WorldWideScience

Sample records for western usa range

  1. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons; Kathy Gray

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying the historical range and variability of landscape composition and structure using simulation modeling is becoming an important means of assessing current landscape condition and prioritizing landscapes for ecosystem restoration. However, most simulated time series are generated using static climate conditions which fail to account for the predicted major...

  2. Western USA groundwater drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  3. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  4. Competition on the range: science vs. perception in a bison–cattle conflict in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Durham, Susan; du Toit, Johan T

    2015-01-01

    1. Competition between livestock and wild ungulates is commonly perceived to occur on shared rangelands. In the Henry Mountains (HM) of Utah, a free-ranging population of bison Bison bison has raised concerns among ranchers holding grazing permits on these public lands. Bison are the most conspicuous potential competitors with cattle, but lagomorphs (mainly jackrabbits Lepus californicus) are also abundant in this area. The local ranching community is applying political pressure on state and federal agencies to resolve ‘the bison problem’, but the relative grazing impacts of bison, cattle and lagomorphs have not previously been quantified. 2. We constructed 40 grazing exclosures (each 5·95 m2) in the conflict area: 20 excluded bison + cattle (‘partial’) and 20 excluded bison + cattle + lagomorphs (‘full’). All exclosures, each with a paired open reference plot, were monitored for 1 year, and above-ground plant production was measured. GPS telemetry (bison) and scheduled grazing (cattle) allowed visitation to be quantified for each ungulate species based on the number of ‘animal days’ in the area. Rancher perceptions of wildlife–cattle interactions were recorded in a questionnaire survey. 3. Ranchers perceived bison as a high-level competitor with cattle, whereas lagomorphs were perceived as low-level competitors. 4. Grazed reference plots yielded an average (±SE) of 22·7 g m−2 (±5·16) of grass, compared to 36·5 g m−2 (±7·33) in the partial exclosures and 43·7 g m−2 (±7·61) in the full exclosures. Exclusion of large herbivores thus resulted in a 13·8 g m−2 increase in grass biomass relative to the reference plots (P = 0·005), with the additional exclusion of lagomorphs resulting in a further 7·18 g m−2 increase (P = 0·048). 5. Overall, lagomorphs accounted for 34·1%, bison 13·7% and cattle 52·3% of the total grass biomass removed by all herbivores on the shared range. 6. Synthesis and applications. Cattle face a greater

  5. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T; Hanser, Steven E; Preston, Kristine L

    2013-06-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km(2) region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D (2) model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species-habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D (2) (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  6. Modeling ecological minimum requirements for distribution of greater sage-grouse leks: implications for population connectivity across their western range, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Preston, Kristine L.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte) currently occupy approximately half of their historical distribution across western North America. Sage-grouse are a candidate for endangered species listing due to habitat and population fragmentation coupled with inadequate regulation to control development in critical areas. Conservation planning would benefit from accurate maps delineating required habitats and movement corridors. However, developing a species distribution model that incorporates the diversity of habitats used by sage-grouse across their widespread distribution has statistical and logistical challenges. We first identified the ecological minimums limiting sage-grouse, mapped similarity to the multivariate set of minimums, and delineated connectivity across a 920,000 km2 region. We partitioned a Mahalanobis D2 model of habitat use into k separate additive components each representing independent combinations of species–habitat relationships to identify the ecological minimums required by sage-grouse. We constructed the model from abiotic, land cover, and anthropogenic variables measured at leks (breeding) and surrounding areas within 5 km. We evaluated model partitions using a random subset of leks and historic locations and selected D2 (k = 10) for mapping a habitat similarity index (HSI). Finally, we delineated connectivity by converting the mapped HSI to a resistance surface. Sage-grouse required sagebrush-dominated landscapes containing minimal levels of human land use. Sage-grouse used relatively arid regions characterized by shallow slopes, even terrain, and low amounts of forest, grassland, and agriculture in the surrounding landscape. Most populations were interconnected although several outlying populations were isolated because of distance or lack of habitat corridors for exchange. Land management agencies currently are revising land-use plans and designating critical habitat to conserve sage-grouse and avoid endangered

  7. Age of the Rockland tephra, western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Clynne, M.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The age of the Rockland tephra, which includes an ash-flow tuff south and west of Lassen Peak in northern California and a widespread ash-fall deposit that produced a distinct stratigraphic marker in western North America, is constrained to 565,000 to 610,000 yr by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating. 40Ar/39Ar ages on plagioclase from pumice in the Rockland have a weighted mean age of 609,000 ?? 7000 yr. Isotopic ages of spots on individual zircon crystals, analyzed by the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe, range from ???500,000 to ???800,000 yr; a subpopulation representing crystal rims yielded a weighted-mean age of 573,000 ?? 19,000 yr. Overall stratigraphic constraints on the age are provided by two volcanic units, including the underlying tephra of the Lava Creek Tuff erupted within Yellowstone National Park that has an age of 639,000 ?? 2000 yr. The basaltic andesite of Hootman Ranch stratigraphically overlies the Rockland in the Lassen Peak area and has 40Ar/39Ar ages of 565,000 ?? 29,000 and 565,000 ?? 12,000 yr for plagioclase and groundmass, respectively. Identification of Rockland tephra in ODP core 1018 offshore of central California is an important stratigraphic age that also constrains the eruption age to between 580,000 and 600,000 yr. ?? 2004 Published by University of Washington.

  8. Fire and riparian ecosystems in landscapes of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman

    2003-01-01

    Despite the numerous values of riparian areas and the recognition of fire as a critical natural disturbance, few studies have investigated the behavior, properties, and influence of natural fire in riparian areas of the western USA. Riparian areas frequently differ from adjacent uplands in vegetative composition and structure, geomorphology, hydrology, microclimate,...

  9. Introduction: Exotic annual Bromus in the western USA [Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Germino; Jeanne C. Chambers; Cynthia S. Brown

    2016-01-01

    The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to...

  10. Seasonal pheromone response by Ips pini in northern Arizona and western Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytten E. Steed; Michael R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Populations of Ips pini (Say) in northern Arizona and western Montana, U.S.A., were studied to determine regional pheromone response and to evaluate seasonal shifts in that response. A range of enantiomeric blends of the attractant ipsdienol, alone and in the presence of the synergist lanierone, were tested during spring and summer seasons over...

  11. Introduction: Exotic Annual Bromus in the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brown, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to synthesize current knowledge, research needs, and management implications for Bromus. Exotic plant invasions are multifaceted problems, and understanding and managing them requires the biological, ecological, sociological, and economic perspectives that are integrated in this book. Knowing how well information from one geographic or environmental setting can transfer to another is a key need for broadly distributed Bromus species especially given ongoing climate change. Thus, the chapters in the book compare and contrast invasibility of different ecoregions and invasiveness of different Bromus species. A universal theme is managing for ecosystems that are resilient to disturbance and resistant to invasion which will be essential for adaptation to the human-caused problem of Bromus in the Western USA.

  12. Western Pond Turtle Range - CWHR [ds598

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  13. Western spadefoot Range - CWHR [ds590

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  14. Geosmithia associated with bark beetles and woodborers in the western USA: taxonomic diversity and vector specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolařík, Miroslav; Hulcr, Jiri; Tisserat, Ned; De Beer, Wilhelm; Kostovčík, Martin; Kolaříková, Zuzana; Seybold, Steven J; Rizzo, David M

    2017-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Geosmithia (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are frequent associates of bark beetles and woodborers that colonize hardwood and coniferous trees. One species, Geosmithia morbida, is an economically damaging invasive species. The authors surveyed the Geosmithia species of California and Colorado, USA, to (i) provide baseline data on taxonomy of Geosmithia and beetle vector specificity across the western USA; (ii) investigate the subcortical beetle fauna for alternative vectors of the invasive G. morbida; and (iii) interpret the community composition of this region within the emerging global biogeography of Geosmithia. Geosmithia was detected in 87% of 126 beetle samples obtained from 39 plant species. Twenty-nine species of Geosmithia were distinguished, of which 13 may be new species. Bark beetles from hardwoods, Cupressus, and Sequoia appear to be regular vectors, with Geosmithia present in all beetle gallery systems examined. Other subcortical insects appear to vector Geosmithia at lower frequencies. Overall, most Geosmithia have a distinct level of vector specificity (mostly high, sometimes low) enabling their separation to generalists and specialists. Plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida was not found in association with any other beetle besides Pityophthorus juglandis. However, four additional Geosmithia species were found in P. juglandis galleries. When integrated with recent data from other continents, a global pattern of Geosmithia distribution across continents, latitudes, and vectors is emerging: of the 29 Geosmithia species found in the western USA, 12 have not been reported outside of the USA. The most frequently encountered species with the widest global distribution also had the broadest range of beetle vectors. Several Geosmithia spp. with very narrow vector ranges in Europe exhibited the similar degree of specialization in the USA. Such strong canalization in association could reflect an ancient origin of each individual association, or a

  15. Spatial and temporal variability in stream sediment loads using examples from the Gros Ventre Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra E. Ryan; Mark K. Dixon

    2007-01-01

    Sediment transport rates (dissolved, suspended, and bedload) measured over the course of several years are reported for two streams in the Gros Ventre Mountain range in western Wyoming, USA: Little Granite and Cache Creeks. Both streams drain watersheds that are in relatively pristine environments. The sites are about 20km apart, have runoff dominated by snowmelt and...

  16. Wildfire risk transmission in the Colorado Front Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jessica R; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires are a global phenomenon that in some circumstances can result in human casualties, economic loss, and ecosystem service degradation. In this article we spatially identify wildfire risk transmission pathways and locate the areas of highest exposure of human populations to wildland fires under severe, but not uncommon, weather events. We quantify varying levels of exposure in terms of population potentially affected and tie the exposure back to the spatial source of the risk for the Front Range of Colorado, USA. We use probabilistic fire simulation modeling to address where fire ignitions are most likely to cause the highest impact to human communities, and to explore the role that various landowners play in that transmission of risk. Our results indicated that, given an ignition and the right fire weather conditions, large areas along the Front Range in Colorado could be exposed to wildfires with high potential to impact human populations, and that overall private ignitions have the potential to impact more people than federal ignitions. These results can be used to identify high-priority areas for wildfire risk mitigation using various mitigation tools. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis Published 2014. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain for the USA.

  17. Active deformation offshore the Western Transverse Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucarkus, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Kent, G.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Transverse Ranges within the structural province of southern California, an east-west trending active fold and thrust belt system, has rapid uplift rates that are capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis. This system to the west consists of north and south dipping reverse faults offshore Santa Barbara and Ventura (i.e., Pitas Point fault, Red Mountain fault, Rincon Creek fault). Ventura Avenue Anticline (VAA) is one of the fastest uplifting structure within this system has experienced nearly 2.7 km of structural uplift since fold initiation about 200-300 thousand years ago, yielding an average uplift rate of 9-13 mm/yr. Mapped and dated Holocene marine terraces between Ventura and Carpenteria reveal that large uplift events occurred at 0.8 ka and 1.9 ka; a recurrence interval of approximately a thousand years. The VAA trends offshore to the west and is buried by sediment from Rincon Creek. This sediment completely obscures the surficial expression of the fold between Rincon Point and Punta Gorda, indicating that Holocene sedimentation has kept pace with fold growth. Given the high sedimentation rate, each uplift event should be captured by stratigraphic rotation and onlap, and formation of angular unconformities. With that perspective, we acquired ~240 km-long very high-resolution (decimeter) CHIRP seismic reflection data from offshore Santa Barbara in the west to Ventura in the east, in order to examine discrete folding/uplift events that are preserved in the Holocene sediment record. CHIRP data together with re-processed USGS sparker profiles provide new constraints on timing and architecture of deformation offshore. A transgressive surface that dates back to ~9.5 kyr B.P is identified in seismic reflection data and dips landward; bending of the transgressive surface appears to be due to active folding and faulting. Observed onlapping sediments together with the deformation of the transgressive surface mark the onset of deformation while periods

  18. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  19. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  20. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  1. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  2. Y-STR variation in the Basque diaspora in the Western USA: evolutionary and forensic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Laura; Rosique, Melania; Köhnemann, Stephan; Cardoso, Sergio; García, Ainara; Odriozola, Adrián; Aznar, Jose María; Celorrio, David; Schuerenkamp, Marianne; Zubizarreta, Josu; Davis, Michael C; Hampikian, Greg; Pfeiffer, Heidi; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2012-03-01

    Individuals of Basque origin migrated in large numbers to the Western USA in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the flow continued with less intensity during the last century. The European source population, that of the Basque Country, has long been a cultural and geographical isolate. Previous studies have demonstrated that Y-STR frequencies of Basques are different from those of other Spanish and European populations [1]. The Basque diaspora in the Western USA is a recent migration, but the founder effect and the incorporation of new American Y chromosomes into the paternal genetic pool of the Basque diaspora could have influenced its genetic structure and could thus have practical implications for forensic genetics. To check for genetic substructure among the European source and Basque diaspora populations and determine the most suitable population database for the Basque diaspora in the Western USA, we have analysed the haplotype distribution of 17 Y-STRs in both populations. We have found that the Basque diaspora in the Western USA largely conserve the Y chromosome lineage characteristic of the autochthonous European Basque population with no statistically significant differences. This implies that a common 17 Y-STR Basque population database could be used to calculate identification or kinship parameters regardless of whether the Basque individuals are from the European Basque Country or from the Basque diaspora in the Western USA.

  3. In ecoregions across western USA streamflow increases during post-wildfire recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Michael L.; Cadol, Daniel; Makhnin, Oleg

    2018-01-01

    Continued growth of the human population on Earth will increase pressure on already stressed terrestrial water resources required for drinking water, agriculture, and industry. This stress demands improved understanding of critical controls on water resource availability, particularly in water-limited regions. Mechanistic predictions of future water resource availability are needed because non-stationary conditions exist in the form of changing climatic conditions, land management paradigms, and ecological disturbance regimes. While historically ecological disturbances have been small and could be neglected relative to climatic effects, evidence is accumulating that ecological disturbances, particularly wildfire, can increase regional water availability. However, wildfire hydrologic impacts are typically estimated locally and at small spatial scales, via disparate measurement methods and analysis techniques, and outside the context of climate change projections. Consequently, the relative importance of climate change driven versus wildfire driven impacts on streamflow remains unknown across the western USA. Here we show that considering wildfire in modeling streamflow significantly improves model predictions. Mixed effects modeling attributed 2%‑14% of long-term annual streamflow to wildfire effects. The importance of this wildfire-linked streamflow relative to predicted climate change-induced streamflow reductions ranged from 20%‑370% of the streamflow decrease predicted to occur by 2050. The rate of post-wildfire vegetation recovery and the proportion of watershed area burned controlled the wildfire effect. Our results demonstrate that in large areas of the western USA affected by wildfire, regional predictions of future water availability are subject to greater structural uncertainty than previously thought. These results suggest that future streamflows may be underestimated in areas affected by increased prevalence of hydrologically relevant ecological

  4. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  5. Climate and very large wildland fires in the contiguous western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Natasha Stavros; John Abatzoglou; Narasimhan K. Larkin; Donald McKenzie; E. Ashley Steel

    2014-01-01

    Very large wildfires can cause significant economic and environmental damage, including destruction of homes, adverse air quality, firefighting costs and even loss of life. We examine how climate is associated with very large wildland fires (VLWFs >=50 000 acres, or ~20234 ha) in the western contiguous USA. We used composite records of climate and fire to...

  6. Genetic consequences of forest population dynamics influenced by historic climatic variability in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Westfall; Constance I. Millar

    2004-01-01

    We review recent advances in climate science that show cyclic climatic variation over multiple time scales and give examples of the impacts of this variation on plant populations in the western USA. The paleohistorical reconstructions we review and others indicate that plant specles track these cycles in individualistically complex ways. These dynamic histories suggest...

  7. Characterization of fast pyrolysis products generated from several western USA woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline M. Jarvis; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Yuri Corilo; Ryan P. Rodgers

    2014-01-01

    Woody biomass has the potential to be utilized at an alternative fuel source through its pyrolytic conversion. Here, fast pyrolysis bio-oils derived from several western USA woody species are characterized by negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) to determine molecular-level composition. The...

  8. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  9. Western USA Groundwater Regulation and Infrastructure for Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Jasechko, S.; Nelson, R.

    2016-12-01

    More than 2/3 of US groundwater use is attributed to the western 17 states—an area with many key regions for agricultural production and unsustainable groundwater pumping. Although there is increasing acknowledgement of the importance of more intensive management, the western US remains a patchwork of diverse and imperfect governance and legal strategies. Water quantity is regulated at the state level, so obtaining the right to withdrawal groundwater ("permitting") can be vastly different from one state to the next. Much attention has been devoted to quantifying rates of groundwater depletion across the west, but little is known about the spatiotemporal patterns of groundwater drilling and permitting. While many local agencies have a plethora of knowledge about groundwater infrastructure and regulation, most of this knowledge is hearsay or locally disseminated, and it is difficult to obtain groundwater data—physical and legal—comprehensively across large regions. Here we explore and map groundwater infrastructure and permitting approaches across the western US, focusing specifically on the importance of groundwater to sustaining agriculture in key producing regions (e.g., High Plains). We analyze over four million groundwater-drilling records and relate these data to geographically defined subareas ("special permitting areas") within states that have been designated legally due to concerns about the effects of groundwater withdrawal. Our work indicates that the default set of laws and regulations within states is often of lesser importance because of the extent of and legal powers granted within special permitting areas. We also find areas with significant groundwater drilling that do not fall within special permitting areas, indicating that special permitting areas are not all-inclusive of intensive use. Our work has practical implications, highlighting the effects of regionalized laws on a resource not confined physically by jurisdictional boundaries.

  10. Projecting 21st century snowpack trends in western USA mountains using variable-resolution CESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Alan M.; Ullrich, Paul A.; Zarzycki, Colin M.

    2017-03-01

    Climate change will impact western USA water supplies by shifting precipitation from snow to rain and driving snowmelt earlier in the season. However, changes at the regional-to-mountain scale is still a major topic of interest. This study addresses the impacts of climate change on mountain snowpack by assessing historical and projected variable-resolution (VR) climate simulations in the community earth system model (VR-CESM) forced by prescribed sea-surface temperatures along with widely used regional downscaling techniques, the coupled model intercomparison projects phase 5 bias corrected and statistically downscaled (CMIP5-BCSD) and the North American regional climate change assessment program (NARCCAP). The multi-model RCP8.5 scenario analysis of winter season SWE for western USA mountains indicates by 2040-2065 mean SWE could decrease -19% (NARCCAP) to -38% (VR-CESM), with an ensemble median change of -27%. Contrary to CMIP5-BCSD and NARCCAP, VR-CESM highlights a more pessimistic outcome for western USA mountain snowpack in latter-parts of the 21st century. This is related to temperature changes altering the snow-albedo feedback, snowpack storage, and precipitation phase, but may indicate that VR-CESM resolves more physically consistent elevational effects lacking in statistically downscaled datasets and teleconnections that are not captured in limited area models. Overall, VR-CESM projects by 2075-2100 that average western USA mountain snowfall decreases by -30%, snow cover by -44%, SWE by -69%, and average surface temperature increase of +5.0°C. This places pressure on western USA states to preemptively invest in climate adaptation measures such as alternative water storage, water use efficiency, and reassess reservoir storage operations.

  11. Projecting 21st century snowpack trends in western USA mountains using variable-resolution CESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Alan M.; Ullrich, Paul A.; Zarzycki, Colin M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change will impact western USA water supplies by shifting precipitation from snow to rain and driving snowmelt earlier in the season. However, changes at the regional-to-mountain scale is still a major topic of interest. This study addresses the impacts of climate change on mountain snowpack by assessing historical and projected variable-resolution (VR) climate simulations in the community earth system model (VR-CESM) forced by prescribed sea-surface temperatures along with widely used regional downscaling techniques, the coupled model intercomparison projects phase 5 bias corrected and statistically downscaled (CMIP5-BCSD) and the North American regional climate change assessment program (NARCCAP). The multi-model RCP8.5 scenario analysis of winter season SWE for western USA mountains indicates by 2040-2065 mean SWE could decrease -19% (NARCCAP) to -38% (VR-CESM), with an ensemble median change of -27%. Contrary to CMIP5-BCSD and NARCCAP, VR-CESM highlights a more pessimistic outcome for western USA mountain snowpack in latter-parts of the 21st century. This is related to temperature changes altering the snow-albedo feedback, snowpack storage, and precipitation phase, but may indicate that VR-CESM resolves more physically consistent elevational effects lacking in statistically downscaled datasets and teleconnections that are not captured in limited area models. Overall, VR-CESM projects by 2075-2100 that average western USA mountain snowfall decreases by -30%, snow cover by -44%, SWE by -69%, and average surface temperature increase of +5.0°C. This places pressure on western USA states to preemptively invest in climate adaptation measures such as alternative water storage, water use efficiency, and reassess reservoir storage operations.

  12. Postfire management in forested public lands of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschta, R.L.; Rhodes, J.J.; Kauffman, J.B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Minshall, G.W.; Frissell, C.A.; Perry, D.A.; Hauer, R.

    2004-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the western United States evolved over many millennia in response to disturbances such as wildfires. Land use and management practices have altered these ecosystems, however, including fire regimes in some areas. Forest ecosystems are especially vulnerable to postfire management practices because such practices may influence forest dynamics and aquatic systems for decades to centuries. Thus, there is an increasing need to evaluate the effect of postfire treatments from the perspective of ecosystem recovery. We examined, via the published literature and our collective experience, the ecological effects of some common postfire treatments. Based on this examination, promising postfire restoration measures include retention of large trees, rehabilitation of firelines and roads, and, in some cases, planting of native species. The following practices are generally inconsistent with efforts to restore ecosystem functions after fire: seeding exotic species, livestock grazing, placement of physical structures in and near stream channels, ground-based postfire logging, removal of large trees, and road construction. Practices that adversely affect soil integrity, persistence or recovery of native species, riparian functions, or water quality generally impede ecological recovery after fire. Although research provides a basis for evaluating the efficacy of postfire treatments, there is a continuing need to increase our understanding of the effects of such treatments within the context of societal and ecological goals for forested public lands of the western United States.

  13. 2006–2015 mega-drought in the western USA and its monitoring from space data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2014 and early 2015, scientific and online publications strongly focused on the multi-year drought over the western USA, showing its dramatic consequences for the US economy, environment and society. Considering such an extraordinary drought, many questions related to its beginning, duration, dynamics, intensity, genesis, extent and frequency became unanswered and even became controversial. How different is this current event from the extraordinary US drought of the 1930s and other intensive droughts? Can this drought be classified as a mega-drought? This paper attempts to answer most of these questions, by applying National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA global operational satellite system estimating vegetation health. It has been shown that the latest western US drought began in 2006 and has continued for nine full years. Since vegetation stress still continues in the first few months of 2015 (when this paper is written coming into the 10th year, this drought was classified as a “mega-drought”. In 2006, when the drought began, vegetation was stressed in over 61% of the western USA. During 2012 and 2013 (time of the drought's intensification, this area increased to 71% and 67%, respectively. All 17 states of the western two-thirds of the USA were affected by this drought, especially South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Montana and Wyoming with up to 100% of the area affected by severe vegetation stress during 2012–2014. Compared to other catastrophic droughts of the past 100 years, the current drought during the worst year (2012, affected 71.3% of the western USA. This is comparable to the area affected by a catastrophic drought in 1934 (71.6% and much higher than the droughts in 1956 (49% and 1988 (31%. In terms of number of drought years, the other droughts in the western USA (1985–1986, 1988–1992, 1995–1996, and 2001–2003 were shorter and less intensive. Among western states, California was the most

  14. Feeding by Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the western USA on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Motley; N.P. Havill; A.L. Arsenault-Benoit; A.E. Mayfield; D.S. Ott; D. Ross; M.C. Whitmore; K.F. Wallin

    2017-01-01

    Leucopis argenticollis (Zetterstedt) and Leucopis piniperda (Malloch) are known to feed on the lineage of Adelges tsugae Annand that is native to western North America, but it is not known if they will survive on the lineage that was introduced from Japan to the eastern USA. In 2014, western ...

  15. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kono

    Full Text Available Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%. There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.

  16. Climate, wildfire, and erosion ensemble foretells more sediment in western USA watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kreitler, Jason; Hawbaker, Todd J.; McVay, Jason L.; Miller, Mary Ellen; Mueller, Erich R.; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Lowe, Scott E.; Sankey, Temuulen T.

    2017-09-01

    The area burned annually by wildfires is expected to increase worldwide due to climate change. Burned areas increase soil erosion rates within watersheds, which can increase sedimentation in downstream rivers and reservoirs. However, which watersheds will be impacted by future wildfires is largely unknown. Using an ensemble of climate, fire, and erosion models, we show that postfire sedimentation is projected to increase for nearly nine tenths of watersheds by >10% and for more than one third of watersheds by >100% by the 2041 to 2050 decade in the western USA. The projected increases are statistically significant for more than eight tenths of the watersheds. In the western USA, many human communities rely on water from rivers and reservoirs that originates in watersheds where sedimentation is projected to increase. Increased sedimentation could negatively impact water supply and quality for some communities, in addition to affecting stream channel stability and aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Climate, wildfire, and erosion ensemble foretells more sediment in western USA watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Hawbaker, Todd; McVay, Jason L.; Miller, Mary Ellen; Mueller, Erich R.; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Lowe, Scott E.; Sankey, Temuulen T.

    2017-01-01

    The area burned annually by wildfires is expected to increase worldwide due to climate change. Burned areas increase soil erosion rates within watersheds, which can increase sedimentation in downstream rivers and reservoirs. However, which watersheds will be impacted by future wildfires is largely unknown. Using an ensemble of climate, fire, and erosion models, we show that post-fire sedimentation is projected to increase for nearly nine-tenths of watersheds by > 10% and for more than one-third of watersheds by > 100% by the 2041 to 2050 decade in the western USA. The projected increases are statistically significant for more than eight-tenths of the watersheds. In the western USA, many human communities rely on water from rivers and reservoirs that originates in watersheds where sedimentation is projected to increase. Increased sedimentation could negatively impact water supply and quality for some communities, in addition to affecting stream channel stability and aquatic ecosystems.

  18. The western transverse ranges microplate as a native terrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.D.; Reed, W.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Palocurrent measurements from the entire Cretaceous section of the western Transverse Ranges microplate (WTRM) yield a northerly flow direction. Point count data indicate a mixed provenance for both conglomerates and associated sandstones. The dominant provenance was mixed magmatic arc/recycled orogen and disected/transitional arc terranes. Petrographic, quantitative SEM and microprobe analysis also indicate the presence of diagnostic Franciscan mineralogy in these sediments, including glaucophane, riebeckite, lawsonite, and serpentine, suggesting derivation from a subduction complex. Olistoclasts of chert, jadeitic graywacke, serpentine and blueschist are found intermixed within the arc-derived sediments. Olistoclasts range in size from sub-millimeter to centimeter scale and olistoliths range up to 150 m. Well preserved internal bedding in some of the olistoliths suggest emplacement by landsliding indicating very short transport distance. This Franciscan material represents the oldest melange-derived material reported from this part of California and documents uplift and erosion of the subduction complex earlier than previously suggested. These data are consistent with deposition in a Cretaceous fore-arc basin located west or south of the San Diego area. The allochthonous WTRM of southern California can be reconstructed to an originally north-south oriented fore-arc basin. After deposition of the Sespe Formation (22 Ma [+-]) the microplate was slivered by strike-slip faults and rotated clockwise approximately 90[degrees], after which, the block again accreted against the continental margin. Our reconstruction suggest that depositional and structural trends for Eocene and Cretaceous sediments is likely to be different from that in the Miocene Monterey pay zones in the Santa Barbara channel region. If our reconstruction is correct, exploration strategy for Eocene and Cretaceous petroleum in the southern California Bight should take this tectonic model into account.

  19. Correlates of Sexual Risk among Recent Gay and Bisexual Immigrants from Western and Eastern Africa to the USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theo Sandfort; C Anyamele; C Dolezal

    2017-01-01

    We examined correlates of sexual risk among gay and bisexual men, who recently migrated from western and eastern African countries to the USA and lived in New York City and who are HIV negative or of unknown status...

  20. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn M. Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland's warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland's warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of...

  1. Predicting future, post-fire erosion and sedimentation with watershed models in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, J. B.; Kreitler, J.; Hawbaker, T. J.; McVay, J.; Vaillant, N.; Lowe, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Increased sedimentation following wildland fire can negatively impact water supply and water quality. Understanding how future changes in fire frequency, extent, and location will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities is of great societal importance in the USA and throughout the world. In this work we predict variability in post-fire sediment yield at a watershed scale as a function of future wildfire conditions throughout the western USA through 2050. Our predictions are based on future fire probabilities, climate change scenarios, and differing GIS-based implementations of watershed sediment yield models. We assess the uncertainties of our predictions and compare predictions based on the GEOWEPP (Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project) model, the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) Sediment Retention model, and the InVEST Sediment Delivery Ratio model. We show that the models can be parameterized in a relatively simple fashion to predict post-fire sediment yield with accuracy at a watershed scale. Predictions indicate that sediment yield from post-fire hillslope erosion may increase dramatically in coming decades as a function of increased wildfire for many watersheds across the western USA.

  2. Restoring and managing low-severity fire in dry-forest landscapes of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Low-severity fires that killed few canopy trees played a significant historical role in dry forests of the western USA and warrant restoration and management, but historical rates of burning remain uncertain. Past reconstructions focused on on dating fire years, not measuring historical rates of burning. Past statistics, including mean composite fire interval (mean CFI) and individual-tree fire interval (mean ITFI) have biases and inaccuracies if used as estimators of rates. In this study, I used regression, with a calibration dataset of 96 cases, to test whether these statistics could accurately predict two equivalent historical rates, population mean fire interval (PMFI) and fire rotation (FR). The best model, using Weibull mean ITFI, had low prediction error and R2adj = 0.972. I used this model to predict historical PMFI/FR at 252 sites spanning dry forests. Historical PMFI/FR for a pool of 342 calibration and predicted sites had a mean of 39 years and median of 30 years. Short ( 55 years) mean PMFI/FRs were mainly from northern New Mexico to South Dakota. Mountain sites often had a large range in PMFI/FR. Nearly all 342 estimates are for old forests with a history of primarily low-severity fire, found across only about 34% of historical dry-forest area. Frequent fire (PMFI/FR severity fire. Historical fuels (e.g., understory shrubs and small trees) could fully recover between multidecadal fires, allowing some denser forests and some ecosystem processes and wildlife habitat to be less limited by fire. Lower historical rates mean less restoration treatment is needed before beginning managed fire for resource benefits, where feasible. Mimicking patterns of variability in historical low-severity fire regimes would likely benefit biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:28199416

  3. Restoring and managing low-severity fire in dry-forest landscapes of the western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L

    2017-01-01

    Low-severity fires that killed few canopy trees played a significant historical role in dry forests of the western USA and warrant restoration and management, but historical rates of burning remain uncertain. Past reconstructions focused on on dating fire years, not measuring historical rates of burning. Past statistics, including mean composite fire interval (mean CFI) and individual-tree fire interval (mean ITFI) have biases and inaccuracies if used as estimators of rates. In this study, I used regression, with a calibration dataset of 96 cases, to test whether these statistics could accurately predict two equivalent historical rates, population mean fire interval (PMFI) and fire rotation (FR). The best model, using Weibull mean ITFI, had low prediction error and R2adj = 0.972. I used this model to predict historical PMFI/FR at 252 sites spanning dry forests. Historical PMFI/FR for a pool of 342 calibration and predicted sites had a mean of 39 years and median of 30 years. Short ( 55 years) mean PMFI/FRs were mainly from northern New Mexico to South Dakota. Mountain sites often had a large range in PMFI/FR. Nearly all 342 estimates are for old forests with a history of primarily low-severity fire, found across only about 34% of historical dry-forest area. Frequent fire (PMFI/FR fire. Historical fuels (e.g., understory shrubs and small trees) could fully recover between multidecadal fires, allowing some denser forests and some ecosystem processes and wildlife habitat to be less limited by fire. Lower historical rates mean less restoration treatment is needed before beginning managed fire for resource benefits, where feasible. Mimicking patterns of variability in historical low-severity fire regimes would likely benefit biological diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  4. Fire severity in intermittent stream drainages, Western Cascade Range, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Tollefson; Frederick J. Swanson; John H. Cissel

    2004-01-01

    We quantified fire severity patterns within intermittent stream drainages in a recently burned area of the central western Cascades, Oregon. Aerial photographs were used to estimate post fire live canopy cover within streamside and upland zones on the southeast and southwest-facing slopes of 33 watersheds. Live canopy cover did not differ significantly between...

  5. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  6. RANGE AND DENSITY OF ALIEN FISH IN WESTERN STREAMS AND RIVERS, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien fish have become increasingly prevalent in Western U.S. waters. The EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's Western Pilot (12 western states), which is based upon a probabilistic design, provides an opportunity to make inferences about the range and density of...

  7. A multi-proxy palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic record within full glacial lacustrine deposits, western Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, D.A.; Daniel, L.; Kaplan, S.W.; Yansa, C.H.; Curry, B. Brandon; Oches, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Fulton Section, along the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, USA, is a 1km continuous exposure (~20m vertically) of Quaternary fluvial and lacustrine deposits, inset within Eocene sediments and buried by thick loess. Fossiliferous slackwater lake sediments record maximum aggradation during the last two major glaciations, with deposition between ca. 190-140 ka and 24-1814C ka BP, based on amino acid and radiocarbon chronology, respectively. During the onset of full glacial conditions (ca. 24-22 14C ka BP), a relatively permanent shallow lake environment is indicated by ostracods, aquatic molluscs, and both pollen and macrofossils of aquatic plants. By 21.8 14C ka BP, increasing emergent plants, amphibious gastropods (Pomatiopsis) and heavier ??18O compositions suggest marsh-like conditions in a periodically drying lake. The surrounding uplands consisted of Picea-Pinus woodlands mixed with cool-temperate hardwoods (e.g. Quercus, Populus, Carya), grasses and herbs. More open conditions ensued ca. 20 14C ka BP, with loess and slopewash gradually infilling the former lake by 18 14C ka BP. Modern analogue analyses of ostracods and palaeontological evidence imply a full glacial climate similar to today's mixed-boreal zone in central Minnesota, USA, about 98C cooler in mean annual temperature than present-day western Tennessee. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Market-Driven Solutions to Economic, Environmental, and Social Issues Related to Water Management in the Western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Clayton

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Water management issues continue to plague the western United States, including rapid population growth, degraded aquatic ecosystems, unfulfilled claims to American Indian users, the threat of global warming, an economic recession, and many other issues. This essay outlines some advantages of market-driven reforms to the management of water resources in the western USA. Historical and contemporary western water resource issues are examined from economic, environmental, and social viewpoints. In all such contexts, it is argued that regulated water markets provide flexible and just solutions to western water dilemmas, and reallocations may provide much-needed additional water supply.

  9. Range Expansion and the Origin of USA300 North American Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challagundla, Lavanya; Luo, Xiao; Tickler, Isabella A.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Brown, Eric L.; Skov, Robert; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Reyes, Jinnethe; Robledo, Iraida E.; Vazquez, Guillermo J.; Rivera, Raul; Fey, Paul D.; Stevenson, Kurt; Wang, Shu-Hua; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Mediavilla, Jose R.; Arias, Cesar A.; Planet, Paul J.; Nolan, Rathel L.; Tenover, Fred C.; Goering, Richard V.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The USA300 North American epidemic (USA300-NAE) clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has caused a wave of severe skin and soft tissue infections in the United States since it emerged in the early 2000s, but its geographic origin is obscure. Here we use the population genomic signatures expected from the serial founder effects of a geographic range expansion to infer the origin of USA300-NAE and identify polymorphisms associated with its spread. Genome sequences from 357 isolates from 22 U.S. states and territories and seven other countries are compared. We observe two significant signatures of range expansion, including decreases in genetic diversity and increases in derived allele frequency with geographic distance from the Pennsylvania region. These signatures account for approximately half of the core nucleotide variation of this clone, occur genome wide, and are robust to heterogeneity in temporal sampling of isolates, human population density, and recombination detection methods. The potential for positive selection of a gyrA fluoroquinolone resistance allele and several intergenic regions, along with a 2.4 times higher recombination rate in a resistant subclade, is noted. These results are the first to show a pattern of genetic variation that is consistent with a range expansion of an epidemic bacterial clone, and they highlight a rarely considered but potentially common mechanism by which genetic drift may profoundly influence bacterial genetic variation. PMID:29295910

  10. Variable density management in riparian reserves: lessons learned from an operational study in managed forests of western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Chan; Paul Anderson; John Cissel; Larry Lateen; Charley. Thompson

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale operational study has been undertaken to investigate variable density management in conjunction with riparian buffers as a means to accelerate development of late-seral habitat, facilitate rare species management, and maintain riparian functions in 40-70 year-old headwater forests in western Oregon, USA. Upland variable retention treatments include...

  11. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  12. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 1; Western Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and cup-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Vandenberg AFB. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy cup-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005. A total of 153,961 readings of I-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 18 out of 34 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. Data from these 18 were used to form a composite comparison. A small positive bias in the composite RSA average wind speed increased from +0.5 kts at 15 kts, to +1 kt at 25 kts. A slightly larger positive bias in the RSA peak wind speed increased from +1 kt at 15 kts, to +2 kts at 30 kts.

  13. Ecology and pathology of Phytophthora ITS clade 3 species in forests in western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Everett M; Reeser, Paul W; Sutton, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora species are widespread and diverse in forest ecosystems, but little is known about their ecology. We explore ecological attributes of the closely related clade 3 species that occur sympatrically in western North American forests. We address the population structure, pathology, and epidemiology of P. ilicis, P. nemorosa, P. pluvialis, P. pseudosyringae, and P. psychrophila. Phytophthora species were isolated from plant tissues, rainwater falling through the forest canopy, streams, and soils in forests in western Oregon. Species identifications were based on morphology in culture with molecular confirmation using COX spacer and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. All five clade 3 Phytophthora species are present in western Oregon forests, although P. ilicis (only 1 forest isolate) and P. psychrophila (only 12 isolates) are apparently rare. P. ilicis is known only from holly in horticultural situations and once from a naturalized seedling in an urban forest. The known distribution of P. nemorosa in forest settings coincides with the ranges of its principle hosts, tanoak and myrtlewood, in Oregon and California. Although it is regularly identified from streams within the tanoak range, it has not been recovered from streams beyond that range. P. pluvialis is primarily associated with Douglas-fir canopies. It was identified from scattered locations throughout western Oregon in rain traps beneath Douglas-fir plantations and from diseased needles. P. pseudosyringae is also isolated from tanoak and myrtlewood in southwest Oregon and California, but its distribution, in streams at least, extends throughout much of western Oregon. P. psychrophila in Oregon is known only from rain traps beneath tanoak trees. Little intraspecific variation was detected in the nuclear rDNA ITS of clade 3 species. Variation in the mitochondrial COX spacer region was more frequent, with 2 to 10 haplotypes identified in the clade 3 species, for which we had multiple isolates.

  14. Aerial survey of the proposed western addition to the Arctic National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From April 23, 1974, until April 27, 1974, Averill Thayer, Manager of the Arctic National Wildlife Range, and I conducted an aerial survey of the proposed Western...

  15. Habitat similarity index (HSI) values for greater sage-grouse across their western range.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Habitat similarity index (HSI) values for greater sage-grouse across their western range. HSI values represent the relationship of environmental values at map...

  16. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Mao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the Western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of but near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July-October fire season when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these low biases largely to the underestimated (by more than a factor of two and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the USA likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show slightly improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  17. Survey of Beaver-related Restoration Practices in Rangeland Streams of the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Rohde, Ashley T.; Charnley, Susan; Davee, Rachael R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gosnell, Hannah; Grant, Gordon E.; Hausner, Mark B.; Huntington, Justin L.; Nash, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures also harbor a history of social conflict. Hence, we identified a need to assess the use of beaver-related restoration projects in western rangelands to increase awareness and accountability, and identify gaps in scientific knowledge. We inventoried 97 projects implemented by 32 organizations, most in the last 10 years. We found that beaver-related stream restoration projects undertaken mostly involved the relocation of nuisance beavers. The most common goal was to store water, either with beaver dams or artificial structures. Beavers were often moved without regard to genetics, disease, or potential conflicts with nearby landowners. Few projects included post-implementation monitoring or planned for longer term issues, such as what happens when beavers abandon a site or when beaver dams or structures breach. Human dimensions were rarely considered and water rights and other issues were mostly unresolved or addressed through ad-hoc agreements. We conclude that the practice and implementation of beaver-related restoration has outpaced research on its efficacy and best practices. Further scientific research is necessary, especially research that informs the establishment of clear guidelines for best practices.

  18. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald; Littell, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert. In the middle of this gradient, conditional on vegetation (fuels), correlations are strong, but outside this range the equivalence hotter and drier equals more fire either breaks down or is contingent on other factors such as previous-year climate. This suggests that the regional drought-fire dynamic will not be stationary in future climate, nor will other more complex contingencies associated with the variation in fire extent. Predictions of future wildfire area therefore need to consider not only vegetation changes, as some dynamic vegetation models now do, but also potential changes in the drought-fire dynamic that will ensue in a warming climate. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald; Littell, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought–fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert. In the middle of this gradient, conditional on vegetation (fuels), correlations are strong, but outside this range the equivalence hotter and drier equals more fire either breaks down or is contingent on other factors such as previous-year climate. This suggests that the regional drought–fire dynamic will not be stationary in future climate, nor will other more complex contingencies associated with the variation in fire extent. Predictions of future wildfire area therefore need to consider not only vegetation changes, as some dynamic vegetation models now do, but also potential changes in the drought–fire dynamic that will ensue in a warming climate.

  20. Feeding by Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the western USA on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, K; Havill, N P; Arsenault-Benoit, A L; Mayfield, A E; Ott, D S; Ross, D; Whitmore, M C; Wallin, K F

    2017-10-01

    Leucopis argenticollis (Zetterstedt) and Leucopis piniperda (Malloch) are known to feed on the lineage of Adelges tsugae Annand that is native to western North America, but it is not known if they will survive on the lineage that was introduced from Japan to the eastern USA. In 2014, western Leucopis spp. larvae were brought to the laboratory and placed on A. tsugae collected in either Washington (North American A. tsugae lineage) or Connecticut (Japanese lineage). There were no significant differences in survival or developmental times between flies reared on the two different adelgid lineages. In 2015 and 2016, western Leucopis spp. adults were released at two different densities onto enclosed branches of A. tsugae infested eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) in Tennessee and New York. Cages were recovered and their contents examined 4 weeks after release at each location. Leucopis spp. larvae and puparia of the F1 generation were recovered at both release locations and adults of the F1 generation were collected at the Tennessee location. The number of Leucopis spp. offspring collected increased with increasing adelgid density, but did not differ by the number of adult flies released. Flies recovered from cages and flies collected from the source colony were identified as L.argenticollis and L. piniperda using DNA barcoding. These results demonstrate that Leucopis spp. from the Pacific Northwest are capable of feeding and developing to the adult stage on A. tsugae in the eastern USA and they are able to tolerate environmental conditions during late spring and early summer at the southern and northern extent of the area invaded by A. tsugae in the eastern USA.

  1. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted.

  2. Microbial Responses to Forest Management in the Western Gulf Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, J. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Scott, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial communities are integral components of the biogeochemistry, fertility, and structure of forest soils, and land management practices that alter the microbial environment may influence the long-term sustainability and productivity of forestlands. In 1989 the Long-term Soil Productivity (LTSP) program was initiated to address the National Forest Management Act's concerns over possible losses in soil productivity due to soil disturbance from forest management on National Forest lands. The LTSP program is a network of 62 sites across the USA and Canada that employs the same 3X3 replicated (X3) factorial experimental design consisting of three harvest intensities (bole only, whole tree, whole tree + forest floor removal) with three soil compaction intensities (none, intermediate, severe) and plots that were split for herbicide when the experiment was initiated. Our purpose was to determine the impact of forest harvest intensity, soil compaction, and their interaction on soil microbial biomass C and N (SMB-C, -N) and soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in a Pinus taeda L. forest 15-years post-treatment at the Davy Crockett National Forest LTSP site in eastern Texas, USA. We quantified SMB-C and -N using the chloroform fumigation extraction method, and TN and SOC by dry combustion. Soils are loamy sand and were sampled 5X during 2011-2012. In each split-plot, five samples were obtained between two living P. taeda stems to a depth of 10-cm and pooled in the field. Because soil compaction, harvest by soil compaction interaction, and herbicide had no effect on the measured soil properties, results are based on repeated measures ANOVA using harvest and time. Both SMB-C and -N were impacted by harvest and varied with time, and SMB-C had a harvest by time interaction. Generally, both microbial indices decreased in the order: bole only >whole tree > whole tree + forest floor. Soil TN and SOC were both higher in the bole only treatment compared

  3. Structural Architecturing of the Western Khisor Range, North of Saiyiduwali: Implications for Hydrocarbon Prospects, KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Western Khisor Range segment of the Trans-Indus ranges is a south-vergent, east-west trending foldthrust belt that protrudes southward into Himalayan foreland deep. The frontal flanks of range are characterized by east-west trending parallel to enechelon, plunging local anticlines and synclines structures. General structural style of folds was observed asymmetric to overturn and dominantly south vergent. The frontal outskirts of the study area is demarcated by a youngest partly emergent thrust fault named as Khisor Thrust. Outcrops projection to subsurface of the structural features suggests a thin-skinned tectonic mechanism for growth of the western Khisor Range where gliding surface for the frontal thrust sheet being located within the Cambrian rocks of Jhelum Group at a maximum depth of 4km. The structural evolution of the western Khisor Range is generally ascribed to southward directed thrust transferral system along the basal décollement being observed at base of the Cambrian Khewra Sandstone. Along this detachment horizon the Khewra Sandstone emplaced over the Recent alluvium and boulder bed deposits. The Khisor Thrust fault bulldozed the fore limb of the Saiyiduwali Anticline and demarcates the north-western proximity of the Punjab Foredeep. The Khisor Thrust sheet is predominantly comprised of the shallow marine rocks of Paleozoic to Mesozoic, laterally extended along the range. The stratigraphic framework of the western Khisor Range is considerably related and correlative to the eastern Trans-Indus and Salt ranges. Cambrian strata of the western Khisor Range comprise of Jhelum Group where its apex is underlain by the Permian Nilawahan and Zaluch groups rocks, consists of the Sardhai and Amb formations. The Sardhai Formation was observed 50m thick and consists of dark gray to blackish gray and black carbonaceous shale while the lower constituents of the Amb Formation contains dark gray carbonaceous and calcareous shale up to 30m thick

  4. The Late Quaternary biogeographic histories of some Great Basin mammals (western USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Donald K.

