious Protestant Christian minority that originated in France and spread around 1,170 AD to the Italian side of Western Alps, where, although persecuted for centuries, approximately 20,000 believers still survive today, increasingly mixing with their Catholic neighbours. Interviews with a total of 47 elderly informants, belonging to both Waldensian and Catholic religious groups, were undertaken in ten Western Alpine villages, using standard ethnobotanical methods. The uses of 85 wild and semi-domesticated food folk taxa, 96 medicinal folk taxa, and 45 veterinary folk taxa were recorded. Comparison of the collected data within the two religious communities shows that Waldensians had, or have retained, a more extensive ethnobotanical knowledge, and that approximately only half of the wild food and medicinal plants are known and used by both communities. Moreover, this convergence is greater for the wild food plant domain. Comparison of the collected data with ethnobotanical surveys conducted at the end of the 19th Century and the 1980s in one of studied valleys (Germanasca) shows that the majority of the plants recorded in the present study are used in the same or similar ways as they were decades ago. Idiosyncratic plant uses among Waldensians included both archaic uses, such as the fern Botrychium lunaria for skin problems, as well as uses that may be the result of local adaptions of Central and Northern European customs, including Veronica allionii and V. officinalis as recreational teas and Cetraria islandica in infusions to treat coughs. The great resilience of plant knowledge among Waldensians may be the result of the long isolation and history of marginalisation that this group has faced

  7. Genetic characterization and molecular survey of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Gao, Shandian; Pan, Yuping; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang is a large ovine Babesia species that was recently isolated in China. Compared with other ovine Babesia species, it has different morphological features, pathogenicity and vector tick species. The known transmitting vector is Hyalomma anatolicum. In this study, the distribution and the presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China were assessed by specific nested-PCR assay based on the rap-1a gene. A total of 978 blood samples from sheep or goats from 15 provinces and 797 tick specimens from vegetation from 10 provinces were collected and analysed for the presence of the Babesia sp. Xinjiang. Full-length and partial rap-1a of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were amplified from field samples. The PCR results were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Overall, 38 (3.89%) blood samples and 51 (6.4%) tick samples were positive for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection. The highest presence (26.92%) was found in blood samples from Yunnan province, while H. qinghaiensis ticks with the highest presence of infection (21.3%) were from Gansu province. This study identified for the first time Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in H. longicornis tick species. The rap-1a sequences of Babesia sp. Xinjiang from field blood and tick samples indicated 100% identity. The presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection may increase in China. Novel potential transmitting vectors might be more extensive than previously thought. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Preface to the Special Issue on Geodynamic and Climate-Change Processes over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheinway Hwang; Benjamin Fong Chao; Jeffrey T. Freymueller; Wenbin Shen; C. K. Shum

    2011-01-01

    Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS) are regions with active plate tectonics. Evidence from satellite gravimetry and altimetry shows the hydrological evolutions over these regions are sensitive to global climate change. For example, inter-annual lake level changes over Tibet and Xinjiang from satellite altimetry are found to be connected to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Lakes in central Asia, Xinjiang and Siberia show sharp changes in lake levels that can be explained by climate cha...

  9. Independent evaluation of a canine Echinococcosis Control Programme in Hobukesar County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Freya; Qi, Xinwei; Tao, Jiang; Feng, Xiaohui; Mastin, Alexander; Craig, Philip S; Vuitton, Dominique A; Duan, Xinyu; Chu, Xiangdong; Zhu, Jinlong; Wen, Hao

    2015-05-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China is one of the world's most important foci for cystic echinococcosis. Domestic dogs are the main source for human infection, and previous studies in Xinjiang have found a canine Echinococcus spp. coproELISA prevalence of between 36% and 41%. In 2010 the Chinese National Echinococcosis Control Programme was implemented in Xinjiang, and includes regular dosing of domestic dogs with praziquantel. Six communities in Hobukesar County, northwest Xinjiang were assessed in relation to the impact of this control programme through dog necropsies, dog Echinococcus spp. coproantigen surveys based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and dog owner questionnaires. We found that 42.1% of necropsied dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and coproELISA prevalences were between 15% and 70% in the communities. Although approximately half of all dog owners reported dosing their dogs within the 12 months prior to sampling, coproELISA prevalence remained high. Regular praziquantel dosing of owned dogs in remote and semi-nomadic communities such as those in Hobukesar County is logistically very difficult and additional measures should be considered to reduce canine echinococcosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEPARATISM IN XINJIANG OF PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А С Мавлонова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the important geostrategic position of Xinjiang, located at the in-tersection of foci of instability, at least having a common border with Afghanistan and Pakistan. The large-scale military conflict in the Middle East has definitely influenced the geostrategic posi-tion of Xinjiang. The analysis shows that the peculiarity of this conflict lies in the fact that it affects not only the political, but also the economic situation of Xinjiang. The aim of the study is to identify and analyze the main external factors that influence the activation of separatism in Xinjiang. As for the political aspect, the emergence of a new active force in the Middle East represented by ISIS creates certain risks for China, given the presence of radical young people, and the possibility of religious extremists from penetrating into its territory through Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics. China does not benefit from the prolonged destabilization of the political situation in Syria, the disintegration of the state or the victory of religious extremists. The author also comes to the conclusion that the military conflict in the Middle East can negatively affect the implementation of the project of the new Silk Road. Its starting point is Xinjiang. Successful implementation of the project will stimulate trade, economic and energy exchanges with the Central Asian republics and positively influence the stabilization of the situation in Xinjiang. But the problem lies in the fact that the road itself lies close to the Middle Eastern regions, where conflicts with the ISIS occur in the acute phase. The article also examines the US influence on the situation in Xinjiang and support for the Uyghur separatist movement. In the future, the Uyghur issue is more likely to be used by the Americans to weaken and gain concessions from China on various issues. This research is based on the principles of general scientific system and structural approaches, as

  12. Role of mantle dynamics in rebuilding the Tianshan Orogenic Belt in NW China: A seismic tomographic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane are located at the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Here, we investigate the velocity structure beneath the Xinjiang region in NW China, which includes the Tarim terrane, Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane with a view to evaluate the mantle dynamics based on teleseismic data recorded by 103 seismic stations. Our tomographic results show both high and low velocity perturbations beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt. We suggest that the high velocity perturbations beneath this orogenic belt might represent the northward subducted lithosphere of the Tarim Basin and the southward subducted lithosphere of the Junggar Basin. The low velocity structure beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt might represent asthenosphere upwelling that triggered the extensive magmatism which contributed to rebuilding of the Tianshan orogenic belt.

  13. Attribute Analysis of Aridity Variability in North Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the dominant meteorological factors affecting aridity variability can improve our understanding of climate change and its future trend in arid and semiarid regions. This study investigated the spatiotemporal aridity variability in North Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2013, based on the UNESCO aridity index (precipitation/potential evapotranspiration, and analyzed its association with meteorological factors. The results suggest that North Xinjiang is becoming more humid with an increasing trend in aridity index. Precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity have positive correlation with aridity, and evapotranspiration, sunshine hours, and wind speed have negative correlation with aridity. Wind speed and sunshine hours have a higher sensitivity and more contribution to aridity. This study provides an understanding of the effect of recent climate change on drought in northwest China.

  14. Violence resistance in Xinjiang (China: tracking militancy, ethnic riots and “knife-wielding” terrorist (1978-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Adriano Rodríguez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la evolución de la resistencia violenta al régimen chino en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang mediante una revisión y análisis de la naturaleza de los principales episodios violentos, en su mayoría con connotaciones separatistas, que han tenido lugar allí desde el comienzo de la era de reforma y apertura chinas (1978-2012. En este sentido, sostiene que la resistencia violenta, no necesariamente con motivaciones político-separatistas, ha estado presente en Xinjiang en la forma de insurgencia de baja escala, revueltas étnicas y terrorismo, y probablemente continúe en el futuro teniendo en cuenta las fricciones existentes entre la minoría étnica Uigur y las políticas llevadas a cabo por el gobierno chino.Palabras Clave: China, Xinjiang, Uyghur, violencia politica, separatismo, terrorismo._______________Abstract:This article aims to track the evolution of violent resistance to Chinese rule in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR. It does so by reviewing and analyzing the nature of the main episodes of violence which have taken place there since the reform and opening era began in the People’s Republic (1978-2012. It finds that violence resistance, not necessarily with political-separatist motivations, has been present in Xinjiang in the form of low-scale insurgency, ethnic riots and terrorism and it will probably stay in the future considering the frictions between the Uyghur ethnic minority and the policies of the Chinese government. Keywords: China, Xinjiang, Uyghur, political violence, separatism, terrorism.

  15. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD. Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years. Moreover, the 2–3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements.

  16. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-03-21

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960-2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2-3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements.

  17. Decadal Variation in Surface Characteristics over Xinjiang, Western China, from T/P Altimetry Backscatter Coefficients: Evidence of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyun Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The backscatter coefficient, known as sigma0, is an important measurement of satellite radar altimetry and a key parameter for land altimetry because of its close relationship with the physical properties and geometric features of land coverage under global/regional climate change effects. Using the TOPEX/Poseidon GDR-M dataset from January 1993 to December 2004, we study the spatial and temporal distribution of sigma0 at bands Ku and C over Xinjiang, western China. The results show that the sigma0 is influenced by the water distribution over land and the time evolution of sigma0 has clear seasonal changes. River basins or deserts are classified over the spatial distribution based on different sigma0 values. For example, high sigma0 values are found in the Tarim River Basin and low values are found in the Taklimakan Desert. The periodic components of sigma0 time series are determined using the fast Fourier transformation method. The annual variation is the dominating cycle and the semi-annual variation is the secondary signal. The amplitudes of sigma0 time series at bands Ku and C are also given and most areas have quite low amplitudes except for the Tarim River Basin. Several areas including the Tarim River Basin, Tianshan Mountain and Taklimakan Desert are selected for sigma0 time series spacial analysis to discuss the reasons for variations in sigma0. The main factors are precipitation and vegetation growth, which are affected by the global/regional climate change. The correlation between the brightness temperature, which is related to the water-vapor content in the atmosphere measured by TMR at the 21 GHz channel and sigma0 at two bands, is analyzed.

  18. China’s Counterinsurgency Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte; Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    2011-01-01

    Hvordan håndteres Kinas oprørsbekæmpelsesstrategi i Tibet og Xinjiang? Der er en fungerende vertikal koordination, men udfordringer på de horisontale områder mellem ligestillede myndigheder. Derfor vælges militær tilgang til problemstilingerne ofte, da de giver resultat her og nu....

  19. Consideration of nuclear technology development on agricultural industrialization in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fang; Xie Yinghua; Lei Bin

    2010-01-01

    This review describes the application of nuclear technology in Xinjiang agriculture along with industrialization and economic benefit since 1970s. Current problems in this field were analyzed and corresponding advices were presented. (authors)

  20. Geochemical Characteristics on NW of Ladakh Batholith region exposed in the Western part of Leh area around Trans- Himalayan Belt, NW (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, A., IV; Ilbeyli, N.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics (major & trace elements including REE) are studied on the granitic rocks from NW of Ladakh batholith region that emplaced in the western part of Leh area around the Trans- Himalaya of Ladakh district, Jammu & Kashmir (NW India). The major element geochemistry reveals that these granitic rocks display a broad spectrum of SiO2 content (54.50 wt%- 75.80 wt%). The oxide of K2O, Al2O3, MgO & Fe2O3 shows negative correlation with SiO2 probably shows the fractionation of biotite during the process of crystallization. The oxide of CaO & TiO2 shows positive correlation that coupled with their negative correlation with SiO2 most probably reflects the fractionation of Sphene (CaTiSiO5). The fractionation of apatite is also indicated by the positive correlation with CaO & P2O5 and their negative correlation with SiO2. The classified diagram between Molar Al2O3/ (CaO+Na2O+K2O) vs Molar Al2O3/ (Na2O+K2O) shows that all samples covered peraluminous region. The total alkali diagram of (Na2O+K2O) wt% vs SiO2 (wt %) shows that all samples covered the region of granite, quartz diorite & diorite. The samples plot between K2O (wt %) vs SiO2 (wt %) shows high to medium -K (calc-alkaline) series. All these intrusive rock shows enrichment in LILE (K, Rb, Ba, & Th) and LREE (Ce) relative to the HFSE (Ta, Nb, Hf, Zr, Sm, Y, & Yb). The Chondrite- normalized REE patterns for the studied granitic rocks such as LREE & MREE and HREE's are moderately fractionated & have moderate negative Eu anomalies. In the Nb Vs Y and Rb- (Y+Nb) diagrams, all intrusive rocks fall into the VAG (volcanic- arc granite) field in order to characterize tectonic environment for the granitic rocks. The Al2O3/TiO2 vs CaO/Na2O diagram & Rb/Ba vs Rb/Sr plots are used for identifying the source of melts parental to peraluminous granites. The variations that observed in granitoid are not only by partial melting but also depend on various processes like migration of melts, magma mixing

  1. Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Brian E; Mallory, J P

    2004-07-01

    Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Täklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical appearance of the population, raised questions as to where these people came from. Two hypotheses have been offered by archaeologists to account for the origins of Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. These are the "steppe hypothesis" and the "Bactrian oasis hypothesis." Eight craniometric variables from 25 Aeneolithic and Bronze Age samples, comprising 1,353 adults from the Tarim Basin, the Russo-Kazakh steppe, southern China, Central Asia, Iran, and the Indus Valley, are compared to test which, if either, of these hypotheses are supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (the weighted pair average linkage method and the neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis. Rather, the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age. After 1200 B.C., this population experienced significant gene flow from highland populations of the Pamirs and Ferghana Valley. These highland populations may include those who later became known as the Saka and who may have served as "middlemen" facilitating contacts between East (Tarim Basin, China) and West (Bactria, Uzbekistan) along what later became known as the Great Silk Road. Copyright

  2. Effect of heating rate on thermal cracking characteristics and kinetics of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen by TG-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Zhang, Jinhong; Qiao, Yingyun; Tian, Yuanyu

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to investigate effects of heating rate on thermal cracking behaviors, distribution of gaseous products and activation energy of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen (OSB). The thermal cracking experiments of Xinjiang OSB were performed by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at various heating rates of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 120 K/min. The evolving characteristic of gaseous products produced from the thermal cracking process was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) connected with TG. The kinetic parameters of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB at each of heating rate were determined by the Coats-Redfern model. The result show that the temperature intervals of DE volatilization stage and main reaction stage, the ((dw/dt) max and Tmax in thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB all increased with the increasing heating rate. While the heating rate has not obvious effect on the coke yield of Xinjiang OSB. Furthermore, the maximum absorbance of gaseous products and corresponding temperature became larger as the heating rate increases. The activation energy of this two stage both presented increasing trend with the rising heating rate, while the increasing content of that of DE volatilization stage was weaker compared to that of main reaction stage.

  3. Collision of the Tacheng block with the Mayile-Barleik-Tangbale accretionary complex in Western Junggar, NW China: Implication for Early-Middle Paleozoic architecture of the western Altaids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Yichao; Windley, Brian F.; Song, Dongfang; Han, Chunming; Safonova, Inna

    2018-06-01

    Western Junggar in NW China, located to the southeast of the Boshchekul-Chingiz (BC) Range and to the north of the Chu-Balkhash-Yili microcontinent (CBY), played a key role in the architectural development of the western Altaids. However, the mutual tectonic relationships have been poorly constrained. In this paper, we present detailed mapping, field structural geology, and geochemical data from the Barleik-Mayile-Tangbale Complex (BMTC) in Western Junggar. The Complex is divisible into Zones I, II and III, which are mainly composed of Cambrian-Silurian rocks. Zone I contains pillow lava, siliceous shale, chert, coral-bearing limestone, sandstone and purple mudstone. Zone II consists of basaltic lava, siliceous shale, chert, sandstone and mudstone. Zone III is characterized by basalt, chert, sandstone and mudstone. These rocks represent imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy, which have been either tectonically juxtaposed by thrusting or form a mélange with a block-in-matrix structure. All these relationships suggest that the BMTC is an Early-Middle Paleozoic accretionary complex in the eastern extension of the BC Range. These Early Paleozoic oceanic rocks were thrust onto Silurian sediments forming imbricate thrust stacks that are unconformably overlain by Devonian limestone, conglomerate and sandstone containing fossils of brachiopoda, crinoidea, bryozoa, and plant stems and leaves. The tectonic vergence of overturned folds in cherts, drag-related curved cleavages and σ-type structures on the main thrust surface suggests top-to-the-NW transport. Moreover, the positive εNd(t) values of volcanic rocks from the Tacan-1 drill-core, and the positive εHf(t) values and post-Cambrian ages of detrital zircons from Silurian and Devonian strata to the south of the Tacheng block indicate that its basement is a depleted and juvenile lithosphere. And there was a radial outward transition from coral-bearing shallow marine (shelf) to deep ocean (pelagic) environments, and from

  4. Temporal and spatial variation of maximum wind speed days during the past 20 years in major cities of Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidourela, Aliya; Jing, Zhen; Zhayimu, Kahaer; Abulaiti, Adili; Ubuli, Hakezi

    2018-04-01

    Wind erosion and sandstorms occur in the neighborhood of exposed dust sources. Wind erosion and desertification increase the frequency of dust storms, deteriorate air quality, and damage the ecological environment and agricultural production. The Xinjiang region has a relatively fragile ecological environment. Therefore, the study of the characteristics of maximum wind speed and wind direction in this region is of great significance to disaster prevention and mitigation, the management of activated dunes, and the sustainable development of the region. Based on the latest data of 71 sites in Xinjiang, this study explores the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of maximum wind speed in Xinjiang from 1993 to 2013, and highlights the distribution of annual and monthly maximum wind speed and the characteristics of wind direction in Xinjiang. Between 1993 and 2013, Ulugchat County exhibited the highest number of days with the maximum wind speed (> 17 m/s), while Wutian exhibited the lowest number. In Xinjiang, 1999 showed the highest number of maximum wind speed days (257 days), while 2013 showed the lowest number (69 days). Spring and summer wind speeds were greater than those in autumn and winter. There were obvious differences in the direction of maximum wind speed in major cities and counties of Xinjiang. East of the Tianshan Mountains, maximum wind speeds are mainly directed southeast and northeast. North and south of the Tianshan Mountains, they are mainly directed northwest and northeast, while west of the Tianshan Mountains, they are mainly directed southeast and northwest.

  5. Seed plant features, distribution patterns, diversity hotspots, and conservation gaps in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The flora in Xinjiang is unique. Decisions about biodiversity conservation and management based on seed plant diversity hotspots and conservation gaps in Xinjiang are essential to maintain this unique flora. Based on a species distribution dataset of seed plants, we measured seed plant diversity using species richness and phylogenetic diversity indices. Five percent of Xinjiang’s total land area with the highest biodiversity was used to identify hotspots for each index. In total, eight hotspots were identified. Most hotspots were located in mountainous areas, mainly in the Tianshan Mountains and Altai Mountains. Furthermore, we detected conservation gaps for Xinjiang’s seed flora hotspots by overlaying nature reserve maps on to maps of identified hotspots and we designated priority conservation gaps for hotspots by overlaying global biodiversity hotspot maps on to hotspot conservation gaps maps. Most of Xinjiang’s seed plant hotspots are poorly protected; only 10.45% of these hotspots were covered by nature reserves. We suggest that it is essential to promote network function of nature reserves within these hotspots in Xinjiang to conserve this unique flora.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Discovery Function of Cotton Future Price among Different Regions——A Case Study of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through comparative analysis, We research the relationship between cotton future price and cotton spot price in different regions, in order to formulate corresponding strategies in different regions under the new situation. We use ADF unit root test, E-G two-step cointegration test, Granger causality test, and other research methods in Eviews 5.0 statistical software, to empirically study the relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in Xinjiang, the relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in China. The results show that there is a long-term relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in Xinjiang, between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in China; the cotton future price plays unidirectional role in guiding cotton spot price in Xinjiang and cotton spot price in China. The discovery function of cotton future price plays much greater role in the cotton market of China than in the cotton market of Xinjiang.

  7. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-01-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ense...

  8. Terrestrial water storage changes over Xinjiang extracted by combining Gaussian filter and multichannel singular spectrum analysis from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinyun; Li, Wudong; Chang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Guangbin; Liu, Xin; Guo, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Water resource management is crucial for the economic and social development of Xinjiang, an arid area located in the Northwest China. In this paper, the time variations of gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE)-derived monthly gravity field models from 2003 January to 2013 December are analysed to study the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes in Xinjiang using the multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) with a Gaussian smoothing radius of 400 km. As an extended singular spectrum analysis (SSA), MSSA is more flexible to deal with multivariate time-series in terms of estimating periodic components and trend, reducing noise and identifying patterns of similar spatiotemporal behaviour thanks to the data-adaptive nature of the base functions. Combining MSSA and Gaussian filter can not only obviously remove the north-south striping errors in the GRACE solutions but also reduce the leakage errors, which can increase the signal-to-noise ratio by comparing with the traditional procedure, that is, empirical decorrelation method followed with the Gaussian filtering. The spatiotemporal characteristics of TWS changes in Xinjiang were validated against the Global Land Dynamics Assimilation System, the Climate Prediction Center and in-situ precipitation data. The water storage in Xinjiang shows the relatively large fluctuation from 2003 January to 2013 December, with a drop from 2006 January to 2008 December due to the drought event and an obvious rise from 2009 January to 2010 December because of the high precipitation. Spatially, the TWS has been increasing in the south Xinjiang, but decreasing in the north Xinjiang. The minimum rate of water storage change is -4.4 mm yr-1 occurring in the central Tianshan Mountain.

  9. Preface to the Special Issue on Geodynamic and Climate-Change Processes over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS are regions with active plate tectonics. Evidence from satellite gravimetry and altimetry shows the hydrological evolutions over these regions are sensitive to global climate change. For example, inter-annual lake level changes over Tibet and Xinjiang from satellite altimetry are found to be connected to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Lakes in central Asia, Xinjiang and Siberia show sharp changes in lake levels that can be explained by climate change. Recent terrestrial gravity, GRACE and GPS observations suggest that the crust over the Tibetan plateau is thickening, and the Himalayan glaciers appear to be thinning. Satellite altimetry is a potential tool to study vertical displacement and permafrost thawing and changes in the active layers in Siberia and Tibet.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  11. El conflicto de Xinjiang: la minoría uigur y la política de Pekín

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    Nicolás de Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la situación actual en Xinjiang y el creciente malestar y alienación de la población uigur. Para ello, se examinan los tres ejes de la política china en Xinjiang y sus consecuencias. En los últimos años, Pekín ha combinado la represión sistemática de toda actividad uigur (con vulneraciones masivas de los derechos humanos, con la promoción de la asimilación forzosa y la implementación de grandes proyectos de desarrollo. Pekín ha consolidado su dominio sobre Xinjiang, pero a costa de un creciente malestar y alienación de buena parte de la población uigur. A pesar de la calma de los últimos años, el conflicto dista mucho de estar resuelto y no es posible descartar por completo un nuevo ciclo de desórdenes y violencia como el que sacudió Xinjiang en los años 90.

  12. Study on structuring the supervision system of coal mine associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Jia Xiahui

    2012-01-01

    Xinjiang is one of China's rich coal provinces (areas) and it accounts for about 40% national coal reserves. In the long-term radioactive scientific research, monitoring and environmental impact assessment works, we found parts of Yili and Hetian's coal was associated with higher radionuclide, and parts of coal seam even reached nuclear mining level. However the laws and regulations about associated radioactive coal mine supervision were not perfect, and the supervision system is still in the exploration. This article mainly started with the coal mine enterprises' geological prospecting reports, radiation environmental impact assessment and monitoring report preparation for environment acceptance checking and supervisory monitoring, controlled the coal radioactive pollution from the sources, and carried out the research of building Xinjiang associated radioactive coal mine supervision system. The establishment of supervision system will provide technical guidance for the enterprises' coal exploitation and cinders using on the one hand, and on the other hand will provide decision-making basis for strengthening the associated radioactive coal mine supervision for Xinjiang environmental regulators. (authors)

  13. The study on facial soft tissue thickness using Han population in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 新疆森林资源动态分析%Dynamic analysis and evaluation of Xinjiang forest resources: based on RS and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虎; 王晓峰; 陈蜀疆

    2005-01-01

    The forest resources in Xinjiang were surveyed and analyzed based on RS and GIS. Satellite data interpretation was adopted to obtain the general situation of Xinjiang forest resources in assistance with the sampling method and on-the-spot investigations. Based on GIS, related data obtained from satellite remote sensing in 1996 and 2001 were studied through contrastive analysis. Moreover, the dynamic variation of Xinjiang forest resources was studied in an all-around way. In the past five years,the areas of the forestland, woodland, sparse woodland, nursery garden and the land usable for forestry in Xinjiang kept growing, moreover, the forest cover rate and the total standing stock volume increased correspondingly, showing that the wooded area and the amount of growing stock in Xinjiang were increasing. The forestland area in Xinjiang went up to 17,837 km2 from 17,331 km2, with an annual average increase of 101 km2. Accordingly, the forest vegetation came to 1.08% from 1.05%, up 0.03percentage point; the total standing stock volume went up to 289,985,200 m3 from 262,416,000 m3, a total increase of 27,569,200 m3, an annual average increase of 5,514,000 m3 and an annual average net growth rate of 2.00%. The analysis results showed that the forest resources in Xinjiang were increasing on the whole, however, there remained some problems, such as the sparse natural forests, low forest cover rate, imbalanced wood age structure, and mono tree species composition, etc.

  15. Rapid Quantification and Quantitation of Alkaloids in Xinjiang Fritillaria by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Mohammat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fritillaria genus, including different kinds of medicinal and edible plants belonging to the Liliaceae family which have the function of treating and relieving a cough and eliminating phlegm, is widely planted in Xinjiang (China. There are few comprehensive studies reporting on the characterization of the chemical constituents of Fritillaria from Xinjiang, and to date, no work describing the quantitative differences between the components in Fritillaria from Xinjiang and related species. The purpose of this study was to develop qualitative and quantitative analytical methods by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS for the rapid quantification and quantitation of alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria, which could be used in the quality control of medicine based on this natural herb. Using the UPLC-QTOF-MS method, the chemical constituents of Xinjiang Fritillaria were identified by fragmentation information and retention behavior, and were compared to reference standards. Furthermore, a quantitative comparision of four major alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria was conducted by determining the content of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A, respectively. A total of 89 characteristic peaks, including more than 40 alkaloids, were identified in the chromatographic results of Fritillaria. Four main alkaloids were quantified by using a validated method based on UPLC-QTOF-MS. The relative contents of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A varied from 0.0013%~0.1357%, 0.0066%~0.1218%, 0.0033%~0.0437%, and 0.0019%~0.1398%, respectively. A rough separation of wild and cultivated Fritillaria could be achieved by the cluster analysis method.

  16. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road

  17. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-03-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Ecological Security in Arid Region Based on GIS: A Case Study in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Song, W.; Yang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Ecological security is close related to the people's survival and development. In the context of the global warming, with the increasingly frequent human activities, ecological and environmental problems have become increasingly prominent. Ecological security has aroused widespread concern, especially in the arid region. It has an important role in national security as well as political security, military security, economic security, social security. Taken Xinjiang as the research area, which is a typical arid region in China, this study establishes an ecological safety assessment indicator system from perspective of the generic process and the formation mechanism of the ecosystem. The framework is based on natural resources dimensions, natural environment dimensions and human disturbance dimensions. Water is the restrictive factor for the development of arid region, so the water resources carrying capacity is the main natural resource of the study area. The natural environment includes SPI(standardized precipitation index), dryness index, landscape vulnerability, NDVI. Human disturbance includes urbanization rate, population density, afforestation area, per capita GDP, water-saving irrigation area, fertilizer and pesticide application, agriculture Mechanical power, energy consumption. The expert scoring method and the coefficient of variation method are used to determine the weight of each indicator, and finally a comprehensive index is constructed to evaluate the ecological security of Xinjiang, that is, the ecological security index. The results indicate that the ecological security of Xinjiang is 0.43, which is in the critical area. The ecological security of Hami, Turpan and Karamay is the lowest, and the ecological security of the Arabian and Yili is the highest. The ecological security of the south in the Xinjiang is higher than that in the north. In short, ecological environment of Xinjiang is in a sensitive period. Effective ecological protection policy

  19. Brachypodium distachyon line Bd3-1 resistance is elicited by the barley stripe mosaic virus triple gene block 1 movement protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.Y.; Yan, L.J.; Gorter, F.A.; Kim, B.Y.T.; Cui, Y.; Hu, Y.; Yuan, C.; Grindheim, J.; Ganesan, U.; Liu, Z.Y.; Han, C.G.; Yu, J.L.; Li, D.W.; Jackson, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus North Dakota 18 (ND18), Beijing (BJ), Xinjiang (Xi), Type (TY) and CV21 strains are unable to infect the Brachypodium distachyon Bd3-1 inbred line, which harbours a resistance gene designated Bsr1, but the Norwich (NW) strain is virulent on Bd3-1. Analysis of ND18 and NW

  20. [Source identification and potential ecological hazards assessment of trace metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Yong; Jilili, Abuduwailil; Jiang, Feng-Qing

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the contents of ten metalloid/heavy metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cr) in soil samples collected from three sections including the central Urumqi-Akesu, eastern Blikun-Yiwu and western Zhaosu-Tekesi in Tianshan Mountains were determined, and their sources were identified by using typical statistical and multivariate statistical methods. The potential ecological risks of these heavy metals were assessed by employing pollution index method, potential ecological risk index and the background values of Tianshan Mountains, and Xinjiang, and also the Second National Standard of the Soil Qualities of China. The results showed that the contents of the heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, Cu, Mn Zn and Cr) and metalloid As were all higher than the soil background values of the Tianshan Mountain or Xinjiang, and their variation co- efficients belonged to the medium variation. In general, the contents of the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soil of Tianshan Mountains were low. Principal component analysis showed that the ten metalloid/heavy metals could be identified as two principal components, among which PC1 (Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn and Zn) could be seen as 'human influence sources factor', PC2 (Cu, Ni, Cr, Co and As) as 'natural sources factor'. Mn and As had larger loads both in PC1 and PC2, and they could be co-influenced by human and natural sources. The pollution assessment showed that Hg and Cd in central Urumuqi-Akesu section and As in western Zhaosu-Tekesi section were all at alert level, while the other heavy metals in other sections were all at security level. From the comprehensive pollution indices (P(z)) of heavy metals, it was found that the ten metalloid/heavy metals in the soils of central Urumqi-Akesu section were at low pollution level, but those in the other two sections were at clean level. The potential ecological risk assessment showed that the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(i)r) and the ecological damage index (RI) of Hg

  1. The inter-decadal correlation between summer arctic oscillation and summer drought and moist characteristic of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengxiang; Zheng, Youfei; Sun, Landong; Ren, Zhenhe; He, Jinhai; Zhang, Qiang

    2007-09-01

    In the context of 1960~2003 summertime rainfall and small-sized pan evaporations from 131 stations distributed over NW China covering Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi as well as western Nei Mongolia, and Arctic Oscillation Indices (AOI) we define a homogenized index for aridity or wetness feature, with which to examine the relations between AOI and NW China aridity-wetness regime, indicating their noticeable relations on an interdecadal basis. It is found that during the decade of summer Arctic oscillation stronger than mean, the sea level pressure field shows positive (negative) anomalies over Asian landmass, a stronger anticyclonic anomaly circulation appears at 700 hPa over Lake Baikal and to the south, westerly (northerly) departure emerges in the westerly (monsoon) portion of NW China, as well as over NW China there appears a structure with a low in the west and a high in the east at the 500 hPa height field, suggestive of east-Asian summer monsoon weaker than normal such that westerly flows prevail in the westerly zone of NW China, leading to rainfall more than mean for a wetter climate while in its monsoon area the northerly winds are dominant, with precipitation less than normal, resulting in a climate drier in comparison to mean and v.v. for the decade with summer AO weaker than normal.

  2. Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xin-Qi; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Yan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Hua-Qing; Wushouer, Fuerhati; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Li, De-Xin; Cui, Hui; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Feng, Zi-Jian; Cui, Fu-Qiang; Ning, Jing; Hao, Li-Xin; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Ning, Gui-Jun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Wang, Shi-Wen; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Dong-Yan; Fu, Jian-Ping; Gou, Ai-li; Zhang, Guo-Min; Huang, Guo-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Sheng; Mi, Sha-Sha; Liu, Yan-Min; Yin, Da-Peng; Zhu, Hui; Fan, Xin-Chun; Li, Xin-Lan; Ji, Yi-Xin; Li, Ke-Li; Tang, Hai-Shu; Xu, Wen-Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2013-11-21

    The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000. In 2011, an outbreak of infection with imported wild-type poliovirus occurred in the province of Xinjiang. We conducted an investigation to guide the response to the outbreak, performed sequence analysis of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 to determine the source, and carried out serologic and coverage surveys to assess the risk of viral propagation. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was intensified to enhance case ascertainment. Between July 3 and October 9, 2011, investigators identified 21 cases of infection with wild-type poliovirus and 23 clinically compatible cases in southern Xinjiang. Wild-type poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 14 of 673 contacts of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (2.1%) and from 13 of 491 healthy persons who were not in contact with affected persons (2.6%). Sequence analysis implicated an imported wild-type poliovirus that originated in Pakistan as the cause of the outbreak. A public health emergency was declared in Xinjiang after the outbreak was confirmed. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was enhanced, with daily reporting from all public and private hospitals. Five rounds of vaccination with live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) were conducted among children and adults, and 43 million doses of OPV were administered. Trivalent OPV was used in three rounds, and monovalent OPV type 1 was used in two rounds. The outbreak was stopped 1.5 months after laboratory confirmation of the index case. The 2011 outbreak in China showed that poliomyelitis-free countries remain at risk for outbreaks while the poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world. Global eradication of poliomyelitis will benefit all countries, even those that are currently free of poliomyelitis.

  3. An integrated analysis of dry-wet variability in western China for the last 4-5 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weihong; Lin, Xiang

    2009-09-01

    The dry-wet variability in western China and its spatiotemporal structure during the last 4-5 centuries was examined using 24 climate proxies from sediments, ice cores, historical documents, and tree rings. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of dryness and wetness were not only extracted from the proxy data using rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis for the last 4 centuries, but also for instrumental data in the last 40 years. The leading five REOF modes indicate that 5 dry-wet variation centers exist in western China. Moreover, long-term variability in dryness and wetness is seen on long (centennial) to short (inter-decadal) timescales. An out-of-phase relationship for the inter-decadal variation was observed between the Hetao-upper Yangtze River region and north Xinjiang, indicating influences on dry-wet variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds over the two regions, respectively. A particularly long dry spell was found in the central Tibetan Plateau in the 19th century. A predominance of wet decades in the last 4 centuries was found in the arid and Hetao regions. Three regional dry-wet series with annual resolution in north Xinjiang, the upper Yellow River valley, and the Hetao area were constructed for analyses of the last 500 years. Dry-wet oscillations with periodicities of 16, 50, and 150 years in north Xinjiang, 50 years in the upper Yellow River valley, and 70-80 years in the Hetao region were identified by wavelet analysis. In general, these periods correspond to large-scale oscillations found in the climate system, are mainly related to ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  4. Decreased expression of the ATM gene linked to poor prognosis for gastric cancer of different nationalities in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Ma, Lanying; Qu, Yanli; Tang, Yong

    2017-08-01

    To explore the clinicopathological significance of ATM gene in the occurrence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) from different nationalities in Xinjiang. The expression of ATM in 385 patients with GC (including 98 Uygurs, 231 Hans and 56 Kazaks) and its corresponding adjacent tissues were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assay to, analyze its correlations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of GC. The ATM expression in GC tissues was significantly decreased when compared to that in adjacent normal tissues of Uygur, Han and Kazak patients in Xinjiang, while Uygurs and Kazaks were much lower than Hans in the ATM expression of GC tissues (all PATM-negative tumors had a markedly lower survival rate than patients in Hans (P=0.028), and GC patients with ATM negative expression presented more unfavorable overall survival rate than those with positive expression among the three different nationalities (all PATM expression, TNM staging, depth of invasion, and lymph node metastasis were independent factors affecting the prognosis of GC patients in Xinjiang (all PATM was downregulated in GC patients in Xinjiang, especially for Uygurs and Kazaks, which suggested ATM to be an independent indicator of prognosis for GC therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains currently circulating in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Jun; Di, Dong-Dong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Yan, Hao; Tian, Li-Li; Jing, Zhi-Gang; Li, Jin-Ping; Jiang, Hai; Fan, Wei-Xing

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a well-known zoonotic disease that can cause severe economic and healthcare losses. Xinjiang, one of the biggest livestock husbandry sectors in China, has gone through increasing incidence of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants recently. In this paper, 50 B. melitensis strains and 9 B. abortus strains collected from across Xinjiang area (from 2010 to 2015) were genotyped using multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Based on 8 loci (MLVA-8), 50 B. melitensis strains were classified into three genotypes. Genotypes 42 (n=38, 76%) and 63 (n=11, 22%) were part of the East Mediterranean group, and one genotype with pattern of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 represents a single-locus variant from genotype 63. MLVA-16 resolved 50 B. melitensis strains into 28 genotypes, of which 15 are unique to Xinjiang and 10 are in common with those in adjacent country Kazakhstan and neighboring provinces of China. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) analysis implies that B. melitensis strains collected from across Kazakhstan, Xinjiang and China areas may share a common origin. Nine B. abortus strains were sorted into three genotypes by MLVA-8, genotypes 36 (n=7, 77.8%), 86 (n=1, 11.1%) and a new genotype with pattern of 4-5-3-13-2-2-3-1. Each B. abortus strain showed distinct MLVA-16 genotypes, suggesting that B. abortus species may possess more genetic diversity than B. melitensis. Using MLST, most B. melitensis strains (n=49) were identified as sequence type ST8, and most B. abortus strains (n=8) were recognized as ST2. Two new sequence types, ST37 and ST38, represented by single strain from B. melitensis and B. abortus species respectively, were also detected in this study. These results could facilitate the pathogen surveillance in the forthcoming eradication programs and serve as a guide in source tracking in case of new outbreaks occur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Amount and distribution of coarse woody debris in pine ecosystems of north-western Spain, Russia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia Herrero; Olga Krankina; Vicente J. Monleon; Felipe. Bravo

    2014-01-01

    The quantity and characteristics of coarse woody debris (CWD) were examined in four distinct pine ecosystems of north-western (NW) Spain, NW Russia and the NW USA. Despite differences in species, ecological conditions and management histories, in all four ecosystems the mean snag volume was less than that of logs, most of the CWD mass was in an intermediate degree of...

  7. The Reasons for Activisation of Separatism Movements in Xinjiang Later in XX and XXI Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Сергеевна Мавлонова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article includes analysis of the main reasons for activization of separatism movements in Xinjiang later in XX and earlier in XXI centuries. The author comes into conclusion that the following reasons caused the process of active politicization of ethnicity in Central Asian region and wide territories of Xinjiang: changes in the territory of former Soviet Union countries; economic recession in former Soviet Union countries which led to activization of radical movements; economic reforms in China leading to liberalization of social and political spheres; influence of external global factors. The mentioned changes resulted in serious activization of separatist tendencies which was not the case in earlier periods.

  8. Isolates of Liao ning virus from wild-caught mosquitoes in the Xinjiang province of China in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Lv

    Full Text Available Liao ning virus (LNV is related to Banna virus, a known human-pathogen present in south-east Asia. Both viruses belong to the genus Seadornavirus, family Reoviridae. LNV causes lethal haemorrhage in experimentally infected mice. Twenty seven isolates of LNV were made from mosquitoes collected in different locations within the Xinjiang province of north-western China during 2005. These mosquitoes were caught in the accommodation of human patients with febrile manifestations, or in animal barns where sheep represent the main livestock species. The regions where LNV was isolated are affected by seasonal encephalitis, but are free of Japanese encephalitis (JE. Genome segment 10 (Seg-10 (encoding cell-attachment and serotype-determining protein VP10 and Seg-12 (encoding non-structural protein VP12 were sequenced for multiple LNV isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed a less homogenous Seg-10 gene pool, as compared to segment 12. However, all of these isolates appear to belong to LNV type-1. These data suggest a relatively recent introduction of LNV into Xinjiang province, with substitution rates for LNV Seg-10 and Seg-12, respectively, of 2.29×10(-4 and 1.57×10(-4 substitutions/nt/year. These substitution rates are similar to those estimated for other dsRNA viruses. Our data indicate that the history of LNV is characterized by a lack of demographic fluctuations. However, a decline in the LNV population in the late 1980s-early 1990s, was indicated by data for both Seg-10 and Seg-12. Data also suggest a beginning of an expansion in the late 1990s as inferred from Seg-12 skyline plot.

  9. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jiantao; Wang, Xingxing; Luo, Guilin; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-01-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future

  10. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-03-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

  11. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZONAL WIND ANOMALIES IN HIGH AND LOW TROPOSPHERE AND ANNUAL FREQUENCY OF NW PACIFIC TROPICAL CYCLONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zhen-song; HE Min

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between large-scale zonal wind anomalies and annual frequency of NW Pacific tropical cyclones and possible mechanisms are investigated with the methods of correlation and composition.It is indicated that when △ U200-△U850 >0 in the eastern tropical Pacific and △ U200- △U850 <0 in western tropical Pacific, the Walker cell is stronger in the Pacific tropical region and the annual frequency of NW Pacific tropical cyclone are above normal. In the years with zonal wind anomalies, the circulation of high and low troposphere and the vertical motions in the troposphere have significant characteristics. In the time scale of short-range climate prediction, zonal wind anomalies in high and low troposphere are useful as a preliminary signal of the annual frequency prediction of NW Pacific tropical cyclones.

  12. Influence of the sea surface temperature anomaly over the Indian Ocean in March on the summer rainfall in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Anning; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Jing; La, Mengke

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the relationship between the sea surface temperature over the Indian Ocean (IOSST) in March and the summer rainfall in Xinjiang. In the observations, the IOSST in March significantly correlates with the summer rainfall in Xinjiang with a correlation coefficient of about 0.49 during 1961-2007. This relationship is independent from the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with a partial correlation coefficient of about 0.40-0.48 controlling for the ENSO indices from December to March. In addition to the observations, three sets of numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted with a regional climate model (RegCM4.3). The model results show that warm IOSST can excite a negative anomaly of geopotential height at 500 hPa over the Indian Ocean in March. This anomaly stays over the tropical Indian Ocean, and then propagates north to central Asia in June. Consequently, the anomalous wind associated with this geopotential height anomaly transports moisture from the Persian Gulf and the coast of Iran to Xinjiang, passing over Pakistan and the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, the warm (cold) IOSST in March tends to cause the increase (decrease) of the summer rainfall over Xinjiang, especially in the Tian Shan and Kunlun Mountains.

  13. An investigation into psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang desert oil workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to investigate psychological stress and its determinants in Xinjiang field oil workers. Specifically, we aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying psychological stress by comprehensively and quantitatively evaluating the processes involved in psychological stress, the factors which influence it, and their relationship. The participants were 1200 field oil workers in Xinjiang who had been in service for at least 1 year. A structural equation model based on data from the symptom checklist, social support research scale, personality questionnaire, occupational burnout questionnaire, and occupational stress questionnaire was constructed to investigate the social (environmental) factors that influence physiological stress and the interplay among these factors. The positive incidence of psychological stress in the field oil workers in Xinjiang was 12.54%. The structural equation model indicated that the main factors that influenced psychological stress in these workers included social support (0.077), occupational role (0.165), personal strain response (0.139), personality (0.189), and occupational burnout (0.380). Among these factors, occupational role, personality, and occupational burnout had a relatively strong predictive power for psychological stress reactions. The cortisol level in workers with positive psychological stress was significantly higher than that in workers with negative psychological stress. Occupational stress, personality, and occupational burnout exert an impact on psychological stress in field oil workers. Therefore, interventions to address these factors should be taken to reduce the incidence of psychological stress. PMID:29642166

  14. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  15. Study on the Relationship between Land Transport and Economic Growth in Xinjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xinjiang’s land transport network is mainly comprised of highways and railways. Using statistical data from 1985 to 2015, this study applies the Lotka-Volterra model to investigate the competitive interactions among highway transport, railway transport, and the regional economy of Xinjiang. We can draw the following conclusions: First, highway mileage, highway passenger transportation, and railway freight transportation have played a significant role in promoting the development of the national economy in Xinjiang, while the latter has weakened highway passenger transportation and promoted the growth of the added value of transportation industry (AVTI, railway mileage, and railway passenger transportation. Second, highway passenger transportation enhances the development of railway passenger transportation, while railway freight transportation has played the same role in the development of highway freight transportation. Third, the increase in AVTI will increase total population, but both may have a negative impact on the national economy in the short term. Fourth, there is no significant relationship between the economy and transportation investment.

  16. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  17. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  18. Petrogenesis of Karamaili alkaline A-type granites from East Junggar, Xinjiang (NW China) and their relationship with tin mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yuping; Tang Hongfeng; Liu Congqiang; Hou Guangshun; Cong Feng; Sylvester, Paul J.; Qu Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    Several types of granites including alkaline granites and alkali feldspar granites are distributed in the Karamaili tectonic belt of East Junggar, Xinjiang, China. Some medium-small tin deposits are located within or near the contact zones of the granitic intrusions. The alkaline granites share all the features commonly observed in peralkaline A-type granites. They contain alkalic mafic minerals such as riebeckite and aegirine; have high contents of SiO 2 , alkalis, Rb, Th, Zr, Hf, REE (except Eu), and high ratios of FeO/MgO and Ga/Al; and show strong depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu in the spidergrams. Laser ablation-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates a crystallization age of ca. 305 Ma for the granites; TIMS analyses of the granites found high ε Nd (T) values of +5.9 to +6.5. Considering their geochemical features, alkaline granites most likely formed by fractional crystallization of graodioritic magmas, which were probably produced by partial melting of lower crustal basaltic to andesitic rocks formed from oceanic crustal materials that were deeply buried during late Palezoic subduction and accretion. Six molybdenite samples from the Sareshike tin deposit in East Junggar yielded an isochron age of 307±11 Ma (2σ) and a weighted mean model age of 306.5±3.4 Ma, consistent with zircon U-Pb ages of the alkaline granites. Low Re contents (0.323-0.961 ppm) in the molybdenite suggest that they originated from crustal sources related to the alkaline granites. Considering their identical ages, close spatial distribution, and similar sources, we argue that the A-type granites have a genetic relationship with the tin mineralization, and that the same association may be important elsewhere. (author)

  19. Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingxia; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Che, Yanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lapse rates of near-surface (2 m) air temperature are important parameters in hydrologic and climate simulations, especially for the mountainous areas without enough in-situ observations. In Xinjiang, northwestern China, the elevations range from higher than 7000 m to lower than sea level, but the existing long-term meteorological measurements are limited and distributed unevenly. To calculate lapse rates in Xinjiang, the daily data of near-surface air temperature ( T min, T ave, and T max) were measured by automatic weather stations from 2012 to 2014. All the in situ observation stations were gridded into a network of 1.5° (latitude) by 1.5° (longitude), and the spatial distribution and the daily, monthly, seasonal variations of lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max in Xinjiang are analyzed. The Urumqi River Basin has been considered as a case to study the influence of elevation, aspect, and the wet and dry air conditions to the T min, T ave, and T max lapse rates. Results show that (1) the lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max vary spatially during the observation period. The spatial diversity of T min lapse rates is larger than that of T ave, and that of T max is the smallest. For each season, T max lapse rates have more negative values than T ave lapse rates which are steeper than T min lapse rates. The weakest spatial diversity usually appears in July throughout a year. (2) The comparison for the three subregions (North, Middle, and South region) exhibits that lapse rates have similar day-to-day and month-to-month characteristics which present shallower values in winter months and steeper values in summer months. The T ave lapse rates in North region are shallower than those in Middle and South region, and the steepest T ave lapse rates of the three regions all appear in April. T min lapse rates are shallower than T max lapse rates. The maximum medians of T min and T max lapse rates for each grid in the three regions all appear in January, whereas the

  20. Active layer physical processes at Broeggerhalvoya, western Spitsbergen, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data have been collected from an Arctic desert site (latitude 78o57'29N, longitude 12o27'42E), Broeggerhalvoya in western Spitsbergen, 10 km NW from Ny...

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection among the general Uygur population from south and north region of Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS is a complex multifocal neoplasm and is the major cause of death for about 50% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic virus with a causal role in the development of all types of KS. KS is prevalent among the Uygur people in Xinjiang, especially in south area. Here we carried out a cross-sectional study among 1534 general Uygur individuals from south and north region of Xinjiang to assess the seroprevalence of KSHV and to identify the potential correlation between KSHV seroprevalence and KS incidence. Results Seroprevalence of KSHV in South and North Xinjiang was 23.1% and 25.9%, respectively. Older age was independently associated with higher KSHV seroprevalence. In subjects from South Xinjiang, lower educational level and reported drinking were each independently associated with higher KSHV seroprevalence. Furthermore, the antibody titer was significantly lower in both south and north KSHV seropositive individuals compared with KS patients, as analyzed by gradient dilution (P Conclusion KSHV is highly prevalent in the general Uygur population in both South and North Xinjiang. Interestingly, the infection rate of KSHV in these two geographical areas did not correlate well with KS incidence. Perhaps unknown factors exist that promote the progression of KSHV infection to KS development in the local minority groups.

  2. Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    illegal drug exchanges and consumption markets in Xinjiang, and soon this heroin even exceeded the market position of traditional Golden Triangle heroin...tons of the precursor chemical acetic anhydride {cusucmgan; WiW. iff) being smuggled out of the border. • 800,000 tabs of the psychoactive drug ...Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article Dr. Murray Scot

  3. The Fracturing of China? Ethnic Separatism and Political Violence in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, Bradley D

    2007-01-01

    .... Throughout the 1990s sporadic political violence occurred in Xinjiang, and as the geopolitical situation in Central Asia changed, Beijing's claim that Muslims were a threat to its national security...

