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Sample records for western pyrenees france

  1. Origin of the interstitial isopod Microcharon (Crustacea, Microparasellidae from the western Languedoc and the northern Pyrenees (France with the description of two new species

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    Nicole COINEAU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The interstitial groundwater genus Microcharon (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae is highly diversified in southern France. A new species, Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is described from the Aude River, whereas specimens from the Lachein River in the central Pyrenees are reassigned to another species, M. ariegensis new to Science. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is closely related to the species of the group rouchi and may belong to the phylogenetic western Mediterranean lineage. The two-step model of colonization and evolution provides an understanding of the origin and age of this stygobite. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is derived from marine ancestors that lived in the interstitial littoral shallow bottoms of the Atlantic embayment which covered southwestern France at the very beginning of the early Eocene period. Both the regression of this gulf at the start of the Eocene and the Pyrenees uplift may have played a major role in the evolutionary history through vicariance of Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. and of the northern Pyrenean species of the group rouchi.

  2. Multi-proxy record of land use change derived from colluvial soils of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France

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    Leigh, David S.; Gragson, Theodore L.; Coughlan, Michael R.

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological evidence and paleoenvironmental proxies from wetland bogs (e.g. charcoal, pastoral pollen, fungal spores of sheep dung) clearly outline the regional chronology of Holocene pastoral activity in the Pyrenees. We increase the spatial and temporal resolution of this chronology through a place-based, millennial-scale investigation of land use activities within individual fields in the commune of Larrau, Pyrénées Atlantiques, France. We have identified several stratigraphic records of slopewash colluvium that span the entire Holocene that occur at the outlets of zero-order watersheds, each draining several hectares. To examine forest-to-pasture transformation, two to three meter long auger holes were sampled in contiguous five centimeter intervals. These samples were analyzed for charcoal content, radiocarbon age, magnetic susceptibility, particle size, organic matter, and n-alkane concentrations. Results indicate that intentional burning and clearing were initiated by the Late Neolithic (ca. 5000-6000 cal. BP), but more intense burning, clearing, and pronounced soil erosion occurred later during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Charcoal concentrations and low frequency magnetic susceptibility provide evidence of initial burning and subsequent variation in the intensity of fire use. Radiocarbon chronologies exhibit order-of-magnitude spikes in sedimentation rates (1-10 mm/yr) during the Bronze Age and Iron Age that are asynchronous between sites. Asynchronous records suggest anthropic, rather than climatic, drivers and imply that land use varied in intensity across the landscape, unlike the uniform intensity of pasture use typical of the modern landscape. Sedimentation rates, and presumably erosion rates, returned to very near pre-pastoral background levels (pastures around the world persist with stereotypical degraded soils. N-alkane analyses are in progress, testing for changes in past vegetation communities (trees vs. grass), and we anticipate results and

  3. Anthropic changes to the biotic factor of soil formation from forests to managed grasslands along summits of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France

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    Leigh, David; Gragson, Theodore

    2017-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that highland pastures of the humid-temperate western Pyrenees were converted from mixed forests to managed grasslands thousands of years ago, as early as during the late Neolithic and Bronze age by human actions including use of fire. We observe pronounced differences between soil profiles of ancient pastures and old-growth forests in otherwise similar landscape positions. In order to test physical and chemical differences, we collected paired samples of forest versus grassland soils at four separate hillslope sites where there was a clear boundary between the two vegetation types. Animal trails were excluded from sampling. Factors of climate, topography, parent material, and time of soil formation were essentially identical in the forests and pastures of each site, but the time of soil under grassland vegetation may have varied. Each paired hillslope site included five core samples (7.6 cm diameter) from the upper 7.6 cm of the mineral soil within each vegetation type, and the A horizon thickness was recorded at each core hole site. In addition, one complete soil profile was sampled in each vegetation type at each site, making a total of 20 core samples and 4 complete profiles from each respective vegetation type. In addition, we measured the magnetic susceptibility of the mineral soil surface on two transects crossing the vegetation boundary. Core samples have been measured for bulk density, pH, plant-available nutrients, and organic matter; and tests for total carbon and nitrogen, amorphous silica, charcoal, and other forms of black carbon are ongoing. Preliminary results indicate pastured A horizons are about three times as thick as forested soils, contain more organic matter, have lower soil bulk densities, have much finer and stronger structural development of soil aggregates. These traits favor much greater infiltration and water holding capacities of the pastured soils, which we have validated with saturated hydraulic

  4. The Pyrenees earthquake of 1660: Effects in France.

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    Vogt, J

    1983-09-01

    Until 1975 or so, scientists' knowledge of the major earthquake of 1660 in the Pyrenees (in Bigorre) was largely restricted to the meagre information repeated in the classical catalogues. Useful material published in local learned journals was mostly unknown, and has only been unearthed and interpreted since 1976, when two year's work of analysis was started for the "Projet Sismo-tectonique" in France. During and since that project, further routine work necessary for the revision of the historical seismicity of France, has brought to light a new wealth of information from archive sources. This new knowledge, at least from the French side, is used as the basis for a brief macroseismic review of the event north of the Pyrenees, putting forward proposals for the isoseismal lines. Emphasis is placed on the number and quality of the sources, some of which are quoted for evidence of major rockfalls in the meizoseismal region and the wide extent of the felt area, as far north as Salnt-Maixent in Poitou.