    2006-11-01

    The Great Basin of arid western North America provides one of the most detailed late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal records available for any part of the world, though the record is by far strongest for small mammals. Of the 35 genera of now-extinct North American Pleistocene mammals, 19 are known to have occurred in the Great Basin, a list that is likely to be complete or nearly so. Of these 19, seven can be shown to have survived beyond 12,000 radiocarbon years ago, a proportion similar to that for North America as a whole. Horses, camels, mammoth, and helmeted musk-oxen appear to have been the most abundant of these genera. Pygmy rabbits ( Brachylagus idahoensis), yellow-bellied marmots ( Marmota flaviventris), and bushy-tailed woodrats ( Neotoma cinerea) declined in abundance at the end of the Pleistocene, at about the same time as populations south of their current arid western distributional boundary were extirpated. Subsequent declines occurred during the hot/dry middle Holocene. Pygmy rabbits also declined as modern pinyon-juniper woodlands developed across the Great Basin. The Snake Range of eastern Nevada has seen the late Pleistocene or Holocene extinction of both northern pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides) and pikas ( Ochotona princeps). Coupled with the rarity of yellow-bellied marmots here, these histories make the Snake Range a biogeographic oddity. These and other Great Basin mammal histories provide significant insights into the possible responses of Great Basin small mammals to global warming.

  5. Mucocutaneous lesions in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2015-08-20

    Mucocutaneous lesions were biopsied from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and estuarine waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, between 2003 and 2013. A total of 78 incisional biopsies from 58 dolphins (n=43 IRL, n=15 CHS) were examined. Thirteen dolphins had 2 lesions biopsied at the same examination, and 6 dolphins were re-examined and re-biopsied at time intervals varying from 1 to 8 yr. Biopsy sites included the skin (n=47), tongue (n=2), and genital mucosa (n=29). Pathologic diagnoses were: orogenital sessile papilloma (39.7%), cutaneous lobomycosis (16.7%), tattoo skin disease (TSD; 15.4%), nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (15.4%), and epidermal hyperplasia (12.8%). Pathologic diagnoses from dolphins with 2 lesions were predominately orogenital sessile papillomas (n=9) with nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (n=4), TSD (n=3), lobomycosis (n=1), and epidermal hyperplasia (n=1). Persistent pathologic diagnoses from the same dolphins re-examined and re-biopsied at different times included genital sessile papillomas (n=3), lobomycosis (n=2), and nonspecific dermatitis (n=2). This is the first study documenting the various types, combined prevalence, and progression of mucocutaneous lesions in dolphins from the southeastern USA. The data support other published findings describing the health patterns in dolphins from these geographic regions. Potential health impacts related to the observed suite of lesions are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, since previous studies have indicated that both populations are affected by complex infectious diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances and anthropogenic contaminants.

  6. Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese; Freeman, Mark; Abouelezz, Hanem; Royar, K.; Howard, Alan D.; Mickey, R.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4 h for 3–4 months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify the utilization distribution (UD), which is a spatially explicit, topographic mapping of how different areas within the home range are used. We then used GIS methods to quantify both biotic (e.g. habitat types, stream density) and abiotic (e.g. slope) resources within each bobcat’s home range. Across bobcats, upper 20th UD percentiles (core areas) had 18% less agriculture, 42% less development, 26% more bobcat habitat (shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types), and 33% lower road density than lower UD percentiles (UD valleys). For each bobcat, we used Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate and compare 24 alternative Resource Utilization Functions (hypotheses) that could explain the topology of the individual’s UD. A model-averaged population-level Resource Utilization Function suggested positive responses to shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types within 1 km of a location, and negative responses to roads and mixed forest cover types within 1 km of a location. Applying this model-averaged function to each pixel in the study area revealed habitat suitability for bobcats across the entire study area, with suitability scores ranging between −1.69 and 1.44, where higher values were assumed to represent higher quality habitat. The southern Champlain Valley, which contained ample wetland and shrub habitat, was a concentrated area of highly suitable habitat, while areas at higher elevation areas were less suitable. Female bobcat home ranges, on average, had an average habitat suitability score of near 0, indicating

  7. Cruise and Data Report of USA-PRC Joint Air-Sea Interaction Studies in the Western Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 8700374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USA-PRC Joint Program on Air-Sea Interaction Studies in the Tropical Western Pacific is a component of the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Marine and...

  8. Climate, fire size, and biophysical setting control fire severity and spatial pattern in the northern Cascade Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansler, C Alina; McKenzie, Donald

    2014-07-01

    Warmer and drier climate over the past few decades has brought larger fire sizes and increased annual area burned in forested ecosystems of western North America, and continued increases in annual area burned are expected due to climate change. As warming continues, fires may also increase in severity and produce larger contiguous patches of severely burned areas. We used remotely sensed burn-severity data from 125 fires in the northern Cascade Range of Washington, USA, to explore relationships between fire size, severity, and the spatial pattern of severity. We examined relationships between climate and the annual area burned and the size of wildfires over a 25-year period. We tested the hypothesis that increased fire size is commensurate with increased burn severity and increased spatial aggregation of severely burned areas. We also asked how local ecological controls might modulate these relationships by comparing results over the whole study area (the northern Cascade Range) to those from four ecological subsections within it. We found significant positive relationships between climate and fire size, and between fire size and the proportion of high severity and spatial-pattern metrics that quantify the spatial aggregation of high-severity areas within fires, but the strength and significance of these relationships varied among the four subsections. In areas with more contiguous subalpine forests and less complex topography, the proportion and spatial aggregation of severely burned areas were more strongly correlated with fire size. If fire sizes increase in a warming climate, changes in the extent, severity, and spatial pattern of fire regimes are likely to be more pronounced in higher-severity fire regimes with less complex topography and more continuous fuels.

  9. Range extension of Microgomphus souteri Fraser, 1924 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae to northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Halali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During opportunistic surveys conducted at Collem (Goa, a specimen of male Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 was collected on 14th September 2013. Another male specimen was collected on 28th June 2014. Microgomphus souteri Fraser 1924 is recorded for the first time in northern Western Ghats and is a new record for Goa. Type specimen was described from Coorg (Karnataka and was later recorded from Kerala. The discovery of this species in Goa has expanded its range to the north of the Western Ghats. With this discovery currently 88 species of Odonata are now known from the state. 

  10. Diversity relationships among wild potato collections from seven “Sky Island” mountain ranges in the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors collected samples of 97 populations of the wild potato S. stoloniferum (previously fendleri) in the following seven mountain ranges of the southwest USA over seven years, 2004-2010: Chiricahua (CHI), Huachuca (HUA), Rincon (RIN), Guadalupe (GUA), Pinaleno (PIN), Santa Catalina (CAT), an...

  11. Assessment of the radiological impact of coal utilization. I. Preliminary studies on Western coal. [Western USA; radionuclide impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.; Farmer, B.M.; Hopkins, L.C.; Jenkins, P.H.; Phillips, C.A.; Robinson, B.

    1979-02-12

    It was the purpose of this project to broadly survey pathways of radionuclides in the coal fuel cycle, identifying critical questions and providing direction for subsequent, definitive studies of radionuclides in coal and the technological enhancement of concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides through use of this coal. Western coal was selected for study because of its prominence in the National Energy Plan. Specific objectives were to: investigate the fate of radionuclides in the coal fuel cycle and, where possible, delineate the scope of the potential environmental and human health problem associated with radionuclides in coal; compile and evaluate data for uranium-238, uranium-234, lead-210, polonium-210, and thorium-230 in coal; study the release, fate, and accumulation of radionuclides from a power plant burning Western coal; and assess the possible need for additional control technology or standards. Results indicate that concentration of radionuclides in coal from Western mines varies widely, both within and between mines similar to other minor and trace constituents. The concentration of radionuclides in Western coal being mined today is roughly comparable to that of Eastern coal and is slightly below the average for all U.S. coal. A radionuclide balance for a power plant indicated that over 80% of uranium-234, uranium-238, and lead-210 present in the feed coal remained with the fly ash. Thus, collection of fly ash by electrostatic precipitators is of value in controlling radionuclide emissions. An additional 8 to 9% of the radionuclidesremained with bottom ash. Since over 90% of uranium-234, uranium-238, and lead-210 in feed coal remains with bottom ash and fly ash, it is suggested that the possible migration of radionuclides--particularly radon-222 which decays to lead-210 and polonium-210--from the ash pond, warrants further study.

  12. Multiscale perspectives of fire, climate and humans in western North America and the Jemez Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, Thomas W; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Liebmann, Matthew J; Falk, Donald A; Allen, Craig D

    2016-06-05

    Interannual climate variations have been important drivers of wildfire occurrence in ponderosa pine forests across western North America for at least 400 years, but at finer scales of mountain ranges and landscapes human land uses sometimes over-rode climate influences. We reconstruct and analyse effects of high human population densities in forests of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico from ca 1300 CE to Present. Prior to the 1680 Pueblo Revolt, human land uses reduced the occurrence of widespread fires while simultaneously adding more ignitions resulting in many small-extent fires. During the 18th and 19th centuries, wet/dry oscillations and their effects on fuels dynamics controlled widespread fire occurrence. In the late 19th century, intensive livestock grazing disrupted fuels continuity and fire spread and then active fire suppression maintained the absence of widespread surface fires during most of the 20th century. The abundance and continuity of fuels is the most important controlling variable in fire regimes of these semi-arid forests. Reduction of widespread fires owing to reduction of fuel continuity emerges as a hallmark of extensive human impacts on past forests and fire regimes.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Multiscale perspectives of fire, climate and humans in western North America and the Jemez Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, Thomas W.; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I.; Liebmann, Matthew J.; Falk, Donald A.; Allen, Craig D.

    2016-01-01

    Interannual climate variations have been important drivers of wildfire occurrence in ponderosa pine forests across western North America for at least 400 years, but at finer scales of mountain ranges and landscapes human land uses sometimes over-rode climate influences. We reconstruct and analyse effects of high human population densities in forests of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico from ca 1300 CE to Present. Prior to the 1680 Pueblo Revolt, human land uses reduced the occurrence of widespread fires while simultaneously adding more ignitions resulting in many small-extent fires. During the 18th and 19th centuries, wet/dry oscillations and their effects on fuels dynamics controlled widespread fire occurrence. In the late 19th century, intensive livestock grazing disrupted fuels continuity and fire spread and then active fire suppression maintained the absence of widespread surface fires during most of the 20th century. The abundance and continuity of fuels is the most important controlling variable in fire regimes of these semi-arid forests. Reduction of widespread fires owing to reduction of fuel continuity emerges as a hallmark of extensive human impacts on past forests and fire regimes.

  14. Northern range edge equilibrium of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. not achieved in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortmans, W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The geographic distributions of a species, be it native or alien, is expected to be limited at some point by environmental conditions. In this situation, a range edge equilibrium (REE takes place, i.e., populations occurring beyond the edge have a growth rate reduced below replacement. The occurrence of REE has never been tested for an invasive species. In Western Europe, the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. has spread in most parts of southern and central France, where it can be found in very high densities in sunflower fields, but seems to be limited in its northwards expansion. It is currently unknown whether the range has reached a limit or not. Information about how the species responds to sunflower competition is also lacking. Objectives. This work addressed two questions: Has the northern part of A. artemisiifolia invaded range in Western Europe reached REE? How is A. artemisiifolia performance influenced by sunflower competition? Method. Plots were established in an agricultural field ca. 250 km north to the current invaded range, in Belgium. We planted A. artemisiifolia seedlings with or without sunflower competition. The following year, the population growth rates and the soil seed bank were assessed. Results. The species established populations with relatively high growth rates and soil seed bank. Sunflower competition did not have a significant impact on plant performance. Conclusions. The results invalidate the hypothesis of equilibrium at the current margin of A. artemisiifolia invaded range, and suggest a significant potential for invasion northwards.

  15. Legal ecotones: A comparative analysis of riparian policy protection in the Oregon Coast Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie, Brett A; Santelmann, Mary V; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Duncan, Sally L

    2017-07-15

    Waterways of the USA are protected under the public trust doctrine, placing responsibility on the state to safeguard public resources for the benefit of current and future generations. This responsibility has led to the development of management standards for lands adjacent to streams. In the state of Oregon, policy protection for riparian areas varies by ownership (e.g., federal, state, or private), land use (e.g., forest, agriculture, rural residential, or urban) and stream attributes, creating varying standards for riparian land-management practices along the stream corridor. Here, we compare state and federal riparian land-management standards in four major policies that apply to private and public lands in the Oregon Coast Range. We use a standard template to categorize elements of policy protection: (1) the regulatory approach, (2) policy goals, (3) stream attributes, and (4) management standards. All four policies have similar goals for achieving water-quality standards, but differ in their regulatory approach. Plans for agricultural lands rely on outcome-based standards to treat pollution, in contrast with the prescriptive policy approaches for federal, state, and private forest lands, which set specific standards with the intent of preventing pollution. Policies also differ regarding the stream attributes considered when specifying management standards. Across all policies, 25 categories of unique standards are identified. Buffer widths vary from 0 to ∼152 m, with no buffer requirements for streams in agricultural areas or small, non-fish-bearing, seasonal streams on private forest land; narrow buffer requirements for small, non-fish-bearing perennial streams on private forest land (3 m); and the widest buffer requirements for fish-bearing streams on federal land (two site-potential tree-heights, up to an estimated 152 m). Results provide insight into how ecosystem concerns are addressed by variable policy approaches in multi-ownership landscapes, an

  16. Range-wide patterns of migratory connectivity in the western sandpiper Calidris mauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Samantha E.; Norris, D. Ryan; Kyser, T. Kurt; Fernández, Guillermo; Schwarz, Birgit; Carmona, Roberto; Colwell, Mark A.; Sandoval, Jorge Correa; Dondua, Alexey; Gates, H. River; Haase, Ben; Hodkinson, David J.; Jiménez, Ariam; Lanctot, Richard B.; Ortego, Brent; Sandercock, Brett K.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Warnock, Nils; Ydenberg, Ron C.; Lank, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of migratory animals and predicting the consequences of environmental change requires knowing how populations are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle. We used stable isotopes to examine patterns of migratory connectivity across the range of the western sandpiper Calidris mauri. First, we developed a winter isotope basemap from stable-hydrogen (δD), -carbon (δ13C), and -nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes of feathers grown in wintering areas. δD and δ15N values from wintering individuals varied with the latitude and longitude of capture location, while δ13C varied with longitude only. We then tested the ability of the basemap to assign known-origin individuals. Sixty percent of wintering individuals were correctly assigned to their region of origin out of seven possible regions. Finally, we estimated the winter origins of breeding and migrant individuals and compared the resulting empirical distribution against the distribution that would be expected based on patterns of winter relative abundance. For breeding birds, the distribution of winter origins differed from expected only among males in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta and Nome, Alaska. Males in the Y-K Delta originated overwhelmingly from western Mexico, while in Nome, there were fewer males from western North America and more from the Baja Peninsula than expected. An unexpectedly high proportion of migrants captured at a stopover site in the interior United States originated from eastern and southern wintering areas, while none originated from western North America. In general, we document substantial mixing between the breeding and wintering populations of both sexes, which will buffer the global population of western sandpipers from the effects of local habitat loss on both breeding and wintering grounds.

  17. Tree Mortality from Fires and Bark Beetles at 1-km Resolution, Western USA, 2003-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides annual estimates of tree mortality due to fires and bark beetles from 2003 to 2012 on forestland in the continental western United States....

  18. Chromium, chromium isotopes and selected trace elements, western Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, J.A.; Ball, J.W.; Bullen, T.D.; Sutley, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Chromium(VI) concentrations in excess of the California Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 50 ??g/L occur naturally in alkaline, oxic ground-water in alluvial aquifers in the western Mojave Desert, southern California. The highest concentrations were measured in aquifers eroded from mafic rock, but Cr(VI) as high as 27 ??g/L was measured in aquifers eroded from granitic rock. Chromium(VI) concentrations did not exceed 5 ??g/L at pH < 7.5 regardless of geology. ??53Cr values in native ground-water ranged from 0.7 to 5.1??? and values were fractionated relative to the average ??53Cr composition of 0??? in the earth's crust. Positive ??53Cr values of 1.2 and 2.3??? were measured in ground-water recharge areas having low Cr concentrations, consistent with the addition of Cr(VI) that was fractionated on mineral surfaces prior to entering solution. ??53Cr values, although variable, did not consistently increase or decrease with increasing Cr concentrations as ground-water flowed down gradient through more oxic portions of the aquifer. However, increasing ??53Cr values were observed as dissolved O2 concentrations decreased, and Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), and subsequently removed from solution. As a result, the highest ??53Cr values were measured in water from deep wells, and wells in discharge areas near dry lakes at the downgradient end of long flow paths through alluvial aquifers. ??53Cr values at an industrial site overlying mafic alluvium having high natural background Cr(VI) concentrations ranged from -0.1 to 3.2???. Near zero ??53Cr values at the site were the result of anthropogenic Cr. However, mixing with native ground-water and fractionation of Cr within the plume increased ??53Cr values at the site. Although ??53Cr was not necessarily diagnostic of anthropogenic Cr, it was possible to identify the extent of anthropogenic Cr at the site on the basis of the ??53Cr values in conjunction with major-ion data, and the ??18O and ??D composition of water from wells.

  19. Enso-like cyclicity In Late Pleistocene varve thickness measurements from two alpine lakes, Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, D. E.; Noren, A. J.; Geiss, C. E.; Dorale, J. A.; Myrbo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral analyses of varve thickness measurements in sediment cores from two moraine-dammed lakes in the Wind River Range of Wyoming, USA, reveal a 2.8-to-8-yr cyclicity consistent with that expressed by ENSO. The lakes [Louis Lake (42.596°N,108.846°W, 2610 m and nearby Fiddlers Lake 42.6312°N, 108.8786°W, 2868 m] and hold the possibility of longer records of mid-continental climate change even into the last interglacial. Nine macrofossil-based 14C ages (AMS) combined with varve thicknesses indicate the lakes were deep enough during the LGM to form and preserve varves and that the minimum age for the lacustrine sediments here is ~20 kyrs. The ENSO signal is most robust in the Louis Lake varves, displaying high spectral power across the entire band of frequencies associated with ENSO. Analysis of the Fiddlers Lake varves yield predictably less significant results, a consequence of the different geomorphic settings of these two lakes. Specifically, (1) Louis Lake has a large catchment and receives surface water input from a stream, which has delivered a large quantity of sediment to the lake margin and deposited a substantial delta. In this setting, variations in precipitation appear closely linked to sediment delivery to the lake, and are reflected in sediment distributions, while (2) Fiddlers Lake is located in a small re-entrant basin with a relatively insignificant catchment area and fed almost entirely by groundwater and direct rain/snow events, with little surface runoff; (3) the deeper water of Louis Lake aids in the formation and preservation of varves, while (4) lake level fluctuations in the shallower Fiddlers Lake directly affect varve creation and preservation (the onset of glaciation in the Fiddlers Lake core is represented by thick sediment packages that eventually thin to varves by ~1m up-core). The significant ENSO-like periodicities in the the varved sediments in these lakes suggests that the effects of ENSO forcing were felt far into the western

  20. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  1. The Utilization of Historical Data and Geospatial Technology Advances at the Jornada Experimental Range to Support Western America Ranching Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Havstad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available By the early 1900s, concerns were expressed by ranchers, academicians, and federal scientists that widespread overgrazing and invasion of native grassland by woody shrubs were having severe negative impacts upon normal grazing practices in Western America. Ranchers wanted to reverse these trends and continue their way of life and were willing to work with scientists to achieve these goals. One response to this desire was establishment of the USDA Jornada Experimental Range (783 km2 in south central New Mexico by a Presidential Executive Order in 1912 for conducting rangeland investigations. This cooperative effort involved experiments to understand principles of proper management and the processes causing the woody shrub invasion as well as to identify treatments to eradicate shrubs. By the late 1940s, it was apparent that combining the historical ground-based data accumulated at Jornada Experimental Range with rapidly expanding post World War II technologies would yield a better understanding of the driving processes in these arid and semiarid ecosystems which could then lead to improved rangeland management practices. One specific technology was the use of aerial photography to interpret landscape resource conditions. The assembly and utilization of long-term historical aerial photography data sets has occurred over the last half century. More recently, Global Positioning System (GPS techniques have been used in a myriad of scientific endeavors including efforts to accurately locate historical and contemporary treatment plots and to track research animals including livestock and wildlife. As an incredible amount of both spatial and temporal data became available, Geographic Information Systems have been exploited to display various layers of data over the same locations. Subsequent analyses of these data layers have begun to yield new insights. The most recent technological development has been the deployment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

  2. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela

    Full Text Available Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  3. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  4. Late Ordovician-Early Silurian chitinozoans from north-eastern and western Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, A.; Mikulic, Donald G.; Kluessendorf, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Samples of uppermost Ordovician and Silurian strata from two cores from north-eastern and western Illinois were processed for chitinozoans. Due to apparent sea-floor oxidation or palaeoenvironmental constraints, very few samples yielded specimens, but those that did allow tentative correlation with established biostratigraphical zonations for the Chitinozoa. Samples from the Wilhelmi Formation of core DH76-21 in north-eastern Illinois yielded Spinachitina fragilis, a typically earliest Silurian taxon. A sample from the Maquoketa Group strata of core Principia #4, western Illinois, yielded a monospecific assemblage of Conochitina elegans, which is suggestive of a late Ordovician age. Higher in this core, a sample from the upper strata of the Bowling Green Dolomite yielded an assemblage indicating a late Rhuddanian to Aeronian age, including Angochitina hansonica, previously only described from strata in Nevada, and one new species, Fungochitina illinoisensis. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-resolution modeling assessment of tidal stream resource in Western Passage of Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Feng, Xi; Xue, Huijie; Kilcher, Levi

    2017-04-01

    Although significant efforts have been taken to assess the maximum potential of tidal stream energy at system-wide scale, accurate assessment of tidal stream energy resource at project design scale requires detailed hydrodynamic simulations using high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models. Extended model validation against high quality measured data is essential to minimize the uncertainties of the resource assessment. Western Passage in the State of Maine in U.S. has been identified as one of the top ranking sites for tidal stream energy development in U.S. coastal waters, based on a number of criteria including tidal power density, market value and transmission distance. This study presents an on-going modeling effort for simulating the tidal hydrodynamics in Western Passage using the 3-D unstructured-grid Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). The model domain covers a large region including the entire the Bay of Fundy with grid resolution varies from 20 m in the Western Passage to approximately 1000 m along the open boundary near the mouth of Bay of Fundy. Preliminary model validation was conducted using existing NOAA measurements within the model domain. Spatial distributions of tidal power density were calculated and extractable tidal energy was estimated using a tidal turbine module embedded in FVCOM under different tidal farm scenarios. Additional field measurements to characterize resource and support model validation were discussed. This study provides an example of high resolution resource assessment based on the guidance recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Specification.

  6. Mother-child memory conversations and self-construal in Eastern Turkey, Western Turkey and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Acar, Basak; Leichtman, Michelle D

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven mothers and their four-year-old children from Eastern Turkey (N = 32 pairs), Western Turkey (N = 30 pairs) and the USA (N = 25 pairs) participated in a study of mother-child memory talk as a reflection of mothers' self construal, in view of differences in the function of memory talk across cultures. Mother-child pairs were audio-recorded while talking about shared past and anticipated future events. Mothers completed the Balanced Integration-Differentiation questionnaire measure of self-construal and were scored as high or low on individuation and relatedness orientations. Mothers' memory and future talk showed similar patterns of cultural differences: American mothers provided the most voluminous, descriptive and elaborative talk, while Eastern Turkish mothers showed the highest level of repetitiveness, and Western Turkish mothers' talk fell in between. Children's memory talk was similar across cultures. In all cultures, mothers who scored high on both individuation and relatedness (balanced self-construal subtype) engaged in more voluminous and contexted memory talk, and individuation was associated with more elaborative talk about future events. Results are discussed in light of literature on cultural differences in self-construal and memory function.

  7. Fuel reduction management practices in riparian areas of the Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Katharine R; Pilliod, David S; Dwire, Kathleen A; Rhoades, Charles C; Wollrab, Sherry P; Young, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    Two decades of uncharacteristically severe wildfires have caused government and private land managers to actively reduce hazardous fuels to lessen wildfire severity in western forests, including riparian areas. Because riparian fuel treatments are a fairly new management strategy, we set out to document their frequency and extent on federal lands in the western U.S. Seventy-four USDA Forest Service Fire Management Officers (FMOs) in 11 states were interviewed to collect information on the number and characteristics of riparian fuel reduction treatments in their management district. Just under half of the FMOs surveyed (43%) indicated that they were conducting fuel reduction treatments in riparian areas. The primary management objective listed for these projects was either fuel reduction (81%) or ecological restoration and habitat improvement (41%), though multiple management goals were common (56%). Most projects were of small extent (93% < 300 acres), occurred in the wildland-urban interface (75%), and were conducted in ways to minimize negative impacts on species and habitats. The results of this survey suggest that managers are proceeding cautiously with treatments. To facilitate project planning and implementation, managers recommended early coordination with resource specialists, such as hydrologists and fish and wildlife biologists. Well-designed monitoring of the consequences of riparian fuel treatments on fuel loads, fire risk, and ecological effects is needed to provide a scientifically-defensible basis for the continued and growing implementation of these treatments.

  8. Mosquito diversity in Keeriparai and Mundanthurai hill ranges of the Western Ghats, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Munirathinam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available After a gap of 25 years the Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (CRME surveyed the mosquito biodiversity in the tail-end hill ranges of the Western Ghats, viz., Kanyakumari (Keeriparai and Tirunelveli districts (Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR and Courtallam of Tamil Nadu between July 2010 and June 2013.  The altitude of the hills ranged from 100–950 m covered by evergreen forests.  A major emphasis was given to collect the immature stages of mosquitoes, from various breeding habitats, viz., slow flowing streams, spring pool, rocky pool, leaf axils, latex cup, tree hole, bamboo stumps, etc.  Altogether 4602 immature individuals were collected, reared individually to be identified at the adult stage.  A total of 3583 specimens belonging to 50 species classified under 21 genera and 18 subgenera were recorded.  The major vector species found in these hill ranges were Stegomyia aegypti, S. albopicta (Dengue and Chikungunya, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, C. tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis, Downsiomyia nivea (diurnally subperiodic filariasis and Anopheles mirans (Simian malaria vectors were recorded. 

  9. Pleistocene range shifts, refugia and the origin of widespread species in western Palaearctic water beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, David; Bilton, David T; Foster, Garth N; Ribera, I

    2017-09-01

    Quaternary glacial cycles drove major shifts in both the extent and location of the geographical ranges of many organisms. During glacial maxima, large areas of central and northern Europe were inhospitable to temperate species, and these areas are generally assumed to have been recolonized during interglacials by range expansions from Mediterranean refugia. An alternative is that this recolonization was from non-Mediterranean refugia, in central Europe or western Asia, but data on the origin of widespread central and north European species remain fragmentary, especially for insects. We studied three widely distributed lineages of freshwater beetles (the Platambus maculatus complex, the Hydraena gracilis complex, and the genus Oreodytes), all restricted to running waters and including both narrowly distributed southern endemics and widespread European species, some with distributions spanning the Palearctic. Our main goal was to determine the role of the Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the diversification and current distribution of these lineages. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in populations drawn from across the ranges of these taxa, and used Bayesian probabilities and Maximum Likelihood to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships, age and geographical origin. Our results suggest that all extant species in these groups are of Pleistocene origin. In the H. gracilis complex, the widespread European H. gracilis has experienced a rapid, recent range expansion from northern Anatolia, to occupy almost the whole of Europe. However, in the other two groups widespread central and northern European taxa appear to originate from central Asia, rather than the Mediterranean. These widespread species of eastern origin typically have peripherally isolated forms in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas, which may be remnants of earlier expansion-diversification cycles or result from incipient isolation of populations during the most recent Holocene

  10. Education at the Dittrick Museum of Medical History, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, James M

    2009-01-01

    The Dittrick Museum of Medical History pursues an educational mission as being part of a major research university. While the Dittrick dates to 1899 as a historical committee of the Cleveland Medical Library Association, it first affiliated with Case Western Reserve University in 1966, and became a department of the College of Arts and Sciences of CWRU in 1998. The Dittrick maintains a museum exhibition gallery that is open to the public free of charge, and museum staff provide guided tours on appointment. Much of the teaching and instruction at the Dittrick is conducted by university professors; their classes meet in the museum and use museum resources in the form of artifacts, images, archives, and rare books. Class projects using Dittrick collections may take the form of research papers, exhibitions, and online presentations. Dittrick staff assist in these classes and are available to help researchers use museum resources.

  11. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, C.R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, Hon S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  12. Timing of susceptibility to post-fire debris flows in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, Jerome V.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Watersheds recently burned by wildfires can have an increased susceptibility to debris flow, although little is known about how long this susceptibility persists, and how it changes over time. We here use a compilation of 75 debris-flow response and fire-ignition dates, vegetation and bedrock class, rainfall regime, and initiation process from throughout the western U.S. to address these issues. The great majority (85 percent) of debris flows occurred within the first 12 months following wildfire, with 71 percent within the first six months. Seven percent of the debris flows occurred between 1 and 1.5 years after a fire, or during the second rainy season to impact an area. Within the first 1.5 years following fires, all but one of the debris flows initiated through runoff-dominated processes, and debris flows occurred in similar proportions in forested and non-forested landscapes. Geologic materials affected how long debris-flow activity persisted, and the timing of debris flows varied within different rainfall regimes. A second, later period of increased debris flow susceptibility between 2.2 and 10 years after fires is indicated by the remaining 8 percent of events, which occurred primarily in forested terrains and initiated largely through landslide processes. The short time period between fire and debris-flow response within the first 1.5 years after ignition, and the longer-term response between 2.2 and 10 years after fire, demonstrate the necessity of both rapid and long-term reactions by land managers and emergency-response agencies to mitigate hazards from debris flows from recently burned areas in the western U.S.

  13. Long-range transport of sulfur in the western United States. [Projections for 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W. F.; Eadie, W. J.; Drewes, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Pollutants, such as SO/sub 2/ and sulfate, emitted from both utility and industrial coal burning processes have long residence time in the atmosphere. Therefore, the long-range atmospheric transport and diffusion of these pollutants must be considered in any environmental assessment of proposed plant operation. The most useful tool in predicting the long-range transport of pollutants is a computer simulation technique for the Gaussian diffusion equation. Information produced by the model includes: SO/sub 2/ and sulfate ground-level air concentrations, the amount of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate deposited on the ground surface, the minimum pH value in the rainfall, and the budget of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate material over the diffusion grid. Information on siting and emissions is also required. For this study, siting was based on projected coal use in 1985 and 1990 based on a two-thirds increase in coal production. Results of the modeling for the western United States indicate that the maximum incremental ground-level air concentrations for SO/sub 2/ are 8.4 and 14 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for utility and industrial sources, respectively. Maximum predicted incremental ground-level sulfate concentrations for utility and industrial sources are 0.8 and 1.2 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, respectively. The minimum calculated pH values for both utility and industrial sulfur emission were 5.3. Maximum SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts range from 0.5 to 0.8 gm/m/sup 2/ for both the utility and industrial coal use scenarios. The largest sulfate deposition amounts range from a factor of 55 to 24 smaller than SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts. (ERB)

  14. Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflicts on private agricultural lands in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Merrill, T.

    2006-01-01

    We used multiple logistic regression to model how different landscape conditions contributed to the probability of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural ranch lands. We used locations of livestock pastures, traditional livestock carcass disposal areas (boneyards), beehives, and wetland-riparian associated vegetation to model the locations of 178 reported human-grizzly bear conflicts along the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana, USA during 1986-2001. We surveyed 61 livestock producers in the upper Teton watershed of north-central Montana, to collect spatial and temporal data on livestock pastures, boneyards, and beehives for the same period, accounting for changes in livestock and boneyard management and beehive location and protection, for each season. We used 2032 random points to represent the null hypothesis of random location relative to potential explanatory landscape features, and used Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC/AICC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics for model selection. We used a resulting "best" model to map contours of predicted probabilities of conflict, and used this map for verification with an independent dataset of conflicts to provide additional insights regarding the nature of conflicts. The presence of riparian vegetation and distances to spring, summer, and fall sheep or cattle pastures, calving and sheep lambing areas, unmanaged boneyards, and fenced and unfenced beehives were all associated with the likelihood of human-grizzly bear conflicts. Our model suggests that collections of attractants concentrated in high quality bear habitat largely explain broad patterns of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural land in our study area. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heating, cooling, and uplift during Tertiary time, northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.A.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in a wide area of the northern Sangre de Cristo Range show effects of heating during Tertiary time. Heating is tentatively interpreted as a response to burial during Laramide folding and thrusting and also to high heat flow during Rio Grande rifting. Fission-track ages of apatite across a section of the range show that rocks cooled abruptly below 120oC, the blocking temperature for apatite, approx 19 Ma ago. Cooling was probably in response to rapid uplift and erosion of the northern Sangre de Cristo Range during early Rio Grande rifting.-from Authors

  16. Historic Frequency and Severity of Fire in Whitebark Pine Forests of the Cascade Mountain Range, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Murray; Joel Siderius

    2018-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) is a foundation species of high elevation forest ecosystems in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We examined fire evidence on 55 fire history sites located in the Cascade Range. To estimate dates of historic fires we analyzed 57 partial cross-sections from fire-scarred trees plus 700 increment cores. The resulting 101 fire events indicate fire has been a widespread component of Cascadian whitebark pine stands. Res...

  17. Orogenic inheritance in Death Valley region, western US Basin and Range: implications for Neogene crustal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Prior, M. G.; Stockli, D. F.; Kelly, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Deformation and temperature evolution during orogenic stages may influence later fabric development, thus controlling large-scale extensional processes that can occur millions of years later. Here, we describe pressure-temperature and fabric evolution from the Death Valley (DV) region and show how inherited fabrics, formed in late orogenic stages during Late Cretaceous time, influenced later Neogene age Basin and Range (BR) extension. The DV region is one of the most extended and thinned regions in the western US BR province, and the two of the ranges that bound the eastern valley expose basement rocks exhumed during the Neogene extension. In the Funeral range, it has been established that older (Precambrian) basement underwent Mesozoic age syn-deformational metamorphism during the Sevier-Laramide orogeny. In contrast, the Black Mountains record widespread tectonic stretching and magmatism of Miocene age on Precambrian basement, and have, overall, been lacking previous evidence of Mesozoic metamorphism and fabric development. In the Funeral Range Late Cretaceous migmatitic fabrics were overprinted by zones of high-strain fabrics formed due to melt-consuming reaction that define an overall P-T cooling path likely during late- to post-orogenesis. These fabrics form interconnected layers of quartz + biotite aggregates, in which individual quartz grains lack evidence of intracrystalline plastic deformation and show consistently random [c]-axis microfabrics. This suggests coupled reaction-diffusion processes that favored diffusion-assisted creep. New geochronometric results of melt products in the Black Mountains show evidence of partial melting of Late Cretaceous age. Contrasting with the neighboring Funeral Range, overprinting by extensional fabrics of Miocene age is widespread, and consists of high-strain, anastomosing foliation composed of retrograde products from preexisting, higher-temperature fabrics. These include interconnected fine-grained chlorite + quartz

  18. Structural Architecture of the Western Transverse Ranges and Potential for Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Y.; Rockwell, T. K.; Driscoll, N. W.; Shaw, J. H.; Kent, G. M.; Ucarkus, G.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the subsurface structure of the Western Transverse Ranges (WTR) is critical to assess the seismic potential of large thrust faults comprising this fold-and-thrust belt. Several models have been advanced over the years, building on new data and understandings of thrust belt architecture, but none of these efforts have incorporated the full range of data, including style and rates of late Quaternary deformation in conjunction with surface geology, sub-surface well data and offshore seismic data. In our models, we suggest that the nearly continuous backbone with continuous stratigraphy of the Santa Ynez Mountains is explained by a large anticlinorium over a deep structural ramp, and that the current thrust front is defined by the southward-vergent Pitas Point-Ventura fault. The Ventura Avenue anticline and trend is an actively deforming fault propagation fold over the partially blind Pitas Point-Ventura fault. Details of how this fault is resolved to the surface are not well constrained, but any deformation model must account for the several back-thrusts that ride in the hanging wall of the thrust sheet, as well as the localized subsidence in Carpenteria and offshore Santa Barbara. Our preliminary starting model is a modification of a recently published model that invokes ramp-flat structure, with a deep ramp under the Santa Ynez Mountains, a shallower "flat" with considerable complexity in the hanging wall and a frontal ramp comprising the San Cayetano and Pitas Point thrusts. With the inferred deep ramp under the Santa Ynez Range, this model implies that large earthquakes may extend the entire length of the anticlinorium from Point Conception to eastern Ventura Basin, suggesting that the potential for a large earthquake is significantly higher then previously assumed.

  19. Field report: Exploring the Doonerak fenster of the central Brooks Range, Alaska, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin V. Strauss

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Alaska is a ‘suspect’ terrane that encompasses approximately 20% of Alaska, stretching from the southern Brooks Range all the way to the continental shelves of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Although the origin and subsequent travels of this large crustal fragment are debated among geologists, most researchers agree upon its composite nature and exotic origin. To constrain the early geological history of this terrane, we describe a recent expedition to the Doonerak fenster of the central Brooks Range. This area has long been regarded as a key locality for understanding the structural evolution of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic Brooks Range orogen; however, our target was different: a unique sequence of volcanic and siliciclastic rocks (Apoon assemblage exposed beneath a profound pre-Mississippian unconformity, which we argue is of key importance to understanding the early Paleozoic tectonic history of northern Alaska and the greater Arctic.

  20. Recent climatological trends and potential influences on forest phenology around western Lake Superior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Matthew; Townsend, Philip A.

    2016-11-01

    We assess long-term climatological means, trends, and interannual variability around the western end of Lake Superior during 1984-2013 by using available weather station data. Our results focus on changes in basic and derived climate indicators from seasonal and annual temperature and precipitation, to the traditionally defined frost-free season, to a novel definition of the climatological growing season. We describe seasonal and year-to-year climate variability that influences forest phenology, using an alternative growing season metric that is based on the warm-season plateau in accumulated chilling days as an indicator of environmental triggers for vegetation growth and senescence. Our results indicate +0.56°C regional warming during our 30 year study period, with cooler springs (-1.26°C) and significant autumn warming (+1.54°C). The duration of the climatological growing season has increased +0.27 d/yr, extending primarily into autumn. Summer precipitation in our study area has declined by an average -0.34 cm/yr, potentially leading to moisture stress that impairs vegetation carbon uptake rates and can render the forest more vulnerable to disturbance. Many changes in temperature, precipitation, and climatological growing season are most prominent in locations where Lake Superior exerts a strong hydroclimatological influence, especially the Minnesota shoreline and in forest areas downwind (southeast) of the lake. Observed trends in lake temperature and ice phenology have also changed, coincident with a large-scale climatological regime shift around 1998. A number of factors are likely altering forest phenology and the role of the forest in the climate system of this ecologically important and highly varied forest-and-lake region.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  2. Summer Home Range Size of Female Indiana Bats (Myotis Sodalis) in Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of space use by wildlife that are a conservation concern is critical to ensure that management and conservation provides adequate resources to ensure survival and reproductive success. We radio tracked 13 pregnant and 12 lactating Myotis sodalis (Indiana bat) during the maternity season in northern Missouri. Mean (± SE) home range...

  3. Microscale patterns of tree establishment near upper treeline, Snowy Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. H. Moir; Shannon G. Rochelle; A. W. Schoettle

    1999-01-01

    We report tree seedling (mostly Picea engelmannii, some Abies lasiocarpa, very infrequent Pinus contorta) invasion into meadows at upper timberline in the Snowy Range, Wyoming, from 1994 to 1996. We used gradient analysis to relate this to environmental patterns, particularly plant community structure (as aggregates of plant life-forms) and persistence of snowpack in...

  4. Collective action on the western range: coping with external and internal threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail M. York

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative natural resource management institutions enable agents with diverse interests to come together to solve complex problems. These actors must overcome a series of collective action problems to create, maintain, and evolve these institutions. In addition to the challenge of heterogeneous actors, these commons social-ecological systems often face internal and external threats or disturbances. The institutional arrangements may be effective with problems that are internal to a social-ecological system – ones that they are designed to handle, but how do these arrangements cope with external disturbances, especially ones caused by large-scale political and economic decisions, events, and processes. Using ethnographic and archival data we conduct an institutional analysis outlining the existing and emerging collaboratives, the important actors, and ongoing efforts to cope with the five major challenges identified by rangeland actors. We trace the evolution of institutions on the western range with a focus on their ability to cope with challenges that are largely within the system – biodiversity, fire, and water management, and those that are driven externally by actors who are largely absent – border militarization and violence and exurbanization.

  5. Adapting to Variable Water Supply in the Truckee-Carson River System, Western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Sterle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In snow-fed inland river systems in the western United States, water supply depends upon timing, form, and amount of precipitation. In recent years, this region has experienced unprecedented drought conditions due to decreased snowpack, exacerbated by exceptionally warmer winter temperatures averaging 3–4 °C above normal. In the snow-fed Truckee-Carson River System, two sets of interviews were conducted as part of a larger collaborative modeling case study with local water managers to examine local adaptation to current drought conditions. A comparative analysis of these primary qualitative data, collected during the fourth and fifth consecutive years of continued warmer drought conditions, identifies shifts in adaptation strategies and emergent adaptation barriers. That is, under continuous exposure to climate stressors, managers shifted their adaptation focus from short-term efforts to manage water demand toward long-term efforts to enhance water supply. Managers described the need to: improve forecasts and scientific assessments of snowmelt timing, groundwater levels, and soil moisture content; increase flexibility of prior appropriation water allocation rules based on historical snowpack and streamflow timing; and foster collaboration and communication among water managers across the river system. While water scarcity and insufficient water delivery infrastructure remain significant impediments in this arid region, climate uncertainty emerged as a barrier surrounding adaptation to variable water supply. Existing prior appropriation based water institutions were also described as an adaptation barrier, meriting objective evaluation to assess how to best modify these historical institutions to support dynamic adaptation to climate-induced water supply variability. This study contributes to a growing body of research that assesses drought adaptation in snow-fed inland river systems, and contributes a unique report concerning how adaptation

  6. Metabolic Potential and Activity in Fluids of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, T.; Som, S.; Schrenk, M.; McCollom, T.; Cardace, D.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic potential and activity associated with hydrogen and carbon monoxide were characterized in fluids sampled from the the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO). CROMO consists of two clusters of science-dedicated wells drilled to varying depths up to 35m in the actively serpentinizing, Jurassic-age Coast Range Ophiolite of Northern California, along with a suite of pre-existing monitoring wells at the same site. Consistent with the fluid chemistry observed in other serpentinizing systems, CROMO fluids are highly alkaline, with pH up to 12.5, high in methane, with concentrations up 1600 micromolar, and low in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), with concentrations of 10's to 100's of micromolar. CROMO is conspicuous for fluid H2 concentrations that are consistently sub-micromolar, orders of magnitude lower than is typical of other systems. However, higher H2 concentrations (10's -100's of micromolar) at an earlier stage of fluid chemical evolution are predicted by, or consistent with: thermodynamic models for fluid chemistry based on parent rock composition equivalent to local peridotite and with water:rock ratio constrained by observed pH; the presence of magnetite at several wt% in CROMO drill cores; and concentrations of formate and carbon monoxide that would require elevated H2 if formed in equilibrium with H2 and DIC. Calculated Gibbs energy changes for reaction of H2 and CO in each of several metabolisms, across the range of fluid composition encompassed by the CROMO wells, range from bioenergetically feasible (capable of driving ATP synthesis) to thermodynamically unfavorable. Active consumption relative to killed controls was observed for both CO and H2 during incubation of fluids from the pre-existing monitoring wells; in incubations of freshly cored solids, consumption was only observed in one sample set (corresponding to the lowest pH) out of three. The specific metabolisms by which H2 and CO are consumed remain to be determined.

  7. 'Natural background' soil water repellency in conifer forests of the north-western USA: Its prediction and relationship to wildfire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, S.H.; Woods, S.W.; Martin, D.A.; Casimiro, M.