  4. Cerebral activation during Chinese semantic associative task in Xinjiang' Uyghurs: a functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixia; Jia Wenxiao; Tang Weijun; Wang Hong; Ding Shuang; Wang Hao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the cerebral activation in Xinjiang' Uyghurs when performing a Chinese word tasks by the functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI). Methods: Twenty-one healthy Xinjiang' Uyghurs and 11 healthy Hans were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a 1.5 T MRI scanner with a single run. Different Chinese words were displayed in each block to avoid any practice effect. SPM5.0 software was used for image data processing. To evaluate the inter subject consistency of brain activations associated with Chinese character and word reading, we created penetrance maps by combining binary individual functional maps. Results: For Uyghur-Chinese bilingual subjects, activations related to generated a word that was semantically related to each stimulus. The results indicated that reading Chinese is characterized by extensive activity of the neural systems. Peak activations occurred in the left middle frontal cortex at Brodmann Areas (BA9 and BA47). The left temporal (BA37) cortices were also strongly activated. Other important activated areas included bilateral visual systems (BA17-19) and cerebellum. The location of peak activation in the left frontal regions was similar in Native Uyghurs and Hans. But the active areas in Uyghurs are more extensive than that of Hans. Conclusions: The location of peak activation in the left frontal regions was similar in Native Uyghurs and Hans. More brain areas were needed for Xinjiang' Uyghur speakers during processing Chinese words. (authors)

  5. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  6. Impact of comprehensive psychological training on mental health of recruits in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shi-ying; Zhang, Lan

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effect of comprehensive psychological training on the mental health of recruits and to provide basis for promoting mental health among recruits in Xinjiang. From September to December, 2013, a convenience sampling was used to select 613 recruits from Xinjiang. These recruits were assigned to the training group (n=306) and the control group (n=307). The Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire,the Questionnaire of Armymen's Emotion Regulation Types and the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scale were used to evaluate the levels of mental health at the baseline and at the end of comprehensive psychological training. After comprehensive psychological training, the negative coping style score of the training group were significantly lower than the control group (P=0.000), and there were difference in cognitive focus (P=0.000) and behavior restrain (P=0.005); also, there was significant difference in social support scale (Pemotion regulation and all factors (Pappeal and self comfort (Pappeal, behavior restrain, and self comfort (all P<0.05). Comprehensive psychological training is useful in improving the mental health of recruits.

  7. The Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan and the Formation of Modern Uyghur Identity in Xinjiang

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Joy R

    2006-01-01

    .... Founders of this republic, influenced by Pan-Islamism and Pan-Turkism used it to promote a Turkic-Muslim identity independent from Chinese and Soviet control and unique to the sedentary, oasis-dwellers of Xinjiang...

  8. [Investigation on the Outbreak of Visceral Leishmaniasis in 2014 in Jiashi County of Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    OSMAN, Yisilayin; SIMAYI, Adili; KEYUMU, Kaisuer; ABLIMIT, Maimaitiaili; JI, Fang; HOU, Yan-yan; ZHANG, Song; MAIMAITIYIMIN, Yalikun; JUMAHUN, Ruziguli

    2015-10-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outbreak in Jiashi County of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2014, and provide basis for VL prevention and control strategies. Data on VL epidemic situation in Xinjiang from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2015 were collected from Chinese CDC Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System (reporting system). On-site epidemiological investigation was conducted in October, 2014, among children under 3 years in 23 villages in Gholtoghrak Township and Koxawat Township in Jiashi County, regions that had dramatically increased reports of VL cases from July 1. For suspected cases who showed symptoms such as fever and hepato-splenomegaly, blood (20 μl) was collected through fingerstick (with parental guardian consent) for rk39 immunochromatographic strip testing. Chil- dren with positive results were given sodium stibogluconate treatment (6x200 mg/kg, intravenously). A total of 637 VL cases were reported in Xinjiang from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2015. Among the 192 cases reported from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015 in Xinjiang, cases from Jiashi County occupied 86.46% (166/192) of the cases. The number of VL cases in Jiashi County showed a trend of increase since the first report in August, with a total number of 114 in October, November and December. The 166 cases in Jiashi County had an age range of 23 days-8 years, with those under one year accounting for 95.18%(158/166). The 113 cases in Gholtoghrak Township of the County had an age range of 23 days-3 years, with those under one year accounting for 96.46% (109/113). The age--distribution of VL casess in the County accorded with the characteristic of the desert type. On-site investigation of 833 children in the 23 villiages revealed 11 children with positive results of rk39 immunochromatographic strip testing out of 14 suspected cases, all recovered after one course of sodium stibogluconate treatment. In 2014, VL outbreak occurs in

  9. Western Indian Ocean - A glimpse of the tectonic scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A.K.

    is the en echelon displacement of the NW-SE trending ridge axis by numerous NE-SW trending fracture Western Indian Ocean - A Glimpse of the Tectonic Scenario 693 Table 1. Some information from the scientific drilling campaigns in the western Indian Ocean...: Raman Seamount; P: Panikkar Seamount; W: Wadia Guyot; S: SagarKanya Seamount; SR: ShebaRidge; CR: Carlsberg Ridge; CIR: Central Indian Ridge; SWIR: Southwest Indian Ridge; RTJ: Rodrigues Triple Junction; OFZ: Owen Fracture Zone; LR: Laxmi Ridge; MR...

  10. Xinjiang Keji Rencai dui Chuangxin Huanjin de Neiyin Pingjia Moxing Goujian yu Shizheng Yanjiu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chunping; Tang, ChaoYing; Jiannong, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Innovation environment is the key factor to give full play to the dynamic role of the scientific talents. The article has investigated and analyzed the environmental factors and the degree of satisfaction of Xinjiang scientific talents in innovation activities by implicit theory, and structured...

  11. Feasibility analysis and policy recommendations for the development of the coal based SNG industry in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Jinwei; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Wenbiao

    2013-01-01

    Based on China's basic national energy conditions of “abundant coal and scarce gas reserve”, the development of the coal based SNG industry is considered to be an effective way to solve the conflict between the supply and demand of natural gas and an important direction in the clean use of coal. Xinjiang is rich in coal resources and is listed by the central government as one of the main bases of the coal based SNG industry. Nearly 70% of the coal based SNG projects are being conducted in Xinjiang, with the goal to take advantage of the lower coal price in Xinjiang to promote the development of the coal based SNG industry. However, the coal based SNG industry is subject to the constraints of pollution, immature technology, poor economic returns, water resources and many other factors. Therefore, the development of the coal based SNG industry should be limited to industrial demonstration. Taking into account China's energy security and environmental governance, once the technology matures, the development prospect of the coal based SNG industry is broad. - Highlights: • Booming in the coal based SNG is not oriented to market, but investment-driven. • Coal based SNG is restricted by pollution, technology, economic and water resources. • The positioning of coal based SNG industry should be industrial demonstration. • The immature technique is the biggest obstacle

  12. Trading Natural Riparian Forests for Urban Shelterbelt Plantations—A Sustainability Assessment of the Kökyar Protection Forest in NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Missall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities at the fringe of the Taklimakan desert in NW China are prone to dust and sand storms with serious consequences for human well-being. The Kökyar Protection Forest was established in the 1980s as an ecological engineering project with the intent of protecting the city of Aksu, NW China, from these impacts. It is designed as a combination of poplar shelterbelts and orchards, irrigated by river water from the Aksu River, the main tributary of the Tarim River. Prevalent literature describes it as an afforestation project for combatting desertification with manifold positive effects for the economic, social, and environmental dimension of sustainable development. This paper sets out to challenge these claims by a sustainability assessment in which the plantation is examined from a broader perspective, embedding it to the wider context of social and environmental problems in South Xinjiang. Methods comprise evapotranspiration calculations, interviews, a socioeconomic household survey, stakeholder dialogues, and literature research. Results affirm its economic sustainability, but see a mixed record for the social sphere. From the nature conservation point of view, it has to be classified as unsustainable because its high irrigation water consumption results in the downstream desiccation and desertification of natural riparian forests along the Tarim River, causing a forest loss in the downstream area twice the size of the forest gain in the upstream area. There is a trade-off between artificial shelterbelt plantations for urban ecosystem services on the one hand side, and natural riparian forests and their biodiversity on the other hand side. The paper recommends restricting agricultural extension, and using locally adapted less water consuming agroforestry schemes to protect urban dwellers from dust stress.

  13. Genetic History of Xinjiang's Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qidi; Lu, Yan; Ni, Xumin; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Yajun; Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chang; Lou, Haiyi; Ning, Zhilin; Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Meng; Tian, Lei; Wang, Xiaoji; Zhang, Xi; Li, Jing; Khan, Asifullah; Guan, Yaqun; Tang, Kun; Wang, Sijia; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a natural barrier, and gene flow from both east and west directions. In XJU, we identified four major ancestral components that were potentially derived from two earlier admixed groups: one from the West, harboring European (25-37%) and South Asian ancestries (12-20%), and the other from the East, with Siberian (15-17%) and East Asian (29-47%) ancestries. By using a newly developed method, MultiWaver, the complex admixture history of XJU was modeled as a two-wave admixture. An ancient wave was dated back to ∼3,750 years ago (ya), which is much earlier than that estimated by previous studies, but fits within the range of dating of mummies that exhibited European features that were discovered in the Tarim basin, which is situated in southern Xinjiang (4,000-2,000 ya); a more recent wave occurred around 750 ya, which is in agreement with the estimate from a recent study using other methods. We unveiled a more complex scenario of ancestral origins and admixture history in XJU than previously reported, which further suggests Bronze Age massive migrations in Eurasia and East-West contacts across the Silk Road. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Arctic passages: liminality, Iñupiat Eskimo mothers and NW Alaska communities in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Llewellyn Schwarzburg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. While the primary goal of the NW Alaska Native maternal transport is safe deliveries for mothers from remote villages, little has been done to question the impact of transport on the mothers and communities involved. This study explores how presence of Iñupiat values influences the desire of indigenous women of differing eras and NW Alaska villages to participate in biomedical birth, largely made available by a tribal health-sponsored transport system. Objective. This paper portrays how important it is (and why for Alaska Native families and women of different generations from various areas of Iñupiat villages of NW Alaska to get to the hospital to give birth. This research asks: How does a community’s presence of Iñupiat values influence women of different eras and locations to participate in a more biomedical mode of birth? Design. Theoretical frameworks of medical anthropology and maternal identity work are used to track the differences in regard to the maternal transport operation for Iñupiat mothers of the area. Presence of Iñupiat values in each of the communities is compared by birth era and location for each village. Content analysis is conducted to determine common themes in an inductive, recursive fashion. Results. A connection is shown between a community’s manifestation of Iñupiat cultural expression and mothers’ acceptance of maternal transport in this study. For this group of Iñupiat Eskimo mothers, there is interplay between community expression of Iñupiat values and desire and lengths gone to by women of different eras and locations. Conclusions. The more openly manifested the Iñupiat values of the community, the more likely alternative birthing practices sought, lessening the reliance on the existing transport policy. Conversely, the more openly western values are manifested in the village of origin, the less likely alternative measures are sought. For this study group, mothers from study villages with

  15. Effects of changing climate on reference crop evapotranspiration over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ning; Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2018-01-01

    To know the importance of different climate variables on reference crop evapotranspiration ( ET o), a step-by-step sensitivity analysis of ET o to single, two, and multi-climate variables ( C) was conducted. ET o in north, south, and entire Xinjiang Province, China, over 1961-2013 was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Trends in the involved six Cs (i.e., minimum temperature— T min, average temperature— T ave, maximum temperature— T max, wind speed at 2 m— U 2, sunshine hour— n, and relative humidity— RH) were detected by the modified Mann-Kendall test. Nineteen scenarios of changed Cs were preset to obtain recalculated ET o values considering the actual trend in each C and the Pearson's correlation relationship between ET o and Cs. The results showed that ET o was mostly sensitive to T max, U 2, and n. Sensitivity of ET o to the two overlapped changes of T min and T max caused larger increases in ET o than T max and T ave, T ave and T max, T max and (- n), T max and RH, T max and (- U 2), and T min and T ave, but the overlapped changes (- U 2) and (- n) caused larger decreases in ET o than the other two C scenarios. The simultaneously increased T max, T min, T ave, and RH plus decreased U 2 and n had caused the actual decreases in ET o in Xinjiang. In general, the effects of decreased U 2 and n on decreasing ET o compensated the effects of increased T max on decreasing ET o in Xinjiang.

  16. Episodic melting and magmatic recycling along 50 Ma in the Variscan belt linked to the orogenic evolution in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; López-Carmona, A.; García Acera, G.; Martín Garro, J.; Fernández-Suárez, J.; Gärtner, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of a large amount of more precise U-Pb age data on Variscan granitoids from NW Iberia in recent years has provided a more focused picture of the magmatic history of the Western European Variscan belt (WEVB). Based on these data, three main pulses of magmatic activity seem to be well established.

  17. The dominant role of climate change in determining changes in evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiuliang; Bai, Jie; Li, Longhui; Kurban, Alishir; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM) by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland. Our results indicate that mean annual ET from 2001 to 2012 was 131.22 (±21.78) mm/year and demonstrated no significant trend (p = 0.12). The model simulation also indicates that climate change was capable of explaining 99% of inter-annual ET variability; land cover change only explained 1%. Land cover change caused by the expansion of croplands increased annual ET by 1.11 mm while climate change, mainly resulting from both decreased temperature and precipitation, reduced ET by 21.90 mm. Our results imply that climate change plays a dominant role in determining changes in ET, and also highlight the need for appropriate land-use strategies for managing water sources in dryland ecosystems within Xinjiang.

  18. The dominant role of climate change in determining changes in evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuliang Yuan

    Full Text Available The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland. Our results indicate that mean annual ET from 2001 to 2012 was 131.22 (±21.78 mm/year and demonstrated no significant trend (p = 0.12. The model simulation also indicates that climate change was capable of explaining 99% of inter-annual ET variability; land cover change only explained 1%. Land cover change caused by the expansion of croplands increased annual ET by 1.11 mm while climate change, mainly resulting from both decreased temperature and precipitation, reduced ET by 21.90 mm. Our results imply that climate change plays a dominant role in determining changes in ET, and also highlight the need for appropriate land-use strategies for managing water sources in dryland ecosystems within Xinjiang.

  19. An ethnopharmacological study of aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Tian, Shuge; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart

    2017-12-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was completed in a remote village and surrounding country of Xinjiang, where most Uyghur medicinal plants could be collected. This work clarifies and increases ethnobotanical data. We surveyed and organized aromatic medicinal plants that are commonly used in clinical settings to provide a significant reference for studying new medical activities. In the survey, informants who have traditional knowledge on aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants were interviewed between March 2014 and September 2014. Aromatic medicinal plant species and pertinent information were collected. Some therapeutic methods and modes of preparation of traditional aromatic medicinal plants were found. A total of 86 aromatic medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families were included in our study. We identified 34 plant species introduced from different regions such as Europe, India and Mediterranean areas. Fruits and whole plants were the most commonly used parts of plant, and most aromatic medicinal plants could be applied as medicine and food. We assigned the medicinal plants a use value (UV). Knowing the UV of species is useful in determining the use reliability and pharmacological features of related plants. Xinjiang is an area in which indigenous aromatic medicinal plants are diversely used and has therefore established a sound dimensional medical healthcare treatment system. Some aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants are on the verge of extinction. Hence, further strategies for the conservation of these aromatic medicinal plants should be prioritized.

  20. Signal of Acceleration and Physical Mechanism of Water Cycle in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Guo-Lin; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Global warming accelerates water cycle with features of regional difference. However, little is known about the physical mechanism behind the phenomenon. To reveal the links between water cycle and climatic environment, we analyzed the changes of water cycle elements and their relationships with climatic and environmental factors. We found that when global warming was significant during the period of 1986-2003, the precipitation in Tarim mountains as well as Xinjiang increased rapidly except ...

  1. Moving Low-Carbon Transportation in Xinjiang: Evidence from STIRPAT and Rigid Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefang Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic development of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the area’s transport sector has witnessed significant growth, which in turn has led to a large increase in carbon dioxide emissions. As such, calculating of the carbon footprint of Xinjiang’s transportation sector and probing the driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions are of great significance to the region’s energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper provides an account of the growth in the carbon emissions of Xinjiang’s transportation sector during the period from 1989 to 2012. We also analyze the transportation sector’s trends and historical evolution. Combined with the STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology model and ridge regression, this study further quantitatively analyzes the factors that influence the carbon emissions of Xinjiang’s transportation sector. The results indicate the following: (1 the total carbon emissions and per capita carbon emissions of Xinjiang’s transportation sector both continued to rise rapidly during this period; their average annual growth rates were 10.8% and 9.1%, respectively; (2 the carbon emissions of the transportation sector come mainly from the consumption of diesel and gasoline, which accounted for an average of 36.2% and 2.6% of carbon emissions, respectively; in addition, the overall carbon emission intensity of the transportation sector showed an “S”-pattern trend within the study period; (3 population density plays a dominant role in increasing carbon dioxide emissions. Population is then followed by per capita GDP and, finally, energy intensity. Cargo turnover has a more significant potential impact on and role in emission reduction than do private vehicles. This is because road freight is the primary form of transportation used across Xinjiang, and this form of transportation has low energy efficiency. These findings have important

  2. Observations on the spatio-temporal patterns of radon along the western fault of the Dead Sea Transform, NW Dead Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Malik, U.

    2015-01-01

    An extensive radon anomaly is developed along the western boundary fault of the Dead Sea Transform in the NW sector of the Dead Sea, extending 15-20 km north-south. The highest radon values occur in proximity to the fault scarp. Radon is measured, in gravel (depth 1.5-3 m) at sites located at a) on-fault positions, 1-30 meters east of the fault scarp, and b) off-fault positions located 600-800 the east. Prominent signals occur in the annual and daily periodicity bands, as well as non-periodic multi-day variations (2-20 days). Modulations occur among the annual variation and the multi-day and the daily signals, and between the multi-day and the daily signal. Dissimilar variation patterns occur at on-fault versus off-fault sites in the time domain, and in the relative amplitude of the daily periodicities. Variation patterns and their modulations are similar to those encountered in experimental simulations. It is concluded that: 1) above surface atmospheric influences can be excluded; 2) a remote above surface influence probably drives the periodic components in the annual and diurnal bands; 3) diurnal as well as the multi-day signals are modified and inter-modulated by near field geological (static) and geophysical (dynamic) influences. Systematically different influences are operating at on-fault versus off- fault positions, so far the natures of these near field influences are unidentified. (authors)

  3. Depositional environments and cyclicity of the Early Ordovician carbonate ramp in the western Tarim Basin (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan; Chen, Daizhao; Song, Yafang; Zhou, Xiqiang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Gongjing

    2018-06-01

    During the Early Ordovician, the Tarim Basin (NW China) was mainly occupied by an extensive shallow-water carbonate platform, on which a carbonate ramp system was developed in the Bachu-Keping area of the western part of the basin. Three well-exposed typical outcrop sections of the Lower Ordovician Penglaiba Formation were investigated in order to identify the depositional facies and to clarify origins of meter-scale cycles and depositional sequences, thereby the platform evolution. Thirteen lithofacies are identified and further grouped into three depositional facies (associations): peritidal, restricted and open-marine subtidal facies. These lithofacies are vertically stacked into meter-scale, shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles. The peritidal cycles are mainly distributed in the lower and uppermost parts of the Penglaiba Formation deposited in the inner-middle ramp, and commonly start with shallow subtidal to intertidal facies followed by inter- to supratidal facies. In contrast, the subtidal cycles occur throughout the formation mostly in the middle-outer ramp and are dominated by shallow to relatively deep (i.e., intermediate) subtidal facies. The dominance of asymmetrical and incomplete cycles suggests a dominant control of Earth's orbital forcing on the cyclic deposition on the platform. On the basis of vertical facies and cycle stacking patterns, and accommodation changes illustrated by the Fischer plots from all studied sections, five third-order depositional sequences are recognized in the Penglaiba Formation. Individual sequences comprise a lower transgressive part and an upper regressive one. In shallow-water depositional environments, the transgressive packages are dominated by thicker-than-average subtidal cycles, indicating an increase in accommodation space, whereas regressive parts are mainly represented by thinner-than-average peritidal and subtidal cycles, denoting a decrease in accommodation space. In contrast, in intermediate to

  4. Validation of a Process-Based Agro-Ecosystem Model (Agro-IBIS for Maize in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tureniguli Amuti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural oasis expansion and intensive management practices have occurred in arid and semiarid regions of China during the last few decades. Accordingly, regional carbon and water budgets have been profoundly impacted by agroecosystems in these regions. Therefore, study on the methods used to accurately estimate energy, water, and carbon exchanges is becoming increasingly important. Process-based models can represent the complex processes between land and atmosphere among agricultural ecosystems. However, before the models can be applied they must be validated under different environmental and climatic conditions. In this study, a process-based agricultural ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS was validated for maize crops using 3 years of soil and biometric measurements at Wulanwusu agrometeorological site (WAS located in the Shihezi oasis in Xinjiang, northwest China. The model satisfactorily represented leaf area index (LAI during the growing season, simulating its peak values within the magnitude of 0–10%. The total biomass carbon was overestimated by 15%, 8%, and 16% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. The model satisfactorily simulated the soil temperature (0–10 cm and volumetric water content (VWC (0–25 cm of farmland during the growing season. However, it overestimated soil temperature approximately by 4 °C and VWC by 15–30% during the winter, coinciding with the period of no vegetation cover in Xinjiang. Overall, the results indicate that the model could represent crop growth, and seems to be applicable in multiple sites in arid oases agroecosystems of Xinjiang. Future application of the model will impose more comprehensive validation using eddy covariance flux data, and consider including dynamics of crop residue and improving characterization of the final stage of leaf development.

  5. The TIPA shear zone (NW-Argentina): Evidence for early devonian movement verified by Sm-Nd dating of garnet and whole rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockenreiner, M.; Sollner, F.; Miller, H

    2001-01-01

    The Sierra de Copacabana (Catamarca province, NW Argentina) hosts in its northernmost part a large shear zone, which can be traced back to the north into the Sa. de Fiambala and to the south at least into the Sa. de Velasco. Timing of mylonitization is an important puzzle-piece in order to understand Paleozoic geotectonic processes on the western border of Gondwana (au)

  6. New and interesting species of lichens from xerothermic habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Wieczorek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the occurrence of lichens in xerothermic grasslands, representing a great mycological peculiarity of the NW part of Pomerania, Poland. The 12 examined specimens of six species originated from fieldwork carried out in 2011–2014 in the nature reserves Brodogóry, Stary Przylep, Bielinek, Wrzosowiska Cedyńskie, Prof. Adam Wodziczko Nature Reserve in the Wolin National Park, and an old chalk excavation site on Wolin Island. Within the study sites, four lichen species were recorded as a new to Western Pomerania: Agonimia gelatinosa, Collema cristatum, Dermatocarpon luridum, and Leptogium subtile. The other two species, Collema auriforme and C. flaccidum, are rarely observed in the studied region.

  7. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  8. Genetics analysis of 38 STR loci in Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Haibo; Liao, Qinxiang; Xu, Xu; Chen, Wen; Hao, Shicheng

    2016-05-01

    The allele frequencies and statistical parameters of 38 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in the Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China with 290 unrelated individuals. The results show these 38 STR loci have high or medium power of discrimination and probabilities of exclusion. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic distances between the Uygur population and other Chinese populations were also estimated.

  9. [Detection rates of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with different ethnicities in Xinjiang Uigur areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Li, Xiaomei; Tao, Jing; Ma, Yitong; Yang, Yining; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Xie, Xiang; Yang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the detection rates of overweight and obesity among Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents in Xinjiang. Random samples were used to analyze the detection rates on overweight and obesity based on data from Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years from 3 regions-Hetian, Kashi and Fuhai prefectures in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Anthropometric data including weight and height was collected. Overweight and obesity were defined according to body mass index [BMI, weight (kg)/height (m²)] cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC)aged 7-14 years. The present study was performed in 11 894 Han, Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years. The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 5.6% and 2.9% respectively, which the difference between male and female was significant (χ² = 39.765, P overweight and obesity rate showed differences, with detection rate of overweight among Kazakh students was 12.0% , higher than the other ethnic groups. The obesity detection rate was 7.2% among Han students, which was the highest of the three ethnic groups, with differences statistically significant(χ² = 363.885, P overweight and obesity decreased with increasing age in various ethnic groups, showing a clear downward trend, with the peak at 7-9 year-olds and the difference was statistically significant(χ² = 101.479, P overweight and obesity among children and adolescents were significantly lower in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region than the national average level, with differences also seen in different ethnic, gender and age groups.

  10. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.

  11. First report of Anaplasma ovis in pupal and adult Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected in South Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; He, Bo; Li, Kai-Rui; Li, Fei; Zhang, Lu-Yao; Li, Xian-Qiang; Liu, Yong-Hong

    2018-04-19

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite that belongs to the family Hippoboscidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) and mainly parasitizes sheep. The life-cycle of M. ovinus consists of three stages: larva, pupa and adult. It has a worldwide distribution and has been found in four provinces of China, especially South Xinjiang. In addition to causing direct damage to animal hosts, M. ovinus serves as a vector for disease transmission. In this study, our aim was to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp. in pupal and adult M. ovinus. A total of 93 specimens (including eight pupal specimens) of M. ovinus collected in South Xinjiang were selected for isolation of genomic DNA, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the msp4 gene of Anaplasma spp. The sequences were analyzed in MEGA 7.0 software and via online BLAST. PCR and sequencing results showed that all the specimens collected in 2013 were free of Anaplasma spp., whereas three and 25 specimens (including five pupal specimens) collected in 2016 and 2017, respectively, tested positive for Anaplasma spp. The analysis of 24 msp4 gene sequences (from four pupal specimens) confirmed the presence of A. ovis in M. ovinus specimens collected in South Xinjiang, China. The detected A. ovis isolates belong to Genotypes II and III. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of A. ovis DNA in pupal M. ovinus, confirming the vertical transmission of A. ovis in M. ovinus and the potential of M. ovinus to serve as a vector for A. ovis.

  12. Commercial Sexual Behaviors Among Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Western China: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwei; Jiang, Junjun; Su, Jinming; Liang, Bingyu; Deng, Wei; Huang, Jiegang; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Zang, Ning; Liao, Yanyan; Meng, Sirun; Ye, Li; Liang, Hao

    2017-07-01

    Rural-to-urban migrants are at high risk of HIV infection. The goal of this survey was to explore the commercial sexual behavior and condom use among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. A cross-sectional survey on male rural-to-urban migrants in western China was conducted. Among all the subjects surveyed, 140 (7.4%) had commercial sexual behavior, which is associated with being aged older than 24 years, being of Han or other ethnic minorities, being divorced, separated, or widowed, having experienced drug abuse, having had heterosexual behavior, having had casual sexual partners, having had sex with a homosexual, and being from Xinjiang. A total of 31.4% of them never use condoms when buying sex. Not using condoms is associated with being from Chongqing, having a high school or above education, and having commercial sex monthly. Commercial sexual behavior and not using condoms are common among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Strategies and appropriate education should be developed to prevent HIV transmission due to high-risk sexual behaviors.

  13. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  14. The analysis of a Game or'Go" on the Instability of Strategic Alliance in Xinjiang Tourism Hotel Industry%新疆旅游饭店业战略聪明不稳定性博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖武平; 海米提·依米提

    2011-01-01

    As tourism nmrket competition in the international is fierce day by day, how to strengthen the strategic alliance of Xinjiang tourism industry is a great problem of the future development of Xinjiang tourism relationship. This article analyzes the present development of the Xinjiang hotel industry, studies the uncertainty outlook of the situation of strategic alliance in Xinjiang hotel industry, and discusses the relevant strategic alliance stability preventive measures.%新疆旅游饭店业战略联盟存在产权关系不清晰,驱动性不足,资本行政导向型扩张等问题。应选择合适的联盟伙伴,为联盟关系增加情感因素,理性对待利益分配。

  15. Making Sense of Uyghur Aspirations : Mobility, Ethnicity, and Everyday Narratives in Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tursun, Sajide

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of Uyghur migrants in Shanghai. Uyghurs are a Turkic Muslim ethnic minority in China, who live primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region at China’s north-western borderland. In the past decade, public discourse surrounding Uyghurs and Xinjiang has

  16. Association analysis between genetic variants in interleukin genes among different populations with hyperuricemia in Xinjiang Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Sun, Yuping; Li, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jiahui; Wang, Tingting; Xia, He; Li, Changgui; Liu, Shiguo; Yao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether functional variants of five interleukin genes (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-8, IL-18 and IL-18RAP) are associated with susceptibility to hyperuricemia among different nationalities (including Uygur, Kazak and Han populations) in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. A total of 884 hyperuricemia patients and 1316 matched controls were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University in Urumqi. After genotyping of rs4073 in IL-8, rs16944 in IL-1, rs187238 in IL-18, rs1800871 in IL-10 and rs13015714 in IL-18RAP by TaqMan allele discrimination assays, an association analysis was performed using the χ2 test as well as a genotype-phenotype analysis. For the Uygur population, IL-8 rs4073, IL-18 rs187238 and IL-18RAP rs130154 polymorphisms were all associated with hyperuricemia (P<0.001 by genotype and P=0.008, OR 0.802 by allele for IL-8; P=0.01 by genotype and P=0.006, OR 1.332 by allele for IL-18 rs187238; P=0.007 by genotype and P=0.005, OR 1.27 by allele for IL-18RAP rs130154). For the Kazak population, only IL-18 rs187238 showed statistical significance with hyperuricemia (P=0.002 by genotype and P=0.007, OR 1.823 by allele). However, no differences were found between the five SNPs and hyperuricemia among the Han population. This study demonstrated genetic polymorphisms of different interleukin genes related to hyperuricemia vary in different nationalities in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region because of different geographical environments. IL-8, IL-1RL1 and IL-18 might be involved in the development of hyperuricemia in the Uygur population, whereas only IL-18 might be involved in the Kazak population. PMID:26722554

  17. Biodiversity conservation and a conception for a national desert park in Dzungaria Basin, Xinjiang

    OpenAIRE

    Xinshi Zhang; Haiping Tang; Lijuan Yan

    2008-01-01

    Dzungaria Basin in Xinjiang possesses the most abundant biological resources of animals and plants among the temperate deserts in the world. It has been influenced negatively by the human disturbance such as overgrazing, farming, wood harvesting, digging herbs and illegal hunting as well as by the rapid industrial development for mineral and energy resources such as oil and coal. A plan for biodiversity conservation is so urgent for the basin that the contradiction between biodiversity protec...

  18. Confirmation and Sequence analysis of N gene of PPRV in South Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongHong Liu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In China, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR was officially first reported in 2007. From 2010 until the outbreak of 2013, PPRV infection was not reported. In November 2013, PPRV re-emerged in Xinjiang and rapidly spread to 22 P/A/M (provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of China. In the study, suspected PPRV-infected sheep in a breeding farm of South Xinjiang in 2014 were diagnosed and the characteristics of complete sequence of N protein gene of PPRV was analyzed. The sheep showed PPRV-infected signs, such as fever, orinasal secretions increase, dyspnea and diarrhea, with 60% of morbidity and 21.1% of fatality rate. The macroscopic lesions after autopsy and histopathological changes were observed under light microscope including stomatitis, broncho-interstitial pneumonia, catarrhal hemorrhagic enteritis and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions in multinucleated giantcell in lung. The formalin-fixed mixed tissues samples were positive by nucleic acid extraction and RT-PCR detection. The nucleotide of N protein gene of China/XJNJ/2014 strain was extremely high homology with the China/XJYL/2013 strain, and the highest with PRADESH_95 strain from India in exotic strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete sequence of N protein gene of PPRV showed that the China/XJNJ/2014 strain, other strain of 2013-2014 in this study and Tibetan strains all belonged to lineage Ⅳ, but the PPRV strains of 2013-2014 in this study and Tibetan strains were in different sub-branches.

  19. [Analysis of master degree thesis of otolaryngology head and neck surgery in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiheng, Qukuerhan; Niliapaer, Alimu; Yalikun, Yasheng

    2010-12-01

    To understand the basic situation and development of knowledge structure and ability of master degree of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery in Xinjiang region in order to provide reference to further improve the quality of postgraduate students. Fourty-six papers of Otolaryngology master degree thesis were reviewed at randomly in terms of types, subject selection ranges as well as statistical methods during 1998-2009 in Xinjiang region in order to analyze and explore its advantages and characteristics and suggest a solution for its disadvantages. In 46 degree thesis, nine of them are scientific dissertations accounting for 19.57%, 37 are clinical professional degree thesis, accounting for 80.43%. Five are Experimental research papers, 30 are clinical research papers, 10 are clinical and experimental research papers, 1 of them is experimental epidemiology research paper; in this study, the kinds of diseases including every subject of ENT, various statistical methods are involved; references are 37.46 in average, 19.55 of them are foreign literatures references in nearly 5 years are 13.57; four ethnic groups are exist in postgraduate students with high teaching professional level of tutors. The clinical research should be focused in order to further research on ENT common diseases, the application of advanced research methods, the full application of the latest literature, tutors with high-level, training of students of various nationalities, basic research needs to be innovative and should be focus the subject characteristics, to avoid excessive duplication of research.

  20. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. Methods: The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old, and was conducted during 2009–2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4 and (80.9 ± 13.4 mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05, while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9 and (83.0 ± 14.6 mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3 and (77.4 ± 12.7 mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5 and (82.6 ± 11.9 mmHg, p < 0.05. Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324, age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646, nationality (OR = 1.541, occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576, education (OR = 1.260, BMI (OR = 1.842, WC (OR = 1.585, WHR (OR = 1.188, WHR (OR = 1.188, diabetes (OR = 1.879, hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361, hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131 and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (OR = 1.956 were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (OR = 0.765 was negatively correlated with hypertension. Conclusions: Prevalence of

  1. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, R.

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas

  2. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno

    2008-07-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  3. 劳动力流动对区域经济发展差距的影响研究--以新疆为例%A Research on the Effect of Labor Mobility on Regional Economic Development Gap:Evidences from Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑娟; 王笳旭; 李豫新

    2015-01-01

    劳动力跨区域流动对区域经济差距的影响一直是学术界争论的焦点之一。新疆区域经济差距突出表现在北疆和南疆内部差距过大,这成为制约新疆经济社会稳定发展的主要障碍。本文引入新古典增长模型对比分析了劳动力流动对新疆区域经济差距的影响,结果显示,考虑劳动力流动因素后的模型显著性较不考虑劳动力流动因素的模型显著性得到明显提升,劳动力流动抑制了新疆区域经济差距的扩大趋势,但是新疆劳动力流动对不同经济发展水平地区的经济增长效应存在差异,对经济较发达的北疆地区差距缩小有正向效应,而对经济欠发达的南疆地区差距缩小有负向效应。对此,协调新疆区域经济发展应重视劳动力流动的作用,破除限制劳动力流动的障碍,注重对不同区域流动劳动力人口实施差别性治理政策。%The effect of labor cross⁃regional mobility on the regional economic gap has been one of the focus of academic debate. The most prominent character of regional economic disparity of Xinjiang is the internal gaps of northern Xinjiang and southern Xinjiang, and this become the key obstacle to the stable development of society and economy, in Xinjiang. This article contrasts and analysis the impact of labor mobility on the regional economic disparity in Xinjiang by introducing the neoclassical growth model. The results show that the significant improved significantly after taking labor factor model of labor mobility into consideration. The labor mobility suppresses the expending trend of regional economic gap. But the effect of labor mobility on regions economic growth in Xinjiang is different for different part of Xinjiang, it performed positive and negative effect on the regional gap of northern Xinjiang and southern Xinjiang respectively. So we should attach the importance of labor mobility to coordinate regional economic

  4. Dynamics of the population quantity of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. in different habitats in Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhang, W.

    2015-01-01

    Transects were arranged on the shady and sunny slopes, as well as at different elevations of the main, eastern, central, and western gullies in the Wild Walnut Nature Reserve in Xinjiang, China to survey a large sample of Juglans mandshurica. The structures of height class and diameter at breast height (DBH) class were used to represent age structure to compare and analyze the dynamics of the population quantity of J. mandshurica in different habitats. Results showed that J. mandshurica population comprises numerous young seedlings, which develop into young plants with a high death rate. The number of adult plants is stable. J. mandshurica population is r-strategists in the young stage, and k-strategists supplemented by r-strategists in the juvenile and subsequent stages. The structures of height class and DBH class fluctuate at different slope aspects and elevations. The growth of young seedlings into adult plants is discontinuous. Tree height and DBH are relatively uniform in the same age class, and the coefficient of variation is independent of slope aspect and elevation. The maximum numbers of age classes in J. mandshurica population with different height and DBH classes differ at three elevations. Low- and medium-age classes are dominant in all situations. That is, population is mainly composed of juvenile and adult trees, and age structure is classified as a growth type. Without strong external interference, J. mandshurica population will maintain its superior position in the community. (author)

  5. [Gender analysis on prenatal care in rural areas of Xinjiang and Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Lv, Meng-Tao; Cui, Ying; Deng, Li-na; Tian, Xiao-bo

    2009-10-01

    To introduce the gender-specific view to the prenatal care and analysing the health behavior and its influencing factors. Random sampling in cluster was used to select those study population and face to face interview was carried out at their residence in Xinjiang and Anhui province. The overall socioeconomic status of women in rural areas of Xinjiang and Anhui province was low and 93.2% of the women had education level on junior middle school or below. Politically women were less interested in these issues with only 63.1% of them ever participated in the election program or voting. In household daily life, women's status was almost equal to or even higher than men, but men always called the shots when something important in family happened. Men still held the power of decision making. In 47.3% of the families, the husband played a decisive role on decision making. In 37.7% of the families, husbands controlled the money. When getting into expensive expenditure, 35.2% of the families having men made the final approval. When there were different opinions between the couples, husband usually made the final decision in 44.2% of all the families compared to 6.3% of the families that wives made the final decision. 73.9% of women under survey had undergone prenatal examination and the rate on household deliveries reached 30.3%. Both gender consciousness and educational level had influenced the effect on prenatal care. It is important to better prenatal health service in rural areas and to improve socioeconomic status on gender consciousness of women.

  6. Exploring Polymer-Modified Concrete and Cementitious Coating with High-Durability for Roadside Structures in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinchuan Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concrete roadside structures in Xinjiang, China, such as roadside barriers, bridge rails, and drainage holes, are severely damaged by the coupled effect of seasonal freeze-thaw cycles and deicer salts. To solve the corrosion problems of roadside structures, polymer-modified concrete was recommended for the future construction of roadside structures and polymer-modified cementitious coating was suggested for the protection of the current corroded ones. In this study, air-entraining agent and carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex were added for concrete modification and the corresponding performance tests were conducted. In addition, the performances of six types of readily available coating materials, including the acrylic latex modified cementitious coating designed in this study, were tested in freeze-thaw condition with the presence of chloride ions. The results show that 0.013% of the air-entraining agent and 10% of the carboxylated styrene-butadiene latex were appropriate dosage rates for the modification of Portland cement concrete, in terms of the improvement of the freeze-thaw resistance, compressive strength, and chloride impermeability. For the protection of the current corroded roadside structures, the acrylic-modified cementitious coating material demonstrated a good performance and the field monitoring confirmed that the coating is suitable for the protection of the roadside structures in Xinjiang.

  7. Astronomically forced western African (21°N-20°S) rainfall variations during the Last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govin, Aline; Varma, Vidya; Prange, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Many studies document an intensified NW African monsoon during the African Humid Period (11.5-5.5 ka) in response to increased summer insolation. Similarly, the particularly high summer insolation during the Last Interglacial (LIG, 129-116 ka) led to enhanced North African rainfall and a "green Sahara". Although this pluvial period seemed to facilitate the migration of modern humans out of Africa, the precise evolution of African wet conditions during the LIG remains unknown. Here we aim to document the evolution of western African precipitation during the LIG and identify the climate forcing associated. We use the major element compositions of nine marine sediment cores located along the W African margin (21°N-20°S) in order to characterize the terrestrial climatic conditions in the region where terrigenous material originates and infer past western African precipitation changes. Geochemical data are compared to results from a transient simulation (130-115 ka) performed with the coupled ocean - atmosphere Community Climate System Model CCSM3 and forced by insolation variations only. Both geochemical and model data indicate humid conditions in NW Africa (9-21°N) between 127 and 122 ka, in response to the high summer insolation. The period of intensified NW African monsoon starts ~3 ka later in geochemical data (127 ka) than in the simulation (130 ka). This result suggests that the persistent melting of northern ice sheets and associated cooling at the beginning of the LIG delayed the orbitally-induced intensification of the NW African monsoon. In addition, geochemical and model data indicate a slight precipitation increase in equatorial Africa throughout the LIG, in response to the small increase in annual insolation induced by the obliquity decrease. At ~5-10°S, sediment cores and model results document a small decrease in annual precipitation that is consistent with increasing sea level pressure in southern Africa during the LIG. This pattern seems to follow

  8. Re-Os dating of mineralization in Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (NW Iran) and investigating on its temporal relationship with porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in the southern Lesser Caucasus, NW and central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Selby, David

    2017-04-01

    correlates with the Siah Kamar PMD. This signifies the episodic nature of magmatic activities and the related mineralizations along the UDMA and meanwhile, indicates that collision between the Arabian and Iranian plates was dischronous, being earlier in NW Iran and later in SE Iran, which can be resulted from the oblique convergence of these plates. Therefore, while the north-western part of the Neo-Tethyan basin (in the Lesser Caucasus and NW Iran) was closed in lower Eocene [1], its SE section was still open and so, the magmatism and mineralizations resulted from the melting of subducting slab and mantle metasomatism vary temporally along the UDMA. [1] Moritz, R., Rezeau, H., Ovtcharova, M., Tayan, R., Melkonyan, R., Hovakimyan, S., Ramazanov, V., Selby, D., Ulianov, A., Chiaradia, M., and Putlitz, B. (2016) Long-lived, stationary magmatism and pulsed porphyry systems during Tethyan subduction to post-collision evolution in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus, Armenia and Nakhitchevan. Gondwana Research, 37, 465-503. [2] Simmonds, V., Moazzen, M., and Mathur, R. (2016) Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective. EGU General Assembly, 17-22 April 2016, Vienna.

  9. Cooling effect of agricultural irrigation over Xinjiang, Northwest China from 1959 to 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Songjun; Yang Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    The influences of agricultural irrigation on trends in surface air temperature from 1959 to 2006 over Xinjiang, Northwest China are evaluated using data from 90 meteorological stations. The 90 stations are located in landscapes with markedly different cultivated land uses. The increasing trends in daily average temperature (T a ), maximum temperature (T max ), and minimum temperature (T min ) for May–September (the main growing season) are negatively correlated with cultivated land proportions within 4 km of the meteorological stations, as indicated by year 2000 land use data. The correlations between the trends in T max and cultivated land proportions are the most significant. The trends in T a , T max , and T min for May–September are expected to decrease by −0.018, −0.014, and −0.016 ° C per decade, respectively, along with a 10% increase in cultivated land proportion. As irrigated cultivated land occupies over 90% of total cultivated land, the dependence of temperature trends on cultivated area is attributed to irrigation. The cooling effects on stations with cultivated land proportion larger than 50% are compared to temperature trends in a reference group with cultivated land proportion smaller than 10%. The irrigation expansion from 1959 to 2006 over Xinjiang is found to be associated with cooling of May–September T a , T max , and T min by around −0.15 ° C to −0.10 ° C/decade in the station group with extensive irrigation. Short periods of rapid irrigation expansion co-occurred with the significant cooling of the May–September temperature. (letter)

  10. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-12-21

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA of pre-last glacial maximum red deer from NW Spain suggests a more complex phylogeographical history for the species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey de la Iglesia, Alba; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Campos, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The major climatic oscillations that characterized the Quaternary had a great influence on the evolution and distribution of several species. During cold periods, the distribution of temperate-adapted species became fragmented with many surviving in southern refugia (Iberian, Italian, and Balkan...... Peninsulas). Red deer was one of the species that contracted its original range to southern refugia. Currently, two main lineages have been described for the species: western and eastern. We have analyzed fossils pre-dating the last glacial maximum (LGM) from Liñares cave (NW Spain) that belongs...

  12. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  13. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  14. Influence of the Istranca-Rhodope Massifs and strands of the North Anatolian Fault on oil potential of Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) is an intermontane trough bounded to the north and west by the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs. Recent subsurface studies of the NW portion of the Thrace Basin have led to the identification of two trends in geothermal gradient, both of which are oriented approximately NW-SE (i.e. parallel to the depositional axis of the basin). Geological and geophysical data indicate that, due to the thrust of the Istranca Massif upon the Rhodope Massif, the subsurface temperature may have increased in the northern part of the basin. Other controls were wrench-fault activity of the Splays of the North Anatolian Fault (SNAF) and continuing basinal subsidences. The thermal history of the southern part of the basin was affected by Miocene ophiolitic emplacement to the west in Greece. The presence of a belt of intrabasinal palaeotopography (mainly Palaeozoic rocks) also contributed to increased geothermal gradients in the southern part of the study area. The basin is divisible into northern and southern zones of subsidence, which are separated by the Kuleli-Babaeski High. During the Oligocene, subsidence rates were highest in the northern zone and in the western sector of the southern zone. Later, during the Miocene, basin subsidence was associated with intense tectonic activity of the SNAF and with the emplacement of ophiolites to the west. A map of the top of the oil generation zone, based on TTI values calculated by the Lopatin method, indicates the presence of two maturation zones in the basin ; these were separated by the Late Oligocene Kuleli-Babaeski High. Oil generation in these zones was influenced by rapid subsidence, by a NW-SE oriented wrench fault system associated with the NAF and also by tectonic activity of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs in the study area

  15. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  16. Tracking Lateglacial and early Holocene environmental change: a palaeolimnological study of sediment at Preluca Tiganului, NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological, palaeohydrological, and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Glacial and the early Holocene have been performed from sediment accumulated in a small former crater lake, in the GutâI Mountains, NW Romania. Pollen, lithology, mineral magnetic, and loss-on-ignition analyses in conjunction to radiocarbon dating have been use for this purpose. The data indicates that during the Late Glacial period, vegetation dynamics were likely driven by climatic fluctuations. The climate events during the Late Glacial are well mirrored in local vegetation assemblage development, and past lake level fluctuations. These climatic events recorded in south-eastern Europe, are well correlated with the climate events from the North Western Europe and Greenland ice core stratigraphy.

  17. The application of entropy weight TOPSIS method to optimal points in monitoring the Xinjiang radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Hu Youhua; Liu Qian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the entropy weight TOPSIS method to optimal layout points in monitoring the Xinjiang radiation environment has been indroduced. With the help of SAS software, It has been found that the method is more ideal and feasible. The method can provide a reference for us to monitor radiation environment in the same regions further. As the method could bring great convenience and greatly reduce the inspecting work, it is very simple, flexible and effective for a comprehensive evaluation. (authors)

  18. Analysis of HBV genotype distribution and its association with liver cirrhosis in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes among patients in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, and to explore its association with liver cirrhosis. MethodsHBV genotypes of 1018 hepatitis B patients were determined by PCR analysis. The relationship of HBV genotype with clinical outcomes and relevant chronic liver diseases was assessed by contingency chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis. ResultsAmong the 828 patients whose HBV genotyping was completed in this study, type C was the major genotype and the percentage was 54.11% (448/828, 25.15% (200/828 had type B, and 16.18% (134/828 had type D. Among the 116 patients with liver cirrhosis, 20.84% had type C, which was significantly more frequent than other genotypes (P<0.00. The multivariate unconditional logistic regression model identified several risk factors for liver cirrhosis, including duration of hepatitis B≥10 years, C genotype, high HBV DNA viral load, and impaired liver function characterized by abnormal alanine aminotransferase test. Among all these factors, genotype C had the highest relevance to liver cirrhosis (OR=2819. ConclusionThe leading genotype of HBV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is type C, followed by type B and type D. Genotype C is an independent risk factor for HBV-related liver cirrhosis.

  19. Research on Service Marketing Strategy of Xinjiang Mobile Corporation%新疆移动服务营销策略浅析-以乌鲁木齐市场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雷鸣; 刘晓芬

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, service marketing mix strategy, based on brief overview of Xinjiang Mobile Communication Company Limited and the business scope of Urumqi, Xinjiang Mobile Service Marketing mix situation and find the problem, then consumer demand as the starting point of Urumqi, Urumqi, Xinjiang Mobile market presented service marketing mix strategies to improve the views to improve service levels, to provide feasible basis for competitive advantage.%本文以服务营销组合策略为依据,简述新疆移动通信有限公司概况,分析新疆移动乌鲁木齐市场服务营销组合现状并从中发现问题,然后以乌鲁木齐市消费者需求为出发点,提出新疆移动乌鲁木齐市场服务营销组合策略的改善意见,为提高服务水平、企业竞争优势提供可行性依据。

  20. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  1. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM, the Uygur Medicine (UM, and the Kazak Medicine (KM for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1 medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2 medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3 CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1, in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2, for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  2. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  3. White rice consumption and risk of esophageal cancer in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between white rice consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer in remote northwest China, where the cancer incidence is known to be high. A case-control study was conducted during 2008?2009 in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Participants were 359 incident esophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual white rice consumption was obtained by personal interview using a validated semi-qu...

  4. Physicochemical Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils in Copper Mining of Nulasai, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina·Tursenjan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the mining areas, tailings and surrounding farmland soil of the Nulasai copper mine in Xinjiang as the research object, the characteristics of soil physical and characteristics of heavy metal contents in this area were studied, and their ecological and environmental risks were preliminarily evaluated. The results showed that due to the long-term impact of mining wastewater, soil pH in the Nulasai mining area was relatively low. Soil conductivity and salt content were higher than those in the surrounding farmland, while soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus were lower than those in the surrounding farmland. The contents of heavy metals Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mining area, tailing area and farmland soil were all lower than those in Xinjiang except for Cu. Overall, the heavy metal content of the soil manifested the area > tailing area > farmland. Single factor(Pi, Nemerow comprehensive pollution index(I and potential ecological risk index(RI indicated that the ecological risk of heavy metals in the soil around the mining area was manifested tailings > mining area > farmland. The potential ecological risk index of heavy metals in 0~30 cm topsoil was higher than that in 30~70 cm deep soil, but the overall ecological risk was lower in different land use types.