  5. First comprehensive contribution to medical ethnobotany of Western Pyrenees

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    Calvo María

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical and medical study was carried out in the Navarre Pyrenees, an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance. As well as the compilation of an ethnopharmacological catalogue, a quantitative ethnobotanical comparison has been carried out in relation to the outcomes from other studies about the Pyrenees. A review of all drugs used in the area has also been carried out, through a study of the monographs published by the institutions and organizations responsible for the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants (WHO, ESCOP, and the E Commission of the German Department of Health in order to ascertain the extent to which the Navarre Pyrenees ethnopharmacology has been officially evaluated. Methods Fieldwork was carried out over two years, from November 2004 to December 2006. During that time we interviewed 88 local people in 40 villages. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews and the data was analyzed using quantitave indexes: Ethnobotonicity Index, Shannon-Wiener's Diversity, Equitability and The Informant Consensus Factor. The official review has been performed using the official monographs published by the WHO, ESCOP and the E Commission of the German Department of Health. Results The ethnobotanical and medical catalogue of the Navarre Pyrenees Area comprises 92 species, of which 39 have been mentioned by at least three interviewees. The quantitative ethnobotany results show lower values than those found in other studies about the Pyrenees; and 57.6% of the Pyrenees medical ethnobotany described does not figure in documents published by the above mentioned institutions. Conclusion The results show a reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in the area of study, when compared to other studies carried out in the Pyrenees. Nevertheless, the use of several species that may be regarded as possible sources for pharmacological studies is

  6. Contingency & Agency in the Holocene Anthropization of Mountain Landscapes of the Western Pyrenees

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    Gragson, Theodore; Coughlan, Michael; Leigh, David

    2017-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that mixed forests of the humid-temperate western Pyrenees mountains were converted by human agency to managed grasslands by at least the late Neolithic. We first realized major ramifications of the conversation process from pronounced differences we observed between soil profiles of ancient pastures and old-growth forests in otherwise similar landscape positions. Subsequently through radiocarbon dating of colluvial deposits we established a chronology for anthropic manipulation of the biotic factor of pedogenesis resulting in the creation of new soil materials, processes and functions. Regional- and biome-scale paleoecological analyses and archaeological syntheses suggest that it was Neolithic agropastoral land use that initiated anthropization of mountain landscapes of the western Pyrenees. However, such macroscopic views of human behavior cannot reveal the contingency and agency on which human causality rests. We have thus followed a complementary place-based investigative strategy that couples geoarchaeological, biophysical and socio-ecological factors spatially and temporally to arrive at the coevolutionary processes of human-environment interactions and landscape history. The results often contrast sharply with conventional narratives about human landscape degradation in agropastoral systems. For the last 2000 years, the western Pyrenees mountains were spatially removed from regional centers such as Pamplona and Bordeaux, and economically and politically peripheral to continental social and governmental processes. This marginality favored a macroscopic and time-invariant interpretation of agropastoral production in the western Pyrenees as the result of unambiguously enforced social norms exacted by intense solidarities of kin and neighbors. However, anthropization of the western Pyrenees was a spatially and temporally heterogeneous process in which land transitions appear to precede intensification. Radiocarbon dating shows three

  7. Kinematic Evolution of the Western Pyrenees Thrust Front From Paleomagnetic Analysis on its Foreland Basin.

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    Almar, Y.; Beamud, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Garcés, M.; Murelaga, X.

    2007-12-01

    The Pyrenees is a collisional orogen formed during the Alpine orogeny. Its southwestern frontal thrust was originated as a result of the Cenozoic inversion of preexisting extensional faults. The emplacement of the frontal thrust in the Western Pyrenees generated a foreland basin, which locally accumulated more than 4,500 meters of Tertiary sediments. The kinematic evolution of the Western Pyrenees thrust front is poorly constrained due to the scarcity of reliable age constraints within the Tertiary sediments. However, the good exposure conditions of syntectonic continental deposits in its foreland basin makes it an excellent scenario to carry out paleomagnetic and structural studies in order to unravel the kinematic history, geometry and evolution of the thrust front. A magnetostratigraphic composite section along the continental basin infill was sampled covering up to 3,000 m of succession. Correlation of the local magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS was helped by a new mammal fossil locality found in continental sediments and attributed to the Agenian local biozone Y (MN2D). The cronostratigraphy of the tectosedimentary units, ranging from lower Oligocene (Cr12r) to lower Miocene, provides further constraints on the timing of two main tectosedimentary events recorded as major unconformities within the basin infill. From this study, sedimentation rates have been also obtained. The analysis of several paleomagnetic sites revealed that no vertical axes rotations occurred in the Tertiary sediments regardless superimposed folding with oblique axes could be observed, and the proximity of adjacent structures as the Estella diapir and the Pamplona fault. Finally, the analysis of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility together with collected sedimentary data suggests that magnetic fabrics record both, a depositional and tectonic fabric.