    2009-01-01

    Soils under a wide range of vegetation types exhibit water repellency following the passage of a fire. This is viewed by many as one of the main causes for accelerated post-fire runoff and soil erosion and it has often been assumed that strong soil water repellency present after wildfire is fire-induced. However, high levels of repellency have also been reported under vegetation types not affected by fire, and the question arises to what degree the water repellency observed at burnt sites actually results from fire. This study aimed at determining 'natural background' water repellency in common coniferous forest types in the north-western USA. Mature or semi-mature coniferous forest sites (n = 81), which showed no evidence of recent fires and had at least some needle cast cover, were sampled across six states. After careful removal of litter and duff at each site, soil water repellency was examined in situ at the mineral soil surface using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method for three sub-sites, followed by collecting near-surface mineral soil layer samples (0-3 cm depth). Following air-drying, samples were further analyzed for repellency using WDPT and contact angle (??sl) measurements. Amongst other variables examined were dominant tree type, ground vegetation, litter and duff layer depth, slope angle and aspect, elevation, geology, and soil texture, organic carbon content and pH. 'Natural background' water repellency (WDPT > 5 s) was detected in situ and on air-dry samples at 75% of all sites examined irrespective of dominant tree species (Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelmanii and Pseudotsuga menziesii). These findings demonstrate that the soil water repellency commonly observed in these forest types following burning is not necessarily the result of recent fire but can instead be a natural characteristic. The notion of a low background water repellency being typical for long-unburnt conifer forest soils of the north-western USA is

  8. Historic Frequency and Severity of Fire in Whitebark Pine Forests of the Cascade Mountain Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Murray

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. is a foundation species of high elevation forest ecosystems in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We examined fire evidence on 55 fire history sites located in the Cascade Range. To estimate dates of historic fires we analyzed 57 partial cross-sections from fire-scarred trees plus 700 increment cores. The resulting 101 fire events indicate fire has been a widespread component of Cascadian whitebark pine stands. Results are site specific and vary considerably. Whitebark pine stands appear to burn in a variety of severities and frequencies. Sites where fire intervals were detected ranged from 9 to 314 years, with a median of 49 years, and averaging 67 years. Fire intervals shortened significantly with higher latitudes. In assessing the most recent fire event at each site, overall, 56 percent burned as stand replacing events. In the 20th century, the number of fires diminished significantly. Due to conservation imperatives, re-introducing fire should be undertaken with extreme care to avoid substantial mortality of this endangered species.

  9. The Sudbury impact layer in the paleoproterozoiciron ranges of northern Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.; Horton, J. Wright; King, David A.

    2010-01-01

    A layer of breccia that contains fragments of impact ejecta has been found at 10 sites in the Paleoproterozoic iron ranges of northern Michigan, in the Lake Superior region of the United States. Radiometric age constraints from events predating and postdating deposition of the breccia are ca. 1875 Ma and 1830 Ma. The major bolide impact that occurred at 1850 Ma at Sudbury, Ontario, 500–700 km east of these sites, is the likely causative event. The Michigan sites described here, along with previously described sites in Minnesota and Ontario, define an extensive ejecta-bearing deposit throughout the Paleoproterozoic iron ranges of the Lake Superior region that we refer to as the Sudbury impact layer. The layer at the sites in Michigan exhibits a range of thicknesses, lithologic characters, and sedimentary settings. The diversity of rock types and internal stratigraphic details of the layer imply that several different processes of transport and deposition are represented, but the detailed investigations needed to document them are incomplete. Many of the sites had been described and interpreted previously as products of common terrestrial processes, but the presence of relict shock-induced planar deformation features in quartz indicates that the breccia layer is in fact the product of an extraterrestrial impact. At most localities, this layer also contains relict fragments of altered devitrified glass and/or accretionary lapilli. One immediate use of the impact layer is as an ultraprecise time line that ties together the well-known stratigraphic sequences of the various geographically separated iron ranges, the correlation of which has remained controversial for many decades. The Sudbury impact layer most commonly lies at a horizon that records a significant change in the character of sediments across the region. The impact layer marks the end of a major period of banded iron formation deposition that was succeeded by deposition of fine clastic rocks, commonly

  10. Timing and development of the Heise volcanic field, Snake River Plain, Idaho, western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L.A.; McIntosh, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    distinct and widespread ignimbrite in the Heise volcanic field, eliminating former confusion resulting from previous discordant K/Ar and fission-track dates. New 40Ar/39Ar determinations, when combined wi th geochemical, lithologic geophysical, and field data, define the volcanic and tectonic history of the Heise volcanic field and surrounding areas. Volcanic units erupted from the Heise volcanic field also provide temporal control for tectonic events associated with late Cenozoic extension in the Snake Range and with uplift of the Teton Range, Wyoming. In the Snake Range, movement of large (???0.10 km3) slide blocks of Mississippian limestone exposed 50 km to the east of the Heise field occurred between 6.3 and 5.5 Ma and may have been catastrophically triggered by the caldera eruption of the 5.51 ?? 0.13-Ma Conant Creek Tuff. This slide block movement of ???300 vertical meters indicates that the Snake Range had significant relief by at least 5.5 Ma. In Jackson Hole, the distribution of outflow facies of the 4.45 ?? 0.05-Ma Kilgore caldera in the Heise volcanic field on the eastern SRP indicates that the northern Teton Range was not a significant topographic feature at this time. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  11. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    pipes were pressed into the soil as enclosures to restrict root access to soil nitrogen. Soil samples were taken as close to 2-week intervals as possible from both inside and outside the enclosures. The crop rotation N values were also compared to triple replicated perennial native grassland plot areas (predominate sp. Western wheatgrass - Pascopyrum smithii, Blue grama - Bouteloua gracilis, Little bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium, Switchgrass - Panicum virgatum). Trends identified for both NH4-N and NO3-N indicate that the values are relatively similar with respect to seasonal change over time. There was a greater amount of soil nitrogen accumulation inside the enclosures indicating that outside the enclosures roots scavenge nitrogen for plant growth and production. Seasonally, comparing the cropping system crops, NO3-N declined mid-July and then rebounded by mid-August and continued to increase until leveling off in September. Corn NO3-N, however, did not follow this pattern, but increased from early June to the end of June and remained high until the first of September. We will present the results of bulk density data and seasonal N fertility data providing evidence for the impact of previous CC on corn production. Probable explanation for the mid-summer nitrogen decline will be presented and justification for reduced fertilizer application will be discussed.

  12. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted.

  13. A SEROSURVEY OF DISEASES OF FREE-RANGING GRAY WOLVES (CANIS LUPUS) IN MINNESOTA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H; Hildebrand, Erik C; Dubey, J P; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Mech, L David; Windels, Steve K; Edwards, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  14. Climate Change and Range Expansion of the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in Northeastern USA: Implications for Public Health Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Hutchinson, Michael L.; Farajollahi, Ary

    2013-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is an invasive species with substantial biting activity, high disease vector potential, and a global distribution that continues to expand. New Jersey, southern New York, and Pennsylvania are currently the northernmost boundary of established Ae. albopictus populations in the eastern United States. Using positive geographic locations from these areas, we modeled the potential future range expansion of Ae. albopictus in northeastern USA under two climate change scenarios. The land area with environmental conditions suitable for Ae. albopictus populations is expected to increase from the current 5% to 16% in the next two decades and to 43%–49% by the end of the century. Presently, about one-third of the total human population of 55 million in northeastern USA reside in urban areas where Ae. albopictus is present. This number is predicted to double to about 60% by the end of the century, encompassing all major urban centers and placing over 30 million people under the threat of dense Ae. albopictus infestations. This mosquito species presents unique challenges to public health agencies and has already strained the resources available to mosquito control programs within its current range. As it continues to expand into areas with fewer resources and limited organized mosquito control, these challenges will be further exacerbated. Anticipating areas of potential establishment, while planning ahead and gathering sufficient resources will be the key for successful public health campaigns. A broad effort in community sanitation and education at all levels of government and the private sector will be required until new control techniques are developed that can be applied efficiently and effectively at reasonable cost to very large areas. PMID:23565282

  15. Nitrogen regulation of algal biomass, productivity, and composition in shallow mountain lakes, Snowy Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydick, Koren R.; Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska; Baron, Jill S.; Johnson, Brett M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of increased nitrate (NO3), alone and in combination with phosphorus (P), on phytoplankton, epilithon, and epipelon in shallow lakes of the Snowy Range, Wyoming, using two enclosure experiments during early and late summer. Phytoplankton responded strongly to N and N + P, but not to P, with increased cell density, chlorophyll a, and photosynthesis and shifts in composition from chrysophytes to cyanophytes, chlorophytes, and diatoms. Zooplankton density and biomass were unaltered despite the additional phytoplankton stock, probably as the result of poor food quality. In the late summer, algae on tiles responded to N and N + P additions with greater chlorophyll a and increases in cyanophyte and chlorophyte density. Algae on sediment dominated whole-enclosure algal biomass but were spatially variable and responded insignificantly to nutrients. Consequently, N controlled productivity and community composition of phytoplankton and algae on hard substrates but had less impact on ecosystem algal biomass because of the large pool of nutrient-sufficient sediment algae. Phytoplankton were more photosynthetically efficient than the benthos, however, such that primary productivity did shift more toward the water column.

  16. Forest engineering implication of storm-induced mass wasting in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Charles L.

    1999-12-01

    A severe winter storm, under conditions of high antecedent moisture and a substantial snow pack at higher elevations, in February of 1996 resulted in rapid flooding and a large number of precipitation-induced landslides. The number of mass wasting events greatly exceeded the expectations of many land managers, given the magnitude (50-year return interval ) of the storm event. Both ground and aerial surveys were used to characterize the nature of these events and relate the occurrence of mass wasting activity to the topography, geology, and land management activities of the region. This paper is based upon an aerial videography transect of the north Oregon Coast Range and explores the potential of this technique, with special reference to storm damage assessment in commercial forestry areas. Given the efforts to enhance and protect anadromous fish-rearing habitat in the region's perennial streams, this survey explores the implications of current and past forest engineering practices, and suggests that engineering efforts to 'de-construct' the legacy of old roads and culvert systems may be appropriate in the drainage basins with the highest potential habitat values.

  17. Thermal niche evolution and geographical range expansion in a species complex of western Mediterranean diving beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Galiana, Amparo; Sánchez-Fernández, David; Bilton, David T; Cieslak, Alexandra; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-09-04

    Species thermal requirements are one of the principal determinants of their ecology and biogeography, although our understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited by the paucity of integrative empirical studies. Here we use empirically collected thermal tolerance data in combination with molecular phylogenetics/phylogeography and ecological niche modelling to study the evolution of a clade of three western Mediterranean diving beetles, the Agabus brunneus complex. The preferred mitochondrial DNA topology recovered A. ramblae (North Africa, east Iberia and Balearic islands) as paraphyletic, with A. brunneus (widespread in the southwestern Mediterranean) and A. rufulus (Corsica and Sardinia) nested within it, with an estimated origin between 0.60-0.25 Ma. All three species were, however, recovered as monophyletic using nuclear DNA markers. A Bayesian skyline plot suggested demographic expansion in the clade at the onset of the last glacial cycle. The species thermal tolerances differ significantly, with A. brunneus able to tolerate lower temperatures than the other taxa. The climatic niche of the three species also differs, with A. ramblae occupying more arid and seasonal areas, with a higher minimum temperature in the coldest month. The estimated potential distribution for both A. brunneus and A. ramblae was most restricted in the last interglacial, becoming increasingly wider through the last glacial and the Holocene. The A. brunneus complex diversified in the late Pleistocene, most likely in south Iberia after colonization from Morocco. Insular forms did not differentiate substantially in morphology or ecology, but A. brunneus evolved a wider tolerance to cold, which appeared to have facilitated its geographic expansion. Both A. brunneus and A. ramblae expanded their ranges during the last glacial, although they have not occupied areas beyond their LGM potential distribution except for isolated populations of A. brunneus in France and England. On

  18. Geoarchaeological studies of the Yalibirri Mindi rock shelter, Weld Range, Wajarri Yamaji Country, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Matthias; Brown, Viviene; Carson, Anneliese; D'Ovidio, Belinda; Yusiharni, Emielda; Winton, Vicky

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of past environmental conditions can be used to answer archaeologically based questions. Geoarchives such as soils and sediments inside rockshelters store information about chemical and physical processes from their time of formation thus allowing the reconstruction of the past. This study seeks to understand the sediment and soil formation factors at the 'Yalibirri Mindi' rock shelter, located in the Weld Range in the country of the Wajarri Yamaji Aboriginal people of Mid West Western Australia. The project is part of the 'federally funded Weld Range Web of Knowledge Project' . The aim of the work is to evaluate the origin of dated carbon material and associated sediments. Rockshelter sediments as well as two soil profiles outside the shelter were characterized using a series of different laboratory techniques such as pH and EC, nested particle sieving, ICP-OES, XRD, XRF, CN and radiocarbon analysis as well as magnetic susceptibility. An additional heating experiment was performed to simulate the influence of frequent fire on the magnetic properties of the sediments to evaluate potential anthropogenic origin of fire remains (charcoal). Pleistocene age estimates were obtained for some of the charcoal found in association with Aboriginal flaked stone artefacts. The lowest layer containing Aboriginal artefacts was dated to 29,089 ± 132 years uncal. BP providing the first evidence for Pre-Last Glacial Maximum occupation of the inland Mid West in Australia. Sediment analyses indicate that the rockshelter sediments are the result of in-situ weathering with contemporaneous human occupation rather than transport from outside. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), which is not part of the natural environment in the surrounding area was identified in the rockshelter sediments and might be indicative of heating and evaporation during wood fire burning. Human induced fires had also altered the magnetic susceptibility of the sediments. Sedimentological analyses strongly support

  19. Landscape response to base-level fall in extensional settings: Amargosa River, Basin and Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Brocklehurst, S. H.; Gawthorpe, R. L.; Finch, E.

    2012-12-01

    Studies examining transient landscapes within rift basins generally focus on settings where changes in boundary conditions are driven by active tectonics. However, the effect of drainage network re-organisation on landscape development and sediment routing has received significantly less attention. Within active rift settings it is common for drainage networks to become fragmented as uplift rates overcome the erosive potential of streams, while subsidence generates under-filled basins. On a regional-scale this results in poorly integrated drainage systems consisting of numerous internally drained basins. Integration can occur through the filling of sub-basins, lake over-spill, or drainage capture. This may dramatically affect base-level, catchment size, sediment flux and fluvial geomorphology, providing a natural experiment in fluvial response to changing boundary conditions, as well as representing a fundamental control on the ultimate preservation of sediments. We combine field and remote mapping with the available dating to investigate an example of late Pleistocene drainage integration in the southern Basin and Range, where drainage integration has resulted in a base-level fall and rejuvenation of the upstream landscape triggering further drainage rearrangement. The Amargosa River was previously part of an internally-drained basin, feeding the former Lake Tecopa. Drainage capture at 150-200 ka caused the Amargosa River to flow into Death Valley, carving the Amargosa Canyon through the Sperry Hills. The canyon itself has experienced aggradation as well as incision, with both terraces and fans representing levels above the current river. Upstream of the Amargosa Canyon, incision is reflected by minor knickpoints, and gullying along tributaries. For what is now westwards-flowing Willow Wash, the net incision of Amargosa Canyon has resulted in spectacular headward erosion, dissecting fan surfaces which previously graded northwest to Lake Tecopa. The Willow Wash

  20. Fungal and bacterial contributions to nitrogen cycling in cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded native sagebrush soils of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth J.; Giguere, Andrew T; Pyke, David A.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    AimThere is interest in determining how cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) modifies N cycling in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) soils of the western USA.MethodsTo gain insight into the roles of fungi and bacteria in N cycling of cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded sagebrush soils, the fungal protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), and the bacteriocidal compound, bronopol (BRO) were combined with a 15NH4+ isotope pool dilution approach.ResultsCHX reduced gross N mineralization to the same rate in both sagebrush and cheatgrass soils indicating a role for fungi in N mineralization in both soil types. In cheatgrass soils BRO completely inhibited gross N mineralization, whereas, in sagebrush soils a BRO-resistant gross N mineralization rate was detected that was slower than CHX sensitive gross N mineralization, suggesting that the microbial drivers of gross N mineralization were different in sagebrush and cheatgrass soils. Net N mineralization was stimulated to a higher rate in sagebrush than in cheatgrass soils by CHX, implying that a CHX inhibited N sink was larger in the former than the latter soils. Initial gross NH4+ consumption rates were reduced significantly by both CHX and BRO in both soil types, yet, consumption rates recovered significantly between 24 and 48 h in CHX-treated sagebrush soils. The recovery of NH4+ consumption in sagebrush soils corresponded with an increase in the rate of net nitrification.ConclusionsThese results suggest that cheatgrass invasion of sagebrush soils of the northern Great Basin reduces the capacity of the fungal N consumption sink, enhances the capacity of a CHX resistant N sink and alters the contributions of bacteria and fungi to gross N mineralization.

  1. Mercury sedimentation in lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA and its relation to local industrial and municipal atmospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, A.J.; Norton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) were measured in six dated cores from four lakes in western Whatcom County, Washington, USA, that were at various bearings from a chlor-alkali plant, two municipal waste incinerators and a municipal sewage sludge incinerator. The importance of atmospheric emissions of Hg from these local municipal and industrial sources was evaluating by comparing the temporal trends in sedimentation of the lake cores with the emission history of each Hg species and by examining the geographical distribution of Hg sedimentation in relation to the region's primary wind pattern. Local municipal and industrial sources of atmospheric Hg were not responsible for the majority of the Hg in the upper layer of sediments of Whatcom County lakes because of (1) the significant enrichment of Hg in lake sediments prior to emissions of local industrial and municipal sources in 1964, (2) smaller increases in Hg concentrations occurred after 1964, (3) the similarity of maximum enrichments found in Whatcom County lakes to those in rural lakes around the world, (4) the inconsistency of the temporal trends in Hg sedimentation with the local emission history, and (5) the inconsistency of the geographic trends in Hg sedimentation with estimated deposition. Maximum enrichment ratios of Hg in lake sediments between 2 and 3 that are similar to rural areas in Alaska, Minnesota, and New England suggest that global sources of Hg were primarily responsible for increases of Hg in Whatcom County lakes beginning about 1900. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Government, Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. Colloidal and physical transport textures exhibited by electrum and naumannite in bonanza epithermal veins from western USA, and their significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James A.; Vikre, Peter G.; Unger, Derick L.; Beasley, Lee

    2010-01-01

    It is reasonably clear that disequilibrium or “far-from equilibrium” conditions lead to the formation of silica colloids and their deposition in many epithermal deposits. This implies ore-forming solutions had elevated concentrations of dissolved silica, well in excess of amorphous silica saturation. We have previously demonstrated that such colloidal silica particles were deposited in epithermal veins as silica gels and opal, which may later progress along a path to crystallize into more thermodynamically favored (less-soluble) silica phases such as quartz and chalcedony. Also, in some deposits, amorphous silica is co-deposited with precious-metal minerals, such as electrum in the banded super-bonanza ores of the Sleeper deposit (NV). Ore-mineral textures from some western USA bonanza epithermal ores indicate that two precious-metal phases (electrum and naumannite, Ag2Se) form colloidal particles that are transported by ore-forming fluids and are deposited either by aggregation (by sticking to other precious metal-particles) to make dendrites, or are deposited on the “lee” side of protrusion along vein walls (or perhaps by both processes). We can infer by analogy to silica that this also implies that ore-forming solutions contained elevated (supersaturated) dissolved concentrations of both gold and silver that formed colloidal particles under disequilibrium (often chaotic) conditions. Thus physical transport and deposition textures seem to indicate the presence of strongly precious-metal-enriched ore forming fluids, which led to (not surprisingly) the bonanza grades of these remarkable ores. What causes such a precious-metal-rich solution is debatable, but that is the subject of our continued investigations.

  3. Growth and survival of pacific coho salmon smolts exposed as juveniles to pesticides within urban streams in western Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams, with concentrations often exceeding those reported in surface waters within agricultural areas. The authors studied growth, survival, and return rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts exposed to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of the pesticides most frequently reported within urban streams in western Washington State, USA, in fall through early spring. Exposure concentrations were selected to represent a reasonable worst-case scenario based on field monitoring data. Smolts were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail either from fertilization through swim-up (2007-2008) or from fertilization through smoltification (2007-2008 and 2008-2009), coded wire tagged, and released in 2008 and 2009. Pre-release endpoints (growth, survival, sex ratio, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, and gonado- and hepatosomatic indices) were not affected. However, the number of returning adults exposed to the cocktail to swim-up (0.90%, n = 42) was more than double that of unexposed controls (0.38%, n = 26) in 2008, whereas in 2009, fish exposed through smoltification returned in lower numbers (0.15%, n = 18) than controls (0.37%, n = 30). Variability in return rates among treatments between years was comparable to that observed in previous whole life cycle studies with Pacific salmon and other contaminants. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides in urban streams does not directly impair early life stages of coho salmon, and that additional studies incorporating releases of larger numbers of smolts across several years are necessary to adequately quantify effects on return rates. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  5. The current status of the distribution range of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Valerio-Mendoza; F. Armendariz-Toledano; G. Cuellar-Rodriguez; Jose F. Negron; G. Zuniga

    2017-01-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric...

  6. Western frontal fault of the Canyon Range: is it the breakaway zone of the Sevier Desert detachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Geologic evidence developed from surface exposures demonstrates that the western frontal fault of the Canyon Range is a major structure representing the eastern Breakaway zone of the Sevier Desert detachment. Maximum upper plate displacement for the entire Sevier Desert detachment cannot be determined from these breakaway-zone exposures. -from Author

  7. Abundance of western red-backed salamanders (Plethodon vehiculum) in the Washington Coast Range after headwater stream-buffer manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs; Martin G. Raphael

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of forest riparian alternative tree buffer designs on Western Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon vehiculum) along headwater stream banks in managed forests of the Washington Coast Range. We used pit trap live removals in early autumn to estimate relative abundances of surface-active salamanders before and after 3 levels of riparian buffer...

  8. Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) Mission Control Gold Room During X-29 Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The mission control Gold room is seen here during a research flight of the X-29 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. All aspects of a research mission are monitored from one of two of these control rooms at Dryden. Dryden and its control rooms are part of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). The WATR consists of a highly automated complex of computer controlled tracking, telemetry, and communications systems and control room complexes that are capable of supporting any type of mission ranging from system and component testing, to sub-scale and full-scale flight tests of new aircraft and reentry systems. Designated areas are assigned for spin/dive tests; corridors are provided for low, medium, and high-altitude supersonic flight; and special STOL/VSTOL facilities are available at Ames Moffett and Crows Landing. Special use airspace, available at Edwards, covers approximately twelve thousand square miles of mostly desert area. The southern boundary lies to the south of Rogers Dry Lake, the western boundary lies midway between Mojave and Bakersfield, the northern boundary passes just south of Bishop, and the eastern boundary follows about 25 miles west of the Nevada border except in the northern areas where it crosses into Nevada. Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, flew at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) from 1984 to 1992. The fighter-sized X-29 technology demonstrators explored several concepts and technologies including: the use of advanced composites in aircraft construction; variable-camber wing surfaces; a unique forward- swept wing and its thin supercritical airfoil; strakes; close-coupled canards; and a computerized fly-by-wire flight control system used to maintain control of the otherwise unstable aircraft. Research results showed that the configuration of forward-swept wings, coupled with movable canards, gave

  9. Connecting endangered brown bear subpopulations in the Cantabrian Range (north-western Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. C. Mateo-Sanchez; Samuel Cushman; S. Saura

    2014-01-01

    The viability of many species depends on functional connectivity of their populations through dispersal across broad landscapes. This is particularly the case for the endangered brown bear in north-western Spain, with a total population of about 200 individuals in two subpopulations that are separated by a wide gap with low permeability. Our goal in this paper...

  10. Climate Drives Episodic Conifer Establishment after Fire in Dry Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Rother

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and aged over 400 post-fire juvenile ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees using an improved tree-ring based approach that yielded annually-resolved dates and then assessed relationships between climate variability and pulses of tree establishment. We found that tree establishment was largely concentrated in years of above-average moisture availability in the growing season, including higher amounts of precipitation and more positive values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Under continued climate change, drier conditions associated with warming temperatures may limit forest recovery after fire, which could result in lower stand densities or shifts to non-forested vegetation in some areas.

  11. Forecasting inundation from debris flows that grow during travel, with application to the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Brien, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Many debris flows increase in volume as they travel downstream, enhancing their mobility and hazard. Volumetric growth can result from diverse physical processes, such as channel sediment entrainment, stream bank collapse, adjacent landsliding, hillslope erosion and rilling, and coalescence of multiple debris flows; incorporating these varied phenomena into physics-based debris-flow models is challenging. As an alternative, we embedded effects of debris-flow growth into an empirical/statistical approach to forecast potential inundation areas within digital landscapes in a GIS framework. Our approach used an empirical debris-growth function to account for the effects of growth phenomena. We applied this methodology to a debris-flow-prone area in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, where detailed mapping revealed areas of erosion and deposition along paths of debris flows that occurred during a large storm in 1996. Erosion was predominant in stream channels with slopes > 5°. Using pre- and post-event aerial photography, we derived upslope contributing area and channel-length growth factors. Our method reproduced the observed inundation patterns produced by individual debris flows; it also generated reproducible, objective potential inundation maps for entire drainage networks. These maps better matched observations than those using previous methods that focus on proximal or distal regions of a drainage network.

  12. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  13. Weathering and transport of chromium and nickel from serpentinite in the Coast Range ophiolite to the Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Breit, George N.; Hooper, Robert L.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Ranville, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A soil geochemical study in northern California was done to investigate the role that weathering and transport play in the regional distribution and mobility of geogenic Cr and Ni, which are both potentially toxic and carcinogenic. These elements are enriched in ultramafic rocks (primarily serpentinite) and the soils derived from them (1700–10,000 mg Cr per kg soil and 1300–3900 mg Ni per kg soil) in the Coast Range ophiolite. Chromium and Ni have been transported eastward from the Coast Range into the western Sacramento Valley and as a result, valley soil is enriched in Cr (80–1420 mg kg−1) and Ni (65–224 mg kg−1) compared to median values of U.S. soils of 50 and 15 mg kg−1, respectively. Nickel in ultramafic source rocks and soils is present in serpentine minerals (lizardite, antigorite, and chrysotile) and is more easily weathered compared to Cr, which primarily resides in highly refractory chromite ([Mg,Fe2+][Cr3+,Al,Fe3+]2O4). Although the majority of Cr and Ni in soils are in refractory chromite and serpentine minerals, the etching and dissolution of these minerals, presence of Cr- and Ni-enriched clay minerals and development of nanocrystalline Fe (hydr)oxides is evidence that a significant fractions of these elements have been transferred to potentially more labile phases.

  14. Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Domes in the Northern Part of the Gulf of California," in Symposia on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, Comision Federal de...Laboratory, August 1979. LA-7953-MS. 22 pp. 10. J. de Boer. "Paleomagnetism of the Quaternary Cerro Prieto , Crater Elegante, and Salton Buttes Volcanic...NWC TP 6827 S Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range by Steven C

  15. Accuracy Estimates of Gravity Potential Differences between Western Europe and United States through Lageos Satellite Laser Ranging Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    conterminous United States, 4 in Eurooe, 2 each in Australia nd So ;ti America, 2 each in the Carribean and Pacific Islands, and I in Hawaii. -10- 𔄀...GRAVITY POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WESTERN EUROPE AND UNITED STATES THROUGH LAGEOS SATELLITE LASER RANGING NETWORK D.P. Hajela The Ohio State University...104 C=~ 10 CONTRACTOR REPORTS This report has been reviewed by the ESD Public Affairs Office (PA) and is releasable to the National Technical

  16. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ectoparasite loads in free-ranging western fence lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Nicholas B; Vredevoe, Larisa K; Taylor, Emily N

    2012-08-01

    Numerous factors impact the dynamics of host-parasite relationships, such as host sex, hormonal state, reproductive condition, host health, and behavior. In particular, males from a variety of taxa frequently carry heavier parasite burdens than females, particularly during breeding season when testosterone concentrations are elevated. Using western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), we tested the hypothesis that high circulating testosterone concentrations in male lizards induce high tick and mite loads. We implanted male lizards with either testosterone or control implants in the field during the spring, when tick and mite loads are highest. One month later, testosterone-implanted males had significantly higher tick loads, but lower mite loads, than control males. These results suggest that testosterone differentially impacts ectoparasitic acarine burdens. Testosterone may modulate aspects of lizard physiology and behavior that enhance or diminish parasitism by certain acarines during periods of peak reproductive effort. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. Monitoring intensity and patterns of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use in remote areas of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Coffin, Alisa W.

    2013-01-01

    The continued growth of off-highway vehicle (OHV) activities – demonstrated by the dramatic increase in OHV sales, number of users, and areas experiencing OHV use – has elevated concerns about their ecological effects, the impacts on wildlife, and the sustainability of OHV use on secondary and tertiary road networks. Conflicts between visitors and wildlife are raising concerns about system resiliency and sustainable management. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of OHV use it is imperative to know about the timing and patterns of vehicle use. This study tested and used multiple vehicle-counter types to study vehicular OHV use patterns and volume throughout a mountainous road network in western Colorado. OHV counts were analyzed by time of day, day of week, season, and year. While daily use peaked within a two to three hour range for all sites, the overall volume of use varied among sites on an annual basis. The data also showed that there are at least two distinct patterns of OHV use: one dominated by a majority of use on weekends, and the other with continuous use throughout the week. This project provided important, but rarely captured, metrics about patterns of OHV use in a remote, mountainous region of Colorado. The techniques described here can provide land managers with a quantitative evaluation of OHV use across the landscape, an essential foundation for travel management planning. They also provide researchers with robust tools to further investigate the impacts of OHV use.

  18. Factors affecting river health and its assessment over broad geographic ranges: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, S A; Scanlon, M D; Cocking, J S; Smith, M J; Kay, W R

    2007-11-01

    AusRivAS is an Australia-wide program that measures river condition using predictive models to compare the macroinvertebrate families occurring at a river site with those expected if the site were in natural condition. Results of assessment of 685 sites across all major rivers in Western Australia are presented. Most rivers were in relatively natural condition in the northern half of the state where the human population is low and pastoralism is the major land use. In the south, where the human population is higher and agriculture is more intensive, rivers were mostly more disturbed. AusRivAS assessment produced some erroneous results in rivers of the south-west cropping zone because of the lack of appropriate reference site groups and biased distribution of sampling sites. Collecting low numbers of animals from many forested streams, because of low stream productivity and samples that were difficult to sort, also affected assessments. Overall, however, AusRivAs assessment identified catchment processes that were inimical to river health. These processes included salinisation, high nutrient and organic loads, erosion and loss of riparian vegetation. River regulation, channel modification and fire were also associated with river degradation. As is the case with other assessment methods, one-off sampling at individual sites using AusRivAS may be misleading. Seasonal drought, in particular, may make it difficult to relate conditions at the time of sampling to longer-term river health. AusRivAS has shown river condition in Western Australia is not markedly different from other parts of Australia which, as a whole, lacks the substantial segments of severely degraded river systems reported in England.

  19. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact.

  20. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  1. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zald, Harold S J; Spies, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J; Olsen, Keith A; Steel, E Ashley

    2016-04-15

    Forest carbon (C) density varies tremendously across space due to the inherent heterogeneity of forest ecosystems. Variation of forest C density is especially pronounced in mountainous terrain, where environmental gradients are compressed and vary at multiple spatial scales. Additionally, the influence of environmental gradients may vary with forest age and developmental stage, an important consideration as forest landscapes often have a diversity of stand ages from past management and other disturbance agents. Quantifying forest C density and its underlying environmental determinants in mountain terrain has remained challenging because many available data sources lack the spatial grain and ecological resolution needed at both stand and landscape scales. The objective of this study was to determine if environmental factors influencing aboveground live carbon (ALC) density differed between young versus old forests. We integrated aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data with 702 field plots to map forest ALC density at a grain of 25 m across the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 6369 ha watershed in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA. We used linear regressions, random forest ensemble learning (RF) and sequential autoregressive modeling (SAR) to reveal how mapped forest ALC density was related to climate, topography, soils, and past disturbance history (timber harvesting and wildfires). ALC increased with stand age in young managed forests, with much greater variation of ALC in relation to years since wildfire in old unmanaged forests. Timber harvesting was the most important driver of ALC across the entire watershed, despite occurring on only 23% of the landscape. More variation in forest ALC density was explained in models of young managed forests than in models of old unmanaged forests. Besides stand age, ALC density in young managed forests was driven by factors influencing site productivity, whereas variation in ALC density in old unmanaged forests

  2. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  3. Observations of Gas Emissions from Cascade Range Volcanoes (USA) using a Portable Real-Time Sensor Package and Evacuated Flasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P. J.; Werner, C. A.; Evans, W.; Ingebritsen, S.; Tucker, D.

    2012-12-01

    Degassing from most Cascade Range Volcanoes, USA, is characterized by low-temperature hydrothermal emissions. It is important to monitor these emissions as part of a comprehensive monitoring strategy yet access is often difficult and most features are sampled by the USGS only once per year at best. In an effort to increase the sampling frequency of major gas species and in preparation for building permanent, autonomous units, we built a portable sensor package capable of measuring H2O, CO2, SO2, and H2S in volcanic gas plumes. Here we compare results from the portable sensor package with gas analyses from direct samples obtained using a titanium tube and evacuated glass flasks collected at the same time. The sensor package is housed in a small, rugged case, weighs 5 kg, and includes sensors for measuring H2O (0-16 parts per thousand), CO2 (0-5000 ppmv), SO2 (0-100 ppm), and H2S (0-20 ppm) gases. Additional temperature and pressure sensors, a micro air pump, datalogger, and an internal battery are also incorporated. H2O and CO2 are measured using an infrared spectrometer (Licor 840) and sulfur-containing gases are measured using electrochemical sensors equipped with filters to mitigate cross-sensitivities. Data are collected at a 1 Hz sampling rate and can be recorded and displayed in real-time using a netbook computer or can be saved to the onboard datalogger. The data display includes timeseries of H2O, CO2, SO2, and H2S mixing ratios, the four-component bulk composition of the plume, and automated calculation of gas ratios commonly used in volcanic gas monitoring, such as H2O/CO2, CO2/SO2, and CO2/H2S . In the Cascade Range, the sensor package has been tested at Mt. Baker, Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Hood, and in Lassen Volcanic National Park. In each case, the instrument was placed 5 to 30 meters from the fumarole or fumarole field and emissions were sampled for 5 to 30 minutes. No SO2 was detected at any location. At Mt. Hood the sensor package yielded average CO2/H2S

  4. Mountain ranges in western Pakistan as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Toba, Kakar, Fort Sandeman, Sulaiman Range area in west Pakistan as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 84th revolution of the earth. Note geological features such as folded mountain structures, anticlines and synclines. Photographed from an altitude of 108 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 132 hours and 30 minutes.

  5. South-western extension of the known range of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilgendorf), were collected in the Gamtoos River in the eastern Cape, representing a southwestern range extension for both. This is the first known record of these species west of Port Elizabeth, and also the first record of an overlap of their ...

  6. Ant-nest ichnofossils in honeycomb calcretes, Neogene Ogallala Formation, High Plains region of western Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Platt, B.F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Thomasson, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two new ant-nest trace fossils are described from calcic sandy paleosols of the Neogene Ogallala Formation in western Kansas. The ichnofossils are preserved within and below calcrete beds weathering in positive relief as carbonate-filled casts or as cavities in negative relief. Daimoniobarax ichnogenus nov. is established for burrow systems composed of vertically tiered, horizontally oriented pancake-shaped chambers connected by predominantly vertical and cylindrical shafts ~. 0.8. cm in diameter. Ichnospecies of Daimoniobarax are differentiated based on differences in the plan view outline of chambers, shaft orientation, and junctions between chambers and shafts.Daimoniobarax nephroides ichnospecies nov. is composed of an ~. 24-76. cm long vertical sequence of distinctly lobed chambers (~. 2-20. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) arranged along sinuous to helical shafts. Chamber shape in plan view ranges from small teardrops to larger kidney- and U-shaped forms. Shafts intersect at chamber edges such that chambers appear to bud from the central shafts. Daimoniobarax nephroides is most similar to the nests of extant seed-harvester ants of the New World genus Pogonomyrmex. Such ants are specialized granivores and prefer sandy soils in arid to semi-arid grassland and desert regions.Daimoniobarax tschinkeli ichnospecies nov. is ~. 30-80. cm in vertical extent. Chambers (~. 2-30. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) are circular to elongate or pseudopodial in plan view. Vertical shafts are straight to slightly sinuous and intersect most often toward the center of the chambers. The generalized architecture of D. tschinkeli is similar to that of the nests or nest portions of several extant ant genera, though it does not closely resemble any known modern nest.Ant ichnofossils provide valuable information on hidden biodiversity, paleohydrologic regimes, paleopedogenic processes, and paleoclimate during the time of nest occupation. Depth-related changes in chamber size and vertical spacing

  7. Leptoconops bezzii (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) parasitizing tortoises Testudo graeca (Testudines: Testudinidae) in mountain ranges of Lebanon and western Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroký, P; Jandzík, D; Mikulícek, P; Moravec, J; Országh, I

    2007-07-01

    Biting midges of the genus Leptoconops, subgenus Leptoconops (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were repeatedly found parasitizing on spur-thighed tortoises Testudo graeca in western Syria and Lebanon. Collected females were assigned to the species L. bezzii according to their morphological characteristics. Tortoises parasitized by midges were observed throughout the daytime, under mild temperatures, and slight winds, in Mediterranean or stony steppe habitats. Intensity of the infestations ranged from a few specimens up to thousands of midges per tortoise. Midges infested predominantly the tortoises' carapax, finding their approach to the capillaries in the seams between the keratinized scutes. The vector potential of ceratopogonids is discussed.

  8. Predicting watershed sediment yields after wildland fire with the InVEST sediment retention model at large geographic extent in the western USA: accuracy and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, J. B.; Kreitler, J.; McVay, J.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Vaillant, N.; Lowe, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Wildland fire is a primary threat to watersheds that can impact water supply through increased sedimentation, water quality decline, and change the timing and amount of runoff leading to increased risk from flood and sediment natural hazards. It is of great societal importance in the western USA and throughout the world to improve understanding of how changing fire frequency, extent, and location, in conjunction with fuel treatments will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities. In this work we assess the utility of the InVEST Sediment Retention Model to accurately characterize vulnerability of burned watersheds to erosion and sedimentation. The InVEST tools are GIS-based implementations of common process models, engineered for high-end computing to allow the faster simulation of larger landscapes and incorporation into decision-making. The InVEST Sediment Retention Model is based on common soil erosion models (e.g., RUSLE -Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) and determines which areas of the landscape contribute the greatest sediment loads to a hydrological network and conversely evaluate the ecosystem service of sediment retention on a watershed basis. We evaluate the accuracy and uncertainties for InVEST predictions of increased sedimentation after fire, using measured post-fire sedimentation rates available for many watersheds in different rainfall regimes throughout the western USA from an existing, large USGS database of post-fire sediment yield [synthesized in Moody J, Martin D (2009) Synthesis of sediment yields after wildland fire in different rainfall regimes in the western United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 96-115]. The ultimate goal of this work is to calibrate and implement the model to accurately predict variability in post-fire sediment yield as a function of future landscape heterogeneity predicted by wildfire simulations, and future landscape fuel treatment scenarios, within watersheds.

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging Cebus albifrons in the Western Amazon, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Martin-Solano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons. We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11 and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15 in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal, we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes. We observed a high prevalence (84% across the 26 individuals, with the most prevalent parasite being Strongyloides sp. (76.9%, followed by Hymenolepis sp. (38.5% and Prosthenorchis elegans (11.5%. We found Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moskovskii/nuttalli and Capillaria sp. in only a minority of the animals (3.8%. In addition, we observed unidentified strongyles in approximately one-third of the animals (34.6%. We found a total of 6 parasite genera for the adult age group, which showed higher parasite richness than the subadult age group (5 and the juvenile age group (3. Faecal egg/cyst counts were not significantly different between captive and free-ranging individuals or between sexes or age groups. The free-ranging group had a higher prevalence than the captive group; however, this difference was not significant. The only genus common to captive and free-ranging individuals was Strongyloides sp. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and the presence of Strongyloides in both populations support results from previous studies in Cebus species. This high prevalence could be related to the high degree of humidity in the region. For the free-ranging group, additional studies are required to gain insights into the differences in parasite prevalence and intensity between age and sex groups. Additionally, our study demonstrated that a serial sampling of each individual increases

  10. Woodland clearance alters geomorphic, hydrologic, and pedogenic drivers of ecosystem services: examples from the southern Blue Ridge (USA) and the French western Pyrenees Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, David

    2016-04-01

    The southern Blue Ridge (USA) and French western Pyrenees both are humid-temperate mountains where native woodlands have been cleared on soils formed in residuum and colluvium on hillslopes. Forest removal increased rates of erosion and sediment yield that drove both negative and positive ecosystem services. For example, the supportive ecosystem service of soil formation was diminished on eroded hillslopes, but may have been enhanced by accumulation of sediment on bottomlands far downstream from the highland source areas. Negative effects on provisional ecosystem services (e.g. water supply) resulted in aggraded bottomlands by increasing the depth to the water table. Legacy effects linger on hillslopes that reforested (diminished soil properties), and ongoing alteration of pedogenic and hydrologic processes affect pastures that persisted from cleared woodlands. Beyond those general similarities, pastures of the two regions exhibit very different pedogenic pathways and ecosystem service outcomes. Soils of the Blue Ridge pastures adhere to a typical degradation scenario of erosion, compaction, and reduced infiltration capacities, whereas Pyrenees pastures exhibit soil qualities trending in the opposite direction and arguably now are better quality soils than their forested predecessors. Major differences in temporal duration and management styles apparently have led to such contrasts in soil quality. The Blue Ridge pastures are only tens to hundreds of years old, whereas Pyrenees pastures are thousands of years old. Blue Ridge pastures are maintained by mowing with tractors and year-round grazing primarily with beef cattle, whereas Pyrenees pastures (outfields) lack tractors and are only grazed seasonally (summer), primarily with sheep. Fire is rarely used as a management tool in the Blue Ridge, while Pyrenees pastures frequently are burned. Such management practices, and their influence on pedogenic and hydrologic processes, generally have resulted in negative

  11. Famennian microbial reef facies, Napier and Oscar Ranges, Canning Basin, western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, N P; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2003-01-01

    Following the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, which eliminated most skeletal reef-building fauna, the early Famennian reefs of the Canning Basin were constructed primarily by reef-framework microbial communities. In the Napier and Oscar Ranges, the Famennian reef complexes had high-energy, reef-flat depositional environments on a reef-rimmed platform that transitioned into low-energy, deep-water reefs growing in excess of 50 m below sea level. High-energy, reef-flat depositional environme...

  12. Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Current Status of the Distribution Range of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Mendoza, O; Armendáriz-Toledano, F; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, G; Negrón, José F

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric morphometric analysis of seminal rod shape to evaluate its reliability for identifying this species with respect to other members of the Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex. Our results provide 30 new records, with 26 distributed in the Sierra Madre Occidental and 4 in the Sierra Madre Oriental. These records extend the known distribution range of D. brevicomis to Durango and Tamaulipas states in northern Mexico. Furthermore, we find high geographic variation in size and shape of the seminal rod, with conspicous differences among individuals from different geographical regions, namely west and east of the Great Basin and between mountain systems in Mexico. PMID:28922899

  14. New zircon (U-Th)/He and U/Pb eruption age for the Rockland tephra, western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Matthew A.; Burgess, Seth; Klemetti, Erik W.

    2017-01-01

    Eruption ages of a number of prominent Quaternary volcanic deposits remain inaccurately and/or imprecisely constrained, despite their importance as regional stratigraphic markers in paleo-environment reconstruction and as evidence of climate-altering eruptions. Accurately dating volcanic deposits presents challenging analytical considerations, including poor radiogenic yield, scarcity of datable minerals, and contamination of crystal populations by magma, eruption, and transport processes. One prominent example is the Rockland tephra, which erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center in the southern Cascade arc. Despite a range in published eruption ages from 0.40 to 0.63 Ma, the Rockland tephra is extensively used as a marker bed across the western United States. To more accurately and precisely constrain the age of the Rockland tephra-producing eruption, we report U/Pb crystallization dates from the outermost ∼2 μm of zircon crystal faces (surfaces) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our new weighted mean 238U/206Pb age for Rockland tephra zircon surfaces is 0.598 ± 0.013 Ma (2σ) and MSWD = 1.11 (mean square weighted deviation). As an independent test of the accuracy of this age, we obtained new (U-Th)/He dates from individual zircon grains from the Rockland tephra, which yielded a weighted mean age of 0.599 ± 0.012 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 5.13). We also obtained a (U-Th)/He age of 0.628 ± 0.014 Ma (MSWD = 1.19) for the Lava Creek Tuff member B, which was analyzed as a secondary standard to test the accuracy of the (U-Th)/He technique for Quaternary tephras, and to evaluate assumptions made in the model-age calculation. Concordance of new U/Pb and (U-Th)/He zircon ages reinforces the accuracy of our preferred Rockland tephra eruption age, and confirms that zircon surface dates sample zircon growth up to the time of eruption. We demonstrate the broad applicability of coupled U/Pb zircon-surface and single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He geochronology to

  15. New zircon (U-Th)/He and U/Pb eruption age for the Rockland tephra, western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Matthew A.; Burgess, Seth D.; Klemetti, Erik W.