  5. Easily fabricated and lightweight PPy/PDA/AgNW composites for excellent electromagnetic interference shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Gu, Fu-Qiang; Ni, Li-Juan; Liang, Kun; Marcus, Kyle; Liu, Shu-Li; Yang, Fan; Chen, Jin-Ju; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-11-30

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) containing nanoscale conductive fillers have been widely studied for their potential use in various applications. In this paper, polypyrrole (PPy)/polydopamine (PDA)/silver nanowire (AgNW) composites with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance, good adhesion ability and light weight are successfully fabricated via a simple in situ polymerization method followed by a mixture process. Benefiting from the intrinsic adhesion properties of PDA, the adhesion ability and mechanical properties of the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites are significantly improved. The incorporation of AgNWs endows the functionalized PPy with tunable electrical conductivity and enhanced EMI shielding effectiveness (SE). By adjusting the AgNW loading degree in the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites from 0 to 50 wt%, the electrical conductivity of the composites greatly increases from 0.01 to 1206.72 S cm -1 , and the EMI SE of the composites changes from 6.5 to 48.4 dB accordingly (8.0-12.0 GHz, X-band). Moreover, due to the extremely low density of PPy, the PPy/PDA/AgNW (20 wt%) composites show a superior light weight of 0.28 g cm -3 . In general, it can be concluded that the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites with tunable electrical conductivity, good adhesion properties and light weight can be used as excellent EMI shielding materials.

  6. Buried in sands: environmental analysis at the archaeological site of Xiaohe cemetery, Xinjiang, China.

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    Jin-Feng Li

    Full Text Available Palynomorphs extracted from the mud coffins and plant remains preserved at the archaeological site of Xiaohe Cemetery (Cal. 3980 to 3540 years BP in Lop Nur Desert of Xinjiang, China were investigated for the reconstruction of the ancient environments at the site. The results demonstrate that the Xiaohe People lived at a well-developed oasis, which was surrounded by extensive desert. The vegetation in the oasis consisted of Populus, Phragmites, Typha and probably of Gramineae, while the desert surrounding the oasis had some common drought-resistant plants dominated by Ephedra, Tamarix, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae. This present work provides the first data of the environmental background at this site for further archaeological investigation.

  7. New age estimations for the western outer city wall of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia) based on OSL and radiocarbon data and geomorphologic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial

  8. HPV Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort in Xinjiang, China

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    Hua Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of HPV infection status and ethnic differences on the prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang presents an interesting set of conditions that has yet to be studied. Methods. A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. PCR was used for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 infections. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analyzing survival outcome in addition to the assessment of other prognostic factors. Results. The overall infection rate for HPV was 28.6% (18/63; the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients was 47.8% and 30.3% for HPV-negative patients. The survival rate for HPV-positive patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy was better than for those who did not receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. N staging and HPV infection were found to be two independent and significant prognostic factors. Conclusion. HPV-positive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma are more sensitive to chemotherapy. Higher N staging indicates poor prognosis.

  9. Long-lived large-scale deformation under Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the past and present-day deformation pattern under Central and Western Europe through seismic anisotropy. We use all SK(K)S splitting results that have been so far presented for this region and compile an image of upper mantle deformation. A large-scale deformation pattern emerges where NE-SW fast orientations under the Aegean are smoothly changing to NW-SE beneath the Hellenides-Dinarides conjunction. NW-SE is the dominant pattern under the whole Carpathian-Pannonian region. Towards Bohemia, the pattern rotates to E-W. The rotation continues until the Rhine valley, and it continues further within the Alps, all the way to Southern France. Outside the Alpine-deformation-influenced region, we observe a jump in fast orientation, between the Ardennes and the Massif Central in France, where the fast axis orientation is back to NW-SE. That anisotropy pattern may correlate with the arcuate shape of Variscan orogeny. It agrees with the Rheic suture line, and the boarders of two main tectonic units of European Variscides, Saxothuringian and Muldanubian. Previous studies on upper mantle anisotropy have interpreted and related such pattern mainly to frozen-in deformation from the past tectonic episodes. This has so far remained ambiguous though. Here we assess the relation between deformation at depth and shallower structure, as evidenced by stress field and topography. We discuss the presence of a long-lived large-scale upper mantle deformation, which has been acting ever since the Cambrian in different orogenic phases (Caledonian, Variscan, Alpine).

  10. [Main Components of Xinjiang Lavender Essential Oil Determined by Partial Least Squares and Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiang; Wang, Qing; Fu, Ji-hong; Tang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work was undertaken to establish a quantitative analysis model which can rapid determinate the content of linalool, linalyl acetate of Xinjiang lavender essential oil. Totally 165 lavender essential oil samples were measured by using near infrared absorption spectrum (NIR), after analyzing the near infrared spectral absorption peaks of all samples, lavender essential oil have abundant chemical information and the interference of random noise may be relatively low on the spectral intervals of 7100~4500 cm(-1). Thus, the PLS models was constructed by using this interval for further analysis. 8 abnormal samples were eliminated. Through the clustering method, 157 lavender essential oil samples were divided into 105 calibration set samples and 52 validation set samples. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a tool to determine the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in lavender essential oil. Then the matrix was established with the GC-MS raw data of two compounds in combination with the original NIR data. In order to optimize the model, different pretreatment methods were used to preprocess the raw NIR spectral to contrast the spectral filtering effect, after analysizing the quantitative model results of linalool and linalyl acetate, the root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of orthogonal signal transformation (OSC) was 0.226, 0.558, spectrally, it was the optimum pretreatment method. In addition, forward interval partial least squares (FiPLS) method was used to exclude the wavelength points which has nothing to do with determination composition or present nonlinear correlation, finally 8 spectral intervals totally 160 wavelength points were obtained as the dataset. Combining the data sets which have optimized by OSC-FiPLS with partial least squares (PLS) to establish a rapid quantitative analysis model for determining the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in Xinjiang lavender essential oil, numbers of hidden variables of two

  11. Holocene moisture variations over the arid central Asia revealed by a comprehensive sand-dune record from the central Tian Shan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Chen, Jianhui; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi; Frechen, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the largest arid (desert) areas in the world, and its climate is dominated by the westerlies. In this study, we examined sand dune evolution from the Bayanbulak Basin in the Tian Shan (Xinjiang, NW China), aiming to infer the Holocene moisture history of the ACA. Combined with stratigraphic observation and environmental proxies analysis (grain size, magnetic susceptibility and total organic content), large numbers of luminescence ages from multiple sites (eight sections, 79 samples) were applied to reconstruct the evolution of the sand dune accumulation in the study basin. The overall results imply very dry conditions characterized by sand dune accumulation at ∼12-6.5 ka, a wet interval between ∼6.5 and 0.8 ka when soil formation occurred, and decreased moisture during the last 0.8 ka. This moisture variation pattern is generally consistent with that inferred from many lacustrine records in the core zone of ACA, suggesting a widespread dry period in the early-to-middle Holocene and relatively wet middle-to-late Holocene. Thus, the moisture history derived from the current sand dune system contrasts with that in Asian monsoon areas, which are characterized by a strong monsoon (high precipitation) in the early and mid-Holocene and a weak monsoon (low precipitation and dry climate) during the late Holocene. Our results strongly suggest that the winter solar insolation and the external boundary conditions such as atmospheric CO2 concentration, ice sheets, and meltwater fluxes, have been major influential factors triggering the Holocene moisture evolution in the core zone of ACA.

  12. The role of basement inheritance faults in the recent fracture system of the inner shelf around Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro-González, A.; Bárcenas, P.; Vázquez, J. T.; Díaz-Del-Río, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fractures associated with volcanic rock outcrops on the inner shelf of Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean, were mapped on the basis of a side-scan sonar mosaic. Absolute maximum fracture orientation frequency is NW SE to NNW SSE, with several sub-maxima oriented NNE SSW, NE SW and ENE WSW. The origin of the main fracture systems in Neogene and Quaternary rocks of the Alboran Basin (south Spain) appears to be controlled by older structures, namely NE SW and WNW ESE to NW SE faults which cross-cut the basement. These faults, pre-Tortonian in origin, have been reactivated since the early Neogene in the form of strike-slip and extensional movements linked to the recent stress field in this area. Fracture analysis of volcanic outcrops on the inner continental shelf of Alboran Island suggests that the shelf has been deformed into a narrow shear zone limited by two NE SW-trending, sub-parallel high-angle faults, the main orientation and density of which have been influenced by previous WNW ESE to NW SE basement fractures.

  13. Response of vegetation NDVI to climatic extremes in the arid region of Central Asia: a case study in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning; Zhao, Yong; Mao, Weiyi; Xu, Xinbing; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Observed data showed the climatic transition from warm-dry to warm-wet in Xinjiang during the past 30 years and will probably affect vegetation dynamics. Here, we analyze the interannual change of vegetation index based on the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temperature and precipitation extreme over the Xinjiang, using the 8-km NDVI third-generation (NDVI3g) from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) from 1982 to 2010. Few previous studies analyzed the link between climate extremes and vegetation response. From the satellite-based results, annual NDVI significantly increased in the first two decades (1981-1998) and then decreased after 1998. We show that the NDVI decrease over the past decade may conjointly be triggered by the increases of temperature and precipitation extremes. The correlation analyses demonstrated that the trends of NDVI was close to the trend of extreme precipitation; that is, consecutive dry days (CDD) and torrential rainfall days (R24) positively correlated with NDVI during 1998-2010. For the temperature extreme, while the decreases of NDVI correlate positively with warmer mean minimum temperature ( Tnav), it correlates negatively with the number of warmest night days ( Rwn). The results suggest that the climatic extremes have possible negative effects on the ecosystem.

  14. Carboniferous-Permian tectonic transition envisaged in two magmatic episodes at the Kuruer Cu-Au deposit, Western Tianshan (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Li, Nuo; Qi, Nan; Guo, Jian-Ping; Chen, Yan-Jing

    2018-03-01

    The Western Tianshan in NW China is one of the most important gold provinces in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The recently discovered Kuruer Cu-Au deposit has been interpreted to represent a transition from high-sulfidation epithermal to porphyry mineralization system. In this study, we present new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages for the many magmatic rock types at Kuruer, including the Dahalajunshan Formation andesitic tuff (333.2 ± 1.6 Ma), diorite porphyry (269.7 ± 2.0 Ma), slightly-altered (264.4 ± 2.6 Ma) and intensively-altered (270.5 ± 2.5 Ma) albite porphyry. These ages reveal two distinct magmatic episodes: The Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation (wall rocks) andesitic tuff samples contain narrow ranges of SiO2 (60.29-61.28 wt.%), TiO2 (0.96-0.98 wt.%), Al2O3 (16.55-16.57 wt.%) and Fe2O3T (5.36-5.57 wt.%). The tuff is characterized by LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as LREE/HREE enrichment ((La/Yb)N = 8.31-8.76) and negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.64-0.76). Zircon εHf (t) values are 5.4-8.2, and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) are 821-1016 Ma, indicating partial melting of a moderately depleted mantle wedge with Precambrian continental crustal input. The ore-forming Middle Permian diorite porphyry and (quartz) albite porphyry have variable major oxide compositions (e.g., SiO2 = 53.09-53.12 wt.% for the diorite porphyry, 70.84-78.03 wt.% for the albite porphyry, and 74.07-75.03 wt.% for the quartz albite porphyry) but similar chondrite-normalized REE and primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns. These porphyries display LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as elevated LREE/HREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The positive zircon εHf(t) values (11.7-15.9 for the diorite porphyry, 8.9-14.9 for the albite porphyry) and young two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) (282-542 Ma for the diorite porphyry, 337-717 Ma for the albite porphyry) indicate a major juvenile continental crustal involvement. We propose that the

  15. Hydrological changes in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean, DYFAMED site during 1995–2007 and biogeochemical consequences

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    J. C. Marty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the monthly cruises of the DYFAMED time-series study (northwestern Mediterranean Sea in the period 1995–2007 were compiled to examine the hydrological changes and the linked variation of some biogeochemical characteristics (nutrients and pigments. A regular increase of temperature and salinity (0.005 °C y−1, 0.0022 psu y−1 was recorded in deep waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea (2000 m depth during 1995–2005. In February 2006 an abrupt increase in T (+0.1 °C and S (+0.03 psu was measured at 2000 m depth as the result of successive intense winter mixing events during the 3 previous years. The February 2006 event led to the mixing of the whole water column (0 to >2000 m and increased salt and heat content of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water by mixing with saltier and warmer Levantine Intermediate Water. The deficit in fresh water inputs to the western Mediterranean basin in three successive years (2003–2005 was suspected to be the major cause of this event since an increase of salinity in surface waters was monitored during these years. The measured phytoplankton biomass was specifically high after the periods of intense mixing. Chlorophyll a integrated biomass reached 230 mg m−2 in 1999, 175 mg m−2 in 2003, and 206 mg m−2 in 2006. The high levels of biomass were related to the particularly high increases in nutrients content in surface layers following the intense water column mixing and the subsequent development of a diatom bloom (as seen by fucoxanthin content. The occurrence of extreme events (high mixing, high nutrients, and high biomass increased in recent drought years (2003 to 2006. Our results indicated that the NW Mediterranean Sea productivity is increasing.

  16. [Sequence of the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA(nrDNA) in Xinjiang wild Dianthus and its phylogenetic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Cai, You-Ming; Zhuge, Qiang; Zou, Hui-Yu; Huang, Min-Ren

    2002-06-01

    Xinjiang is a center of distribution and differentiation of genus Dianthus in China, and has a great deal of species resources. The sequences of ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 8 species of genus Dianthus wildly distributed in Xinjiang were determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The result showed that the size of the ITS of Dianthus is from 617 to 621 bp, and the length variation is only 4 bp. There are very high homogeneous (97.6%-99.8%) sequences between species, and about 80% homogeneous sequences between genus Dianthus and outgroup. The sequences of ITS in genus Dianthus are relatively conservative. In general, there are more conversion than transition in the variation sites among genus Dianthus. The conversion rates are relatively high, and the ratios of conversion/transition are 1.0-3.0. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences the species of Dianthus in China would be divided into three sections. There is a distant relationship between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Dianthus and between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Fimbriatum Williams, and there is a close relationship between sect. Dianthus and sect. Fimbriatum Williams. From the phylogenetic tree of ITS it was found that the origin of sect. Dianthusis is earlier than that of sect. Fimbriatum Williams and sect. Barbulatum Williams.

  17. Rhoptry-associated protein (rap-1) genes in the sheep pathogen Babesia sp. Xinjiang: Multiple transcribed copies differing by 3' end repeated sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Marchand, Jordan; Yang, Congshan; Bonsergent, Claire; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong; Malandrin, Laurence

    2015-07-30

    Sheep babesiosis occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. The sheep parasite Babesia sp. Xinjiang is widespread in China, and our goal is to characterize rap-1 (rhoptry-associated protein 1) gene diversity and expression as a first step of a long term goal aiming at developing a recombinant subunit vaccine. Seven different rap-1a genes were amplified in Babesia sp. Xinjiang, using degenerate primers designed from conserved motifs. Rap-1b and rap-1c gene types could not be identified. In all seven rap-1a genes, the 5' regions exhibited identical sequences over 936 nt, and the 3' regions differed at 28 positions over 147 nt, defining two types of genes designated α and β. The remaining 3' part varied from 72 to 360 nt in length, depending on the gene. This region consists of a succession of two to ten 36 nt repeats, which explains the size differences. Even if the nucleotide sequences varied, 6 repeats encoded the same stretch of amino acids. Transcription of at least four α and two β genes was demonstrated by standard RT-PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Gong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47% than in the Han population (7.36%. In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71% and the Han population (6.59%. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG, and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  19. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-10-14

    To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  20. Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth in the Arid or Semiarid Region of Northern Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpeng Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing has been widely used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD, which is an indicator of air quality as well as radiative forcing. The dark target (DT algorithm is applied to low reflectance areas, such as dense vegetation, and the deep blue (DB algorithm is adopted for bright-reflecting regions. However, both DT and DB algorithms ignore the effect of surface bidirectional reflectance. This paper provides a method for AOD retrieval in arid or semiarid areas, in which the key points are the accurate estimation of surface reflectance and reasonable assumptions of the aerosol model. To reduce the uncertainty in surface reflectance, a minimum land surface reflectance database at the spatial resolution of 500 m for each month was constructed based on the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance product. Furthermore, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF correction model was adopted to compensate for the effect of surface reflectance anisotropy. The aerosol parameters, including AOD, single scattering albedo, asymmetric factor, Ångström exponent and complex refractive index, are determined based on the observation of two sunphotometers installed in northern Xinjiang from July to August 2014. The AOD retrieved from the MODIS images was validated with ground-based measurements and the Terra-MODIS aerosol product (MOD04. The 500 m AOD retrieved from the MODIS showed high consistency with ground-based AOD measurements, with an average correlation coefficient of ~0.928, root mean square error (RMSE of ~0.042, mean absolute error (MAE of ~0.032, and the percentage falling within the expected error (EE of the collocations is higher than that for the MOD04 DB product. The results demonstrate that the new AOD algorithm is more suitable to represent aerosol conditions over Xinjiang than the DB standard product.

  1. Inittial survey of natural radioactivity level in granite resource in hami and tuoli of Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiwen; Liu E; Di Shaobin; Zhang Zhanjiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement methods and results of natural radioactivity level in large-sized granite stone factories in Hami and Tuoli in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, such as mine pit, materials, finished productions and waste pile. Surface gamma exposure rate of materials and products, radon concentration, as well as specific activity of natural radionuclides in solid samples and process wastewater are detected, and for part of building materials, gamma radiation dose rate in buildings is also measured. It is concluded that the results of measurement fall in the range of the local background except for 20%-25% granite samples in excess of the level specified by National Environmental Protection Agency with respect to gamma radiation dose rate. (authors)

  2. NW Pacific mid-depth ventilation changes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, S.; Uchida, M.

    2010-12-01

    During the last 50 years the oxygen content of North Pacific Intermediate Water primarily originating in the Okhotsk Sea has declined suggesting decreased mid-depth water circulation, likely leading to changes in biological productivity in the NW Pacific realm and a decrease in CO2 drawdown. It is therefore of high interest to elucidate the climate-oceanic interconnections of the present interglacial period (Holocene) in the NW Pacific, in order to predict possible future climate and surface productivity changes associated with a decrease in mid-depth ventilation in this ecologically sensitive region. However, such efforts have been hampered so far by the lack of appropriate sediment cores with fast sedimentation rates during the Holocene. Core CK05-04 that was recovered in 2005 from off Shimokita peninsula, Japan, at ~1000 m depth shows sedimentation rates of ~80 cm/kyr during the Holocene and therefore presents an ideal opportunity to reconstruct for the first time the Holocene ventilation history of the NW Pacific Ocean. We employ Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (NIES-TERRA, Tsukuba) radiocarbon analysis of co-existing benthic and planktonic foraminifera to conclude on the ventilation age of the mid-depth water using benthic-planktonic radiocarbon age differences. At the conference we would like to present the results.

  3. 基于GIS的新疆气温数据栅格化方法研究%GIS-based spatial interpolation of air temperature in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏翔; 毛炜峰

    2012-01-01

    以新疆99个气象台站1971-2010年年平均气温为数据源,采用多元回归结合空间插值的方法对新疆区域气温数据进行栅格化研究.建立了年平均气温与台站经纬度和海拔高度的多元回归模型,对于残差数据的插值采用了反距离权重法(IDW)、普通克立格法(Kriging)和样来函数法(Spline)3种目前应用广泛的空间插值方法,针对于这3种方法进行了基于MAE和RMSIE的交叉验证和对比分析,结果表明在新疆的年平均气温的GIS插值方案中,IDW方法精度总体要高于其他两种插值方法.%With Surfer, Grads as a platform for direct space interpolation was widely used in meteorological rasterization of air temperature data, whatever the spatial interpolation technique ( Spline, 1DW, Lagrangian, Hennite interpolation, etc. ) , do not take into account the effects of topography on the air temperature distribution, In recent years with the expansion of GIS technology applications, the method of regression model by geographic factors (elevation, longitude, latitude, etc. ) combined with spatial interpolation was used in grid-ba3ed regional climate factors and get good results. In this paper, used regression analysis methods combined with GIS spatial interpolation to rasterization of year mean air temperatures from 1971 to2010 in Xinjiang area, the 99 meteorological stations(10 of them in order to verify) that has complete observations involved in the calculation. We use the following method for air tempcrature data rasterization in Xinjiang region, Firstly, establish the average temperature multiple regression model with the air temperature data that measured by weather station (excluding test station) for the output variables, and the longitude grid data, latitude grid data and altitude grid dala of meteorological stations for the input variables, obtain the regression equation and the temperature residuals data for each weather station; Secondly, calculate the air

  4. Early Tertiary Exhumation, Erosion, and Sedimentation in the Central Andes, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapa, B.; Decelles, P. G.; Gerhels, G.; Mortimer, E.; Strecker, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Timing of deformation and resulting sedimentation patterns in the Altiplano-Puna Plateau-Eastern Cordillera of the southern Central Andes are the subject of ongoing controversial debate. In the Bolivian Altiplano, sedimentation into a foreland basin system commenced during the Paleocene. Farther south in the Puna and Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina, a lack of data has precluded a similar interpretation. Early Tertiary non-marine sedimentary rocks are preserved within the present day Puna Plateau and Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina. The Salar de Pastos Grandes basin in the Puna Plateau contains more than 2 km of Eocene alluvial and fluvial strata in the Geste Formation, deposited in close proximity to orogenic source terrains. Sandstone and conglomerate petrographic data document Ordovician quartzites and minor phyllites and schists as the main source rocks. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages from both the Geste Formation and from underlying Ordovician quartzite cluster in the 900-1200 Ma (Grenville) and late Precambrian-Cambrian (Panafrican) ranges. Sparse late Eocene (~37-34 Ma) grains are also present; their large size, euhedral shape, and decreasing mean ages upsection suggest that these grains are volcanogenic (i.e. ash fall contamination), derived from an inferred magmatic arc to the west. The Eocene ages corroborate mammalian paleontological dates, defining the approximate begin of deposition of the Geste Formation. Alternatively, these young zircons could be of plutonic origin; however, no Eocene plutons are present in the surrounding source rocks and this interpretation is not likely. From W to E, fluvial rocks of the Quebrada de los Colorados Formation show similar sedimentological features as those observed for the Geste Formation, suggesting a genetic link between the two. Detrital zircon U-Pb data show mainly Panafrican ages, with sparse ages in the 860-935 Ma range and a few mid-Proterozoic ages. More importantly, a significant number of late Eocene

  5. 10 years of protein crystallography at AR-NW12A beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavas, L. M. G.; Yamada, Y.; Hiraki, M.; Igarashi, N.; Matsugaki, N.; Wakatsuki, S.

    2013-03-01

    The exponential growth of protein crystallography can be observed in the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. Nowadays, the screening of a profusion of sample crystals for more and more projects is being implemented by taking advantage of fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments. The insertion device AR-NW12A beamline is one of the five macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Photon Factory (PF). Currently the oldest MX beamline operational at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), the end-station was launched in 2001 as part of an upgrade of the PF Advanced Ring. Since its commissioning, AR-NW12A has been operating as a high-throughput beamline, slowly evolving to a multipurpose end-station for MX experiments. The development of the beamline took place about a decade ago, in parallel with a drastic development of protein crystallography and more general synchrotron technology. To keep the beamline up-to-date and competitive with other MX stations in Japan and worldwide, new features have been constantly added, with the goal of user friendliness of the various beamline optics and other instruments. Here we describe the evolution of AR-NW12A for its tenth anniversary. We also discuss the plans for upgrades for AR-NW12A, the future objectives in terms of the beamline developments, and especially the strong desire to open the beamline to a larger user community.

  6. Spatiotemporal Variations of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0 was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high. From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0.

  7. Hydro-climatic changes since 13.000 years B.P. in eastern Tibet and north of Xinjiang (China). Approach using the study of some lacustrine records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaraj, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to build the chronology of the medium and short term climatic changes that took place during the last glacial and Holocene periods using sedimentological and isotopic data obtained on cores from the Aibi lake (north of Xinjiang, China) and from the Madoi and Donxi lakes (eastern part of the Tibetan plateau). At Aibi, after the chemical, isotopic and physico-chemical characterization of the lake waters, and the sedimentological study of the laminae (granulometry and mineralogy) have been done, the measurements of 18 O and 13 C of the authigenous carbonates and of the thickness variations of laminae have evidenced the seasonal character of the laminae. The spectral analyses of the thickness variations indicate periodicities linked with the quasi-biennial oscillations (2 or 3 years) and with the solar cycles (10-11 years). East of the Tibetan plateau, the sedimentological and isotopic study of the cores from the Madoi and Donxi lakes show more humid and hot climate conditions during the lower and middle Holocene. The sedimentary record of lake Madoi show one or several lacustrine or fluvio-lacustrine phases after 13000-12000 years B.P. A high dryness period took place within the Younger Dryas chrono-zone. Since 10000 year B.P. the 3 lakes are filled with isotopically diluted waters. The last glacial-Holocene transition seems to be very sharp and located around 10000 years B.P. both in northern Xinjiang and eastern Tibet and confirm the results previously obtained in Qinghai and northern-Xinjiang. After the optimum hydrologic phase of the lower and middle Holocene, the come back of dryer conditions started at about 6000 or 5000 years B.P. and hydrological conditions became close to the present day ones since 3000 years B.P. (J.S.)

  8. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1967-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  9. Identification and partial characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional dairy products produced by herders in the western Tianshan Mountains of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, F L; Feng, X J; Chen, L L; Chen, S W

    2014-11-01

    Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from herders' traditional dairy products collected from Xinjiang, China. The species Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis and conventional observation. The strains' fermentation characteristics, including milk acidification, proteolysis, autolysis, antimicrobial activity and diacetyl production, were assayed and compared. Strains NL24 and NL31 showed the highest proteolytic activity-2·75 and 2·08 mmol Phe l(-1) milk, respectively. Strains C, NL41, SW2, Z3-11, NL42 and Z2-91 had high autolytic activity. In addition, most of the wild strains produced diacetyl, half of them to high levels. This study provides a clue to LAB biodiversity in traditional dairy foods produced by herders in the western Tianshan Mountains. High-performing strains should be further evaluated for practical application in value-added fermented dairy products. Our results reveal a certain variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in traditional dairy products from Xinjiang. Some of the LAB strains, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus NL24 and Lactobacillus paracasei SW2, possess excellent functional properties and have the potential for application in indigenous fermented dairy products. Performance of the newly isolated strains in cheese or yogurt manufacturing was further evaluated. Application of the high-performing strains to enrich the flavour of fermented dairy products is highly desirable and holds great commercial potential. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Association Study of Klotho Gene Polymorphism With Calcium Oxalate Stones in The Uyghur Population of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdusamat; Tursun, Halmurat; Talat, Alim; Abla, Akpar; Muhtar, Erpan; Zhang, Tao; Mahmut, Murat

    2017-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between Klotho gene polymorphisms andcalcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghur people. We compared 128 patients with calcium oxalate stones (case group) and 94 healthypeople (control group), detected the genotype and allele distributions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)of the Klotho gene (rs3752472, rs650439, and rs1207568) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The distributions of the genotype and allele frequencies of the SNPs were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the two groups. There were statistically significant differences between the genotype andallele distributions of rs3752472 between the case and control groups; the allele frequencies in the case/controlgroups were C = 240 (93.7%)/151 (80.3%) and T = 16 (6.3%)/37 (19.7%). There was no statistically significantdifference in the genotype distribution of rs650439 between the case and control groups, but there was a differencein the allele distribution; the allele frequencies in the case/control groups were A = 202 (78.9%)/143 (57.2%) andT = 54 (21.1%)/107 (42.8%). There were no statistically significant differences in genotype and allele distributionsbetween the case and control groups of rs1207568; the allele frequencies in the case/control groups were C = 194(71.3%)/145 (77.1%) and T = 78 (28.7%)/43 (22.9%). In rs3752472, the risk for patients with the C and A allelesincreased by 3.675 and 2.799 times, respectively. The rs3752472 and rs650439 SNPs are related to the risk of calcium oxalate stones in Xinjiang Uyghurpeople, and might be one of the risk factors.

  11. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus uberis isolates from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in Southern Xinjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of dairy cow mastitis throughout the world. The failure to control bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis is largely attributed to the little known about the epidemiology of this bacteria, especially strain differences in the same area. To define the local epidemiology of S. uberis in the south of Xinjiang, China, we explored the genetic diversity of 28 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of S. uberis, collected from 3 Chinese farms during 2009 and 2010, which was examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isolates and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to assess the relationship between PFGE patterns and to identify genetic lineages. The 28 isolates were grouped into 13 pulsotypes (U1 to U13), and 1 PFGE type (U1) accounted for almost half of the isolates (13/28, 46.4%). This major type was herd specific, indicating either cow-to-cow transmission or infection with isolates from the same environmental reservoirs. The remaining 12 PFGE types of isolates were from different herds, strongly suggesting environmental sources of S. uberis infection. All 28 isolates were analyzed by MLST and clustered into 8 sequence types (STs), of which 7 STs were found to be novel, either with 5 new alleles of 6 housekeeping and virulence genes (ST158, ST159) or with different combinations of previously assigned alleles (ST153, ST154, ST155, ST156, ST157). To our knowledge, this is the first report that documents molecular typing studies of bovine isolates of S. uberis from southern Xinjiang Province, China, which were shown to represent novel genomic backgrounds of this pathogen.

  12. Description of some characteristics of flowers and seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana - ecotype landsberg erecta and mutant NW4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Trząski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers and seeds of Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotype and NW4 mutant were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal characteristic features of their structure. The NW4 mutant flowers differ from Ler mainly in presence of two bract-like sepals with complicated vasculature and a variable number of secondary flowers. In the two outer whorls of NW4 flower, variable number of transformed stamen-, petal-, sepal- and style-like elements also occur. The NW4 mutant seeds are characterized by the absence of mucilage around the surface and a deviating seed coat morphology.

  13. Spatio-temporal characteristics of evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in grasslands of Xinjiang%新疆草地蒸散与水分利用效率的时空特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小涛; 罗格平

    2017-01-01

    Aims Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of the Eurasian arid areas,with grasslands widely distributed.Grasslands in Xinjiang provide significant economic and ecological benefits.However,research on evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE) of the grasslands is still relatively weak.This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics on ET and WUE in the grasslands of Xinjiang in the context of climate change.Methods The Biome-BGC model was used to determine the spatio-temporal characteristics of ET and WUE of the grasslands over the period 1979-2012 across different seasons,areas and grassland types in Xinjiang.Important findings The average annual ET in the grasslands of Xinjiang was estimated at 245.7 mm,with interannual variations generally consistent with that of precipitation.Overall,the value of ET was lower than that of precipitation.The higher values of ET mainly distributed in the Tianshan Mountains,Altai Mountains,Altun Mountains and the low mountain areas on the northern slope of Kunlun Mountains.The lower values of ET mainly distributed in the highland areas of Kunlun Mountains and the desert plains.Over the period 1979-2012,average annual ET was 183.2 mm in the grasslands of southern Xinjiang,357.9 mm in the grasslands of the Tianshan Mountains,and 221.3 mm in grasslands of northern Xinjiang.In winter,ET in grasslands of northern Xinjiang was slightly higher than that of Tianshan Mountains.Average annual ET ranked among grassland types as:mid-mountain meadow > swamp meadow > typical grassland > desert grassland > alpine meadow > saline meadow.The highest ET value occurred in summer,and the lowest ET value occurred in winter,with ET in spring being slightly higher than that in autumn.The higher WUE values mainly distributed in the areas of Tianshan Mountains and Altai Mountains.The lower WUE values mainly distributed in the highland areas of Kunlun Mountains and part of the desert plains.The average annual WUE in

  14. [Association of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in transforming growth factor beta-1 gene with hypertension in the Han nationality population in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-feng; Shi, Xiao-peng; Zhao, Dan; Deng, Feng-mei; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Gang; Wang, Zhen-huan; Chen, Xiong-ying; He, Fang

    2010-06-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) was a complex disease resulted from the interaction of cumulative effect of multiple genetic and environment factors. The relationship between the genetic polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), the blood levels and EH have been investigated, but the conclusions were different. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) (rs1800469, rs2241716, rs11466345, rs2241715, rs4803455) in TGF-beta1 gene, blood levels and EH in the Han nationality population in Xinjiang, to clarity the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the feature of the structure of haplotype. Based on the case-control study,we selected 732 (365 EH patients,367 controls) Han Chinese population from the Boertonggu countryside of Shawan region in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China by random cluster sampling. After questionnaire and physical examination, we collected blood samples, and the blood levels of TGF-beta1 were quantified using sandwich ELISA. The polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 gene in the study groups were detected with SNaPshot system. The case-control study in a large group was carried out separately for each of the tSNP and followed up by haplotypes analyses to determine the relation between tSNPs of TGF-beta1 gene and EH in the Han population. (1) The frequencies of alleles A, G of rs11466345 of TGF-beta1 gene in EH group and control group were as follows: 69.7%, 30.3%, 74.4%, 25.6%, respectively. It was demonstrated that the G allele of the rs11466345 polymorphism occurred at a significantly higher frequency in EH patients than in healthy controls (30.3% vs. 25.6%, P 0.05). (2)Except the site of rs11466345, the other tSNPs were in strong LD, and no statistical differences were observed in haplotypes distribution in the followup study between case-control groups (P > 0.05). (3) There were no difference of TGF-beta1 levels between the different genotypes and alleles in

  15. Montane pollen from the Tertiary of NW. Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.

    1966-01-01

    In NW. Borneo thick series of Tertiary sediments occur which are rich in fossil pollen and spores. The majority of these plant microfossils were derived from the various types of tropical lowland vegetation such as mangrove (Muller, 1964), mixed peat swamp forest and mixed Dipterocarp forest. Some

  16. Millennial-scale climatic variability between 340 000 and 270 000 years ago in SW Europe: evidence from a NW Iberian margin pollen sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Desprat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new high-resolution marine pollen record from NW Iberian margin sediments (core MD03-2697 covering the interval between 340 000 and 270 000 years ago, a time period centred on Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 9 and characterized by particular baseline climate states. This study enables the documentation of vegetation changes in the north-western Iberian Peninsula and therefore the terrestrial climatic variability at orbital and in particular at millennial scales during MIS 9, directly on a marine stratigraphy. Suborbital vegetation changes in NW Iberia in response to cool/cold events are detected throughout the studied interval even during MIS 9e ice volume minimum. However, they appear more frequent and of higher amplitude during the 30 000 years following the MIS 9e interglacial period and during the MIS 9a-8 transition, which correspond to intervals of an intermediate to high ice volume and mainly periods of ice growth. Each suborbital cold event detected in NW Iberia has a counterpart in the Southern Iberian margin SST record. High to moderate amplitude cold episodes detected on land and in the ocean appear to be related to changes in deep water circulation and probably to iceberg discharges at least during MIS 9d, the mid-MIS 9c cold event and MIS 9b. This work provides therefore additional evidence of pervasive millennial-scale climatic variability in the North Atlantic borderlands throughout past climatic cycles of the Late Pleistocene, regardless of glacial state. However, ice volume might have an indirect influence on the amplitude of the millennial climatic changes in Southern Europe.

  17. Plate tectonic model for the oligo-miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Curtis R.

    1980-10-01

    This paper outlines a plate tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean which incorporates recent data from several tectonic domains (Corsica, Sardinia, the Kabylies, Balearic promontory, Iberia, Algero-Provençal Basin and Tunisian Atlas). Following late Mesozoic anticlockwise rotation of the Iberian peninsula (including the Balearic promontory and Sardinia), late Eocene collision occurred between the Kabylies and Balearic promontory forming a NE-trending suture with NW-tectonic polarity. As a result of continued convergence between the African and European plates, a polarity flip occurred and a southward-facing trench formed south of the Kabylie—Balearic promontory suture. During late Oligocene time an E-W-trending arc and marginal basin developed behind the southward-facing trench in the area of the present-day Gulf of Lion. Opening of this basin moved the Corsica—Sardinia—Calabria—Petit Kabylie—Menorca plate southward, relative to the African plate. Early Miocene back-arc spreading in the area between the Balearic promontory and Grand Kabylie emplaced the latter in northern Algeria and formed the South Balearic Basin. Coeval with early Miocene back-arc basin development, the N-S-extension in the Gulf of Lion marginal basin changed to a more NW-SE direction causing short-lived extension in the area of the present-day Valencia trough and a 30° anticlockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia-Calabria—Petit Kabylie plate away from the European plate. Early—middle Miocene deformation along the western Italian and northeastern African continental margins resulted from this rotation. During the early late Miocene (Tortonian), spreading within a sphenochasm to the southwest of Sardinia resulted in the emplacement of Petit Kabylie in northeastern Algeria.

  18. Paleomagnetism of the Talesh Mountains and implications for the geodynamics of NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langereis, C. G.; Kuijper, C. B.; Rezaeian, M.; van der Boon, A.; Cotton, L.; Pastor-Galan, D.; Krijgsman, W.

    2017-12-01

    Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate - which includes the Iranian plateau - and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin. Determining rotations of the Talesh is of crucial importance for estimating crustal shortening in the Arabia-Eurasia collision region. Previously, we quantified how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated north of the Talesh mountains of NW Iran (120 km). Since the Eocene, the Talesh and western Alborz Mountains show a 16° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia. In our kinematic restoration, we considered the Talesh and western Alborz Mountains as a coherent single block, with a length of 600 km. However, on a smaller scale ( 100 km), the Talesh Mountains show a Z-shaped outcrop pattern of Eocene volcanic rocks. Here, we present new paleomagnetic data from Cretaceous sediments and Eocene volcanics of the Talesh Mountains, which cover a gap in our previous work. We reconstruct vertical axis rotations of the Z-shape. For the Eocene, our results indicate an increasing amount of CW rotation with respect to Eurasia from south to north: 24° in the southeast to 49° in the central Talesh. Cretaceous data show significantly larger rotations of 70-100° CW. This could indicate that curvature in the Talesh is progressive through time. The formation of this orocline must have started after the Eocene at the latest. However, it seems that not all of the outcrop pattern can be explained by the observed vertical axis rotations yet.

  19. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  20. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  1. Gene flow and genetic structure in the Galician population (NW Spain according to Alu insertions

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    Diéguez Lois

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most recent Alu insertions reveal different degrees of polymorphism in human populations, and a series of characteristics that make them particularly suitable genetic markers for Human Biology studies. This has led these polymorphisms to be used to analyse the origin and phylogenetic relationships between contemporary human groups. This study analyses twelve Alu sequences in a sample of 216 individuals from the autochthonous population of Galicia (NW Spain, with the aim of studying their genetic structure and phylogenetic position with respect to the populations of Western and Central Europe and North Africa, research that is of special interest in revealing European population dynamics, given the peculiarities of the Galician population due to its geographical situation in western Europe, and its historical vicissitudes. Results The insertion frequencies of eleven of the Alu elements analysed were within the variability range of European populations, while Yb8NBC125 proved to be the lowest so far recorded to date in Europe. Taking the twelve polymorphisms into account, the GD value for the Galician population was 0.268. The comparative analyses carried out using the MDS, NJ and AMOVA methods reveal the existence of spatial heterogeneity, and identify three population groups that correspond to the geographic areas of Western-Central Europe, Eastern Mediterranean Europe and North Africa. Galicia is shown to be included in the Western-Central European cluster, together with other Spanish populations. When only considering populations from Mediterranean Europe, the Galician population revealed a degree of genetic flow similar to that of the majority of the populations from this geographic area. Conclusion The results of this study reveal that the Galician population, despite its geographic situation in the western edge of the European continent, occupies an intermediate position in relation to other European populations in

  2. Time Budget and Diet of the Booted Eagles in the Breeding Season in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoning Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons of 2010-2016, we have found seven nests of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus in Xinjiang, the west of China. We used a method of focal sampling and infrared cameras to continually observe behaviors and nestlings’ growth. Nestling behaviors were different between nestling period and post-nestling period. Attendance at the nests by both adults decreased as the nestling aged. The female brooded significantly more than the male did during daylight hours (P=0.016, F= 8.38, df =1. The daily mean number of food items delivered to the nests by adults was 3.2 times/day in nestling period, and 0.96/day in post-nestling period. Seven orders of wild birds, three orders of mammals and domestic poultry were documented as prey.

  3. Radon/helium studies for earthquake prediction N-W Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary data of radon monitoring stated in the Himalayan orogenic belt. Radon anomalies are correlated with microseismic activity in the N-W Himalaya. The He/Rn ratio will be used as a predictive tool for earthquakes

  4. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  5. Prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment among different ethnical minority groups in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Huang, Wenyong; Qiqige, Aoyun; Zhang, Hongwei; Jin, Ling; Ti, Pula; Yip, Jennifer; Xiao, Baixiang

    2018-02-13

    The aim of this cross-sectional study is to ascertain the prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment, uptake of cataract surgery among different ethnic groups in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Four thousand one hundred fifty people at 50 years and above from different minority ethnic groups were randomly selected for an eye examination. The four trained eye teams collected data using tumbling E visual chart, torch, portable slit lamp and direct ophthalmoscope in 2015. The World Health Organization's definition of blindness and visual impairment (VI) was used to classify patients in each ethnic group. Data were analyzed by different minority groups and were compared with Han Chinese. 3977 (95.8%) out of 4150 people were examined. The prevalence of blindness from the study population was 1.7% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.2%).There was no significant difference in prevalence of blindness between Han Chinese and people of Khazak and other minority ethnic groups, nor, between male and female. Cataract was the leading course (65.5%) of blindness and uncorrected refractive error was the most common cause of VI (36.3%) followed by myopic retinopathy. The most common barrier to cataract surgery was lack of awareness of service availability. This study documented a low blindness prevalence among people aged 50 years and over comparing to prevalence identified through studies of other regions in China. It still indicates blindness and un-operated cataract as the significant public health issue, with no evidence of eye health inequalities, but some inequities in accessing to cataract surgery amongst ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang.

  6. An Early Permian epithermal gold system in the Tulasu Basin in North Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints from in situ oxygen-sulfur isotopes and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Leilei; Wan, Bo; Deng, Chen; Cai, Keda; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand gold deposits, being the largest gold deposits in the Chinese North Tianshan, NW China, are located ca. l0 km apart in the Tulasu Basin, and are hosted by the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation. In situ LA-ICP-MS titanium analyses on quartz from the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are broadly identical. Accordingly, the calculated ore-forming temperatures by Ti-in-quartz thermometer give average temperatures of 279 °C and 294 °C, respectively. Results of in situ SIMS analyses of oxygen and sulfur isotopes on quartz and pyrite from these two deposits are similar. Temperature-corrected fluids of the Axi deposit have δ18O values of 2.6-8.1‰ and δ34S values of 0.8-2.4‰, whereas the fluids of the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit have δ18O of 6.4-8.9‰ and δ34S of -0.4 to 4.0‰. The oxygen and sulfur isotopes from the two deposits indicate a magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of Aqialehe Formation sandstone provided a lower limit for the mineralization timing of the Axi deposit (288 Ma). In situ SIMS U-Pb analyses on entrapped zircon (297 Ma) and newly recognized 284.5 Ma columnar rhyolite implies that the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit formed in the Early Permian. Based on the magmatic affinity of the ore fluids, similar age and ore-formation temperatures, we propose that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits comprise an epithermal gold system, which was driven by the same Permian magma in the Tulasu Basin. The ore geological features together with our new results indicate that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are intermediate and high sulfidation type epithermal deposits, respectively.

  7. [Association between the level of fasting blood glucose over 35-year-old and carotid intima-media thickness in Han, Uygur and Kazak population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2007 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Li, Haixia; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Yang, Yining; Ma, Yitong

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the relationship between different levels of fasting blood glucose over 35-year old and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. From October 2007 to April 2010, the present study was performed in 13 935 inhabitants among Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population of aged 35 years old and over by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling principles from 7 regions in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous and we excluded the IMT over 0.9 millimeter, long-term out and the floating population. All subjects were measured fasting blood glucose and IMT values of carotid artery. The subjects were divided into three groups according to different fasting blood glucose levels: normal, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) and we used the analysis of variance to compare the differences among groups of IMT. Multiple linear regression model was used to explore factors of carotid IMT. The IMT of males of Han, Uygur and Kazak were (0.81 ± 0.29), (0.71 ± 0.27) and (0.79 ± 0.21) mm respectively, the differences were significant (F = 88.50, P blood pressure (β = 0.101, P blood glucose (β = 0.023, P = 0.009) were independent risk factors of IMT. The level of fasting blood glucose was an independent influence factor of carotid IMT and had a positive correlation in Han, Uygur and Kazak population of Xinjiang Autonomous Region.

  8. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Technical Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Ma, B. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Q.H. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, P. [Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology, Urumchi 830011 (China); Gan, F.X. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-10-15

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} system, K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} system, Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} system and Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} glass and the K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} glass (including the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  9. A 3D model of crustal magnetization at the Pinacate Volcanic Field, NW Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Abdeslem, Juan; Calmus, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    The Pinacate Volcanic Field (PVF) is located near the western border of the southern Basin and Range province, in the State of Sonora NW Mexico, and within the Gulf of California Extensional Province. This volcanic field contains the shield volcano Santa Clara, which mainly consists of basaltic to trachytic volcanic rocks, and reaches an altitude of 1200 m. The PVF disrupts a series of discontinuous ranges of low topographic relief aligned in a NW direction, which consist mainly of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic through Paleogene granitoids. The PVF covers an area of approximately 60 by 55 km, and includes more than 400 well-preserved cinder cones and vents and eight maar craters. It was active from about 1.7 Ma until about 13 ka. We have used the ages and magnetic polarities of the volcanic rocks, along with mapped magnetic anomalies and their inverse modeling to determine that the Pinacate Volcanic Field was formed during two volcanic episodes. The oldest one built the Santa Clara shield volcano of basaltic and trachytic composition, and occurred during the geomagnetic Matuyama Chron of reverse polarity, which also includes the normal polarity Jaramillo and Olduvai Subchrons, thus imprinting both normal and reverse magnetization in the volcanic products. The younger Pinacate series of basaltic composition represents monogenetic volcanic activity that extends all around the PVF and occurred during the subsequent geomagnetic Brunhes Chron of normal polarity. Magnetic anomalies toward the north of the Santa Clara volcano are the most intense in the PVF, and their inverse modeling indicates the presence of a large subsurface body magnetized in the present direction of the geomagnetic field. This suggests that the magma chambers at depth cooled below the Curie temperature during the Brunhes Chron.

  10. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparyan, F.; Khondkaryan, H.; Arakelyan, A.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Pud, S.; Vitusevich, S.

    2016-01-01

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p"+-p-p"+ field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2–4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculating the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 10"5. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.

  11. Factors affecting medication adherence in community-managed patients with hypertension based on the principal component analysis: evidence from Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Zhang,* Xiaoju Li,* Lu Mao, Mei Zhang, Ke Li, Yinxia Zheng, Wangfei Cui, Hongpo Yin, Yanli He, Mingxia Jing Department of Public Health, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The analysis of factors affecting the nonadherence to antihypertensive medications is important in the control of blood pressure among patients with hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between factors and medication adherence in Xinjiang community-managed patients with hypertension based on the principal component analysis.Patients and methods: A total of 1,916 community-managed patients with hypertension, selected randomly through a multi-stage sampling, participated in the survey. Self-designed questionnaires were used to classify the participants as either adherent or nonadherent to their medication regimen. A principal component analysis was used in order to eliminate the correlation between factors. Factors related to nonadherence were analyzed by using a χ2-test and a binary logistic regression model.Results: This study extracted nine common factors, with a cumulative variance contribution rate of 63.6%. Further analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly related to nonadherence: severity of disease, community management, diabetes, and taking traditional medications.Conclusion: Community management plays an important role in improving the patients’ medication-taking behavior. Regular medication regimen instruction and better community management services through community-level have the potential to reduce nonadherence. Mild hypertensive patients should be monitored by community health care providers. Keywords: hypertension, medication adherence, factors, principal component analysis, community management, China

  12. Palaeofloods and ancient fishing weirs in NW Iberian rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Sanjurjo-Sanchez, J.; Goy-Dizc, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 15-m-thick, fluvial sedimentary record of the NW Iberian lower Miño River was studied. Grain-size analyses were performed and twelve samples were dated using optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques, documenting a 1300-yr-old reconstructed fluvial record that does not match with known

  13. Enrichment and assessment of the health risks posed by heavy metals in PM1 in Changji, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu Y; Shen, Ya X; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Hao F

    2017-04-16

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of human activity on heavy metals in a typical arid urban area of China and assess human health risks posed by heavy metals in PM 1 (particles <1.0 μm in diameter) for different people. In this paper, Changji (Xinjiang, China) was selected as the study area, and samples were collected from March 2014 to March 2015. A total 14 elements in PM 1 were quantified using ICP-MS. An enrichment factor (EF) was used to assess the influence of human activity on the contamination of these metals. The results indicated that Mn was not enriched; Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Tl, and V were slightly enriched; Mo, Pb, and Sb were moderately enriched; and Ag, As, and Cd were strongly enriched. To assess the health risks associated with inhaling PM 1 , the risk assessment code and loss in life expectancy based on the individual metals were calculated. The results showed that the elements Ag, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Tl, and V in PM 1 posed low levels of non-carcinogenic risks, but these metals may still pose risks to certain susceptible populations. In addition, the results also showed that As, Co, and Cr posed an appreciable carcinogenic risk, while Cd and Ni posed low levels of carcinogenic risk. The total predicted loss of life expectancy caused by the three metals As, Co, and Ni was 63.67 d for the elderly, 30.95 d for adult males, 26.62 d for adult females, and 48.22 d for children. Therefore, the safety of the elderly and children exposed to PM 1 should be given more attention than the safety of adults. The results from this study demonstrate that the health risks posed by heavy metals in PM 1 in Changji, Xinjiang, China should be examined.