  8. Chronology and pedogenic effects of mid- to late-Holocene conversion of forests to pastures in the French western Pyrenees

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    David S. Leigh; Theodore L. Gragson; Michael R. Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a place-based examination of the timing and long-term pedogenic effects of human-induced forest to pasture conversion in the French western Pyrenees Mountains, Basque commune of Larrau. We analyzed colluvial stratigraphic sections to derive the chronology of landscape change using radiocarbon dating, charcoal concentrations, magnetic...

  9. Measurement of cloud condensation nuclei in the industrial region of Lacq, Pyrenees-Atlantiques (France))

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    Tarrieu, C. (Meteorologie Nationale, Le Bourget-Aeroport (France)); Dessens, J.; Serpolay, R. (Observatoire du Puy de Dome et Laboratoire Associe de Meteorologie Physique, Universite de Clermont-Ferrand II (France))

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei have been made with a thermal diffusion chamber from December 1980 to April 1981 near Lacq, Pyrenees-Atlantiques (gas refinery and chemical manufacturing) in order to study the possible influence of these industrial activities on the physical of clouds and fogs. The results are classified according to the synoptic situation, and they are compared with those obtained with a similar device on a less polluted site. Pollutants measured include sulfur dioxide, gaseous wastes, and other industrial wastes.

  10. Holocene history of fire, vegetation and land use from the central Pyrenees (France)

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    Rius, Damien; Vannière, Boris; Galop, Didier

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Located on a mountain pass in the west-central Pyrenees, the Col d'Ech peat bog provides a Holocene fire and vegetation record based upon nine 14C (AMS) dates. We aim to compare climate-driven versus human-driven fire regimes in terms of frequency, fire episodes distribution, and impact on vegetation. Our results show the mid-Holocene (8500-5500 cal yr BP) to be characterized by high fire frequency linked with drier and warmer conditions.However, fire occurrences appea...

  11. Analysis of the genetic structure of endangered bovine breeds from the Western Pyrenees using DNA microsatellite markers.

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    Rendo, F; Iriondo, M; Jugo, B M; Aguirre, A; Mazón, L I; Vicario, A; Gómez, M; Estonba, A

    2004-04-01

    In the Western Pyrenees, three out of four native cattle breeds are in grave danger of extinction. Genetic variation of all four breeds was assessed by analyzing 478 animals using 11 microsatellite markers. A moderate/high within-breed variability was found, a favorable factor to consider when planning conservation and improvement programs. Interestingly, the only selected commercial breed, the Pirenaica, showed depressed heterozygosity levels and a low average number of alleles, perhaps explainable by intensive human selection exacerbated by a bottleneck effect. The Pirenaica also exhibited pronounced genetic differences and was the largest contributor of diversity among the breeds from the Western Pyrenees. Among endangered cattle breeds from this region, our results highlight the singularity of the Betizu. Geographic isolation among herds may be responsible for the large F(IS) value found in the Betizu breed. Lastly, our study suggests that the use of highly selected breeds may be one of the causes of distortion in phylogenetic analyses.

  12. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

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    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  13. Holocene history of fire, vegetation and land use from the central Pyrenees (France)

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    Rius, Damien; Vannière, Boris; Galop, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Located on a mountain pass in the west-central Pyrenees, the Col d'Ech peat bog provides a Holocene fire and vegetation record based upon nine 14C (AMS) dates. We aim to compare climate-driven versus human-driven fire regimes in terms of frequency, fire episodes distribution, and impact on vegetation. Our results show the mid-Holocene (8500-5500 cal yr BP) to be characterized by high fire frequency linked with drier and warmer conditions. However, fire occurrences appear to have been rather stochastic as underlined by a scattered chronological distribution. Wetter and colder conditions at the mid-to-late Holocene transition (4000-3000 cal yr BP) led to a decrease in fire frequency, probably driven by both climate and a subsequent reduction in human land use. On the contrary, from 3000 cal yr BP, fire frequency seems to be driven by agro-pastoral activities with a very regular distribution of events. During this period fire was used as a prominent agent of landscape management.

  14. Positive effects of millennial grazing on soils in the western French Pyrenees

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    Leigh, David; Gragson, Ted; Coughlan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Many hillslopes of the western French Pyrenees have been grazed for thousands of years following the introduction of sheep about 7500 years ago, yet little is known about the long-term effects of pastoral activities on soil properties and pedogenic processes in this humid-temperate mountain range. In the 13 square kilometer Basque commune of Larrau we compare the status of soils under old pastures to those under old-growth forests at elevations ranging from 1000 to 1600 masl. Four separate tracts of side-by-side pairs of pasture and old-growth forest were sampled to discriminate differences in physical and chemical soil properties. Five paired soil profile samples were taken from each vegetation type on each tract so that all factors of soil formation, except vegetation type, were similar for each pair. Animal trails were excluded from sampling. We also developed radiocarbon chronologies of sedimentation rates from colluvial deposits at four other pasture sites to evaluate possible differences in the magnitude of soil erosion and sedimentation before and after conversion to pastures during the Holocene. Results indicate pastured A horizons are about three times as thick as forested soils, have significantly lower soil bulk densities, and much finer and stronger structural development of soil aggregates. These traits favor much greater infiltration and water holding capacities of the pastured soils. Thus, very significant pedogenic reorganization occurred in the pastures that can be viewed as improvements in soil quality. Inorganic nutrients in the pastured soils have significantly lower concentrations than in forested soils, except that amorphous silica is more abundant within pastured soils presumably due to greater phytolith production. The amount of nutrient depletion does not appear to be a limiting factor for grass growth and biomass production. Sedimentation chronologies indicate that erosion and sedimentation rates slightly increased following the earliest