    2017-09-01

    Eruption ages of a number of prominent Quaternary volcanic deposits remain inaccurately and/or imprecisely constrained, despite their importance as regional stratigraphic markers in paleo-environment reconstruction and as evidence of climate-altering eruptions. Accurately dating volcanic deposits presents challenging analytical considerations, including poor radiogenic yield, scarcity of datable minerals, and contamination of crystal populations by magma, eruption, and transport processes. One prominent example is the Rockland tephra, which erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center in the southern Cascade arc. Despite a range in published eruption ages from 0.40 to 0.63 Ma, the Rockland tephra is extensively used as a marker bed across the western United States. To more accurately and precisely constrain the age of the Rockland tephra-producing eruption, we report U/Pb crystallization dates from the outermost ∼2 μm of zircon crystal faces (surfaces) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our new weighted mean 238U/206Pb age for Rockland tephra zircon surfaces is 0.598 ± 0.013 Ma (2σ) and MSWD = 1.11 (mean square weighted deviation). As an independent test of the accuracy of this age, we obtained new (U-Th)/He dates from individual zircon grains from the Rockland tephra, which yielded a weighted mean age of 0.599 ± 0.012 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 5.13). We also obtained a (U-Th)/He age of 0.628 ± 0.014 Ma (MSWD = 1.19) for the Lava Creek Tuff member B, which was analyzed as a secondary standard to test the accuracy of the (U-Th)/He technique for Quaternary tephras, and to evaluate assumptions made in the model-age calculation. Concordance of new U/Pb and (U-Th)/He zircon ages reinforces the accuracy of our preferred Rockland tephra eruption age, and confirms that zircon surface dates sample zircon growth up to the time of eruption. We demonstrate the broad applicability of coupled U/Pb zircon-surface and single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He geochronology to accurate

  16. An inventory of epigeal ants of the western Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha C. Munyai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance and sensitivity invertebrates to habitat change are largely unknown. Long-term monitoring of ecological gradients with standardised and comparable protocols can form the basis of a better understanding. Altitudinal gradients are particularly relevant within this context. Here we provide a check list and baseline data for ant species collected over a 5-year period across the Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa. Standardised pitfall surveys across 11 sites yielded a total of 133 species in 38 genera and 6 subfamilies. Sample coverage of epigeal ants was 0.98 for the transect as a whole. Of these species, 21% were restricted to the southern slope of the mountain and 14% to the northern slope. Extrapolated richness estimates reached an asymptote for all, except for three sites. These were the only sites impacted by bush encroachment. Observed richness was the highest at a low-altitude mesic site that is exposed to considerable disturbance by megaherbivores and mechanical clearing of woody vegetation. Structural classification of vegetation was predictive of a broad-scale ant assemblage structure. On a smaller scale, however, structure was a function of elevation, space and temperature.Conservation implications: Future monitoring should target indicator taxa associated with bush encroachment, particularly with reference to their impacts on grasslands. Bush encroachment could endanger several ant species associated with mesic grasslands and woodlands on the mountain, as well as ant diversity, as these were the habitats with the highest ant diversity.

  17. Biogeography of boreal passerine range dynamics in western North America: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stralberg, Diana; Matsuoka, Steven; Handel, Colleen M.; Schmiegelow, Fiona K.A.; Hamann, Andreas; Bayne, Erin M.

    2017-01-01

    Many of the Neotropical migrant bird species that breed throughout the Canadian boreal region are not found in the Alaskan boreal region, separated by the northwestern cordilleran mountains, despite the presence of climatically suitable habitat. We asked whether biological or climatic factors constrain certain species from crossing this geographic barrier. Analyzing a comprehensive dataset for 80 boreal passerine species, we used phylogenetic logistic regression to evaluate the relative importance of physical, migratory and competition metrics versus current and paleoclimatic suitability factors. Controlling for current climatic suitability within boreal Alaska, we found that species with the greatest climatic suitability across the northwestern cordillera, presently and also during the mid-Holocene period, were most likely to be regular breeders in the Alaskan boreal region. Migratory strategy also played a role, but could not be disentangled from its strong phylogenetic basis. Our analysis suggests that the perceived barrier of the northwestern cordillera may be easily weakened as climate change improves conditions there for many forest species. The weakening of this barrier may lead to relatively rapid range expansions and the reshuffling of species communities. Species’ realized distributional shifts will be a function of the interplay between a changing climate and static topographic features.

  18. Entomofaunal diversity of tree hole mosquitoes in Western and Eastern Ghats hill ranges of Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamarai Selvan, P; Jebanesan, A; Reetha, D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of various mosquito vectors is important in the determination of disease prevalence in disease endemic areas. The aim of the present study was to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of tree hole mosquito species in Tamilnadu, India. In addition to this, the impact of weather-conditions on tree hole mosquito population were evaluated between June, 2014 and May, 2015. Six hills ranges viz., Anaimalai hills, Kodaikanal hills, Sitheri hills, Kolli hills, Yercaud hills, and Megamalai were selected, the immatures collected from tree holes by the help of suction tube. Collections were made at dusk and dawn at randomly selected 15 different tree species. The collected samples were stored and morphologically identified to species level in the laboratory. Mosquito diversity was calculated by Simpson's and Shannon-Weiner diversity indicies with spatial and temporal aspects. Over 2642 mosquitoes comprising the primary vectors of dengue, chickungunya, malaria, filariasis were identified. Other species collected from the fifteen sites in each hill during the study included Christophersiomyia annularis, Christophersiomyia thomsoni, Downsiomyia albolateralis, Downsiomyia nivea and Toxorhynchites splendens, etc. Study revealed high species diversity and relative density associated with different study sites. Based on the Shannon diversity index high number of species was recorded with Aedes pseudoalbopicta (0.0829) followed by Ae. aegypti (0.0805) and least species was recorded as Anopheles elegans (0.0059). The distribution of the primary vectors of DF along the high occurrence was evident with most study sites representing proportions of this vector population. This showed the high risk level associated with the livestock movement in amplification and circulation of the virus during the outbreaks. The findings of this study, therefore, demonstrated the potential vulnerability of nomadic communities to

  19. Recruitment patterns and growth of high-elevation pines in response to climatic variability (1883–2013), in the western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint

    2015-01-01

    Over the period 1883–2013, recruitment of subalpine limber pine (Pinus flexilis E. James) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) above the upper tree line, below the lower tree line, and across middle-elevation forest borders occurred at localized sites across four mountain ranges in the western Great...

  20. Thinning and prescribed fire effects on snag abundance and spatial pattern in an eastern Cascade Range dry forest, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Nicholas A. Povak; R. Brion. Salter

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical thinning and prescribed burning practices are commonly used to address tree stocking, spacing, composition, and canopy and surface fuel conditions in western US mixed conifer forests. We examined the effects of these fuel treatments alone and combined on snag abundance and spatial pattern across 12 10-ha treatment units in central Washington State. A snag...

  1. Extended-range forecast for the temporal distribution of clustering tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim; Bai, Long; Gao, Jianyun

    2017-11-01

    Based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), an index for clustering tropical cyclogenesis (CTC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) was defined. Around 76 % of total CTC events were generated during the active phase of the CTC index, and 38 % of the total active phase was concurrent with CTC events. For its continuous property, the CTC index was used as the representative predictand for extended-range forecasting the temporal distribution of CTC events. The predictability sources for CTC events were detected via correlation analyses of the previous 35-5-day lead atmospheric fields against the CTC index. The results showed that the geopotential height at different levels and the 200 hPa zonal wind over the global tropics possessed large predictability sources, whereas the predictability sources of other variables, e.g., OLR, zonal wind, and relatively vorticity at 850 hPa and relatively humility at 700 hPa, were mainly confined to the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. Several spatial-temporal projection model (STPM) sets were constructed to carry out the extended-range forecast for the CTC index. By combining the output of STPMs separately conducted for the two dominant modes of intraseasonal variability, e.g., the 10-30 and the 30-80 day mode, useful forecast skill could be achieved for a 30-day lead time. The combined output successfully captured both the 10-30 and 30-80 day mode at least 10 days in advance. With a relatively low rate of false alarm, the STPM achieved hits for 80 % (69 %) of 54 CTC events during 2003-2014 at the 10-day (20-day) lead time, suggesting a practical value of the STPM for real-time forecasting WNP CTC events at an extended range.

  2. The new Wallula CO2 project may revive the old Columbia River Basalt (western USA) nuclear-waste repository project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2018-02-01

    A novel CO2 sequestration project at Wallula, Washington, USA, makes ample use of the geoscientific data collection of the old nuclear waste repository project at the Hanford Site nearby. Both projects target the Columbia River Basalt (CRB). The new publicity for the old project comes at a time when the approach to high-level nuclear waste disposal has undergone fundamental changes. The emphasis now is on a technical barrier that is chemically compatible with the host rock. In the ideal case, the waste container is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the host-rock groundwater regime. The CRB groundwater has what it takes to represent the ideal case.

  3. The new Wallula CO2 project may revive the old Columbia River Basalt (western USA) nuclear-waste repository project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2017-07-01

    A novel CO2 sequestration project at Wallula, Washington, USA, makes ample use of the geoscientific data collection of the old nuclear waste repository project at the Hanford Site nearby. Both projects target the Columbia River Basalt (CRB). The new publicity for the old project comes at a time when the approach to high-level nuclear waste disposal has undergone fundamental changes. The emphasis now is on a technical barrier that is chemically compatible with the host rock. In the ideal case, the waste container is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the host-rock groundwater regime. The CRB groundwater has what it takes to represent the ideal case.

  4. A Santería/Palo Mayombe ritual cauldron containing a human skull and multiple artifacts recovered in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T

    2015-03-01

    Santería and Palo Mayombe are West African-derived religions/sects with components of Catholicism, and both involve the ritual use of nonhuman skeletal remains which make them an increasing object of forensic interest. Palo Mayombe specifically involves also the use of human skeletal remains placed within ritual cauldrons or ngangas along with multiple ritual artifacts. A case of a nganga recovered from a periodically drained canal in Western Massachusetts, U.S.A. is presented. This nganga contained multiple items indicating its origin, including railroad spikes, coins, other metal objects, a stone, a glass bead, and multiple labeled and unlabeled sticks and was associated with a knife. It also contained skeletal remains of a bird and a snake as well as a nearly intact human skull of an adult male. The origin of the human remains is likely from a cemetery or as a former anatomical specimen. The find of this nganga is atypical in that it is away from the usual urban centers of Palo Mayombe in the U.S.A., and forensic practitioners should be aware that such sources of human remains may occur in their jurisdictions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scaling the Teflon Peaks: Rock type and the generation of extreme relief in the glaciated western Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dylan J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Parts of the Alaska Range (Alaska, USA) stand in prominent exception to the “glacial buzzsaw hypothesis,” which postulates that terrain raised above the ELA is rapidly denuded by glaciers. In this paper, we discuss the role of a strong contrast in rock type in the development of this exceptional terrain. Much of the range is developed on pervasively fractured flysch, with local relief of 1000–1500 m, and mean summit elevations that are similar to modern snow line elevations. In contrast, Cretaceous and Tertiary plutons of relatively intact granite support the range's tallest mountains (including Mt. McKinley, or Denali, at 6194 m), with 2500–5000 m of local relief. The high granitic peaks protrude well above modern snow lines and support many large glaciers. We focus on the plutons of the Denali massif and the Kichatna Mountains, to the west. We use field observations, satellite photos, and digital elevation data to demonstrate how exhumation of these plutons affects glacier longitudinal profiles, the glacial drainage network, and the effectiveness of periglacial processes. In strong granite, steep, smooth valley walls are maintained by detachment of rock slabs along sheeting joints. These steep walls act as low-friction surfaces (“Teflon”), efficiently shedding snow. Simple scaling calculations show that this avalanching may greatly enhance the health of the modern glaciers. We conclude that, in places such as Denali, unusual combinations of rapid tectonic uplift and great rock strength have created the highest relief in North America by enhancing glacial erosion in the valleys while preserving the peaks.

  6. A glacier inventory for the western Nyainqentanglha Range and the Nam Co Basin, Tibet, and glacier changes 1976–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The western Nyainqentanglha Range is located in the south-eastern centre of the Tibetan Plateau. Its north-western slopes drain into Lake Nam Co. The region is of special interest for glacio-climatological research as it is influenced by both the continental climate of Central Asia and the Indian Monsoon system, and situated at the transition zone between temperate and subcontinental glaciers. A glacier inventory for the whole mountain range was generated for the year around 2001 using automated remote sensing and GIS techniques based on Landsat ETM+ and SRTM3 DEM data. Glacier change analysis was based on data from Hexagon KH-9 and Landsat MSS (both 1976, Metric Camera (1984, and Landsat TM/ETM+ (1991, 2001, 2005, 2009. Manual adjustment was especially necessary for delineating the debris-covered glaciers and the glaciers on the panchromatic Hexagon data. In the years around 2001 the whole mountain range contained about 960 glaciers covering an area of 795.6 ± 22.3 km2 while the ice in the drainage basin of Nam Co covered 198.1 ± 5.6 km2. The median elevation of the glaciers was about 5800 m with the majority terminating around 5600 m. Five glaciers with debris-covered tongues terminated lower than 5200 m. The glacier area decreased by −6.1 ± 3% between 1976 and 2001. This is less than reported in previous studies based on the 1970s topographic maps and Landsat data from 2000. Glaciers continued to shrink during the period 2001–2009. No advancing glaciers were detected. Detailed length measurements for five glaciers indicated a retreat of around 10 m per year (1976–2009. Ice cover is higher south-east of the mountain ridge which reflects the windward direction to the monsoon. The temperature increase during the ablation period was probably the main driver of glacier wastage, but the complex glacier-climate interactions need further investigation.

  7. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  8. Sedimentary signature of Hurricane Isaac in a Taxodium swamp on the western margin of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-B. Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Compositional and geochemical profiles were established for a 59-cm sediment core extracted from a small pothole pond in a Taxodium (bald cypress swamp 830 m inland from Lake Pontchartrain in south-eastern Louisiana, USA. The core consists of a top organic unit (peat to clayey peat from 0–29 cm above a bottom clay unit at 30–59 cm depth. Four distinct zones, marked by gradual changes in organic content and elemental concentrations, occur in the clay unit. These changes probably reflect two cycles of slowly changing water depths. Hurricane Isaac’s signature, a brown clay band at 3–5 cm, is identified based on the stratigraphic and compositional correspondence with the storm’s event layer, documented from nearby sites. Sedimentary and geochemical similarities between this material and clastic bands at 15–19 and 23–25 cm identify those two intervals as potentially representing earlier floods. The Cl/Br ratio presents a potentially useful method for distinguishing fluvial and marine flooding.

  9. Cosmogenic nuclide and uranium-series dating of old, high shorelines in the western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, G.; Phillips, F.M.; Reheis, M.C.; Redwine, J.L.; Paces, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Closed-basin pluvial lakes are sensitive recorders of effective moisture, and they provide a terrestrial signal of climate change that can be compared to marine and ice records of glacial-interglacial cycles. Although the most recent deep-lake cycle in the western Great Basin (at ca. 16 ka) has been studied intensively, comparatively little is known about the longer-term Quaternary lacustrine history of the region. Lacustrine features higher than those of the most recent highstand have been discovered in many locations throughout the western Great Basin. Qualitative geomorphic and soil studies of shoreline sequences above the latest Pleistocene level suggest that their ages increase as a function of increasing altitude. The results of cosmogenic nuclide dating using chlorine-36 depth profiles from three sites in Nevada (Walker Lake, Columbus Salt Marsh, and Newark Valley), combined with uranium-series and radiocarbon ages, corroborate the geomorphic and soil evidence. The 36Cl results are consistent with available 14C ages and together indicate that the most recent highstands of all three lakes occurred ca. 20-15 ka, late in marine isotope stage (MIS) 2, as shown by previous ages. The 36Cl ages indicate that older lakes in all three basins reached highstands between 100 and 50 ka, and most likely during MIS 4. Shorelines of this age are at about the same or higher altitudes as the younger, MIS 2 shorelines in those basins. The 36Cl results combined with uranium-series ages and one tephra correlation obtained on shorelines higher in altitude than those of MIS 4 and 2 lakes suggest that there were also major lake highstands in the western Great Basin at ca. 100-200 ka, likely corresponding with MIS 6, and during at least two older periods. From these results, we conclude that the preserved shorelines show an apparent decrease in maximum levels with time, suggesting long-term drying of the region since the early middle Pleistocene. ?? 2011 Geological Society of

  10. Early Triassic fluctuations of the global carbon cycle: New evidence from paired carbon isotopes in the western USA basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Gwénaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Cocquerez, Théophile; Escarguel, Gilles; Fara, Emmanuel; Jenks, James F.; Bylund, Kevin G.; Stephen, Daniel A.; Brayard, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic records recurrent perturbations in the carbon isotope signal, most notably during the Smithian and through the Smithian/Spathian Boundary (SSB; 1.5 myr after the Permian/Triassic boundary), which show some of the largest excursions of the Phanerozoic. The late Smithian also corresponds to major biotic turnovers and environmental changes, such as temperature fluctuations, that deeply impacted the recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction. Here we document the paired carbon isotope signal along with an analysis of the trace and major elements at the long-known Hot Springs section (southeastern Idaho, USA). This section records Early Triassic sediments from the Griesbachian-Dienerian up to the lower Spathian. We show that the organic and carbonate δ13C variations mirror the signals identified at a global scale. Particularly, the middle Smithian-SSB event represented by a negative-positive isotopic couplet is well identified and is not of diagenetic origin. We also document a positive excursion potentially corresponding to the Dienerian/Smithian Boundary. Observed Smithian-Spathian excursions are recorded similarly in both the organic and carbonate reservoirs, but the organic matter signal systematically shows unexpectedly dampened variations compared to its carbonate counterpart. Additionally, we show that variations in the net isotopic effect (i.e., Δ13C) probably resulted from a complex set of forcing parameters including either a mixing between terrestrial and marine organic matter depending on the evolution of the depositional setting, or variations in the biological fractionation. We establish that the Δ13C signal cannot be directly related to CO2-driven temperature variations at Hot Springs. Even though the carbon isotope signal mirrors the Early Triassic variations known at the global scale, the Hot Springs signal probably also reflects local influences on the carbon

  11. Characteristics of a paleosol and its implication for the Critical Zone development, Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopold, Matthias, E-mail: leopold@wzw.tum.de [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Voelkel, Joerg [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Dethier, David [Williams College, Dept. Geoscience, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); Huber, Juliane [Geomorphology and Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Steffens, Markus [Soil Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We dated a sediment section (USA) including an 8000 years old paleosol by OSL and Radiocarbon. > Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to characterize the paleosols' organic matter. > High amounts of aromatic structures (charcoal) indicate fire events that influenced the soil. > The section represents geomorphic stability and instability phases. > We use these geomorphic changes to reconstruct the Critical Zone development. - Abstract: Activity and stability phases as well as geomorphic processes within the Critical Zone are well known. Erosion and deposition of sediments represent activity; soils represent geomorphic stability phases. Data are presented from a 4 m deep sediment section that was dated by luminescence techniques. Upslope erosion and resulting sedimentation started in the late Pleistocene around 18 ka until 12 ka. Conditions at the study site then changed, which led to the formation of a well-developed soil. Radiocarbon dating of the organic matter yielded ages between 8552 and 8995 cal. BP. From roughly 6.2 to 5.4 ka another activity phase accompanied by according sediment deposition buried the soil and a new soil, a Cambisol, was formed at the surface. The buried soil is a strongly developed Luvisol. The black colors in the upper part of the buried soil are not the result of pedogenic accumulation of normal organic matter within an A-horizon. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy clearly documents the high amount of aromatic components (charcoal), which is responsible for the dark color. This indicates severe burning events at the site and the smaller charcoal dust (black carbon) was transported to deeper parts of the profile during the process of clay translocation.

  12. Strontium isotopes in the rocks of the ophiolite complex in the Khan-Tayshiri Range (Western Mongolia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, G.S.; Kuz' min, M.I.; Sandimirova, G.P.; Zonenshayn, L.P.

    1980-08-01

    The distribution of strontium isotopes has been examined in a section through the ophiolite complex of the Khan-Tayshiri Range (Western Mongolia). The basal parts of the complex consist of apo-dunites (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr = 0.7118 - 0.7124), and higher up in the section there are pyroxenites (0.7064 - 0.7095) and gabbros (0.7034-0.7065). The upper parts of the complex consist of pillow lavas (0.7068-0.7071), the conduits for which were a series of laminar dikes (0.7057-0.7087). An analysis of petrological and geochemical information with a selection of isotope data suggests that during the formation of the rocks of the Khan-Tayshiri Complex, three components, different in nature and chemical composition, were involved: the remains of the Earth's protolithosphere in the form of apo-dunites, a mantle quartz-tholeiite magma, and seawater. Variations in the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio are associated both with the isotope composition of the original magma, and also with the conditions of its emplacement. The ultrabasic rocks are regarded as relicts of the ancient ultrabasic layer or protolithosphere of the Earth.

  13. Geospatial compilation of results from field sample collection in support of mineral resource investigations, Western Alaska Range, Alaska, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Benzel, William M.

    2015-07-16

    This Data Series summarizes results from July 2013 sampling in the western Alaska Range near Mount Estelle, Alaska. The fieldwork combined in situ and camp-based spectral measurements of talus/soil and rock samples. Five rock and 48 soil samples were submitted for quantitative geochemi­cal analysis (for 55 major and trace elements), and the 48 soils samples were also analyzed by x-ray diffraction to establish mineralogy and geochemistry. The results and sample photo­graphs are presented in a geodatabase that accompanies this report. The spectral, mineralogical, and geochemical charac­terization of these samples and the sites that they represent can be used to validate existing remote-sensing datasets (for example, ASTER) and future hyperspectral studies. Empiri­cal evidence of jarosite (as identified by x-ray diffraction and spectral analysis) corresponding with gold concentrations in excess of 50 parts per billion in soil samples suggests that surficial mapping of jarosite in regional surveys may be use­ful for targeting areas of prospective gold occurrences in this sampling area.

  14. Effect of Antibiotic Treatment on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome of Free-Ranging Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlčková, Klára; Gomez, Andres; Petrželková, Klára J; Whittier, Christopher A; Todd, Angelique F; Yeoman, Carl J; Nelson, Karen E; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Modrý, David; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-11-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome, which plays indispensable roles in host nutrition and health, is affected by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among them, antibiotic (ATB) treatment is reported to have a significant effect on GI microbiome composition in humans and other animals. However, the impact of ATBs on the GI microbiome of free-ranging or even captive great apes remains poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effect of cephalosporin treatment (delivered by intramuscular dart injection during a serious respiratory outbreak) on the GI microbiome of a wild habituated group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. We examined 36 fecal samples from eight individuals, including samples before and after ATB treatment, and characterized the GI microbiome composition using Illumina-MiSeq sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The GI microbial profiles of samples from the same individuals before and after ATB administration indicate that the ATB treatment impacts GI microbiome stability and the relative abundance of particular bacterial taxa within the colonic ecosystem of wild gorillas. We observed a statistically significant increase in Firmicutes and a decrease in Bacteroidetes levels after ATB treatment. We found disruption of the fibrolytic community linked with a decrease of Ruminoccocus levels as a result of ATB treatment. Nevertheless, the nature of the changes observed after ATB treatment differs among gorillas and thus is dependent on the individual host. This study has important implications for ecology, management, and conservation of wild primates.

  15. Comparative study of microfacies variation in two samples from the Chittenango member, Marcellus shale subgroup, western New York state, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balulla, Shama, E-mail: shamamohammed77@outlook.com; Padmanabhan, E., E-mail: eswaran-padmanabhan@petronas.com.my [Department of Geoscience, Faculty of Geosciencs and Petroleum Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh (Malaysia); Over, Jeffrey, E-mail: over@geneseo.edu [Department of geological sciences, Geneseo, NY (United States)

    2015-07-22

    This study demonstrates the significant lithologic variations that occur within the two shale samples from the Chittenango member of the Marcellus shale formation from western New York State in terms of mineralogical composition, type of lamination, pyrite occurrences and fossil content using thin section detailed description and field emission Scanning electron microscope (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-Ray Spectrum (EDX). This study is classified samples as laminated clayshale and fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. The most important detrital constituents of these shales are the clay mineral illite and chlorite, quartz, organic matter, carbonate mineral, and pyrite. The laminated clayshale has a lower amount of quartz and carbonate minerals than fossiliferous carbonaceous shale while it has a higher amount of clay minerals (chlorite and illite) and organic matter. FESEM analysis confirms the presence of chlorite and illite. The fossil content in the laminated clayshale is much lower than the fossiliferous carbonaceous shale. This can provide greater insights about variations in the depositional and environmental factors that influenced its deposition. This result can be compiled with the sufficient data to be helpful for designing the horizontal wells and placement of hydraulic fracturing in shale gas exploration and production.

  16. Franciscan olistoliths in Upper Cretaceous conglomerate deposits, Western Transverse Ranges, California: Implications for basin morphology and tectonic history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, W.E.; Campbell, M.D. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Compositional analyses reveal that Upper Cretaceous sediments exposed in the Western Transverse Ranges of CA were deposited in submarine fan systems in a forearc basin. Point count data suggest a magmatic arc/recycled orogen as the dominant provenance for these sediments. Paleocurrent measurements from conglomerates in these sediments yield a northerly transport direction. Removal of ca. 90[degree] of clockwise rotation and 70 km of right-lateral slip restore this section to a position west of the San Diego area. The forearc basin would have had a N-S orientation, with the bulk of sediments supplied by the Peninsular Ranges to the east. Evidence of the erosion of the accretionary wedge is provided by the presence of large, internally stratified olistoliths of Franciscan material interbedded with and surrounded by upper Cretaceous conglomerate. Petrographic, quantitative SEM, and microprobe analyses indicate the presence of diagnostic Franciscan mineralogy, including glaucophane, riebeckite, lawsonite, and serpentine. Olistoclasts of chert, jadeitic graywacke, serpentine, and blueschist are found intermixed with the conglomerates in close association with the olistoliths. This association provides strong field evidence that recirculation of melange material within the subduction zone was active and well-established by late Cretaceous time. Inferences regarding the forearc system morphology can be drawn from these observations. The occurrence of coarse, easterly-derived conglomerates surrounded by large, stratified, but sheared, westerly-derived Franciscan debris, suggests a narrow, relatively steep-sided basin. Paleocurrent measurements gave no indication of axial transport within the basin. This morphology suggests that, in late Cretaceous time, the forearc basin was youthful, with a narrow arc-trench gap. Thus, relative convergence rates between the North American and Pacific plates were possibly slower than Tertiary convergence rates.

  17. Late Devonian carbonate magnetostratigraphy from the Oscar and Horse Spring Ranges, Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Jeroen; Tohver, Eric; Yan, Maodu; Trinajstic, Kate; Roelofs, Brett; Peek, Sarah; Slotznick, Sarah P.; Kirschvink, Joseph; Playton, Ted; Haines, Peter; Hocking, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The Late Devonian was a time of major evolutionary change encompassing the fifth largest mass extinction, the Frasnian-Famennian event. In order to establish a chronological framework for global correlation before, during, and following the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, we carried out a coupled magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of two stratigraphic sections in the Upper Devonian carbonate reef complexes of the Lennard Shelf, in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Magnetostratigraphy from these rocks provides the first high-resolution definition of the Late Devonian magnetic polarity timescale. A 581-m-reference section and an 82-m overlapping section through the marginal slope facies (Napier Formation) of the Oscar Range as well as a 117-m section at Horse Spring (Virgin Hills Formation) were sampled at decimeter to meter scale for magnetostratigraphy. Conodont biostratigraphy was used to correlate both sections, and link magnetostratigraphic polarity zones to a globally established biostratigraphy. A stable, Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) with dual polarities (NE, shallowly upward and SW, shallowly downward) is recovered from ∼ 60% of all samples, with magnetite inferred to be the chief magnetic carrier from thermal demagnetization characteristics. These directions define a geomagnetic pole at 49.5°S/285.8°E and α95 = 2.4 (n = 501), placing the Canning Basin at 9.9°S during the Late Devonian, consistent with carbonate reef development at this time. A conservative interpretation of the magnetostratigraphy shows the recovery of multiple reversals from both sections, not including possible cryptochrons and short duration magnetozones. Field tests for primary remanence include positive reversal tests and matching magnetozones from an overlapping section in the Oscar Range. A strong correlation was found between magnetic polarity stratigraphies of the Oscar Range and Horse Spring sections, and we correlate 12

  18. [The data on helminth infestation of the Siberian tree frog (Rana amurensis Boulenger, 1886) in the western boundary of the range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigileva, O N; Kirina, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    Helminth species composition and infection rates of the Siberian tree frog Rana amurensis in Western Siberia were studied. Four species of helminthes--nematodes Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and the trematode Haplometra cylindracea were found. Prevalence of helminths in the Siberian tree frog is 100%, and mean abundance is 27.5 +/- 4.8. Helminth species richness in the Siberian tree frog in the western periphery of their distribution area is lower than in the center of the range, in Yakutia and Transbaikalia, and is approximately equal to that in the northeastern boundary of the range, in Magadan Province. R. bufonis, a highly pathogenic nematode species, dominates in prevalence and abundance in the Siberian tree frog in Western Siberia as well as in other parts of the geographical range of this species.

  19. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  20. Large wood recruitment and redistribution in headwater streams in the southern Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. May; R. E. Gresswell

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Large wood recruitment and redistribution mechanisms were investigated in a 3.9 km 2 basin with an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Forest, located in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. Stream size and topographic setting strongly influenced processes that delivered wood to the channel network. In small...

  1. MoonLIGHT: A USA-Italy lunar laser ranging retroreflector array for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Currie, D.; Delle Monache, G.; Vittori, R.; Chandler, J. F.; Cantone, C.; Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Patrizi, G.; Maiello, M.; Garattini, M.; Lops, C.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Intaglietta, N.; Tibuzzi, M.; Murphy, T. W.; Bianco, G.; Ciocci, E.

    2012-12-01

    Since the 1970s Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Cube Corner Retroreflector (CCR) arrays (developed by the University of Maryland, UMD) have supplied significant tests of General Relativity: possible changes in the gravitational constant, gravitational self-energy, weak equivalence principle, geodetic precession, inverse-square force-law. LLR has also provided significant information on the composition and origin of the Moon. This is the only Apollo experiment still in operation. In the 1970s Apollo LLR arrays contributed a negligible fraction of the ranging error budget. Since the ranging capabilities of ground stations improved by more than two orders of magnitude, now, because of the lunar librations, Apollo CCR arrays dominate the error budget. With the project MoonLIGHT (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High-accuracy Tests), in 2006 INFN-LNF joined UMD in the development and test of a new-generation LLR payload made by a single, large CCR (100 mm diameter) unaffected by librations. In particular, INFN-LNF built and is operating a new experimental apparatus (Satellite/lunar laser ranging Characterization Facility, SCF) and created a new industry-standard test procedure (SCF-Test) to characterize and model the detailed thermal behavior and the optical performance of CCRs in laboratory-simulated space conditions, for industrial and scientific applications. Our key experimental innovation is the concurrent measurement and modeling of the optical Far Field Diffraction Pattern (FFDP) and the temperature distribution of retroreflector payloads under thermal conditions produced with a solar simulator. The apparatus includes infrared cameras for non-invasive thermometry, thermal control and real-time payload movement to simulate satellite orientation on orbit with respect to solar illumination and laser interrogation beams. These capabilities provide: unique pre-launch performance validation of the space segment of LLR/SLR (Satellite Laser

  2. Bet-hedging dry-forest resilience to climate-change threats in the western USA based on historical forest structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lawrence Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry forests are particularly subject to wildfires, insect outbreaks, and droughts that likely will increase with climate change. Efforts to increase resilience of dry forests often focus on removing most small trees to reduce wildfire risk. However, small trees often survive other disturbances and could provide broader forest resilience, but small trees are thought to have been historically rare. We used direct records by land surveyors in the late-1800s along 22,206 km of survey lines in 1.7 million ha of dry forests in the western USA to test this idea. These systematic surveys (45,171 trees of historical forests reveal that small trees dominated (52-92% of total trees dry forests. Historical forests also included diverse tree sizes and species, which together provided resilience to several types of disturbances. Current risk to dry forests from insect outbreaks is 5.6 times the risk of higher-severity wildfires, with small trees increasing forest resilience to insect outbreaks. Removal of most small trees to reduce wildfire risk may compromise the bet-hedging resilience, provided by small trees and diverse tree sizes and species, against a broad array of unpredictable future disturbances.

  3. The Hyper-Envelope Modeling Interface (HEMI): A Novel Approach Illustrated Through Predicting Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Habitat in the Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jim; Young, Nick; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Newman, Greg; Evangelista, Paul; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat suitability maps are commonly created by modeling a species’ environmental niche from occurrences and environmental characteristics. Here, we introduce the hyper-envelope modeling interface (HEMI), providing a new method for creating habitat suitability models using Bezier surfaces to model a species niche in environmental space. HEMI allows modeled surfaces to be visualized and edited in environmental space based on expert knowledge and does not require absence points for model development. The modeled surfaces require relatively few parameters compared to similar modeling approaches and may produce models that better match ecological niche theory. As a case study, we modeled the invasive species tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in the western USA. We compare results from HEMI with those from existing similar modeling approaches (including BioClim, BioMapper, and Maxent). We used synthetic surfaces to create visualizations of the various models in environmental space and used modified area under the curve (AUC) statistic and akaike information criterion (AIC) as measures of model performance. We show that HEMI produced slightly better AUC values, except for Maxent and better AIC values overall. HEMI created a model with only ten parameters while Maxent produced a model with over 100 and BioClim used only eight. Additionally, HEMI allowed visualization and editing of the model in environmental space to develop alternative potential habitat scenarios. The use of Bezier surfaces can provide simple models that match our expectations of biological niche models and, at least in some cases, out-perform more complex approaches.

  4. Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus): Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Shepard, John J; Thomas, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist. Ae. albopictus females were monitored at fixed trapping sites throughout Connecticut from June-October over a 20-year period, 1997-2016. In addition, Ae. albopictus larvae and pupae were collected from tire habitats and tires were retrieved from the field in the spring and flooded to evaluate overwintering success of hatching larvae. Ae. albopictus was first detected during statewide surveillance when a single adult female was collected in 2006. This species was not collected again until 2010 and was subsequently detected each successive year with increasing abundance and distribution except following the unusually cold winters of 2014 and 2015. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were most abundant in urban and suburban locations along the southwestern shoreline of Connecticut; however, single specimens were occasionally detected in central parts of the state. Field-collected females were also screened for arbovirus infection yielding two isolations of Cache Valley virus and one isolation of West Nile virus, highlighting the threat posed by this mosquito. Ae. albopictus overwintered in Connecticut under mild winter conditions as shown by recovery of hatched larvae from field collected tires in spring and by early season detection of larvae and pupae. This study documents the establishment and expansion of Ae. albopictus at the northern boundary of its range in the northeastern U.S. and provides a baseline for monitoring the future spread

  5. Northern range expansion of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus: Analysis of mosquito data from Connecticut, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Armstrong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. Winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°C mean cold month isotherm. Connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, Ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delineate where populations can stably persist.Ae. albopictus females were monitored at fixed trapping sites throughout Connecticut from June-October over a 20-year period, 1997-2016. In addition, Ae. albopictus larvae and pupae were collected from tire habitats and tires were retrieved from the field in the spring and flooded to evaluate overwintering success of hatching larvae. Ae. albopictus was first detected during statewide surveillance when a single adult female was collected in 2006. This species was not collected again until 2010 and was subsequently detected each successive year with increasing abundance and distribution except following the unusually cold winters of 2014 and 2015. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were most abundant in urban and suburban locations along the southwestern shoreline of Connecticut; however, single specimens were occasionally detected in central parts of the state. Field-collected females were also screened for arbovirus infection yielding two isolations of Cache Valley virus and one isolation of West Nile virus, highlighting the threat posed by this mosquito. Ae. albopictus overwintered in Connecticut under mild winter conditions as shown by recovery of hatched larvae from field collected tires in spring and by early season detection of larvae and pupae.This study documents the establishment and expansion of Ae. albopictus at the northern boundary of its range in the northeastern U.S. and provides a baseline for monitoring

  6. Ecology of gastropod and bighorn sheep hosts of lungworm on isolated, semiarid mountain ranges in Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Jared D; Fairbanks, W Sue; Cornicelli, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Isolated, nonmigratory populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) may experience high exposure to lungworms (Protostrongylus spp.) through a build-up of fecal material. However, semiarid climates may hinder lungworm transmission by limiting terrestrial gastropods, the intermediate hosts. We assessed potential for lungworm transmission, documented occurrence of transmission, and identified habitat types where transmission was likely to occur on ranges of two recently introduced populations of bighorn sheep in northern Utah. Gastropods were collected weekly on Antelope Island and the Newfoundland Mountains, May-August 2001-02, from each of the four major habitat types (riparian, rock, desert shrub, and grass). Distribution of 113 bighorn sheep groups was observed, and 421 fecal pellet groups were collected to estimate lungworm levels. A total of 1,595 gastropods representing five genera were collected from both ranges. Vallonia made up 85% of all gastropods collected. Of 980 gastropods collected on Antelope Island in 2002, only Vallonia were found infected with protostrongylid-type larvae (10 of 980=1%). Lungworm prevalence in bighorn fecal samples was 97% on Antelope Island and 90% on the Newfoundland Mountains. Lungworm prevalence in lambs indicated lungworm transmission was occurring on Antelope Island. Lungworm transmission was likely occurring in riparian habitat due to abundant gastropods, presence of infected gastropods, and reliance by bighorn sheep on few water sources. Differences in spatial distribution between ram and nursery groups may partly explain higher fecal larvae counts in nursery than in ram groups. We suggest lungworm levels in bighorn sheep on semiarid ranges may increase in dry years as bighorn sheep concentrate use on fewer perennial water sources.

  7. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  8. Processes and rates of sediment and wood accumulation in headwater streams of the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christine L.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Channels that have been scoured to bedrock by debris flows provide unique opportunities to calculate the rate of sediment and wood accumulation in low-order streams, to understand the temporal succession of channel morphology following disturbance, and to make inferences about processes associated with input and transport of sediment. Dendrochronology was used to estimate the time since the previous debris flow and the time since the last stand-replacement fire in unlogged basins in the central Coast Range of Oregon. Debris flow activity increased 42 per cent above the background rate in the decades immediately following the last wildfire. Changes in wood and sediment storage were quantified for 13 streams that ranged from 4 to 144 years since the previous debris flow. The volume of wood and sediment in the channel, and the length of channel with exposed bedrock, were strongly correlated with the time since the previous debris flow. Wood increased the storage capacity of the channel and trapped the majority of the sediment in these steep headwater streams. In the absence of wood, channels that have been scoured to bedrock by a debris flow may lack the capacity to store sediment and could persist in a bedrock state for an extended period of time. With an adequate supply of wood, low-order channels have the potential of storing large volumes of sediment in the interval between debris flows and can function as one of the dominant storage reservoirs for sediment in mountainous terrain.

  9. Oribatid Mite Community Decline Two Years after Low-Intensity Burning in the Southern Cascade Range of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Gillette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess effects of low-intensity fire, we combined two silvicultural prescriptions with prescribed fire in the California Cascade Range. In the first treatment, two 100-ha stands were thinned to reduce density while retaining old-growth structural characteristics, yielding residual stands with high structural diversity (HSD. Two other 100-ha plots were thinned to minimize old growth structure, producing even-aged stands of low structural diversity (LSD, and one 50-ha split-plot from each treatment was burned. In addition, two 50 ha old-growth Research Natural Areas (RNA were selected as untreated reference plots, one of which was also burned. Fire treatments profoundly altered mite assemblages in the short term, and forest structure modification likely exacerbated that response. Sampling conducted two years following treatment confirmed a continuing decline in oribatid mite abundance. Oribatid species richness and assemblage heterogeneity also declined, and community dominance patterns were disrupted. Oribatid responses to fire were either more intense or began earlier in the LSD treatments, suggesting that removal of old-growth structure exacerbated mite responses to fire. Prostigmatids recovered quickly, but their populations nonetheless diminished significantly in burned split-plots. Mite assemblage responses to prescribed fire were continuing nearly two years later, with no clear evidence of recovery.

  10. Assessing soil carbon vulnerability in the Western USA by geospatial modeling of pyrogenic and particulate carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zia U.; Woodbury, Peter B.; Sanderman, Jonathan; Hawke, Bruce; Jauss, Verena; Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    To predict how land management practices and climate change will affect soil carbon cycling, improved understanding of factors controlling soil organic carbon fractions at large spatial scales is needed. We analyzed total soil organic (SOC) as well as pyrogenic (PyC), particulate (POC), and other soil organic carbon (OOC) fractions in surface layers from 650 stratified-sampling locations throughout Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Wyoming. PyC varied from 0.29 to 18.0 mg C g-1 soil with a mean of 4.05 mg C g-1 soil. The mean PyC was 34.6% of the SOC and ranged from 11.8 to 96.6%. Both POC and PyC were highest in forests and canyon bottoms. In the best random forest regression model, normalized vegetation index (NDVI), mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), and elevation were ranked as the top four important variables determining PyC and POC variability. Random forests regression kriging (RFK) with environmental covariables improved predictions over ordinary kriging by 20 and 7% for PyC and POC, respectively. Based on RFK, 8% of the study area was dominated (≥50% of SOC) by PyC and less than 1% was dominated by POC. Furthermore, based on spatial analysis of the ratio of POC to PyC, we estimated that about 16% of the study area is medium to highly vulnerable to SOC mineralization in surface soil. These are the first results to characterize PyC and POC stocks geospatially using stratified sampling scheme at the scale of 1,000,000 km2, and the methods are scalable to other regions.

  11. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An annotated list of insects and other arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Parson; Gerasimos Cassis; Andrew R. Moldenke; John D. Lattin; Norman H. Anderson; Jeffrey C Miller; Paul Hammond; Timothy D. Schowalter

    1991-01-01

    An annotated list of species of insects and other arthropods that have been collected and studies on the H.J. Andrews Experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. The list includes 459 families, 2,096 genera, and 3,402 species. All species have been authoritatively identified by more than 100 specialists. Information is included on habitat type, functional group...

  12. Landscape biology of western white pine: implications for conservation of a widely-distributed five-needle pine at its southern range limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Maloney; Andrew Eckert; Detlev Vogler; Camille Jensen; Annette Delfino Mix; David Neale

    2016-01-01

    Throughout much of the range of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., timber harvesting, fire exclusion and the presence of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch., the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathogen, have led to negative population and genetic consequences. To address these interactions, we examined population dynamics...

  13. Late Neoproterozoic proto-arc ocean crust in the Dariv Range, Western Mongolia: a supra-subduction zone end-member ophiolite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.H.; Brouwer, F.M.; Cunningham, W.D.; Buchan, C.; Badarch, G.; Mason, P.R.D.

    2006-01-01

    An unusual late Neoproterozoic (c. 572 Ma) ophiolite is exposed in the Dariv Range (western Mongolia, which contains intermediate to acidic lavas and sheeted dykes, and an igneous layered complex consisting of gabbro-norites, websterites, orthopyroxenites and dunites underlain by serpentinized

  14. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. V: An Annotated List of Insects and Other Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Parson; Gerasimos Cassis; Andrew R. Moldenke; John D. Lattin; Norman H. Anderson; Jeffrey C Miller; Paul Hammond; Timothy D. Schowalter

    1991-01-01

    An annotated list of species of insects and other arthropods that have been collected and studies on the H.J. Andrews Experimental forest, western Cascade Range, Oregon. The list includes 459 families, 2,096 genera, and 3,402 species. All species have been authoritatively identified by more than 100 specialists. Information is included on habitat type, functional group...

  15. Transient response of bedrock channel networks to sea-level forcing in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, D. J.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although sea level has fluctuated repeatedly over the Pleistocene by up to 120 meters, how (or whether) this cyclic base level forcing impacts the development of bedrock river profiles in tectonically active settings is poorly understood. A major reason for this uncertainty is that bedrock river channels in unglaciated locations are typically buried at their mouths under sediment resulting from the Holocene marine transgression, making direct observations impossible. Here we present a novel approach to constraining the influence of cyclical sea-level forcing on the development of bedrock river profiles in the Oregon Coast Range. Using a 1 m LiDAR DEM, we estimate the depth to the buried bedrock longitudinal profile using measurements of valley width, elevation, wall slope, and present day river width for the Smith River and its tributaries where the river is currently buried by Holocene fluvial and marine sediments. Assuming the current river width is spatially and temporally constant, we calculate the depth to bedrock based on a trapezoidal geometry. In an effort to reduce the noise in our signal, we calculate linear regressions for valley and river width and hold the valley wall slope constant at its average value (~ 30 degrees) for all our calculations. Several important observations stem from this analysis. First, the bedrock profile of the Smith River projects to the same elevation (~ -110 m) as the bench cut into the continental shelf by the sea-level low stand of the last glacial maximum, suggesting the river is currently graded to the low-stand elevation. Second, almost all of the tributary bedrock profiles plot at the same elevation (~ 40 m below sea-level), which is much higher than the mainstem bedrock profile. One key exception is the significantly larger North Fork of the Smith River, which falls directly on the projected bedrock curve for the Smith. These observations suggest that sea-level low stands force incision of the entire bedrock river network

  16. Size and age estimates at sexual maturity for the little skate Leucoraja erinacea from the western Gulf of Maine, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicia, A M; Driggers, W B; Ingram, G W; Kneebone, J; Tsang, P C W; Koester, D M; Sulikowski, J A

    2009-11-01

    Size and age estimates at sexual maturity were determined for 162 male and 273 female little skates Leucoraja erinacea collected from the western Gulf of Maine. Maturity ogives suggest that 50% maturity in females occurs at age 9.5 years and 480 mm total length (LT), whereas 50% maturity in males occurs at a slightly younger age of 7.7 years and smaller size of 460 mm LT. Age estimates were made from 389 L. erinacea ranging in size from 93 to 570 mm LT. The index of average per cent error and age-bias plots indicated that the ageing methods were precise and non-biased. Additionally, annual periodicity of band formation was validated with oxytetracycline in eight individuals (three males and five females) ranging in age from 3 to 12 years. In conclusion, results from this study indicate that L. erinacea exhibits characteristics that make other elasmobranch populations highly susceptible to overexploitation.