  14. Paleosol at the Archean–Proterozoic contact in NW India revisited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Department of Geology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India. 2. Institut für .... region around Udaipur (NW India) large occur- rences of .... top of the section reddish colors (iron-oxide leach- ..... for Witwatersrand gold; Soc. Econ.

  15. [Population genetic differentiation of Phrynocephalus axillaris in east of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region based on sequence variation of mitochondrial ND4-tRNALeu gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Xian-Guang; Wang, Yue-Zhao

    2010-08-01

    A 838 bp fragment of mtDNA ND4-tRNALeu gene was sequenced for 66 individuals from five populations (DB: Dabancheng, TU: Turpan, SS: Shanshan, HL: Liushuquan, HD: East district of Hami) of Phrynocephalus axillaris distributed in east of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Seventeen haplotypes were identified from 29 nucleotide polymorphic sites in the aligned 838 bp sequence. Excluding DB, there were relatively high haplotype diversity [(0.600+/-0.113)oscillation since Pleistocene and genetic drift.

  16. Understanding the Complexity of Temperature Dynamics in Xinjiang, China, from Multitemporal Scale and Spatial Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the observed data from 51 meteorological stations during the period from 1958 to 2012 in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the complexity of temperature dynamics from the temporal and spatial perspectives by using a comprehensive approach including the correlation dimension (CD, classical statistics, and geostatistics. The main conclusions are as follows (1 The integer CD values indicate that the temperature dynamics are a complex and chaotic system, which is sensitive to the initial conditions. (2 The complexity of temperature dynamics decreases along with the increase of temporal scale. To describe the temperature dynamics, at least 3 independent variables are needed at daily scale, whereas at least 2 independent variables are needed at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. (3 The spatial patterns of CD values at different temporal scales indicate that the complex temperature dynamics are derived from the complex landform.

  17. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  18. Haladaptatus pallidirubidus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from saline soil samples in Yunnan and Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Wan-Yu; Chu, Xiao; Hozzein, Wael N; Prabhu, Deene Manik; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaea, designated YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T), were isolated from saline soils in Yunnan province and Lup nur region in Xinjiang province, western China, respectively. Colonies of the two strains were observed to be pink-pigmented. The cells were found to be Gram-stain negative, coccoid and non-motile. The organisms were found to be aerobic and could grow in an NaCl range of 6-35 % (optimum 18 %), temperatures ranging from 25 to 50 °C (optimum 37-42 °C), pH range from 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and Mg(2+) range from 0 to 1.5 M (optimum 0.5-1.0 M); Mg(2+) was not necessary for growth. Cells were not observed to lyse in distilled water. Strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Haladaptatus cibarius JCM 15962(T) (97.6 and 97.9 %, respectively). In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridizations of strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) with type strains H. cibarius JCM 15962(T), Haladaptatus litoreus JCM 15771(T) and Haladaptatus paucihalophilus JCM 13897(T) were 37.2 and 38.2 %, 36.6 and 39.0 % and 27.9 and 27.7 %, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) were determined to be 56.0 and 57.4 mol%. The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and other four unidentified glycolipids. On the basis of physiological, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, the strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) can be classified as a novel species of the genus Haladaptatus, for which the name Haladaptatus pallidirubidus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 93656(T) (=JCM 17504(T) = CCTCC AB2010454(T)).

  19. Preface to the Special Issue on "Geophysical and Climate Change Studies in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Siberia (TibXS from Satellite Geodesy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.

  20. Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailamuguli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P<0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P<0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of <3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.

  1. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 2 sites at Necker in the NW...

  2. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Laysan, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the NW...

  3. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Triglycerides/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Were the Optimal Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Uighur Men and Women in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Dang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Yi-Tong; Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Liu, Fen; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Ying-Ying

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the best single predictor of metabolic syndrome by comparing the predictive ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic parameters among a Uighur population in Xinjiang, northwest China. A total of 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS), which was carried out from October, 2007, to March, 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting glucose were documented. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components were confirmed according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome was compared. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), distance in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and cutoffs of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome were calculated. In all, 23.7% of men had the metabolic syndrome, whereas 40.1% of women had the metabolic syndrome in a Uighur population in Xinjiang; the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women was significantly higher than that in men (PAUC value (AUC=0.838); it was followed by TGs/HDL-C (AUC=0.826), body mass index (BMI) (AUC=0.812), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (AUC=0.781), and body adiposity index (BAI) (AUC=0.709). In women, the TGs/HDL-C had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.815); it was followed by WHtR (AUC=0.780), WHR (AUC=0.730), BMI (AUC=0.719), and BAI (AUC=0.699). Similarly, among all five anthropometric and atherogenic parameters, the WHtR had the shortest ROC distance of 0.32 (Sen=85.40%, Spe=71.6%), and the optimal cutoff for WHtR was 0.55 in men. In women, TGs/HDL-C had the shortest ROC distance of 0.35 (Sen=75.29%, Spe=75.18%), and the optimal cutoff of TGs/HDL-C was 1.22. WHtR was the best predictor of metabolic

  4. Regional prognosis criteria for the sandstone type uranium deposits in interlayer oxidation zone and their application in the east of Junggar basin, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Deren; Bai Fengzhou; Lin Shuangxing

    1995-01-01

    Regional prognosis is of a very important role in the exploration work of the sandstone type uranium deposits of interlayer oxidation zone. This paper presents regional prognosis criteria on the basis of the authors' research in combination with the geological prediction in the east of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang (1:200000) which was jointly carried out with the Red Hill Geological Complex of the National Mineral Resources Commission of Uzbekistan Republic. It is advantageous to the exploration work of the sandstone type uranium deposits of interlayer oxidation zone in Meso-Cenozoic basins of China

  5. Reconstruction of Northeast Asian Deformation Integrated with Western Pacific Plate Subduction since 200 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Gurnis, M.; Ma, P.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    The configuration and kinematics of continental deformation and its marginal plate tectonics on the Earth's surface are intrinsic manifestations of plate-mantle coupling. The complex interactions of plate boundary forces result in plate motions that are dominated by slab pull and ridge push forces and the effects of mantle drag; these interactions also result in continental deformation with a complex basin-mountain architecture and evolution. The kinematics and evolution of the western Pacific subduction and northeast Asian continental-margin deformation are a first-order tectonic process whose nature and chronology remains controversial. This paper implements a "deep-time" reconstruction of the western Pacific subduction, continental accretion or collision and basin-mountain deformation in northeast Asia since 200 Ma based on a newly revised global plate model. The results demonstrate a NW-SE-oriented shortening from 200-137 Ma, a NWW-SEE-oriented extension from 136-101 Ma, a nearly N-S-oriented extension and uplift with a short-term NWW-SEE-oriented compressional inversion in northeast China from 100-67 Ma, and a NW-SE- and nearly N-S-oriented extension from 66 Ma to the present day. The western Pacific oceanic plate subducted forward under East Asia along Mudanjiang-Honshu Island during the Jurassic, and the trenches retreated to the Sikhote-Alin, North Shimanto, and South Shimanto zones from ca. 137-128 Ma, ca. 130-90 Ma, and in ca. 60 Ma, respectively. Our time-dependent analysis of plate motion and continental deformation coupling suggests that the multi-plate convergent motion and ocean-continent convergent orogeny were induced by advance subduction during the Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous. Our analysis also indicates that the intra-continent rifting and back-arc extension were triggered by trench retreat during the Cretaceous and that the subduction of oceanic ridge and arc were triggered by trench retreat during the Cenozoic. Therefore, reconstructing

  6. Comprehensive comparison of preselected regions for a high level radioactive waste repository: a subjective quantitative evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Zong Zihua; Jin Yuanxin; Zhu Pengfei; Su Rui; Chen Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive features of the 6 preselected regions (Northwest China, Southwest China East China, South China, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang regions) for China's high level radioactive waste repository, this paper uses the subjective quantitative method to evaluate the weight of each site selection criterion and provides the scores of each region. The results shows that the future natural changes and the hydrogeological conditions are considered as the most important natural siting criteria, while the social impact and human activities are the most important social siting criteria. According to the scores, the priority order of the regions are Northwest China, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, South China, East China, Southwest China. On the whole, the scores of' the regions in western China (Northwest China, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia) are higher than those in eastern China (South China, East China Southwest China), which obviously shows that the participated experts considers that the disposal of high level waste in west China is more favorable than in east China. (authors)

  7. Late Cretaceous to Present evolution of the NW Africa peri-cratonic in the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbal, B.; Bertotti, G.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is the main mechanism to explain topographic evolution and patterns of Tertiary vertical motions recorded around the entire Mediterranean and even further east. However, most of the studies are concentrated on the Eurasian side of the Mediterranean Realm. Along the NW Africa pericratonic zone (western Mediterranean side) extending longitudinally from the Anti-Atlas to the Rif Mountains, the highest topography is observed in the High Atlas intracontinental belt and in the Pan-African Anti-Atlas belt, and not in the youngest belt, the Rif. The combination of AFT and (U-Th)/He low-thermal dating, performed on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks along the Moroccan pericratonic transect (500km) yield ages ranging respectively between 90-9Ma and 65-7Ma, documenting vertical motions of subsidence and exhumation in between Late Cretaceous and Present. Time-Temperature models show that vertical movements are spatially zoned through Morocco, with the highest amplitude of vertical movements in the High Atlas (>4-5km) and more modest amounts in the Anti-Atlas and the Western Meseta (African peri-cratonic zone including the Western Meseta and the Anti-Atlas in addition to the Atlas and the Rif systems experienced Tertiary deformation. Two stages of folding are distinguished on the basis of low-thermal dating results along the pericratonic transect. The first is a lithospherical folding of ~500km in the Late Cretaceous (confirming that this process is a primary response to recently induced compressional stress fields) and the second is a crustal folding of ~100-150km wavelength in the Late Eocene that occurred independently to the mantle, requiring therefore the existence of a decoupling in between the base of the crust and the high mantle.

  8. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Hanson, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Breuer, E. R.

    2016-02-01

    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 and 2010 and ceased as of 2014. NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide in late 2009, decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument may act as sources for these larvae, but connectivity in this region of complex topography is unknown. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both the zooplankton and benthic community composition in this area of the Monument.

  9. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-28

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  10. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min

    2017-10-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  11. A recently identified ovine Babesia in China: serology and sero-epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Wang, Jinming; Yang, Jifei; Li, Anyan; Liu, Zhijie; Du, Pengfei; Li, Youquan; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Hai; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2012-12-01

    Babesia sp. in Xinjiang, transmitted by Hyalomma, is a large Babesia that is infective for small ruminants, but it has almost no pathogenicity in healthy sheep. On the basis of the sequences of the 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes, morphological characteristics, vector tick species and pathogenicity it was identified recently as a novel Babesia species. In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using soluble merozoite antigens of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang (BXJMA) derived from in vitro culture. When the positive threshold was chosen as 24.65% of the specific mean antibody rate, the specificity and sensitivity were both 97.3%. There was no cross-reaction between BXJMA and positive sera from sheep infected with other Chinese ovine piroplasms or Anaplasma ovis in the ELISA and western blotting. Specific antibodies against Babesia sp. in Xinjiang could be detected 2 weeks post infection and a high level of antibodies persisted for more than 12 weeks in experimentally infected sheep. The ELISA was tested on 3857 sera collected from small ruminants in 50 prefectures of 22 provinces to evaluate the sero-epidemiology of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang infection, and the average positive rate was 31.66%. These data provide that the developed ELISA is a powerful tool for the sero-diagnosis of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang and confirm that it is a novel species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Phylogeny and divergence time estimation of Schizothoracinae fishes in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelhan, Haysa; Guo, Yan; Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Ma, Yanwu

    2014-10-01

    Based on combined data of mitochondrial COI, ND4 and 16S RNA genes, molecular phylogeny of 4 genera, 10 species or subspecies of Schizothoracinae fishes distributed in Xinjiang were analyzed. The molecular clock was calibrated by divergence time of Cyprininae and geological segregation event between the upper Yellow River and Qinghai Lake. Divergence time of Schizothoracinae fishes was calculated, and its relationship with the major geological events and the climate changes in surrounding areas of Tarim Basin was discussed. The results showed that genus Aspiorhynchus did not form an independent clade, but clustered with Schizothorax biddulphi and S. irregularis. Kimura 2-parameter model was used to calculate the genetic distance of COI gene, the genetic distance between genus Aspiorhynchus and Schizothorax did not reach genus level, and Aspiorhynchus laticeps might be a specialized species of genus Schizothorax. Cluster analysis showed a different result with morphological classification method, and it did not support the subgenus division of Schizothorax fishes. Divergence of two groups of primitive Schizothoracinae (8.18Ma) and divergence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Diptychus maculates (7.67Ma) occurred in late Miocene, which might be related with the separation of Kunlun Mountain and north Tianshan Mountain River system that was caused by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountain, and the aridification of Tarim Basin. The terrain of Tarim Basin that was affected by Quaternary Himalayan movement was high in west but low in east, as a result, Lop Nor became the center of surrounding mountain rivers in Tarim Basin, which shaped the distribution pattern of genus Schizothorax.

  13. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  14. Acceptability of Male Circumcision among College Students in Medical Universities in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Jiang

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC's acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China.A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews.Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790, 55.2% (n = 988 were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners' hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC's acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629-13.559, knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097-2.323, and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312-2.021. The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%, followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3% said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction.MC's acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future.

  15. Cultural Origin and Production Technology of Xinjiang Traditional Handicraft Instruments%新疆传统手工技艺乐器文化渊源及制作工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄适远

    2016-01-01

    The playing style, production technology and cultural origin of Aijieke, Qiang and Sibuzie, which are Xinjiang traditional handmade musical instruments, are introduced in this paper.%介绍了新疆传统手工技艺乐器艾捷克、锵、斯布孜额的演奏风格、制作工艺以及文化渊源。

  16. A chironomid-based reconstruction of summer temperatures in NW Iceland since AD 1650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Caseldine, C. J.; Croudace, I. W.; Jarvis, S.; Wastegård, S.; Crowford, T. C.

    2011-05-01

    Few studies currently exist that aim to validate a proxy chironomid-temperature reconstruction with instrumental temperature measurements. We used a reconstruction from a chironomid percentage abundance data set to produce quantitative summer temperature estimates since AD 1650 for NW Iceland through a transfer function approach, and validated the record against instrumental temperature measurements from Stykkishólmur in western Iceland. The core was dated through Pb-210, Cs-137 and tephra analyses (Hekla 1693) which produced a well-constrained dating model across the whole study period. Little catchment disturbance, as shown through geochemical (Itrax) and loss-on-ignition data, throughout the period further reinforce the premise that the chironomids were responding to temperature and not other catchment or within-lake variables. Particularly cold phases were identified between AD 1683-1710, AD 1765-1780 and AD 1890-1917, with relative drops in summer temperatures in the order of 1.5-2°C. The timing of these cold phases agree well with other evidence of cooler temperatures, notably increased extent of Little Ice Age (LIA) glaciers. Our evidence suggests that the magnitude of summer temperature cooling (1.5-2°C) was enough to force LIA Icelandic glaciers into their maximum Holocene extent, which is in accordance with previous modelling experiments for an Icelandic ice cap (Langjökull).

  17. The magmatism and metamorphism at the Malayer area, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, V.; Valizadeh, M. V.; Esmaeily, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Malayer area is located in the NW-SE aligned Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, western Iran and consists mainly of Mesozoic schists so-called Hamadan Phyllites, Jurassic to Tertiary intrusive rocks and related contact metamorphic aureoles, aplites and pegmatites. The Sanandj-Sirjan Zone is produced by oblique collisional event between Arabian plate and Central Iran microcontinent. Highest level of regional metamorphism in the area is greenschist facies and injection of felsic magmas is caused contact metamorphism. Magmatism is consist of a general northwest trend large felsic to intermediate intrusive bodies. The main trend of structural features i.e. faults, fractures and other structural features is NW-SE. The Malayer granitoid complex is ellipsoid in shape and has NW-SE foliation especially at the corners of the intrusions. Petrography of the magmatic rocks revealed recrystallization of quartz and feldspars, bending of biotite, and aligment of minerals paralle to the main trend of magmatic and metamorphic country rocks. These indicated that intrusion of felsic magma is coincide to the regional metamorphism and is syn-tectoinc. Non-extensive contact metamorphism aureoles and rareness of pegmatite and aplite in the area are interpreted as injection of felsic magmas into the high-strain metamorphic zone. The regional metamorphic rocks mainly consist of meta-sandstone, slate, phyllite, schist. These gray to dark metasedimentary rocks are consist of quartz, muscovite, turmaline, epidote, biotite and chlorite. Sheeted minerals form extended schistosity and study of porphyroblast-matrix relationships shows that injection of granitic magma into the country rocks is syn to post-tectonic. Syn-tectonic indicating porphyroblast growth synchronous with the development of the external fabric. The thermal contact area of the granite can be observed in the contact margin of granite and regional metamorphic rocks, where it produced hornfelses, andalusit-garnet schists and

  18. A new structural interpretation relating NW Libya to the Hun Graben ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1.03) stereonet software, produced by Pangaea Scientific Ltd. The aim of this ... influence of basement fabrics of different ages on the subsequent structural development of NW Libya. 1. Introduction ...... formation with application to Britain; Oliver Boyd,. Edinburgh .... Price N J 1966 Fault and Joint Development in Brittle and.

  19. The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina in the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina and the dispersal pathways along western Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Muñoz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina is reported for the first time from the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina. It is represented by a species similar to A. ferrigena from the Tremadocian of the Prague Basin, increasing the faunal affinities between the Central Andean Basin and the South European microcontinents, in particular the Bohemian region (Perunica. Nine out of the fourteen brachiopod genera reported from the Tremadocian of the Central Andean Basin (~64% are shared with the Mediterranean region, four of which (~28% have been recorded in the Prague Basin, and two (Kvania and Apheoorthina are restricted to the Central Andes and Perunica. Dispersal pathways around Gondwana are analyzed in the light of major factors affecting large-scale distribution of brachiopods (environment, larval capacity for dispersal, oceanic currents. The presence in Apheoorthina aff. ferrigena of a well-preserved larval protegulum measuring 420 μm in width and 210 μm in length strongly suggests that this species had planktotrophic larvae capable of long-distance dispersal. According to recent ocean-atmosphere general circulation models for the Ordovician Period, the Central Andean margin was dominated by the cold-water Antarctica Current. Despite the complex non-zonal pattern produced by current deflections around the peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, the general westward circulation sense favoured larval dispersal from the Andean region to North Africa, Avalonia, the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, and Perunica. On the other hand, the eastwards flowing Gondwana Current connected the North Gondwana waters with the South American epicontinental seas, which could explain the reversed migration of some brachiopods.

  20. [Biodiversity and enzymes of culturable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria in saline-alkaline soil in Fukang, Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Liu, Qing; Wang, Hongfei; Zhang, Daofeng; Chen, Jiyue; Zhang, Yuanming; Li, Wenjun

    2014-02-04

    In order to analyze the biodiversity of cultivable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria and the enzymes they produced. Total 10 soil samples were collected from saline-alkaline environments of Fukang, Xinjiang province. Facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Enzymes including amylase, proteinase, xylanase, and cellulase were detected. Total 116 facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacterial strains and 4 alkali-tolerant actinobacterial strains were isolated from the samples, and those strains were distributed within 22 genera in 13 families and 8 orders of actinobacteria based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The ratio of non-predominant Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis strains were 53.3%. The positive rates of amylase, proteinase, xylanase and cellulase were 35.8, 37.6, 28.3 and 17.5%, respectively. Diverse facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria were discovered from saline-alkaline environments of Fukang. Facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria are a potential source for enzymes. The study would facilitate the knowledge of the diversity of facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria, and provide the technical basis for exploration of facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria resources.

  1. High-grade metamorphic rocks of the Mellid area, Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubregtse, J.J.M.W.

    1973-01-01

    This study concerns the petrology of the Mellid area, the SE portion of the outer zone of the Ordenes Complex which is one of the upthrusted Precambrian complexes in the axial zone of the Hercynian orogen in Galicia, NW Spain. An eugeosynclinal rock sequence is found containing units with different

  2. [Textual research on relationship between traditional Chinese medicine and medical prescriptions in the Sanskrit formulary Bower Manuscript excavated in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyi

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces the Bower Manuscript in Sanskrit written on birch bark excavated in Xinjiang, which was bought in Kuqa by a British India army lieutenant Bower, hence its title. Then, it was researched, annotated, and published in 7 volumes by a German British lieutenant and orientalist Honer. The first three volumes are devoted to medical prescriptions. It is first verified that its "Dazi Xiangye San" is the "Dujuan Dachen San" in Tibetan medicine. By comparing it with other traditional medical systems, such as Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Uyghur medical systems, we found that Bower Manuscript is closer to Tibetan medicine and Mongolian medicine, while it has less relation with Chinese medicine and Uyghur medicine. However, it also exerts some influence on TCM.

  3. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Haiyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC–MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%, estragole (29.5%, and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%. 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8% and estragole (20.8%. At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml−1 and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  4. Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra of different origin quartz from Altay Orogenic belt, Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Kaixuan; Liu Zehua; Zeng Sheng; Liu Yan; Xie Yanshi; Rieser, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra are measured for different types of geological origin quartz from the Altay orogenic belt, northern Xinjiang, China. The results show striking differences which appear to be characteristic of their geological origin. Granitic quartz is dominated by emission bands at 420-430 nm, 550-560 nm, at a temperature of 170 deg. C. Pegmatite quartz is characterized by an intense 480 nm emission band at 170 deg. C. Volcanic quartz has exclusive UV (340-360 nm) and violet (410-430 nm) emission bands. Hydrothermal quartz exhibits very different TL spectral characteristics because of different hydrothermal activity and mineralization. Only one TL peaks at 485 nm/170 deg. C was observed in sedimentary quartz. An intense 730 nm emission band observed at 170 deg. C considered generally to be characteristics of feldspar was observed in quartz from granite and hydrothermal Au-bearing quartz. This TL peak is probably related to the centre of [FeO 4 ] 0 on an Si site. All samples show an intense 990-1000 nm emission band at 330 deg. C. Identical types of quartz formed in different regions or different geological and tectonic settings can also exhibit striking differences in TL spectra.

  5. Feature Extraction and Classification on Esophageal X-Ray Images of Xinjiang Kazak Nationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising types of cancers in China. The Kazak nationality is the highest-risk group in Xinjiang. In this work, an effective computer-aided diagnostic system is developed to assist physicians in interpreting digital X-ray image features and improving the quality of diagnosis. The modules of the proposed system include image preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, image classification, and performance evaluation. 300 original esophageal X-ray images were resized to a region of interest and then enhanced by the median filter and histogram equalization method. 37 features from textural, frequency, and complexity domains were extracted. Both sequential forward selection and principal component analysis methods were employed to select the discriminative features for classification. Then, support vector machine and K-nearest neighbors were applied to classify the esophageal cancer images with respect to their specific types. The classification performance was evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, accuracy, precision, and recall, respectively. Experimental results show that the classification performance of the proposed system outperforms the conventional visual inspection approaches in terms of diagnostic quality and processing time. Therefore, the proposed computer-aided diagnostic system is promising for the diagnostics of esophageal cancer.

  6. Near N-S paleo-extension in the western Deccan region, India: Does it link strike-slip tectonics with India-Seychelles rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Achyuta Ayan; Bhattacharya, Gourab; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Bose, Narayan

    2014-09-01

    This is the first detailed report and analyses of deformation from the W part of the Deccan large igneous province (DLIP), Maharashtra, India. This deformation, related to the India-Seychelles rifting during Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene, was studied, and the paleostress tensors were deduced. Near N-S trending shear zones, lineaments, and faults were already reported without significant detail. An E-W extension was envisaged by the previous workers to explain the India-Seychelles rift at ~64 Ma. The direction of extension, however, does not match with their N-S brittle shear zones and also those faults (sub-vertical, ~NE-SW/~NW-SE, and few ~N-S) we report and emphasize in this work. Slickenside-bearing fault planes, brittle shear zones, and extension fractures in meso-scale enabled us to estimate the paleostress tensors (directions and relative magnitudes). The field study was complemented by remote sensing lineament analyses to map dykes and shear zones. Dykes emplaced along pre-existing ~N-S to ~NE-SW/~NW-SE shears/fractures. This information was used to derive regional paleostress trends. A ~NW-SE/NE-SW minimum compressive stress in the oldest Kalsubai Subgroup and a ~N-S direction for the younger Lonavala, Wai, and Salsette Subgroups were deciphered. Thus, a ~NW/NE to ~N-S extension is put forward that refutes the popular view of E-W India-Seychelles extension. Paleostress analyses indicate that this is an oblique rifted margin. Field criteria suggest only ~NE-SW and ~NW-SE, with some ~N-S strike-slip faults/brittle shear zones. We refer this deformation zone as the "Western Deccan Strike-slip Zone" (WDSZ). The observed deformation was matched with offshore tectonics deciphered mainly from faults interpreted on seismic profiles and from magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies. These geophysical findings too indicate oblique rifting in this part of the W Indian passive margin. We argue that the Seychelles microcontinent separated from India only after much of

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of drought in the arid region of China and its relationships to teleconnection indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaijun; Chen, Yaning; Pan, Yingping; Li, Weihong

    2015-04-01

    We studied the drought patterns in the arid region of northwestern China between 1960 and 2010 using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The general evolution of drought was obtained by empirical orthogonal function (EOF), rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF), the Mann-Kendall test, and the continuous wavelet transform method. Additionally, relationships between rotated principal component time series (RPCs) and seven selected climate indices were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) Four moisture-related spatial patterns (North Xinjiang, western South Xinjiang, Central Xinjiang, and the Hexi Corridor) were objectively defined by REOF analysis. These patterns are related to distinct geographical areas and are associated with distinct temporal variations. (2) The PDSI increased significantly in most regions of Xinjiang, while decreased in the eastern Hexi Corridor. The significant 4-8 year band is the major period band for the annual and seasonal PDSI derived. (3) The seasonal REOFs (RPCs) and EOFs (PCs) have consistent spatial distribution patterns with the annual REOF. The seasonal trends of PDSI are also the same as the annual PDSI trends, indicating space-time consistency between annual PDSI and seasonal PDSI. (4) The drought evolution in this region is affected by the area of northern hemisphere polar vortex, the Arctic Oscillation, and the North Atlantic Oscillation. In addition, the changes of drought in South Xinjiang and the Hexi Corridor may also be associated with the Tibetan Plateau High. Changes in drought pattern are expected to have a strong impact on the economic livelihood of the region, especially for agricultural production.

  8. [Association between the types of obesity and the 10-year-coronary heart disease risk, in Tibet Autonomous Region and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C Y; Wang, Z W; Chen, Z; Zhang, L F; Wang, X; Dong, Y; Nie, J Y; Wang, J L; Shao, L; Tian, Y

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To investigate the association between types of obesity and the 10-year-coronary heart disease risk in Tibet and Xinjiang of China. Methods: Using the multi-stage random sampling method, 7 631 participants aged 35 or older were examined under the International Standardized Examination process but with only 5 802 were eligible for analysis, in the 2015-2016 season. Results: The prevalence rates of general obesity, central obesity, visceral obesity and compound obesity were 0.53 % , 12.62 % , 10.08 % and 42.35 % , respectively. Out of all the compound obesity cases, 58.65 % (1 441/2 457) of them appeared as having all types of obesity in our study. Risk related to the 10-year-coronary heart disease was higher in men than in women [(3.05±4.14) % vs. (1.42±2.37) % , P obesity (30.16 % ) showed the highest proportion on the risk of 10-year-coronary heart disease than central obesity (28.01 % ), visceral obesity (18.46 % ) or the general obesity (19.35 % ). After adjustment for confounding factors, results from the multivariate analysis showed the risk in compound obesity was higher than central obesity, visceral obesity or general obesity and was associated with the highest risk on the 10-year-coronary heart disease ( OR =2.889, 95 %CI : 2.525-3.305). People with anomalous BMI and WC seemed to have had the higher risk ( OR =3.168, 95 %CI : 2.730-3.677). Conclusions: Obesity was popular in the residents of Tibet and Xinjiang areas of China. Men and people with compound obesity (especially both BMI and WC were abnormal) seemed to carry greater risk on the 10-year-coronary heart disease.

  9. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus in Western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.

  10. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus) in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.

  11. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  12. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  13. Deformation history of the Neoproterozoic basement complex, Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Ain Shams area, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia, is occupied by four main rock units; gneisses, metavolcanics, metasediments and syn- to post-tectonic granitoids. Field and structural studies reveal that the area was subjected to at least three phases of deformation (D1, D2 and D3). The structural features of the D1 are represented by tight to isoclinal and intrafolial folds (F1), axial plane foliation (S1) and stretching lineations (L1). This phase is believed to be resulted from an early NW-SE contractional phase due to the amalgamation between Asir and Jeddah tectonic terranes. D2 deformation phase progressively overprinted D1 structures and was dominated by thrusts, minor and major F2 thrust-related overturned folds. These structures indicate a top-to-the-NW movement direction and compressional regime during the D2 phase. Emplacement of the syn-tectonic granitoids is likely to have occurred during this phase. D3 structures are manifested F3 folds, which are open with steep to subvertical axial planes and axes moderately to steeply plunging towards the E, ENE and ESE directions, L3 is represented by crenulation lineations and kink bands. These structures attest NE-SW contractional phase, concurrent with the accretion of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) to the Saharan Metacraton (SM) and the final assembly between the continental blocks of East and West Gondwana.

  14. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e

    2016-05-15

    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  15. Climate fluctuations during the Holocene in NW Iberia: High and low latitude linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, L. D.; Francés, G.; Diz, P.; Esparza, M.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nombela, M. A.; Alejo, I.

    2010-07-01

    High resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes (δ 18O, δ 13C) and molecular biomarkers in the sediments are used here to infer rapid climatic changes for the last 8200 years in the Ría de Muros (NW Iberian Margin). Benthic foraminiferal δ 18O and δ 13C potentially register migrations in the position of the hydrographic front formed between two different intermediate water masses: Eastern North Atlantic Central Water of subpolar origin (ENACW sp) and subtropical origin (ENACW st). The molecular biomarkers in the sediment show a strong coupling between continental organic matter inputs and negative δ 13C values in benthic foraminifera. The rapid centennial and millennial events registered in these records have been compared with two well known North Atlantic Holocene records from the subtropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST) anomalies off Cape Blanc, NW Africa and the subpolar Atlantic (Hematite Stained Grains percentage, subpolar North Atlantic). Comparison supports a strong link between high- and low-latitude climatic perturbations at centennial-millennial time scales during the Holocene. Spectral analyses also points to a pole-to-equator propagation of the so-called 1500 yr cycles. Our results demonstrate that during the Holocene, the NW Iberian Margin has undergone a series of rapid events which are likely triggered at high latitudes in the North Atlantic and are rapidly propagated towards lower latitudes. Conceivably, the propagation of these rapid climatic changes involves a shift in atmospheric and oceanic circulatory systems.

  16. Controls on dryland mountain landscape development along the NW Saharan desert margin: Insights from Quaternary river terrace sequences (Dadès River, south-central High Atlas, Morocco)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, M.; Mather, A.E.; Belfoul, M.

    2017-01-01

    between 50 and 140 m. The rock strength, stratigraphy and structure of the mountain belt influences terrace distribution. Terraces are absent in river gorges of structurally thickened limestone; whilst well-developed, laterally continuous terraces (T1-T4) form along wide valleys occupying syncline...... sands and colluvium. This sequence with some OSL/IRSL age control, suggests terrace formation over a 100 ka climate cycle with valley floor aggradation during full glacials and incision during glacial-interglacial transitions. This integrates with other archives (e.g. lakes, glaciers, dunes), appearing...... typical of landscape development along the NW Saharan margin south of the High Atlas, and similar to patterns in the western-southern Mediterranean. The 100 ka climate cycle relationship suggests that the terrace sequence documents Late-Middle Pleistocene landscape development. Consistent altitudinal...

  17. Development of urbanization in arid and semi arid regions based on the water resource carrying capacity -- a case study of Changji, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Zhang, L.; Chai, Z.

    2017-07-01

    The arid and semiarid region in China where have a relatively weak economic foundation, independent development capacity, and the low-level of urbanization. The new urbanization within these regions is facing severe challenges brought by the constraints of resources. In this paper, we selected the Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region as study area. We found that agricultural planting structure is the key water consumption index based on the research about the main water demands of domestic, agriculture and industry. Finally, we suggest that more attentions should be paid to the rational utilization of water resources, population carrying capacity, and adjust and upgrade the industrial structure, with the purpose of coordination with the Silk Road Economic Belt.

  18. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin

    2017-06-01

    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  19. Oxygen isotope exchange kinetics between coexistent minerals and water in the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 李志安; 赵志忠

    1996-01-01

    Coexistent minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite vary widely in δ18O value and display remarkable 18O/16O disequilibrium relations in the Ertaibei granite pluton, northern Xinjiang. The 18O/16O exchange reaction definitely occurred between granite and water. Initial δ18O values of the granite and exotic water are evaluated by the mass balance consideration. The results show that the 18O/16O exchange reaction is not necessarily accompanied by what geologists describe as petrological and mineralogiesl alteration effects, indicating that the exchange reaction occurs at a comparatively high temperature during subsolidus cooling of magmas. Exchange mechanism is mainly controlled by diffusion. It is demonstrated through quantitative modelling that the hydrothermal system associated with the Ertaibei pluton lived for 0.8-3 Ma, with a fluid flow rate of 3 × 10-14 mol · s-1 and water/rock (W/R) ratio of 0.79 - 3.08. Flow path and initial heterogeneity of the exotic metamorphic fluid are modelled with the δ1

  20. Correlation between the development of calcium oxalate stones and polymorphisms in the fibronectin gene in the Uighur population of the Xinjiang region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, M; Aekeper, A; Yuan, L Y; Alim, T; Du, G J; Abdusamat, A; Wu, G W; Aniwer, Y

    2015-10-29

    Here, we have investigated the correlation between calcium oxalate stone formation and Fn gene polymorphisms in urinary calculi patients among the Uighur population (Xinjiang region). In this case control study, genomic DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of 129 patients with calcium oxalate stones (patient group) and 94 normal people (control group) was used to genotype polymorphisms in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subsequently, the association between different genotypes and susceptibility to calcium oxalate stone formation was compared among the patient and control groups. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 sites of the Fn gene among the patient and control groups. The genotype distributions of the three loci complied with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results of allele frequencies of the patient/control group for polymorphisms in the rs6725958 site of the Fn gene were C = 179 (69.92%)/119 (63.30%) and A = 77 (30.08%)/69 (36.70%), in the rs10202709 site were C = 245 (95.70%)/176 (93.63%) and T = 11 (4.30%)/12 (6.38%), and in the rs35343655 site of the Fn gene were A = 139 (54.30%)/87 (46.28%) and G = 117 (45.70%)/101 (53.72%). We observed no significant differences between the three SNPs and development of calcium oxalate stones. Polymorphisms in rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 of the Fn gene had no obvious effect on the susceptibility to the development of calcium oxalate stones in the Uighur population, residing in the Xinjiang region of China.

  1. The carrying capacity and the effects of protection level in three marine protected areas in the Balearic Islands (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Coll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of fisheries target species in three marine protected areas (MPAs located in the NW Mediterranean provided important conclusions on management effects. The abundance, occurrence and biomass of large fish showed consistent and growing trends inside the MPAs. Fish diversity was also favoured by protection. Nevertheless, spatial variance of these indicators at a medium scale was often of the same order as that caused by time between different protection levels. The carrying capacity was determined for the first time in western Mediterranean MPAs in five out of six sites studied, and in all cases it was achieved within the first five years of protection. The observed values indicate that the system of the studied MPAs is representative of the general coastal environment of the Balearic Islands, but is far from the potential of other MPAs which are considered as hot spots in other localities. Likewise, this study shows that partially protected areas can also be fairly effective if their habitats fit with those required by target species and fishing modalities are suitably regulated or banned.

  2. The biogeochemistry of nutrients, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Segura-Noguera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reference depth profiles of dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a are described for the Catalan Sea using quality controlled data. Phosphate, nitrate and silicate show typical nutrient profiles, with nutriclines at different depths. Maximums of nitrite, dissolved oxygen and occasionally ammonium are found within the photic zone, close to the deep chlorophyll maximum. In intermediate waters we found a minimum of dissolved oxygen coincident with maximum concentrations of phosphate and nitrate. Ammonium concentration is unexpectedly high in the mesopelagic zone, where there are still measurable nitrite concentrations. The origin of such high ammonium and nitrite concentrations remains unclear. We also identify and describe anomalous data and profiles resulting from eutrophication, western Mediterranean Deep Water formation and dense shelf water cascading. The N:P ratio in deep waters is 22.4, which indicates P limitation relative to the Redfield ratio. However, the N:P ratio above the deep chlorophyll maximum in stratified surface waters is < 4 (< 8 including ammonium. The depth profiles of key biogeochemical variables described in this study will be a useful reference for future studies in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea in order to validate data sampled in this area, to identify anomalous processes, and to study the evolution of the ecosystem following the undergoing global change.

  3. Bilans d'éléments minéraux dans de petits bassins versants forestiers de Galice (NW Espagne)

    OpenAIRE

    Dambrine , Etienne ,; Vega , José; Taboada , Teresa; Rodriguez , Luis; Fernandez , Cristina; Macias , Felipe; Gras , José

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Budgets of mineral elements in small forested catchments in Galicia (NW Spain). In order to assess the sustainability of mineral supply to fast growing Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster stands in Galice (NW Spain), we calculated (input-output) nutrient budgets in three small catchments: the Castrove and Jabali catchments with eucalyptus on a base poor granite and the Arcos catchment with pine on granodiorite. In each catchment, the annual drainage output was lower...

  4. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  5. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument, bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling, rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  6. ‘A Passport to Cross the Room’: Cosmopolitan Empathy and Transnational Engagement in Zadie Smith’s NW (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Shaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to demonstrate that Zadie Smith’s fourth novel, 'NW' (2012, deviates away from celebratory multiculturalism in Britain, interrogating the struggle between critical cosmopolitanism and melancholia in a twenty-first century urban environment. It will be argued that Smith’s limited geographical focus (on an area in which she was born and continues to reside intimates that the social constructs of the family and local community are more conducive to developing cosmopolitan empathy and meaningful relations. Through an analysis of the ethical values of hospitality and openness, it will be suggested that 'NW' reflects a rise in transnational relations and the construction of a cultural model of cosmopolitan communication haunted by national identity and the difficulties of negotiating cultural diversity. The article will then conclude by examining how 'NW' exposes the racial inequalities and socio-economic disparities continuing to reside at the heart of British urban life.

  7. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using mussels as sentinel organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Apraiz, Itxaso; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Orbea, Amaia; Cancio, Ibon; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2007-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollution along three gradients of pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea, a biomonitoring survey was implemented using a battery of biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lysosomal structural changes, metallothionein (MT) induction and peroxisome proliferation) in mussels over a period of two years as part of the EU-funded BEEP project. Mussels from the most impacted zones (Fos, Genova and Barcelona harbours) showed enlarged lysosomes accompanied by reduced labilisation period of lysosomal membranes, indicating disturbed health. MT levels did not reveal significant differences between stations and were significantly correlated with gonad index, suggesting that they were influenced by gamete development. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was significantly inhibited in polluted stations possibly due to interactions among mixtures of pollutants. In conclusion, the application of a battery of effect and exposure biomarkers provided relevant data for the assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea. - The biomarker approach is suitable for assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea

  8. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using mussels as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, Izaskun [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Apraiz, Itxaso [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Soto, Manu [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2007-07-15

    With the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollution along three gradients of pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea, a biomonitoring survey was implemented using a battery of biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lysosomal structural changes, metallothionein (MT) induction and peroxisome proliferation) in mussels over a period of two years as part of the EU-funded BEEP project. Mussels from the most impacted zones (Fos, Genova and Barcelona harbours) showed enlarged lysosomes accompanied by reduced labilisation period of lysosomal membranes, indicating disturbed health. MT levels did not reveal significant differences between stations and were significantly correlated with gonad index, suggesting that they were influenced by gamete development. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was significantly inhibited in polluted stations possibly due to interactions among mixtures of pollutants. In conclusion, the application of a battery of effect and exposure biomarkers provided relevant data for the assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea. - The biomarker approach is suitable for assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Three distinct Holocene intervals of stalagmite deposition and nondeposition revealed in NW Madagascar, and their paleoclimate implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riavo Gilbertinie Voarintsoa, Ny; Railsback, Loren Bruce; Brook, George Albert; Wang, Lixin; Kathayat, Gayatri; Cheng, Hai; Li, Xianglei; Edwards, Richard Lawrence; Rakotondrazafy, Amos Fety Michel; Olga Madison Razanatseheno, Marie

    2017-12-01

    Petrographic features, mineralogy, and stable isotopes from two stalagmites, ANJB-2 and MAJ-5, respectively from Anjohibe and Anjokipoty caves, allow distinction of three intervals of the Holocene in NW Madagascar. The Malagasy early Holocene (between ca. 9.8 and 7.8 ka) and late Holocene (after ca. 1.6 ka) intervals (MEHI and MLHI, respectively) record evidence of stalagmite deposition. The Malagasy middle Holocene interval (MMHI, between ca. 7.8 and 1.6 ka) is marked by a depositional hiatus of ca. 6500 years. Deposition of these stalagmites indicates that the two caves were sufficiently supplied with water to allow stalagmite formation. This suggests that the MEHI and MLHI intervals may have been comparatively wet in NW Madagascar. In contrast, the long-term depositional hiatus during the MMHI implies it was relatively drier than the MEHI and the MLHI. The alternating wet-dry-wet conditions during the Holocene may have been linked to the long-term migrations of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). When the ITCZ's mean position is farther south, NW Madagascar experiences wetter conditions, such as during the MEHI and MLHI, and when it moves north, NW Madagascar climate becomes drier, such as during the MMHI. A similar wet-dry-wet succession during the Holocene has been reported in neighboring locations, such as southeastern Africa. Beyond these three subdivisions, the records also suggest wet conditions around the cold 8.2 ka event, suggesting a causal relationship. However, additional Southern Hemisphere high-resolution data will be needed to confirm this.

  10. Russian Сonsuls in Xinjiang: Legislative Initiatives at the Turn of XIX–XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar K. Mukanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an interesting chapter in the history of international relations in Central Asia, namely, the role of the consular service in tracing ethno-demographic processes in the area of Russian-Chinese border. Observation Russian consuls and analysis of the situation at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries are reflected in the sources that allowed the author to explore the details of the development of the law in 1903 to regulate the uncontrolled immigration. The author studied the array of documents from the archival funds and memoir literature, periodical press materials specified period. Activities of Russian consuls for many years has not been studied as a subject of study, since the coming to power of the Bolsheviks in 1917 and the abdication of Nicholas Romanov 2 put them out of politics. The fate of Russian consuls abroad after 1917 constitutes a separate dramatic page of history. China has actively cooperated with the consuls in Xinjiang, which is understandable position of the state on the eve of the First World War. This is an example of the interested cooperation of Russia and China in solving the problem of spontaneous cross-border migration in Central Asia.

  11. Assessment of Grassland Health Based on Spatial Information Technology in Changji Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M. J.; Zheng, J. H.; Mu, C.

    2018-04-01

    Based on the "pressure-state-response" (PSR) model, comprehensively applied GIS and RS techniques, 20 evaluation indicators were selected based on pressure, state and response, the entropy weight method was used to determine the weight of each index and build a grassland health evaluation system in Changji Prefecture, Xinjiang. Based on this, evaluation and dynamic analysis of grassland health in Changji Prefecture from 2000 to 2016, using GIS/RS technology, the trend of grassland health status in Changji is analyzed and studied. The results show that: 1) Grassland with low health leveld, lower health level, sub-health level, health level and high health level accounts for 1.46 %,27.67 %,38.35 %,29.21 % and 3.31 % of the total area of Changji. Qitai County, Hutubi County, and Manas County are lower health levels, Jimsar County, Changji City, and Mulei County are at a relatively high level, and Fukang City has a healthy level of health. 2) The level of grassland health in Changji County decreased slightly during the 17 years, accounting for 38.42 % of the total area. The area of 23,87 % showed a stable trend, and the improved area accounted for 37.31 % of the vertical surface area.

  12. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  14. Digital geologic map of the Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S.A.; Orkild, P.P.; Sargent, K.A.; Warren, R.G.; Sawyer, D.A.; Workman, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This digital geologic map compilation presents new polygon (i.e., geologic map unit contacts), line (i.e., fault, fold axis, dike, and caldera wall), and point (i.e., structural attitude) vector data for the Thirsty Canyon NW 7 1/2' quadrangle in southern Nevada. The map database, which is at 1:24,000-scale resolution, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic and tectonic interest. The Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle is located in southern Nye County about 20 km west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and 30 km north of the town of Beatty. The map area is underlain by extensive layers of Neogene (about 14 to 4.5 million years old [Ma]) mafic and silicic volcanic rocks that are temporally and spatially associated with transtensional tectonic deformation. Mapped volcanic features include part of a late Miocene (about 9.2 Ma) collapse caldera, a Pliocene (about 4.5 Ma) shield volcano, and two Pleistocene (about 0.3 Ma) cinder cones. Also documented are numerous normal, oblique-slip, and strike-slip faults that reflect regional transtensional deformation along the southern part of the Walker Lane belt. The Thirsty Canyon NW map provides new geologic information for modeling groundwater flow paths that may enter the map area from underground nuclear testing areas located in the NTS about 25 km to the east. The geologic map database comprises six component ArcINFO map coverages that can be accessed after decompressing and unbundling the data archive file (tcnw.tar.gz). These six coverages (tcnwpoly, tcnwflt, tcnwfold, tcnwdike, tcnwcald, and tcnwatt) are formatted here in ArcINFO EXPORT format. Bundled with this database are two PDF files for readily viewing and printing the map, accessory graphics, and a description of map units and compilation methods.

  15. NW-SE Pliocene-Quaternary extension in the Apan-Acoculco region, eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palomo, Armando; Macías, José Luis; Jiménez, Adrián; Tolson, Gustavo; Mena, Manuel; Sánchez-Núñez, Juan Manuel; Arce, José Luis; Layer, Paul W.; Santoyo, Miguel Ángel; Lermo-Samaniego, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The Apan-Acoculco area is located in the eastern portion of the Mexico basin and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The area is transected by right-stepping variably dipping NE-SW normal faults. The Apan-Tlaloc Fault System is a major discontinuity that divides the region into two contrasting areas with different structural and volcanic styles. a) The western area is characterized by a horst-graben geometry with widespread Quaternary monogenetic volcanism and scattered outcrops of Miocene and Pliocene rocks. b) The eastern area is dominated by tilted horsts with a domino-like geometry with widespread Miocene and Pliocene rocks, scattered Quaternary monogenetic volcanoes and the Acoculco Caldera. Gravity data suggest that this structural geometry continues into the Mesozoic limestones. Normal faulting was active since the Pliocene with three stages of extension. One of them, an intense dilatational event began during late Pliocene and continues nowadays, contemporaneously with the emplacement of the Apan-Tezontepec Volcanic Field and the Acoculco caldera. Statistical analysis of cone elongation, cone instability, and the kinematic analysis of faults attest for a NW50°SE ± 7° extensional regime in the Apan-Acoculco area. The activity in some portions of the Apan-Tlaloc Fault System continues today as indicated by earthquake swarms recorded in 1992 and 1996, that disrupted late Holocene paleosols, and Holocene volcanism.