  15. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees

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    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  16. Reactivation of a segmented hyper-extended rift system: the example of the Pamplona transfer zone in the western Pyrenees

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    Lescoutre, Rodolphe; Schaeffer, Frédéric; Masini, Emmanuel; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the importance of rift-inheritance on the formation of orogens but little consideration was given to rift segmentation and the role of transfer zones on the architecture of mountain chains. Indeed, structural mapping of passive margins pointed out the occurrence of a strong variability in the rift architecture along the margin when crossing through peculiar features that represent transfer zones. These transfer zones are generally oriented in the extension direction and relay the deformation between rift segments. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) characterize and define the Pamplona fault system as well as the structures and architecture of the basins bounding this major paleo-transfer fault located in the Western Pyrenees, and 2) understand its role during the subsequent Pyrenean convergence. The influence of the Pamplona fault system on the structuration of the Mauléon basin to the northeast and the Basque-Cantabrian basin to the southwest is substantial as expressed by their large offset and the occurrence of exhumed deep crustal and mantle rocks flooring the two basins. On the one hand, field work in the Labourd Massif and the western termination of the Mauléon basin enabled to describe faults and their relations to sedimentary sequences. This work also allowed describing the formation and reactivation of faults according to their orientation and their activity with respect to key markers (pre-Trias and post-Cenomanian). A strong relationship between rift architecture (proximal to distal domains) and structural inheritance is suggested. On the other hand, preliminary results from fieldwork, literature compilation and new tomographic imaging enable to determine the role and the history of the Pamplona fault system during Late Cretaceous compression. A significant work of this starting PhD project will be to determine the rift structures that have been reactivated and to assess their influence on the final architecture of the

  17. Woodland clearance alters geomorphic, hydrologic, and pedogenic drivers of ecosystem services: examples from the southern Blue Ridge (USA) and the French western Pyrenees Mountains

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    Leigh, David

    2016-04-01

    The southern Blue Ridge (USA) and French western Pyrenees both are humid-temperate mountains where native woodlands have been cleared on soils formed in residuum and colluvium on hillslopes. Forest removal increased rates of erosion and sediment yield that drove both negative and positive ecosystem services. For example, the supportive ecosystem service of soil formation was diminished on eroded hillslopes, but may have been enhanced by accumulation of sediment on bottomlands far downstream from the highland source areas. Negative effects on provisional ecosystem services (e.g. water supply) resulted in aggraded bottomlands by increasing the depth to the water table. Legacy effects linger on hillslopes that reforested (diminished soil properties), and ongoing alteration of pedogenic and hydrologic processes affect pastures that persisted from cleared woodlands. Beyond those general similarities, pastures of the two regions exhibit very different pedogenic pathways and ecosystem service outcomes. Soils of the Blue Ridge pastures adhere to a typical degradation scenario of erosion, compaction, and reduced infiltration capacities, whereas Pyrenees pastures exhibit soil qualities trending in the opposite direction and arguably now are better quality soils than their forested predecessors. Major differences in temporal duration and management styles apparently have led to such contrasts in soil quality. The Blue Ridge pastures are only tens to hundreds of years old, whereas Pyrenees pastures are thousands of years old. Blue Ridge pastures are maintained by mowing with tractors and year-round grazing primarily with beef cattle, whereas Pyrenees pastures (outfields) lack tractors and are only grazed seasonally (summer), primarily with sheep. Fire is rarely used as a management tool in the Blue Ridge, while Pyrenees pastures frequently are burned. Such management practices, and their influence on pedogenic and hydrologic processes, generally have resulted in negative

  18. MIDDLE JURASSIC NAUTILOIDEA FROM WESTERN FRANCE

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    PATRICK BRANGER

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic shelf margin limestones and marly limestones of Western France yield quite numerous Nautilida. This record is here described for the first time in detail, nine genera and more than forty species, whose range rarely exceeds one or two ammonite biozones, constitute a rather precise tool to date Middle Jurassic beds. Each taxon is placed in an accurate biostratigraphical chart; a new genus, Pictonautilus nov. gen., is described. The stratigraphical range of Cenoceras, Digonioceras and Gen. B n. ? (sensu Chirat 1997 is extended up to the Middle Callovian. In the Jurassic successions of Poitou, Nautilida always represent a minor part of the fossil record, they are more abundant in four levels: Middle Aalenian, base of Upper Bajocian, Lower Bathonian and top of Middle Bathonian. Dwarf Nautilida (Paracenoceras and species showing more folded septa and a subventral siphuncle (Pseudaganides or strongly ribbed specimens (Cymatonautilus are characteristic of stable open-shelf environments (Callovian, whereas large shelled nautilus would be mostly present during deepening episodes. The geographical extension of many taxa indicates a provincialism that fits with that of ammonites of the same period.