  17. Late Quaternary chronostratigraphic framework of terraces and alluvium along the lower Ohio River, southwestern Indiana and western Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Ronald C.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.; Mahan, Shannon; Greenan, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The lower Ohio River valley is a terraced fluvial landscape that has been profoundly influenced by Quaternary climate change and glaciation. A modern Quaternary chronostratigraphic framework was developed for the lower Ohio River valley using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and allostratigraphic mapping to gain insights into the nature of fluvial responses to glacial–interglacial/stadial–interstadial transitions and Holocene climate change. River deposits, T0 (youngest) to T7 (oldest), were mapped along a 75 km reach of the lower Ohio River and were dated using 46 OSL and 5 radiocarbon samples. The examination of cores combined with OSL and radiocarbon dating shows that fluvial sediments older than marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2 are present only in the subsurface. Aggradation during MIS 6 (Illinoian glaciation) filled the valley to within ∼7 m of the modern floodplain, and by ∼114 ka (MIS 5e/Sangamon interglacial) the Ohio River had scoured the MIS 6 sediments to ∼22 m below the modern floodplain surface. There were no fluvial sediments in the valley with ages between MIS 5e and the middle of MIS 3. The MIS 3 ages (∼39 ka) and stratigraphic position of T5 deposits suggest the Ohio River aggraded 8–14 m during MIS 4 or MIS 3. Near the end of MIS 3, the Ohio River incised the mid Last Glacial (mid-Wisconsinan) deposits ∼10 m and began aggrading again by ∼30 ka. Aggradation continued into MIS 2, with maximum MIS 2 aggradation occurring before ∼21 ka, which is coincident with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). As the Ohio River adjusted to changing fluxes in sediment load and discharge following the LGM, it formed a sequence of fill-cut terraces in the MIS 2 outwash that get progressively younger with decreasing elevation, ranging in age from ∼21 ka to ∼13 ka. From ∼14 ka to ∼13 ka the Ohio River rapidly incised ∼3 m to form a new terrace, and by ∼12 ka at the onset of the Holocene, the Ohio River

  18. Hydrogeologic Heterogeneity Enhances the Transfer of Salt Toward the High-Quality Deep Aquifers of the Western San Joaquin Valley (CA, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, C. V.; Harter, T.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing anthropogenic and drought stresses lead salinity to be of serious concern within regard to with the sustainability of regional groundwater quality. Agricultural basins of the Central Valley, CA (USA) are, and will continue to be, impacted by salinity issues in the coming future decades and or centuries. The aquifer system below the Western San Joaquin Valley is characterized by a shallow unconfined aquifer with high salinity overlying high quality semi-confined and deeper confined aquifers. A key challenge in the area is to predict if, when and how water traveling from the the low-quality shallow groundwater will reach and degrade the deeper semi-confined and confined aquifers. Previous studies, accounting for a simplified description of the aquifer hydraulic properties in their flow model, concluded that saline shallow groundwater would need 200-400 years to reach the semi-confined aquifer and 250-600 years to impact the deeper confined aquifer. However, well known heterogeneities in aquifer hydraulic properties significantly impact contaminant transport due to preferential flow paths and increased dispersion. Our study aims to (1) better understand the impact of heterogeneous hydraulic properties on the distribution of travel times from non-point source contamination, and (2) reassess the temporal scale of salt transfer into the deeper aquifers of the Western San Joaquin Valley. A detailed non-stationary geostatistical model was developed to describe the spatial variability of hydrofacies in great detail at the basin scale. The hydraulic properties corresponding to each hydrofacies are then calibrated in order to reproduce water fluxes previously modeled and calibrated. Subsequently, we use the random-walk particle tracking method to simulate the advective-dispersive transport of salt throughout the study area from a non-point source zone represented by the entire top layer of the model. The flux concentrations of solute crossing a series of monitoring

  19. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.

    2006-02-01

    intruding the upper crust along the brittle-ductile interface — a process that must occur episodically beneath the Cascade Range but in the past would have escaped detection in the absence of unusual seismicity. We speculate that such intrusive episodes last from days to years and are separated by quiescent periods of decades to centuries. The likelihood that the current episode at Three Sisters will culminate in an eruption is judged to be low, but the impact of an eruption could be great. The USGS has updated its volcano hazards assessment for the Three Sisters region, notified appropriate agencies and the public, and is helping to prepare an emergency coordination and communication plan.

  20. Fire activity as a function of fire–weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquin; Gutierrez, Jose M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire–weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating

  1. Evidence for Sexual Dimorphism in the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus mjosi (Ornithischia, Stegosauria) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Evan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusive evidence for sexual dimorphism in non-avian dinosaurs has been elusive. Here it is shown that dimorphism in the shape of the dermal plates of Stegosaurus mjosi (Upper Jurassic, western USA) does not result from non-sex-related individual, interspecific, or ontogenetic variation and is most likely a sexually dimorphic feature. One morph possessed wide, oval plates 45% larger in surface area than the tall, narrow plates of the other morph. Intermediate morphologies are lacking as principal component analysis supports marked size- and shape-based dimorphism. In contrast, many non-sex-related individual variations are expected to show intermediate morphologies. Taphonomy of a new quarry in Montana (JRDI 5ES Quarry) shows that at least five individuals were buried in a single horizon and were not brought together by water or scavenger transportation. This new site demonstrates co-existence, and possibly suggests sociality, between two morphs that only show dimorphism in their plates. Without evidence for niche partitioning, it is unlikely that the two morphs represent different species. Histology of the new specimens in combination with studies on previous specimens indicates that both morphs occur in fully-grown individuals. Therefore, the dimorphism is not a result of ontogenetic change. Furthermore, the two morphs of plates do not simply come from different positions on the back of a single individual. Plates from all positions on the body can be classified as one of the two morphs, and previously discovered, isolated specimens possess only one morph of plates. Based on the seemingly display-oriented morphology of plates, female mate choice was likely the driving evolutionary mechanism rather than male-male competition. Dinosaur ornamentation possibly served similar functions to the ornamentation of modern species. Comparisons to ornamentation involved in sexual selection of extant species, such as the horns of bovids, may be appropriate in predicting the

  2. Fire activity as a function of fire-weather seasonal severity and antecedent climate across spatial scales in southern Europe and Pacific western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Bedia, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, José M.; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús; Camia, Andrea; Keeley, Jon E.; Moreno, José M.

    2015-11-01

    Climate has a strong influence on fire activity, varying across time and space. We analyzed the relationships between fire-weather conditions during the main fire season and antecedent water-balance conditions and fires in two Mediterranean-type regions with contrasted management histories: five southern countries of the European Union (EUMED)(all fires); the Pacific western coast of the USA (California and Oregon, PWUSA)(national forest fires). Total number of fires (≥1 ha), number of large fires (≥100 ha) and area burned were related to mean seasonal fire weather index (FWI), number of days over the 90th percentile of the FWI, and to the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the preceding 3 (spring) or 8 (autumn through spring) months. Calculations were made at three spatial aggregations in each area, and models related first-difference (year-to-year change) of fires and FWI/climate variables to minimize autocorrelation. An increase in mean seasonal FWI resulted in increases in the three fire variables across spatial scales in both regions. SPEI contributed little to explain fires, with few exceptions. Negative water-balance (dry) conditions from autumn through spring (SPEI8) were generally more important than positive conditions (moist) in spring (SPEI3), both of which contributed positively to fires. The R2 of the models generally improved with increasing area of aggregation. For total number of fires and area burned, the R2 of the models tended to decrease with increasing mean seasonal FWI. Thus, fires were more susceptible to change with climate variability in areas with less amenable conditions for fires (lower FWI) than in areas with higher mean FWI values. The relationships were similar in both regions, albeit weaker in PWUSA, probably due to the wider latitudinal gradient covered in PWUSA than in EUMED. The large variance explained by some of the models indicates that large-scale seasonal forecast could help anticipating fire

  3. Photosynthetic capacity and intrinsic water-use efficiency of Rhizophora mangle at its southernmost western Atlantic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L.G. Soares; M.M.P. Tognella; E. Cuevas; E. Medina

    2015-01-01

    The southernmost presence of Rhizophora mangle in the western Atlantic coast occurs in coastal wetlands between 27 and 28ºS in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We selected mangrove communities at the estuary of Rio Tavares, Florianopolis, and Sonho Beach, Palhosa, for measurement of photosynthetic performance and intrinsic water use efficiency of R. mangle and...

  4. Distribution of invasive and native riparian woody plants across the western USA in relation to climate, river flow, floodplain geometry and patterns of introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan McShane,; Daniel Auerbach,; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Michael Merigliano,; Scott, Michael L.; N. Leroy Poff,

    2015-01-01

    Management of riparian plant invasions across the landscape requires understanding the combined influence of climate, hydrology, geologic constraints and patterns of introduction. We measured abundance of nine riparian woody taxa at 456 stream gages across the western USA. We constructed conditional inference recursive binary partitioning models to discriminate the influence of eleven environmental variables on plant occurrence and abundance, focusing on the two most abundant non-native taxa, Tamarix spp. and Elaeagnus angustifolia, and their native competitor Populus deltoides. River reaches in this study were distributed along a composite gradient from cooler, wetter higher-elevation reaches with higher stream power and earlier snowmelt flood peaks to warmer, drier lower-elevation reaches with lower power and later peaks. Plant distributions were strongly related to climate, hydrologic and geomorphic factors, and introduction history. The strongest associations were with temperature and then precipitation. Among hydrologic and geomorphic variables, stream power, peak flow timing and 10-yr flood magnitude had stronger associations than did peak flow predictability, low-flow magnitude, mean annual flow and channel confinement. Nearby intentional planting of Elaeagnus was the best predictor of its occurrence, but planting of Tamarix was rare. Higher temperatures were associated with greater abundance of Tamarix relative to P. deltoides, and greater abundance of P. deltoides relative toElaeagnus. Populus deltoides abundance was more strongly related to peak flow timing than was that of Elaeagnus or Tamarix. Higher stream power and larger 10-yr floods were associated with greater abundance of P. deltoides and Tamarix relative to Elaeagnus. Therefore, increases in temperature could increase abundance of Tamarix and decrease that of Elaeagnus relative to P. deltoides, changes in peak flow timing caused by climate change or dam operations could

  5. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  6. Kinematics of active deformation across the Western Kunlun mountain range (Xinjiang, China), and potential seismic hazards within the southern Tarim Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilbaud, Christelle; Simoes, Martine; Barrier, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    The Western Kunlun mountain range is a slowly converging intra-continental orogen where deformation rates are too low to be properly quantified from geodetic techniques. This region has recorded little seismicity, but the recent July 2015 (Mw 6.4) Pishan earthquake shows that this mountain range...... remains seismic. To quantify the rate of active deformation and the potential for major earthquakes in this region, we combine a structural and quantitative morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, along the topographic mountain front in the epicentral area. Using a seismic profile, we derive...

  7. Range-wide variation in the ecological niche and floral polymorphism of the western mediterranean geophyte narcissus dubius Gouan

    OpenAIRE

    Papuga, Guillaume; Gauthier, Perrine; Ramos, José; Pons, V.; Pironon, S; Farris, Emmanuele; Thompson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of research. Comparative studies of variation in the ecology and genetics of natural plant populations located at the limits and in the center of a species range provide fundamental insights into the historical formation of species distribution patterns. Methodology. In this study, we quantify variation in the ecological niche and the expression of a floral polymorphism across the range of the Mediterranean geophyte Narcissus dubius Gouan. An exhaustive data set of known locations was...

  8. Distribution records and extended range of the Sri Lanka Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger (Aves: Caprimulgiformes: Podargidae in the Western Ghats: a review from 1862 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Mahabal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sri Lanka Frogmouth (or Ceylon Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger is an endemic resident bird confined to the evergreen and secondary forests of Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India.  The earlier distribution range of the Frogmouth was from the Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka to the southern tip of India and most of Sri Lanka.  Recently, the range has been extended further north to Goa and up to Mumbai in Maharashtra.  A number of observations summarized into 202 distributional records (published reports and records uploaded to eBird basic data set, Oriental Bird Images, and GBIF.org from the years 1862 to 2015 of the Frogmouth have been tabulated with its maps, and reviewed for their state-wise distribution records.  The need of undertaking surveys to fill up the gaps in their distribution range as well as any further northward extension till the culmination of the Western Ghats has been discussed.  It is urged that taxonomical and molecular phylogenetic studies are required to be carried out in different populations of Frogmouths across the entire range

  9. Brain thermal inertia, but no evidence for selective brain cooling, in free-ranging western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2009-04-01

    Marsupials reportedly can implement selective brain cooling despite lacking a carotid rete. We measured brain (hypothalamic) and carotid arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for 5, 17, and 63 days in spring in three free-living western grey kangaroos. Body temperature was highest during the night, and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00. The highest body temperatures recorded occurred sporadically in the afternoon, presumably associated with exercise. Hypothalamic temperature consistently exceeded arterial blood temperature, by an average 0.3 degrees C, except during these afternoon events when hypothalamic temperature lagged behind, and was occasionally lower than, the simultaneous arterial blood temperature. The reversal in temperatures resulted from the thermal inertia of the brain; changes in the brain to arterial blood temperature difference were related to the rate of change of arterial blood temperature on both heating and cooling (P kangaroos). We conclude that these data are not evidence for active selective brain cooling in kangaroos. The effect of thermal inertia on brain temperature is larger than might be expected in the grey kangaroo, a discrepancy that we speculate derives from the unique vascular anatomy of the marsupial brain.

  10. Growth performance of loblolly shortleaf, and pitch X loblolly pine hybrid growing along the western margin of commercial pine range

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.C. Dipesh; Rodney E. Will; Thomas C Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of the commercial pine range is one of the opportunities to improve forest production and counterbalance the loss of forest land to other uses. The potential genotypes for the purpose are fast-growing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the slower growing, but more drought tolerant shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.), and the more cold tolerant pitch x loblolly...

  11. Long-Range Atmosphere-Ocean Forecasting in Support of Undersea Warfare Operations in the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    climate. The critical features assessment brief for the FOAL EAGLE 09 exercise described SLD, COF, and depth excess (DE) in broad general statements...frequency bottom loss (HFBL) for the region of interest were presented; but, again, with minimal reference to the source or the forecast valid time ( Foal ...short range forecasts for use within 72 hours of the start of operations. For both exercises previously mentioned, USWEX 09 and FOAL EAGLE 09

  12. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air temperatures [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be

  13. Medicinal management of corneal opacity in free ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta of Shivalik hills in Western Himalayas, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacification was diagnosed in 17 free ranging rhesus macaques during detailed ophthalmic examination as a part of clinical health examination, at the monkey rescue sterilization centre in Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India. The cornea was completely opaque permitting only a little vision with respect to the affected eye. Medical management with topical ciprofloxacin and prednisolone along with ketoprofen and vitamin A was instituted. The corneal lesions subsided completely within one week following treatment. The treatment protocol successfully eliminated the discomfort and intraocular lesions with no serious subsequent irritation due to the treatment in these animals.

  14. Aedes albopictus: it's invasion, expansion of range, and the use of an area wide management project to control its population in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus invaded the U.S.A. between 1983-85. It has become a widely distributed nuisance pest. A n ARS-sponsored 5 year Area Wide Pest Management cooperative program between USDA-ARS, Mosquito and Fly Research Unit (Florida), Rutgers University (New Jersey) and Brandeis University (Massach...

  15. Comparison of the Eastern and Western Kentucky coal fields (Pennsylvanian), USA-why are coal distribution patterns and sulfur contents so different in these coal fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Chesnut, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    More than 130 Mt of Pennsylvanian coal is produced annually from two coal fields in Kentucky. The Western Kentucky Coal Field occurs in part of the Illinois Basin, an intercratonic basin, and the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field occurs in the Central Appalachian Basin, a foreland basin. The basins are only separated by 140 km, but mined western Kentucky coal beds exhibit significantly higher sulfur values than eastern Kentucky coals. Higher-sulfur coal beds in western Kentucky have generally been inferred to be caused by more marine influences than for eastern Kentucky coals. Comparison of strata in the two coal fields shows that more strata and more coal beds accumulated in the Eastern than Western Kentucky Coal Field in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian, inferred to represent greater generation of tectonic accommodation in the foreland basin. Eastern Kentucky coal beds exhibit a greater tendency toward splitting and occurring in zones than time-equivalent western Kentucky coal beds, which is also inferred to represent foreland accommodation influences, overprinted by autogenic sedimentation effects. Western Kentucky coal beds exhibit higher sulfur values than their eastern counterparts, but western Kentucky coals occurring in Langsettian through Bolsovian strata can be low in sulfur content. Eastern Kentucky coal beds may increase in sulfur content beneath marine zones, but generally are still lower in sulfur than mined Western Kentucky coal beds, indicating that controls other than purely marine influences must have influenced coal quality. The bulk of production in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field is from Duckmantian and Bolsovian coal beds, whereas production in the Western Kentucky Coal Field is from Westphalian D coals. Langsettian through Bolsovian paleoclimates in eastern Kentucky were favorable for peat doming, so numerous low-sulfur coals accumulated. These coals tend to occur in zones and are prone to lateral splitting because of foreland tectonic and

  16. Time range for accumulation of shell middens from Higashimyo (western Japan) and Kimhae (southern Korea) by AMS radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsui, Akira [National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara, Nijyo-cho, Nara 630-8577 (Japan); Nishida, Iwao; Nakano, Mitsuru [Saga-City Board of Education, Sakae-machi, Saga 840-8501 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Numerous large and small shell middens have been reported throughout the world. An interesting question is when the huge and thick shell middens were formed, and how many years were required to build up the whole midden. Shell middens contain not only shell fragments but also organic substances such as bones, nuts, acorn, and plant residues, which are suitable substances with which to establish {sup 14}C chronology of the middens. We have conducted {sup 14}C dating on terrestrial and marine materials collected from two lowland shell middens, the Higashimyo site in Japan (the Earliest Jomon period) and the Kimhae site in Korea (the Proto-Three Kingdom period), to establish high precision {sup 14}C chronologies and determine the time required for shell accumulation. According to Bayesian analysis of {sup 14}C ages from terrestrial samples, accumulation of Midden No. 1 at Higashimyo (altitude from -1.1 to -2.3 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.2 m) started at around 8050-7950 cal BP and ended at 7950-7750 cal BP, lasting for ca. 100 cal yr, while accumulation of Midden No. 2 (altitude from -0.5 to -2.0 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.5 m) started at around 8050-7800 cal BP and ended at 7800-7650 cal BP, lasting for ca. 200 cal yr. Thus the Midden No. 1 was abandoned a bit earlier than Midden No. 2, but the time range for sediment accumulation overlaps each other. Accumulation at the Kimhae shell midden (altitude from 5 to 14 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 9 m) started at around the middle of the 1st C cal BC and ended at around the middle of the 3rd C cal AD, lasting for ca. 250 to 300 cal yr.

  17. Ozone sonde measurements aboard long-range boundary-layer pressurized balloons over the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheusi, François; Barret, Brice; Verdier, Nicolas; Dulac, François; Durand, Pierre; Jambert, Corinne

    ChArMEx (http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), including TRAQA in 2012 (launch base at Martigues, France) and ADRIMED (launch base at Sant Lluís, Minorca Island, Spain) and SAFMED (launch base at Levant Island off Hyères, France) in 2013. Complementary radiosoundings -- including ozone -- were also launched from these sites. BLPB drifting altitudes were in the range 0.25-3.2 km. The longest flight lasted more than 32 hours and covered more than 1000 km between Minorca and the limit of the authorized area south of Malta. Those quasi-Lagrangian measurements allow an evaluation of the ozone production/destruction rate as a function of the solar radiation (also measured onboard, as well as standard weather variables) that will be helpful to test chemistry-transport models.

  18. Mid-Tertiary magmatism in western Big Bend National Park, Texas, U.S.A.: Evolution of basaltic source regions and generation of peralkaline rhyolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Don F.; Ren, Minghua; Adams, David T.; Tsai, Heng; Long, Leon E.

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary magmatism in the Big Bend region of southwestern Texas spanned 47 to 17 Ma and included representatives of all three phases (Early, Main and Late) of the Trans-Pecos magmatic province. Early phase magmatism was manifested in the Alamo Creek Basalt, an alkalic lava series ranging from basalt to benmoreite, and silicic alkalic intrusions of the Christmas Mountains. Main phase magmatism in the late Eocene/early Oligocene produced Bee Mountain Basalt, a lava series ranging from hawaiite and potassic trachybasalt to latite, widespread trachytic lavas of Tule Mountain Trachyte and silicic rocks associated with the Pine Mountain Caldera in the Chisos Mountains. Late main phase magmatism produced trachyte lava and numerous dome complexes of peralkaline Burro Mesa Rhyolite (~ 29 Ma) in western Big Bend National Park. Late stage basaltic magmatism is sparsely represented by a few lavas in the Big Bend Park area, the adjacent Black Gap area and, most notably, in the nearby Bofecillos Mountains, where alkalic basaltic rocks were emplaced as lava and dikes concurrent with active normal faulting. Trace element modeling, Nd isotope ratios and calculated depths of segregation for estimated ancestral basaltic magmas suggest that Alamo Creek basalts (ɛNdt ~ 6.15 to 2.33) were derived from depths (~ 120 to 90 km) near the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary at temperatures of ~ 1600 to1560 °C, whereas primitive Bee Mountain basalts (ɛNdt ~ 0.285 to - 1.20) may have been segregated at shallower depths (~ 80 to 50 km) and lower temperatures (~ 1520 to 1430 °C) within the continental lithosphere. Nb/La versus Ba/La plots suggest that all were derived from OIB-modified continental lithosphere. Late stage basaltic rocks from the Bofecillos Mountains may indicate a return to source depths and temperatures similar to those calculated for Alamo Creek Basalt primitive magmas. We suggest that a zone of melting ascended into the continental lithosphere during main-phase activity and

  19. Trend in an isolated population of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus at the edge of its breeding range (south-western Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodník Roman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of the red-footed falcon in Slovakia inhabits the north-western edge of the species' breeding range. This breeding population is relatively small and came near to extinction during the population decline of this species in central Europe in recent decades. Thanks to increasing numbers of breeding pairs in Hungary, the Slovak population began to grow again. Moreover, some differences in breeding biology associated with breeding in nest boxes were found. Here we describe the dependence of the small isolated breeding population in Slovakia on the core population in the more eastern parts of the Carpathian Basin, and the impact of supporting activities (nest boxes on this raptor species in Slovakia.

  20. Late Holocene fire and vegetation reconstruction from the western Klamath Mountains, California, USA: a multi-disciplinary approach for examining potential human land-use impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Crawford; S. A. Mensing; Frank Lake; S. R. Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Native American land-use practices on vegetation composition and structure has long been a subject of significant debate. This is particularly true in portions of the western United States where tribal hunter-gatherers did not use agriculture to meet subsistence and other cultural needs. Climate has been viewed as the dominant determinant of vegetation...

  1. Climate, rain shadow, and human-use influences on fire regimes in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.P. North; K.M. van de Water; S.L. Stephens; B.M. Collins

    2009-01-01

    There have been few fire history studies of eastern Sierra Nevada forests in California, USA, where a steep elevation gradient, rain shadow conditions, and forest stand isolation may produce different fire regimes than those found on the range’s western slope. We investigated historic fire regimes and potential climate influences on four forest types ranging in...

  2. Provenance and detrital zircon geochronologic evolution of lower Brookian foreland basin deposits of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, and implications for early Brookian tectonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Potter, Christopher J.; Donelick, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part of the Brookian sequence of northern Alaska consists of syntectonic deposits shed from the north-directed, early Brookian orogenic belt. We employ sandstone petrography, detrital zircon U-Pb age analysis, and zircon fission-track double-dating methods to investigate these deposits in a succession of thin regional thrust sheets in the western Brooks Range and in the adjacent Colville foreland basin to determine sediment provenance, sedimentary dispersal patterns, and to reconstruct the evolution of the Brookian orogen. The oldest and structurally highest deposits are allochthonous Upper Jurassic volcanic arc–derived sandstones that rest on accreted ophiolitic and/or subduction assemblage mafic igneous rocks. These strata contain a nearly unimodal Late Jurassic zircon population and are interpreted to be a fragment of a forearc basin that was emplaced onto the Brooks Range during arc-continent collision. Synorogenic deposits found at structurally lower levels contain decreasing amounts of ophiolite and arc debris, Jurassic zircons, and increasing amounts of continentally derived sedimentary detritus accompanied by broadly distributed late Paleozoic and Triassic (359–200 Ma), early Paleozoic (542–359 Ma), and Paleoproterozoic (2000–1750 Ma) zircon populations. The zircon populations display fission-track evidence of cooling during the Brookian event and evidence of an earlier episode of cooling in the late Paleozoic and Triassic. Surprisingly, there is little evidence for erosion of the continental basement of Arctic Alaska, its Paleozoic sedimentary cover, or its hinterland metamorphic rocks in early foreland basin strata at any structural and/or stratigraphic level in the western Brooks Range. Detritus from exhumation of these sources did not arrive in the foreland basin until the middle or late Albian in the central part of the Colville Basin.These observations indicate that two primary provenance areas provided

  3. Serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other mustelids from south-western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippa, Joost; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Fournier, Pascal; Schaftenaar, Willem; van de Bildt, Marco; van Herweijnen, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs; Liabeuf, Marie; Ditcharry, Sébastien; Joubert, Laurent; Bégnier, Michel; Osterhaus, Ab

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the possible role of selected pathogens in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations and the potential for these pathogens to affect mink survival, a serologic survey was conducted using serum samples collected from March 1996 to March 2003 in eight departments of south-western France. In total, 481 free-ranging individuals of five mustelid species (including the European mink) were tested. Sympatric mustelids can serve as sentinels to determine the presence of antibodies to viruses in the study area that could potentially infect mink. Antibodies to Canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected in all species; 9% of 127 European mink, 20% of 210 polecats (Mustela putorius), 5% of 112 American mink (Mustela vison), 33% of 21 stone marten (Martes foina) and 5% of 20 pine marten (Martes martes). Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in stone marten and polecats, possibly because their ranges overlap more closely with that of domestic species than that of the other species tested. Antibodies to Canine adenovirus were detected in all species but the pine marten; antibody prevalence estimates ranging from 2% to 10%. Antibodies to canine parainfluenza virus were detected in 1% of European mink, 1% of American mink and 5% of tested polecats but were not detected in Martes species. Antibodies to Rabies virus (RV) were detected in three animals, possibly because of interspecies transmission of bat lyssaviruses as the sampling area is considered to be free of RV, or to a lack of test specificity, as antibody titers were low. The high antibody prevalence to potentially lethal CDV suggests that this pathogen could have significant effects on the free-ranging populations and has implications for the conservation efforts for the endangered European mink.

  4. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  5. Complex movements, philopatry and expanded depth range of a severely threatened pelagic shark, the oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus in the western North Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy A Howey-Jordan

    Full Text Available Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1-8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ~30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km(2 of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290-1940 km after times at liberty from 30-245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage. Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ~150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time. Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C, which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0-125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ.

  6. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justin H Dingle; Eric C Apel; Teresa L Campos; Alan J Hills; Rebecca S Hornbrook; Denise D Montzka; John B Nowak; Joseph R Roscioli

    2016-01-01

      Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ...

  7. Detachment Faulting in the Western Basin and Range: New Geometric, Thermal, and Temporal Constraints From the Bare Mountain Region in Southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, D. A.; Stamatakos, J. A.; Morris, A. P.; Donelick, R. A.; Blythe, A. E.

    2001-12-01

    Zircon and apatite fission-track cooling ages for 50 samples taken from Bare Mountain and surrounding areas of southern Nevada, analyzed in conjunction with structural and paleomagnetic data and calcite deformation geothermometry data, provide new constraints on the timing and distribution of detachment faulting in the western Basin and Range. Our results show that: (i) Bare Mountain was tilted to the east or northeast, probably during Middle Miocene extension, prior to development of the Bullfrog Hills detachment system. (ii) Bare Mountain cooled through the fission-track closure temperature for fluorine-rich apatite (115-125 C) more or less as a unit at 8 to 17 Ma. (iii) Northwest Bare Mountain cooled through the zircon closure temperature (250 C) at 8 to 17 Ma, whereas the rest of the mountain cooled through this temperature between the Late Paleozoic and the Eocene. The combination of tilting at Bare Mountain and the apatite and zircon fission-track cooling ages indicates the presence of a west-dipping breakaway fault at Bare Mountain at around 15 Ma. New apatite fission-track cooling ages from Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Mount Sterling, the Striped Hills, the Resting Springs Range, and the Funeral Mountains, when combined with published apatite ages, constrain the regional position of a west-dipping breakaway fault and exhumed footwall. The current position of the trailing edge of the hanging wall of this system is the Death Valley - Furnace Creek fault system. Migration rates of the cooling front in the footwall of this system range from 4.0 mm/yr at the latitude of Bare Mountain to 7.3 mm/yr at the latitude of central Death Valley. * Work performed at the CNWRA for the U.S. NRC under contract number NRC-02-97-009. This is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC.

  8. Climate and tectonic variability during Late Quaternary in western fringe of Tibetan Plateau: case study from Trans-Himalayan ranges of Ladakh, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phartiyal, B.

    2016-12-01

    The climate system plays an important role in the geomorphological dynamics of a region. The cold, arid, high altitude, tectonically active areas of Ladakh (India) in Trans Himalaya, western Tibetan Plateau is none exception. Noticeable change in the landscape with a shift from fluvial to lacustrine regime at 10000 yrs BP forming big open valley lakes occupying the present day river valleys is attributed to the early Holocene northward advancement of the mean latitudinal position of the summer ITCZ causing wetter conditions in this dry area. The glaciers of the Ladakh range are almost depleted and the northern range glaciers show andrastic retreat in the Quaternary time. Lakes were studied using multi-proxies, to record centennial and decadal scale climatic variability. Spatial and temporal setting of Spituk palaeolake (12600-240 cal yrs BP) along Indus River, was analyzed using multi proxies. The lake that extended for 40-50 km covering an area of 106 km2, was formed after Older Dryas as a result of river blockage by precipitation induced debris flow and seismicity. Two lake phases between 12600-9000 and 5500-3200 cal yrs BP show stable lake conditions and have synchronous relationship between high variation in monsoon intensity, high δ18O values in the Guliya core, rise in temperature and high solar insolation. High magnetic susceptibility and clay content along with diversified diatom and other freshwater algae and land derived organic matter are indicative of fresh water supply leading to high lake level from 4700 yr BP onwards in the present pro-glacial lakes studied. The multi-proxy data provides evidence of much higher and stable lake level during 3700 yr BP and 3000 yr BP onwards due to high water supply in these lake. It is in contrast to the records of weak ISM conditions and low lake level in rest of the part of Indian peninsula during the period. The study also suggests strong western disturbance activity during 4800-3000 yr BP leading to high lake

  9. Reference Ranges and Association of Age and Lifestyle Characteristics with Testosterone, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, and Luteinizing Hormone among 1166 Western Chinese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xubo Shen

    Full Text Available Decreased total testosterone (TT is the recommended metric to identify age-related hypogonadism. However, average TT and the extent to which it varies by age, can vary substantially among different populations. Population-specific reference ranges are needed to understand normal versus abnormal TT levels. Therefore, the goal for this study was to describe androgen concentrations and their correlates among Western Chinese men. We completed a population-based, cross-sectional study including 227 young adults (YA (20-39 years and 939 older adults (OA (40-89 years. We measured TT, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone secreting index (TSI, and calculated free testosterone (cFT. Reference ranges for this population were determined using average YA concentrations. Multivariable regression models were used to predict hormone concentrations adjusting for age, waist-to-height ratio (WHR, marital status, education, occupation, smoking, alcohol, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Among OA, 3.8% had low TT, 15.2% had low cFT, 26.3% had low TSI, 21.6% had high SHBG, and 6.1% had high LH. Average cFT was significantly lower in OA (0.30 nmol/L; standard deviation (SD: 0.09 versus YA (0.37; SD: 0.11 but TT was not different in OA (16.82 nmol/L; SD: 4.80 versus YA (16.88; SD: 5.29. In adjusted models increasing age was significantly associated with increased SHBG or LH, and decreased cFT or TSI; however, TT was not significantly associated with age (β = 0.02 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.01, 0.04. Higher WHR was associated with significantly decreased TT, SHBG, TSI, and LH. The only variable significantly related to cFT was age (β = -0.0033; 95% CI:-0.0037, -0.0028; suggesting that cFT measurements would not be confounded by other lifestyle factors. In conclusion, cFT, but not TT, varies with age in this population, suggesting cFT may be a better potential marker for age-related androgen deficiency than TT among

  10. The genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana in the south-western Mediterranean range reveals a shared history between North Africa and southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Adrian C; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Haddioui, Abdelmajid; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Picó, F Xavier; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-10

    Deciphering the genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana diversity across its geographic range provides the bases for elucidating the demographic history of this model plant. Despite the unique A. thaliana genomic resources currently available, its history in North Africa, the extreme southern limit in the biodiversity hotspot of the Mediterranean Basin, remains virtually unknown. To approach A. thaliana evolutionary history in North Africa, we have analysed the genetic diversity and structure of 151 individuals collected from 20 populations distributed across Morocco. Genotyping of 249 genome-wide SNPs indicated that Morocco contains substantially lower diversity than most analyzed world regions. However, IBD, STRUCTURE and PCA clustering analyses showed that genetic variation is strongly geographically structured. We also determined the genetic relationships between Morocco and the closest European region, the Iberian Peninsula, by analyses of 201 populations from both regions genotyped with the same SNPs. These analyses detected four genetic groups, but all Moroccan accessions belonged to a common Iberian/Moroccan cluster that appeared highly differentiated from the remaining groups. Thus, we identified a genetic lineage with an isolated demographic history in the south-western Mediterranean region. The existence of this lineage was further supported by the study of several flowering genes and traits, which also found Moroccan accessions similar to the same Iberian group. Nevertheless, genetic diversity for neutral SNPs and flowering genes was higher in Moroccan than in Iberian populations of this lineage. Furthermore, we analyzed the genetic relationships between Morocco and other world regions by joint analyses of a worldwide collection of 337 accessions, which detected an additional weak relationship between North Africa and Asia. The patterns of genetic diversity and structure of A. thaliana in Morocco show that North Africa is part of the species native

  11. New insights into the petrogenesis of the Jameson Range layered intrusion and associated Fe-Ti-P-V-PGE-Au mineralisation, West Musgrave Province, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Polito, Paul A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Gutzmer, Jens; Krause, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Jameson Range intrusion forms part of the Giles Complex, Musgrave Province, Western Australia. It is predominantly mafic in composition comprising olivine-bearing gabbroic lithologies with variable amounts of magnetite and ilmenite. Lithologies containing more than 50 vol% magnetite and ilmenite are classified as magnetitites. The Jameson Range hosts several of these magnetitites forming laterally extensive layers, which can be traced for at least 19 km as continuous magnetic anomalies. Similar occurrences of magnetitites are known from the upper parts of other layered intrusions, such as the Bushveld Complex. In addition, the intrusion hosts several P-rich zones, one of which is at least 59 m in thickness containing 1.0 wt% P2O5. The P-rich zones are not directly associated with the magnetitites, but they mostly occur slightly above them. The mineral chemistry of the Jameson Range cumulates is relatively evolved with olivine compositions ranging from Fo44 to Fo60 and plagioclase compositions varying between An56 and An59. The Mg# (100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) of ortho- and clinopyroxene ranges from 60 to 61 and from 70 to 75, respectively. Magnetite compositions are characterised by low TiO2 concentrations varying from 0.39 to 3.04 wt% representing near end-member magnetite with up to 1.2 wt% Cr and 1.3 wt% V, respectively. The basal magnetite layer reaches up to 68.8 wt% Fe2O3(t) and 24.2 wt% TiO2, and it is also markedly enriched in Cu (up to 0.3 wt% Cu), V (up to 1.05 wt% V2O5) and platinum-group elements (PGE) (up to 2 ppm Pt + Pd). Sulphide minerals comprising bornite, chalcopyrite and minor pentlandite occur finely disseminated in the magnetitite and account for the elevated base metal and PGE concentrations. Modelling indicates that the PGE mineralisation was formed at very high R factors of up to 100,000, which is typical for PGE reefs in layered intrusions. Whole rock geochemical and mineralogical data of the magnetite layers and their host

  12. Influence of trophic variables on the depth-range distributions and zonation rates of deep-sea megafauna: the case of the Western Mediterranean assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Carrassón, Maite

    2004-02-01

    We studied in a deep-sea megafaunal community the relationship of different trophic variables to the depth ranges inhabited by and depth zonation of species, after the ordination of fish and decapod crustaceans in feeding guilds. The variables studied included trophic level of species, food sources exploited, mean weight of predators and prey, feeding intensity and dietary diversity of species. We compiled data on the diets of 18 species of fish and 14 species of decapod crustaceans distributed between 862 and 2261 m in the Catalano-Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean). Feeding guilds were identified for fish and decapods separately and at two depth strata (862-1400 and 1400-2261 m). The zonation rates (degree of depth overlap) between species within each trophic guild differed by guild and taxon (fish and decapods). The three guilds (G1, G2 and G3) of decapod crustaceans showed quite significantly distinct overlap. G1 (plankton feeders) showed the widest overlap (1326-1381 m) and G3 (benthos feeders) the narrowest (330-476 m). Among the four guilds established for fish, G1, comprising larger predators such as sharks, showed the lowest overlap (between 194 and 382 m). Macrourids overlap ranged between 122 and 553 m, the rest of benthopelagic feeders ranged between 423 and 970 m, and G3 (benthos feeders) gave overlaps between 867 and 1067 m. Significant differences were detected between the depth overlap of most feeding guilds excluding the paired comparisons between G1/macrourids, and G2/G3. Among decapods higher zonation rates (=lower depth overlap) were identified in those guilds occupying higher trophic levels (TL), with a similar, though not as general, trend among fish. In the ordination of species in feeding guilds, TL as indicated by δ15N measurements, was significantly correlated with Dimension 1 (D1) of ordination—MDS-analysis, both in fish and decapods at 862-1400 m. However, deeper (at 1400-2261 m), D1 was not significantly correlated with TL but

  13. Mafic dikes at Kahel Tabelbala (Daoura, Ougarta Range, south-western Algeria): New insights into the petrology, geochemistry and mantle source characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Abderrahmane; Remaci-Bénaouda, Nacéra; Graïne-Tazerout, Khadidja

    2017-09-01

    New petrological, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data of the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic Kahel Tabelbala (KT) mafic dikes (south-western Algeria) offer a unique opportunity to examine the nature of their mantle sources and their geodynamic significance. An alkaline potassic Group 1 of basaltic dikes displaying relatively high MgO, TiO2, Cr and Ni, La/YbN ∼ 15, coupled with low 87Sr/86Sri ∼ 0.7037 and relatively high ɛNd(t) ∼ +3, indicates minor olivine and clinopyroxene fractionation and the existence of a depleted mantle OIB source. Their parental magma was generated from partial melting in the garnet-lherzolite stability field. A tholeiitic Group 2 of doleritic dikes displaying low MgO, Cr and Ni contents, La/YbN ∼ 5, positive Ba, Sr and Pb anomalies, the absence of a negative Nb anomaly coupled with moderate 87Sr/86Sri ∼ 0.7044 and low ɛNd(t) ∼ 0 (BSE-like), indicates a contamination of a mantle-derived magma that experienced crystal fractionation of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. This second group, similar to the low-Ti tholeiitic basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), was derived from partial melting in the peridotite source within the spinel stability field. Lower Mesozoic continental rifting could have been initiated by a heterogeneous mantle plume that supplied source components beneath Daoura, in the Ougarta Range.

  14. Range-wide phylogeography of Juniperus thurifera L., a presumptive keystone species of western Mediterranean vegetation during cold stages of the Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrab, Anass; Schönswetter, Peter; Talavera, Salvador; Vela, Errol; Stuessy, Tod F

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the range-wide population structure and phylogeography of thuriferous juniper (Juniperus thurifera L.), a species with a highly disjunct distribution in the western Mediterranean. We genotyped a total of 327 individuals from 20 populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Different analyses such as principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA), nonmetric multidimensional scaling of F(ST) distances among populations, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), and Bayesian clustering revealed that the Strait of Gibraltar acted as an efficient barrier against gene flow between the Moroccan and European populations for a very long time, and consequently support that the Moroccan populations should be recognised as a distinct subspecies (J. thurifera L. subsp. africana (Maire) Romo and Boratyńsky). The Algerian population was genetically more closely related to the European than to the Moroccan ones, probably due to dispersal events from Europe to Algeria. With respect to the mainland European populations, our data are not conclusive to reject any of the two following hypotheses: (1) the Iberian Peninsula was subdivided into different gene pools, and was the source for the colonisation of the Pyrenees and the Alps; and (2) the pattern we see today is partly the result of immigration into the Iberian Peninsula, e.g. from the Alps. Finally, the Corsican population was closely related genetically to two northern Iberian populations most probably due to relatively recent long-distance dispersal.

  15. Species associations and habitat influence the range-wide distribution of breeding Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) on Western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2017-01-01

    Inter- and intra-specific interactions are potentially important factors influencing the distribution of populations. Aerial survey data, collected during range-wide breeding population surveys for Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior), 1987–2008, were evaluated to assess factors influencing their nesting distribution. Specifically, associations between nesting Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and EPP Canada Geese were quantified; and changes in the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese were identified. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models of EPP Canada Goose nest counts were evaluated within a cross-validation framework. The total count of EPP Canada Goose nests varied moderately among years between 1987 and 2008 with no long-term trend; however, the total count of nesting Lesser Snow Geese generally increased. Three models containing factors related to previous EPP Canada Goose nest density (representing recruitment), distance to Hudson Bay (representing brood-habitat), nesting habitat type, and Lesser Snow Goose nest density (inter-specific associations) were the most accurate, improving prediction accuracy by 45% when compared to intercept-only models. EPP Canada Goose nest density varied by habitat type, was negatively associated with distance to coastal brood-rearing areas, and suggested density-dependent intra-specific effects on recruitment. However, a non-linear relationship between Lesser Snow and EPP Canada Goose nest density suggests that as nesting Lesser Snow Geese increase, EPP Canada Geese locally decline and subsequently the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese on western Hudson Bay has changed.

  16. Improving representation of drought stress and fire emissions in climate carbon models: measurements and modeling with a focus on the western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Biology; Randerson, James [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lai, Chun-Ta [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-02-16

    The objective of the proposed research was to collect data and develop models to improve our understanding of the role of drought and fire impacts on the terrestrial carbon cycle in the western US, including impacts associated with urban systems as they impacted regional carbon cycles. Using data we collected and a synthesis of other measurements, we developed new ways (a) to evaluate the representation of drought stress and fire emissions in the Community Land Model, (b) to model net ecosystem exchange combining ground level atmospheric observations with boundary layer theory, (c) to model upstream impacts of fire and fossil fuel emissions on atmospheric carbon dioxide observations, and (d) to model carbon dioxide observations within urban systems and at the urban-wildland interfaces of forest ecosystems.

  17. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  18. Complex Movements, Philopatry and Expanded Depth Range of a Severely Threatened Pelagic Shark, the Oceanic Whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the Western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey-Jordan, Lucy A.; Brooks, Edward J.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Brooks, Annabelle; Williams, Sean; Gospodarczyk, Emily; Chapman, Demian D.

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male) near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1–8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ∼30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km2 of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290–1940 km after times at liberty from 30–245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage). Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ∼150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time). Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes) dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C), which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0–125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ

  19. PCR assay detects Mannheimia haemolytica in culture-negative pneumonic lung tissues of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from outbreaks in the western USA, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Goldy, Andrea; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Subramaniam, Renuka; Batra, Sai Arun; Kugadas, Abirami; Raghavan, Bindu; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E; Killion, Halcyon J; Edwards, William H; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Wolff, Peregrine L; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. However, Bibersteinia trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from pneumonic bighorn lung tissues more frequently than M. haemolytica by culture-based methods. We hypothesized that assays more sensitive than culture would detect M. haemolytica in pneumonic lung tissues more accurately. Therefore, our first objective was to develop a PCR assay specific for M. haemolytica and use it to determine if this organism was present in the pneumonic lungs of bighorns during the 2009-2010 outbreaks in Montana, Nevada, and Washington, USA. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected by the species-specific PCR assay in 77% of archived pneumonic lung tissues that were negative by culture. Leukotoxin-negative M. haemolytica does not cause fatal pneumonia in bighorns. Therefore, our second objective was to determine if the leukotoxin gene was also present in the lung tissues as a means of determining the leukotoxicity of M. haemolytica that were present in the lungs. The leukotoxin-specific PCR assay detected leukotoxin gene in 91% of lung tissues that were negative for M. haemolytica by culture. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an organism associated with bighorn pneumonia, was detected in 65% of pneumonic bighorn lung tissues by PCR or culture. A PCR assessment of distribution of these pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy bighorns from populations that did not experience an all-age die-off in the past 20 yr revealed that M. ovipneumoniae was present in 31% of the animals whereas leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was present in only 4%. Taken together, these results indicate that culture-based methods are not reliable for detection of M. haemolytica and that leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was a predominant etiologic agent of the pneumonia outbreaks of 2009-2010.

  20. Examining uncertainties in the linkage between global climate change and potential human health impacts in the western USA -- Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-30

    Industrial societies have altered the earth`s environment in ways that could have important, long-term ecological, economic, and health implications. In this paper the authors define, characterize, and evaluate parameter and outcome uncertainties using a model that links global climate change with predictions of chemical exposure and human health risk in the western region of the US. They illustrate the impact of uncertainty about global climate change on such potential secondary outcomes using as a case study the public health consequences related to the behavior environmentally of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), an ubiquitous multimedia pollutant. They begin by constructing a matrix that reveals the linkage between global environmental change and potential regional human-health effects that might be induced directly and/or indirectly by HCB released into the air and water. This matrix is useful for translating critical uncertainties into terms that can be understood and used by policy makers to formulate strategies against potential adverse irreversible health and economic consequences. Specifically, the authors employ a combined uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to investigate how the HCB that has been released is affected by increasing atmospheric temperature and the accompanying climate alterations that are anticipated and how such uncertainty propagates to affect the expected magnitude and calculational precision of estimates of associated potential human exposures and health effects.