  16. Translation vs. Rotation: The Battle for Accommodation of Dextral Shear at the Northern Terminus of the Central Walker Lane, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Faulds, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Positioned between the Sierra Nevada microplate and Basin and Range in western North America, the Walker Lane (WL) accommodates ~20% of the dextral motion between the North American and Pacific plates on predominately NW-striking dextral and ENE to E-W-striking sinistral fault systems. The Terrill Mountains (TM) lie at the northern terminus of a domain of dextral faults accommodating translation of crustal-blocks in the central WL and at the southeast edge of sinistral faults accommodating oroclinal flexure and CW rotation of blocks in the northern WL. As the mechanisms of strain transfer between these disparate fault systems are poorly understood, the thick Oligocene to Pliocene volcanic strata of the TM area make it an ideal site for studying the transfer of strain between regions undergoing differing styles of deformation and yet both accommodating dextral shear. Detailed geologic mapping and paleomagnetic study of ash-flow tuffs in the TM region has been conducted to elucidate Neogene strain accommodation for this transitional region of the WL. Strain at the northernmost TM appears to be transferred from a system of NW-striking dextral faults to a system of ~E-W striking sinistral faults with associated CW flexure. A distinct ~23 Ma paleosol is locally preserved below the tuff of Toiyabe and provides an important marker bed. This paleosol is offset with ~6 km of dextral separation across the fault bounding the NE flank of the TM. This fault is inferred as the northernmost strand of the NW-striking, dextral Benton Spring fault system, with offset consistent with minimums constrained to the south (6.4-9.6 km, Gabbs Valley Range). Paleomagnetic results suggest counter-intuitive CCW vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks south of the domain boundary in the system of NW-striking dextral faults, similar to some other domains of NW-striking dextral faults in the northern WL. This may result from coeval dextral shear and WNW-directed extension within the left

  17. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Apraiz, Itxaso; Cancio, Ibon; Orbea, Amaia; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Universidad del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Universidad del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)], E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2008-05-15

    A biomonitoring program was carried out in spring and autumn in three pollution hot-spots and sensitive areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets (Mullus barbatus) as sentinel organisms and a battery of biomarkers together with gonad histology. In fish from anthropogenic impacted areas (Fos-sur-mer, Cortiou, Arenzano, Delta of Ebro) lysosomal membrane destabilization occurred indicating disturbed health. There were no significant differences in metallothionein (MT) levels among stations. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was highest in fish from Cortiou. Both MT levels and AOX activities were significantly correlated with gamete development. Prevalence of melanomacrophage centers were high in Cortiou in all samplings and in Fos-sur-mer in September samplings. In conclusion, the application of a battery of biomarkers in red mullets provided relevant data for the assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea but also showed the difficulties of using native fish as sentinels. For future studies caging strategies are recommended. - Application of biomarkers in red mullets is promising to assess environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets as sentinel organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Apraiz, Itxaso; Cancio, Ibon; Orbea, Amaia; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2008-01-01

    A biomonitoring program was carried out in spring and autumn in three pollution hot-spots and sensitive areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets (Mullus barbatus) as sentinel organisms and a battery of biomarkers together with gonad histology. In fish from anthropogenic impacted areas (Fos-sur-mer, Cortiou, Arenzano, Delta of Ebro) lysosomal membrane destabilization occurred indicating disturbed health. There were no significant differences in metallothionein (MT) levels among stations. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was highest in fish from Cortiou. Both MT levels and AOX activities were significantly correlated with gamete development. Prevalence of melanomacrophage centers were high in Cortiou in all samplings and in Fos-sur-mer in September samplings. In conclusion, the application of a battery of biomarkers in red mullets provided relevant data for the assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea but also showed the difficulties of using native fish as sentinels. For future studies caging strategies are recommended. - Application of biomarkers in red mullets is promising to assess environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea

  19. Intracontinental Deformation in the NW Iranian Plateau and Comparisons with the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Jiang, M.; Talebian, M.; Wan, B.; Ai, Y.; Ghods, A.; Sobouti, F.; Xiao, W.; Zhu, R.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the intracontinental deformation and its relationship with the structure of the crust and uppermost mantle in the NW Iranian plateau by combining new seismic and geological observations, to understand how this part of the plateau deformed to accommodate the Arabia-Eurasia plate collision and how the property of the lithosphere controls the deformation pattern. In contrast to the adjacent Anatolian block that exhibits westward large-scale extrusion, the northwesternmost part of the Iranian plateau shows dispersed intracontinental deformations with the development of numerous small-scale and discontinuous right-lateral strike-slip faults. The dispersed surface structures and deformation pattern correspond well to the active volcanism and seismically slow crust and uppermost mantle, and hence a weak lithosphere of the area. Further to the southeast are the western part of the Alborz Mountains and the southern Caspian Sea, both of which are characterized by stronger and more rigid lithosphere with relatively fast crust and uppermost mantle and absence of Quaternary volcanoes. A sharp Moho offset of 18 km has been imaged at the border of the Alborz and southern Caspian Sea using teleseismic receiver function data from a dense seismic array deployed under a collaborative project named "China-Iran Geological and Geophysical Survey in the Iranian Plateau (CIGSIP)". The sharp Moho offset and the minor undulations of the Moho on both sides indicate insignificant intracrustal deformation but mainly relative crustal movements between the Alborz Mountains and southern Caspian Sea, a behavior consistent with the relatively rigid nature of the lithosphere. Similar Moho offsets and lithospheric structures have been reported at the borders between the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam or Tarim Basins in the northern margin of the Tibetan plateau, suggesting the occurrence of relative crustal movements with the effects of rigid continental lithosphere in the region

  20. When and how did Bos indicus introgress into Mongolian cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2014-03-10

    The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation study on discrete charge effects of SiNW biosensors according to bound target position using a 3D TCAD simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In-Young; Jang, Hyeri; Lee, Jieun; Moon, Hyunggeun; Seo, Sung Min; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a simulation method for the biosensor environment which treats the semiconductor and the electrolyte region together, using the well-established semiconductor 3D TCAD simulator tool. Using this simulation method, we conduct electrostatic simulations of SiNW biosensors with a more realistic target charge model where the target is described as a charged cube, randomly located across the nanowire surface, and analyze the Coulomb effect on the SiNW FET according to the position and distribution of the target charges. The simulation results show the considerable variation in the SiNW current according to the bound target positions, and also the dependence of conductance modulation on the polarity of target charges. This simulation method and the results can be utilized for analysis of the properties and behavior of the biosensor device, such as the sensing limit or the sensing resolution.

  2. Simulation study on discrete charge effects of SiNW biosensors according to bound target position using a 3D TCAD simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, In-Young; Moon, Hyunggeun; Jang, Hyeri; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Seo, Sung Min

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a simulation method for the biosensor environment which treats the semiconductor and the electrolyte region together, using the well-established semiconductor 3D TCAD simulator tool. Using this simulation method, we conduct electrostatic simulations of SiNW biosensors with a more realistic target charge model where the target is described as a charged cube, randomly located across the nanowire surface, and analyze the Coulomb effect on the SiNW FET according to the position and distribution of the target charges. The simulation results show the considerable variation in the SiNW current according to the bound target positions, and also the dependence of conductance modulation on the polarity of target charges. This simulation method and the results can be utilized for analysis of the properties and behavior of the biosensor device, such as the sensing limit or the sensing resolution. (paper)

  3. [Growth analysis on modules of Cynodon dactylon clones in Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Janar; Li, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2009-04-01

    By the method of randomly digging up whole ramet tuft while maintaining natural integrity, large samples of Cynodon dactylon clones were collected from a grape orchard abandoned for 2 years without any management in the Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang, aimed to quantitatively analyze the growth patterns of their modules. The results showed that the average ramet number of test 30 clones reached 272.6 +/- 186. 6, among which, vegetative ramets occupied 82.3%, being 4.3 times higher than reproductive ones. The total biomass of the clones was 45.4 +/- 40.0 g, in which, rhizomes accounted for 54.4%, while the vegetative ramets, stolons, and reproductive ramets occupied 21.0%, 14.8%, and 9.4% of the total, respectively. The accumulative length of rhizomes and stolons reached 5.1 + 4.7 m and 3.3 +/- 3.4 m, while the bud number on stolons and rhizomes was 291.5 +/- 246.8 and 78.8 +/- 87.4, respectively. The bud number on stolons and rhizomes was positively correlated to the quantitative characters of vegetative ramets, reproductive ramets, stolons, and rhizomes (P < 0.01), indicating that in Yili River Valley Plain, C. dactylon clone could achieve and maintain its continuous renovation via rhizome buds.

  4. Quality-intensity relationships of phosphorus in some soils from NW India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vig, A.C.; Dev, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a laboratory investigation, Q/I relationship of soil phosphorus in soils derived from four different agroclimatic regions of N.W. India have been worked out on the basis of adsorption studies, involving the use of radioactive phosphorus. These two parameters are related to each other by a Langmuir-like equation. The results indicate that for supply of P, the soils fall in the decreasing order of: Dalhousie, Ludhiana, Gurudaspur, Palampur. (author)

  5. Monitoring of Land-Surface Deformation in the Karamay Oilfield, Xinjiang, China, Using SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusupujiang Aimaiti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR interferometry is a technique that provides high-resolution measurements of the ground displacement associated with various geophysical processes. To investigate the land-surface deformation in Karamay, a typical oil-producing city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data were acquired for the period from 2007 to 2009, and a two-pass differential SAR interferometry (D-InSAR process was applied. The experimental results showed that two sites in the north-eastern part of the city exhibit a clear indication of land deformation. For a further evaluation of the D-InSAR result, the Persistent Scatterer (PS and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS-InSAR techniques were applied for 21 time series Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT C-band Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR data from 2003 to 2010. The comparison between the D-InSAR and SBAS-InSAR measurements had better agreement than that from the PS-InSAR measurement. The maximum deformation rate attributed to subsurface water injection for the period from 2003 to 2010 was up to approximately 33 mm/year in the line of sight (LOS direction. The interferometric phase change from November 2007 to June 2010 showed a clear deformation pattern, and the rebound center has been expanding in scale and increasing in quantity.

  6. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Stable Isotope Investigation of Gürkuyu Sb Mineralization (Gediz-Kütahya-NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim ÖZEN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Gürkuyu Sb mineralization is located in the western part of Anatolian tectonic belt, in southern part of İzmir-Ankara zone and in northern part of Menderes Massif. The mineralization located at west of the Koca hill in east of Gürkuyu village of Gediz (Kütahya-Turkey has been characterized through the detailed examinations involving sulfur and oxygen isotope. Serpentinites of Dağardı melange and crystallized limestones of Budağan limestone were hydrothermally altered by hydrothermal solutions, come from fissures and fractures due to tectonic movement during the thrust of melange and occurred silicified zone. Gürkuyu Sb mineralization suggest that occurred in this silicified zone. In Gürkuyu mineralization, primary ore minerals are antimonite and pyrite, secondary ore minerals are senarmontite, valentinite, orpiment and realgar. Quartz and calcite are the most common gangue minerals. In Gürkuyu Sb mineralization, δ34S values of stibnite are ranged from 1.0 ‰ to 1.3 ‰. δ18O values of quartz are ranged is 15.8 ‰ in Gürkuyu mineralization. Sulfur and oxygen isotope values are similar to the values for magmatic rocks and to the values for fluids of magmatic origin.Keywords: Stable isotope, Gürkuyu, Sb mineralization, Gediz, Kütahya, NW Turkey.

  7. Geochemistry of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, J.; Pérez, N.; Castillo, S.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; López-Sebastián, J. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2009-11-01

    The chemical composition of regional background aerosols, and the time variability and sources in the Western Mediterranean are interpreted in this study. To this end 2002-2007 PM speciation data from an European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, MSY, located 40 km NNE of Barcelona in NE Spain) were evaluated, with these data being considered representative of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean Basin. The mean PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 levels at MSY during 2002-2007 were 16, 14 and 11 µg/m 3, respectively. After compiling data on regional background PM speciation from Europe to compare our data, it is evidenced that the Western Mediterranean aerosol is characterised by higher concentrations of crustal material but lower levels of OM + EC and ammonium nitrate than at central European sites. Relatively high PM 2.5 concentrations due to the transport of anthropogenic aerosols (mostly carbonaceous and sulphate) from populated coastal areas were recorded, especially during winter anticyclonic episodes and summer midday PM highs (the latter associated with the transport of the breeze and the expansion of the mixing layer). Source apportionment analyses indicated that the major contributors to PM 2.5 and PM 10 were secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate and crustal material, whereas the higher load of the anthropogenic component in PM 2.5 reflects the influence of regional (traffic and industrial) emissions. Levels of mineral, sulphate, sea spray and carbonaceous aerosols were higher in summer, whereas nitrate levels and Cl/Na were higher in winter. A considerably high OC/EC ratio (14 in summer, 10 in winter) was detected, which could be due to a combination of high biogenic emissions of secondary organic aerosol, SOA precursors, ozone levels and insolation, and intensive recirculation of aged air masses. Compared with more locally derived crustal geological dusts, African dust intrusions introduce relatively quartz-poor but clay

  8. Kinematics of active deformation across the Western Kunlun mountain range (Xinjiang, China), and potential seismic hazards within the southern Tarim Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilbaud, Christelle; Simoes, Martine; Barrier, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    remains seismic. To quantify the rate of active deformation and the potential for major earthquakes in this region, we combine a structural and quantitative morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, along the topographic mountain front in the epicentral area. Using a seismic profile, we derive......The Western Kunlun mountain range is a slowly converging intra-continental orogen where deformation rates are too low to be properly quantified from geodetic techniques. This region has recorded little seismicity, but the recent July 2015 (Mw 6.4) Pishan earthquake shows that this mountain range...... a structural cross-section in which we identify the fault that broke during the Pishan earthquake, an 8-12 km deep blind ramp beneath the Yecheng-Pishan fold. Combining satellite images and DEMs, we achieve a detailed morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, where we find nine levels of incised...

  9. Continuous in vitro cultivation of a recently identified Babesia that infects small ruminants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Du, Pengfei; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Wang, Jinming; Liu, Zhijie; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2012-07-06

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang was isolated from a splenectomised sheep infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hylomma anatolicum anatolicum, collected from sheep and cattle in Xinjiang province. It was considered to be a novel ovine Babesia species on the basis of its morphology, pathogenicity, vector tick species and alignments of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) gene sequences. Continuous in vitro cultures of the ovine parasite were established using infected sheep blood. In RPMI 1640 medium with 7.5% sheep red blood cells (RBCs) maintained in an incubator at 37 °C and 5% CO(2), the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) peaked at 10% in 24- and 6-well plates. It increased to 20-50% with the same culture medium but with 2.5% RBC in 75 cm(2) flasks. Two clonal lines of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were screened using the limiting dilution method. Growth characteristics of these lines in vitro were measured by a microtiter-based spectrophotometric method and from the PPE. The generation time in sheep erythrocytes was between 15.20 h and 16.27 h. Furthermore, the host range of parasite was identified with in vitro culture and in vivo infection. Erythrocytes of sheep, cattle, sika deer and humans could be invaded into by lines in vitro, but the parasites could not propagate in human erythrocytes. The parasites could not enter erythrocytes from goats in vitro. However, in vivo, only sheep could be infected by lines. Finally, a Babesia sp. Xinjiang-like parasite (which shared 99.5% identity with the original strain of Babesia sp. Xinjiang) was isolated using this in vitro culture system from 1 of 19 sheep blood samples collected from western Gansu province, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca; Lavado, Ramon; Thibaut, Remi; Minier, Christophe; Porte, Cinta

    2006-01-01

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period

  11. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lavado, Ramon [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Thibaut, Remi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, F-76058 Le Havre (France); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es

    2006-05-15

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period.

  12. Effect of Graphene-EC on Ag NW-Based Transparent Film Heaters: Optimizing the Stability and Heat Dispersion of Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minghui; Wang, Minqiang; Li, Le; Qiu, Hengwei; Yang, Zhi

    2018-01-10

    To optimize the performance of silver nanowire (Ag NW) film heaters and explore the effect of graphene on a film, we introduced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and graphene modified with ethyl cellulose (graphene-EC) into the film. The high-quality and well-dispersed graphene-EC was synthesized from graphene obtained by electrochemical exfoliation as a precursor. The transparent film heaters were fabricated via spin-coating. With the assistance of graphene-EC, the stability of film heaters was greatly improved, and the conductivity was optimized by adjusting the Ag NW concentration. The film heaters exhibited a fast and accurate response to voltage, accompanied by excellent environmental endurance, and there was no significant performance degradation after being operated for a long period of time. These results indicate that graphene-EC plays a crucial role in optimizing film stability and heat dispersion in the film. The Ag NW/PEDOT:PSS-doped graphene-EC film heaters show a great potential in low-cost indium-tin-oxide-free flexible transparent electrodes, heating systems, and transparent film heaters.

  13. A 1.1nW Energy Harvesting System with 544pW Quiescent Power for Next Generation Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Saurav; Mercier, Patrick P; Lysaght, Andrew C; Stankovic, Konstantina M; Chandrakasan, Anantha P

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a nW power management unit (PMU) for an autonomous wireless sensor that sustains itself by harvesting energy from the endocochlear potential (EP), the 70-100 mV electrochemical bio-potential inside the mammalian ear. Due to the anatomical constraints inside the inner ear, the total extractable power from the EP is limited to 1.1-6.25 nW. A nW boost converter is used to increase the input voltage (30-55 mV) to a higher voltage (0.8 to 1.1 V) usable by CMOS circuits in the sensor. A pW Charge Pump circuit is used to minimize the leakage in the boost converter. Further, ultra-low-power control circuits consisting of digital implementations of input impedance adjustment circuits and Zero Current Switching circuits along with Timer and Reference circuits keep the quiescent power of the PMU down to 544 pW. The designed boost converter achieves a peak power conversion efficiency of 56%. The PMU can sustain itself and a duty-cyled ultra-low power load while extracting power from the EP of a live guinea pig. The PMU circuits have been implemented on a 0.18µm CMOS process.

  14. A time series deformation estimation in the NW Himalayas using SBAS InSAR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Venkataraman, G.

    2012-12-01

    A time series land deformation studies in north western Himalayan region has been presented in this study. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) is an important tool for measuring the land displacement caused by different geological processes [1]. Frequent spatial and temporal decorrelation in the Himalayan region is a strong impediment in precise deformation estimation using conventional interferometric SAR approach. In such cases, advanced DInSAR approaches PSInSAR as well as Small base line subset (SBAS) can be used to estimate earth surface deformation. The SBAS technique [2] is a DInSAR approach which uses a twelve or more number of repeat SAR acquisitions in different combinations of a properly chosen data (subsets) for generation of DInSAR interferograms using two pass interferometric approach. Finally it leads to the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series. Herein, SBAS algorithm has been used for time series deformation estimation in the NW Himalayan region. ENVISAT ASAR IS2 swath data from 2003 to 2008 have been used for quantifying slow deformation. Himalayan region is a very active tectonic belt and active orogeny play a significant role in land deformation process [3]. Geomorphology in the region is unique and reacts to the climate change adversely bringing with land slides and subsidence. Settlements on the hill slopes are prone to land slides, landslips, rockslides and soil creep. These hazardous features have hampered the over all progress of the region as they obstruct the roads and flow of traffic, break communication, block flowing water in stream and create temporary reservoirs and also bring down lot of soil cover and thus add enormous silt and gravel to the streams. It has been observed that average deformation varies from -30.0 mm/year to 10 mm/year in the NW Himalayan region . References [1] Massonnet, D., Feigl, K.L.,Rossi, M. and Adragna, F. (1994) Radar interferometry mapping of

  15. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.; Breier, R.; Buesseler, K.; Chang, C. C.; Golser, R.; Hou, X. L.; Ješkovský, M.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kaizer, J.; Nakano, M.; Nies, H.; Palcsu, L.; Papp, L.; Pham, M. K.; Steier, P.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK) international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002-3.5 Bq L-1, 0.01-0.8 μBq L-1, and 0.05-0.15 Bq L-1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport of the radionuclides, which have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward in the NW Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs inventory in the water column is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq, what can be regarded as a lower limit of the direct liquid discharges into the sea as the seawater sampling was carried out only in the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E. About 4.6 GBq of 129I was deposited in the NW Pacific Ocean, and 2.4-7 GBq of 129I was directly discharged as liquid wastes into the sea offshore Fukushima. The total amount of 3H released and deposited over the NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.1-0.5 PBq. These estimations depend, however, on the evaluation of the total 137Cs activities released as liquid wastes directly into the sea, which should improve when more data are

  16. System-Level Sensitivity Analysis of SiNW-bioFET-Based Biosensing Using Lockin Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Dimaki, Maria; Kjærgaard, Claus

    2017-01-01

    carry out for the first time the system-level sensitivity analysis of a generic SiNW-bioFET model coupled to a custom-design instrument based on the lock-in amplifier. By investigating a large parametric space spanning over both sensor and instrumentation specifications, we demonstrate that systemwide...

  17. Projected future wave climate in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Projected future regional wave climate scenarios at a high temporal-spatial scale were obtained for the NW Mediterranean Sea, using five combinations of regional-global circulation models. Changes in wave variables were analyzed and related to the variations of the forcing wind projections, while also evaluating the evolution of the presence of the different types of sea states. To assess the significance of the changes produced, a bootstrap-based method was proposed, which accounts for the autocorrelation of data and correctly reproduces the extremes. For the mean climate, relative changes of Hs up to ±10% were obtained, whereas they were around ±20% for the extreme climate. In mean terms, variations of Hs are similar to those associated with wind speed but are enhanced/attenuated, respectively, when fetch conditions are favorable/unfavorable. In general, most notable alterations are not in the Hs magnitude but rather in its direction. In this regard, during the winter season, it is interesting to note that the significant deviations between the results derived from the two global circulation models are larger than those between regional models. ECHAM5 simulated an enhanced west wind flow that is translated into more frequent W-NW waves, whereas the HadCM3Q3 global model gives rise to the east component, which contributes to a higher intensity and number of storms coming from such a direction and directly affects the wind-sea/swell distribution of coastal stretches that face east, like the Catalan coast. Different patterns of change were obtained during the summer when a common rise of NE-E waves was found.

  18. The Minorca Basin: a buffer zone between the Valencia and Liguro-Provençal Basins (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellen, Romain; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Silenziario, Carmine; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    The present-day compartmented Mediterranean physiography is inherited from the last 250 Ma kinematic plate evolution (Eurasian, Africa, Iberic and Nubia plates) which implied the formation of orogenic chains, polyphased basins, and morphological - geodynamic thresholds. The interactions between these entities are strongly debated in the North-Western Mediterranean area. Several Neogene reconstructions have been proposed for the Valencia basin depending of the basin segmentation where each model imply a different subsidence, sedimentary, and palaeo-environmental evolution. Our study propose a new kinematic model for the Valencia Basin (VB) that encompasses the sedimentary infill, vertical movement and basin segmentation. Detailed analyses of seismic profiles and boreholes in the VB reveal a differentiated basin, the Minorca Basin (MB), lying between the old Mesozoic Valencia Basin sensu strico (VBss) and the young Oligocene Liguro-Provencal Basin (LPB) (Pellen et al., 2016). The relationship between these basins is shown through the correlation of four Miocene-to-present-day megasequences. The Central and North Balearic Fracture Zones (CFZ and NBFZ) that border the MB represent two morphological and geodynamical thresholds that created an accommodation in steps between the three domains. Little to no horizontal Neogene movements have been found for the Ibiza and Majorca Islands and imply a vertical "sag" subsidence. In contrast, the counterclockwise movement of the Corso-Sardinian blocks induced a counterclockwise movement of the Minorca block towards the SE along the CFZ and NBFZ, during the exhumation of lower continental crust in the LPB. The South-Eastward Minorca block translation stops when the first atypical oceanic crust occurs. The influence of the Neogene Betic compressional phase is thus limited to the VBss on the basis of a different MB origin. This new understanding places the AlKaPeCa blocks northeastward of the present-day Alboran Area. Both NW-SE and

  19. CRED APEX Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 26070 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, the Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED APEX drifter Argos_ID 26070 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. APEX drifter data files...

  20. The computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengbang, Wang; Mingkuan, Qin; Ruiquan, Zhao; Shenghuang, Tang [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, CNNC (China); Baoqun, Wang; Shuangxing, Lin [Geo-prospecting Team No. 216, CNNC (China)

    2001-08-01

    The process of establishment of the model includes following steps: (1) Systematically studying a known typical in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit--Deposit No. 512 in Yili basin, analyzing its controlling factors and establishing its metallogenetic model; (2) Establishing the metallogenetic models of this type of uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area on the basis of comparison study on the deposit No. 512 with the same type uranium deposits in the world; (3) Creating the computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in northern Xinjiang; (4) Determining the standards of giving a evaluation-mark for each controlling factor of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area; (5) Evaluating uranium potential and prospect of the unknown objective target.

  1. The computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in Northern Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang; Qin Mingkuan; Zhao Ruiquan; Tang Shenghuang; Wang Baoqun; Lin Shuangxing

    2001-01-01

    The process of establishment of the model includes following steps: (1) Systematically studying a known typical in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit--Deposit No. 512 in Yili basin, analyzing its controlling factors and establishing its metallogenetic model; (2) Establishing the metallogenetic models of this type of uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area on the basis of comparison study on the deposit No. 512 with the same type uranium deposits in the world; (3) Creating the computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in northern Xinjiang; (4) Determining the standards of giving a evaluation-mark for each controlling factor of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area; (5) Evaluating uranium potential and prospect of the unknown objective target

  2. A Cross-sectional Survey Assessing Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Healthy Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Na; Chen, Zhao Yun; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Bing Qing; Xu, Li; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Ai Yu; Zhao, Pan; Liu, Ji Wen; Shao, Zhu Jun

    2018-03-01

    The carriage rate and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) in a healthy population in China remains unclear. In this study, we collected the oropharyngeal swabs from 513 individuals in Xinjiang, China. Real-time PCR targeting the lytA gene and 12 serotypes were assessed to identify S. pneumoniae carriage. The total carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 70.4% (361/513). The most prevalent serotypes were 19B/F, 18B/C, 5, and 6A/B. The highest carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was noted in children aged 6-10 years (88.6%), which merits further attention. The co-colonization rate of two or more S. pneumoniae serotypes was 79.8% (264/331). This study aimed to investigate the baseline pneumococcal carriage rate among healthy individuals in China to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. NEW AREAS OF COOPERATION OF CHINA AND CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES IN THE FIRST DECADE OF THE 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savkovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: At the end of 2000-s, regional relations between China and Central Asian states was under threat of the current World Financial Crisis. But it also provided the impetus to search for new mechanisms, forms and directions of the regional cooperation. It marks China’s new development plan for Xinjiang after ten years of Western Development Strategy of the central government.

  4. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  5. Reestablishment of the Ancestral Cascades Arc in Western Nevada and Eastern California by Rollback of the Shallow Farallon Slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C. D.; Cousens, B.; John, D. A.; Colgan, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The character and even existence of an ancestral Tertiary Cascades arc in western Nevada and eastern California south of the modern arc are controversial. Based on extensive published and new data on the regional distribution, timing, style, and composition of magmatism, we conclude that an ancestral arc was established by WSW migration of magmatism into western NV and the northeastern Sierra Nevada in the Oligocene and Miocene as a result of progressive rollback of the shallow subducted slab. Magma migration started with the well-known southward sweep through NE NV and NW UT between ~46 and 36 Ma. By ~30 Ma, migration of the leading edge and central belt of activity was much more WSW, especially after removing younger ~E-W extension. Locally sourced, initially dispersed and small volume, intermediate to mafic lavas erupted in western NV and northeastern CA by ~30 Ma and the eastern Sierra Nevada by ~28 Ma, contemporaneous with the much more voluminous ignimbrite flare-up in central NV. As migration continued, the ignimbrite flare-up tapered off. A voluminous, NNW-trending, dominantly effusive volcanic belt developed by ~22-18 Ma in western NV and was continuous from the Bodie Hills (CA/NV) to the Warner Range (northeast CA) by ~16-15 Ma. The volcanic belt was dominated by intermediate to mafic magmas compositionally similar to those of the modern south Cascades arc but reflecting melting of an old, subduction-modified lithosphere (Cousens et al. 2008; Geosphere). Extensive middle Miocene bimodal rocks related to the Yellowstone hotspot cover these rocks in NW NV, NE CA, and SE OR, but 30-23 Ma, intermediate to mafic and lesser silicic rocks are voluminous wherever older rocks are exposed below the middle Miocene rocks. Between ~25 Ma and the present, magmatism migrated WSW at an average rate of ~8 km/Ma but was at least partly stepwise, as exemplified by an ~50 km westward step at 2 Ma in the Lassen area (Guffanti et al. 1990, JGR). The magmatic belt was as much

  6. The study of remote sensing dynamic monitoring for coalfield fire area in Shuixigou, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat-Tiyip

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic monitoring of fire area is particularly important in the controlling of underground coalfield fire. This paper took the Xinjiang Shuixigou coalfield fire area as an example, through the normalized processing of the multi-temporal thermal infrared images a generalized single-channel algorithm was used to retrieval the surface temperature. Combined with the method of single band optimal density split Sec-segmentation followed by dividing the fire area into the background region, serious combust region and more serious combust region. Thermal anomaly information in the coalfield fire area and analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics change of underground coalfield were calculated as follows:(1)fire area increased 2.03 times between 1990 and 2011, the annual average degree of dynamic changes was 1.28 in the first ten years and increased to 4.57 in the last ten years;(2)the gravity of the little serious area of the coalfield fire integrally moved north to northwest from 1990 to 2001, then northeast from 2001 to 2011;(3)there were three original independent child fire area A, B and C, but A and B merged between 1990 to 2001, C also trended close A and B until 2011. Remote sensing technology provides a feasible method for the dynamic monitoring of coalfield fire area and provides theory basis and scientific guidance for the prevention of coalfield fire disaster and implementation of coalfield fires fighting engineering

  7. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  8. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Lou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0=2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  9. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R 0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  10. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes – application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Gómez; J. García Alba; A. Puente; J. A. Juanes

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitabi...

  11. The April 2007 earthquake swarm near Lake Trichonis and implications for active tectonics in western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratzi, A.; Sokos, E.; Ganas, A.; Tselentis, A.; Benetatos, C.; Roumelioti, Z.; Serpetsidaki, A.; Andriopoulos, G.; Galanis, O.; Petrou, P.

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the properties of the April 2007 earthquake swarm (Mw 5.2) which occurred at the vicinity of Lake Trichonis (western Greece). First we relocated the earthquakes, using P- and S-wave arrivals to the stations of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN), and then we applied moment tensor inversion to regional broad-band waveforms to obtain the focal mechanisms of the strongest events of the 2007 swarm. The relocated epicentres, cluster along the eastern banks of the lake, and follow a distinct NNW-ESE trend. The previous strong sequence close to Lake Trichonis occurred in June-December 1975. We applied teleseismic body waveform inversion, to obtain the focal mechanism solution of the strongest earthquake of this sequence, i.e. the 31 December 1975 (Mw 6.0) event. Our results indicate that: a) the 31 December 1975 Mw 6.0 event was produced by a NW-SE normal fault, dipping to the NE, with considerable sinistral strike-slip component; we relocated its epicentre: i) using phase data reported to ISC and its coordinates are 38.486°N, 21.661°E; ii) using the available macroseismic data, and the coordinates of the macroseismic epicentre are 38.49°N, 21.63°E, close to the strongly affected village of Kato Makrinou; b) the earthquakes of the 2007 swarm indicate a NNW-SSE strike for the activated main structure, parallel to the eastern banks of Lake Trichonis, dipping to the NE and characterized by mainly normal faulting, occasionally combined with sinistral strike-slip component. The 2007 earthquake swarm did not rupture the well documented E-W striking Trichonis normal fault that bounds the southern flank of the lake, but on the contrary it is due to rupture of a NW-SE normal fault that strikes at a ˜ 45° angle to the Trichonis fault. The left-lateral component of faulting is mapped for the first time to the north of the Gulf of Patras which was previously regarded as the boundary for strike-slip motions in western Greece. This result signifies the

  12. Effect of ocean warming and acidification on a plankton community in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maugendre, L.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Louis, J.; de Kluijver, A.; Marro, S.; Soetaert, K.; Gazeau, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ocean warming and acidification was investigated on a natural plankton assemblage from an oligotrophic area, the bay of Villefranche (NW Mediterranean Sea). The assemblage was sampled in March 2012 and exposed to the following four treatments for 12 days: control (~360 µatm, 14°C),

  13. The Solarya Volcano-Plutonic Complex (NW Turkey): Petrography, Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Alp; Kamacı, Ömer; Altunkaynak, Şafak

    2014-05-01

    The post collisional magmatic activity produced several volcano-plutonic complexes in NW Anatolia (Turkey) during the late Oligocene- Middle Miocene. One of the major volcano-plutonic complexes, the Solarya volcano-plutonic complex is remarkable for its coeval and cogenetic plutonic (Solarya pluton), hypabysal and volcanic rocks of Early Miocene (24-21 Ma) age. Solarya pluton is an epizonal pluton which discordantly intruded into metamorphic and nonmetamorphic basement rocks of Triassic age. It is a N-S trending magmatic body covering an area of 220 km2,approximatelly 20 km in length and 10 km in width. Based on the field and petrographic studies, three main rock groups distinguished in Solarya pluton; K-feldspar megacrystalline granodiorite, microgranite-granodiorite and haplogranite. Porphyritic and graphic-granophyric textures are common in these three rock groups. Pluton contains magmatic enclaves and syn-plutonic dykes of dioritic composition. Hypabyssal rocks are represented by porphyritic microdiorite and porphyritic quartz-diorite. They form porphyry plugs, sheet inrusions and dykes around the pluton. Porphyrites have microcrystalline-cryptocrystalline groundmass displaying micrographic and granophyric textures. Petrographically similar to the hypabyssal rocks, volcanic rocks are formed from andesitic and dasitic lavas and pyroclastic rocks. Plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic rocks of Solarya volcano-plutonic complex show similar major-trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, indicating common magmatic evolution and multicomponent melt sources including mantle and crustal components. They are mainly metaluminous, medium to high-K calc alkaline rocks and display enrichment in LILE and depletion in Nb, Ta, P and Ti. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.70701- 0.70818 and 143Nd/144Nd values of 0.51241-0.51250. These geochemical characteristics and isotopic signatures are considered to reflect the composition of the magmas derived from a

  14. The Toarcian Bathonian succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar): Facies analysis and tectono-sedimentary history in the development of the East Africa-Madagascar conjugate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Mauro; Benvenuti, Marco

    2008-04-01

    for a total thickness of 500 m, was deposited during relative sea-level fluctuations in a ramp setting characterized by relatively lower subsidence. The stratigraphic-depositional evolution was dependant on the presence of NW-trending, actively growing highs which fed the south-western sub-basin. The clastic supply balanced the tectonically created accommodation space in this portion of the basin. The revised and extended paleogeographical reconstruction has been included into a breakup model of the East Africa-Madagascar rift during the opening of the Mozambique Channel.

  15. Sea surface temperature variability in the North Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion) during the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jalali, Bassem; Martrat, Belen; Schmidt, Sabine; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Kallel, Nejib

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the multidecadal-scale variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the convection region of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) over the full past 2000 yr (Common Era) using alkenone biomarkers. Our data show colder SSTs by 1.7 °C over most of the first millennium (200-800 AD) and by 1.3 °C during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1400-1850 AD) than the 20th century mean (17.9 °C). Although on average warmer, those of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (1000-1200 AD) were lower by 1 °C. We found a mean SST warming of 2 °C/100 yr over the last century in close agreement with the 0.22 and 0.26 °C/decade values calculated for the western Mediterranean Sea from in situ and satellite data, respectively. Our results also reveal strongly fluctuating SSTs characterized by cold extremes followed by abrupt warming during the LIA. We suggest that the coldest decades of the LIA were likely caused by prevailing negative EA states and associated anticyclone blocking over the North Atlantic resulting in cold continental northeasterly winds to blow over Western Europe and the Mediterranean region.

  16. Population genetic analysis of the GlobalFiler STR loci in 748 individuals from the Kazakh population of Xinjiang in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghua; Yang, Shuping; Guo, Wei; Ren, Bo; Pu, Liwen; Ma, Teng; Xia, Mingying; Jin, Li; Li, Liming; Li, Shilin

    2016-09-01

    The six-dye GlobalFiler™ Express PCR amplification kit incorporates 21 commonly used autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci and three gender determination loci. In this study, we analyzed the GlobalFiler STR loci on 748 unrelated individuals from a Chinese Kazakh population of Xinjiang, China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were observed within and between 21 autosomal STR loci. SE33 showed the greatest power of discrimination in Kazakh population. The combined power of discrimination of Kazakh was 99.999999999999999999999996797 %. No significant differences of allele frequencies were observed between Kazakh and Uyghur at all 15 tested STR loci, as well as Mongolian. Significant differences were only observed between Kazakh and the other Chinese populations at TH01. Multiple STR loci showed significant differences between Kazakh and Arab, as well as South Portuguese. The multidimensional scaling plot (MDS) plot and neighbor-joining tree also showed Kazakh is genetically close to Uyghur.

  17. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan, NW Iran: constraints on Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Shahriar; Yassaghi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and a crustal-scale cross section across the NW Zagros collision zone provide constraints on the spatial evolution of oblique convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates since the Late Cretaceous. The Zagros collision zone in NW Iran consists of the internal Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and Ophiolite zones and the external Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones. The Main Zagros Thrust is the major structure of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of oblique deformation are recognized in the external part of the NW Zagros in Iran. In the early stage, coexisting dextral strike-slip and reverse dominated domains in the Radiolarite zone developed in response to deformation partitioning due to oblique convergence. Dextral-reverse faults in the Bisotoun zone are also compatible with oblique convergence. In the late stage, deformation partitioning occurred during southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulting in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage was related to Late Cretaceous oblique obduction, while the second stage resulted from Cenozoic collision. The Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique convergence is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent Fault) but also occurred in the external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabian and Eurasian plates in Zagros collision zone initiated with oblique obduction in the Late Cretaceous followed by oblique collision in the late Tertiary, consistent with global plate reconstructions.

  18. ‘In Drag’: Performativity and Authenticity in Zadie Smith’s NW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata Beatriz Pérez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zadie Smith’s latest novel, NW, presents a multiverse in which multiplicity is driven into homogeneization by the forces of those dominant discourses that attempt to suppress the category of the “Other.” This paper focuses on the development of the two female protagonists. Their opposing attitudes towards motherhood, together with their confrontation with their origins, bring to the fore the performativity found in the discourses of gender, sexuality, class, and race. Thus, this paper will explore authenticity and performativity in a contemporary context, where patriarchal and neocolonial discourses still apply.

  19. Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P. A.; Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Stemmann, L.; Somot, S.; Diaz, F.

    2014-05-01

    A realistic modeling approach is designed to address the role of winter mixing on the interannual variability of plankton dynamics in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean basin. For the first time, a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (Eco3m-S) covering a 30-year period (1976-2005) is validated on available in situ and satellite data for the NW Mediterranean. In this region, cold, dry winds in winter often lead to deep convection and strong upwelling of nutrients into the euphotic layer. High nutrient contents at the end of winter then support the development of a strong spring bloom of phytoplankton. Model results indicate that annual primary production is not affected by winter mixing due to seasonal balance (minimum in winter and maximum in spring). However, the total annual water column-integrated phytoplankton biomass appears to be favored by winter mixing because zooplankton grazing activity is low in winter and early spring. This reduced grazing is explained here by the rarefaction of prey due to both light limitation and the effect of mixing-induced dilution on prey/predator interactions. A negative impact of winter mixing on winter zooplankton biomass is generally simulated except for mesozooplankton. This difference is assumed to stem from the lower parameterized mortality, top trophic position and detritivorous diet of mesozooplankton in the model. Moreover, model suggests that the variability of annual mesozooplankton biomass is principally modulated by the effects of winter mixing on winter biomass. Thus, interannual variability of winter nutrient contents in the euphotic layer, resulting from winter mixing, would control spring primary production and thus annual mesozooplankton biomass. Our results show a bottom-up control of mesozooplankton communities, as observed at a coastal location of the Ligurian Sea.

  20. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily and

  1. Rugose corals across the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Denayer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An uppermost Famennian (Strunian coral assemblage has been recovered in the middle part of the Yılanlı Formation of the Istanbul Zone (Zonguldak and Bartın areas, NW Turkey. In the Bartın area, the studied fossiliferous interval corresponds to a c. 30 m-thick unit of bioclastic to peloidal wackestone to packstone grading to grainstone and including two stromatoporoid biostromes. In the Zonguldak area, 60 km westward, the bioclastic facies is dominant. The rugose corals are mainly solitary taxa belonging to the genera Campophyllum, Bounophyllum, Amplexocarinia, and ?Metriophyllum, and only one colonial genus occurs: Pseudoendophyllum. This fauna is similar to that documented in Europe. The campophyllids and dibunophyllids are the main component of the uppermost Famennian assemblages in S Belgium, N France, W Germany, NW and S Poland. The endophyllids occur in S Poland, Novaya Zemlya, and in the Ural Mountains. The Istanbul Zone is supposed to be situated in the central part of the Palaeotethys Ocean, along the southern margin of Laurussia during the uppermost Devonian and Carboniferous. The rugose corals indicate some relationship with the eastern part of Laurussia, or that both areas were under a common marine influence at this time. The global Hangenberg event was not recognized in the Turkish localities, except for the disappearance of the corals, occurring less than 19 m below the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary based on the foraminifers. There is no major facies change through the boundary and the first Carboniferous corals (small Uralinia and Caninophyllum appear 6 m above the D–C boundary. The new species Caninophyllum charli sp. nov. is described from the upper part of the lower Tournaisian.

  2. Atmospheric dust events in central Asia: Relationship to wind, soil type, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Lei, Jiaqiang

    2017-06-01

    Xinjiang Province in northwest China is one of the most important source regions of atmospheric dust in the world. Spatial-temporal characteristics of dust events in the province were investigated by time series analysis of annual dust event frequency and meteorological data collected at 101 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2007. Blowing dust frequency (BDF) and dust storm frequency (DSF) decreased with time in North, South, and East Xinjiang whereas floating dust frequency (FDF) decreased with time only in South and East Xinjiang. Dust concentrations were lower in North than in South Xinjiang and decreased with time in East Xinjiang. Wind significantly influenced the temporal trend in FDF, BDF, and DSF in South Xinjiang and DSF in North Xinjiang. Frequency of dust events was smaller by an order of magnitude in North (10.9 d yr-1) than in South Xinjiang (111.3 d yr-1), possibly due in part to higher annual precipitation in North Xinjiang. Floating dust was most frequently observed in East and South Xinjiang, while blowing dust was most frequently observed in North Xinjiang. The high frequency of floating dust in East and South Xinjiang is likely due to the enclosed terrain that characterizes these regions. Land use and soil type also influenced dust events. Although climate influences frequency of dust events, the occurrence of these events may be reduced most effectively by imposing better land management practices in deciduous forests or orchards characterized by saline soils in respectively North and East Xinjiang and meadows characterized by Guanyu soils in South Xinjiang.

  3. Awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples: a cross-sectional survey in Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peierdun Mijiti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the awareness of and willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for HIV prevention among HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Xinjiang, China and determine factors that predict willingness to use oral PrEP. METHODS: Between November 2009 and December 2010, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 351 HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from three cities in Xinjiang, China. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of and willingness to use oral PrEP. Additionally, blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP. RESULTS: Only 10 participants (2.8% reported having heard of PrEP, and only two reported ever using PrEP. However, 297 (84.6% reported that they were willing to use oral PrEP if it was proven to be both safe and effective. Results of multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors of willingness to use oral PrEP: monthly household income (adjusted odds ratio = 2.78, <1000 RMB vs. ≥ 1000 RMB, 95% confidence interval: 1.36-5.69, perceived likelihood of contracting HIV from HIV-positive partner (adjusted odds ratio = 2.63, likely vs. unlikely, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-6.19, and worrying about being discriminated against by others due to oral PrEP use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.43, No vs. Yes, 95% confidence interval: 3.78-23.50. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed HIV-negative partners in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in China had low awareness of oral PrEP but high willingness to use oral PrEP for HIV prevention. Cost of oral PrEP should be taken into consideration in future PrEP prevention strategy. In addition, efforts should be made to reduce stigma attached to oral PrEP use, which may increase its acceptability among

  4. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  5. Inhibitory effects of telmisartan on culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Activation of T lymphocytes, for which potassium channels are essential, is involved in the development of hypertension. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects of telmisartan on the culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes derived from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension. Methods: CD4+ T-cell samples from hypertensive Kazakh patients and healthy Kazakh people were divided into healthy control, case control, telmisartan, and 4-aminopytidine groups. Changes in the expression levels of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-17 in the blood of the healthy control and case control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes were first activated and proliferated in vitro and then incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h under various treatment conditions. Thereafter, changes in CD4+ T-lymphocytic proliferation were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 and microscope photography. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, respectively. Results: The IL-6 and IL-17 expression levels were significantly higher in the blood of the hypertensive Kazakh patients than in the healthy Kazakh people. Telmisartan inhibited T-lymphocytic proliferation, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes, and the inhibitory effects were time-dependent, with the strongest inhibition observed after 48 h and significantly weaker inhibition observed after 24 h of treatment. Conclusions: Telmisartan may potentially regulate hypertensive inflammatory responses by inhibiting T-lymphocytic proliferation and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  6. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes - application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A. G.; García Alba, J.; Puente, A.; Juanes, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitability of the developed methodology and the conceptual approaches as a comprehensive and practical management tool.

  7. Nitrogen deposition and grass encroachment in calcareous and acidic Grey dunes (H2130) in NW-Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; van Til, M.; Noordijk, E.; Remke, E.; Kalbitz, K.

    We present an overview of high nitrogen deposition effects on coastal dune grasslands in NW-Europe (H2130), especially concerning grass encroachment in calcareous and acidic Grey Dunes. The problem is larger than previously assumed, because critical loads are still too high, and extra N-input from

  8. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.

    2008-01-01

    In situ observations were combined with 3D modeling to gain understanding of and to quantify the suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea). The outputs of a hydrodynamic–sediment transport coupled model were compared to near-bottom current and suspended sediment

  9. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event.

  10. Variability of the western Galician upwelling system (NW Spain) during an intensively sampled annual cycle. An EOF analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. L.; Rosón, G.; Varela, R. A.; Piedracoba, S.

    2008-07-01

    The key features of the western Galician shelf hydrography and dynamics are analyzed on a solid statistical and experimental basis. The results allowed us to gather together information dispersed in previous oceanographic works of the region. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis and a canonical correlation analysis were applied to a high-resolution dataset collected from 47 surveys done on a weekly frequency from May 2001 to May 2002. The main results of these analyses are summarized bellow. Salinity, temperature and the meridional component of the residual current are correlated with the relevant local forcings (the meridional coastal wind component and the continental run-off) and with a remote forcing (the meridional temperature gradient at latitude 37°N). About 80% of the salinity and temperature total variability over the shelf, and 37% of the residual meridional current total variability are explained by two EOFs for each variable. Up to 22% of the temperature total variability and 14% of the residual meridional current total variability is devoted to the set up of cross-shore gradients of the thermohaline properties caused by the wind-induced Ekman transport. Up to 11% and 10%, respectively, is related to the variability of the meridional temperature gradient at the Western Iberian Winter Front. About 30% of the temperature total variability can be explained by the development and erosion of the seasonal thermocline and by the seasonal variability of the thermohaline properties of the central waters. This thermocline presented unexpected low salinity values due to the trapping during spring and summer of the high continental inputs from the River Miño recorded in 2001. The low salinity plumes can be traced on the Galician shelf during almost all the annual cycle; they tend to be extended throughout the entire water column under downwelling conditions and concentrate in the surface layer when upwelling favourable winds blow. Our evidences point to the

  11. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters – a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Povinec

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002–3.5 Bq L−1, 0.01–0.8 μBq L−1, and 0.05–0.15 Bq L−1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport of the radionuclides, which have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward in the NW Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs inventory in the water column is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq, what can be regarded as a lower limit of the direct liquid discharges into the sea as the seawater sampling was carried out only in the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E. About 4.6 GBq of 129I was deposited in the NW Pacific Ocean, and 2.4–7 GBq of 129I was directly discharged as liquid wastes into the sea offshore Fukushima. The total amount of 3H released and deposited over the NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.1–0.5 PBq. These estimations depend, however, on the evaluation of the total 137Cs activities released as liquid wastes directly into the sea, which

  12. Mississippian lamprophyre dikes in western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: Evidence of transtensional tectonics along the SW margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Federico; Canelo, Horacio N.; Dávila, Federico M.; de Hollanda, María Helena M.; Teixeira, Wilson

    2018-04-01

    In the Famatina range, Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina (SW Gondwana), subvertical calc-alkaline lamprophyric dike swarms crop out through >300 km. The dikes cut Ordovician units with a prominent NW-SE trending and are covered by continental sedimentary successions of Pennsylvanian to Permian age. The dikes show a strong structural control associated with Riedel fault systems. Detailed field analysis suggested a ∼N-S opening direction oblique to the attitude of dike walls and a left-lateral transtensional tectonics during the emplacement. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of a lamprophyric sample defined a crystallization age (plateau; whole rock) of 357.1 ± 7.1 Ma (MSWD = 2.3). Coetaneous ductile zones with dominant strike-slip motion, documented along western Argentina for >600 km, suggest a regional event in SW Gondwana during the Mississippian. We propose that this deformation was the result of the counterclockwise fast rotation of Gondwana between 365 and 345 Ma, when the Famatina range and western Argentina occupied a sub-polar position. A transform margin along SW Gondwana better explains our (and others) data rather than a subduction margin. This scenario is also consistent with the occurrence of A-type granites and normal-fault basins within the foreland as well as bimodal volcanics.

  13. Reconstruction and analysis of the past five centuries of streamflow on northern slopes on Tianshan Mountains in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Wang, Minzhong; Sun, Huilan

    2017-07-01

    We examined the changes in streamflow on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northern Xinjiang, China, over two time scales: the past 500 years, based on dendrochronology data; and the past 50 years, based on streamflow data from hydrological stations. The method of artificial neural networks built from the data of the 50-year period was used to reconstruct the streamflow of the 500-year period. The results indicate that streamflow has undergone seven high-flow periods and four low-flow periods during the past 500 years. To identify possible transition points in the streamflow, we applied the Mann-Kendall and running T tests to the 50- and 500-year periods, respectively. During the past 500 years, streamflow has changed significantly from low to high flow about three to four times, and from high to low flow about three to five times. Over the recent 50 years, there have been three phases of variation in river runoff, and the most distinct transition of streamflow occurred in 1996.

  14. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  15. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats.

  16. The glacial geology and landscape of Strathmore and adjoining offshore zone, with especial reference to 1:10 000 scale Sheet NO76NW

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, N.R.; Stoker, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Bedrock and Superficial Geology of 1:10 000 Sheet NO76NW (Craig of Garvock) within the Strathmore area of eastern Scotland. It forms part of the revision of Montrose 1:50 000 Geological Sheet (57E). Strathmore forms a low vale bounded to the north by the Highland Boundary Fault (HBF), and to the south by the Sidlaw Hills. NO76NW is underlain by a Devonian sedimentary sequence with interdigitating contemporaneous igneous sheets. The northern edge of the field-ma...

  17. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 30291 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 20020920-20050105 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 30291 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  18. CRED APEX Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24963 Data in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200109-200506 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED APEX drifter Argos_ID 24963 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. APEX drifter data files...

  19. Upper Permian ostracode assemblage from the Jadar Block (Vardar zone, NW Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasquin Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ostracodes from the Changhsingian (latest Permian age in the uppermost part of the “Bituminous Limestone” Formation of the Komirić Section in NW Serbia (Jadar Block, Vardar Zone are described and illustrated. Three new species of ostracodes are introduced: Basslerella jadarensis n. sp., Acratia serbianella n. sp., and Knoxiella vardarensis n. sp. The ostracode assemblage, together with conodonts and foraminifers, is the first record of the youngest Late Permian age microfaunas from Serbia and from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula.