  19. Neolithic flint mines of Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees, Spain

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    Antonio Tarriño

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English:The prehistoric Treviño flint mine complex is located in the Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Treviño, Burgos, inside the lacustrine-palustrine Cenozoic (Aquitanian, Miocene materials of the South-Pyrenean syncline of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. It is a landscape unit constituted by a set of carbonated layers with abundant nodular and stratiform silicifications. The extraction mining works (often referred to as ‘tailing’ are usually identified as dumps or trenches, subtly visible and associated with archaeological materials.An archaeological excavation was carried out in one potential mining structure (dump or pit that was detected by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging in the mountain pass of “Pozarrate” near the villages of Grandival and Araico (Treviño, Burgos. In this work we present the results of the excavation of the last two years. The existence of a Neolithic mining dump (the tailings with a chronology ca. 5000 cal. BC was confirmed. The base rock level with nodular flint was reached and the impressions of the exploited nodules have been identified. As well, the extraction front which reaches about 4.0-5.0 metres in height was delimited. Thousands of lithic remains associated with the extraction and the initial processing (shaping of flint were collected, as along with mining tools. We have found and described three types of mining structures: trenches, linear dumps and crescent-shaped (or “half-moon-shaped” dumps.This site is one of the few prehistoric flint mines dated in the Iberian Peninsula. Recent investigations in the Cantabrian Mountains and Western Pyrenees indicate that the circulation and use of Treviño flint during Prehistory reached many Holocene and Pleistocene archaeological sites, located hundreds of kilometres away from the outcrops.Español:El complejo prehistórico minero de sílex de Treviño se sitúa en la Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Trevi

  20. Pyrenees Mtns., Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image, acquired on August 1, 2000, covers an area of 57 by 29 km and covers part of the central Pyrenees in Spain. The Pyrenees in southwestern Europe extend for about 435 kilometers (about 270 miles) from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea, separating the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe. The Pyrenees form most of the boundary between France and Spain, and encompass the tiny principality of Andorra. Approximately two-thirds of the mountains lie in Spain. The central Pyrenees extend to the Collines du Perche and contain the highest peaks of the system, including Pico de Aneto, the highest at 3,404 meters (11,168 feet). ASTER bands 4, 3 and 2 were displayed in red, green and blue. In this combination, snow is blue, vegetation is green, bare rocks are pink and dark blue, and clouds are white. The image is located at 42.6 degrees north latitude and 0.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. The effects of salt diapirs on the thermal maturity of surrounding sediments in the western Pyrenees, Spain

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    Downs, Nicholas Martin

    Salt diapirs have been modeled as having a large effect on the thermal maturity of surrounding sediments as a result of the high thermal conductivity contrast between halite and other lithologies. The goal of this study was to confirm these and other theoretical predictions through sampling of three salt structures in the western Pyrenees, Spain. Stratigraphic units around these three diapirs were targeted based on their lithologies and positions relative to the diapirs. Samples were analyzed for vitrinite reflectance and quartz cementation to determine their levels of thermal maturity. Remote sensing instruments were used to attempt to measure present day heat flow above the diapirs, and available well logs and seismic data were analyzed to determine the subsurface extent and orientation of the diapirs. Vitrinite reflectance revealed that sediments closest to the Ribera Alta and Orduna diapirs were undermature compared to regional values. The extent of the thermal anomalies around the Ribera Alta and Orduna diapirs extended to approximately 1.5 times the radii of the diapirs. Samples located above the Gernika salt weld were generally more mature than samples located below the weld, and samples closest to the root of the weld were less mature than samples further from the root. Remote sensing proved ineffective in this locality due to the high moisture content in surface vegetation. Determining the effects of salt on the thermal maturity of surrounding sediments is important because it allows a more comprehensive understanding of source rock maturity and reservoir porosity preservation within the context of petroleum systems in basins that contain salt.

  2. The Allied Campaign in Western France - Operational Lessons

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    1993-05-17

    Operational Chain of Command ............ 50 v THE ALLIED CAMPAIGN IN WESTERN FRANCE - OPERATIONAL LESSONS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Problem. Effective ...considerations. The planners did not fully consider the impact of the obstacles (hedgerows) in the bocage .10 The cost of the oversight would manifest...itself in the near "stalemate" conditions at D+30. This, in effect , precluded operational maneuver. The fourth problem, the plan was oriented on terrain

  3. Biting behaviour of Tabanidae on cattle in mountainous summer pastures, Pyrenees, France, and effects of weather variables.

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    Baldacchino, F; Puech, L; Manon, S; Hertzog, Lionel R; Jay-Robert, P

    2014-08-01

    In France, during the summer, cattle in mountainous pastures can be highly exposed to tabanid bites. The persistent biting behaviour of tabanids not only causes disturbance, but is also responsible for transmitting diseases, such as bovine besnoitiosis. The purpose of this study was to better identify the level of tabanid annoyance on cattle by means of insect trapping and direct observation of cows. Tabanids were active during the entire daily observation period (10:00-16:00), except for Haematopota sp., which were less active in the morning. The tabanids collected in Nzi traps were generally representative of those that landed on cattle, except for Haematopota sp., as Nzi traps were not very effective for these species. The preferred feeding sites for most species appeared to be cow's legs or udder. Leg stamping was the defensive reaction most related to a tabanid alighting on a host. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the parameters associated with tabanid landings on hosts were related to weather and altitude, but not to landscape structure. Increased landings were mostly associated with the higher temperatures and lower wind speeds at midday, but some differences were observed between species. The results indicate that cattle-protection measures should be taken during the peak of tabanid abundance when climatic conditions favour intense biting activity. Nzi traps set close to livestock were very effective to catch tabanids and could help in reducing the annoyance caused by horse flies.