  1. Identification and dating of indigenous water storage reservoirs along the Rio San José at Laguna Pueblo, western New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckleberry, Gary; Ferguson, T.J.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Banet, Chris; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into indigenous water storage on the Rio San José in western New Mexico was conducted in support of efforts by the Pueblo of Laguna to adjudicate their water rights. Here we focus on stratigraphy and geochronology of two Native American-constructed reservoirs. One reservoir located near the community of Casa Blanca was formed by a ∼600 m (2000 feet) long stone masonry dam that impounded ∼1.6 × 106 m3 (∼1300 acre-feet) of stored water. Four optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages obtained on reservoir deposits indicate that the dam was constructed prior to AD 1825. The other reservoir is located adjacent to Old Laguna Pueblo and contains only a small remnant of its former earthen dam. The depth and distribution of reservoir deposits and a photogrammetric analyses of relict shorelines indicate a storage capacity of ∼6.5 × 106 m3 (∼5300 ac-ft). OSL ages from above and below the base of the reservoir indicate that the reservoir was constructed sometime after AD 1370 but before AD 1750. The results of our investigation are consistent with Laguna oral history and Spanish accounts demonstrating indigenous construction of significant water-storage reservoirs on the Rio San José prior to the late nineteenth century.

  2. Evidence for millennial-scale climate change during marine isotope stages 2 and 3 at Little Lake, Western Oregon, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, L.D.; Whitlock, C.; Dean, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    Pollen and geochemical data from Little Lake, western Oregon, suggest several patterns of millennial-scale environmental change during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2 (14,100-27,600 cal yr B.P.) and the latter part of MIS 3 (27,600-42,500 cal yr B.P.). During MIS 3, a series of transitions between warm- and cold-adapted taxa indicate that temperatures oscillated by ca. 2??-4??C every 1000-3000 yr. Highs and lows in summer insolation during MIS 3 are generally associated with the warmest and coldest intervals. Warm periods at Little Lake correlate with warm sea-surface temperatures in the Santa Barbara Basin. Changes in the strength of the subtropical high and the jet stream may account for synchronous changes at the two sites. During MIS 2, shifts between mesic and xeric subalpine forests suggest changes in precipitation every 1000-3000 yr. Increases in Tsuga heterophylla pollen at 25,000 and 22,000 cal yr B.P. imply brief warmings. Minimum summer insolation and maximum global ice-volumes during MIS 2 correspond to cold and dry conditions. Fluctuations in precipitation at Little Lake do not correlate with changes in the Santa Barbara Basin and may be explained by variations in the strength of the glacial anticyclone and the position of the jet stream. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  3. Change of iron species and iron solubility in Asian dust during the long-range transport from western China to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takahashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the North Pacific, transport and deposition of mineral dust from Asia appear to be one of major sources of iron which can regulate growth of phytoplankton in the ocean. In this process, it is essential to identify chemical species of iron contained in Asian dust, because bioavailability of iron in the ocean is strongly influenced by the solubility of iron, which in turn is dependent on iron species in the dust. Here, we report that clay minerals (illite and chlorite in the dusts near the source collected at Aksu (western China can be transformed into ferrihydrite by atmospheric chemical processes during their long-range transport to eastern China (Qingdao and Japan (Tsukuba based on the speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS and other methods such as X-ray diffraction and chemical extraction. As a result, Fe molar ratio in Aksu (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 70 : 25 : 5 was changed to that in Tsukuba (illite : chlorite : ferrihydrite = 65 : 10 : 25. Moreover, leaching experiments were conducted to study the change of iron solubility. It was found that the iron solubility for the dust in Tsukuba (soluble iron fraction: 11.8 % and 1.10 % for synthetic rain water and seawater, respectively was larger than that in Aksu (4.1 % and 0.28 %, respectively, showing that iron in the dust after the transport becomes more soluble possibly due to the formation of ferrihydrite in the atmosphere. Our findings suggested that secondary formation of ferrihydrite during the transport should be considered as one of important processes in evaluating the supply of soluble iron to seawater.

  4. What do fault patterns reveal about the latest phase of extension within the Northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Riley, Paul; Lerback, Jory

    2016-08-01

    The Northern Snake Range is a classic example of a metamorphic core complex, Basin-and-Range province, United States. It is composed of a plastically deformed footwall and a brittlely deformed hanging wall, separated by the Northern Snake Range low-angle detachment (NSRD). Brittle deformation, however, is not confined to the hanging wall. This paper focuses on exposures in Cove Canyon, located on the SE flank of the Northern Snake Range, where penetrative, homogeneous faults are well exposed throughout the hanging wall, footwall and NSRD, and overprint early plastic deformation. These late-stage fault sets assisted Eocene-Miocene extension. Detailed analysis of the faults reveals the following: (1) The shortening direction defined by faults is similar to the shortening direction defined by the stretching lineation in the footwall mylonites, indicating that the extensional kinematic history remained unchanged as the rocks were uplifted into the elastico-frictional regime. (2) After ∼17 Ma, extension may have continued entirely within elastic-frictional regime via cataclastic flow. (3) This latest deformation phase may have been accommodated by a single, continuous event. (3) Faults within NSRD boudins indicate that deformation within the detachment zone was non-coaxial during the latest phase of extension.

  5. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  6. Physical and optical properties of aged biomass burning aerosol from wildfires in Siberia and the Western USA at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Laing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The summer of 2015 was an extreme forest fire year in the Pacific Northwest. Our sample site at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO, 2.7 km a.s.l. in central Oregon observed biomass burning (BB events more than 50 % of the time during August. In this paper we characterize the aerosol physical and optical properties of 19 aged BB events during August 2015. Six of the 19 events were influenced by Siberian fires originating near Lake Baikal that were transported to MBO over 4–10 days. The remainder of the events resulted from wildfires in Northern California and Southwestern Oregon with transport times to MBO ranging from 3 to 35 h. Fine particulate matter (PM1, carbon monoxide (CO, aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat, aerosol light absorption coefficients (σabs, and aerosol number size distributions were measured throughout the campaign. We found that the Siberian events had a significantly higher Δσabs∕ΔCO enhancement ratio, higher mass absorption efficiency (MAE; Δσabs∕ΔPM1, lower single scattering albedo (ω, and lower absorption Ångström exponent (AAE when compared with the regional events. We suggest that the observed Siberian events represent that portion of the plume that has hotter flaming fire conditions and thus enabled strong pyroconvective lofting and long-range transport to MBO. The Siberian events observed at MBO therefore represent a selected portion of the original plume that would then have preferentially higher black carbon emissions and thus an enhancement in absorption. The lower AAE values in the Siberian events compared to regional events indicate a lack of brown carbon (BrC production by the Siberian fires or a loss of BrC during transport. We found that mass scattering efficiencies (MSE for the BB events ranged from 2.50 to 4.76 m2 g−1. We measured aerosol size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. Number size distributions ranged from unimodal to bimodal and had

  7. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Justin H.; Vu, Kennedy; Bahreini, Roya; Apel, Eric C.; Campos, Teresa L.; Flocke, Frank; Fried, Alan; Herndon, Scott; Hills, Alan J.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Huey, Greg; Kaser, Lisa; Montzka, Denise D.; Nowak, John B.; Reeves, Mike; Richter, Dirk; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Shertz, Stephen; Stell, Meghan; Tanner, David; Tyndall, Geoff; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) campaign during July-August 2014. An Aerodyne cavity attenuated phase shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure βext (at average relative humidity of 20 ± 7 %) of submicron aerosols at λ = 632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret βext behavior in various categories of air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios relative to CO (Δβext / ΔCO) were higher in aged urban air masses compared to fresh air masses by ˜ 50 %. The resulting increase in Δβext / ΔCO for highly aged air masses was accompanied by formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In addition, the impacts of aerosol composition on βext in air masses under the influence of urban, natural oil and gas operations (O&G), and agriculture and livestock operations were evaluated. Estimated non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) values for different air mass types ranged from 1.51 to 2.27 m2 g-1, with the minimum and maximum values observed in urban and agriculture-influenced air masses, respectively. The mass distribution for organic, nitrate, and sulfate aerosols presented distinct profiles in different air mass types. During 11-12 August, regional influence of a biomass burning event was observed, increasing the background βext and estimated MEE values in the Front Range.

  8. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Dingle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ campaign during July–August 2014. An Aerodyne cavity attenuated phase shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex was deployed to measure βext (at average relative humidity of 20 ± 7 % of submicron aerosols at λ = 632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret βext behavior in various categories of air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios relative to CO (Δβext ∕ ΔCO were higher in aged urban air masses compared to fresh air masses by  ∼  50 %. The resulting increase in Δβext ∕ ΔCO for highly aged air masses was accompanied by formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs. In addition, the impacts of aerosol composition on βext in air masses under the influence of urban, natural oil and gas operations (O&G, and agriculture and livestock operations were evaluated. Estimated non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE values for different air mass types ranged from 1.51 to 2.27 m2 g−1, with the minimum and maximum values observed in urban and agriculture-influenced air masses, respectively. The mass distribution for organic, nitrate, and sulfate aerosols presented distinct profiles in different air mass types. During 11–12 August, regional influence of a biomass burning event was observed, increasing the background βext and estimated MEE values in the Front Range.

  9. Geochemical Characteristics of Overbank Deposits after a Flood Event in a Small, Mountainous River System in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of particulate organic matter (POM) transported by rivers has broad implications in our understanding of aquatic nutrient dynamics, the fate of contaminants, environmental change in watersheds, and carbon export to depositional environments. The major fraction of this POM is mobilized during storms, especially in small mountainous river systems (SMRS) producing complex spatial-temporal POM patterns poorly documented due to logistical difficulties. In this study, we examine the use of overbank flood deposits as a surrogate of a quasi-Lagrangian POM sampling scheme to supplement the conventional Eulerian sampling scheme for POM. We report on the geochemical characteristics of 11 overbank deposits created after a significant flood (10 X mean discharge) along 80 km in the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range. We measure organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, and biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols as well as particle size distribution and surface area of the deposited sediments. We compared those characteristics with the POM sampled during several storms at a fixed location. Our results suggest that despite the differences in local depositional conditions inferred from particle size distributions and texture, the geochemical properties of overbank deposits resemble the properties of the material in transport, mainly derived from a terrestrial source with a clear signal of gymnosperm wood. Furthermore, the normalized ranges of the geochemical indicators measured across space for one single event are comparable to, or even higher than, the normalized range of the same indicators measured along time at the fixed location. The implications of the amount and quality of the additional information offered by the overbank deposits in POM dynamics in watershed is discussed.

  10. Brain, Craniofacial, and Dental Lesions of a Free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Implicated in a Human Attack in Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabenlander, Marc; Stepaniuk, Kevin; Carstensen, Michelle; Armién, Aníbal G

    2016-01-01

    We describe significant brain, craniofacial, and dental lesions in a free-ranging wolf (Canis lupus) involved in a human attack. On postmortem examination, the wolf presented asymmetric atrophy and bone remodeling affecting the mandible, incisive, maxilla, lacrimal, palatine, frontal, and ethmoid bones. There was an asymmetrical skeletal malocclusion and dental abnormalities including rotated, malpositioned, partially erupted teeth, and an odontogenic cyst associated with an unerupted canine tooth. Brain changes were bilateral loss and atrophy of extensive cortex regions including olfactory bulb, peduncles, and tract, and the frontal lobe. We highlight the relevance of a thorough postmortem examination of wildlife to elucidate disease-based abnormal behavior as the reason for human-animal conflict.

  11. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  12. Composition of dust deposited to snow cover in the Wasatch Range (Utah, USA): Controls on radiative properties of snow cover and comparison to some dust-source sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bryant, Ann C.; Skiles, S. McKenzie; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Flagg, Cody B.; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma; Breit, George; Ketterer, Michael; Fernandez, Daniel; Miller, Mark E.; Painter, Thomas H.

    2014-12-01

    Dust layers deposited to snow cover of the Wasatch Range (northern Utah) in 2009 and 2010 provide rare samples to determine the relations between their compositions and radiative properties. These studies are required to comprehend and model how such dust-on-snow (DOS) layers affect rates of snow melt through changes in the albedo of snow surfaces. We evaluated several constituents as potential contributors to the absorption of solar radiation indicated by values of absolute reflectance determined from bi-conical reflectance spectroscopy. Ferric oxide minerals and carbonaceous matter appear to be the primary influences on lowering snow-cover albedo. Techniques of reflectance and Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as rock magnetism provide information about the types, amounts, and grain sizes of ferric oxide minerals. Relatively high amounts of ferric oxide, indicated by hard isothermal remanent magnetization (HIRM), are associated with relatively low average reflectance (anthropogenic sources for at least some of the carbonaceous matter, such as emissions from transportation and industrial activities. The composition of the DOS samples can be compared with sediments in a likely dust-source setting at the Milford Flat Fire (MFF) area about 225 km southwest of Salt Lake City. The MFF area represents geologically and physiographically similar and widespread dust sources west-southwest of the Wasatch Range and heavily populated Wasatch Front. The DOS layers and MFF sediments are similar in some textural, chemical, and magnetic properties, as well as in the common presence of goethite, hematite, magnetite-bearing basalt fragments, quartz, plagioclase, illite, and kaolinite. Textural and some chemical differences among these deposits can be explained by atmospheric sorting as well as by inputs from other settings, such as salt-crusted playas and contaminant sources.

  13. Insights into the establishment of the Manila clam on a tidal flat at the southern end of an introduced range in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Drew M; Talley, Theresa Sinicrope; Blanco, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystem modifications have contributed to the spread of introduced species through alterations of historic disturbance regimes and resource availability, and increased propagule pressure. Frequency of occurrence of the Manila clam (Venerupis phillipinarum, Veneridae) in Southern California estuaries has increased from absent or sparse to common since the mid-1990s. Potential invasion vectors include seafood sales and aquaculture, and spread from established northern populations over decades. The clam's post-settlement habitat preferences are, however, uncertain in this region. Our project aimed to identify factors associated with established patches of the clam within a bay toward the southern end of this introduced range. During summer 2013, we sampled 10 tidal flat sites in Mission Bay, San Diego; each containing an area with and without hard structure (e.g., riprap, boulders). We measured likely environmental influences (e.g., sediment variables, distance to ocean). Manila clam densities across the bay were most strongly associated with site, where highest densities were located in the northern and/or back halves of the bay; and weakly correlated with lower porewater salinities. Within sites, Manila clam density was enhanced in the presence of hard structure in most sites. Prevailing currents and salinity regimes likely contribute to bay wide distributions, while hard structures may provide suitable microhabitats (refuge from predators and physical stress) and larval entrapment within sites. Results provide insights into decisions about future shoreline management efforts. Finally, we identify directions for future study to better understand and therefore predict patterns of establishment of the Manila clam in the southern portion of its introduced range.

  14. Insights into the establishment of the Manila clam on a tidal flat at the southern end of an introduced range in Southern California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew M Talley

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystem modifications have contributed to the spread of introduced species through alterations of historic disturbance regimes and resource availability, and increased propagule pressure. Frequency of occurrence of the Manila clam (Venerupis phillipinarum, Veneridae in Southern California estuaries has increased from absent or sparse to common since the mid-1990s. Potential invasion vectors include seafood sales and aquaculture, and spread from established northern populations over decades. The clam's post-settlement habitat preferences are, however, uncertain in this region. Our project aimed to identify factors associated with established patches of the clam within a bay toward the southern end of this introduced range. During summer 2013, we sampled 10 tidal flat sites in Mission Bay, San Diego; each containing an area with and without hard structure (e.g., riprap, boulders. We measured likely environmental influences (e.g., sediment variables, distance to ocean. Manila clam densities across the bay were most strongly associated with site, where highest densities were located in the northern and/or back halves of the bay; and weakly correlated with lower porewater salinities. Within sites, Manila clam density was enhanced in the presence of hard structure in most sites. Prevailing currents and salinity regimes likely contribute to bay wide distributions, while hard structures may provide suitable microhabitats (refuge from predators and physical stress and larval entrapment within sites. Results provide insights into decisions about future shoreline management efforts. Finally, we identify directions for future study to better understand and therefore predict patterns of establishment of the Manila clam in the southern portion of its introduced range.

  15. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from grocery stores and farms in Maryland, Ohio and Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yuqing; Verma, Shiv K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Alibana, Fatima; Mcleod, Rima; Su, Chunlei; Dubey, Jitender P; Pradhan, Abani K

    2017-05-01

    Chickens are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii. Chicken hearts (n = 1185) obtained from grocery stores were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in fluid removed from the heart cavity using the modified agglutination test (MAT) at 1:5, 1:25, and 1:100 dilutions. MAT antibodies were detected in 222 hearts at 1:5 dilution and 8 hearts at 1:25 dilution, but none were positive at 1:100 dilution. Seropositive (n = 230, 19.4%) chicken hearts were bioassayed in mice and seronegative (n = 157) chickens were bioassayed in cats. Viable T. gondii was not isolated from any hearts by bioassays in mice. The 2 cats fed 60 and 97 hearts did not excrete T. gondii oocysts. The results indicate a low prevalence of viable T. gondii in chickens from grocery stores. Molecular typing of 23 archived T. gondii strains isolated from free-range chickens from Ohio and Massachusetts using the 10 PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and altSAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed that seven were ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1, 11 were genotype #2, one was genotype #3, three were genotype #170, and one was mixed genotype. These results indicate that the clonal genotypes #1 (type II), #2 (type III), and #3 (type II variant) are common in free-range chickens.

  16. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  17. Effects of maternal prenatal smoking and birth outcomes extending into the normal range on academic performance in fourth grade in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthopolos, Rebecca; Edwards, Sharon E; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Research has documented the adverse relationship of child cognitive development with maternal prenatal smoking and poor birth outcomes. The potential, however, for maternal prenatal smoking to modify the association between birth outcomes and cognitive development is unclear. We linked statewide North Carolina birth data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children to end-of-grade test scores in reading and mathematics at fourth grade (n = 65 677). We fit race-stratified multilevel models of test scores regressed on maternal smoking, birth outcomes (as measured by continuous and categorical gestational age and birthweight percentile for gestational age), and their interaction, controlling for maternal- and child-level socio-economic factors. Smoking was consistently associated with decrements in test scores, and better birth outcomes were associated with improvements in test scores, even in clinically normal ranges. Test scores increased quadratically with improving birth outcomes among smoking and non-smoking mothers. Among non-Hispanic white children, the magnitude of the association between gestational age and test scores was larger for children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy compared with the non-smoking group. However, among non-Hispanic black children, birth outcomes did not appear to interact with maternal smoking on test scores. Maternal prenatal smoking may interact with birth outcomes on reading and mathematics test scores, particularly among non-Hispanic white children. Improvements in birth outcomes, even within the clinically normal range, may be associated with improved academic performance. Pregnancy-related exposures and events exert a significant and long-term impact on cognitive development. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Holocene ecological change in relation to hydroclimate variability and post-landslide landscape processes in semi-arid watersheds, Lost River Range, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, C. R.; Finney, B.; Shapley, M.

    2013-12-01

    Lake sediment cores were collected from two landslide formed lakes in the Lost River Range, central Idaho. Grouse Creek Lake (2 m deep) is in a basin that was formed when a drainage was impounded by a debris slide, likely more than 10,000 yr BP. Under present conditions Grouse Creek Lake is closed to surface water outflow. Since the deposition of the Mazama tephra (c.a., 7,550 yr BP) 2.5 m of sediment containing authigenic carbonate has accumulated in this lake. Modern lake water dD and d18O displays an evaporative signal indicating that oxygen isotopes from Grouse Creek Lake authigenic carbonates should record a signal that is sensitive to past changes in precipitation and evaporation. This core was sampled at 1 cm intervals and sieved at 20 um to remove detrital and biogenic carbonate in preparation for analysis of the fine-grained, authigenic carbonate fraction. The oxygen isotope signal recovered has a range of 5‰ over the length of the record, with several major fluctuations since the deposition of the Mazama tephra. While the d18O generally increases over this period indicating decreasing effective precipitation (P - E), we are modeling the affects of changes in lake hypsometry due to sediment infilling on the isotopic composition of lake water to quantify the hydroclimate signal in the isotopic data. Carlson Lake (10 m deep) formed in the source area of a middle Holocene mudflow. Modern lake water chemistry indicates that Carlson Lake is sensitive to evaporative processes, however sediments from Carlson Lake do not contain enough carbonate for oxygen isotope analysis. A multiproxy effort (C and N isotopes, biogenic silica) is underway to understand how the landscape around Carlson Lake responded to changes in hydroclimate (as determined by the record from Grouse Creek Lake) and post-landslide soil and geomorphic processes. These records are from a region with sparse long-term hydroclimate data, and ultimately will help improve our understanding of past

  19. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O{sub 3} in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, Rebekka, E-mail: rebekkafine@gmail.com [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Miller, Matthieu B. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T. [Atmospheric Science Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O{sub 3} (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O{sub 3} and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O{sub 3} and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O{sub 3} observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O{sub 3} frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O{sub 3} at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O{sub 3} across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights:

  20. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in amphibole-bearing granites of the Bintang batholith, Main Range granite province: Evidence for a meta-igneous basement in Western Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Long Xiang; Ghani, Azman A.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Li, Shan; Lai, Yu-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Amir Hassan, Meor H.; Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Afiq; Badruldin, Muhammad Hafifi; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid

    2017-08-01

    Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with varying sizes are a common occurrence in porphyritic amphibole-bearing granite of the Bintang batholith, which is part of the Main Range granite province. The MMEs of the amphibole-bearing granite are significant as they are related to the I-type granitoids within the Main Range granite province. Petrographic observations indicate the MMEs are mantled with coarse mafic crystals on the rim and contain similar minerals to the host (biotite + plagioclase + K-feldspar + pyroxene + amphibole), but in different proportions. Geochemical analyses indicate the MMEs are shoshonitic with mg# comparable to the granite host. Substantial similarities exist between the MMEs and granite with regards to the normalized rare earth element patterns and trace elements variation diagrams. The MMEs and granite are not completely coeval as the MME zircon U-Pb age (224.3 ± 1.2 Ma) is slightly older than its granite host zircon U-Pb age (216.2 ± 1.0 Ma). The age difference is also observed from the unusual 500 m-long Tiak MME and another amphibole-bearing granite sample from the south of the pluton, which yield 221.8 ± 1.1 Ma and 217.4 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. The oldest inherited zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.0 Ga and 1.3 Ga respectively, while the oldest xenocrystic zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.5 Ga and 1.5 Ga respectively. Identical negative εHf(t) values from zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analysis for a MME-granite pair indicates the rocks were generated from a similar, ancient source in the basement. Combining the results, we suggest that incongruent melting of an ancient protolith played an important part in the evolution of the MMEs and granite and the MMEs characteristics are best explained as restite. The zircon Hf model age (two-stage) and the I-type peritectic and restitic mineral assemblages in the MMEs further describe the protolith as Early Proterozoic-Late Archean (≈2.5 Ga) meta-igneous rock. This shows the

  1. Quantifying the contribution of Long-Range Transport to PM, NOx, and SO2 loadings at a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshita; Sachan, Himanshu; Garg, Saryu; Arya, Ruhani; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Sinha, Baerbel; Sinha, Vinayak

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the climatology of air masses arriving at the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry facility (30.67°N, 76.73°E; 310 m amsl) through 3-day backtrajectories arriving at 20 m above ground level for the period August 2011-November 2012. IISER Mohali is a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin. The trajectories are computed in ensemble mode twice daily with an arrival time of 2:30 pm local time (daytime) and 4:30 am local time (nighttime) using the HYSPLIT 4 model with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's GDAS file as meterological input data. Due to the close proximity of the site to the Himalayan mountain range the trajectory output is found to be very sensitive to the models input data. IISER Air Quality station is located in the IGB at an altitude of 310 m amsl approximately 20 km south west of the Shivalik hills, but the model terrain height for the site in the ensemble run output varies between 200 m amsl and 3500 m amsl for the GDAS dataset and 200 m amsl to 5000 m amsl for the reanalysis dataset. We conclude that the GDAS dataset performs better than than reanalysis dataset for our site and selected only those trajectories from the trajectory ensemble for cluster analysis, for which the terrain height in the model output was 400 m amsl for Shimla (a site located at an altitude of 1000 m amsl in the mountains 60 km north east of Mohali). We subjected the trajectories to hierarchical, and non-hierarchical (K-means) clustering and found that the air mass transport to our station can be characterised by 10 distinct airflow patterns; 3 of which occur only during the monsoon season. For pre-monsoon season (March-June), post-monsoon season (Sept-Nov) and winter season (Dec-Feb), air mass transport to our site is predominantly from the west. Direct transport of north westerly air masses to our site is subdivided into three clusters (slow, medium and rapid) while other clusters are attributed to south westerly air currents

  2. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes in barite deposits of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, and implications for the origin of the Red Dog massive sulfide deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.A.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen isotope analyses have been obtained for barite samples from the giant stratiform sulfide barite deposits at Red Dog in the western Brooks Range of Alaska, from stratiform barite deposits elsewhere in the Red Dog district, and from stratiform and vein and breccia barite occurrences in the central Brooks Range. Twelve of the 15 deposits studied lie within middle to Upper Mississippian black shale and chert units. The data reveal two different patterns on ?? 34S versus ??18O plots. The first, which is best illustrated by the barite deposit at Anarraaq, shows linear trends with slopes that vary with barite texture. For most samples, ??34S and ??18O values are both higher than the values characteristic of Mississippian marine sulfate. The second pattern, which is evident at the Red Dog deposits, shows no correlation between ??34S and ??18. In most samples, ??18O is below the value for Mississippian marine sulfate. Comparisons with sulfate in modern marine environments suggest a possible model for the mineralizing process. Anarraaq-type barite formed at sea-floor vents where ascending fluids carrying barium and methane encountered sulfate-bearing pore waters or bottom waters. Barite deposition was accompanied by the reduction of sulfate to H2S by means of microbially mediated anaerobic methane oxidation. Red Dog-type barite was formed in a manner similar to Anarraaq-type barite but was over-printed by a massive sulfide-forming event. Red Dog sulfides precipitated where metal-bearing hydrothermal fluids encountered pore waters that had been charged with H2S by anaerobic methane oxidation. Textural and isotopic evidence indicates that the sulfide bodies grew by consuming the available H2S and then by reductively dissolving barite. Dissolution of barite caused barium to be released to higher stratigraphic levels where it was reprecipitated on encountering sulfate. Isotopic evidence is pre sented for a link between methane venting and barite formation and

  3. Apparent field safety of a raccoon poxvirus-vectored plague vaccine in free-ranging prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Streich, Sean P; Abbott, Rachel C; Osorio, Jorge E; Miller, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. An oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated RCN-F1/V307) has been developed for prairie dogs. This vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine B as a biomarker. We conducted trials in August and September 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the RCN-F1/V307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. Free-ranging prairie dogs and other associated small rodents readily consumed vaccine-laden baits during field trials with no apparent adverse effects; most sampled prairie dogs (90%) and associated small rodents (78%) had consumed baits. Visual counts of prairie dogs and their burrows revealed no evidence of prairie dog decline after vaccine exposure. No vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, or gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Poxviruses were not isolated from any animal sampled prior to bait distribution or on sites that received placebo baits. We isolated RCN-F1/V307 from 17 prairie dogs and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured on sites where vaccine-laden baits were distributed. Based on these findings, studies examining the utility and effectiveness of oral vaccination to prevent plague-induced mortality in prairie dogs and associated species are underway.

  4. Apparent field safety of a raccoon poxvirus-vectored plague vaccine in free-ranging prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Miller, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. An oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated RCN-F1/V307) has been developed for prairie dogs. This vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine B as a biomarker. We conducted trials in August and September 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the RCN-F1/V307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. Free-ranging prairie dogs and other associated small rodents readily consumed vaccine-laden baits during field trials with no apparent adverse effects; most sampled prairie dogs (90%) and associated small rodents (78%) had consumed baits. Visual counts of prairie dogs and their burrows revealed no evidence of prairie dog decline after vaccine exposure. No vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, or gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Poxviruses were not isolated from any animal sampled prior to bait distribution or on sites that received placebo baits. We isolated RCN-F1/V307 from 17 prairie dogs and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured on sites where vaccine-laden baits were distributed. Based on these findings, studies examining the utility and effectiveness of oral vaccination to prevent plague-induced mortality in prairie dogs and associated species are underway.

  5. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  6. HEALTH SURVEY OF FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Marchese, Krysten; Slavinski, Sally; Humberg, Lee A; Dubovi, Edward J; Jarvis, Jodie A; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P

    2017-04-01

    We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, US, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (CDV), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses. Endoparasitism was the most common necropsy finding, with definitive identification of Baylisascaris procyonis in six of eight (75%) necropsied raccoons. Multiple intestinal parasites were detected in feces of living raccoons, including ascarid-type ova in 25 of 80 (31%) raccoons, with B. procyonis confirmed in one sample. Median blood lead level was 7.3 μg/dL (n=104). Rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer was ≥0.5 IU/mL in 9 of 88 (10%) raccoons naive to rabies vaccination and in 13 of 20 (65%) previously vaccinated raccoons. The majority of raccoons we tested were seropositive for canine parvovirus-2 (54/59, 92%) and Toxoplasma gondii (39/60, 65%). Fewer were seropositive for Rickettsia rickettsii (3/30, 10%). None were seropositive for CDV (n=108), canine adenovirus-1 (n=60), or Borrelia burgdorferi (n=30). Ectoparasites found during 16 of 118 (13.6%) physical examinations included Ixodes texanus ticks (15/118, 12.7%) and Trichodectes octomaculatus lice (1/118, 0.8%). We detected Campylobacter jejuni in 5 of 79 (6%) fecal samples. We detected 11 Salmonella enterica serotypes in 70 of 111 (63.1%) enteric cultures, the most common of which were Salmonella Newport (20/70, 29%) and Salmonella Oranienburg (20/70, 29%). These results indicate that raccoons in Central Park likely are involved in the environmental occurrence and potential disease transmission of a variety of infectious and noninfectious diseases of concern for human, wildlife

  7. Species-level phylogeographical history of Myricaria plants in the mountain ranges of western China and the origin of M. laxiflora in the Three Gorges mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yong; Huang, Hongwen

    2009-06-01

    Myricaria species in China occur mostly in the major high-altitude mountain areas in and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The one major exception to this is M. laxiflora which is restricted to the Three Gorges mountain region. In this study, we investigate species-level phylogeographical patterns of Myricaria species in western China and the origin of M. laxiflora. The results show that most chloroplast haplotypes are species-specific, except for one haplotype which is shared by three widespread species. Higher haplotype diversity within the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region supports the hypothesis that the Himalayas are the centre of origin for Myricaria. The phylogeny of Myricaria was geographically structured, and an estimated Bayesian chronology suggested the main divergence events occurred during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (approximately 1.46-2.30 million years ago). The overall phylogeographical pattern was characterized by vicariance events and regional demographical expansion, reflecting a major influence of geological and climatic events on the evolution of Myricaria species. Our data suggest that M. laxiflora has an ancient origin, but has experienced recent population expansion through the Three Gorges Valley. The origin of M. laxiflora was estimated to be during the Early Pleistocene but its demographical expansion was more recent at about 0.015 million years ago. This highlights the unique phylogeographical history of the Three Gorges mountain region, and the deep imprint of the watercourse connections of the Yangtze River Valley on the phylogeographical structure of the species in this region.

  8. Engaging western landowners in climate change mitigation: a guide to carbon-oriented forest and range management and carbon market opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Diaz; Susan Charnley; Hannah. Gosnell

    2009-01-01

    There are opportunities for forest owners and ranchers to participate in emerging carbon markets and contribute to climate change mitigation through carbon oriented forest and range management activities. These activities often promote sutainable forestry and ranching and broader conservation goals while having the potential to provide a new income stream for...

  9. Returns in the Western Range Cattle Industry: Reconstructing the Financial History of the Matador Land and Cattle Company, 1883-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Billiot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written concerning the rate of return earned by investors in cattle ranching during the open range era of the American West. Individual and foreign investors supplied large amounts of capital to stock the ranges; fortunes were made and lost in a short 20-year span. Financial histories abound in the literature regarding the return on investments. Most, if not all, rely on published financial data to determine performance. Yet, accounting practices of the time render any financial performance calculated from published financials problematic. This article estimates the financial performance of the Matador Land and Cattle Company for the years 1882-1920 by adjusting the published financial data to conform to modern accounting practices. In doing so, a more accurate picture of the financial performance of a large Scottish cattle firm operating on the open range emerges. Additionally, the article estimates the return that a typical investor earned holding stock in the Matador. Taken together, these measures provide a reflection of the rate of return during the open range era of the American West.

  10. Long-term (2001-2012) observation of the modeled hygroscopic growth factor of remote marine TSP aerosols over the western North Pacific: impact of long-range transport of pollutants and their mixing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S K R; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Haque, Md Mozammel

    2015-11-21

    In order to assess the seasonal and annual variability of long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia and their effect on the hygroscopicity and precipitation process over the western North Pacific, we conducted long-term calculations of bulk hygroscopicity, g(90%)ZSR, based on the ZSR model using chemical composition data from 2001-2012 at Chichijima Island. We found that sea-salts (Na(+) and Cl(-)) are the major mass fraction (65%) of the total water-soluble matter followed by SO4(2-) (20%) and WSOM (6%). The seasonal variation of g(90%)ZSR was high in summer to autumn and low in winter to spring months, probably due to the influence of the long-range transport of anthropogenic SO4(2-), dust, and organics from East Asia and their interaction with sea-salts through heterogeneous reactions. On the other hand, annual variations of g(90%)ZSR showed a decrease from 2001 to 2006 and then an increase from 2007 to 2012. Interestingly, the annual variations in SO4(2-) mass fractions showed an increase from 2001 to 2006 and then a decrease from 2007 to 2012, demonstrating that SO4(2-) seriously suppresses the hygroscopic growth of sea-salt particles over the western North Pacific. This is further supported by the strong negative correlation between SO4(2-) and g(90%)ZSR. Based on the MODIS satellite data, the present study demonstrates that long-range transported anthropogenic pollutants from East Asia to the North Pacific can act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei but significantly suppress the precipitation by reducing the size of cloud droplets over the western North Pacific.

  11. An Integrated Rock Typing Approach for Unraveling the Reservoir Heterogeneity of Tight Sands in the Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkhchi, Rahim Kadkhodaie; Rezaee, Reza; Harami, Reza Moussavi

    2014-01-01

    between pore system properties and depositional and diagenetic characteristics in each sand type, reservoir rock types were extracted. The identified reservoir rock types are in fact a reflection of internal reservoir heterogeneity related to pore system properties. All reservoir rock types......Tight gas sands in Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin show large heterogeneity in reservoir characteristics and production behavior related to depositional and diagenetic features. Diagenetic events (compaction and cementation) have severely affected the pore system. In order to investigate...... the petrophysical characteristics, reservoir sandstone facies were correlated with core porosity and permeability and their equivalent well log responses to describe hydraulic flow units and electrofacies, respectively. Thus, very tight, tight, and sub-tight sands were differentiated. To reveal the relationship...

  12. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  13. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Light detection and ranging (LIDAR can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.03, 0.05, and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11. The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function.

  14. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  15. Predators collected from balsam woolly adelgid and Cooley spruce gall adelgid in western Oregon and Washington, U.S.A., with reference to biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Glenn R. Kohler; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2017-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive study to survey predators associated with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, 1928 in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), U.S.A. (Kohler et al. 2008), predators of balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg, 1844) and Cooley spruce gall adelgid, Adelges cooleyi (Gillette...

  16. Moraea intermedia and M. vuvuzela (Iridaceae-Iridoideae, two new species from western South Africa, and some nomenclatural changes and range extensions in the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species in the largely sub-Saharan genus Moraea Mill. (± 205 spp. from its centre of diversity in the winter rainfall region of southern Africa. Moraea intermedia, from north-central Namaqualand near Springbok, is a member of the small section Tubiflorae (now eight species, remarkable in its growth habit with a long basal intemode. leaves clustered at the first aerial node, and Moraea-type stamens and style branches but subequal tepals with very short claws that clasp only the base of the filament column. Moraea vuvuzela. a member of series Galaxia of the Galaxia group of the genus (now 17 species, has deeply fringed stigma lobes, filaments free in the upper 1 mm, ± prostrate, lanceolate leaves and. remarkable for the series, dark brown to purple markings near the base of the tepal limbs. In the unusually variable M.fugax, currently with two subspecies, new collections of subsp. fugax co-occurring but on different soils with subsp.  filicaulis, cast doubt on their current treatment as members of the same species. We now favour recognition of the diminutive subsp.filicaulis as a separate species, M. filicaulis. In the M iripetala group we recommend recognition of the early blooming M. punctata, described in 1892 and later subsumed in M. iripetala but readily distinguished by the long inner  tepals broader in the midline and short, relatively broad, plane rather than channelled leaves. We also report small but significant range extensions for M. barkerae, M. macrocarpa and M. tricolor.

  17. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  18. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  19. Projecting 21st Century Snowpack Trends in the Western United States using Variable-Resolution CESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, A.; Huang, X.; Zarzycki, C. M.; Ullrich, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The western USA is integrally reliant upon winter season snowpack, which supplies 3/4 of the region's fresh water and buffers against seasonal aridity on agricultural, ecosystem, and urban water demands. By the end of the 21st century, western USA snowpack (SWE) could decline by 40-70%, snowfall by 25-40%, more winter storms could tend towards rain rather than snow, and the peak timing of snowmelt will shift several weeks earlier in the season. Further, there has been evidence that mountain ranges could face more accelerated warming (elevational dependent warming) due to climate change. These future trends have largely been derived from global climate models (CMIP5) which can't resolve some of the more relatively narrow mountain ranges, like the California Sierra Nevada, in great detail. Therefore, due to the importance of orographic uplift on weather fronts, eastern Pacific sea-surface temperature anomalies, atmospheric river events, and mesoscale convective systems, high-resolution global scale modeling techniques are necessary to properly resolve western USA mountain range climatology. Variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) are a promising next-generation technique to analyze both past and future hydroclimatic trends in the region. VRGCMs serve as a bridge between regional and global models by allowing for high-resolution in areas of interest, eliminate lateral boundary forcings (and resultant model biases), allow for more dynamically inclusive large-scale climate teleconnections, and require smaller simulation times and lower data storage demand (compared to conventional global models). This presentation focuses on validating these next-generation models as well as projecting future climate change scenario impacts on several of the western USA's key hydroclimate metrics (e.g., two-meter surface temperature, snow cover, snow water equivalent, and snowfall) to inform water managers and policy makers and offer resilience to climate change impacts

  20. Western Range Fires (1870-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A summary data set of all fire polygons we could locate as of December 2007 . We used multiple datasets to developed this layer including data gathered from the...

  1. Validation of multiple diagnostic techniques to detect Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in free-ranging western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and observations on the prevalence of these protozoan infections in two populations in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijll Langhout, Martine; Reed, Patricia; Fox, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Anthropozoonotic diseases threaten the survival of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Use of accurate diagnostic techniques in gorilla health monitoring contributes to the conservation of gorillas by providing robust information for appropriate management decisions. To identify suitable protozoa diagnostic techniques for wild gorillas, 95 fecal specimens were collected in Lopé National Park and east of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park in Gabon, areas with high and low levels of human activity, respectively. The samples were examined for Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. by using the following diagnostic techniques: a commercially available immunofluorescent antibody test kit, Merifluor, and a rapid immune-assay, ImmunoCard STAT!, to detect Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp., and a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain to detect Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The results obtained from the Merifluor test, considered the "gold standard" in human studies, were used to estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in Lopé National Park (19.0% and 22.6%, respectively) and east of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (0% and 9.1%, respectively). The difference in prevalence in both areas may be associated with differing levels of anthropogenic disturbance. The sensitivity and specificity of the latter two diagnostic techniques were calculated by using the Merifluor test as a control. The ImmunoCard STAT! was found suitable for Giardia sp. antigen detection (specific but not sensitive) and inappropriate for Cryptosporidium sp. antigen detection (not specific or sensitive). The modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain was found to be highly specific but not sensitive in the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. These results underline the necessity of using ancillary tests and concentration methods to correctly identify positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in free-ranging western lowland gorillas

  2. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  3. USA National Phenology Network gridded products documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Marsh, R. Lee; Switzer, Jeff R.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2017-02-23

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to facilitate informed ecosystem stewardship and management by providing phenological information freely and openly. One way the USA-NPN is endeavoring to accomplish these goals is by providing data and data products in a wide range of formats, including gridded real-time, short-term forecasted, and historical maps of phenological events, patterns and trends. This document describes the suite of gridded phenologically relevant data products produced and provided by the USA National Phenology Network, which can be accessed at www.usanpn.org/data/phenology_maps and also through web services at geoserver.usanpn.org/geoserver/wms?request=GetCapabilities.

  4. Invasion of the red seaweed Heterosiphonia japonica spans biogeographic provinces in the Western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Newton

    Full Text Available The recent invasion of the red alga Heterosiphonia japonica in the western North Atlantic Ocean has provided a unique opportunity to study invasion dynamics across a biogeographical barrier. Native to the western North Pacific Ocean, initial collections in 2007 and 2009 restricted the western North Atlantic range of this invader to Rhode Island, USA. However, through subtidal community surveys, we document the presence of Heterosiphonia in coastal waters from Maine to New York, USA, a distance of more than 700 km. This geographical distribution spans a well-known biogeographical barrier at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Despite significant differences in subtidal community structure north and south of Cape Cod, Heterosiphonia was found at all but two sites surveyed in both biogeographic provinces, suggesting that this invader is capable of rapid expansion over broad geographic ranges. Across all sites surveyed, Heterosiphonia comprised 14% of the subtidal benthic community. However, average abundances of nearly 80% were found at some locations. As a drifting macrophyte, Heterosiphonia was found as intertidal wrack in abundances of up to 65% of the biomass washed up along beaches surveyed. Our surveys suggest that the high abundance of Heterosiphonia has already led to marked changes in subtidal community structure; we found significantly lower species richness in recipient communities with higher Heterosiphona abundances. Based on temperature and salinity tolerances of the European populations, we believe Heterosiphonia has the potential to invade and alter subtidal communities from Florida to Newfoundland in the western North Atlantic.

  5. Geochemical and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; Colgan, J. P.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Cousens, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oligocene calderas and underlying plutons in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) in western Nevada were tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude Miocene extension and unconformably overlain by 15-13 Ma intermediate and mafic lava flows. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and Ar-Ar and U-Pb dating document 2 brief periods of magmatism resulting in 5 nested calderas and related plutons in sections locally ≥9 km thick. Early magmatism at ~29 Ma included the Deep Canyon caldera in CAM, and in the SSR, pre-caldera rhyolites, ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled Job Canyon caldera (JC, ~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick IXL pluton (~28.5 Ma) that intruded JC and is compositionally similar to the tuff and lava flows. The second period included 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: small-volume tuff of Louderback Mountains (LM, low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.3 Ma); multiple cooling units of tuff of Poco Canyon (PC, high-silica rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; ~25.3 Ma); and ≥2500 km3 of tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (EC, trachydacite to rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; 25.1 Ma) that covers ~1600 km2 and extends east from SSR to the northern Desatoya Mountains. The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granodiorite, ~25.0 Ma; granite, ~24.8 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (~25.2 Ma) and granite (~24.8 Ma) plutons intruded LM, PC and EC calderas. Radiogenic isotopes in all caldera units are similar (Sri~0.7050, ΕNd~0.0), while oxygen isotope compositions are variable (δ18Oquartz=5.7-8.4‰, δ18Ozircon=4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.6-7.6‰, including 2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring temporally and spatially distinct magma sources, and (3) caldera magmas have a strong mantle affinity and overlap isotopically (Sr, Nd, and O) with regional Late Cenozoic basalts.

  6. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig historie...

  7. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  8. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori...

  9. Climate, Wildfire, and Erosion Data, Western US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were used to examine how post-fire sedimentation might change in western USA watersheds with future fire from the decade of 2001-10 through 2041-50. The...

  10. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1957-01-01

    Severity of 1957 fire weather west of the Cascade Range summit in Oregon and Washington was near the average of the previous 10 years. The season (April 1 through October 31) was slightly more severe than 1956 in western Oregon and about the same as 1956 in western Washington. Spring fire weather was near average severity in both western Washington and western Oregon....

  11. 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb Ages and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Colgan, J. P.; Cousens, B.

    2014-12-01

    Calderas in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) were formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flareup and subsequently tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude extension. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and 40Ar/39Ar and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating document 2 periods of magmatism resulting in 4 nested calderas and related granitoid plutons in sections up to 10 km thick. The first period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes (30(?) Ma), ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled the Job Canyon caldera (~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick, geochemically similar IXL pluton (28.9±0.4 Ma) that intruded the Job Canyon caldera. The second period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes and dikes (~25.5 Ma) and 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: tuff of the Louderback Mountains (low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.2 Ma); tuff of Poco Canyon (high-silica rhyolite; up to 4.3 km thick; 25.27±0.05 Ma); and ≥2000 km3 tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (trachydacite to rhyolite; up to 4.5 km thick; 25.12±0.01 Ma). The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granite, 24.8±0.4 Ma; granodiorite, 25.0±0.2 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (25.2±0.2 Ma) and granite (24.8±0.3 Ma) plutons intruded the Poco Canyon and Elevenmile Canyon calderas. Early (30 Ma) rhyolites have the least radiogenic compositions (Sri~0.7040), whereas other units are relatively homogeneous (Sri~0.7050, ENd~0.0). Oxygen isotope compositions for SSR and CAM calderas are highly variable (d18Oquartz=5.6-8.2‰, d18Osanidine=5.5-7.0‰, d18Ozircon= 4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.7-7.9‰. U-Pb dating of zircons indicates homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts and antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring divergent magmatic sources in relatively

  12. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs Thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.; Implication for structure of the western Caldera and for CSAMT methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    We have carried Out an extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. This survey, consisting of 45 high-quality sites, has been acquired by in support of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter dipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 kW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. The electric bipoles parallel to each profile were deployed contiguously to ensure against spatial aliasing of the impedance response corresponding to current flow across structural trends. The frequency range of acquisition was 4096 Hz down to 1 Hz for the central line, but only down to 4 Hz for most sites of the other lines. Data quality is high overall and is established by repeatability of measurements. Agreement between the CSAMT and available natural field MT data is very good over almost all the period range of overlap indicating that we are free of calibration problems and that far-field results are generally being obtained. Non plane-wave effects in the CSAMT around Sulphur Springs are apparent at 1 to 2 Hz, and perhaps slightly even at 4 Hz, however, which is near the bottom of our frequency range. CSAMT and MT data taken outside the Valles Caldera to the west were modeled in an attempt to compare resistivity structure exterior to the caldera to that within. With the availability of tensor CSAMT and MT data both inside and outside Valles Caldera, assumptions and methods of CSAMT are tested. In the Sulphur Springs area, near-coincident CSAMT and MT data near well VC -2B indicate that non-lane-wave effects in the apparent resistivity and impedance phase occure at a frequency near to that predicted from the resistivity structure local to the wester caldera.