  20. Gravity evidence for shaping of the crustal structure of the Ameca graben (Jalisco block northern limit). Western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Zamora, Miguel Angel; Campos-Enríquez, José Oscar; Fregoso-Becerra, Emilia; Quintanar-Robles, Luis; Toscano-Fletes, Roberto; Rosas-Elguera, José

    2018-03-01

    The Ameca tectonic depression (ATD) is located at the NE of the Jalisco Block along the southwestern fringe of the NW-SE trending Tepic-Zacoalco Rift, in the west-central part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, western Mexico. To characterize its shallow crustal structure, we conducted a gravity survey based on nine N-S gravity profiles across the western half of the Ameca Valley. The Bouguer residual anomalies are featured by a central low between two zones of positive gravity values with marked gravity gradients. These anomalies have a general NW-SE trend similar to the Tepic-Zacoalco Rift general trend. Basement topography along these profiles was obtained by means of: 1) a Tsuboi's type inverse modeling, and 2) forward modeling. Approximately northward dipping 10° slopes are modeled in the southern half, with south tilted down faulted blocks of the Cretaceous granitic basement and its volcano-sedimentary cover along sub-vertical and intermediate normal faults, whereas southward dipping slopes of almost 15° are observed at the northern half. According to features of the obtained models, this depression corresponds to a slight asymmetric graben. The Ameca Fault is part of the master fault system along its northern limit. The quantitative interpretation shows an approximately 500 to 1100 m thick volcano-sedimentary infill capped by alluvial products. This study has several implications concerning the limit between the Jalisco Block and the Tepic-Zacoalco Rift. The established shallow crustal structure points to the existence of a major listric fault with its detachment surface beneath the Tepic-Zacoalco Rift. The Ameca Fault is interpreted as a secondary listric fault. The models indicate the presence of granitic bodies of the Jalisco Block beneath the TMVB volcanic products of the Tepic-Zacoalco rift. This implies that the limit between these two regional structures is not simple but involves a complex transition zone. A generic model suggests that the

  1. Overweight and obesity among low-income Muslim Uyghur women in far western China: correlations of body mass index with blood lipids and implications in preventive public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Li; Zhan, Jin Qiong; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shu Gang; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hong Yan; Ma, Zhi Ping; Hao, Xiao Ling; Simayi, Dilixia; Tao, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Amanguli, A; Mohemaiti, Meiliguli; Jing, Ming Xia; Wang, Wei; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Zou, Xiao Guang; Gu, Yan; Li, Li; Wang, Ying Hong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China. This study was performed in a Muslim ethnic Uyghur rural community in Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, about 4,407 km (2,739 miles) away from Beijing. Body mass index (BMI) and major blood bio-indicators (25 total items) were measured and demographic information was collected from 1,733 eligible healthy women aged 21 to 71 yrs, of whom 1,452 had complete data for analysis. More than 92% of the women lived on US$1.00/day or less. According to the Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity were defined as BMI at 24 to public health policies in Uyghur communities. To prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in low-income settings, we therefore propose a cost-effective, two-step strategy first to screen for obesity and then to screen persons with obesity for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Generation and Characterization of HIV-1 Transmitted and Founder Virus Consensus Sequence from Intravenous Drug Users in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Ma, Liying; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ni, Na; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) has been characterized by high genetic multiplicity and suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full-length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence (IDU.CON). The T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus. The variable region (V1, V2, and V4 loop) of IDU.CON showed length variation compared with the heterosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (HSX.CON) and homosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (MSM.CON). A total of 26 N-linked glycosylation sites were discovered in the IDU.CON sequence, which is less than that of MSM.CON and HSX.CON. Characterization of T/F virus from IDUs highlights the genetic make-up and complexity of virus near the moment of transmission or in early infection preceding systemic dissemination and is important toward the development of an effective HIV-1 preventive methods, including vaccines.

  3. Characteristics of monsoonal circulation over the western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J; Chen, E

    1980-01-01

    In this article the meteorological observations on ships four times daily in the area between 0 to 46/sup 0/N, 90 to 155/sup 0/E has been utilized. The grid 2 x 2 degrees along coastal waters, and 5 x 5 degrees over the open sea have been used. Here the monsoon currents over the western Pacific are calculated and analyzed and a brief discussion is given. The following three criteria were obtained: (1) The monsoon current over the western Pacific between winter and summer changed almost in opposite directions with April and October being the transitional months. In general the wind direction change from summer to winter went from the coastal waters to the open sea. (2) After the discussion about the duration and the prevailing wind directions, the following was determined: during the winter monsoon period, the 25/sup 0/N latitudinal line may be regarded as the boundary from October to March when the winter wind directions inclined N (NW or N) to the north of that line; but to the south of it NE winds prevailed. However, the durations were quite different in different regions, ranging from five to nine months. Owing to the topographic influence of the Taiwan Strait, the duration of the NE wind lasted nine months. The 25/sup 0/N line may also be applied for summer monsoons; over the eastern open ocean from the Gulf of the Bohai Sea and the Japanese islands the southerly winds lasted about nine months, but in the Taiwan Strait they lasted only two months. (3) During the winter monsoon period, the region of strong winds which encircled the continent was over the open ocean to the east of the Japanese islands and the Philippines. However, it was not as near to the shore line as in the winter season, and the frequency of strong winds was somewhat more on the southern side of the 25/sup 0/N line.

  4. [Status of seroepidemiology of hepatitis A, B and C in primary and middle school students in Shufu county, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Han, Z G; Yang, Q Y; Zheng, X R; Zulipikaer, Tuerhong; Wang, M

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To explore the status of seroepidemiology on hepatitis A, B and C in primary and middle school students in Shufu county, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (Xinjiang) and to evaluate the effect of related immunization. Methods: Students in four towns and villages were selected by cluster random sampling method. HAV-IgG, HBsAg, HBsAb and HCV-IgG were detected in Feb to May, 2015. Results: The overall HAV-IgG positive rate was 99.75%, among 4 830 primary and middle school students. The positive rates were seen 99.92% in boys and 99.57% in girls, with difference statistically significant ( χ 2 =5.798, P =0.016). The overall HBsAg positive rate appeared as 3.02%, with 3.55% for boys and 2.47% for girls, with difference statistically significant ( χ 2 =4.782, P =0.029). The difference between age specific HBsAg positive rates also showed statistically significant ( χ 2 =71.990, P =0.000). HBsAg positive rate in the students in rural area (3.28%) was higher than that in the students in urban area (1.61%, χ 2 =6.019, P =0.014). HBsAb positive rate was 38.84%, and the differences between the age specific HBsAb positive rates appeared statistically significant ( χ 2 =837.699, P =0.000). HBsAg positive rate in students from the urban area (42.36%) was higher than those from the rural area (38.20%, χ 2 =4.598, P =0.032). 2 815 students, accounting for 58.28% of the total students, showed negative on both HBsAg and HBsAb. The overall HCV-IgG positive rate was 0.19%, and all appeared in students from the rural areas, with ethnicity solely as Uygur. Conclusions: The effect of hepatitis A vaccine was satisfactory in primary and middle school students in Shufu county but quiet a number of the students missed the vaccination. The infection rate of hepatitis C was low. Publicity and health education on hepatitis immunization and control should be revved up. Programs regarding primary and supplementary immunization on hepatitis, should be carried out timely

  5. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): Assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanier, C.; Fabri, M.-C.; Buscail, R.; Biscara, L.; Koho, K.A.; Reichart, G.-J.; Cossa, D.; Galaup, S.; Chabaud, G.; Pigot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived

  6. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  7. Composite volcanoes in the south-eastern part of İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Helvacı, Cahit; Pécskay, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    During the Early-Middle Miocene (Western Anatolia) several volcanic fields occur along a NE-SW-trending shear zone, known as İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone. This is a deformed crustal-scale sinistral strike-slip fault zone crossing the Bornova flysch and extending along the NW-boundary of the Menderes Massif by accommodating the differential deformation between the Cycladic and Menderes core complexes within the Aegean extensional system. Here we discuss the volcanic activity in Yamanlar and Yuntdağı fields that is closely related to the extensional tectonics of the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone and in the same time with the episodic core complex denudation of the Menderes Massif. This study documents two composite volcanoes (Yamanlar and Yuntdağı), whose present vent area is strongly eroded and cut by a variety of strike-slip and normal fault systems, the transcurrent NW-SE being the dominant one. The erosional remnants of the vent areas, resembling a shallow crater intrusive complex, illustrate the presence of numerous dykes or variably sized neck-like intrusions and lava flows, typically associated with hydrothermal alteration processes (propylitic and argillic). Such vent areas were observed in both the examined volcanic fields, having ~ 6 km in diameter and being much more eroded toward the south, along the NW-SE fault system. Lava flows and lava domes are sometimes associated with proximal block and ash flow deposits. In the cone-building association part, besides lava flows and remnants of lava domes, rare block and ash and pumice-rich pyroclastic flow deposits, as well as a series of debris-flow deposits, have been observed. The rocks display a porphyritic texture and contain various proportions of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole, rare biotite and corroded quartz. The examined rocks fall at the limit between calc-alkaline to alkaline field, and plot predominantly in high-K andesite and dacite fields and one is rhyolite. The trace

  8. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  9. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  10. The Early to Middle Triassic continental–marine transition of NW Bulgaria: sedimentology, palynology and sequence stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdanlijsky George

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary facies and cycles of the Triassic continental–marine transition of NW Bulgaria are documented in detail from reference sections along the Iskar river gorge between the villages of Tserovo and Opletnya. The depositional environments evolved from anastomosing and meandering river systems in the Petrohan Terrigenous Group to mixed fluvial and tidal settings in the Svidol Formation, and to peritidal and shallow-marine conditions in the Opletnya Member of the Mogila Formation. For the first time, the palynostratigraphic data presented here allow for dating the transitional interval and for the precise identification of a major sequence boundary between the Petrohan Terrigenous Group and the Svidol Formation (Iskar Carbonate Group. This boundary most probably corresponds to the major sequence boundary Ol4 occurring in the upper Olenekian of the Tethyan realm and thus enables interregional correlation. The identification of regionally traceable sequence boundaries based on biostratigraphic age control is a first step towards a more accurate stratigraphic correlation and palaeogeographic interpretation of the Early to early Middle Triassic in NW Bulgaria.

  11. Comparison of clay mineral stratigraphy to other proxy palaeoclimate indicators in the Mesozoic of NW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer M; Worden, Richard H

    2002-04-15

    This paper reviews the opportunities and pitfalls associated with using clay mineralogical analysis in palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Following this, conjunctive methods of improving the reliability of clay mineralogical analysis are reviewed. The Mesozoic succession of NW Europe is employed as a case study. This demonstrates the relationship between clay mineralogy and palaeoclimate. Proxy analyses may be integrated with clay mineralogical analysis to provide an assessment of aridity-humidity contrasts in the hinterland climate. As an example, the abundance of kaolinite through the Mesozoic shows that, while interpretations may be difficult, the Mesozoic climate of NW Europe was subject to great changes in rates of continental precipitation. We may compare sedimentological (facies, mineralogy, geochemistry) indicators of palaeoprecipitation with palaeotemperature estimates. The integration of clay mineralogical analyses with other sedimentological proxy indicators of palaeoclimate allows differentiation of palaeoclimatic effects from those of sea-level and tectonic change. We may also observe how widespread palaeoclimate changes were; whether they were diachronous or synchronous; how climate, sea level and tectonics interact to control sedimentary facies and what palaeoclimate indicators are reliable.

  12. The Early to Middle Triassic continental-marine transition of NW Bulgaria: sedimentology, palynology and sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdanlijsky, George; Götz, Annette E.; Strasser, André

    2018-04-01

    Sedimentary facies and cycles of the Triassic continental-marine transition of NW Bulgaria are documented in detail from reference sections along the Iskar river gorge between the villages of Tserovo and Opletnya. The depositional environments evolved from anastomosing and meandering river systems in the Petrohan Terrigenous Group to mixed fluvial and tidal settings in the Svidol Formation, and to peritidal and shallow-marine conditions in the Opletnya Member of the Mogila Formation. For the first time, the palynostratigraphic data presented here allow for dating the transitional interval and for the precise identification of a major sequence boundary between the Petrohan Terrigenous Group and the Svidol Formation (Iskar Carbonate Group). This boundary most probably corresponds to the major sequence boundary Ol4 occurring in the upper Olenekian of the Tethyan realm and thus enables interregional correlation. The identification of regionally traceable sequence boundaries based on biostratigraphic age control is a first step towards a more accurate stratigraphic correlation and palaeogeographic interpretation of the Early to early Middle Triassic in NW Bulgaria.

  13. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the gastric emptying of rats: a pretreatment evaluation using Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Há evidências de que o óxido nítrico participa do mecanismo de retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio bacteriano. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, um inibidor competitivo das óxido nítrico-sintetases, sobre o fenômeno. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se ratos, Wistar, machos, SPF ("specific-pathogen free", adultos, adaptados às condições do laboratório, que após 24 horas de jejum alimentar foram pré-tratados endovenosamente com veículo (salina ou Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester nas doses de 0,5, 1, 2,5 e 5 mg/kg. No tratamento, administrou-se endovenosamente veículo (salina ou lipopolissacarídio (50 µg/kg. O intervalo entre o pré-tratamento e o tratamento foi de 10 minutos, e entre este e a avaliação do esvaziamento gástrico foi de 60 minutos. O esvaziamento gástrico foi avaliado indiretamente através da determinação da retenção gástrica da solução salina marcada com fenol vermelho 10 minutos após administração por via orogástrica. RESULTADOS: Entre os animais pré-tratados com veículo, o tratamento com lipopolissacarídio determinou elevação significativa da retenção gástrica (média = 57% em relação aos tratados com veículo (38,1%. O pré-tratamento com as diferentes doses de Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester não modificou a retenção gástrica nos animais controles do tratamento. O pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester com a dose de 1 mg/kg determinou redução discreta, mas significativa, na retenção gástrica (52% nos animais tratados com lipopolissacarídio, em relação ao observado naqueles com pré-tratamento e tratamento com veículo (35,9%. Nos animais pré-tratados com 2,5 e 5 mg/kg de Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester e tratados com lipopolissacarídio, houve aumento significante da retenção gástrica (74,7% e 80,5%, respectivamente em relação aos seus controles pr

  14. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab

    2016-01-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin

  15. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail: ali.wahid@live.com; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: mohamed.salim@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: wanismail-wanyusoff@petronas.com.my [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: gaafargr@gmail.com [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  16. Petrology, isotopic and fluid inclusion studies of eclogites from Sujiahe, NW Dabie Shan (China), July 1 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, B.; Zheng, Y.-F.; Touret, J.L.R.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the Triassic Hong'an low-T-high-P eclogite and the Xinxian coesite-bearing kyanite-glaucophane eclogite, Silurian coesite-free amphibole eclogites occur in the Sujiahe region, NW Dabie Shan of central China. A comprehensive study of petrology, Nd-Sr, O-H isotopes and fluid inclusions

  17. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  18. Evaluation of the rusle and disturbed wepp erosion models for predicting soil loss in the first year after wildfire in NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A

    2018-05-04

    Severe fire greatly increases soil erosion rates and overland-flow in forest land. Soil erosion prediction models are essential for estimating fire impacts and planning post-fire emergency responses. We evaluated the performance of a) the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), modified by inclusion of an alternative equation for the soil erodibility factor, and b) the Disturbed WEPP model, by comparing the soil loss predicted by the models and the soil loss measured in the first year after wildfire in 44 experimental field plots in NW Spain. The Disturbed WEPP has not previously been validated with field data for use in NW Spain; validation studies are also very scarce in other areas. We found that both models underestimated the erosion rates. The accuracy of the RUSLE model was low, even after inclusion of a modified soil erodibility factor accounting for high contents of soil organic matter. We conclude that neither model is suitable for predicting soil erosion in the first year after fire in NW Spain and suggest that soil burn severity should be given greater weighting in post-fire soil erosion modelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NW-MILO Acoustic Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Jones, Mark E.

    2010-02-17

    There is an enduring requirement to improve our ability to detect potential threats and discriminate these from the legitimate commercial and recreational activity ongoing in the nearshore/littoral portion of the maritime domain. The Northwest Maritime Information and Littoral Operations (NW-MILO) Program at PNNL’s Coastal Security Institute in Sequim, Washington is establishing a methodology to detect and classify these threats - in part through developing a better understanding of acoustic signatures in a near-shore environment. The purpose of the acoustic data collection described here is to investigate the acoustic signatures of small vessels. The data is being recorded continuously, 24 hours a day, along with radar track data and imagery. The recording began in August 2008, and to date the data contains tens of thousands of signals from small vessels recorded in a variety of environmental conditions. The quantity and variety of this data collection, with the supporting imagery and radar track data, makes it particularly useful for the development of robust acoustic signature models and advanced algorithms for signal classification and information extraction. The underwater acoustic sensing system is part of a multi-modal sensing system that is operating near the mouth of Sequim Bay. Sequim Bay opens onto the Straight of Juan de Fuca, which contains part of the border between the U.S. and Canada. Table 1 lists the specific components used for the NW-MILO system. The acoustic sensor is a hydrophone permanently deployed at a mean depth of about 3 meters. In addition to a hydrophone, the other sensors in the system are a marine radar, an electro-optical (EO) camera and an infra-red (IR) camera. The radar is integrated with a vessel tracking system (VTS) that provides position, speed and heading information. The data from all the sensors is recorded and saved to a central server. The data has been validated in terms of its usability for characterizing the

  20. Actual and future trends of extreme values of temperature for the NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, J.; Brands, S.; Lorenzo, N.

    2009-09-01

    It is now very well established that yearly averaged temperatures are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change. In the area of Galicia (NW Spain) this trend has also been determined. The main objective of this work is to assess actual and future trends of different extreme indices of temperature, which are of curcial importance for many impact studies. Station data for the study was provided by the CLIMA database of the regional government of Galicia (NW Spain). As direct GCM-output significantly underestimates the variance of daily surface temperature variables in NW Spain, these variables are obtained by applying a statistical downscaling technique (analog method), using 850hPa temperature and mean sea level pressure as combined predictors. The predictor fields have been extracted from three GCMs participating in the IPCC AR4 under A1, A1B and A2 scenarios. The definitions of the extreme indices have been taken from the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) This group has defined a set of standard extreme values to simplify intercomparisons of data from different regions of the world. For the temperatures in the period 1960-2006, results show a significant increase of the number of days with maximum temperatures above the 90th percentile. Furthermore, a significant decrease of the days with maximum temperatures below the 10th percentile has been found. The tendencies of minimum temperatures are reverse: less nights with minimum temperatures below 10th percentile, and more with minimum temperatures above 90th percentile. Those tendencies can be observed all over the year, but are more pronounced in summer. We have also calculated the relationship between the above mentioned extreme values and different teleconnection patterns appearing in the North Atlantic area. Results show that local tendencies are associated with trends of EA (Eastern Atlantic) and SCA (Scandinavian) patterns. NAO (North Atlantic

  1. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  2. Processes accompanying of mantle plume emplacement into continental lithosphere: Evidence from NW Arabian plate, Western Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Lower crustal xenoliths occurred in the Middle Cretaceous lamprophyre diatremes in Jabel Ansaria (Western Syria) (Sharkov et al., 1992). They are represented mainly garnet granulites and eclogite-like rocks, which underwent by deformations and retrograde metamorphism, and younger fresh pegmatoid garnet-kaersutite-clinopyroxene (Al-Ti augite) rocks; mantle peridotites are absent in these populations. According to mineralogical geothermobarometers, forming of garnet-granulite suite rocks occurred under pressure 13.5-15.4 kbar (depths 45-54 kn) and temperature 965-1115oC. At the same time, among populations of mantle xenoliths in the Late Cenozoic platobasalts of the region, quite the contrary, lower crustal xenoliths are absent, however, predominated spinel lherzolites (fragments of upper cooled rim of a plume head), derived from the close depths (30-40 km: Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2015). From this follows that ancient continental crust was existed here even in the Middle Cretaceous, but in the Late Cenozoic was removed by extended mantle plume head; at that upper sialic crust was not involved in geomechanic processes, because Precambrian metamorphic rocks survived as a basement for Cambrian to Cenozoic sedimentary cover of Arabian platform. In other words, though cardinal rebuilding of deep-seated structure of the region occurred in the Late Cenozoic but it did not affect on the upper shell of the ancient lithosphere. Because composition of mantle xenolithis in basalts is practically similar worldwide, we suggest that deep-seated processes are analogous also. As emplacement of the mantle plume heads accompanied by powerful basaltic magmatism, very likely that range of lower (mafic) continental crust existence is very convenient for extension of plume heads and their adiabatic melting. If such level, because of whatever reasons, was not reached, melting was limited but appeared excess of volatile matters which led to forming of lamprophyre or even kimberlite.

  3. New Insight Into the Crustal Structure of the Continental Margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    2002-12-01

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. The focus of investigations was on the deep water areas. The margin looks like a typical accretionary margin and was presumably formed during the subduction of a proto South China Sea. Presently, no horizontal movements between the two plates are being observed. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere which is characterised by a pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and a carbonate platform of Early Oligocene to Early Miocene age. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the Sabah Trough and the adjacent continental slope, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The tectonic pattern of the Dangerous Grounds' extended continental crust can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anomalies. Based on the new data we propose the following scenario for the development of the NW Sabah continental margin: Seafloor spreading in the present South China Sea started at about 30 Ma in the Late Oligocene. The spreading process separated the Dangerous Grounds area from the SE Asian continent and ceased in late Early Miocene when the oceanic crust of the proto South China Sea was fully subducted in eastward direction along the Borneo-Palawan Trough. During Lower and/or Middle Miocene, Borneo rotated counterclockwise and was

  4. An optimized Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model based on particle swarm optimization and its application in prediction for the incidence of Hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zheng, Yanling; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xueliang; Zheng, Yujian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve the optimal parameter estimation problem, an improved Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model termed PSO-NNGBM(1,1) is proposed. To test the forecasting performance, the optimized model is applied for forecasting the incidence of hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China. Four models, traditional GM(1,1), grey Verhulst model (GVM), original nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (NGBM(1,1)) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing method, are also established for comparison with the proposed model under the criteria of mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percent error. The prediction results show that the optimized NNGBM(1,1) model is more accurate and performs better than the traditional GM(1,1), GVM, NGBM(1,1) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing method. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Genetic relationships between skarn ore deposits and magmatic activity in the Ahar region, Western Alborz, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollai Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleocene to Oligocene tectonic processes in northwest Iran resulted in extensive I-type calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatic activity in the Ahar region. Numerous skarn deposits formed in the contact between Upper Cretaceous impure carbonate rocks and Oligocene-Miocene plutonic rocks. This study presents new field observations of skarns in the western Alborz range and is based on geochemistry of igneous rocks, mineralogy of the important skarn deposits, and electron microprobe analyses of skarn minerals. These data are used to interpret the metasomatism during sequential skarn formation and the geotectonic setting of the skarn ore deposit related igneous rocks. The skarns were classified into exoskarn, endoskarn and ore skarn. Andraditic garnet is the main skarn mineral; the pyroxene belongs to the diopside-hedenbergite series. The skarnification started with pluton emplacement and metamorphism of carbonate rocks followed by prograde metasomatism and the formation of anhydrous minerals like garnet and pyroxene. The next stage resulted in retro gradation of anhydrous minerals along with the formation of oxide minerals (magnetite and hematite followed by the formation of hydrosilicate minerals like epidote, actinolite, chlorite, quartz, sericite and sulfide mineralization. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Cu, along with volatile components such as H2S and CO2 were added to the skarn system. Skarn mineralogy and geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicate an island arc or subduction-related origin of the Fe-Cu skarn deposit.

  6. Climate and sea level controlled sedimentation processes in two submarine canyons off NW-Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pierau, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the trigger mechanisms of gravity-driven sediment transport in two submarine canyons at the passive continental margin off NW-Africa during the past 240 kyr. The sedimentary records allow to determine the turbidite emplacement times based on high resolution age models. The sediment textures of the turbidites were studied by using X-ray radiographies. The sedimentary properties like the terrigenous silt size distribution and XRF-core scanning element data allow to identif...

  7. Association between Anthropometric Measures and Indicators for Hypertension Control among Kazakh-Chinese Hypertension Patients in Xinjiang, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhang

    Full Text Available Among Kazakh-Chinese population in Xinjiang province of China, prevalence of obesity and hypertension were 40.1% and 50.3% respectively, the highest across all ethnic groups residing in this pastureland. Despite this, there remained a dearth of information regarding the association between the anthropometric measures [body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR etc.] and indicators for hypertension control [achieved levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, pulse pressure index (PPI, ankle-brachial index (ABI etc.] among them.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Xinjiang to determine the distribution and inter-relationships of the anthropometric measures and indicators for achieved BP control as well as their predictors among hypertension patients of Kazakh-Chinese ethnicity. Out of 550 randomly selected patients, 516 completed the interview, anthropometry and BP assessments.In the sample population, average SBP, DBP and PP were 156.26±24.40mmHg, 87.55±14.73mmHg and 68.71±19.39mmHg respectively. Bivariate analysis identified age, gender, education, duration of hypertension, WC and BMI being factors influencing the achieved levels of BP. Adjusted multiple linear regression models elicited positive associations of age (βa = 0.152, p = 0.001 and duration of hypertension (βa = 0.132, p = 0.003 with achieved level of SBP as well as BMI (βa = 0.135, p = 0.002 with DBP. Age (βa = 0.207, p<0.001 and WHtR (βa = 0.304, p = 0.005 were positively and WC (βa = -0.406, p<0.001 was negatively associated with PPI. Increasing age (βa = -0.125, p = 0.005, female gender (βa = -0.122, p = 0.005 and 5years' duration of hypertension (βa = -0.091, p<0.039 were negatively associated with ABI. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, hypertensive patients with (reference = without abdominal obesity had 93% (p = 0.013 higher odds of missing the target BP control

  8. Crystal chemistry of pyrochlore from the Mesozoic Panda Hill carbonatite deposit, western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    The Mesozoic Panda Hill carbonatite deposit in western Tanzania hosts pyrochlore, an ore and source of niobium. This study was conducted to establish the contents of radioactive elements (uranium and thorium) in pyrochlore along with the concentration of niobium in the ore. The pyrochlore is mainly hosted in sövite and is structurally controlled by NW-SE (SW dipping) or NE-SW (NW dipping) magmatic flow bands with dip angles of between 60° and 90°. Higher concentrations of pyrochlore are associated with magnetite, apatite and/or phlogopite rich flow bands. Electron microprobe analyses on single crystals of pyrochlore yield very low UO2 concentrations that range between 0 and 0.09 wt% (equivalent to 0 atoms per formula unit: a.p.f.u.) and ThO2 between 0.55 and 1.05 wt% (equivalent to 0.1 a.p.f.u.). The analyses reveal high concentrations of Nb2O5 (ranging between 57.13 and 65.50 wt%, equivalent to a.p.f.u. ranging between 1.33 and 1.43) and therefore the Panda Hill Nb-oxide is classified as pyrochlore sensu stricto. These data point to a non radioactive pyrochlore and a deposit rich in Nb at Panda Hill. The Panda Hill pyrochlore has low concentrations of REEs as displayed by La2O3 that range between 0.10 and 0.49 wt% (equivalent to a.p.f.u. ranging between 0 and 0.01) and Ce2O3 ranging between 0.86 and 1.80 wt% (equivalent to a.p.f.u. ranging between 0.02 and 0.03), Pr2O3 concentrations range between 0 and 0.23 wt% (equivalent to 0 a.p.f.u.), and Y2O3 is 0 wt% (equivalent to 0 a.p.f.u.). The abundance of the REEs in pyroclore at the Panda Hill Carbonatite deposit is of no economic significance.

  9. OXYGEN - AVERAGE SEABED CONSUMPTION from FIXED STATIONS From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19750429 to 19760126 (NODC Accession 9200021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data consists of taut moorings designed for long-duration measurement of temperature/pressure time series in the deep ocean. These data were collected in NW...

  10. Long-term deforestation in NW Spain: linking the Holocene fire history to vegetation change and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, Joeri; Carrión Marco, Yolanda; Asouti, Eleni; Martín Seijo, Maria; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Costa Casáis, Manuela; Criado Boado, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The Holocene fire regime is thought to have had a key role in deforestation and shrubland expansion in Galicia (NW Spain) but the contribution of past societies to vegetation burning remains poorly understood. This may be, in part, due to the fact that detailed fire records from areas in close proximity to archaeological sites are scarce. To fill this gap, we performed charcoal analysis in five colluvial soils from an archaeological area (Campo Lameiro) and compared the results to earlier studies from this area and palaeo-ecological literature from NW Spain. This analysis allowed for the reconstruction of the vegetation and fire dynamics in the area during the last ca 11 000 yrs. In the Early Holocene, Fabaceae and Betula sp. were dominant in the charcoal record. Quercus sp. started to replace these species around 10 000 cal BP, forming a deciduous forest that prevailed during the Holocene Thermal Maximum until ˜5500 cal BP. Following that, several cycles of potentially fire-induced forest regression with subsequent incomplete recovery eventually led to the formation of an open landscape dominated by shrubs (Erica sp. and Fabaceae). Major episodes of forest regression were (1) ˜5500-5000 cal BP, which marks the mid-Holocene cooling after the Holocene Thermal Maximum, but also the period during which agropastoral activities in NW Spain became widespread, and (2) ˜2000-1500 cal BP, which corresponds roughly to the end of the Roman Warm Period and the transition from the Roman to the Germanic period. The low degree of chronological precision, which is inherent in fire history reconstructions from colluvial soils, made it impossible to distinguish climatic from human-induced fires. Nonetheless, the abundance of synanthropic pollen indicators (e.g. Plantago lanceolata and Urtica dioica) since at least ˜6000 cal BP strongly suggests that humans used fire to generate and maintain pasture.

  11. Radon anomalies and their correlation with microseismicity in N-W Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.; Walia, Vivek; Sharma, Anand Kumar; Kumar, Naresh; Kumar, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    Evidence for radon anomalies in soil-gas and groundwater as earthquake precursor phenomenon is recorded in Kangra and Chamba valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India based on micro-seismicity trends in N-W Himalaya. Radon monitoring is being carried out at Palampur, Jawalamukhi, Dalhousie and Chamba stations using emanometry for discrete measurements and alpha-logger technique for continuous recording of time-series radon data from June 1996 to September 1997. Radon anomalies in both type of data are correlated with some of the micro-earthquakes recorded during the time-window by the seismographic network of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). A critical analysis is made of radon data to find confidence level and sensitivity of each recording station

  12. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  13. Sexual production in SE Asian seagrasses: the absence of a seed bank in Thalassia hemprichii (Bolinao, NW Philippines)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollon, R.N.; Nacorda, H.M.E.; Vermaat, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    We report the absence of a persistent seed bank in Thalassia hemprichii in NW Philippine seagrass beds. The survival of buried seeds was assessed experimentally since such a capacity is a prerequisite for the formation of seed bank. We found a rapid germination of non-dormant seeds and development

  14. Transmission of measles among healthcare Workers in Hospital W, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haimei; Ma, Chao; Lu, Mengting; Fu, Jianping; Rodewald, Lance E; Su, Qiru; Wang, Huaqin; Hao, Lixin

    2018-01-12

    As China approaches the elimination of measles, outbreaks of measles continue to occur. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are known to be at high risk of infection and transmission of measles virus. A measles outbreak occurred in a hospital in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. We report an investigation of this outbreak and its implications for measles elimination and outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective search for measles cases using hospital records. Information on cases was collected by interview, and was used to determine epidemiological linkages. We surveyed HCWs to determine their demographic characteristics, disease history and vaccination status, and knowledge about measles. We identified 19 cases, ages 18 to 45 years, in Hospital W between December 2015 and January 2016; 14 were laboratory-confirmed, and 5 were epidemiologically linked. The primary case was a 25-year-old neurology department nurse who developed a rash on 22 December 2015 that was reported on 11 January 2016. She continued working and living with her workmates in a dormitory during her measles transmission period. Among the 19 infected HCWs, 2 had received a dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) before the outbreak, and 16 had unknown vaccination status. Outbreak response immunization activities were started on 8 January in a non-selective manner by offering vaccine regardless of vaccination history; 605(68%) of 890 HCWs were vaccinated. The HCW survey had a 73% response rate (646/890); 41% of HCWs reported that they had received MCV before outbreak, and 56% exhibited good knowledge of measles symptoms, transmission, complications, and vaccination. Low MCV coverage, low measles knowledge among HCWs, delayed reporting of measles cases, and absence of proper case management were associated with this outbreak. Training and vaccinating HCWs against measles are essential activities to prevent measles virus transmission among HCWs.

  15. Late Archaean-early Proterozoic source ages of zircons in rocks from the Paleozoic orogen of western Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, R P; Priem, H N.A. [Laboratorium voor Isotopen-Geologie, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Den Tex, E [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. voor Aardwetenschappen

    1982-08-01

    U-Pb data are reported for nine suites of zircons and three monazites from the Paleozoic orogen in western Galicia: one paragneiss and six orthogneisses from the early Paleozoic basement, and two Carboniferous (ca. 310 Ma old) intrusions of two-mica granite. New whole-rock Rb-Sr analyses, along with earlier data, indicate an age of ca. 470-440 Ma (Ordovician) for the emplacement of the granitic precursors of the orthogneisses. Monazite from the paragneiss also yields an U-Pb age of ca. 470 Ma. From the high initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios an involvement of Precambrian continental crust material is evident in the generation of the early Paleozoic suite of granites, while the zircon U-Pb data give evidence of the presence of about 3.0-2.0 Ga old (late Archaean-early Proterozoic) components in the source material. Zircons from the oldest sedimentary rocks in the area, now present as catazonal paragneisses and a likely source for the granites, likewise reveal a provenance age of 3.0-2.0 Ga.

  16. NW transverse fault system in Southern Bogota, Colombia: New seismologic and structural evidences derived from focal mechanisms and stress field determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel Amaya, J.; Fierro Morales, J.; Ordoñez Potes, M.; Blanco, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present new seismological, morphotectonic and structural data of the Southern Bogota area. The goals of the study were to characterize the NW transverse fault system and to evaluate its effect on seismic wave's generation and propagation. The data set included epicenters of the RSNC (Red Sismologica Nacional de Colombia) catalog over the period 1993-2012, historical description of seismic events (period 1644-1921), structural field data (scale 1:100000) and remote sensors interpretation. The methodology included the structural analysis of over 476 faults having a known sense of offset by using a least squares iterative inversion outlined by Angelier (1984) to determinate the mean deviatoric principal stress tensor. Preliminary conclusions showed that both propagation medium and direction are determined by the structural and mechanic conditions of the Southern Bogota Shear Zone (SBSZ) defined by Fierro & Angel, (2008) as a NW-SE oblique-slip fault zone within sinistral and normal regimes. Based on both data sources (focal mechanism and field structural data) we attempted to reconstruct the stress field starting with a strike slip faulting stress regime (S2 vertical), the solution yielded a ENE-WSW orientation for horizontal principal stress (S1). It is hypothesized that the NW oblique-slip fault zone may generate and/or propagate seismic waves, as a local source, implying local hazard to Bogota the capital city of Colombia with over 8 million habitants.

  17. Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mengxu; Wang, Juanle; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0–3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120–200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system

  18. The diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in saline biological desert crusts in Xinjiang, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun; Yun, Juanli

    2013-07-01

    Although microorganisms, particularly oxygenic phototrophs, are known as the major players in the biogeochemical cycles of elements in desert soil ecosystems and have received extensive attention, still little is known about the effects of salinity on the composition and abundances of microbial community in desert soils. In this study, the diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in biological desert crusts from Xinjiang province, which were under different salinity conditions, were investigated by using clone library and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacteria, mainly Microcoleus vagnitus of the order Oscillatoriales, were predominant in the low saline crusts, while other phototrophs, such as diatom, were the main microorganism group responsible for the oxygenic photosynthesis in the high saline crusts. Furthermore, the higher salt content in crusts may stimulate the growth of other bacteria, including Deinococcus-Thermus, Bacteroidetes, and some subdivisions of Proteobacteria (β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria). The cpcBA-IGS gene analysis revealed the existence of novel M. vagnitus strains in this area. The qPCR results showed that the abundance of oxygenic phototrophs was significantly higher under lower saline condition than that in the higher saline crusts, suggesting that the higher salinity in desert crusts could suppress the numbers of total bacteria and phototrophic bacteria but did highly improve the diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria.

  19. A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, L.; Zicheng, P.; Dong, Y.; Weiguo, L.; Zhaofeng, Z.; Jianfeng, H.; Chenlin, C.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variability during the Late Pleistocene is studied from the proxies in core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression (91??03???E, 40??47???N), Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geophysical and geochemical properties, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate content, loss on ignition and trace elements, have been determined to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the area during 32-9 ka BP. The chronology is established by uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating techniques. Our data suggest four paleoclimate stages, indicating glacial variations between cold-humid and warm-arid environments. A period of extreme humidity occurred during 31,900-19,200 yr BP is attributed the last glacial maximum (LGM). The period was followed by a warm-arid episode during 19,200-13,500 yr BP. Then a cold-humid interval during 13,500-12,700 yr BP may correspond to another cooling phases at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The last stage from 12,700 to 9000 yr BP has a trend that the climate turned warm and arid. The Lop Nur region is characterized by particularly humid stadials and arid interstadials. The climate variability in Lop Nur was constrained by global climate change because it is correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, which were observed at the northern high latitudes. The synchroneity of the palaeoclimatic events suggested that cold air activity at the northern high latitudes was the most important factor that influenced the climate evolution in the Lop Nur region. A probable mechanism that involves the migration of westerly winds is proposed to interpret this synchroneity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Space Archaeology for military-agricultural colonies (tuntian) on the ancient Silk Road, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-04-01

    The ancient Silk Road, a pioneering work in the history of human civilization, contributed greatly to the cultural exchange between China and the West. It is the precious cultural heritage should be shared by the whole humanity. Although there were countless archaeological sites along the ancient Silk Road, most of the existing researches just focused on the sites, lacking the overall understanding of the relationships between sites and their supporting environment. Space archaeology provides a new viewpoint for investigating, discovering, reconstructing and documenting the archaeological sites under different scales. The tuntian system was a state-promoted system of military-agricultural colonies, which originated in the Western Han dynasty (206 BC-9 AD). All the imperial dynasties in Chinese history adopted the practice of tuntian to cultivate and guard frontier areas as an important state policy for developing border areas and consolidating frontier defence. This study describes the use of Chinese GF-1 imagery, LS-7 ETM+ data and ASTER GDEMV2 products to uncover an ancient irrigated canal-based tuntian system located in Milan oasis adjacent to the ancient Kingdom of Loulan at the southern margin of the Tarim Basin. The GF-1 and LS-7 data were first processed following atmospheric and geometric correction and enhanced by Gram Schmidt pansharpening. The linear archaeological traces of tuntian irrigation canals were extracted from the morphologically enhanced GF-1 PAN imagery using our proposed automatic method which adopts mathematical morphological processing and Canny edge operator. Compared with the manual extractions, the overall detection accuracy was better than 90%. In addition, the functions of the trunk, primary, secondary and tertiary canals were each analyzed and the spatial extent of Milan's tuntian landscape were analyzed with the help of the NDVI derived from the GF-1 multispectral imagery. The effective irrigated tuntian area was estimated to be 2

  1. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Sintes, E.; Herndl, G.J.; Varela, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production

  2. Assessing the Effect of a Crop-Tree Intercropping Program on Smallholders’ Incomes in Rural Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Dai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Governments in developing counties often promote intercropping (crops intercropped with fruit trees on cultivated land schemes in order to improve smallholders’ income. However, the implementation of such schemes is often hindered by inappropriate institutional environments and inefficient project management. It is important to assess the impacts of such intercropping programs, especially since such a cultivation strategy can often align closely with smallholders’ livelihood strategies, particularly in poor and remote rural regions. This paper attempts to assess the impact of an intercropping program on participants’ incomes in rural Xinjiang (China, and to explore the possible shortcomings in the program’s design and implementation. We apply a propensity score matching method, based on a survey dataset of 352 households, supplemented with descriptive analysis based on our anecdotal field observations. The findings demonstrate that the intercropping program had negative effects on the incomes that participants derived from farming, their off-farm income and their gross income. Overall, participants experienced significant losses of income. Anecdotal observations show that land tenure insecurity played a crucial role in negating the anticipated income improvement effect of this program. Farmer’s perceptions that they have limited security of tenure made them reluctant to invest the necessary time and resources to make the new cropping systems a success, while the available subsidies only partially covered the costs involved. In addition, the program led to a significant drop in yields of field crops as the trees were competing for a limiting and fixed supply of irrigation water.

  3. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  4. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24955 Data at Bank 8, in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200110-200504 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24955 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  5. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24946 Data, north of Niihau, in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200110-200209 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24946 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  6. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from AIRCRAFT From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19761209 to 19761211 (NCEI Accession 7700021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is Sea Surface Temperature data collected by United States coast guard (USCG), Groton, CT, US. Data was collected between December 9-11, 1976 over the NW...

  7. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI'S SPECIES OF ARCHAEOLITHOTHAMNIUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAZIA VANNUCCI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, containing thirteen new species. In this paper Archaeolithothamnium praeerithraeum Airoldi 1932 and Archaeolithothamnium statiellense Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The features observable in the sporangial compartments allowed to attribute both species to the genus Sporolithon. 

  8. Free-living marine nematodes of Desmodorella and Zalonema (Nematoda: Desmodoridae) with description of two new species from the deep sea of the North Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2016-10-18

    Examination of material recently collected by the German-Russian deep-sea expeditions has revealed that new species occur regularly in macro- and meiobenthic samples of the North-Western (NW) Pacific. In this paper, we report three desmodorid species of the genera Desmodorella and Zalonema from the NW Pacific. They were studied and described using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. Desmodorella tenuispiculum (Allgen, 1928) was found at several locations in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) cruise of RV ''Akademik M.V. Lavrentyev'' in 2010, at water depths ranging between 515 and 1500 m. Zalonema granda sp. nov. and Z. kamchatkaensis sp. nov. are characterized by having a larger body size in comparison with other species of the genus. Zalonema kamchatkaensis sp. nov. is characterized by having a convex cephalic capsule, subcephalic setae (3-4 μm long) located in the middle and at the posterior region of the cephalic capsule, very large spiral amphidial fovea with 2.1-2.2 turns, sexual dimorphism in amphideal fovea size (larger in males, 39-45 μm, than in females, 37-43 μm). Zalonema granda sp. nov. is characterized by having a very long body (3.3-4.3 mm), curved elongate spicules (1.4-1.6 body diameter long), with blade broadening anteriorly towards the rounded capitulum, and pointed distally; weakly developed tubular gubernaculum, and absence of pre-cloacal supplements.

  9. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and genesis of the high-temperature geothermal system in the Tashkorgan basin of the Pamir syntax, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiman; Pang, Zhonghe; Yang, Fengtian; Yuan, Lijuan; Tang, Pinghui

    2017-11-01

    High-temperature geothermal systems in China, such as those found in Tenchong and Tibet, are common. A similar system without obvious manifestations found in the Tashkorgan basin in the western Xinjiang Autonomous Region, however, was not expected. The results from borehole measurements and predictions with geothermometers, such as quartz, Na-K and Na-K-Mg, indicate that the reservoir temperature is approximately 250-260 °C. Geothermal water is high in Total Dissolved Solids (>2.5 g/L) and SiO2 content (>273 mg/L), and the water type is Cl·SO4-Na, likely resulting from water-rock interactions in the granodiorite reservoirs. Based on isotope analysis, it appears to be recharged by local precipitation and river water. Evidence from the relationships between major ions and the Cl and molar Na/Cl ratio suggests mixing between deep geothermal water and shallow cold groundwater during the upwelling process. Mixing ratios calculated by the relationship between Cl and SiO2 show that the proportion from cold end-members are 96-99% and 40-90% for riparian zone springs and geothermal water from boreholes, respectively. Active regional tectonic and Neo-tectonic movements in the Pamir syntax as well as radioactive elements in the granodiorite reservoir of the Himalayan stage provide basis for the high heat flow background (150-350 mW/m2). NNW trending fault systems intersecting with overlying NE faults provide circulation conduits with high permeability for geothermal water.

  10. New Insight Into The Crustal Structure of The Continental Margin Off NW Sabah/borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the continental slope land- ward of the Trough, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The characteristic pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and the carbon- ates which are observed all over the Dangerous Grounds can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anoma- lies. We suspect that the volcanic activity coincided with the collision of Borneo and the Dangerous Grounds in middle or late Miocene time. The emplacement of an al- lochtonous terrane on top of the extended continental lithosphere could be explained by overthrusting as a result of the collision or it could be related to gravity sliding following a broad uplift of NW Borneo at the same time.

  11. Factors affecting medication adherence in community-managed patients with hypertension based on the principal component analysis: evidence from Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuji; Li, Xiaoju; Mao, Lu; Zhang, Mei; Li, Ke; Zheng, Yinxia; Cui, Wangfei; Yin, Hongpo; He, Yanli; Jing, Mingxia

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of factors affecting the nonadherence to antihypertensive medications is important in the control of blood pressure among patients with hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between factors and medication adherence in Xinjiang community-managed patients with hypertension based on the principal component analysis. A total of 1,916 community-managed patients with hypertension, selected randomly through a multi-stage sampling, participated in the survey. Self-designed questionnaires were used to classify the participants as either adherent or nonadherent to their medication regimen. A principal component analysis was used in order to eliminate the correlation between factors. Factors related to nonadherence were analyzed by using a χ 2 -test and a binary logistic regression model. This study extracted nine common factors, with a cumulative variance contribution rate of 63.6%. Further analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly related to nonadherence: severity of disease, community management, diabetes, and taking traditional medications. Community management plays an important role in improving the patients' medication-taking behavior. Regular medication regimen instruction and better community management services through community-level have the potential to reduce nonadherence. Mild hypertensive patients should be monitored by community health care providers.

  12. Ground deformation effects from the M6 earthquakes (2014-2015) on Cephalonia-Ithaca Islands (Western Greece) deduced by GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Vassilis; Lagios, Evangelos

    2017-03-01

    The implications of the earthquakes that took place in the central Ionian Islands in 2014 (Cephalonia, M w6.1, M w5.9) and 2015 (Lefkas, M w6.4) are described based on repeat measurements of the local GPS networks in Cephalonia and Ithaca, and the available continuous GPS stations in the broader area. The Lefkas earthquake occurred on a branch of the Cephalonia Transform Fault, affecting Cephalonia with SE displacements gradually decreasing from north ( 100 mm) to south ( 10 mm). This earthquake revealed a near N-S dislocation boundary separating Paliki Peninsula in western Cephalonia from the rest of the island, as well as another NW-SE trending fault that separates kinematically the northern and southern parts of Paliki. Strain field calculations during the interseismic period (2014-2015) indicate compression between Ithaca and Cephalonia, while extension appears during the following co-seismic period (2015-2016) including the 2015 Lefkas earthquake. Additional tectonically active zones with differential kinematic characteristics were also identified locally.

  13. 放牧对新疆草地生态系统碳源/汇的影响模拟研究%Modeling the grazing effect of grassland on the carbon source/sink in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩其飞; 罗格平; 李超凡; 黄晓东

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the carbon source/sink strength of grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang is of great importance for the regional carbon cycle.Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model,we modeled carbon dynamics in grasslands in Xinjiang,northwest China with varying grazing intensities.In general,the regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source,with a value of 0.38 Pg during the period 1979-2007,of which 0.37 Pg was caused by grazing.In general,the strength of carbon sequestration improved when grazing intensity was less than 0.24 head/hm2.However,the over-compensation effect may also be the result of the growth of poisonous grass.Therefore,in the future,by adding the "vegetation succession" module,we should improve the Biome-BGC grazing model to study the compensation effect more intensively.Our findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as they relate to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation,e.g.,removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales.We anticipate that our study will emphasize the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing affects carbon cycling.%正确评估新疆草地生态系统碳源/汇效应,对区域尺度碳循环研究具有重要意义.放牧是新疆草地生态系统中主要的人类活动,但放牧对草地碳平衡与碳动态的影响还具有很大的不确定性.利用生态系统放牧模型Biome-BGC grazing,通过情景模拟综合评价新疆草地生态系统碳源/汇的动态.结果表明:1)1979-2007年新疆草地生态系统的碳源总量为0.38PgC,其中由放牧导致的碳释放为0.37PgC;2)当平均放牧率小于0.24头标准羊/hm2时,放牧能够促进草地碳固定.研究实现了Biome-BGC grazing模型在区域尺度的应用,研究结果将有助于理解气候变化及放牧对干旱区草地生态系统碳动态变化的驱动机理,对探明干旱区草原生态系统的源/汇特征具有重要意义.

  14. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka’imikai-o-Kanaloa ......Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka......-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport...... the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima...

  16. Characterization of gold mineralization in Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria, using remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat M. Ramadan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria is part of the Neoproterozoic to Early Phanerozoic terrane separating the west African and Congo Cratons. Three main gold-bearing shear zones were detected in the study area from the processed Landsat ETM+ images and extensive ground investigation. Field and petrographical studies indicate that the Neoproterozoic rocks are represented by a highly folded and faulted belt constituted of hornblende, muscovite and graphite schist. They are intruded by granondiorites and late to post granitic dykes. Extensive alteration zones were identified using high resolution QuickBird image along Garin Hawal shear zone. The alteration zones and associated quartz veins are generally concordant with the main NE–SW regional structural trend and are dipping to the NW. Geochemical studies indicate that the gold content reaches 8 g/t in the alteration zones, while it reaches up to 35 g/t in the quartz veins. Mineralogical studies indicate that the alterations are strongly potassium-enriched. Pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite, gypsum and quartz also occur. The main ore minerals are gold, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, galena and iron oxides. This study indicates that the alteration zones and the associated quartz veins in the muscovite schist are promising and need more detailed exploration for Au and Ag mineralization to evaluate their potential.