  4. Holocene fire regime changes from multiple-site sedimentary charcoal analyses in the Lourdes basin (Pyrenees, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Damien; Vannière, Boris; Galop, Didier; Richard, Hervé

    2011-06-01

    One lake and three peat bogs from the Lourdes glacial basin (France) were used for macrocharcoal analyses and fire frequency reconstruction over the entire Holocene (11700 years). The chronology was based upon thirty-three 14C AMS dates. Comparison of the distribution of both CHarcoal Accumulation Rate (CHAR) and fire return intervals showed that charcoal accumulation significantly differs between the lake and the peat bogs, but that frequency calculation overcomes the disparity between these site types. A composite frequency was built from the four individual records to assess regional versus local variability and fire regime controls by comparisons with regional fire activity, Holocene climatic oscillations and vegetation history. The millennial variability can be depicted as follows: relatively high frequency between 8000 and 5000 cal a BP (up to 5 fires/500 yrs), relatively low frequency between 5000 and 3000 cal a BP (down to 0 fires/500 yrs), and an increase between 3000 and 500 cal a BP (up to 4 fires/500 yrs). From 8000 to 5000 cal a BP, fire frequency displays strong synchrony between sites and appears to be mostly driven by increased summer temperature characterizing the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). On the contrary, during the last 3000 years fire frequency was heterogeneous between sites and most probably human-driven. However, higher frequency at the millennial scale during the mid-Holocene strongly suggests that the perception of human-driven fire regime depends on the strength of natural controls.

  5. Precisions on the structure of the Basque Arc (western Pyrenees, Spain): preliminary results from magnetic fabrics from the Biscay Synclinorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Néstor; Aranguren, Aitor; Rodríguez-Méndez, Lidia; Cuevas, Julia; María Tubía, José; Julián Esteban, José

    2017-04-01

    The Mesozoic Basque-Cantabrian basin (western Pyrenees) was inverted during the Alpine Orogeny in late Cretaceous-Eocene times. The central sector of the basin, the Basque Arc is characterized by the existence of large folds (80 km long) that outline an arc. This study focuses on the interpretation of AMS fabrics in rocks from the Biscay Synclinorium, a major fold system of the Basque Arc that verges to the NE, with sub-horizontal, N110˚ E trending axes and axial planes striking to N110˚ E and dipping steeply to the SW (Calvo-Rathert et al., 2007). The aim of this contribution is characterize the deformation around the Biscay Synclinorium. For this reason we combined fieldwork with magnetic fabric analysis of 95 cores in Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Biscay Synclinorium. 68 cores come from the Calcareous formation (marls, sandy limestones and limestones of Cenomanian to Campanian age) that makes part of the northeastern limb of the synclinorium and the remaining 27 cores from the Detrital-calcareous flysch (a multilayer sequence with sandy limestones and marls of Maastrichtian age) that crops out in the synclinorium core (Garrote et al., 1991). In the Upper Cretaceous Calcareous formation there is a penetrative cleavage that mainly strikes to N110˚ E dipping 50˚ to 60˚ to the SW (S1). In the Detrital-calcareous flysch of the core, the best-preserved planar structure is the bedding and only locally an axial planar cleavage is observed. Intersection lineations are sub-horizontal and N110˚ E-trending. The measurements of the magnetic susceptibility provide low k values ranging between 99x10-6 and 403x10-6 SI. The anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility, P, reaches values of 1.213, pointing to the overprinting of tectonic deformation on primary magnetic fabrics of sedimentary origin. The magnetic foliation shows a fairly uniform arrangement that is nearly coincident with the dominant planar structures of the rocks, S0 or S1in the core and the limb

  6. Epidemiologic approach to human toxocariasis in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueglio, B; de Gentile, L; Nguyen, J M; Achard, J; Chabasse, D; Marjolet, M

    1994-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a common parasite in puppies. The danger to human health has not been properly established. We estimated the current incidence of this pathogen in two western districts of France, Loire-Atlantique and Maine et Loire. Blood samples from 1836 eosino-philic patients were collected and tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) excretory-secretory Toxocara antigen test. We obtained positive results in 22% of the cases and highly positive results in 7%. The ELISA data seemed to be age-dependent, with older patients having more positive results (P < 0.0001). The interlaboratory distribution of positive test results was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001), suggesting regional sources. The main clinical expressions of toxocariasis were: asthenia, gastric pain, and pulmonary disease. Individual and collective surveys of this zoonotic disease need to be carried out.

  7. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  8. Mapping the indentation between the Iberian and Eurasian plates beneath the Western Pyrenees/Eastern Cantabrian Mountains from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Ruiz, M.; Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.