  13. Notes on Pauropoda (Myriapoda) from USA, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Pauropoda are described from USA, Kionopauropus alyeskaensissp. n. (Pauropodidae), and Eurypauropus arcuatussp. n. (Eurypauropodidae). The genus Kionopauropus is reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time.

  14. Notes on Pauropoda (Myriapoda from U.S.A. with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Scheller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pauropoda are described from USA, Kionopauropus alyeskaensis sp. n. (Pauropodidae, and Eurypauropus arcuatus sp. n. (Eurypauropodidae. The genus Kionopauropus is reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time.

  15. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  16. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  17. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  18. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  19. Late Quaternary environmental change in the Bonneville basin, western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, D.B.; Rhode, D.; Grayson, D.K.; Broughton, J.M.; Livingston, S.D.; Hunt, J.; Quade, Jay; Schmitt, D.N.; Shaver, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Excavation and analyses of small animal remains from stratified raptor deposits spanning the last 11.5 ka, together with collection and analysis of over 60 dated fossil woodrat midden samples spanning the last 50 ka, provide a detailed record of changing climate in the eastern Great Basin during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Sagebrush steppe dominated the northern Bonneville basin during the Full Glacial, suggesting that conditions were cold and relatively dry, in contrast to the southern basin, which was also cold but moister. Limber pine woodlands dominated ???13-11.5 ka, indicating increased dryness and summer temperatures ???6-7??C cooler than present. This drying trend accelerated after ???11.5 ka causing Lake Bonneville to drop rapidly, eliminating 11 species of fish from the lake. From ???11.5-8.2 ka xerophytic sagebrush and shadscale scrub replaced more mesophilic shrubs in a step-wise fashion. A variety of small mammals and plants indicate the early Holocene was ???3??C cooler and moister than at present, not warmer as suggested by a number of climatic models. The diversity of plants and animals changed dramatically after 8.2 ka as many species disappeared from the record. Some of the upland species returned after ???4 ka and Great Salt Lake became fresh enough at ???3.4 and ???1.2 ka to support populations of Utah chub. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Wildfire risk transmission in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica R. Haas; David E. Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires are a global phenomenon that in some circumstances can result in human casualties, economic loss, and ecosystem service degradation. In this article we spatially identify wildfire risk transmission pathways and locate the areas of highest exposure of human populations to wildland fires under severe, but not uncommon, weather events. We quantify varying levels...

  1. Health care reform in the USA: Recommendations from USA and non-USA radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauren Mb; Martin, Diego R; Bader, Till; Semelka, Richard C

    2012-02-28

    To compare the opinions and recommendations of imaging specialists from United States (USA) and non-USA developed nations for USA health care reform. A survey was emailed out to 18 imaging specialists from 17 non-USA developed nation countries and 14 radiologists within the USA regarding health care reform. The questionnaire contained the following questions: what are the strengths of your health care system, what problems are present in your nation's health care system, and what recommendations do you have for health care reform in the USA. USA and non-USA radiologists received the same questionnaire. Strengths of the USA health care system include high quality care, autonomy, and access to timely care. Twelve of 14 (86%) USA radiologists identified medicolegal action as a major problem in their health care system and felt that medicolegal reform was a critical aspect of health care reform. None of the non-USA radiologists identified medicolegal aspects as a problem in their own country nor identified it as a subject for USA health care reform. Eleven of 14 (79%) USA radiologists and 16/18 (89%) non-USA radiologists identified universal health care coverage as an important recommendation for reform. Without full universal coverage, meaningful health care reform will likely require medicolegal reform as an early and important aspect of improved and efficient health care.

  2. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangoiti, G. [Fundacion CEAM, Valencia (Spain). Parque Tecnologico; Universidad del Pais Vasco-Euskal Herriko Universitatea. Bilbao (Spain); Millan, M.M.; Salvador, R.; Mantilla, E. [Fundacion CEAM, Valencia (Spain). Parque Tecnologico

    2001-07-01

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millan et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high 0{sub 3} concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project-Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area-are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65ppb of 0{sub 3} of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O{sub 3} concentrations up to 100ppb and even more. (author)

  3. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  4. USA kaitseb Iisraeli / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogus peetud arutelul ei võetud USA vastuseisu tõttu vastu üleskutset viivitamatuks tingimusteta vaherahuks, USA toetab Iisraeli rünnakuid Hizbollah' sisside vastu. Lisa: Eesti mõistab hukka

  5. Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  6. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  7. Distribution and abundance of nonnative fishes in streams of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, C.B.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents data from one of the largest standardized stream surveys conducted in he western United States, which shows that one of every four individual fish in streams of 12 western states are nonnative. The states surveyed included Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. The most widely distributed and abundant nonnative fishes in the western USA were brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, common carp Cyprinus carpio, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, yellow perch Percaflavescens, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, cutthroat trout O. clarkii, western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis. The greatest abundance and distribution of nonnative fishes was in interior states, and the most common nonnatives were introduced for angling. Nonnative fishes were widespread in pristine to highly disturbed streams influenced by all types of land use practices. We present ranges in water temperature, flow, stream order, riparian cover, human disturbance, and other environmental conditions where the 10 most common introduced species were found. Of the total western U.S. stream length bearing fish, 50.1% contained nonnative fishes while 17.9% contained physical environment that was ranked highly or moderately disturbed by humans. Introduced fishes can adversely affect stream communities, and they are much more widespread in western U.S. streams than habitat destruction. The widespread distribution and high relative abundance of nonnative fishes and their documented negative effects suggest their management and control should elicit at least as much attention as habitat preservation in the protection of native western U.S. stream

  8. Homeopathy in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P

    2001-04-01

    Homeopathy was introduced into the USA by Hans Burch Gram in 1825. It developed largely through immigration of German homeopaths. The first homeopathic medical college was established in Allentown, PA in 1835. The American institute of Homeopathy (AIH) was founded in 1844. The American Medical Association was founded in 1847 and pursued policies hostile to homeopathy from the outset. Eclectic medicine was widespread in nineteenth century medicine, one of the greatest homeopaths, JT Kent had originally been an eclectic. The International Hahnemannian Association split from the AIH in 1880. The Flexner Report of 1910 resulted in many homeopathic medical colleges being closed down. Homeopathy in the USA was in steep decline from the 1920s to the 1960s but has had a strong recovery since the 1970s.

  9. Central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This view of central Florida, USA (28.0N, 81.5W) shows both coasts of the Florida peninsula with Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center readily visible in the center on the Atlantic coast. Other features on the Earth which are visible through the clouds include Tampa Bay, several lakes and the Gulf of Mexico on Florida's east coast. The space shuttle's tail fin and both orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pods are seen in the foreground.

  10. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  11. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  12. The Emergence and Historical Development of Informatics and Computing Disciplines in Selected European Countries and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Smutný

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview that compares the historical tendencies in defining informatics as a new discipline, subject area or field of study focused on the design and application of computer technology. Apart from computer construction, the focus is on two major areas: computational processes and information processes. The article first considers the development in the United States of America (USA, which differed substantially from Europe. In the USA the development concerned disciplines referred to as computer science, computer engineering and (library and information science. The article then discusses the situation in France and Germany. Consequently, the development in the USA and Western Europe is contrasted with the development in the Soviet Union, particularly with the crucial role of cybernetics in this region. The time range considered in the article is limited to the 1960s and 1970s. The article introduces the individual regional concepts of informatics and discusses the social, economic and political background of the emergence and development of these concepts. This view makes it possible to present an original approach to the ambiguous interpretation of “What is informatics as a scientific discipline in an international context”, while respecting the distinctions given by the outset and historical development in different countries.

  13. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  14. Hierarchical den selection of Canada lynx in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Nicholas J. Decesare; Jay A. Kolbe; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2008-01-01

    We studied den selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis; hereafter lynx) at multiple ecological scales based on 57 dens from 19 females located in western Montana, USA, between 1999 and 2006. We considered 3 spatial scales in this analysis, including den site (11-m-radius circle surrounding dens), den area (100-m-radius circle), and den environ (1-...

  15. Parents' Expectations and Students' Achievement in Two Western Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Markus P.; Vida, Mina; Garrett, Jessica L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study compares the relations of family SES and parents' educational expectations during early adolescence with students' self-concept of ability and academic achievement in mathematics and language in two western countries, Switzerland and USA Participants were drawn from two US longitudinal samples, The Michigan Study of Adolescent…

  16. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  17. Snowmelt timing, phenology, and growing season length in conifer forests of Crater Lake National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Donal S.; Kellermann, Jherime L.; Wayne, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is having significant impacts on montane and high-elevation areas globally. Warmer winter temperatures are driving reduced snowpack in the western USA with broad potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics of particular concern for protected areas. Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of ecological response to climate change and is associated with snowmelt timing. Human monitoring of climate impacts can be resource prohibitive for land management agencies, whereas remotely sensed phenology observations are freely available at a range of spatiotemporal scales. Little work has been done in regions dominated by evergreen conifer cover, which represents many mountain regions at temperate latitudes. We used moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assess the influence of snowmelt timing and elevation on five phenology metrics (green up, maximum greenness, senescence, dormancy, and growing season length) within Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, USA from 2001 to 2012. Earlier annual mean snowmelt timing was significantly correlated with earlier onset of green up at the landscape scale. Snowmelt timing and elevation have significant explanatory power for phenology, though with high variability. Elevation has a moderate control on early season indicators such as snowmelt timing and green up and less on late-season variables such as senescence and growing season length. PCA results show that early season indicators and late season indicators vary independently. These results have important implications for ecosystem dynamics, management, and conservation, particularly of species such as whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in alpine and subalpine areas.

  18. Go.USA.gov URL Shortner API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Go.USA.gov REST API allows you interact with Go.USA.gov by shortening URLs, previewing long urls, and getting the number of clicks to a Go.USA.gov URL.. An API...

  19. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  20. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  1. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  2. Gendering Citizenship in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona

    The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee p...... policy studies, looking at migration and multiculturalism, the care of young children, and home-based childcare and transnational dynamics.......The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee...

  3. Nordkorea kan endelig ramme USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads.......Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads....

  4. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  5. A Mixed-Effects Heterogeneous Negative Binomial Model for Postfire Conifer Regeneration in Northeastern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin S. Crotteau; Martin W. Ritchie; J. Morgan. Varner

    2014-01-01

    Many western USA fire regimes are typified by mixed-severity fire, which compounds the variability inherent to natural regeneration densities in associated forests. Tree regeneration data are often discrete and nonnegative; accordingly, we fit a series of Poisson and negative binomial variation models to conifer seedling counts across four distinct burn severities and...

  6. Mulching fuels treatments promote understory plant communities in three Colorado, USA, coniferous forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Monique E. Rocca; Michael Battaglia; Charles C. Rhoades; Michael G. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Mulching fuels treatments have been increasingly implemented by forest managers in the western USA to reduce crown fire hazard. These treatments use heavy machinery to masticate or chip unwanted shrubs and small-diameter trees and broadcast the mulched material on the ground. Because mulching treatments are relatively novel and have no natural analog, their ecological...

  7. Holocene erosion, sedimentation, and stratigraphy at Raven Fork, Southern Blue Ridge Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Leigh; Paul A. Webb

    2006-01-01

    Holocene colluvial and alluvial stratigraphy and a radiocarbon chronology are presented for the valley of the lower three kilometers of Raven Fork, a mountain stream draining 194 km2 of high relief (1.3 km) terrain of the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains in western North Carolina, USA, which is in a region that lacks good chronological data. Lower hillslopes, alluvial/...

  8. Forest influences on snow accumulation and snowmelt at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin A. Penn; Beverley C. Wemple; John L. Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Many factors influence snow depth, water content and duration in forest ecosystems. The effects of forest cover and canopy gap geometry on snow accumulation has been well documented in coniferous forests of western North America and other regions; however, few studies have evaluated these effects on snowpack dynamics in mixed deciduous forests of the northeastern USA....

  9. Hybrid Lives of Teaching and Artistry: A Study of Teaching Artists in Dance in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates teaching artists in the USA whose work is rooted in dance and dance-related disciplines. Teaching artists, although the descriptor itself remains both ambiguous and debated in the USA, provide a good deal of arts education delivery in K12 schools and afterschool programs. Based on survey data from a range of dance teaching…

  10. Integration of GCAM-USA into GLIMPSE: Update and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to (i) discuss changes made to the GCAM-USA model to more fully support long-term, coordinated environmental-climate-energy planning within the U.S., and (ii) demonstrate the graphical user interface that has been constructed to construct modeling scenarios, execute GCAM-USA, and visualize and compare model outputs. GLIMPSE is intended to provide insights into linkages and synergies among the goals of air quality management, climate change mitigation, and long-range energy planning. We have expanded GLIMPSE to also incorporate the open-source Global Change Assessment Model-USA (GCAM-USA), which has state-level representation of the U.S. energy system. With GCAM-USA, GLIMPSE can consider more aspects of the economy, linkages to the water and climate systems, and interactions with other regions of the world. A user-friendly graphical interface allows the system to be applied by analysts to explore a range of policies, such emission taxes or caps, efficiency standards, and renewable portfolio standards. We expect GLIMPSE to be used within research and planning activities, both within the EPA and beyond.

  11. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin R. Risch; John F. DeWild; David P. Krabbenhoft; Randall K. Kolka; Leiming. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall frompredominately deciduous forestswas measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry depositionwas significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (µg/m2), range 3.5-23.4 µg/m2...

  12. Forests and Climate Change in the Southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven McNulty; Peter Caldwell; Thomas W. Doyle; Kurt Johnsen; Yongqiang Liu; Jacqueline Mohan; Jeffrey Prestemon; Ge Sun

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsWarming air temperatures will likely increase regional drying regardless of changes in precipitation, and this drying will likely increase wildfire risk across southeastern USA forests.Longer growing seasons will likely increase the risk of insect outbreak and very likely will expand the northern range of some...

  13. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We......-CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......, making it a valuable tool for clinical epidemiological research....

  14. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  15. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  16. Sources and patterns of wolverine mortality in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Jeffrey P. Copeland; Todd J. Ulizio; Michael K. Schwartz; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2007-01-01

    We instrumented 36 wolverines (Gulo gulo) on 2 study areas in western Montana and one study area on the Idaho-Montana (USA) border: 14 (9 M, 5 F) on the Pioneer study area, 19 (11 M, 8 F) on the Glacier study area, and 3 (2M, 1 F) on the Clearwater study area. During 2002-2005, harvest from licensed trapping accounted for 9 (6 M, 3 F) of 14 mortalities,...

  17. Western Audiovisual Stereotypes of Russian Image: the Ideological Confrontation Epoch (1946-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article included the analysis of the Western audiovisual stereotypes of Russian image from the period of ideological confrontation (1946-1991: ideological and social trends, classification of the contents’ models and genres. The content analysis of the western media texts of the period of the “cold war” (1946-1991 allows to present their main plot diagrams as follows: Soviet spies penetrate into the territory of the USA/Western country to commit diversion and/or to worm out military secrets; the USSR prepares a covert attack on the territory of the USA/Western world, creating secret bases with nuclear weapons; the inhuman Soviet totalitarian regime oppresses its own people or the people of any other country; Nonconformity leaves/attempts to leave the USSR where, in their opinion, democracy and individual freedom are being oppressed; common western people explain to Soviet military/civilian visitors who were mislead by propaganda that the USA/Western country is the stronghold of friendship and world-wide prosperity and peace; obstacles connected with the ideological confrontation between the USSR and the Western world appear on the way of a loving couple.

  18. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  19. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  20. Sloping fan travertine, Belen, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Megan; Chafetz, Henry S.

    2017-05-01

    Pliocene to Quaternary age travertines are very well-exposed in quarries near Belen, New Mexico, U.S.A., on the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift system. A series of hillside springs produced travertine tongues tens of meters thick and hundreds of meters long. The accumulations represent deposits from individual springs as well as the amalgamation of deposits. The overall architecture is predominantly composed of sloping fans with a smaller component of terrace mounds. The sloping fan deposits commonly have a dip of rock, sheets and rafts, and finely crystalline crusts that occur throughout the sloping fan and terrace mound accumulations. Sheets and rafts formed as precipitates in pools on the surfaces of the fans and terraces as well as spelean deposits on the water surfaces of pools within cavities in the overall accumulation. Thus, the spelean rafts provide valuable indicators of original horizontality in the sloping fan strata. In addition, intraformational breccias, composed of locally torn-up travertine intraclastic boulders and deposited in with other travertine, and extraformational breccias, composed of torn-up travertine intraclasts mixed with siliciclastic fines and sand and Paleozoic limestone clasts transported downslope from higher on the hillside, are a common constituent in the sloping fan accumulation. The Belen travertines provide a very well-exposed example of sloping fan travertines and may provide relevant data with regard to the subsurface Aptian Pre-Salt deposits, offshore Brazil.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, Jeffrey E.; Fellers, Gary M.; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-01-01

    Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla) tadpoles were collected throughout the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole Σ PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope to 1.6 ng/g high on the eastern slope, whereas Σ toxaphene levels ranged from 15.6 to 1.5 ng/g. Linear regression of PCB and toxaphene residue levels versus elevation indicated a significant relationship, with an r2 value of 0.33 for PCB and 0.45 for toxaphene indicating a significant elevation effect on PCB and toxaphene bioaccumulation in Sierra Nevada H. regilla. Tadpole samples from sites in east-facing versus west-facing drainage basins showed significant differences in PCB and toxaphene residue levels, suggesting the possibility of a rain-shadow effect in the long-range atmospheric transport of these contaminants to the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

  2. USA Suursaadik TTÜs / Eha Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Eha

    2005-01-01

    USA suursaadik Aldona Wis, Ameerika Uuringute Fondi president Roger Ream ja nõukogu esimees Randal Teague käisid Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis. Põhja-Ameerika ülikoolide teabekeskus korraldas TPÜ aulas kohtumise, kus tutvustati õppimisvõimalusi USA-s

  3. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  4. USA kaitsetollide vastu / Joseph E. Stiglitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    USA poolt tollide kehtestamine imporditavale terasele on põhjustanud protesti. Riigid, eriti Euroopas, mis on võimelised USA-le vastu hakkama, peavad seda tegema nüüd. Karmide abinõude tarvitusele võtmine on nii nende kui ka USA huvides

  5. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  6. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  7. Modelling middle pliocene warm climates of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, A.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Sellwood, B.W.; Kaplan, J.O.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The middle Pliocene warm period represents a unique time slice in which to model and understand climatic processes operating under a warm climatic regime. Palaeoclimatic model simulations, focussed on the United States of America (USA), for the middle Pliocene (ca 3 Ma) were generated using the USGS PRISM2 2?? ?? 2?? data set of boundary conditions and the UK Meteorological Office's HadAMS General Circulation Model (GCM). Model results suggest that conditions in the USA during the middle Pliocene can be characterised as annually warmer (by 2?? to 4??C), less seasonal, wetter (by a maximum of 4 to 8 mm/day) and with an absence of freezing winters over the central and southern Great Plains. A sensitivity experiment suggests that the main forcing mechanisms for surface temperature changes in near coastal areas are the imposed Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST's). In interior regions, reduced Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ice, combined with less snow cover and a reduction in the elevation of the western cordillera of North America, generate atmospheric circulation changes and positive albedo feedbacks that raise surface temperatures. A complex set of climatic feedback mechanisms cause an enhancement of the hydrological cycle magnifying the moisture bearing westerly wind belt during the winter season (Dec., Jan., Feb.). Predictions produced by the model are in broad agreement with available geological evidence. However, the GCM appears to underestimate precipitation levels in the interior and central regions of the southern USA. Copyright: Palaeontological Association, 22 June 2001.

  8. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  9. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... and range on the basis of the present material, due to too few and incomparable surveys. Only the Brünnich's guillemot is adequately studied to make conclusions on population trends (Kampp et al. 1994). However, our impressions of trends are given in Tab. 5. Species with decreasing populations are common...... eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...

  11. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  12. Implications of Detection Methods on Characterizing Atmospheric River Contribution to Seasonal Snowfall Across Sierra Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Laurie S.; Margulis, Steven A.; Guan, Bin; Waliser, Duane E.; Neiman, Paul J.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the diagnosed contribution of atmospheric rivers (ARs) to the seasonal cumulative snowfall (CS) is related to the AR detection approach utilized. Using both satellite integrated water vapor (IWV)-based and reanalysis integrated vapor transport (IVT)-based methodologies, the corresponding AR-derived CS distributions were characterized over the Sierra Nevada (USA) from 1998 to 2015. AR detection methods indicated that ARs yield greater orographic enhancement of the seasonal CS than non-AR storms above 2,100-2,300 m for the IWV-based approach and over all elevations for the IVT-based detection approach across the western (i.e., windward) Sierra Nevada. Due to differences in the methodologies, the IWV-based approach diagnosed 2.1 times fewer ARs than the IVT-based approach. As a result, the ARs diagnosed using the IWV-based detection method yielded an average 33% of the total range-wide CS annually as opposed to 56% from the IVT-based detection method.

  13. Anatomy and Cranial Functional Morphology of the Small-Bodied Dinosaur Fruitadens haagarorum from the Upper Jurassic of the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Richard J.; Porro, Laura B.; Galton, Peter M.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterodontosaurids are an important but enigmatic and poorly understood early radiation of ornithischian dinosaurs. The late-surviving heterodontosaurid Fruitadens haagarorum from the Late Jurassic (early Tithonian) Morrison Formation of the western USA is represented by remains of several small (

  14. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  15. Recent trends in post-wildfire seeding in western US forests: costs and seed mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Jan L. Beyers; Molly E. Hunter; Pete Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used post-fire rehabilitation treatments to establish ground cover for erosion control and mitigation of non-native plant species invasions. Little quantitative information is available on overall trends of post-fire seeding expenditures and seed mixes used over time in forested ecosystems in the western USA. We reviewed...

  16. Ecological impacts and management strategies for western larch in the face of climate-change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 185,000 forest inventory and ecological plots from both USA and Canada were used to predict the contemporary distribution of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) from climate variables. The random forests algorithm, using an 8-variable model, produced an overall error rate of about 2.9 %, nearly all of which consisted of predicting presence at...

  17. Variability of the Anticyclonic Circulation in the Western Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    the 14 C isotherm in the western Gulf of Mexic S. -o- along 24 N, from July, 1979; November, 1979; and July, 1980. --along g50-30’W, from July, 1979...Acad. Sci. USA ., 70, 1, 93 - 97. Flierl, Glenn R., (1977), The Application of Linear Quasigeostrophic Dynamics to Gulf Stream Rings. J. Phys. Oceanogr

  18. Integrating IWB Use in Western Pennsylvania K-12 Schools Districts: The Professional Development Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Yehuda; Medvin, Mandy; Domanski, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This research examines teacher attitudes and anxieties about interactive whiteboard (IWB) use as related to perceived classroom implementation to enhance student engagement and achievement. The research took place in four western Pennsylvania, U.S.A. school districts. Data suggest that the districts in this study have invested in IWB technology…

  19. Great Basin cold desert shrublands and the Desert Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen; Stephanie L. Carlson

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin is a vast, internally drained region of the Western United States, bounded by the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountain ranges to the west and the Wasatch Mountains and western rim of the Colorado Plateau to the east. Although less discrete, northern and southern boundaries are generally defined by the drainages of the Columbia and Colorado Rivers...

  20. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  1. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  2. Warming drives a front of white spruce establishment near western treeline, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy E; Wilson, Tammy L; Sherriff, Rosemary L; Walton, James

    2017-12-01

    Regional warming has led to increased productivity near the boreal forest margin in Alaska. To date, the effects of warming on seedling recruitment have received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from 95 white spruce (Picea glauca) plots sampled across a longitudinal gradient in southwest Alaska to explore factors influencing spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings, and trees, representing five life stages, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance, using current abundance distributions as a surrogate for climate conditions in the past. We used generalized linear models to test the null hypothesis that conditions favorable for recruitment were similar along the environmental gradient represented by longitude, by exploring relationships between per-plot counts of each life stage and the covariates hypothesized to affect abundance. We also examined the relationship between growing degree days (GDD) and seedling establishment over a period of three decades using tree-ring chronologies obtained from cores taken at a subset of our sites (n = 30). Our results indicated that seedling, sapling, and tree abundance were positively correlated with temperature across the study area. The response to longitude was mixed, with earlier life stages (seedlings, saplings) most abundant at the western end of the gradient, and later life stages (trees) most abundant to the east. The differential relationship between longitude and life-stage abundance suggests a moving front of white spruce establishment through time, driven by changes in environmental conditions near the species' western range limit. Likewise, we found a positive relationship between periods of seedling establishment and GDD, suggesting that longer summers and/or greater heat accumulation might enhance establishment

  3. Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...

  4. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  5. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  6. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  7. USA klaaskatuste murdmise aeg / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimistel kandideeris esmakordselt afroameeriklane, presidendikandidaatide kampaanias osales naiskandidaat Hillary Clinton. Vt. samas: Obama isa kodukülas palvetati ja valmistuti suureks peoks

  8. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  9. Interpretation criteria in Western blot diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, S; McDonagh, S; Evans, R; Milner, R M; Chatterton, J M W; Ho-Yen, D O

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews the Lyme borreliosis Western blot interpretation process, including what bands are classed as specific, the number of bands needed for a positive result, the role of band intensity and the use of clinical information. In 2008, 3688 patients (4223 serum samples) were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), with 832 patients tested by confirmatory in-house IgG Western blot: 272 patients were Western blot-positive, 170 were weak positive, 156 were equivocal and 234 were negative. These results were assessed, and a review of interpretation criteria from both the USA and Europe was carried out. New interpretation criteria and a testing algorithm were developed. The revised criteria changed the results in 109/3688 (3%) patients and produced significantly more Western blot-positive and weak-positive patients than with the current criteria (485 vs. 442, P blot interpretation and improved the sensitivity and robustness of their Western blot method. Using a protocol tailored to patients that incorporates clinical characteristics means that the entire process will be easier and will aid the management of patients.

  10. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    that industrial Western military culture negatively influenced the ability to wage .... revolution occurred when Western troops started to pay attention to local support for ... The fourth principle is the priority of the fight against the insurgents'.

  11. Metagenomic survey for viruses in Western Arctic caribou, Alaska, through iterative assembly of taxonomic units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita C Schürch

    Full Text Available Pathogen surveillance in animals does not provide a sufficient level of vigilance because it is generally confined to surveillance of pathogens with known economic impact in domestic animals and practically nonexistent in wildlife species. As most (re-emerging viral infections originate from animal sources, it is important to obtain insight into viral pathogens present in the wildlife reservoir from a public health perspective. When monitoring living, free-ranging wildlife for viruses, sample collection can be challenging and availability of nucleic acids isolated from samples is often limited. The development of viral metagenomics platforms allows a more comprehensive inventory of viruses present in wildlife. We report a metagenomic viral survey of the Western Arctic herd of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti in Alaska, USA. The presence of mammalian viruses in eye and nose swabs of 39 free-ranging caribou was investigated by random amplification combined with a metagenomic analysis approach that applied exhaustive iterative assembly of sequencing results to define taxonomic units of each metagenome. Through homology search methods we identified the presence of several mammalian viruses, including different papillomaviruses, a novel parvovirus, polyomavirus, and a virus that potentially represents a member of a novel genus in the family Coronaviridae.

  12. USA raport hoiatab tuumaterroristide eest / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tegutseva tuumaterrori vastase organisatsiooni Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) raport kinnitab maailma edusamme tuumamaterjali turvalisuses, kuid on ka palju ohuallikaid. Analüütikud kahtlevad Venemaa ja Pakistani armee usaldusväärsuses tuumamaterjali hoidmisel. Lisa: Tuumaterrori raport

  13. USA laenukriis peegeldub Põhjalas / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    USA-s süvenev kinnisvaralaenukriis avaldab mõju ka tunduvalt riskantsematele Põhjamaade kinnisvaraturgudele. Siiski on Põhjalas kõrge riskiga hüpoteeklaenude osa võrreldes ülejäänud laenudega äärmiselt väike. Lisa: Kõige haavatavamad kinnisvaraturud; Mõjud mujal maailmas. Vt. samas: Põhjamaade börsid USAga samas taktis

  14. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  15. USA tankid jõudsid Tapale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Tapale saabus poolsada USA sõjamasinat, nende seas neli tanki Abrams M1A2 ja 15 jalaväe lahingumasinat Bradley. Tehnikat hakkab kasutama USA maaväe 4. jalaväediviisi 68. soomusrügemendi esimese pataljoni C-kompanii

  16. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  17. Teadlased : USA liitub Kyoto protokolliga / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA ja Austraalia on ainsad riigid, mis pole Kyoto protokollile alla kirjutanud. Princetoni ülikooli professori Michael Oppenheimeri arvates võib USA president George W. Bush oma seisukohti keskkonnaküsimustes muuta, sest teiseks ametiajaks valitud presidendid ei pea mõtlema uuele kampaaniale ning püüavad enne Valgest Majast lahkumist oma mainet maailma silmis parandada

  18. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  19. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    private indoor shooting range in greater Johannesburg. Blood lead levels were determined using a LeadCare II (Magellan Diagnostics,. USA) portable testing system, with a 50 μL aliquot of whole blood obtained from a finger prick following the thorough washing of hands with soap and water. Ethical approval for this work, ...

  20. Ideaalne torm USA majanduses / Ken Goldstein ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Ken

    2008-01-01

    USA majandusuuringute organisatsiooni The Conference Board analüütik USA majanduse olukorrast, mõjust maailmamajandusele, arenguvõimalustest ning uue presidendi vajalikest sammudest majanduses. Lisa: Enamuse arvates on USA valel teel

  1. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1958.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1958-01-01

    In terms of general weather, the 1958 fire season will be classed as one of the hottest on record and as having unusually frequent spring and summer lightning storms. It was also unusual in that spring and most of the summer were less rainy in western Washington than in normally dry southwestern Oregon. Thus, until late August, cumulative fire-season rainfall ranged...

  2. Breeding biology and behavior of Hammond's and western flycatchers in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.F. Sakai

    1988-01-01

    The Hammond's (Empidonax hammondii) and Western (E. difficilis) flycatchers are sympatric within portions of their breeding ranges in north- western California. Westerns are common in a variety of habitats (Bent 1942:247, Johnson 1980:11-23); Hammond's are more abundant at higher elevations (Bent 1942:226, Johnson...

  3. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to R. pomonella flies from the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonel...

  4. Parallelisms and Contrasts in the Diverse Ecologies of the Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi Complexes of Bacteria in the Far Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Stephenson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and experimental studies to have different host tropisms. In this review we compare the known ecologies of these two bacterial complexes in the far western USA and find remarkable similarities, which will help us understand evolutionary histories and coadaptation among vertebrate host, tick vector, and bacteria. For both complexes, sensu stricto genospecies (those that infect humans share a similar geographic range, are vectored mainly by ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-complex, utilize mainly white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus as a reservoir in the eastern USA and tree squirrels in the far west, and tend to be generalists, infecting a wider variety of vertebrate host species. Other sensu lato genospecies within each complex are generally more specialized, occurring often in local enzootic cycles within a narrow range of vertebrate hosts and specialized vector species. We suggest that these similar ecologies may have arisen through utilization of a generalist tick species as a vector, resulting in a potentially more virulent generalist pathogen that spills over into humans, vs. utilization of a specialized tick vector on a particular vertebrate host species, promoting microbe specialization. Such tight host-vector-pathogen coupling could also facilitate high enzootic prevalence and the evolution of host immune-tolerance and bacterial avirulence.

  5. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  6. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  7. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  8. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  9. Acute Kidney Injury in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Josée; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2016-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs. The global picture of AKI in LMICs is not as well characterized as in the USA and Europe. In addition, in some LMICs, the epidemiology of AKI may vary depending on the region and socioeconomic status, which contributes to the difficulty of getting a better portrait of the clinical condition. In low-income regions and tropical countries, AKI is frequently attributed to diarrhea, infections, nephrotoxins, as well as obstetric complications. As opposed to the situation in high-income countries, access to basic care in LMICs is limited by economic constraints, and treatment is often delayed due to late presentation and recognition of the condition, which contribute to worse outcomes. In addition, dialysis is often not available or must be paid by patients, which further restricts its use. There are great disparities in the epidemiology of AKI between Western high-income countries and Western LMICs. In LMICs, education and training programs should increase the public awareness of AKI and improve preventive and basic treatments to improve AKI outcomes. (1) More than 90% of the patients recruited in AKI studies using KDIGO-equivalent criteria originate from North America, Europe, or Oceania, although these regions represent less than a fifth of the global population. However, the pooled incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients reaches 20% globally with moderate variance between regions. (2

  10. Sediment discharges during storm flow from proximal urban and rural karst springs, central Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T.M.; Todd, McFarland J.; Fryar, A.E.; Fogle, A.W.; Taraba, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, various studies have addressed the timing of sediment transport to karst springs during storm flow or the composition and provenance of sediment discharged from springs. However, relatively few studies have focused on the flow thresholds at which sediment is mobilized or total sediment yields across various time scales. We examined each of these topics for a mainly urban spring (Blue Hole) and a rural spring (SP-2) in the Inner Bluegrass region of central Kentucky (USA). Suspended sediment consisted mostly of quartz silt and sand, with lesser amounts of calcite and organic matter. Total suspended sediment (TSS) values measured during storm flow were greater at SP-2 than at Blue Hole. By aggregating data from four storms during 2 years, we found that median suspended-sediment size jumped as Q exceeded ???0.5 m3/s for both springs. At Blue Hole, TSS tended to vary with Q and capacity approached 1 g/L, but no systematic relationship between TSS and Q was evident at SP-2. Sediment fluxes from the Blue Hole basin were ???2 orders of magnitude greater for storms in March (2002 and 2004) than September (2002 and 2003). In contrast, sediment fluxes from the SP-2 basin were of similar magnitude in September 2003 and March 2004. The overall range of area-normalized fluxes for both springs, 9.16 ?? 10-3-4.45 ?? 102 kg/(ha h), overlaps values reported for farm plots and a stream in the Inner Bluegrass region and for other spring basins in the eastern USA and western Europe. Sediment compositions, sizes, and responses to storms in the basins may differ because of land use (e.g., the extent of impervious cover in the Blue Hole basin), basin size (larger for Blue Hole), conduit architecture, which appears to be more complex in the Blue Hole basin, and the impoundment of SP-2, which may have promoted decadal-scale storage of sediment upgradient. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. USA faces the energy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Carmoy, G.

    1978-03-01

    Energy, which U.S. technology has mastered in all its forms, and which the U.S. produces and consumes in unequalled amounts, could become the Achille's heel of U.S. power, according to the author. Since this assertion might come as a surprise, the purpose of this article is to illustrate it by considering the domestic and international factors involved in the U.S. energy problem. Mr. de Carmoy further states: (1) the increasing proportion of U.S. energy that has to be imported has ensured dependence on the Middle East for at least a generation; (2) the relative wastefulness of the American consumer and the failure to implement coherent policies towards conservation and the development of alternative sources can only prolong this dependence; and (3) together with the historical and military ties to Israel, this will limit the freedom of action of the U.S. compared with the USSR. To assess the relationship of U.S. power with energy constraint, the balance between the needs and the resources of the USA are examined, policies applied since the U.S. became a net energy importer are then analyzed, and the U.S. position in the global energy geostrategy is considered. (MCW)

  12. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  13. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  14. Higher utilization of the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies in patients with chronic low back pain in a developing country than in the USA: Treatment of chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is a highly subjective experience and different studies have shown that the perception of the pain intensity depends on multiple factors, such as: gender, race, age, eye or hair color, socio-economic status, education, as well as psychological status of the person, etc. Despite those determinants there is an discrepancy in pain treating approach between the USA and the European countries. Low back pain has become a major socio-economic problem in the USA, with 70-85% of people in the North America being affected throughout their lifes compared with the average prevalence of back pain In Western Europe as 15%. Overall, NSAIDs are the most commonly prescribed medication for low back pain worldwide, however with liberalization of the law in the USA within past 20 years, and with the promotion of opioids as highly effective and safe treatment, they are getting prescribed widely and readily for different chronic pain conditions including chronic low back pain. Low back pain has become a major socio-economic problem in the USA, and Western Europe. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the utilization of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain in developing countries. Methods: After approval of the ethics committee Medical School University of Belgrade we enrolled 185 patients. Any patients who were > 18 years, diagnosed with chronic low back pain and did not have a history of malignancy are included in the study. All of them completed the study. Results: Patients were between 21 and 91 years old (average age 61.2 ± 14.7, 43.5% of them were males and 56.5% females. The pain duration for these patients ranged from 2 months up to 20 years. Average VAS pain scores in rest 4.7 ± 2.3 and in movement 5.2 ± 2.1. All of these patients exploited different types of non-pharmacological treatments for their painful condition. The average improvements after these treatments were: physical

  15. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  16. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted.

  17. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  18. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  19. Endise USA vastuluuraja naasmine / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    USA poliitikateaduste professorist Christopher L. Kukest, kes käesoleval õppeaastal töötab Fulbright Scholar programmi stipendiaadina Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisa: CV. Kommenteerib Tartu Ülikooli riigiteaduste instituudi doktorant Mihkel Solvak

  20. Gridded bathymetry of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (10m) of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA. The data include multibeam bathymetry from the EM120, EM122, EM710, EM1020, and EM1002 multibeam sonar...

  1. Seasonal frost depths, midwestern USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes frost tube data from 37 stations in the Upper Midwest (Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin), USA. The responsible agency was the St. Paul...

  2. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  3. USA tantsupress soovitab: Tiit Helimets! / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti balletitantsijast Tiit Helimetsast, kes töötab alates 2005. aastast San Francisko balleti juhtsolistina. Lisatud nimekiri eesti tantsijatest välistruppides. USA tantsuajakirjas "Dance Magazine" ilmunud artiklist "25, keda vaadata"

  4. LHV soovib USA-s kohtuvälist kokkulepet / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Kohtuväline kokkulepe LHV ja USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutuse SEC vahel tähendaks külmutatud väärtpaberikontode avamist, ent tõenäoliselt ka seda, et LHV peab maksma trahvi. Kohtuistungil USA-s esindavad LHV töötajaid Kristjan Lepikut ja Oliver Peeki advokaadid. Lisa: Teisedki on "sundpuhkusel"

  5. USA Aviation Digest Index, 1989. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    project number(s), task NASA - Leave blank. number(s), and work unit number(s). Use the NTIS - Leave blank. following labels: C - Contract PR - Project ...representative for operator’s manuals changes. USA Aviation Digest; Jun 1989: p. 34-35. NARRP SEE HELMET ASSEMBLY REFUELING REARMING PERSONNEL ( HARRP ...PERSONNEL ( HARRP ) New helmet for rearming refueling personnel. USA Aviation Digest; Sept-Oct 1989: p. 46-48. 20 HELMETS ,eLmets: From Roman chariots to

  6. The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, N.S.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Parrish, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960’s and ’70’s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7 – 2.1 μg g-1, with a weighted geometric mea...

  7. [Hepatitis C virus genotypes in a province of western Black-Sea region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Elif; Ogedey, Esra Deniz; Külah, Canan; Beğendik Cömert, Füsun

    2010-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the significant causes of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma all throughout the world. There are six genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV. HCV genotyping is of crucial importance in the determination of the treatment protocols and the follow-up of the clinical course since treatment success is low and the duration of treatment is longer in HCV genotype 1 infected cases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HCV genotype profiles of the patients with chronic hepatitis C in Zonguldak, providing the first data about HCV genotypes from western Black-Sea region, Turkey. The HCV genotypes of 44 patients (26 female, 18 male; age range: 29-89 years, mean age: 60.05 ± 10.81 years) with positive anti-HCV antibody and HCV-RNA results, admitted to the hospital between May 2007 and July 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and included in the study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of the patients were between 8-160 IU/L (mean 63.99 ± 37.15 IU/L) and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were between 17-160 IU/L (mean 62.77 ± 36.75 IU/L). HCV antibody was determined by ELISA method (Abbott Laboratories, USA), and HCV-RNA was determined by two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction systems [Cobas Taqman (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and Rotor-Gene 6000 (Corbett Research, USA)]. The genotyping was performed by a reverse hybridization based method, Versant® HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) 2.0 (Bayer Health Care, Belgium). HCV genotypes could not be determined for 5 (11.4%) patients since HCV-RNA levels were low. Genotyping could be performed for 39 (88.6%) patients and 38 (97.4%) had genotype 1b and one (2.6%) patient had genotype 1a. In conclusion, in concordance with the other studies conducted in our country, genotype 1b was found to be the most prevalent genotype in patients from our region.

  8. A review of logistic regression models used to predict post-fire tree mortality of western North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Woolley; David C. Shaw; Lisa M. Ganio; Stephen. Fitzgerald

    2012-01-01

    Logistic regression models used to predict tree mortality are critical to post-fire management, planning prescribed bums and understanding disturbance ecology. We review literature concerning post-fire mortality prediction using logistic regression models for coniferous tree species in the western USA. We include synthesis and review of: methods to develop, evaluate...

  9. Eastward Expansion of Western Learning: A Study of Westernisation of China's Modern Education by Chinese Government Overseas-Study Scholarships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ren-Jie Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to trace back the history of how Chinese Government attempted to strengthen its national power by learning from the USA, Western Europe and Japan since the mid-nineteenth century, as well as to analyse the influences Westernisation had on the development of China's modern education. In this process, the Chinese Government…

  10. Archeomagnetism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data

  11. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  12. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  13. The fastest Western in town: a contemporary twist on the classic Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jillian M; McMahon, Martin

    2014-02-05

    The Western blot techniques that were originally established in the late 1970s are still actively utilized today. However, this traditional method of Western blotting has several drawbacks that include low quality resolution, spurious bands, decreased sensitivity, and poor protein integrity. Recent advances have drastically improved numerous aspects of the standard Western blot protocol to produce higher qualitative and quantitative data. The Bis-Tris gel system, an alternative to the conventional Laemmli system, generates better protein separation and resolution, maintains protein integrity, and reduces electrophoresis to a 35 min run time. Moreover, the iBlot dry blotting system, dramatically improves the efficacy and speed of protein transfer to the membrane in 7 min, which is in contrast to the traditional protein transfer methods that are often more inefficient with lengthy transfer times. In combination with these highly innovative modifications, protein detection using infrared fluorescent imaging results in higher-quality, more accurate and consistent data compared to the standard Western blotting technique of chemiluminescence. This technology can simultaneously detect two different antigens on the same membrane by utilizing two-color near-infrared dyes that are visualized in different fluorescent channels. Furthermore, the linearity and broad dynamic range of fluorescent imaging allows for the precise quantification of both strong and weak protein bands. Thus, this protocol describes the key improvements to the classic Western blotting method, in which these advancements significantly increase the quality of data while greatly reducing the performance time of this experiment.

  14. USA tahab Iraagilt täispuutumatust / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraagi läbirääkimised USA vägede staatuse üle venivad, USA soovib oma sõduritele täielikku immuniteeti. Iraak olevat nõus nende USA üksuste immuniteediga, kes on sõjalistes rajatistes või missioonil, milles on varem kokku lepitud

  15. USA võtab hoogu maha / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2010-01-01

    Pärast riiklike soodustuste lõppu koduostjatele on USA-s vähenenud kinnisvara soetamine, jaemüüjate käive langes juunis võrreldes maiga 0,5%. USA keskpanga presidendi Ben Bernanke hinnangul on USA majandus ebatavaliselt ebamäärane

  16. USA suursaadik : hirmud on alistanud lootuse / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Eestist lahkuv USA suursaadik Joseph de Thomas andis USA iseseisvuspäeva kõnes hinnangu Eesti toetusele Iraagis ja USA Iraagi-poliitikale. Parlamendiliige Eiki Berg USA suursaadiku kõnest. Vt. ka: Suursaadiku sõnum lk. 10

  17. Quo vadis, USA dollar? : finantsturgude viimastest arengutest / Robert Liljequist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liljequist, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Swedbank AB Soome strateegiajuht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA majandust alanud aastal, dollari n.-ö turvalise valuuta staatuse kaotamise ohtu, võlakirjade ostmise vähendamist ja selle mõju USA dollarile, Euroopa Keskpanga poliitika mõju euro ja USA dollari suhtele. Swebanki prognoos USA dollari kohta

  18. Lahingustress ajab USA sõdurid jooma / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 15. märts 2007, lk. 10. USA kaitseministeeriumi siseuurimuse kohaselt kasvas alkoholi kuritarvitamine tegevteenistuses olevate USA sõjaväelaste seas aastatel 2002-2005 enam kui 30%. Alkoholi ja uimastite tarvitamisest Iraagis ja Afganistanis teenivate USA sõdurite hulgas. Vt. samas: USA relvajõududes puhkes uus homoskandaal

  19. Epigene and Hypogene Gypsum Karst Manifestations of the Castile Formation: Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Kevin W.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Permian evaporites of the Castile Formation crop out over ~1,800 km2 in the western Delaware Basin (Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA with abundant and diverse karst manifestations. Epigene karst occurs as well-developed karren on exposed bedrock, while sinkholes dominate the erosional landscape, including both solutional and collapse forms. Sinkhole analyses suggest that more than half of all sinks are the result of upward stoping of subsurface voids, while many solutional sinks are commonly the result of overprinting of collapsed forms. Epigene caves are laterally limited with rapid aperture decreases away from insurgence, with passages developed along fractures and anticline fold axes. Hypogene karst occurs as diverse manifestations, forming the deepest and longest caves within the region as well as abundant zones of brecciation. Hypogene caves exhibit a wide range of morphologies from complex maze and anastomotic patterns to simple, steeply dipping patterns, but all hypogene caves exhibit morphologic features (i.e. risers, outlet cupolas and half-tubes that provide a definitive suite of evidence of dissolution within a mixed convection (forced and free convection hydrologic system. Extensive blanket breccias, abundant breccia pipes and numerous occurrences of calcitized evaporites indicate widespread hypogene speleogenesis throughout the entire Castile Formation. Although most cave and karst development within the Castile outcrop region appears to have hypogene origins, epigene processes areactively overprinting features, creating a complex speleogenetic evolution within the Castile Formation.