  17. Characterisation of bio-aerosols during dust storm period in N-NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudesh; Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam

    Bio-investigations for pollen and spores were performed on dry free-fall dust and PM 10 aerosol samples, collected from three different locations separated by a distance of 600 km, situated in dust storm hit region of N-NW India. Presence of pollen of trees namely Prosopis ( Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cinearia), Acacia, Syzygium, Pinus, Cedrus, Holoptelea and shrubs namely Ziziphus, Ricinus, Ephedra and members of Fabaceae, Oleaceae families was recorded but with varying proportions in the samples of different locations. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae and Cyperaceae (sedges) were some of the herb pollen identified in the samples. Among the fungal spores Nigrospora was seen in almost all samples. Nigrospora is a well known allergen and causes health problems. The concentration of trees and shrubs increases in the windward direction just as the climate changes from hot arid to semiarid. The higher frequency of grasses (Poaceae) or herbs could either be a result of the presence of these herbs in the sampling area and hence the higher production of pollen/spores or due to the resuspension from the exposed surface by the high-intensity winds. But we cannot ascertain the exact process at this stage. The overall similarity in the pollen and spore assemblage in our dust samples indicates a common connection or source(s) to the dust in this region. Presence of the pollen of the species of Himalayan origin in our entire samples strongly point towards a Himalayan connection, could be direct or indirect, to the bioaerosols and hence dust in N-NW India. In order to understand the transport path and processes involved therein, present study needs further extension with more number of samples and with reference to meteorological parameters.

  18. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the metapelitic granulites from NW of Madurai, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, D.

    2010-01-01

    Zircon cathodoluminescent imaging and SHRIMP U-Pb dating were carried out for metapelitic rocks (sapphirine-hearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses) from the NW of Madurai, Southern India. The cathodoluminescence images reveal the complex, inhomogeneous internal structure having irregular-shaped core and overgrowths. Zircon grains have obliterated oscillatory zoning. SHRIMP U-Pb chronological results yield ages of 550 ± 15 Ma and 530 ± 50 Ma as a time of metamorphic overprint, and the age of 2509 ± 12 Ma and 2509 ± 30 Ma corresponding to a timing of protolith formation for sapphirine-bearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses respectively. Zircon ages reflect that continental crust in the NW of Madurai region resulted from the recycling of Archaean protolith of an igneous origin similar to the preserved crust in the southern part of Dharwar craton. The present SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages are in close agreement with earlier published Nd isotopic data which suggest an extended precrustal history of their protoliths. The abraded zircon grains indicate multiple recycling and repeated metamorphism that has ultimately resulted in present day continental crust exposed in Madurai region. These SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages from metapelitic UHT granulites are also significant to understanding the architecture of the SGT during the amalgamation of Gondwana in Neoproterozoic time. (author)

  19. The Early to Middle Triassic continental–marine transition of NW Bulgaria: sedimentology, palynology and sequence stratigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Ajdanlijsky George; Götz Annette E.; Strasser André

    2018-01-01

    Sedimentary facies and cycles of the Triassic continental–marine transition of NW Bulgaria are documented in detail from reference sections along the Iskar river gorge between the villages of Tserovo and Opletnya. The depositional environments evolved from anastomosing and meandering river systems in the Petrohan Terrigenous Group to mixed fluvial and tidal settings in the Svidol Formation, and to peritidal and shallow-marine conditions in the Opletnya Member of the Mogila Formation. For the ...

  20. Influence of filtration and glucose amendment on bacterial growth rate at different tidal conditions in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne, I.; Fidalgo, M. L.; Thosthrup, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and growth rates were studied in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal). The influence of tidal conditions, glucose amendment, and the filtration process on total bacterial abundance, total and faecal coliforms, as well as faecal streptococci, were evaluated...

  1. Organic-carbon deposition in the Cretaceous of the Ionian Basin, NW-Greece : The Paquier Event (OAE 1b) re-visited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Tsikos, H.; Karakitsios, V.; Breugel, Y. van; Walsworth-Bell, B.; Petrizzo, M.R.; Bombardiere, L.; Schouten, S.; Erba, E.; Premoli Silva, I.; Farrimond, P.; Tyson, R.V.; Jenkyns, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present new stable (C, O) isotopic, biostratigraphic and organic geochemical data for the Vigla Shale Member of the Ionian Zone in NW Greece, in order to characterize organic carbon-rich strata that potentially record the impact of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). In a section exposed

  2. Kinematics of syn- and post-exhumational shear zones at Lago di Cignana (Western Alps, Italy): constraints on the exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (ultra)high-pressure rocks and deformation along the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Frederik; Leiss, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Kinematic analyses of shear zones at Lago di Cignana in the Italian Western Alps were used to constrain the structural evolution of units from the Piemont-Ligurian oceanic realm (Zermatt-Saas and Combin zones) and the Adriatic continental margin (Dent Blanche nappe) during Palaeogene syn- and post-exhumational deformation. Exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (U)HP rocks to approximately lower crustal levels at ca. 39 Ma occurred during normal-sense top-(S)E shearing under epidote-amphibolite-facies conditions. Juxtaposition with the overlying Combin zone along the Combin Fault at mid-crustal levels occurred during greenschist-facies normal-sense top-SE shearing at ca. 38 Ma. The scarcity of top-SE kinematic indicators in the hanging wall of the Combin Fault probably resulted from strain localization along the uppermost Zermatt-Saas zone and obliteration by subsequent deformation. A phase of dominant pure shear deformation around 35 Ma affected units in the direct footwall and hanging wall of the Combin Fault. It is interpreted to reflect NW-SE crustal elongation during updoming of the nappe stack as a result of underthrusting of European continental margin units and the onset of continental collision. This phase was partly accompanied and followed by ductile bulk top-NW shearing, especially at higher structural levels, which transitioned into semi-ductile to brittle normal-sense top-NW deformation due to Vanzone phase folding from ca. 32 Ma onwards. Our structural observations suggest that syn-exhumational deformation is partly preserved within units and shear zones exposed at Lago di Cignana but also that the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust experienced significant post-exhumational deformation reworking and overprinting earlier structures.

  3. Logic Locking Using Hybrid CMOS and Emerging SiNW FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba Alasad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The outsourcing of integrated circuit (IC fabrication services to overseas manufacturing foundry has raised security and privacy concerns with regard to intellectual property (IP protection as well as the integrity maintenance of the fabricated chips. One way to protect ICs from malicious attacks is to encrypt and obfuscate the IP design by incorporating additional key gates, namely logic encryption or logic locking. The state-of-the-art logic encryption techniques certainly incur considerable performance overhead upon the genuine IP design. The focus of this paper is to leverage the unique property of emerging transistor technology on reducing the performance overhead as well as preserving the robustness of logic locking technique. We design the polymorphic logic gate using silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FETs to replace the conventional Exclusive-OR (XOR-based logic cone. We then evaluate the proposed technique based on security metric and performance overhead.

  4. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24953 Data at Laysan/Pioneer Bank in the NW Hawaiian Islands, 200110-200504 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24953 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  5. ACE and platelet aggregation inhibitors from Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge (host plant of Herba Cistanches) growing in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yachao; Liao, Jing; Tang, Yingzhan; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengyu; Ni, Hui; Wu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Jia, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge is a salt cedar that grows widespread in the desert mountains in Xinjiang. T. hohenackeri has not been investigated earlier, although there are many reports of phytochemical work on other Tamarix species. Materials and Methods: To find out natural angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitors, the bioactive extract (ethyl acetate [EtOAc] fraction) from the dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri were investigated. The active fraction was purified by repeated column chromatography, including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) (polyamide column) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated major constituents were tested for their anti-platelet aggregation activity. Results: Bioassay-directed separation of the EtOAc fraction of the 70% ethanol extract from the air-dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid lactone (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14). It was the first time to focus on screening bioactive constituents for this plant. The chemical structures were established on the basis of spectral data (ESI-MS and NMR). The results showed that the flavonoid compounds (7 and 8) and phenolic compounds (9, 10, 11, and 14) were potential ACE inhibitors. And the flavonoid compounds (5 and 7) showed significant anti-platelet aggregation activities. Conclusion: On the basis of the chemical and biological data, the material basis of ACE inhibitory activity for the active part was the phenolic constituents. However, the flavonoid compounds were responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation. The primary structure and activity relationship were also discussed respectively. PMID:24914275

  6. The ordered network structure and prediction summary for M ≥ 7 earthquakes in Xinjiang region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    M ≥ 7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a x k (k = 1, 2, 3), 11 ∝ 12 a, 41 ∝ 43 a, 18 ∝ 19 a, and 5 ∝ 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019-2020 and 2025-2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  7. The influence of environmental changes on local and regional vegetation patterns at Rieme (NW Belgium): implications for Final Palaeolithic habitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.A.A.; Verbruggen, F.; Engels, S.; Crombé, P.

    2012-01-01

    Late-glacial vegetation changes were studied at Rieme, NW Belgium. Human occupation of this cover sand area occurred from the Final Palaeolithic onwards. The research area is situated on the northern side of a large cover sand ridge in an undulating landscape with small ridges and depressions. The

  8. Composition of the metazooplankton community and structure across the continental shelf off tropical NW Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Maar, Marie

    This talk focuses on the distribution pattern and grazing impact of different functional metazooplankton groups in a tropical marine ecosystem. We studied the metazooplankton distribution across the continental shelf from eutrophic mangrove areas to the oligotrophic deep blue ocean off NW Australia....... Chlorophyll a concentrations were reduced by factor 10 along the transect including a shift towards small sized primary producers. The metazooplankton biomass followed the same pattern. Even though low in abundance, copepods were most frequent followed by larvaceans, doliolids other thaliacea and chaetognaths...

  9. Using SHRIMP zircon dating to unravel tectonothermal events in arc environments. The early Palaeozoic arc of NW Iberia revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abati, J.; Castineiras, P.G.; Arenas, R.; Fernandez-Suarez, J.; Barreiro, J.G.; Wooden, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Dating of zircon cores and rims from granulites developed in a shear zone provides insights into the complex relationship between magmatism and metamorphism in the deep roots of arc environments. The granulites belong to the uppermost allochthonous terrane of the NW Iberian Massif, which forms part of a Cambro-Ordovician magmatic arc developed in the peri-Gondwanan realm. The obtained zircon ages confirm that voluminous calc-alkaline magmatism peaked around 500Ma and was shortly followed by granulite facies metamorphism accompanied by deformation at c. 480Ma, giving a time framework for crustal heating, regional metamorphism, deformation and partial melting, the main processes that control the tectonothermal evolution of arc systems. Traces of this arc can be discontinuously followed in different massifs throughout the European Variscan Belt, and we propose that the uppermost allochthonous units of the NW Iberian Massif, together with the related terranes in Europe, constitute an independent and coherent terrane that drifted away from northern Gondwana prior to the Variscan collisional orogenesis. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. [Prospective cohort study on the occupational stress and mental disorder among the oilfield workers in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in 2013-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Shi, Haohua; Chen, Yulu; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-01-01

    To explore the relationship between occupational stress and psychological disorder among oilfield workers. In 2013, 1485 psychological normal oilfield workers using the stratified cluster sampling in Xinjiang Autonomous Region were investigated, and the follow-up was conducted in 2015. Occupational stress and mental health status were assessed by questionnaire for the occupation stress and self-rating symptom. The people with mental disorder was 556, the incidence rate was40. 29%. The level of occupational stress level low-high group( RR = 2. 689, 95% CI1. 342-5. 391) and middle-high group( RR = 2. 878, 95% CI 1. 205-6. 875) of mental disorder were higher than the low-low group, the level of Personal Strain Questionnaire low-middle group( RR = 2. 500, 95% CI 1. 700-3. 763) and low-high group( RR =3. 907, 95% CI 1. 955-7. 651) and middle-middle group( RR = 2. 141, 95% CI 1. 016-4. 512) of mental disorder were higher than low-low group. Without drinking( RR =0. 779, 95% CI = 0. 622-0. 976) was protective factor for mental disorders. Occupational stress and drinking are the risk factors of mental disorder, it is more practical to multiple measurement of the psychological disorder of occupational stress exposure than single one.

  11. Rapid determination of volatile constituents in safflower from Xinjiang and Henan by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and GC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Han Jia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The total volatile components were extracted from safflower by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS to provide scientific basis for the quality control of safflower. Five different solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetone were used and compared in terms of number of volatile components extracted and the peak areas of these components in TIC. The results showed that USE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extracting the volatile components from safflower. It also could be found that the number of components in the TIC of ethyl acetate extract was more than that in the TIC of other solvent ones. Meanwhile, the volatile components of safflower from Xinjiang Autonomous Region and Henan Province of China were different in chemical components and relative contents. It could be concluded that both the extraction solvents and geographical origin of safflower are responsible for these differences. The experimental results also indicated that USE/GC–MS is a simple, rapid and effective method to analyze the volatile oil components of safflower. Keywords: Safflower, Ultrasonic solvent extraction, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS

  12. Uranium-bearing francolites present in organic-rich limestones of NW Greece: a preliminary study using synchrotron radiation and fission track techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzifas, I. T.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Misaelides, P.

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation techniques (μ-XRF and μ-XANES) were applied to the study of organic-rich phosphatized limestones of NW Greece (Epirus). The results revealed uranium accumulation in areas of the material containing, among others, carbonate apatite (francolite) and organic matter. The UL3-edge...

  13. A 3D Magnetotelluric Perspective on the Galway Granite, Western Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas; Muller, Mark; Vozar, Jan; Feely, Martin; Hogg, Colin

    2017-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) and audi-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired at 75 locations across the exposed calc-alkaline Caledonian Galway granite batholith and surrounding country rocks into which the granite intruded. The Galway granite is located in western Ireland on the north shore of Galway bay, and has an ESE-WNW long axis. The granite is cut by trans-batholith faults, the Shannawona Fault Zone (SFZ) in the western part of the batholith, which has a NE-SW trend, and the Bearna Fault Zone (BFZ) in the eastern sector that has a NW-SE trend. Geobarometry data indicate that the central granite block between these fault zones has been uplifted, with the interpretation being that the granite in this central block is thinned. To the west of the SFZ, much of the Galway granite is below sea level, with the majority of the southern granite contact also beneath the sea in Galway bay. To the east of the batholith, the Carboniferous successions, consisting of mainly limestone with shale, overlie the basement rocks. The country rock to the north includes the metagabbro-gneiss suite, which itself intruded the deformed Dalradian successions that were deposited on the Laurentian margin of the Iapetus Ocean. The deformation of the Dalradian rocks, the intrusion of the metagabbro-gneiss suite and the intrusion of the Galway granite were major events in the protracted closure of the Iapetus Ocean. It is clear from geological mapping, from geobarometry and from the present submergence by the sea of a large part of the Galway granite, that inversion of MT data in this structurally complex geology is likely to require a 3D approach. We present a summary of 3D inversion of the Galway MT and AMT data. The study shows that the structure of the Galway granite is quite different from the pre-existing perspective. The central block, thought by its uplifting to be thinned, is shown to be the thickest part of the batholith. A geological model of granite intrusion is offered to explain this

  14. Carboniferous calcareous algae and their associations in the San Emiliano and Lois-Ciguera Formations (Prov. León, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rácz, L.

    1965-01-01

    This study of the calcareous algae in the limestone deposits of the two formations (San Emiliano and Lois-Ciguera) in NW Spain is based on field observations and microscopical study. It was possible in the field to divide almost all the limestone members into smaller units on the basis of physical,

  15. Environmental boundaries of marine cladoceran distributions in the NW Mediterranean: Implications for their expansion under global warming

    KAUST Repository

    Atienza, Dacha

    2016-08-10

    We studied the horizontal and vertical distributions of marine cladocerans across the Catalan Sea shelf (NW Mediterranean) in July and September 2003, and in June and July 2004. At the seasonal scale, Penilia avirostris appears first in June in the southern region, where temperatures are warmer, and its populations develop northward during the summer. Evadne-Pseudevadne did not show a clear pattern, likely because several species were pooled. In 2003 successive heat waves affecting southwestern Europe resulted in surface seawater temperatures about 2 °C higher than usual across the whole study region. These high temperatures were associated with much lower abundance of P. avirostris. Overall, the mesoscale distributions of cladocerans were associated with the presence of low salinity, productive and stratified waters of continental origin, and negatively linked to the intrusion of offshore waters. On the vertical scale P. avirostris was located within or above the thermocline, whereas Evadne-Pseudevadne was much shallower; no evidence of diel migration was detected in either group. Our study provides new insights regarding the environmental limits for marine cladocerans in the NW Mediterranean; in the particular case of P. avirostris that knowledge can define the likely boundaries of its new distributions as it expands poleward under climate change. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Environmental boundaries of marine cladoceran distributions in the NW Mediterranean: Implications for their expansion under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, Dacha; Sabatés, Ana; Isari, Stamatina; Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert

    2016-12-01

    We studied the horizontal and vertical distributions of marine cladocerans across the Catalan Sea shelf (NW Mediterranean) in July and September 2003, and in June and July 2004. At the seasonal scale, Penilia avirostris appears first in June in the southern region, where temperatures are warmer, and its populations develop northward during the summer. Evadne-Pseudevadne did not show a clear pattern, likely because several species were pooled. In 2003 successive heat waves affecting southwestern Europe resulted in surface seawater temperatures about 2 °C higher than usual across the whole study region. These high temperatures were associated with much lower abundance of P. avirostris. Overall, the mesoscale distributions of cladocerans were associated with the presence of low salinity, productive and stratified waters of continental origin, and negatively linked to the intrusion of offshore waters. On the vertical scale P. avirostris was located within or above the thermocline, whereas Evadne-Pseudevadne was much shallower; no evidence of diel migration was detected in either group. Our study provides new insights regarding the environmental limits for marine cladocerans in the NW Mediterranean; in the particular case of P. avirostris that knowledge can define the likely boundaries of its new distributions as it expands poleward under climate change.

  17. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan - NW Iran, constraints for Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S.; Yassaghi, A.

    2015-09-01

    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and crustal scale cross section of the NW Zagros collision zone evolved during convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates were conducted to constrain the spatial evolution of the belt oblique convergence since Late Cretaceous. Zagros orogeny in NW Iran consists of the Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and ophiolite zones as internal, and Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones as external parts. The Main Zagros Thrust is known as major structures of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of deformation are recognized in the external parts of Zagros. In the early stage, presence of dextrally deformed domains beside the reversely deformed domains in the Radiolarite zone as well as dextral-reverse faults in both Bisotoun and Radiolarite zones demonstrates partitioning of the dextral transpression. In the late stage, southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulted in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and pure thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage related to the late Cretaceous oblique obduction, and the second stage is resulted from Cenozoic collision. Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique faulting is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent) but also occurred in the more external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabia-Eurasia plates occurred in Zagros collision zone since the Late Cretaceous.

  18. The characteristics of the western extension of the Karakax fault in NW Tibet and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, C.; Liu, D.; Li, H.; Zheng, Y.; Pan, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Karakax strike-slip fault, located in northwest Tibet, is a mature deformation belt with a long-time evolutionary history, which is also active at present and plays an important role in the tectonic deformation of the northwestern Tibetan Plateau. Nowadays, most geologists consider that the Karakax fault is generally east-west striking along the Karakax river valley, and northwest striking until to the Tashkorgan in the Mazar area. However, an ENE-WSW fault was identified at the Mazar area, which sited at the bend of the Karakax fault, we named this fault as the Matar fault. Via the detailed geological survey, the similar geometry and kinematic characteristics were identified between the Karakax and Matar faults: (1) The similar fault zone scale(Karakax:90 300m; Matar:100 220m); (2) The similar preferred orientation (nearly EW) of the stretching lineations and foliations; (3) All the fault planes of the both faults have a high dip angle and is nearly EW striking; (4) Lots of ductile deformations, such as σ-type quartz rotational mortar, S-C fabric, symmetric drag fold and so on, indicated that the Matar fault is a right-lateral strike-slip and thrust fault during the early ductile deformation stage; (5) the deluvium, sheared by Matar fault, indicated that the Matar fault has already transformed into a left-lateral strike-slip fault during the later brittle deformation stage. All the above showed that the Matar fault has a similar geometry and kinematic characteristics with the Karakax fault, and the former is the probable the western extension of the latter. Moreover, the form of the Karakax-Matar fault may had an impact to the geomorphology of the west Kunlun-Pamir area, such as the strike of the moutains and faults. considering the age of west Kunlun mountains uplifting and Karakax fault activating, we regard that the Matar fault (the westward extension of Karakax fault) may contributes much in forming the modern geomorphology features of the west Kunlun

  19. Report on the site surveys in fiscal 1999 on the regional situations such as energy consumption efficiency improvement. The north-western part of China; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa hokokusho. Chugoku seihokubu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the site surveys in fiscal 1999 on the energy consumption efficiency improvement in the north-western part of China. Although blessed with affluent natural resources, the regional development is delayed because of geographical restrictions and harsh climate conditions. Power generation facilities include hydroelectric power plants with output of 7.81 million kW, thermal power plants with 13.89 million kW, and power wind power plants with 70 thousand kW. The demand is estimated to increase by 4.6% annually in average. Thermal power plants are those made by the former Soviet Union, having poor power generation efficiency, which is scheduled to be improved by facility modification. Automation is also behind the times. These situations have brought about low reliability, delay in building electric power network in agricultural districts, and transmission wire loss (reducing 8.1% loss to 6% is planned). The electric power charge systems also have various problems. Environmental measures are also an issue. Dissolution of energy shortage as a result of developing the north-western area can be said a key to the future development of China. Xinjiang Electric Power Company is considering wind power generation as the center of new energy utilization. Representative facilities utilize affluent wind power available in the topography of the Tenzan mountain range in the suburb of Urumqi, the facilities being made of Denmark. Photovoltaic power generation is exiguous in realizability for the time being in terms of cost. Expectation is placed on fuel cells. (NEDO)

  20. Listwaenite in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange (Xinjiang, China): A genetic model based on petrology, U-Pb chronology and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2018-03-01

    Listwaenite lenses in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange (Xinjiang, China) were formed via reactions between serpentinite and metasomatic fluids. First, serpentinite changed into talc schist via the reaction of serpentine + CO2 → talc + magnesite + H2O. Second, talc schist changed into listwaenite via the reaction of talc + CO2 → magnesite + quartz + H2O. Magnetite was progressively destroyed during transformation from serpentinite to talc schist, and completely consumed in listwaenite. Zircon crystals 30-100 μm long, disseminating in talc schist, undeformed listwaenite and mylonitized listwaenite, coexist with talc, quartz and magnesite, while micron-sized zircon grains (ages (302.9 ± 6.8 Ma, 299.7 ± 5.5 Ma and 296.5 ± 3.5 Ma), and are thought to represent the age of formation of the talc schist and listwaenite. These ages are indistinguishable within errors and suggest a rapid transformation from talc schist to listwaenite. Some zircon rims in samples of the undeformed listwaenite and mylonitized listwaenite give much younger apparent U-Pb ages (280-277 Ma), which could be interpreted as a recrystallization age reflecting late-stage shearing in the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange.

  1. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gröger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  2. Factors influencing Chinese male's willingness to undergo circumcision: a cross-sectional study in western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore the acceptability of MC among the Chinese and to identify factors associated with circumcision preference. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2009 and December 2010. We interviewed 2,219 male community participants, from three high HIV prevalence provinces in western China. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC knowledge, willingness to accept MC, reasons to accept or refuse MC, and sexual behaviors and health. For those who refused MC, a health education intervention providing information on the benefits of circumcision was conducted. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC. RESULTS: Of the respondents (n = 2,219, 44.6% (989/2,219 reported they would accept MC for the following reasons: promotion of female partners' hygiene (60.3%, redundant foreskin (59.4%, prevention of penile cancer (50.2%, enhanced sexual pleasure (41.4%, and protection against HIV and STDs (34.2%. The multivariable logistic regression showed that five factors were associated with MC willingness: long foreskin (OR = 15.98, residing in Xinjiang province (OR = 3.69, being younger than 25 (OR = 1.60, knowing hazards of redundant foreskin (OR = 1.78, and having a friend who underwent circumcision (OR = 1.36. CONCLUSION: The acceptability of male circumcision was high among the general population in China. Our study elucidates the factors associated with circumcision preference and suggests that more health education campaigns about positive health effects are necessary to increase the MC rate in China.

  3. Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository and the progress in site characterization at the Beishan potential site in NW China's Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Zhangru; Chen Weiming; Wang Wenguang

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository is summarized in this paper. The distribution and characteristics of granite, tuff, clay stone, salt and loess in China are described, while maps showing the distribution of host rocks are presented. Because of the wide distribution, large scale, good heat conductivity and suitable mechanical properties, granite is considered as the most potential host rock. Some granite bodies distributed in NW China, SW China, South China and Inner Mongolia have been selected as potential areas. Detailed site characterization at Beishan area, Gansu Province NW China is in progress

  4. Quantifying Structural and Compositional Changes in Forest Cover in NW Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2012-12-01

    NW Yunnan, China is a region renowned for high levels of biodiversity, endemism and genetically distinct refugial plant populations. It is also a focal area for China's national reforestation efforts like the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), intended to control erosion in the Upper Yangtze watershed. As part of a larger project to investigate the role of reforestation programs in facilitating the emergence of increasingly species-rich forest communities on a previously degraded and depauperate land mosaic in montane SW China, this study uses a series of Landsat TM images to quantify the spatial pattern and rate of structural and compositional change in forests recovering from medium to large-scale disturbances in the area over the past 25 years. Beyond the fundamental need to assess the outcomes of one of the world's largest reforestation programs, this research offers approaches to confronting two critical methodological issues: (1) techniques for characterizing subtle changes in the nature of vegetation cover, and (2) reducing change detection uncertainty due to persistent cloud cover and shadow. To address difficulties in accurately assessing the structure and composition of vegetative regrowth, a biophysical model was parameterized with over 300 ground-truthed canopy cover assessment points to determine pattern and rate of long-term vegetation changes. To combat pervasive shadow and cloud cover, an interactive generalized additive model (GAM) model based on topographic and spatial predictors was used to overcome some of the constraints of satellite image analysis in Himalayan regions characterized by extreme topography and extensive cloud cover during the summer monsoon. The change detection is assessed for accuracy using ground-truthed observations in a variety of forest cover types and topographic positions. Results indicate effectiveness in reducing the areal extent of unclassified regions and increasing total change detection accuracy. In addition

  5. Provenance analysis of Roman stone artefacts from sedimentary rocks from the archaeological site near Mošnje, NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Miletić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the macroscopic and microfacies characterisation of Roman stone artefacts excavated in 2006 from a Roman villa rustica near Mošnje (NW Slovenia with the aim of defiing their provenance. A total of 28 representative fids (querns, mortars, whetstones, tooled and rounded stones, a fragment of stone slab, mosaic tesserae and two architectural elements - one with a relief made of clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks were examined. Comparison was made with rock samples taken from quarries and gravel bars close to the archaeological site, as well as from larger distance to the site. The majority of artefact sampled is composed of Upper Palaeozoic quartz sandstones, which are found as pebbles in gravel bars close to the archaeological site; while 2 samples were from Quaternary coarse grained clastic rocks which can be found in local glacio-flvial sediments. Other fids were made of four different Mesozoic shallow-water limestones which outcrop in different areas of Central and SW Slovenia. The nearest Lower Jurassic biopelmicritic limestones are found at the western periphery of Ljubljana in Podutik. Cretaceous miliolid limestones and biocalcarenitic limestones with rudists are common in the successions of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform in SW Slovenia (for example, on the Trieste-Komen Plateau, NE Italy and SW Croatia. This indicates that the limestones for architectural elements, stone mortars and tesserae were brought to Mošnje from distant locations. Smaller stone tools are likely to have been made at the location of the archaeological site from material gathered locally, mostly pebbles from clastic rocks, which were accessible and suitable for tooling.

  6. Genetic Structure and Eco-Geographical Differentiation of Wild Sheep Fescue (Festuca ovina L. in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glaciation and mountain orogeny have generated new ecologic opportunities for plants, favoring an increase in the speciation rate. Moreover, they also act as corridors or barriers for plant lineages and populations. High genetic diversity ensures that species are able to survive and adapt. Gene flow is one of the most important determinants of the genetic diversity and structure of out-crossed species, and it is easily affected by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of an alpine species, Festuca ovina L., in Xinjiang, China. A total of 100 individuals from 10 populations were analyzed using six amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP primer pairs. A total of 583 clear bands were generated, of which 392 were polymorphic; thus, the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB was 67.24%. The total and average genetic diversities were 0.2722 and 0.2006 (0.1686–0.2225, respectively. The unweighted group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA tree, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA and Structure analyses revealed that these populations or individuals could be clustered into two groups. The analysis of molecular variance analysis (AMOVA suggested that most of the genetic variance existed within a population, and the genetic differentiation (Fst among populations was 20.71%. The Shannon differentiation coefficient (G’st among populations was 0.2350. Limited gene flow (Nm = 0.9571 was detected across all sampling sites. The Fst and Nm presented at different levels under the genetic barriers due to fragmentation. The population genetic diversity was significant relative to environmental factors such as temperature, altitude and precipitation.

  7. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  8. 135-Day Interventions of Yam Dioscorin and the Dipeptide Asn-Trp (NW) To Reduce Weight Gains and Improve Impaired Glucose Tolerances in High-Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang-Cheng; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Liang, Hong-Jen; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2018-01-24

    The C57BL/6J mice were fed a 135-day normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) without, or concurrent with, a single yam dioscorin (80 mg/kg) or dipeptide NW (40 mg/kg) intervention every day. The final body weights (g) of mice were 26.1 ± 1.4, 34.97 ± 2.1, 31.75 ± 2.6, and 31.66 ± 3.1, respectively, for normal diet-fed, HFD-fed, dioscorin-intervened, and NW-intervened group. The mice in both intervened groups showed similar less weight gains and had significant differences (P index of mice with dioscorin interventions showed significantly lower contents in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, and NW interventions showed significantly lower total triglyceride contents compared to those of the HFD group (P glucose levels by oral glucose tolerance tests and both showed significant differences (P glucose tolerance controls, which require further clinical trial investigations.

  9. Reconnaissance of promising areas for sandstone type uranium deposits in the Urmia-Naqadeh-Mahabad basin, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hezareh

    2018-04-01

    northern part of the basin. At this basin Ni, Co, Cu and V are reported but it is not related to mineralization. 2. Ghoma – Bezrgah (36 Km2. The East to the West trend is situated at the western part of the basin. At this basin Pb, As, Sn, Zn and Au are reported which can be related to skarn mineralization. 3. Piram – Shilan (342 Km2. At this basin Pb, Zn, As and Mo are reported which contain source rocks of uranium mineralization but there is no evidence of host rock and mineralization. 4. Pirestan1 (28 Km2. According to geological data a granitic body which can be the source of uranium mineralization and cretaceous volcanic rock outcropped. The fault system is weak by the north to the south trend. The anomalies of Pb, Mo, As and Sn are reported but there is no evidence of mineralization. 5. Kooh-e sabz poosh (34 Km2. Based on geological data half of the area is covered by granodioritic body which can be the source of uranium mineralization. The fault system has two trends (NE-SW and N-S. The anomalies of V, As, Mo and Co are reported but there is no evidence of mineralization. 6. Pirestan2 ((83 Km2. According to geological data a granitic and granodioritic body can be the source of uranium mineralization. The anomalies of Mo, Sn, Co, As and Zn are reported but there is no evidence of mineralization. 7. Chahar Taq (36 Km2. The fault system has the NE to SW trend and trusted mechanism. The anomalies of Zn, Ni and Au are reported but there is no evidence of mineralization. 8. Zaveh Kooh (111 Km2. The rock units have the NW to SE trend according to the Sanadaj-Sirjan trend. The anomalies of Pb, As, Sn, Mo, Ti, Cu, Ni and Au are reported but there is no evidence of uranium mineralization but there is some evidence of orogenic gold mineralization. 9. Saqqez-Baneh (465 Km2. The rock units have the NW to SE trend according to the Sanadaj-Sirjan trend. The anomalies of Co, Ti, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mo, Sn, Ag, Au and As are reported but there is no evidence of uranium

  10. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Micha; Steck, Albrecht; Carter, Andrew; Cosca, Michael; Epard, Jean-Luc; Hunziker, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    New fission track and Ar/Ar geochronological data provide time constraints on the exhumation history of the Himalayan nappes in the Mandi (Beas valley) — Tso Morari transect of the NW Indian Himalaya. Results from this and previous studies suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappes were emplaced by detachment from the underthrusted upper Indian crust by 55 Ma and metamorphosed by ca. 48–40 Ma. The nappe stack was subsequently exhumed to shallow upper crustal depths (

  11. A checklist of the flora of Shanjan protected area, East Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Taheri, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The flora of protected Shanjan rangeland in Shabestar district, Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran was studied using a 1 m × 1 m quadrate in spring and summer 2011. The climate of this area is cold and dry. In this area 94 plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation. The families in the area are Amaryllidaceae, Boraginaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophllaceae, Cistaceae, Compositea, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, Dipesaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Hypericaceae, Linaceae, Melvaceae, Orobachaceae, Papaveraceae, Paronychiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polygolaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Valerianacea. Floristic composition is Irano-Turanian elements. Detailed analysis showed that Biennial plants were 3.19%, Annual 41.49% and Perennial 55.32%.

  12. PF-AR NW14, a new time-resolved diffraction/scattering beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Shunsuke; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Tazaki, Ryoko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Itatani, Jiro; Daimon, Masahiro; Mori, Takeharu; Sawa, Hiroshi; Kawata, Hiroshi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2005-01-01

    NW14 is a new insertion device beamline at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), which is a unique ring with full-time single-bunched operation, aiming for timeresolved x-ray diffraction/scattering and XAFS experiments. The primary scientific goal of this beamline is to observe the ultrafast dynamics of condensed matter systems such as organic and inorganic crystals, biological systems and liquids triggered by optical pulses. With the large photon fluxes derived from the undulator, it should become possible to take a snapshoot an atomic-scale image of the electron density distribution. By combining a series of images it is possible to produce a movie of the photo-induced dynamics with 50-ps resolution. The construction of the beamline is being funded by the ERATO Koshihara Non-equilibrium Dynamics Project of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), and the beamline will be operational from autumn 2005.

  13. PF-AR NW14, a new time-resolved diffraction/scattering beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Shunsuke; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Tazaki, Ryoko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Itatani, Jiro; Daimon, Masahiro; Mori, Takeharu; Sawa, Hiroshi; Kawata, Hiroshi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2005-01-01

    NW14 is a new insertion device beamline at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), which is a unique ring with full-time single-bunched operation, aiming for timeresolved x-ray diffraction/scattering and XAFS experiments. The primary scientific goal of this beamline is to observe the ultrafast dynamics of condensed matter systems such as organic and inorganic crystals, biological systems and liquids triggered by optical pulses. With the large photon fluxes derived from the undulator, it should become possible to take a snapshoot an atomic-scale image of the electron density distribution. By combining a series of images it is possible to produce a movie of the photo-induced dynamics with 50-ps resolution. The construction of the beamline is being funded by the ERATO Koshihara Non-equilibrium Dynamics Project of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), and the beamline will be operational from autumn 2005

  14. Analysis of the Construction of Ecological Civilization in the Western Ethnic Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Ecological civilization is a mode of civilization which is constructed on the concept of multiple-wins, such as economic benefit, social benefit and environmental benefit, etc. It requires that a harmonious relationship between man and nature permeate various aspects of civilization, such as material civilization, spiritual civilization, and political civilization, forming an ecological mode for production, living, consumption, and other behaviors. The theories and practices of eco ̄logical civilization both at home and abroad, as well as the strategic planning for the construction of ecological civilization in China, have constituted important theoretical and practical guidelines for the construction of ecological civilization in the western ethnic areas of China. Constructing ecological civilization in the western ethnic areas has important theoretical and practical significance. Compared with the eastern part of China or the whole country, the level of e ̄conomic and social development in the western eth ̄nic areas still lags behind; energy consumption is generally high , and the number of national key ecologically functional areas is large. Furthermore, these areas face a daunting task for their environ ̄mental protection and energy saving. In addition, the most concentrated areas of desertification in China are found in the western ethnic areas, espe ̄cially Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Qing ̄hai. Therefore, the construction of ecological civi ̄lization in the western ethnic areas has an impor ̄tant role for the sustainable development of the e ̄conomy and society, ecological security, energy saving and emission reduction, and the prevention of land desertification. Generally speaking, the western ethnic areas actively participate in the national demonstration areas of the construction of ecological civilization, and constantly improve the level of ecological civi ̄lization construction. However, their overall level is low, and the

  15. Cloud amount/frequency, TRANSMISSIVITY and other data from OCEANUS in the NW Atlantic from 1988-07-23 to 1988-08-27 (NODC Accession 9300059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W). Data was collected from Ship OCEANUS. The data was collected...

  16. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from ENDEAVOR in the NW Atlantic from 1990-06-24 to 1990-07-07 (NODC Accession 9300107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W). Data was collected from Ship ENDEAVOR cruise 214. The data...

  17. Coeval gravity-driven and thick-skinned extensional tectonics in the mid-Cretaceous of the western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodego, Arantxa; Agirrezabala, Luis M.

    2010-05-01

    The Mesozoic Basque-Cantabrian Basin in the western Pyrenees constitutes a peri-cratonic basin originated by rifting related to the Cretaceous opening of the Bay of Biscay. During the mid-Cretaceous the basin experienced important extensional/transtensional tectonics, which controlled the deposition of thick sedimentary successions. Many extensional structures have been documented in the basin but their thin-skinned/thick-skinned character is an unresolved question. In this field-based study, we characterize contemporaneous thin-skinned and thick-skinned deformations that took place during the filling of the mid-Cretaceous Lasarte sub-basin, located in the northeastern margin of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (western Pyrenees). Most of these extensional structures and associated growth strata are preserved and allow us to characterize and date different deformation phases. Moreover, verticalization and overturning of the successions during Tertiary compression allow mapping the geometry of the extensional structures at depth. The Lasarte sub-basin constitutes a triangular sag bordered by three major basement-involved faults, which trend N, E and NE, respectively. These trends, common in the Variscan fault pattern of Pyrenees, suggest that they are old faults reactivated during the mid-Cretaceous extension. Stratigraphy of the area shows very thin to absent Aptian-Albian (and older) deposits above the upward border blocks, whereas on the downward blocks (sub-basin interior) contemporaneous thick successions were deposited (up to 1500 m). The sub-basin fill is composed of different sedimentary systems (from alluvial to siliciclastic and carbonate platforms) affected by syndepositional extensional faults (and related folds). These faults die out in a southwestward dipping (~4°) detachment layer composed of Triassic evaporites and clays. A NE-SW cross-section of the sub-basin shows NW- to N-trending six planar and two listric extensional faults and associated folds

  18. The ichthyoplankton assemblage and the environmental variables off the NW and N Iberian Peninsula coasts, in early spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, G.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Cabal, J.

    2009-05-01

    Ichthyoplankton and mesozooplankton were sampled and fluorescence and physical environmental variables were measured off the NW and N Iberian Peninsula coasts, during April 2005. A total of 51 species of fish larvae, belonging to 26 families, were recorded. Sardina pilchardus, with 43.8% and 58.7% of the total fish egg and larval catches, respectively, dominated the ichthyoplankton assemblage. The study area was divided by a cross-shelf frontal structure into two hydrographic regions that coincided with the Atlantic and Cantabrian geographic regions. Ichthyoplankton abundance was higher in the Cantabrian region while larval diversity was higher in the Atlantic region. This was the main alongshore variability in the structure of the larval fish assemblage. Nevertheless, the stronger variability, related with the presence of a shelf-slope front, was found in the central-eastern Cantabrian region where two major larval fish assemblages, an "outer" and a "coastal", were distinguished. The Atlantic region, where the shelf-slope front was not found, was inhabited by a single larval fish assemblage. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that, off the NW and N Iberian Peninsula coasts, the horizontal distribution of larval fish species in early spring may be explained by a limited number of environmental variables. Of these, the most important were the physical variables depth and sea surface temperature.

  19. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from COLUMBUS ISELIN in the NW Atlantic from 1989-08-04 to 1989-08-13 (NODC Accession 9100040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data were collected as part of Amazon Shelf Sediment Study (AMASSEDS) project. Data was collected from NW Atlantic...

  20. Signatures and significance of aeolian, fluvial, bacterial and diagenetic magnetic mineral fractions in Late Quaternary marine sediments off Gambia, NW Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Just, A.; Dekkers, M.J.; Dobeneck, T. von; Hoesel, A. van; Bickert, T.

    Two gravity cores retrieved off NW Africa at the border of arid and subtropical environments (GeoB 13602–1 and GeoB 13601–4) were analyzed to extract records of Late Quaternary climate change and sediment export. We apply end-member (EM) unmixing to 350 acquisition curves of isothermal remanent

  1. Ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in the North-Western Ligurian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; La Rocca, Arianna; Terrizzano, Luca; Dente, Fulvio; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio

    2014-08-08

    The ethnobotany of European alpine regions is much diversified and scarcely investigated. These regions retain a well-developed heritage culture and botanical traditional knowledge, favored by the isolated montane location. We carried out a study of therapeutic and traditional uses of native plants of a poorly explored area of the Western Italian Alps in the Ligurian region (NW Italy). The area has been the object of human activities since prehistoric ages, and an obliged crossroad for people moving across Provence, Liguria and Piemonte. The investigation was conducted in the upper Tanarello and Arroscia Valleys by using semi-structured, open interviews. Data were summarized by different indices--Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Value Index (CV), Ethnobotanicity Index (EI) and Informant Consensus Factor (Fic). A group of 65 informants were interviewed, yielding an inventory of 199 botanical taxa from 64 families, and a total of 2661 citations. A total of 13 categories of use were found, of which the most frequent ones were medicinal and food. In addition, 12 main medicinal subcategories were recorded. Botanicals were mainly used to treat digestive system, respiratory system, and the skin. A relevant role was played by plants with digestive and remineralizing properties. On the basis of quantitative analysis (RFC and CV indices) among the 30 most relevant plants are included rare and/or protected species, such as Achillea ligustica, Arnica montana, Gentiana ligustica, Gentiana lutea, and Achillea erba-rotta. An exhaustive prospect of the ethnobotanical knowledge in North-Western Ligurian Alps has been achieved through the recording of a large number of data. About 50% of the recorded uses have survived in the area. A great traditional importance is retained by species such as Artemisia absinthium, Lavandula angustifolia and Arnica montana which were formerly cultivated and marketed for their therapeutic virtues. A substantial role is also attributable

  2. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from OCEANUS in the NW Atlantic from 1989-03-01 to 1989-03-19 (NODC Accession 9100165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Trans-Atlantic Section 8 Bottle data in this accession was collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) in March 1989 using ship OCEANUS. The data was submitted by...

  3. Repeated granitoid intrusions during the Neoproterozoic along the western boundary of the Saharan metacraton, Eastern Hoggar, Tuareg shield, Algeria: An AMS and U-Pb zircon age study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B.; Liégeois, J. P.; Nouar, O.; Derder, M. E. M.; Bayou, B.; Bruguier, O.; Ouabadi, A.; Belhai, D.; Amenna, M.; Hemmi, A.; Ayache, M.

    2009-09-01

    The N-S oriented Raghane shear zone (8°30') delineates the western boundary of the Saharan metacraton and is, with the 4°50' shear zone, the most important shear zone in the Tuareg shield. It can be followed on 1000 km in the basement from southern Aïr, Niger to NE Hoggar, Algeria. Large subhorizontal movements have occurred during the Pan-African orogeny and several groups of granitoids intruded during the Neoproterozoic. We report U-Pb zircon datings (laser ICP-MS) showing that three magmatic suites of granitoids emplaced close to the Raghane shear zone at c. 790 Ma, c. 590 and c. 550 Ma. A comprehensive and detailed (158 sites, more than 1000 cores) magnetic fabric study was performed on 8 plutons belonging to the three magmatic suites and distributed on 200 km along the Raghane shear zone. The main minerals in all the target plutons do not show visible preferential magmatic orientation except in narrow shear zones. The AMS study shows that all plutons have a magnetic lineation and foliation compatible with the deformed zones that are zones deformed lately in post-solidus conditions. These structures are related to the nearby mega-shear zones, the Raghane shear zone for most of them. The old c. 793 Ma Touffok granite preserved locally its original structures. The magnetic structures of the c. 593 Ma Ohergehem pluton, intruded in the Aouzegueur terrane, are related to thrust structures generated by the Raghane shear zone while it is not the case of the contemporaneous plutons in the Assodé-Issalane terrane whose structures are only related to the subvertical shear zones. Finally, the c. 550 Ma granite group has magnetic structure related to the N-S oriented Raghane shear zone and its associated NNE-SSW structures when close to them, but NW-SE oriented when further. These NW-SE oriented structures appear to be characteristic of the late Neoproterozoic evolution of the Saharan metacraton and are in relation to the convergence with the Murzuq craton. This

  4. BACTERIA - BACTERIAL DENSITY, SALINITY and other data from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the NW Pacific from 1989-10-16 to 1990-07-07 (NODC Accession 9200078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession was collected in NW Pacific (limit-180) as part of Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA). The marine biochemistry and bathythermograph...

  5. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from WEATHERBIRD II in the NW Atlantic from 1988-10-26 to 1988-12-28 (NODC Accession 9300166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data from HYDROSTATION 'S' were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W). Data was collected from Ship WEATHERBIRD. The...

  6. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  7. Some aspects of the development of NW-German salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaritz, W.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the development of salt structures that may be of some importance to the safety of a final disposal site for radioactive waste are salt ascent and salt dissolution at the surface. The geological history of the salt domes is described in terms of the dissolution of the salt at the dome surface. In many cases it can be distinguished whether dissolution was caused by the ascent of the salt into strata containing groundwater by diapirism or by epeirogenic uplift or both. The salt domes of Wesendorf, Heide, and Marne are used as examples in a discussion of the transition from dissolution to the deposition of a cover of impermeable sediments. Moreover, the development of the Gorleben salt dome is described. The author's studies show the average rate of uplift of the NW-German salt domes in the diapiric stage to have ranged from a little less than 0.1 to about 0.5 mm per year. For salt domes in later stages, the rate of uplift is several hundredths of a millimeter per year at most. (orig.) [de

  8. Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Mathur, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Sungun porphyry copper deposit (PCD) is located in NW Iran, neighbouring several other PCDs and prospects in the region and the Lesser Caucasus (south Armenia). It lies on the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), which formed through the northeast-ward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Central Iranian plate during late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic [1], and hosts the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran. The Sungun PCD is the second largest deposit in Iran with ore reserves of about 850 Mt at 0.62 wt% Cu and 0.01 wt% Mo and probable reserves over 1Gt. The monzonitic to quartz monzonitic porphyry stock intruded the upper Cretaceous carbonates and Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks. It produced a skarn-type mineralization at its contact zone with the carbonate rocks, as well as vast hydrothermal alteration zones and porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization. The zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry stock is about 22.5±0.4 to 20.1±0.4 Ma [2]. Re-Os dating of four molybdenite separates from this PCD shows ages ranging between 22.9±0.2 to 21.7±0.2 Ma, with an average of 22.57±0.2 Ma, corresponding to the early Miocene (Aquitanian). These ages indicate that both the porphyry stock and the Cu-Mo mineralization are post-collisional events, similar to many other deposits and prospects in NW and central Iran and south Armenia, and the mineralization occurred shortly after the emplacement of the host stock, corresponding better to the ages obtained from the marginal parts of the stock. Magmatism and mineralization in Sungun coincides with the third metallogenic epoch in the Lesser Caucasus (Eocene to Miocene; [3]), though it is considerably younger than all of the dated PCDs and prospects in the south Armenia. It also postdates Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Saheb Divan (35 Ma), Qaradagh batholith (31.22±0.28 to 25.19±0.19 Ma), as well as Haft Cheshmeh PCD (28.18±0.42 to 27.05±0.37 Ma) in NW Iran, while it seems to be coeval with the Kighal

  9. PHYTOPLANKTON - WET WEIGHT and Other Data from WEATHERBIRD and Other Platforms From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) and Others from 19881020 to 19910913 (NODC Accession 9300165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nansen bottle/ primary productivity/ pigment, sediment trap; and Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data were collected in North Atlantic Ocean, NW...

  10. Cloud amount/frequency, TRANSMISSIVITY and other data from CAPE HENLOPEN in the NW Atlantic from 1992-04-29 to 1992-05-06 (NODC Accession 9200251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 52 stations as part of Physical Oceanography Field...

  11. Nuclear energy in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, M.; Walker, W.

    1984-01-01

    This is an overview of nuclear energy in Western Europe, as seen by two Western Europeans, attempting to place the topic into the context not only of energy supply but also of industrial relations, institutional structure, and sociocultural factors. Although its main focus is Western Europe, it is sometimes necessary to glance at the wider context, in particular the industrial relations with the United States and Japan. Export markets are also considered, in particular, in the Pacific. The paper does not, however, deal with nonproliferation policies and the possible difference of opinion within Western Europe and between Western Europe and other regions over this topic. (author)

  12. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  13. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khalil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  14. Early Silurian to Early Carboniferous ridge subduction in NW Junggar: Evidence from geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data on alkali granites and adakites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Santosh, M.; Liu, Luofu; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Dongdong

    2018-02-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) evolved through a long-lived orogeny involving multiple episodes of subduction and accretion marking a major phase of continental growth during the Paleozoic. The northern part of the Western Junggar region (NW Junggar) offers a window into these processes, particularly to constrain the timing of closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Here we report geochemical, geochronological, and isotopic data from K-feldspar granites and adakitic rocks from the NW Junggar region. Zircon U-Pb ages suggest that the granites were emplaced during Early Silurian to the Early Carboniferous (434-328 Ma). The granites show geochemical characteristics similar to those of A-type granites, with high SiO2 (71.13-76.72 wt%), Na2O + K2O (8.00-9.59 wt%), and Al2O3 (12.28-14.08 wt%), but depleted Sr, Nb, Ta and Eu. They display moderate to high positive εNd(t) and εHf(t) values (4.26-8.21 and 7.69-14.60, respectively) and young Nd and Hf model ages (T2DM-Nd = 489-740 Ma and T2DM-Hf = 471-845 Ma), suggesting magma derivation through partial melting of lower crust in the Boshchekul-Chingiz and Zharma-Saur arcs. The adakites are characterized by high Sr content (406.5-751.6 ppm), and low Y (13.8-16.4 ppm) and Yb (1.5-1.8 ppm) content, yielding relatively high Sr/Y ratios (25.38-49.41) similar to those of modern adakites. They have high positive εNd(t) and εHf(t) values (7.85-8.25 and 13.23-15.97, respectively) and young Nd and Hf model ages (T2DM-Nd = 429-535 Ma and T2DM-Hf = 355-550 Ma), indicating that their source magmas were likely derived from partial melting of the oceanic crust beneath the Boshchekul-Chingiz arc. The petrogenesis and distribution of the A-type granites and adakites, as well as the tectonic architecture of the region, suggest that a ridge subduction event might have occurred during the Early Silurian to Early Carboniferous. In combination with previous studies in the Chinese Altai, we suggest a two-sided ridge subduction model for the

  15. Seismic anisotropy beneath NW Himalaya using SKS and SKKS Splitting measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, S.; Kumar, S.; Mohanty, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    Seventy six teleseismic earthquakes comprising of both SKS and SKKS were analysed for the NW Himalaya to infer the characteristics of the shear wave splitting parameters in the region. The anisotropy results obtained from the analysis shows upper mantle anisotropy in the study area with the fast axis aligned along a NNE-SSW direction and the average delay times observed at the station ranges from a minimum of 0.3s to a maximum of 1.7s for SKS and SKKS phases. These splitting results obtained for this area shows a parallel trend with motion of the India plate as estimated from NUVEL 1A model in contradiction to the orthogonal E-W trend observed for the NE Himalaya observed at the collision front. The seismic anisotropy observed in this region demarcates a shallow source of anisotropy that may be due to the strain flow in the upper mantle which may be the causative source of the anisotropy in the region.