    2012-10-01

    In the last decades, active seismic profiling in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula has evidenced that the Alpine collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates resulted in a complex crustal structure, with the Iberian crust underthrusting the Eurasian crust and reaching depths of at least 45-50 km beneath the Pyrenean chain and the Cantabrian Mountains. In the transition between these two zones the situation is particularly complex, as evidenced in previous wide-angle and passive seismic studies. This contribution focuses in getting new clues on the crustal structure of this transitional zone through receiver function (RF) analysis of teleseismic data recorded at permanent and temporary stations located in both the Spanish and French sides of the Western Pyrenees. Different techniques (H-κ stacking, pseudo-migration, synthetic 2D modeling) have been considered in the analysis. Passive seismic data from previous temporary deployments in the zone have been reworked and added to the discussion. A first order result is that passive seismic data are broadly consistent with the indentation of the Iberian and Eurasian crusts inferred from active seismic profiling, thus providing a completely independent confirmation of this feature. For the first time, an Iberian Moho underlying the Eurasian crust is documented from RF beneath the stations located at the Northern side of the Pyrenean range. Moreover, clear indications of dipping interfaces are observed at some stations. The new RF results suggest that in the crustal indentation beneath the Basque Massifs area, the Eurasian crust extends farther south with respect to the image inferred from active seismic data. This new geometry implies that the Pamplona transfer zone has played a major role in the regional geodynamic history.

  9. Isotopic reconstruction of ancient human migrations: A comprehensive Sr isotope reference database for France and the first case study at Tumulus de Sables, south-western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, M.; Boel, C.; Grün, R.; Armstrong, R.; Chancerel, A.; Maureille, B.; Courtaud, P.

    2012-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) can be used for the reconstruction of human and animal migrations across geologically different terrains. Sr isotope ratios in rocks are a product of age and composition and thus vary between geologic units. From the eroding environment Sr is transported into the soils, plants and rivers of a region. Humans and animals incorporate Sr from their diet into their bones and teeth, where it substitutes for calcium. Tooth enamel contains Sr isotope signatures acquired during childhood and is most resistant to weathering and overprinting, while the dentine is often diagenetically altered towards the local Sr signature. For the reconstruction of human and animal migrations the tooth enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratio is compared to the Sr isotope signature in the vicinity of the burial site and the surrounding area. This study focuses on the establishment of a comprehensive reference map of bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios for France. In a next step we will compare human and animal teeth from key archaeological sites to this reference map to investigate mobility. So far, we have analysed plant and soil samples from ~200 locations across France including the Aquitaine basin, the western and northern parts of the Paris basin, as well as three transects through the Pyrenees Mountains. The isotope data, geologic background information (BRGM 1:1M), field images, and detailed method descriptions are available through our online database iRhum (http://rses.anu.edu.au/research/ee). This database can also be used in forensic studies and food sciences. As an archaeological case study teeth from 16 adult and 8 juvenile individuals were investigated from an early Bell Beaker (2500-2000 BC) site at Le Tumulus des Sables, south-west France (Gironde). The teeth were analysed for Sr isotope ratios using laser ablation ICP-MS. Four teeth were also analysed using solution ICP-MS, which showed a significant offset to the laser ablation results. This requires further

  10. France

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Daudin

    2005-01-01

    Among European countries, except Russia, France is the largest and had the largest population until the nineteeth century. Despide the temptation of autarky, external trade played an important role in its history,reflecting both the specificities of its economic development and global trends (...).

  11. Mapping crustal thinning beneath the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Chevrot, Sebastien; Verges, Jaume; Sylvander, Matthieu; Ruiz, Mario; Antonio-Vigil, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    The eastern termination of the Pyrenees is a complex region marked by two large tectonic events, the building of the Pyrenees during the Alpine orogeny and the Neogene extensional processes associated to the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block and the opening of the Valencia Trough. This complex tectonic history has left major imprints in crustal structures. Previous studies based on gravity data and active seismic profiles have documented a crustal thinning from 40-45 km about 80 km to the west of the Mediterranean coastline to less than 25 km beneath the eastern termination of the Pyrenees. To progress in the knowledge of the geometry of this transition, two passive seismic profiles have been acquired from mid 2015 to late 2016 within the OROGEN project, an academic-industrial collaboration between CNRS-Total-BRGM and CSIC. Up to 38 broad-band stations were deployed along two orthogonal lines, with an interstation spacing close to 10 km. First results of receiver function migration on the E-W profile suggest a smooth Moho thinning smoothly from 40 km beneath the western termination of the line to 23 km close to the coastline. The NNE-SSW profile shows a clearly defined Moho beneath Iberia, slightly deepening from 32 to 35 km northwards, a 28-30 km thick crust underneath the North Pyrenean Front Thrust and a complex geometry in the Axial Zone. Data from natural events located in the Gulf of Roses and near the intersecting point of the profiles have been recorded along the lines, hence allowing to produce wide angle reflection/refraction profiles providing additional constraints on the geometry of the crust/mantle boundary in the Eastern Pyrenees. These new results will be integrated with the available geophysical and geologic information for a more accurate geodynamical interpretation of the results. (Additional founding by the MISTERIOS project, CGL2013-48601-C2-1-R)