  20. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  1. Opportunities and obstacles for rangeland conservation in San Diego County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Farley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working landscapes such as rangelands are increasingly recognized as having high conservation value, providing a variety of ecosystem services, including food, fiber, habitat, recreation, open space, carbon storage, and water, in addition to a broad range of social benefits. However, conversion of rangelands to other land uses has been prevalent throughout the western United States, leading to greater attention in the conservation community to the importance of collaborating with private landowners. The level of interest in collaborative conservation among private landowners and the types of conservation programs they choose to participate in depend on the social, economic, and environmental context. We used GIS analysis and interviews with ranchers to evaluate rangeland conversion and participation in conservation programs among ranchers in San Diego County, California, USA, which is part of a biodiversity hotspot with high plant species richness and a large number of endemic and rare species. We found that > 25% of rangelands were converted to other uses, primarily urbanization, over the past 25 years while the area of public rangeland increased by 9%. Interviews revealed that ranchers in San Diego County have had limited involvement with most conservation programs, and a critical factor for nonparticipation was providing programs access to private land, along with other issues related to trust and social values. Among ranchers who had participated in conservation programs, the payment level and the agency or organization administering the program were key factors. Our results provide insight into factors influencing whether and when ranchers are likely to participate in conservation initiatives and illustrate that private and public land conservation are strongly linked and would be more effective if the two strategies were better integrated.

  2. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  3. On the identity of the adventive species of Eufriesea Cockerell in the USA: systematics and potential distribution of the coerulescens species group (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2010, two male specimens of the neotropical orchid bee genus Eufriesea Cockerell were collected in the Guadalupe Mountains of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico, USA. We tentatively identified them as E. coerulescens (Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau) because of the uncertainty su...

  4. The density management and riparian buffer study: a large-scale silviculture experiment informing riparian management in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Nathan J. Poage

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) in the early 1990s signaled a new paradigm for management of 9.9 million ha of federal forest lands in western Washington and Oregon, USA. The emphasis shifted from commodity timber production to ensuring sustained ecological functioning to meet a broad array of ecosystem services including economic benefits. Under interim...

  5. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  6. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  7. Hydrologic vulnerability of western US rangelands in the wake of woodland encroachment and increasing wildfire activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have dramatically increased their range in the past 150 years and currently occupy more than 30 million ha of the western US. Range expansion has primarily occurred through encroachment into sagebrush rangelands. Woodland expansion and infill on western rangelands have a...

  8. Persistence of black-tailed prairie-dog populations affected by plague in northern Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Pepin, Kim M; Savage, Lisa T; Antolini, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    The spatial distribution of prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in North America has changed from large, contiguous populations to small, isolated colonies in metapopulations. One factor responsible for this drastic change in prairie-dog population structure is plague (caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis). We fit stochastic patch occupancy models to 20 years of prairie-dog colony occupancy data from two discrete metapopulations (west and east) in the Pawnee National Grassland in Colorado, USA, that differ in connectivity among suitable habitat patches. We conducted model selection between two hypothesized modes of plague movement: independent of prairie-dog dispersal (colony-area) vs. plague movement consistent with prairie-dog dispersal (connectivity to extinct colonies). The best model, which fit the data well (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.94 west area; 0.79 east area), revealed that over time the proportion of extant colonies was better explained by colony size than by connectivity to extinct (plagued) colonies. The idea that prairie dogs are not likely to be the main vector that spreads Y. pestis across the landscape is supported by the observation that colony extinctions are primarily caused by plague, prairie-dog dispersal is short range, and connectivity to extinct colonies was not selected as a factor in the models. We also conducted simulations with the best model to examine long-term patterns of colony occupancy and persistence of prairie-dog metapopulations. In the case where the metapopulations persist, our model predicted that the western metapopulation would have a colony occupancy rate approximately 2.5 times higher than that of the eastern metapopulation (-50% occupied colonies vs. 20%) in 50 years, but that the western metapopulation has -80% chance of extinction in 100 years while the eastern metapopulation has a less than 25% chance. Extinction probability of individual colonies depended on the frequency with which colonies of the

  9. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  10. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  11. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  12. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  13. The Image of Russia on the Western Screen: the Present Stage (1992–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article included the analysis of evolution Russian image representation on the Western (USA, UK, Germany, Canada, France, Italy screen – of the period of post-communist modern times (1992-2013: ideological and social trends, myths, stereotypes, illusions, classification of the contents’ models and modifications of genres. The main conclusion: the image of Russia in the majority of the Western fiction films of 1992–2013 is still treated as an image of something, “alien”, “different”, often hostile

  14. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  15. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  16. Western Forests and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    United States Environmental Protection Agency

    1992-01-01

    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.

  17. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  18. Long-term population demography of Trillium recurvatum on loess bluffs in western Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E.; Franklin, Scott B.; Wein, Gary; Collins, Beverly S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Understanding the demography of long-lived clonal herbs, with their extreme modularity, requires knowledge of both their short- and long-term survival and ramet growth patterns. The primary objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of a clonal forest herb, Trillium recurvatum, by examining temporal and small-scale demographic patterns. We hypothesized: (i) there would be more variability in the juvenile age class compared with non-flowering adult and flowering adult classes due to year-to-year fluctuations in recruitment; (ii) rates of population growth (λ) and increase (r) would be highest in non-flowering ramets due to a combination of transitions from the juvenile stage and reversions from flowering adults; and (iii) inter-ramet distances would be most variable between flowering and juvenile ramets due to a combination of clonal growth, seed dispersal by ants and ramet death over time. Methodology Census data were collected on the total number of stems in the population from 1990 to 2007, and placed within one of three life stages (juvenile, three-leaf non-flowering and three-leaf flowering). Modified population viability equations were used to assess temporal population viability, and spatial structure was assessed using block krigging. Correlations were performed using current and prior season weather to current population demography. Principal results The first hypothesis was rejected. The second hypothesis was supported: population increase (r) and growth rate (λ) were highest in non-flowering ramets. Finally, the third hypothesis was rejected: there was no apparent density dependence within this population of Trillium and no apparent spatial structure among life stages. Conclusions Overall population density fluctuated over time, possibly due to storms that move soil, and prior year's temperature and precipitation. However, density remained at some dynamic stable level. The juvenile age class had greater variability for the duration of this study and population growth rate was greatest for non-flowering ramets. PMID:22616024

  19. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington Forests, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Linda H; Jovan, Sarah E; Glavich, Doug A; Porter, Matthew K

    2010-07-01

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry, and total N deposition from the Communities Multi-Scale Air Quality model, and 3) ambient particulate N from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Sensitive species declines of 20-40% were associated with CLs of 1-4 and 3-9 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) in wet and total deposition. CLs increased with precipitation across the landscape, presumably from dilution or leaching of depositional N. Tight linear correlation between lichen and IMPROVE data suggests a simple screening tool for CL exceedance in US Class I areas. The total N model replicated several US and European lichen CLs and may therefore be helpful in estimating other temperate-forest lichen CLs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic significance of freshwater bivalves in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Western Interior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Steven C.

    2004-05-01

    Freshwater unionid bivalves are spatially and temporally distributed throughout the Morrison depositional basin, and locally dominate the biomass of many aquatic depositional environments. Two bivalve assemblages are identified. Within-channel assemblages are death assemblages that have been transported and may represent mixed assemblages from multiple communities. These assemblages are predominately disarticulated, in current stable orientations, and composed of higher stream velocity ecophenotypes (medium size, lanceolate form, and very thick shells). The floodplain-pond assemblages are disturbed neighborhood assemblages in the mudstones inhabited during life. The bivalves are predominately articulated, variable in size, and composed of low stream velocity ecophenotypes (large maximum sizes, ovate shell shapes, and thinner shells). The glochidial parasitic larval stage of unionid bivalves provides an effective means of dispersing species throughout drainage basins. These larvae attach to fish and are carried through the fluvial drainage where the larvae detach and establish new bivalve communities. Preliminary paleobiogeographic analyses are drawn at the genus level because of the need to reevaluate bivalve species of the Morrison. Unio spp. and Vetulonaia spp. are widespread throughout the Morrison depositional basin, but Hadrodon spp. are restricted to the eastern portion of the Colorado Plateau during Salt Wash Member deposition, suggesting that Salt Wash drainage was isolated from other contemporaneous regions of the basin. Bivalves from five localities in the Morrison Formation were thin-sectioned for growth band analysis. Growth bands of modern unionid bivalves are produced when the valves are forced to close. Closure can produce annual growth bands in response to seasonal variation, such as temperature-induced hibernation, or precipitation-induced aestivation or turbidity. Pseudoannual growth bands form from non-cyclical events such as predation attacks or isolated storm turbidity. Vetulonaia sp. from the Tidwell Member, Green River, Utah, and from Tidwell-equivalent beds at Como Bluff, Wyoming, exhibits continuous growth with no annual banding, suggesting that seasonality of climate and discharge did not vary appreciable during the year. Hadrodon sp. from the Salt Wash Member in Colorado National Monument, Colorado, exhibits annual banding with subequal light and dark bands indicating seasonal cyclicity. Vetulonaia sp. from the Cleveland-Lloyd locality, Utah, exhibits complex banding that indicates a combination of annual and pseudoannual bands. This suggests seasonal cyclicity and intermittent periods of environmental stress (predation, storm-produced turbidity and/or volcanic ash falls). Specimens of Vetulonaia sp. from Dinosaur National Monument, Utah, are replaced by chert with faint ghosts of bands that are too poorly preserved for environmental interpretations. Preliminary growth band studies suggest a change from a uniform optimum habitat in the Tidwell Member to strongly developed annual growth banding in the Salt Wash Member, suggesting cyclic annual precipitation, and finally to irregular banding produced by a complex interaction of weakly developed annual growth bands and pseudoannual bands in the Brushy Basin Member.

  1. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Awareness among High School and College Students in Mid-Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafuvadze, Benford; Manguvo, Angellar; He, Jiaxin; Whitney, Stephen D.; Hyder, Salman M.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer and its subsequent treatment lead to better patient prognosis and survival rates. However, despite advanced screening and detection techniques, the disease all too frequently remains undetected until it has reached an advanced stage. Despite a number of means of disseminating breast cancer awareness, such as public…

  2. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda H. Geiser; Sarah E. Jovan; Doug A. Glavich; Matthew K. Porter

    2010-01-01

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry,...

  3. GPS constraints on shear accommodation in the northern Walker Lane, western Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, J. M.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C. W.; Blewitt, G.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2009-12-01

    The Walker Lane is a zone of active intracontinental transtension that accommodates approximately 10 mm/yr of right-lateral deformation, up to 20-25% of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Between Walker Lake and Lake Tahoe, the Walker Lane lacks optimally oriented strike-slip faults to accommodate northwest-directed dextral shear. In this region Quaternary deformation appears to be concentrated in a northwest-trending series of north-striking, normal fault-bounded basins. To address the question of how shear is transferred through this portion of the Walker Lane, we combine GPS data from the University of Nevada, Reno’s semi-continuous MAGNET GPS network with observations from EarthScope’s Plate Boundary Observatory to present a new velocity field for the Walker Lane with an average station spacing of 20 km. Measurements in MAGNET (http://geodesy.unr.edu/networks) began in January 2004 and now provide time series of up to 6 years for the longest running sites and >3 years for all sites. Together with recent improvements in GPS data processing models using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, this allows us to estimate rates with uncertainty well below 1 mm/yr. These recent improvements include the use of reprocessed GPS orbits from the IGS Analysis Center at JPL. Our GPS processing now includes satellite and station antenna calibrations, random-walk tropospheric zenith delay and gradients using the GMF mapping function, second-order ionospheric corrections, global-scale ambiguity resolution using our custom Ambizap software, and our custom Great Basin spatially-filtered reference frame. The velocity solution shows a smooth and continuous increase in shear across the Walker Lane in addition to NW-SE directed extension. We use a block model driven by GPS velocities to estimate the role that vertical axis rotation of fault-bounded blocks and slip on basin-bounding faults play in shear accommodation. The block model also allows us to incorporate published geologic fault slip rates and thus test the compatibility of the available geodetic and geologic datasets for the northern Walker Lane.

  4. Controls on porphyrin concentrations of Pennsylvanian organic-rich shales, Western U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J.L.; Michael, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Organic-rich black shales of Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) age occur over much of the central U.S. and as far west as the northern Denver and southeastern Powder River basins. Total organic carbon contents (Corg) are commonly greater than 10 wt %. Porphyrin concentrations (vanadyl + nickel) are as high as 40000 ppm relative to extractable bitumen. In bulk, the organic matter contained in the shales is mostly type II and III (Rock-Eval hydrogen indexes 200-400 mg of hydrocarbons/g of Corg). The finding of high porphyrin concentrations in type III organic matter is unusual but can be explained by a depositional model wherein high preservation of primary organic production (water column photosynthesis) is combined with substantial input of allochthonous organic matter. The allochthonous organic matter (low porphyrin concentration) may come from erosion during advance of the sea across the area or from fluvial transport from shore.

  5. Three-Dimensional Geothermal Fairway Mapping: Examples From the Western Great Basin, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, Drew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology; Faulds, James E. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    2013-09-29

    Elevated permeability along fault systems provides pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids. Accurate location of such fluid flow pathways in the subsurface is crucial to future geothermal development in order to both accurately assess resource potential and mitigate drilling costs by increasing drilling success rates. Employing a variety of surface and subsurface data sets, we present detailed 3D geologic analyses of two Great Basin geothermal systems, the actively producing Brady’s geothermal system and a ‘greenfield’ geothermal prospect at Astor Pass, Nevada. 3D modeling provides the framework for quantitative structural analyses. We combine 3D slip and dilation tendency analysis along fault zones and calculations of fault intersection density in the two geothermal systems with the locations of lithologies capable of supporting dense, interconnected fracture networks. The collocation of these permeability promoting characteristics with elevated heat represent geothermal ‘fairways’, areas with ideal conditions for geothermal fluid flow. Location of geothermal fairways at high resolution in 3D space can help to mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration by providing discrete drilling targets and data-based evaluations of reservoir potential.

  6. Late Albian dinosaur tracks from the cratonic (eastern) margin of the Western Interior Seaway, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R.M.; Cunningham, J.M.; Corner, R.G.; Brown, G.W.; Phillips, P.L.; Ludvigson, Greg A.

    2004-01-01

    At least 22 tridactyl dinosaur tracks, poorly preserved in various degrees of expression, have recently been found at an exposure in the Dakota Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Albian) in Jefferson County, Nebraska. These tracks generally have broad, blunt digits and a broad posterior margin. The largest of the tracks measures 57 cm in length and 58 cm in width. All of the tracks lie within a stratigraphic horizon of 40 cm or less, but they do not form a single trackway. We interpret the trackmakers to have been ornithopods. The Jefferson County tracks are in a well-cemented sandstone with oscillation ripples, at a stratigraphic level between two well-established sequence boundaries. Channel forms and lateral accretion units are common in the stratigraphic interval enclosing the tracks, and the site is interpreted as a bar or sand flat in a tidally influenced river. The Jefferson County tracks are only the second known occurrence of large Mesozoic tetrapod tracks east of the Rocky Mountain Front-High Plains Margin, including the Black Hills of South Dakota, west of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and north of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Further, this paper is the first documentation of in situ dinosaur fossils from the Nebraska-Iowa area. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

  7. How might selenium moderate the toxic effects of mercury in stream fish of the Western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of selenium (Se) to moderate mercury (Hg) toxicity is well established in the literature. Mercury exposures that might otherwise produce toxic effects are counteracted by Se, particularly when Se:Hg molar ratios approach or exceed 1. We analyzed whole body Se and Hg c...

  8. NPP Grassland: Central Plains Experimental Range (SGS), USA, 1939-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set records the productivity of a semiarid shortgrass prairie steppe located in the Central Plains Experimental Reserve (CPER)/Pawnee National Grassland in...

  9. Eruptive history of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Cascade Range, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    New investigations of the geology of Crater Lake National Park necessitate a reinterpretation of the eruptive history of Mount Mazama and of the formation of Crater Lake caldera. Mount Mazama consisted of a glaciated complex of overlapping shields and stratovolcanoes, each of which was probably active for a comparatively short interval. All the Mazama magmas apparently evolved within thermally and compositionally zoned crustal magma reservoirs, which reached their maximum volume and degree of differentiation in the climactic magma chamber ??? 7000 yr B.P. The history displayed in the caldera walls begins with construction of the andesitic Phantom Cone ??? 400,000 yr B.P. Subsequently, at least 6 major centers erupted combinations of mafic andesite, andesite, or dacite before initiation of the Wisconsin Glaciation ??? 75,000 yr B.P. Eruption of andesitic and dacitic lavas from 5 or more discrete centers, as well as an episode of dacitic pyroclastic activity, occurred until ??? 50,000 yr B.P.; by that time, intermediate lava had been erupted at several short-lived vents. Concurrently, and probably during much of the Pleistocene, basaltic to mafic andesitic monogenetic vents built cinder cones and erupted local lava flows low on the flanks of Mount Mazama. Basaltic magma from one of these vents, Forgotten Crater, intercepted the margin of the zoned intermediate to silicic magmatic system and caused eruption of commingled andesitic and dacitic lava along a radial trend sometime between ??? 22,000 and ??? 30,000 yr B.P. Dacitic deposits between 22,000 and 50,000 yr old appear to record emplacement of domes high on the south slope. A line of silicic domes that may be between 22,000 and 30,000 yr old, northeast of and radial to the caldera, and a single dome on the north wall were probably fed by the same developing magma chamber as the dacitic lavas of the Forgotten Crater complex. The dacitic Palisade flow on the northeast wall is ??? 25,000 yr old. These relatively silicic lavas commonly contain traces of hornblende and record early stages in the development of the climatic magma chamber. Some 15,000 to 40,000 yr were apparently needed for development of the climactic magma chamber, which had begun to leak rhyodacitic magma by 7015 ?? 45 yr B.P. Four rhyodacitic lava flows and associated tephras were emplaced from an arcuate array of vents north of the summit of Mount Mazama, during a period of ??? 200 yr before the climactic eruption. The climactic eruption began 6845 ?? 50 yr B.P. with voluminous airfall deposition from a high column, perhaps because ejection of ??? 4-12 km3 of magma to form the lava flows and tephras depressurized the top of the system to the point where vesiculation at depth could sustain a Plinian column. Ejecta of this phase issued from a single vent north of the main Mazama edifice but within the area in which the caldera later formed. The Wineglass Welded Tuff of Williams (1942) is the proximal featheredge of thicker ash-flow deposits downslope to the north, northeast, and east of Mount Mazama and was deposited during the single-vent phase, after collapse of the high column, by ash flows that followed topographic depressions. Approximately 30 km3 of rhyodacitic magma were expelled before collapse of the roof of the magma chamber and inception of caldera formation ended the single-vent phase. Ash flows of the ensuing ring-vent phase erupted from multiple vents as the caldera collapsed. These ash flows surmounted virtually all topographic barriers, caused significant erosion, and produced voluminous deposits zoned from rhyodacite to mafic andesite. The entire climactic eruption and caldera formation were over before the youngest rhyodacitic lava flow had cooled completely, because all the climactic deposits are cut by fumaroles that originated within the underlying lava, and part of the flow oozed down the caldera wall. A total of ??? 51-59 km3 of magma was ejected in the precursory and climactic eruptions,

  10. Diversity and movement of indoor Alternaria alternata across the mainland USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J H C; van der Merwe, N A; Jurjević, Ž; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-08-01

    Alternaria spp. from sect. Alternaria are frequently associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma and allergic fungal rhinitis and sinusitis. Since Alternaria is omnipresent in the outdoor environment, it is thought that the indoor spore concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor spore concentration. However, few studies have investigated indoor Alternaria isolates, or attempted a phylogeographic or population genetic approach to investigate their movement. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular diversity of indoor Alternaria isolates in the USA, and to test for recombination, using these approaches. Alternaria isolates collected throughout the USA were identified using ITS, gapdh and endoPG gene sequencing. This was followed by genotyping and population genetic inference of isolates belonging to Alternaria sect. Alternaria together with 37 reference isolates, using five microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that species of Alternaria sect. Alternaria represented 98% (153 isolates) of the indoor isolates collected throughout the USA, of which 137 isolates could be assigned to A. alternata, 15 to the A. arborescens species complex and a single isolate to A. burnsii. The remaining 2% (3 isolates) represented sect. Infectoriae (single isolate) and sect. Pseudoulocladium (2 isolates). Population assignment analyses of the 137 A. alternata isolates suggested that subpopulations did not exist within the sample. The A. alternata isolates were thus divided into four artificial subpopulations to represent four quadrants of the USA. Forty-four isolates representing the south-western quadrant displayed the highest level of uniqueness based on private alleles, while the highest level of gene flow was detected between the south-eastern (32 isolates) and south-western quadrants. Genotypic diversity was high for all quadrants, and a test for linkage disequilibrium suggested that A. alternata has a cryptic sexual

  11. Anemia in pregnancy in Western Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saidah Wright,1 Dominique Earland,1 Swati Sakhuja,1 Anna Junkins,1 Sarah Franklin,1 Luz Padilla,1 Maung Aung,2 Pauline E Jolly1 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Western Region Health Authority, Cornwall Regional Hospital, Ministry of Health, Montego Bay, Jamaica Background: Anemia is one of the most prevalent problems in pregnancy. In 2011, 29.9% of all pregnant women in Jamaica were diagnosed with anemia.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of anemia in pregnancy in Western Jamaica.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 mothers attending post-natal clinics in Western Jamaica. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers, and an abstraction form was used to collect clinical data from the mothers’ records.Results: The prevalence of anemia among the women was 37.6%. Younger mothers (aged 18–24 years were more likely to be anemic compared to those ≥35 years (odds ratio [OR]: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.07–11.06. Mothers who reported not always washing their hands after using the toilet were almost 10 times more likely to be anemic (OR: 9.7, 95% CI: 1.72–54.78 compared to those who reported always washing their hands. Mothers who attended a public facility for antenatal care were 2.3 times more likely to be anemic (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.03–5.18 compared to those who obtained care at a private facility, and mothers who reported being told that they were anemic by a health care provider (HCP were almost six times more likely to be anemic compared with those who were not told (OR: 5.58, 95% CI: 1.73–17.93.Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that early identification and treatment of anemia, especially among younger pregnant women, should be a priority. HCP should ensure that women understand the need to be cured of their anemia and to adhere to preventive hygienic practices. Keywords

  12. BENCHMARKING WESTERN BALKAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stošić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relative positions of Western Balkan countries and to determine the differences or similarities in the results based on survey data (of international institutions: EBRD, World Bank, World Economic Forum, Heritage Foundation, and on based on selected key statistical indicators. Using the sample of countries in same region and by applying the method of “multi-country” statistical analysis, it was attempted to establish relation between results obtained in studies of international institutions, and some actual achieved key economic performances by the first measure of correlation (so-called Spearman's coefficient of correlation. The obtained results differ to a smaller or greater extent according to the experiential test we used in the case of this region. Therefore, our findings reveal that overall economic position of selected country cannot be perceived only by relying on one methodology or type of data. Consequently, we point out that multi-criteria are a must and each methodology can be useful, because it emphasizes different aspects of the economic performances and country position.

  13. Moon - Western Near Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  14. Soil moisture dynamics and smoldering combustion limits of pocosin soils in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Reardon; Gary Curcio; Roberta Bartlette

    2009-01-01

    Smoldering combustion of wetland organic soils in the south-eastern USA is a serious management concern. Previous studies have reported smoldering was sensitive to a wide range of moisture contents, but studies of soil moisture dynamics and changing smoldering combustion potential in wetland communities are limited. Linking soil moisture measurements with estimates of...

  15. Modeling forest site productivity using mapped geospatial attributes within a South Carolina landscape, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.R. Parresol; D.A. Scott; S.J. Zarnoch; L.A. Edwards; J.I. Blake

    2017-01-01

    Spatially explicit mapping of forest productivity is important to assess many forest management alternatives. We assessed the relationship between mapped variables and site index of forests ranging from southern pine plantations to natural hardwoods on a 74,000-ha landscape in South Carolina, USA. Mapped features used in the analysis were soil association, land use...

  16. Burn severity of areas reburned by wildfires in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    We describe satellite-inferred burn severity patterns of areas that were burned and then reburned by wildland fire from 1984 to 2004 within the Gila Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico, USA. Thirteen fires have burned 27 000 hectares across multiple vegetation types at intervals between fires ranging from 3 yr to 14 yr. Burn severity of reburned areas showed...

  17. Movements of female white-tailed deer to bait sites in West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Christopher A. Landgon; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison of movements of adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in response to seasonal bait sites in the central Appalachians of West Virginia, USA. Our objectives were to compare bait-site use among seasons, evaluate home-range and core-area sizes between baiting and non-baiting periods.

  18. Age-dependent changes in ecosystem carbon fluxes in managed forests in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2007-01-01

    The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October 2002. Seasonal...

  19. Organic agricultural products in Europe and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodzka Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the most developed countries of Western Europe and North America, the share of organic farming in the food market is between 2% and 6%. The share of organic products on the Polish food market is only 0.33% (Dryjańska E. 2017. The aim of this article is to compare organic agricultural products in the US and EU. The scope of the comparison was covered by the legal regulations for organic production in the mentioned regions and the availability of organic products for customers. In order to highlight differences between the organic product and their traditional counterpart, selected meta-analyzes were conducted by authors in the field of medical and natural sciences. The possibilities of buying organic products are described on the basis of personal experiences of the author as a consumer. The offer of organic products was analyzed on the example of one European country (Poland and the example of several states of America (Colorado, Virginia, New York. The rules for producing organic food in the US are more rigorous than in the EU. The offer of organic and conventional food targeted to the American consumer is comparable. Although Polish consumers have a positive perception of organic food, its supply is significantly different from the US market. The main differences are in distribution channels, product range, price and visual design of organic products.

  20. The art of scab-vending : tattoo practices in Seattle, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, Ellen O.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is based on fieldwork conducted in Seattle, U.S.A., mainly amongst the buzz of electric needles and the smell of green soap in a selection of local tattoo shops. Tattooing and tattoos in modern day Seattle are created and enacted in a complex and contested matrix of motivations and interpretations that refer to the western tattoo's specific history as a mark of enforced or self-inscribed marginality, to other tattoo practices and discourses around the world, and to the relation bet...

  1. Mineralogical Composition and Potential Dust Source of Playas in the Western U.S. and Australia as Remotely Identified Through Imaging Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raming, L. W.; Farrand, W. H.; Bowen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Playas are significant dust sources and as a result are potentially hazardous to human health. The composition of the dust is a function of the mineralogical content of the playa and associated brines. Playas are found in arid climates globally, however they are challenging to map geologically as they are often hard to access, have subtle variations in mineralogy, and are topographically featureless. This study uses remote sensing in the form of imaging spectroscopy to map the mineralogical composition of five playas from different geologic settings: Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada, USA; Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, USA; White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA; Lake Brown, Western Australia, Australia; and Lake Tyrrell, Victoria, Australia.Multiple spectrometers were used for this study; these include the multispectral sensor ASTER, and the hyperspectral sensors AVIRIS, HICO, and HyMap. All scenes were processed in ENVI and corrected to at surface reflectance using FLAASH, QUAC or Empirical Line methods. Minerals were identified through a standard end-member extraction approach and mapped using multi-range spectral feature fitting and other methods. Additionally, remote data are combined with in-situ field-based spectra and sample-based laboratory spectra.Initial results suggest various and differing mineralogy between playas. The most abundant mineralogy includes clay minerals such as illite and montmorillonite and evaporites such as gypsum. Additionally there has been identification of Fe absorption bands in the visible / near infrared at White Sands National Monument, and Lake Brown and Lake Tyrell, suggesting the presence of iron bearing minerals. Further research will provide a more comprehensive list of minerals identified by absorption features as related to specific sensors. Collectively, these analyses will be used characterize overall patterns in playa surface mineralogy and to evaluate the parameters that influence playa dust source composition.

  2. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.

  3. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  4. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  5. Mick Gidley, Photography and the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Tsimpouki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mick Gidley’s Photography and the USA is premised on the conviction that there is “a symbiotic connection” between the medium of photography and the American nation, especially in the aftermath of the Second World War. Given that Photography and the USA belongs to a series of books under the general title Exposures designed to explore photography from thematic perspectives or in relation to significant nationalities (i.e. “photography and literature,” “photography and cinema,” “photography an...

  6. The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carrera-Bastos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Carrera-Bastos1, Maelan Fontes-Villalba1, James H O’Keefe2, Staffan Lindeberg1, Loren Cordain31Center for Primary Health Care Research, Faculty of Medicine at Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute/University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA; 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USAAbstract: It is increasingly recognized that certain fundamental changes in diet and lifestyle that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and especially after the Industrial Revolution and the Modern Age, are too recent, on an evolutionary time scale, for the human genome to have completely adapted. This mismatch between our ancient physiology and the western diet and lifestyle underlies many so-called diseases of civilization, including coronary heart disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, epithelial cell cancers, autoimmune disease, and osteoporosis, which are rare or virtually absent in hunter–gatherers and other non-westernized populations. It is therefore proposed that the adoption of diet and lifestyle that mimic the beneficial characteristics of the preagricultural environment is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of chronic degenerative diseases.Keywords: Paleolithic, hunter–gatherers, Agricultural Revolution, modern diet, western lifestyle and diseases

  7. Impact of westernization on fibroblast growth factor 23 levels among individuals of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckberg, Karl; Kramer, Holly; Wolf, Myles; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Tayo, Bamidele; Luke, Amy; Cooper, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Western diet is associated with high consumption of processed foods preserved with phosphate. Higher dietary phosphate consumption stimulates production of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which heightens risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. We hypothesized that adults living in a more westernized society have higher levels of FGF23 due to increased phosphate consumption as measured by urinary phosphate excretion. We measured plasma C-terminal FGF23 levels and urinary phosphate and creatinine levels in timed urine collections among 100 African adults living in the rural area of Igbo-Ora, Nigeria (52 women, 48 men), and 100 African Americans (32 women, 68 men) living in Maywood, IL, an urban suburb of Chicago, IL, USA. Among these 200 participants, urine collections were adequate in 76 and 68 of the Maywood and Igbo-Ora participants, respectively. In the total group, the mean age and body mass index, respectively, were 34.6 ± 8.2 years and 22.1 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in Igbo-Ora, and 42.8 ± 7.2 years and 25.8 ± 6.5 kg/m(2) in Maywood. Demographic characteristics for each site were very similar after excluding participants without adequate urine collections. Among all 200 participants, the median (interquartile range) FGF23 levels were significantly higher in Maywood versus Igbo-Ora [63.8 (45.0-89.9) versus 12.5 RU/mL (8.5-18.5); P 400 RU/mL or after excluding participants with inadequate urine collections. Among participants with adequate urine collections, the mean 24-h urinary phosphate excretion was significantly higher in Maywood versus Igbo-Ora (810.6 ± 309.0 versus 347.5 ± 153.1 mg; P < 0.001) and FGF23 levels correlated significantly with total urinary phosphate excretion (r = 0.62; P < 0.001) and urinary phosphate-to-creatinine ratios (r = 0.50; P < 0.001). Living in a more westernized society may be associated with greater net phosphate absorption, as reflected by higher urinary phosphate excretion, and higher FGF23 levels. © The Author 2014

  8. "Riia ring, "luurepost ja tööjaotus USA esindustest Baltikumis 1920. aastatel / Eero Medijainen""

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Medijainen, Eero, 1959-

    2012-01-01

    Diplomaatilisest taustast. USA esinduste rajamisest Baltikumi. Olukorrast USA saatkonnas 1922. aastal. USA sõjalisest vaatlejast "Balti provintsides" 1919-1922. Luurekeskusest ja Sergius Riisist. "Vene sektsiooni" formaliseeerumisest.

  9. Nineteenth Workshop Athens, GA, USA

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, S P; Schöttler, H B; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XIX

    2008-01-01

    This volume represents a "status report" emanating from presentations made during the 19th Annual Workshop on Computer Simulations Studies in Condensed Matter Physics at the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia in February, 2006. It provides a broad overview of the most recent advances in the field, spanning the range from equilibrium and non-equilibrium behavior in statistical physics to biological and soft condensed matter systems. Results on nanomagents and materials are included as are several descriptions of advances in methodology.

  10. Western Civ After the Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott

    1973-01-01

    Author considered Western Civilization in the light of present realities and stated his reasons for believing that the course is not suited to the needs of the greatest number of those students who take it. (Author/RK)

  11. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  12. Dietary intakes among South Asian adults differ by length of residence in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Kandula, Namratha R; Gadgil, Meghana D; Desai, Dipika; Kanaya, Alka M

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether nutrient and food intakes among South Asian adult immigrants differ by length of residence in the USA. Cross-sectional analysis to examine differences in nutrient and food intakes by length of residence in the USA. Dietary data were collected using an interviewer-administered, culturally appropriate FFQ, while self-reported length of residence was assessed using a questionnaire and modelled as tertiles. The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. Eight hundred and seventy-four South Asians (mean age=55 (sd 9) years; 47 % women; range of length of residence in the USA=2-58 years), part of the baseline examination of the MASALA study. Intakes of fat, including saturated and trans fats, dietary cholesterol and n-6 fatty acids, were directly associated with length of residence, while intakes of energy, carbohydrate, glycaemic index and load, protein, dietary fibre, folate and K were inversely associated with length of residence (P trend USA was also associated with higher intakes of alcoholic beverages, mixed dishes including pizza and pasta, fats and oils, and lower intakes of beans and lentils, breads, grains and flour products, milk and dairy products, rice, starchy vegetables and sugar, candy and jam (P for differences across groups USA influences diet and nutrient intakes among South Asian adult immigrants and should be considered when investigating and planning dietary interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk.

  13. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddow, Andrew D., E-mail: adhaddow@gmail.com [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Haddow, Alastair D. [Mercy Clinic, 2115 S. Fremont, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV.

  14. USA juhitav Iraagi koalitsioon mureneb / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2007-01-01

    Suurbritannia teatas vägede järkjärgulisest äratoomisest Iraagist. Oma sõdurite äratoomist plaanivad ka Taani ja taanlaste alluvuses tegutsev Leedu. Peale USA kavatseb vaid Austraalia vajaduse korral Iraaki sõdureid juurde saata. Kommenteerib Stanley Sloan. Lisa: Kohal ja lahkunud

  15. RadTown USA Neighborhoods | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Learn about radiation sources and uses in the interactive, virtual community of RadTown USA! Explore radiation sources and uses in homes and schools, medical buildings and laboratories and outdoors. You will also find information about coal-fired power plants and nuclear power plants, power lines and learn about responding to radiation emergencies.

  16. Cultural-Based Development in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubadji, A.; Osoba, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between culture and regional development in USA counties by explicitly including an arts variable in an attitudes-driven culture-based development (CBD) production function. The main aims of the research are (1) to revisit the standard CBD model in order to examine

  17. Gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA. The netCDF grid and ArcGIS ASCII file include multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM3002d, and...

  18. GasRail USA. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, David [Southwest Research Inst. (SwRI), San Antonio, TX (United States); Hedrick, John [Southwest Research Inst. (SwRI), San Antonio, TX (United States); Bourn, Gary [Southwest Research Inst. (SwRI), San Antonio, TX (United States); Kubesh, John [Southwest Research Inst. (SwRI), San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2000-07-13

    Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) began a cooperative research program (GasRail USA) aimed at demonstrating the environmental and economic benefits of using natural gas as a locomotive fuel in California and other parts of the United States in September 1993. Reduced exhaust emissions were the primary focus of this program.

  19. The USA: Challenges of the Superpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ketevan Rostiashvili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the collapse of the Soviet Union function and mission of the United States in the contemporary world system is one of the most debatable problems of academic litera-ture. This article is an attempt to analyze most recent socioeconomic and political tendencies of the USA for better understanding the scale of ongoing transformation of the society. As the level of integration of contemporary world is very high, transfor-mation of the USA provokes tectonic changes and transformation of the world system, its structure and nature. This study argues that, although the US primacy in the world is significantly challenged and shaken by external and internal factors, the USA still preserves its traditional function of economic, financial, military and political superpow-er, but in a quite different environment. The article predominantly uses materials drawn from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, The World Fact book 2012; U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the USA - 2012, the US Federal Budgets 2010-2012, and other valuable literature and sources.

  20. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Meningitis and Myelitis, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammoud, Roukaya; Nayes, Stacy L; Murphy, James R; Heresi, Gloria P; Butler, Ian J; Pérez, Norma

    2017-06-01

    Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.

  1. Lahkuv USA saadik sai Maarjamaa Risti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips tegi 8. jaanuaril 2009 Kadriorus lahkumisvisiidi president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele. Suursaadiku teenete tunnustuseks andis president T. H. Ilves talle Maarjamaa Risti I klassi ordeni. Ilmunud ka: Eesti Elu 9. jaan. 2009, lk. 3, pealk.: President tänas Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadikut

  2. [Community social gerontological work in the USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, I V

    2004-01-01

    This abstract represents community social gerontological programs and projects in the USA. There are many gerontological programs based on intergenerational approach. They involve the elderly and the young in joint activities and have good socio-psychological results. These programs and projects can be used in Russia, minding national and community traditions.

  3. Euroopa ja USA: liidus tulevikuks / Barack Obama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obama, Barack, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president kirjutab 19.-20. novembril Lissabonis toimuvast NATO tippkohtumisest, USA ja Euroopa vastastikusest vajalikkusest ning NATO-sisesest koostööst. Barack Obama leiab, et NATO ja Venemaa võiksid taaskäivitada oma suhted

  4. USA asepresidendi Joseph Bideni lapsesuu / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2009-01-01

    USA asepresident Joseph Biden märkis Wall Sreet Journalis, et Venemaa majandusmured, mis riiki nähtavalt nõrgendavad, ei jäta Moskvale teist valikut kui läänega ja USAga ulatuslikumat koostööd teha ja lõdvendada ka oma haaret endiste Nõukogude bloki maade suhtes

  5. West Nile virus, Texas, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristy O; Ruktanonchai, Duke; Hesalroad, Dawn; Fonken, Eric; Nolan, Melissa S

    2013-11-01

    During the 2012 West Nile virus outbreak in Texas, USA, 1,868 cases were reported. Male patients, persons >65 years of age, and minorities were at highest risk for neuroinvasive disease. Fifty-three percent of counties reported a case; 48% of case-patients resided in 4 counties around Dallas/Fort Worth. The economic cost was >$47.6 million.

  6. USA survestab Mubarakit lahkuma / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    USA on teinud Egiptusele mitu ettepanekut, kõige tõenäolisemaks peetakse kava, mille kohaselt president Hosni Mubarak astuks tagasi kohe ja annaks võimu üle vahevalitsusele. Opositsioonijuhi ElBaradei ettepanekul peaks riiki hakkama juhtima presidendikogu

  7. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  8. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  9. USA eksperdid näevad Baltimaid NATOs / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    USA maineka välispoliitikaga tegeleva eraorganisatsiooni Välissuhete Nõukogu (Council of Foreign Relations CFR) analüütikute seisukohad USA välispoliitikast Balti riikide NATO-ga ühinemise kohta

  10. USA orkaan süvendas energiakriisi ohtu / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Mehhiko lahe naftatööstuse seisak on tekitanud USA-s bensiinipuuduse ja tõstnud selle hinda kogu maailmas. Vt. samas: Normaalse elu taastamiseks kulub piirkonnas aastaid; Kütusele peagi kroon-poolteist otsa. Diagramm

  11. Consequences of environmental and biological variances for range margins: a spatially explicit theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, G. P.; DeRose, R. J.; Bekker, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    The consequences of increasing climatic variance while including variability among individuals and populations are explored for range margins of species with a spatially explicit simulation. The model has a single environmental gradient and a single species then extended to two species. Species response to the environment is a Gaussian function with a peak of 1.0 at their peak fitness on the gradient. The variance in the environment is taken from the total variance in the tree ring series of 399 individuals of Pinus edulis in FIA plots in the western USA. The variability is increased by a multiplier of the standard deviation for various doubling times. The variance of individuals in the simulation is drawn from these same series. Inheritance of individual variability is based on the geographic locations of the individuals. The variance for P. edulis is recomputed as time-dependent conditional standard deviations using the GARCH procedure. Establishment and mortality are simulated in a Monte Carlo process with individual variance. Variance for P. edulis does not show a consistent pattern of heteroscedasticity. An obvious result is that increasing variance has deleterious effects on species persistence because extreme events that result in extinctions cannot be balanced by positive anomalies, but even less extreme negative events cannot be balanced by positive anomalies because of biological and spatial constraints. In the two species model the superior competitor is more affected by increasing climatic variance because its response function is steeper at the point of intersection with the other species and so the uncompensated effects of negative anomalies are greater for it. These theoretical results can guide the anticipated need to mitigate the effects of increasing climatic variability on P. edulis range margins. The trailing edge, here subject to increasing drought stress with increasing temperatures, will be more affected by negative anomalies.

  12. Ilves kohtus esmaspäeval USA-s Barack Obamaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 15. juunil 2009 Washingtonis USA presidendi Barack Obamaga ja vestles temaga nii majanduskriisist kui ka Eesti missioonist Afganistanis. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 9.-16.06.2009

  13. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  14. Võidurelvastumise tagasitulek : USA kiiluvees Venemaa ja Hiina / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    USA eelarvekavas on ette nähtud kaitsekulutuste jätkuv suurenemine, suureneda võib ka relvajõudude isikkoosseis. Relvajõududele kulub USA-s ligi 4% SKT-st. Globaalselt liidetuna tõusid kõikide riikide kulutused relvajõududele 1990. aasta tasemele. Hiina ja Venemaa kaitsekulutustest. Lisad: Aasia riigid kasvatavad sõjalisi kulutusi; 25 riigil pole oma sõjaväge. Graafik: USA sõjalised kulutused

  15. USA suursaadik : toetame Eestit / Stanley Davis Phillips ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Stanley Davis Phillips vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA positsiooni Tõnismäe pronkssõduri suhtes, Eesti saatkonna piiramist Moskvas, USA ja Venemaa suhteid ning koostööd, sõda terrorismiga, USA kava paigutada Tšehhi ja Poolasse raketitõrjebaasid, Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiiti USAsse. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips. Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. mai lk. 5

  16. Le métamorphisme Tardi-Crétacé à Éocène des zones internes de la chaîne Indo-Birmane (Myanmar occidental) : implications géodynamiquesLate Cretaceous to Eocene metamorphism of the internal zone of the Indo-Burma range (western Myanmar): geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socquet, Anne; Goffé, Bruno; Pubellier, Manuel; Rangin, Claude

    Metamorphic study on Triassic schists in the internal zone of the Indo-Burma range, essentially based on chlorite-mica equilibrium in metapelites, allows a P- T path to be quantified. During the prograde metamorphism, the geothermic gradient evolves from that of a 'normal' crust (30 °C km -1) to that of a thickened crust (18 °C km -1). The peak conditions are around 8 kbar and 450 °C. This thickening (25-30 km) is probably made in a wedge set up between the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene, in front of the obduction. The obtained cold retrograde path requires a mechanism allowing thermal re-equilibration, implying slow exhumation. It occurred along a shear zone that put into contact the micaschists of the core with the Triassic schists of the roof. To cite this article: A. Socquet et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 573-580.

  17. USA tunnistab valge fosfori relvana kasutamist Iraagis / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Kui varem USA eitas valge fosfori kasutamist Iraagis Falluja linnas, siis nüüd on ta eitamisest loobunud. USA välisministeeriumi pressiteate kohaselt ei kasutatud fosforit keemiarelvana. Sütitavate relvade kasutamine tsiviilisikute vastu on keelatud. Vt. samas: Ahto Lobjakas. Europarlamendis USA hukkamõist

  18. USA-reis nõuab biomeetrilist passi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    USA-s pikendati viisavabastusprogrammi biomeetrilise passi tähtaega 2005. aasta 26. oktoobrini. USA Eesti-saatkonna töötaja Christopher Smithi sõnul ei kehti viisavabadusprogrammi raames reisimise puhul passid, mida ei saa masinaga lugeda

  19. Obchodní vztahy Evropské unie a USA

    OpenAIRE

    Habanec, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's work is focused on trade relationship between EU and USA. This work analyses relations between EU and USA, describes important documents that have been approved or proposed. This work also describes trade exchange between these two regions. There also is described issue considered free trade zone between USA and EU.

  20. Tšehhid protestisid USA raketikilbi vastu / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    USA soovib rajada oma ballistiliste rakettide eest kaitsva süsteemi rajatisi Poola ja Tšehhi territooriumile, mille vastu on protestinud ka Venemaa. Tšehhi Trokaveci küla elanike korraldatud referendumist ja Prahas toimunud meeleavaldustest USA raketikilbi radarijaama vastu. Lisa: USA raketikilp