  16. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from CAPE HATTERAS in the NW Atlantic from 1993-07-14 to 1993-07-18 (NODC Accession 9600081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of Ocean Margins Program. Data was collected from...

  17. Cloud amount/frequency, SALINITY and other data from unknown platforms in the NW Atlantic from 1964-09-24 to 1965-07-30 (NODC Accession 9600040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Serial data in this accession was collected from NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of Military Oceanographic Survey (MILOC). The data was collected between...

  18. EFFLUENT - DISCHARGE DESCRIPTION and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM and Other Platforms From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 19800529 to 19840609 (NODC Accession 8600070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effluent discharge was studied from fixed platform and other platforms from NW Atlantic (limit-40 w) for a period of three years. The trace metal concentrations were...

  19. Land cover of oases and forest in XinJiang, China retrieved from ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhe, Aosier; Tsuchiya, K.; Kaneko, M.; Ohtaishi, N.; Halik, Mahmut

    ASTER aboard NASA’s satellite Terra is a high-resolution multispectral radiometer of 14 bands. The spatial resolution is 15 m in VNIR, 30 m in SWIR and 90 m in TIR spectra, respectively. With the data observed with ASTER, the land cover classification is produced for the Tarim Diversifolious Poplar Protection Area along the Tarim River in the northern Tarim Basin (Taklamakan Desert) in XinJiang, China. The classification of the vegetation (plants) in the arid and semiarid regions using remote-sensing technology is very difficult. Because the cause has low vegetable cover density and the influence of reflection from background soil is large. ASTER data are effective in studying the spectrum characteristics of land cover in arid and semiarid regions. The sensor has several bands in the shortwave infrared wavelength region that is designed for exploration of earth resources and study of the arid and semiarid region natural environment. However, we are not clear combination of which band is the most effective in research of the arid region like the Taklamakan desert in the data of 14 bands of ASTER. The optimum index factor (OIF), based on total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, is a statistical approach to rank all possible three-band combinations. In the process of analyzing the data, the pixel sizes of all the data are converted (layer stacking and re-sampling) into consistent same size of 15 m. The three-band composite with the largest OIF value will have most information (as measured by variance) with the least amount of duplication (as measured by correlation). We used the OIF technique to rank all three-band combinations of ASTER original 14-band data over Tarim River Poplar Protection Area. Our study indicates that RGB color overlay using atmospheric corrected ASTER original bands 2, 3 (VNIR), and 6 (SWIR) has the highest OIF. When NDVI is considered as one ASTER band, highest OIF will have by carrying out bands 3 (VNIR), 4

  20. The initial superposition of oceanic and continental units in the southern Western Alps: constraints on geometrical restoration and kinematics of the continental subduction wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Matthews, Steve; Malusa, Marco; Jouvent, Marine

    2017-04-01

    older in the oceanic rocks (Malusà et al. 2015). Finally, further SE, the Voltri massif shows a huge volume of serpentinized mantle which locally overlies continental basement (strongly metamorphosed), and is interpreted as an exhumed remnant of the subduction channel (Federico et al., 2007). In all these localities the transport directions during initial pulses of stacking were consistently oriented generally towards the NW to N, taking into account the subsequent Oligocene and younger collision-related deformation (complex folds, thrusts, backfolds and backthrusts, and block-rotations). It is thus possible to attempt reconstructing an early stage continental subduction wedge involving these different elements from the subduction channel to the most frontal part of the accretionary complex. However, this early Alpine orogen which was active throughout the Eocene is interpreted to have propagated generally towards the NW to N, prior to subsequent pulses of more westerly directed deformation from the Oligocene onwards within the southern part of the Western Alps arc. It is therefore essential to continually improve high-resolution 3D geophysical imaging to facilitate a better understanding of the complex western termination of the Alpine orogen. References: Dumont T., Schwartz S., Guillot S., Simon-Labric S., Tricart P. & Jourdan S. (2012), Structural and sedimentary record of the Oligocene revolution in the Western Alpine arc. Jour. Geodynamics, doi:10.1016/j.jog.2011.11.006 Federico L., Crispini L., Scambelluri M. & Capponi G. (2007), Ophiolite mélange zone records exhumation in a fossil subduction channel. Geology, 35, p. 499-502 Malusà M.G., Faccenna C., Baldwin S.L., Fitzgerald P.G., Rossetti F., Balestrieri M.L., Danišík M., Ellero A., Ottria G. & Piromallo C. (2015), Contrasting styles of (U)HP rock exhumation along the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary (Western Alps, Calabria, Corsica). Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. ,16, p. 1786-1824 Tricart P. & Schwartz S

  1. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Structural interpretation of the Ifal Basin in north-western Saudi Arabia from aeromagnetic data: hydrogeological and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elawadi, Eslam; Zaman, Haider; Batayneh, Awni; Mogren, Saad; Laboun, Abdalaziz; Ghrefat, Habes; Zumlot, Taisser

    2013-09-01

    The Ifal (Midyan) Basin is one of the well defined basins along the Red Sea coast, north-western Saudi Arabia. Location, geometry, thick sedimentary cover and structural framework qualify this basin for groundwater, oil and mineral occurrences. In spite of being studied by two airborne magnetic surveys during 1962 and 1983, structural interpretation of the area from a magnetic perspective, and its uses for hydrogeological and environmental investigations, has not been attempted. This work thus presents interpretation of the aeromagnetic data for basement depth estimation and tectonic framework delineation, which both have a role in controlling groundwater flow and accumulation in the Ifal Basin. A maximum depth of 3.5km is estimated for the basement surface by this study. In addition, several faulted and tilted blocks, perpendicularly dissected by NE-trending faults, are delineated within the structural framework of the study area. It is also observed that the studied basin is bounded by NW- and NE-trending faults. All these multi-directional faults/fracture systems in the Ifal Basin could be considered as conduits for groundwater accumulation, but with a possibility of environmental contamination from the surrounding soils and rock bodies.

  3. Multi-scale response of runoff to climate fluctuation in the headwater region of Kaidu River in Xinjiang of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Chen, Zhongsheng; Xu, Jianhua; Li, Weihong

    2016-08-01

    Based on the hydrological and meteorological data in the headwater region of the Kaidu River during 1960-2009, the multi-scale characteristics of runoff variability were analyzed using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), and the aim is to investigate the oscillation mode structure characteristics of runoff change and its response to climate fluctuation at different time scales. Results indicated that in the past 50 years, the overall runoff of Kaidu River in Xinjiang has showed a significant nonlinear upward trend, and its changes have obviously exhibited an inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-6-year) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-10 and quasi-25-year). Variance contribution rates of each component manifested that the inter-decadal change had been playing a more important role in the overall runoff change for Kaidu River, and the reconstructed inter-annual variation trend could describe the fluctuation state of the original runoff anomaly during the study period. The reconstructed inter-decadal variability effectively revealed that the runoff for Kaidu River changed over the years, namely the states of abundance and low water period appear alternately. In addition, we found that runoff has a positive correlation to precipitation and temperature at different time scales, but they are most significant and relevant at inter-decadal scale, indicating the inter-decadal scale is most suitable for investigating the responses of runoff dynamics to climate fluctuation. At the same time, the results also suggested that EEMD is an effective method to analyze the multi-scale characteristics of nonlinear and non-stationary signal.

  4. The Analysis of Burrows Recognition Accuracy in XINJIANG'S Pasture Area Based on Uav Visible Images with Different Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D.; Zheng, J. H.; Ma, T.; Chen, J. J.; Li, X.

    2018-04-01

    The rodent disaster is one of the main biological disasters in grassland in northern Xinjiang. The eating and digging behaviors will cause the destruction of ground vegetation, which seriously affected the development of animal husbandry and grassland ecological security. UAV low altitude remote sensing, as an emerging technique with high spatial resolution, can effectively recognize the burrows. However, how to select the appropriate spatial resolution to monitor the calamity of the rodent disaster is the first problem we need to pay attention to. The purpose of this study is to explore the optimal spatial scale on identification of the burrows by evaluating the impact of different spatial resolution for the burrows identification accuracy. In this study, we shoot burrows from different flight heights to obtain visible images of different spatial resolution. Then an object-oriented method is used to identify the caves, and we also evaluate the accuracy of the classification. We found that the highest classification accuracy of holes, the average has reached more than 80 %. At the altitude of 24 m and the spatial resolution of 1cm, the accuracy of the classification is the highest We have created a unique and effective way to identify burrows by using UAVs visible images. We draw the following conclusion: the best spatial resolution of burrows recognition is 1 cm using DJI PHANTOM-3 UAV, and the improvement of spatial resolution does not necessarily lead to the improvement of classification accuracy. This study lays the foundation for future research and can be extended to similar studies elsewhere.

  5. Teaching the Western.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan, John H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the content of a course on the genre of western films that was utilized as a film study and a U.S. cultural history credit. Describes in detail the film, "Winchester '73," and addresses other films utilized in the course. States that the course also focuses on the development of the western genre. (CMK)

  6. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI’S SPECIES OF MESOPHYLLUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA BASSO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, including thirteen new species. In this paper Mesophyllum fructiferum Airoldi 1932 and Mesophyllum obsitum Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The presence of cell fusions, multiporate conceptacles and a ventral core of cell filaments passing from coaxial to non-coaxial confirm that both species belong to the genus Mesophyllum.   SHORT NOTES  

  7. Frequency Characteristics of Geomagnetic Induction Anomalies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    19

    Western continental margin of India (WCMI) has been affected by (a) Marion hotspot .... Onshore region consist of NW-SE trending basin between Jamnagar and ..... potential of deep sea basins; 7th offshore south Asia conference, Singapore., ...

  8. Communication Patterns in Adult-Infant Interactions in Western and Non-Western Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)

  9. Plankton community structure and connectivity in the Kimberley-Browse region of NW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, A. D.; Duggan, S.; Holliday, D.; Brinkman, R.

    2015-02-01

    We describe the zooplankton and ichthyoplankton communities of coastal waters of the Kimberley coast (North West Australia), sampled in macrotidal Camden Sound during both the wet and dry seasons of 2011, and compare these to six other Kimberley embayments during the wet season of 2013. Zooplankton abundance in Camden Sound was 7038 ± 3913 SD ind. m-3 in the wet season and 1892 ± 708 SD ind. m-3 in the dry season, with copepods accounting for 85% by number. In all, 78 species of copepods were recorded, with the families Paracalanidae and Oithonidae dominant. In Camden Sound, 48 families of larval fish occurred, with ichthyoplankton more abundant in the wet season than the dry season (1.16 ± 0.2 ind. m-3 cf 0.76 ± 0.2 ind. m-3). Larval gobiids (Subfamily Gobiinae) were most abundant, with other common families associated with either pelagic or soft-bottom habitats as adults. Multivariate analyses of both copepod and ichthyoplankton communities demonstrated strong seasonal contrasts, although an along-shelf gradient in copepod community composition was apparent along the embayments sampled in 2013. There was little spatial variation in plankton communities within Camden Sound as a result of the large tidal range (up to 11.7 m, with 2.5 m-1 velocities), although gradients in abundance and composition on cross-shelf transects occurred in the more northern embayments that had a lower tidal range, such as Napier Broome Bay. Copepod communities of the Kimberley-Browse region were placed in regional perspective by multivariate analyses of similar data collected in the eastern Indian Ocean at Scott Reef, in the Arafura Sea and on the southern North West (NW) shelf. The plankton communities of the NW shelf form a series of along-shore metacommunities linked by advection, with weaker cross-shelf connectivity. The presence of the larvae of mesopelagic fishes of the family Myctophidae in coastal waters confirms seasonal cross-shelf connectivity.

  10. Cloud amount/frequency, SALINITY and other data from unknown platforms in the NW Atlantic from 1990-01-01 to 1991-01-01 (NODC Accession 9600074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Serial data in this accession was collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of Global Ocean Data Archeaology and Rescue (GODAR) project. The data was...

  11. Coccolithophore export production and seasonal variation from a trans-Atlantic array of sediment trap moorings (NW Africa to Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, C. V.; Baumann, K. H.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Fischer, G.; Korte, L.; Stuut, J. B. W.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we contribute to disclose the ecology and seasonal variability of coccolithophores, to improve their use as proxies for environmental variability in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To this aim, the coccolithophore export fluxes and species composition were investigated from a trans-Atlantic array of sediment trap moorings from NW Africa (Cape Blanc) into the Caribbean (Barbados) (i.e., CB at 20°N/52ºW: M1 at 12ºN/23ºW; M2 at 14ºN/37ºW; M4 at 12ºN/49ºW). Each of the sediment trap devices was deployed at 1200 m depth, sampling settling particles at two-week intervals, and covering a full year (Oct. 2012 to Oct. 2013). First results show important contrasts between both ends of the trans-Atlantic array: total coccolith fluxes were much higher in the oligotrophic station M4 (western part of the basin) than in the highly productive waters off Cape Blanc (eastern edge of the basin), mostly due to the overwhelming dominance of the deep photic layer species Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus. Off Cape Blanc, higher abundances of the placolith-bearing species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa spp. were found, more typical of the upper photic layer, while F. profunda decreases in relative abundance and G. flabellatus is almost absent, in comparison to M4. The presence of trans-Atlantic ecological gradients in terms of species diversity and prevalence of K- and r-selected species will be discussed with respect to the prevailing environmental conditions during the monitored period, including Saharan-dust deposition and the influence of the Amazon River plume.This study is part of ongoing multidisciplinary research in the study area, in the context of the projects "DUSTRAFFIC" and "TRAFFIC - Transatlantic Fluxes of Saharan Dust".

  12. Paleocurrent analysis and physical properties of deep-sea mud cores collected from NW Pacific and Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T.; Kawamura, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Flemings, P. B.; Behrmann, J. H.; John, C. M.; Hirano, N.; Abe, N.

    2005-12-01

    We collected three m-long piston cores of mud during the Kairei cruise (KR04-08 and KR05-10) of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center in 2004 and 2005 from the NW Pacific between Honshu and Shatsky Rise; aside the Fukahori Knoll and Yukawa Knoll. Another set of mud cores, 234.5 m long, was collected during the JOIDES Resolution cruise (IODP Exp308, site U1322) in 2005 from the Ursa Basin located at the eastern levee of the Mississippi Canyon, northeastern Gulf of Mexico of about 1000 m depth. Our study purpose is to know the flow direction by mud particle arrangement by thin section and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. The data from the NW Pacific indicate weak preferred orientation from SW to NE, suggesting weak bottom current. This is supported by erosional moat to NE direction around the Fukahori Knoll. In the Gulf of Mexico we can know the flow directions of river plumes, turbidity currents, etc., and we can know whether the flows come from the main entry point in the basin or they are derived from the others of the basin. The other basic features of the core sediments are lithology, sedimentary structures, and porosity, together with paleocurrent analysis.

  13. Deep winter convection and phytoplankton dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea under present climate and future (horizon 2030) scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Stips, Adolf

    2018-04-26

    Deep water convection (DC) in winter is one of the major processes driving open-ocean primary productivity in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. DC is highly variable in time, depending on the specific conditions (stratification, circulation and ocean-atmosphere interactions) of each specific winter. This variability also drives the interannual oscillations of open-ocean primary productivity in this important region for many commercially-important fish species. We use a coupled model system to 1) understand to what extent DC impacts phytoplankton seasonality in the present-day and 2) to explore potential changes in future scenarios (~2030). Our model represents quite accurately the present-day characteristics of DC and its importance for open-ocean phytoplankton blooms. However, for the future scenarios the importance of deep nutrients in fertilizing the euphotic layer of the NW Mediterranean decreases. The model simulates changes in surface density and on the levels of kinetic energy that make mesoscale activity associated with horizontal currents to become a more important fertilization mechanism, inducing subsequently phenological changes in seasonal plankton cycles. Because of our focus on the open-sea, an exact quantification of the impact of those changes on the overall biological production of the NW Mediterranean cannot be made at the moment.

  14. P-T-t-d History of the Lahul Valley, NW Indian Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieblas, A.; Leech, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Lahul Valley of NW India is located between the Zanskar Shear zone to the northwest and the Sangla detachment to the southeast. This region contains three east-trending, laterally-continuous tectonostratigraphic units separated by two major fault zones. To the south, low-grade metasediments of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) are separated from high-grade crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) by the north dipping Main Central Thrust (MCT). The northern extent of the GHS is separated from overlying low-grade sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalayan Sequence (THS) along the north dipping South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). There is controversy over the location and type of shear motion for the STDS in the ~50 km strip running through Lahul Valley where the STD is interpreted as a discrete fault, a dextral shear zone, and is unidentified in some areas along the trend of the STDS. This study focuses on understanding the pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-d) evolution of THS and GHS rocks in Lahul Valley to better understand regional Cenozoic deformation and the location and role of the STDS in the extrusion of the GHS. Deformed granitics, migmatites, and leucogranites from the GHS contain a dominant mineralogy of Qz + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Ms ± Grt ± Ky ± St. Schists and phyllites from the THS contain a dominant mineralogy of Qz + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Ms ± Grt. Isochemical phase equilibria diagrams (pseudosections) are calculated in Perple_X using whole-rock chemistry data with solution models based on these mineral assemblages. Ti-in-quartz thermometry and the Fe-Mg exchange thermometry from garnet-biotite pairs used with mineral growth relationships constrain conditions during deformation and to establish P-T paths. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon constrains peak metamorphic conditions and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of micas provide the cooling history along the valley and across the STDS. This multi-component approach to understand

  15. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism from sediments along a continental shelf-to-slope transect in the NW Barents Sea: Implications for geomagnetic and depositional changes during the past 15 thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, C.; Lucchi, R. G.; Sagnotti, L.; Macrì, P.; Morigi, C.; Melis, R.; Caffau, M.; Rebesco, M.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data were measured on glaciomarine silty-clay successions along an E-W sediment-core transect across the continental shelf and slope of the Kveithola paleo-ice stream system (south of Svalbard, north-western Barents Sea), representing a stratigraphic interval spanning the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The records indicate that magnetite is the main magnetic mineral and that magnetic minerals are distinctly less abundant on the shelf than at the continental slope. The paleomagnetic properties allow for the reconstruction of a well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) throughout the sedimentary successions. The stratigraphic trends of rock magnetic and paleomagnetic parameters are used for a shelf-slope core correlation and sediment facies analysis is applied for depositional processes reconstruction. The new paleomagnetic records compare to the PSV and RPI variation predicted for the core sites by a simulation using the global geomagnetic field variation models SHA.DIF.14k and CALS7K.2 and closest PSV and RPI regional stack curves. The elaborated dataset, corroborated by available 14C ages, provides a fundamental chronological framework to constrain the coupling of shelf-slope sedimentary processes and environmental changes in the NW Barents Sea region during and after deglaciation.

  16. Western Slope Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epis, R.C.; Callender, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A conference on the geology and geologic resources of the Western Slope of western Colorado and eastern Utah is presented. Fourteen papers from the conference have been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. These papers covered such topics as uranium resources, oil shale deposits, coal resources, oil and gas resources, and geothermal resources of the area

  17. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  18. Isolation and Sequence Analysis of HMW Glutenin Subunit 1Dy10.1 Ecoding Gene from Xinjiang Wheat (Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz.et Migusch)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qian-tao; WEI Yu-ming; WANG Ji-rui; YAN Ze-hong; ZHENG You-liang

    2006-01-01

    A novel HMW glutenin subunit gene 1Dy10.1 was isolated and characterized from Xinjiang wheat (Triticum petropavlovskyi. Udacz. et Migusch) accession Daomai 2. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1Dy10.1 was 1965 bp, encoding 655 amino acids. The numbers and distribution of cysteines in 1Dy10.1 were similar to those of 1Dy10 and other y-type subunits. In the N-terminal of 1Dy10.1, an amino acid was changed from L (leucine) to P (proline) at position 55. The repetitive domain of 1Dy10.1 differed from those of known HMW subunits by substitutions, insertions or/and deletions involving single or more amino acid residues. In the repetitive domain of subunit 1Dy10.1, the deletion of tripeptide GQQ in the consensus unit PGQGQQ resulted in the appearance of the motif PGQ that have not been observed in other known y-type HMW subunits. In comparison with the subunit 1Dy12, a deletion of dipeptide GQ, which occurred in subunit 1Dy10, was also observed in subunit 1Dy10.1. The cloned 1Dyl0.1 gene had been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed protein had the identical mobility with the endogenous subunit 1Dyl0.1 from seed.

  19. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  20. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coasta...

  1. Mesostructural observations along the Western coast of Bel'kovsky Island: preliminary results (North-Eastern Laptev Sea region, Russian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzhbitsky, V. E.

    2003-04-01

    This study is based on the field works carried out by the Institute of the Lithosphere of Marginal Seas RAS in the central part of the Bel'kovsky island during 2002 August-September. In the tectonic sense the Bel'kovsky island is located in the eastern part of the Late Cretaceous (?) - Cenozoic Laptev Sea rift system and also is a part of extended Bel’kov horst, dividing Bel’kov Svyatoi Nos (in the east) and Anisin (in the west) rifts (e.g. Drachev et al, 1998). Mesostructural investigations included statistical measurments of kinematic indicators (cleavage planes, extensional veins, slickensides, axes of folds and bedding plains) in Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary formations and also slickensides in diabase magmatic complex (presumably of Late Paleozoic age). It is supposed, that this studies will allow to characterize the stages of regional tectonic processes: synsedimentary (slump) folds formation (1), NE-SW compression (2), which corresponds to the general (NW-SE trending) structural pattern of the island, E-W compression (3), expressed in N-S trending subvertical cleavage and associated strike-slips and thrust faults, NW-SE (4) and ENE-WSW - NE-SW (5) extension, expressed in strike-slip faults with different strike-slip component, and also, probably to specify the character of the recent tectonic processes near to the area of conjunction between the Eurasian and American plates. It is likely, that synsedimentary (slump) folds, identified in the Carboniferous clastic formation marks the paleoslope setting of New Siberian Islands Chukotka platform (block). Presumably, second of the determined stages corresponds to closing of the South Anyui Lyakhov paleooceanic basin in Neocomian; the last stage, expressed in wide-developed submeridional normal faults with sinistral strike-slip component along the western coast of the island, reflects the modern regional stress-field in area of conjunction between the Eurasian and American plates (e.g. Avetisov, 1999

  2. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USS THOMAS S. GATES in the NW Atlantic from 1995-02-01 to 1995-02-24 (NCEI Accession 9500037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from USS THOMAS S. GATES between February 1, 1995 and February 24, 1995. The real time data of...

  3. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from NOAA Ship WHITING in the NW Atlantic from 1993-08-29 to 1993-11-21 (NODC Accession 9400001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) SEACAT data was collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W). Data was collected during 17 casts from NOAA Ship WHITING. The...

  4. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from NOAA Ship WHITING From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 1994-05-25 to 1994-07-23 (NODC Accession 9400141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W). Data was collected from NOAA Ship WHITING. The data was...

  5. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from NOAA Ship WHITING From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 1994-05-20 to 1994-06-23 (NODC Accession 9400124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W). Data was collected from NOAA Ship WHITING. The data was...

  6. CURRENT DIRECTION, ICE - MOVEMENT - DIRECTION and other data from DRIFTING PLATFORM in the NW Atlantic from 1993-06-10 to 1993-09-23 (NODC Accession 9400065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Positioning System (GPS) tracked drifting buoy data in this accession was collected in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) between June 10, 1993 and September 23,...

  7. Dating the Indo-Asia collision in NW Himalaya: constraints from Sr-Nd isotopes and detrital zircon (U-Pb) and Hf isotopes of Paleogene-Neogene rocks in the Katawaz basin, NW Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Guangsheng; Najman, Yani; Millar, Ian; Chauvel, Catherine; Guillot, Stephane; Carter, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The time of collision between the Indian and Asian plates is key for understanding the convergence history and the impact on climatic systems and marine geochemistry. Despite much active research, the fundamental questions still remain elusive regarding when and where the Indian plate collided with the Asian plate. Especially in the west Himalaya, the questions become more complex due to disputes on the amalgamation history of interoceanic Kohistan-Ladakh arcs (KLA) with Karakoram of the Asian plate and the Indian plate. Here, we present a result of multiple-isotopic geochemistry and geochronology study in the Katawaz Basin in NW Pakistan, a remnant oceanic basin on the western Indian plate which was the repository for the sediments eroded from the west Himalaya ( Qayyum et al., 1996, 1997a, 1997b, 2001; Carter et al., 2010), to evaluate the time and character of collision in this region. In this study, we analyzed 22 bulk mudstone samples for Sr-Nd isotopes and 11 medium-grained sandstones for detrital zircon (U-Pb) geochronology and Hf isotopes. We constructed the Cenozoic chronology in the Katawaz Basin based on our newly collected detrital zircon U-Pb ages and fission track ages. We present the first record of Katawaz chronology that constrained the Khojak Formation to be current study revealed that the Katawaz sedimentary sequence ranges in age from Eocene to the earliest Miocene. The samples from the Nisai Formation show the 87Sr/86Sr - ɛNd values overlapping those of the end member of the Karakoram of Asian origin, revealing the arrival of Asian detritus on the Indian plate prior to 50 Ma. There are two parallel lines of evidence supporting this conclusion: (1) young zircon grains (Journal of the Geological Society 154, 753-756. Qayyum, M., Lawrence, R.D., Niem, A.R., 1997b. Molasse-Delta-flysch continuum of the Himalayan orogeny and closure of the Paleogene Katawaz Remnant Ocean, Pakistan. International geology review 39, 861-875. Qayyum, M., Niem, A

  8. CURRENT DIRECTION, ICE - MOVEMENT - DIRECTION and other data from DRIFTING PLATFORM in the NW Atlantic from 1992-05-01 to 1993-06-13 (NODC Accession 9300136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The drifting buoy data in this accession was collected over a one year period from bouys deployed by Science Applications, Inc., Raleigh NC in NW Atlantic (limit-40...

  9. Computer Simulation Western

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)

  10. The Fastest Western in Town: A Contemporary Twist on the Classic Western Blot Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jillian M.; McMahon, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Western blot techniques that were originally established in the late 1970s are still actively utilized today. However, this traditional method of Western blotting has several drawbacks that include low quality resolution, spurious bands, decreased sensitivity, and poor protein integrity. Recent advances have drastically improved numerous aspects of the standard Western blot protocol to produce higher qualitative and quantitative data. The Bis-Tris gel system, an alternative to the convent...

  11. 77 FR 51823 - Notice of Public Meetings, Western Oregon Resource Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ..., Oregon 97504, (541) 618-2200. Roseburg District Resource Advisory Committee: Jake Winn, 777 NW Garden.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Secure Rural Schools and Community Self Determination Act was extended to provide... for local community collaboration with Federal land managers as they select projects to be conducted...

  12. Analysis on Cu and Zn Concentrations in Agricultural Soils of Ili District, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jing-na

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is mainly to investigate the contents of copper(Cuand zinc(Znin agricultural soils to provide basic infor-mation for the establishment of green and organic production base in Ili District, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. 600 topsoil samples of the a-gricultural land were collected from eight counties of Ili District, and the contents of Cu and Zn were determined by AAS after microwave di-gestion. The statistics analysis showed that the mean contents of Cu and Zn in the agricultural soils of Ili District were 28.68 mg·kg-1 and 83.17 mg·kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of Cu in the agricultural soils of Ili District ranged from 11.07 mg·kg-1 to 59.90 mg·kg-1, 85% of which ranged from 20 mg·kg-1 to 40 mg·kg-1; and the concentrations of Zn in the agricultural soils of Ili District ranged from 39.58 mg·kg-1 to 160.40 mg·kg-1, 90%of which ranged from 60 mg·kg-1 to 110 mg·kg-1. Furthermore, compared the Cu and Zn contents of the tested soils among the eight counties, Cu contents in Tekes County were higher than other counties, while Zn contents showed little difference. The con-tents of Cu and Zn in the tested soils were all below the threshold values that were established in the national environmental quality standard for soils(secondary standards, GB 15618-1995, but about 7% and 21% were higher than the Cu and Zn background values of soil in Ili District, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of Ili District accord with the environmental requirements for or-ganic and green production base regulated by national standard of organic products(GB/T 19630-2011and industrial standard of green food(NY/T 391-2013.

  13. Picarola margalefii, gen. et sp. nov., a new planktonic coccolithophore from NW Mediterranean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluïsa Cros

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A coccolithophore which is referred to a new genus Picarola gen. nov. and described as a new species Picarola margalefii sp. nov., has been observed from the NW Mediterranean. The description of the new species is based on Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM observations. The coccoliths of Picarola margalefii sp. nov. are muroliths that have a narrow high rim and a central area with a cross and an elongate four-sided central process. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses confirmed their calcareous nature. The relation between the new genus and the genera Papposphaera Tangen, Vexillarius Jordan et Chamberlain, and Turrilithus Jordan et al., is discussed. The coccolithophore Picarola margalefii gen. et sp. nov., is dedicated to Dr. Ramon Margalef.

  14. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  15. Nuremberg Counting Jetons of XVI–XIX centuries: from Western Europe to Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Pushkarev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of Western counting jetons, which have spread over a vast area from Western Europe to Siberia. The history of jetons is very dynamic. For more than three centuries in Western Europe tokens were used as a tool for calculation in trading shops, government offices, etc. In the second half of the XVI century because the spread of the written account the functions of jetons fundamentally changed. They are being used as chips in card games, they were presented as souvenirs, scattered among the crowd at weddings and festivals, etc. At the same time, jetons became the translation tool for public information about the government, in the form of images of the reigning monarch, as well as key political events. Through trade exchange jetons penetrate into the territory of Western Siberia, where their function changed again. All counting tokens from burial graves in Western Siberia, have holes for hanging or sewing, which indicate their use as ornaments. However, in the culture of the indigenous population decorations had not only aesthetic but also a sacred, religious meaning.

  16. Fire history and climate variability during the Mid-Late Holocene in the Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain), based on sedimentary sequence of Belbín

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Vera; Cruces, Anabela; Conceição Freitas, Maria; Janeiro, Ana; López-Sáez, José Antonio; García-Hernández, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The environmental changes during the last millennia in the Mediterranian Region (including the Cantabrian Mountains in the NW part of the Iberian Peninsula) are partially related to fire activity, generated by early human societies for grazing purposes. Fire activity has mostly been reconstructed based on the analysis of pollen, spores and other macro- and microscopic organic remains, such as charcoal particles. However, new techniques (as the analysis of micro-scale frost weathering of quartz grains), can provide further information about the magnitude and intensity of fire as a landscape modeler. The purpose of this work was to analyze a sedimentary sequence collected from Belbín depression in the Western Massif of the Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain) by using an innovative multi-proxy approach, in order to reconstruct the fire history in this area. The Picos de Europa Mountains constitute the highest and most extensive massif in the Cantabrian Mountains. This area encloses three different massifs separated by deep gorges carved by four rivers (Dobra, Cares, Duje and Deva). The Western Massif is the largest of the three units (137 km2). The Picos de Europa are essentially composed by Carboniferous limestones. This mountain area was heavily glaciated during the Last Glaciation, though the post-glacial environmental evolution is still poorly understood. Within the Western Massif, the mid-altitude area of Belbín is a karstic depression dammed by a lateral moraine generated by Enol Glacier during the Last Glaciation. Between 23 and 8 ky cal BP this depression was a lake that became progressively infilled with sediments, and nowadays it is occupied by grasslands (Ruiz-Fernández et al., 2016). In order to study the environmental changes during the Mid-Late Holocene in this massif, a 182 cm-long sequence was retrieved in the Belbín area. The core was subsampled every centimeter in the top most superficial 60 cm. The laboratory analyses were: 1

  17. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from CAPE HENLOPEN and Other Platforms From NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) and Others from 19920813 to 19930605 (NODC Accession 9300144)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data were collected in Coastal Waters of Gulf of Mexico, NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of Louisiana-Texas (LATEX part C) Gulf of...

  18. Geophysical characterizations of fluid flow and gas-hydrate systems of the NW-Svalbard and SW-Barents Sea margins

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Papers 2, and 4 of this thesis are not available in Munin: 2. Rajan, A., J. Mienert, and S. Bünz: 'Acoustic evidence for a gas migration and release system in Arctic glaciated continental margins offshore NW-Svalbard', Marine and Petroleum Geology (2012), vol.32(1):36-49. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2011.12.008 3. Anupama Rajan, Stefan Bünz, Jürgen Mienert and. Andrew J. Smith: 'Tilted bottomsimulating reflectors (TBSRs) provide evidence for active fluid flow from deep ...

  19. Occurrence and mineral chemistry of chromite and related silicates from the Hongshishan mafic-ultramafic complex, NW China with petrogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Banxiao; Yu, Yingmin; Lv, Xinbiao; Feng, Jing; Wei, Wei; Wu, Chunming; Wang, Heng

    2017-10-01

    The Hongshishan mafic-ultramafic complex is located in the western Beishan Terrane, NW China, and hosts an economic Ni-Cu deposit. Chromite as accessory mineral from the complex is divided into three types based on its occurrence and morphology. Quantitative electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) have been conducted on the different types of chromites. Type 1 chromite occurs as inclusions within silicate minerals and has relatively homogeneous composition. Type 2 chromite occurs among serpentine, as interstitial phase. Type 3 chromite is zoned and exhibits a sudden change in compositions from core to rim. Type 1 chromite occurs in olivine gabbro and troctolite showing homogeneous composition. This chromite is more likely primary. Interstitial type 2 and zoned type 3 chromite has compositional variation from core to rim and is more likely modified. Abundant inclusions of orthopyroxene, phlogopite and hornblende occur within type 2 and type 3 chromites. The parental melt of type 1 chromite has an estimated composition of 14.5 wt% MgO, 12.3 wt% Al2O3 and 1.9 wt% TiO2 and is characterized by high temperature, picritic affinity, hydrous nature and high Mg and Ti contents. Compositions of chromite and clinopyroxene are distinct from those of Alaskan-type complexes and imply that the subduction-related environment is not reasonable. Post orogenic extension and the early Permian mantle plume are responsible for the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Beishan Terrane. The cores of zoned chromites are classified as ferrous chromite and the rims as ferrian chromite. The formation of ferrian rim involves reaction of ferrous chromite, forsterite and magnetite to produce ferrian chromite and chlorite, or alternaively, the rim can be simply envisioned as the result of external addition of magnetite in solution to the already formed ferrous chromite.

  20. Modelling tectonic features of the Kissamos and Paleohora areas, Western Crete (Greece): combining geological and geophysical surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisidi, M; Vallianatos, F; Soupios, P [Laboratory of Geophysics and Seismology, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 3 Romanou Str., Halepa, Chania, Crete 73133 (Greece); Kershaw, S [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rust, D [Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnary Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3QL,UK (United Kingdom); Piscitelli, S [Istituto di Metodologie per I' Analisi Ambientale IMAA-CNR, C/da S Loja, 85050, Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this survey is the fault zone determination in Kissamos (NW Crete) and Paleohora (SW Crete) basins. The study area is located within the central forearc of the Hellenic subduction zone. 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been applied to reveal fault zones. Ground-truthed fault evidence in the coast northwest of Kastelli-Kissamou and northeast of Paleohora is incorporated into the ERT data. Thirteen ERT profiles were obtained at several sites. Seven of the eight ERT profiles intersect fault zones in Kissamos. Five ERT profiles were conducted in Paleohora and three significant faults were identified. The results indicated the continuation of previously mapped faults as well as revealing unreported faults. The coastline of Paleohora and Grammeno can be associated with a system of fault zone striking almost E-W. We propose that the ERT method is a reliable and economic method at identifying buried fault zones in populated areas. Considering the proximity of the revealed fault zones in densely populated areas and the high seismic activity of the region the determination of the identified fault zones could contribute in earthquake hazard assessment studies for future seismic mitigation and urban planning strategies in the two areas for western Crete. (paper)

  1. Salp distribution and grazing in a saline intrusion off NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskin, Iñaki; Elices, Ma. José; Anadón, Ricardo

    2003-07-01

    Salp distribution and grazing were studied along three transects (19 stations) and a Lagrangian phase (7 stations) off Galician coast (NW Spain) in November 1999 during GIGOVI 99 cruise. A poleward saline intrusion was detected at the shelf-break, reaching salinity values above 35.90 u.p.s. at 100-m depth. The salp community was dominated by Salpa fusiformis, although Cyclosalpa bakeri, Thalia democratica and Iasis zonaria were also found in the study area. Total salp abundance ranged from 4 to 4500 ind m -2, representing biomass values between 0.2 and 2750 mg C m -2. Maximum densities were located in the frontal area separating the saline body from coastal waters. S. fusiformis pigment ingestion was estimated using the gut fluorescence method. Gut contents were linearly related to salp body size. Total pigment ingestion ranged from 0.001 to 15 mg Chl- a m -2 d -1, with maximum values at the coastal edge of the saline body. Estimated ingestion translates into an average daily grazing impact of 7% of chlorophyll standing stock, ranging from <1% to 77%.

  2. [Prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Wu, X J; Wang, T M; Li, Y H; Song, X L; Chao, X F; Wang, G; Nazibam, Nurmamat; Ayxamgul, Bawudun; Gulbahar, Elyas; Zhou, Z Y; Sun, B S; Wang, Y Z; Wang, M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar prefecture in southern area of Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 5 078 local residents aged ≥18 years (42.56 % were men) selected through cluster random sampling in Kashgar were surveyed by means of questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory test, and 521 diabetes patients were screened. Results: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in diabetes patients was 59.50 % (310/521) with adjusted rate as 49.39 % . Age ≥65 years, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity increased the risk for dyslipidemia by 0.771 times (95 % CI : 1.015-3.088), 1.132 times (95 % CI : 1.290-3.523), 1.688 times (95 % CI : 1.573-4.592) and 0.801 times (95 % CI : 1.028-3.155) respectively. Compared with males, female was a protective factor for dyslipidemia ( OR =0.507, 95 %CI : 0.334-0.769). The overall normal rate of blood lipids level including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for type 2 diabetes patients was 11.13 % . Female, higher BMI and abdominal obesity were the factors influencing the overall normal blood lipids level. The normal rate of LDL-C level decreased with increase of age, BMI and waist circumferences (trend test χ (2)=18.049, P dyslipidemia in Uygur diabetes patients in Kashgar was high, however, the overall normal rate of blood lipid level was relatively low. Obesity was the most important risk factor for dyslipidemia in this area. More attention should be paid to dyslipidemia prevention in women.

  3. Thermal evolution and shale gas potential estimation of the Wealden and Posidonia Shale in NW-Germany and the Netherlands : a 3D basin modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, B.; Littke, R.; Gasparik, M.; van Wees, J.-D.; Nelskamp, S.

    Sedimentary basins in NW-Germany and the Netherlands represent potential targets for shale gas exploration in Europe due to the presence of Cretaceous (Wealden) and Jurassic (Posidonia) marlstones/shales as well as various Carboniferous black shales. In order to assess the regional shale gas

  4. Relationships between radon anomalies and seismic parameters in N-W Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, Vivek; Virk, H.S.; Bajwa, B.S.; Sharma, Navjeet

    2003-01-01

    Radon data accumulated during 1992-1999 in the grid (30-34 deg. N, 74-78 deg. E) in N-W Himalaya have been anlaysed vis a vis seismic data recorded in the same area, supplied by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) network. In general, there is a positive correlation between the total radon emission and the microseismicity in the area under investigation. The earthquake magnitude has moderate positive correlation with epicentral distance and low positive correlation with amplitude of radon precursory signal, whereas both show low negative correlation between them. Empirical scaling relations are proposed using the best fit straight line from the log-linear graphs between magnitude of the events and log of the product of amplitude of radon anomaly and epicentral distance. The error between the recorded and calculated magnitude is also taken into account. The error range is higher at lower epicentral distances and magnitudes, showing that the local geology and tectonics have predominant influence on radon signals

  5. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  6. A decade of volcanic construction and destruction at the summit of NW Rota-1 seamount: 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Susan R.; Chadwick, William W.; Embley, Robert W.; Ferrini, Vicki L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Deardorff, Nicholas D.; Merle, Susan G.; Dziak, Robert P.; Haxel, Joe H.; Matsumoto, Haru

    2017-03-01

    Arc volcanoes are important to our understanding of submarine volcanism because at some sites frequent eruptions cause them to grow and collapse on human timescales. This makes it possible to document volcanic processes. Active submarine eruptions have been observed at the summit of NW Rota-1 in the Mariana Arc. We use remotely operated vehicle videography and repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys to construct geologic maps of the summit of NW Rota-1 in 2009 and 2010 and relate them to the geologic evolution of the summit area over a 10 year period (2004-2014). We find that 2009 and 2010 were characterized by different eruptive styles, which affected the type and distribution of eruptive deposits at the summit. Year 2009 was characterized by ultraslow extrusion and autobrecciation of lava at a single eruptive vent, producing a large cone of blocky lava debris. In 2010, higher-energy explosive eruptions occurred at multiple closely spaced vents, producing a thin blanket of pebble-sized tephra overlying lava flow outcrops. A landslide that occurred between 2009 and 2010 had a major effect on lithofacies distribution by removing the debris cone and other unconsolidated deposits, revealing steep massive flow cliffs. This relatively rapid alternation between construction and destruction forms one end of a seamount growth and mass wasting spectrum. Intraplate seamounts, which tend to grow larger than arc volcanoes, experience collapse events that are orders of magnitude larger and much less frequent than those occurring at subduction zone settings. Our results highlight the interrelated cyclicity of eruptive activity and mass wasting at submarine arc volcanoes.

  7. Depth anomalies in the Arabian Basin, NW Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajay, K.K.; Chaubey, A.K.

    that the excess subsidence of basement of the western part of the basin is probably caused by a relatively cold mantle, compared to the nearby eastern part of the basin which is affected by the intense thermal field of the former Reunion hotspot. Here, the rise...

  8. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician-Silurian times

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Wegmann; U. Riller; F. D. Hongn; Johannes Glodny; Onno Oncken

    2008-01-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NWArgentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relat...

  9. Late Pleistocene deglaciation chronology in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula using cosmic-ray produced 21Ne in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Mosquera, D.; Marti, K.; Romani, J.R. Vidal; Weigel, A.

    2000-01-01

    Late Pleistocene glaciations in the NW Iberian Peninsula over Serra de Queixa and Serra de Xures, all with granite substrata, were studied by mass spectrometry using cosmogenic 21 Ne. Rock cores were drilled in glacial polished surfaces and push-moraine boulders, and were analyzed to determine their integral exposure time to cosmic rays. First results, which are consistent with the relative geomorphologic model estimates, allow the identification of at least three different glacial stages, with the latest terminating about 15 ka BP

  10. First detection of Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in the flea Vermipsylla alakurt from north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Li, Hong-Yu; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Wang, Yuan-Zhi

    2016-06-07

    Vermipsylla is a genus of the family Vermipsyllidae within the order Siphonaptera of fleas. Vermipsylla alakurt is mainly distributed in alpine pastoral areas of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and Nepal, and infests sheep, yaks and horses, causing irritation, poor condition, anaemia and even death. However, to date, no rickettsial agents have been reported in V. alakurt. A total of 133 fleas were collected directly from the tails of three sheep flocks (n = 335) in Minfeng County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, north-western China. Of these, 55 fleas were identified by morphological examination and molecular analysis of four loci (the ribosomal 18S and 28S rDNA genes and the mitochondrial genes cytochrome  c oxidase subunit II and elongation factor 1-alpha). Eight Rickettsia-specific gene fragments originated from seven genes: the 17-kilodalton antigen gene (17-kDa), citrate synthase gene (gltA), 16S rRNA gene (rrs), outer membrane protein A gene (ompA), surface cell antigen 1 gene (sca1), PS120 protein gene (gene D), and outer membrane protein B gene (ompB, two fragments), were used to identify the species of Rickettsia in 53 fleas. The amplified products were sequenced and included in a phylogenetic analysis to verify the taxonomic identification of the rickettsial agents. Based on morphological and molecular evidence, the flea was identified as Vermipsylla alakurt. Nine samples were positive (16.98 %, 9/53) for Rickettsia spp. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the rickettsial agents found in V. alakurt cluster with Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae. Our study suggests that: (i) V. alakurt may serve as a carrier for Candidatus R. barbariae; and (ii) Candidatus R. barbariae, previously reported in Israel, is the eighth newly discovered validated Rickettsia species in China. This finding extends our knowledge of the distribution of Candidatus R. barbariae and the profile of carriers, which not only comprise ticks but also fleas.

  11. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  12. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from GEORGENE and SITKA SPRUCE in the NW Pacific from 1982-07-14 to 1983-09-16 (NODC Accession 8400020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The entry contains data collected from R/V SITKA SPRUCE and other platforms from NW Pacific (limit-180) from July 14, 1982 to August 16, 1983. Log sheets containing...

  13. Temperature, salinity, oxygen and other parameter profile data collected by CTD in the NW Atlantic Ocean by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Feb-Mar 1990 (NODC Accession 9100130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data was collected by the R/V COLUMBUS ISELIN in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) during the Amazon Shelf Sediment Study (AMASSEDS) from February to March 1990. The data...

  14. P-Wave Velocity Tomography from Local Earthquakes in Western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Chávez, Juan A.; Escudero, Christian R.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco J.; Bandy, William L.

    2016-10-01

    In western Mexico, the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North America plate has deformed and fragmented the overriding plate, forming several structural rifts and crustal blocks. To obtain a reliable subsurface image of the continental crust and uppermost mantle in this complex area, we used P-wave arrivals of local earthquakes along with the Fast Marching Method tomography technique. We followed an inversion scheme consisting of (1) the use of a high-quality earthquake catalog and corrected phase picks, (2) the selection of earthquakes using a maximum location error threshold, (3) the estimation of an improved 1-D reference velocity model, and (4) the use of checkerboard testing to determine the optimum configuration of the velocity nodes and inversion parameters. Surprisingly, the tomography results show a very simple δVp distribution that can be described as being controlled by geologic structures formed during two stages of the separation of the Rivera and Cocos plates. The earlier period represents the initial stages of the separation of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath western Mexico; the later period represents the more advanced stage of rifting where the Rivera and Cocos plates had separated sufficiently to allow melt to accumulate below the Colima Volcanic complex. During the earlier period (14 or 10-1.6 Ma), NE-SW-oriented structures/lineaments (such as the Southern Colima Rift) were formed as the two plates separated. During the second period (1.6 Ma to the present), the deformation is attributed to magma, generated within and above the tear zone between the Rivera and Cocos plates, rising beneath the region of the Colima Volcanic Complex. The rising magma fractured the overlying crust, forming a classic triple-rift junction geometry. This triple-rift system is confined to the mid- to lower crust perhaps indicating that this rifting process is still in an early stage. This fracturing, along with fluid circulation and associated

  15. Seismotectonics of Western Turkey: A Synthesis of Source Parameters and Rupture Histories of Recent Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymaz, T.; Tan, O.; Yolsal, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Aegean region, including western Turkey and Greece, is indeed one of the most seismically active and rapidly deforming continental domains in the Earth. The wide range of deformational processes occurring in this region means that the eastern Mediterranean provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the complex kinematics of continental collision, including strike-slip faulting and crustal extension, as well as associated seismicity and volcanism. The tectonic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region is dominated by effects of subduction along the Hellenic (Aegean) arc and of continental collision in eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus. Northward subduction of the African plate beneath western Anatolia and the Aegean region is causing crustal extension in the overlying Aegean province. The interplay between dynamic effects of the relative motions of adjoining plates thus controls large-scale crustal deformation and the associated earthquake activity in Turkey. The Aegean region has been subject to extension since Miocene time, and this extension has left a pronounced expression in the present-day topography. It is further widely accepted that the rapid extension observed in western Turkey is mainly accommodated by large active normal faults that control the geomorphology which is dominated by a series of E-W trending normal-fault-bounded horst and graben structures; the N-S extension inferred from these structures is consistent with regional earthquake focal mechanisms. The E-W trending Menderes graben, the NE-SW trending Burdur, Acigol and Baklan, and NW-SE trending Dinar and Sultandag-Aksehir basins all bounded by large faults form a system of half-graben whose orientation is evident in both the topography and the tilting of Neogene sediments adjacent to them. We have studied source mechanisms and rupture histories of ˜20 earthquakes using body-waveform modelling, and have compared the shapes and amplitudes of teleseismic long-period P

  16. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; López, Mario; Carballo, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Wave power presents significant advantages with regard to other CO2-free energy sources, among which the predictability, high load factor and low visual and environmental impact stand out. Galicia, facing the Atlantic on the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, is subjected to a very...... harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996 - 2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location...

  17. ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Waterm