  12. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and its determinants among nursing homes personnel in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Christelle; Fournier, Anna; Vasiliu, Anca; Beix, Nicolas; Demillac, Rémi; Tillaut, Hélène; Guillois, Yvonnick; Eyebe, Serge; Mollo, Bastien; Crépey, Pascal

    2017-07-07

    Influenza-associated deaths is an important risk for the elderly in nursing homes (NHs) worldwide. Vaccination coverage among residents is high but poorly effective due to immunosenescence. Hence, vaccination of personnel is an efficient way to protect residents. Our objective was to quantify the seasonal influenza vaccination (IV) coverage among NH for elderly workers and identify its determinants in France. We conducted a cross-sectional study in March 2016 in a randomized sample of NHs of the Ille-et-Vilaine department of Brittany, in western France. A standardized questionnaire was administered to a randomized sample of NH workers for face-to-face interviews. General data about the establishment was also collected. Among the 33 NHs surveyed, IV coverage for the 2015-2016 season among permanent workers was estimated at 20% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 15.3%-26.4%) ranging from 0% to 69% depending on the establishments surveyed. Moreover, IV was associated with having previously experienced a "severe" influenza episode in the past (Prevalence Ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.17), and varied by professional categories (p France. Strong variations of IV coverage among NHs suggest that management and working environment play an important role. To overcome vaccine "hesitancy", specific communication tools may be required to be adapted to the various NH professionals to improve influenza prevention.

  13. A high-order 3-D spectral-element method for the forward modelling and inversion of gravimetric data—Application to the western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roland; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Seoane, Lucia; Spangenberg, Hannah; Wang, Yi; Dufréchou, Grégory; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Bruinsma, Sean

    2017-04-01

    We image the internal density structure of the Pyrenees by inverting gravity data using an a priori density model derived by scaling a Vp model obtained by full waveform inversion of teleseismic P-waves. Gravity anomalies are computed via a 3-D high-order finite-element integration in the same high-order spectral-element grid as the one used to solve the wave equation and thus to obtain the velocity model. The curvature of the Earth and surface topography are taken into account in order to obtain a density model as accurate as possible. The method is validated through comparisons with exact semi-analytical solutions. We show that the spectral-element method drastically accelerates the computations when compared to other more classical methods. Different scaling relations between compressional velocity and density are tested, and the Nafe-Drake relation is the one that leads to the best agreement between computed and observed gravity anomalies. Gravity data inversion is then performed and the results allow us to put more constraints on the density structure of the shallow crust and on the deep architecture of the mountain range.

  14. Are the Pyrenees a barrier for the transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Central Europe to the Iberian Peninsula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; De Linares, Concepción; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Belmonte, Jordina

    2017-01-01

    This work provides a first assessment of the possible barrier effect of the Pyrenees on the atmospheric transport of airborne pollen from Europe to the North of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerobiological data recorded in three Spanish stations located at the eastern, central and western base of the Pyrenees in the period 2004-2014 have been used to identify the possible long range transport episodes of Betula pollen. The atmospheric transport routes and the origin regions have been established by means of trajectory analysis and a source receptor model. Betula pollen outbreaks were associated with the meteorological scenario characterized by the presence of a high-pressure system overm over Morocco and Southern Iberian Peninsula. France and Central Europe have been identified as the probable source areas of Betula pollen that arrives to Northern Spain. However, the specific source areas are mainly determined by the particular prevailing atmospheric circulation of each location. Finally, the Weather Research and Forecasting model highlighted the effect of the orography on the atmospheric transport patterns, showing paths through the western and easternmost lowlands for Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bellaterra respectively, and the direct impact of air flows over Vielha through the Garona valley. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and its determinants among nursing homes personnel in western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Elias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza-associated deaths is an important risk for the elderly in nursing homes (NHs worldwide. Vaccination coverage among residents is high but poorly effective due to immunosenescence. Hence, vaccination of personnel is an efficient way to protect residents. Our objective was to quantify the seasonal influenza vaccination (IV coverage among NH for elderly workers and identify its determinants in France. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in March 2016 in a randomized sample of NHs of the Ille-et-Vilaine department of Brittany, in western France. A standardized questionnaire was administered to a randomized sample of NH workers for face-to-face interviews. General data about the establishment was also collected. Results Among the 33 NHs surveyed, IV coverage for the 2015–2016 season among permanent workers was estimated at 20% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 15.3%–26.4% ranging from 0% to 69% depending on the establishments surveyed. Moreover, IV was associated with having previously experienced a “severe” influenza episode in the past (Prevalence Ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.01–2.17, and varied by professional categories (p < 0.004 with better coverage among administrative staff. Better knowledge about influenza prevention tools was also correlated (p < 0.001 with a higher IV coverage. Individual perceptions of vaccination benefits had a significant influence on the IV coverage (p < 0.001. Although IV coverage did not reach a high rate, our study showed that personnel considered themselves sufficiently informed about IV. Conclusions IV coverage remains low in the NH worker population in Ille-et-Vilaine and also possibly in France. Strong variations of IV coverage among NHs suggest that management and working environment play an important role. To overcome vaccine “hesitancy”, specific communication tools may be required to be adapted to the various NH professionals to improve influenza prevention.

  16. An estimate of future climate change for western France using a statistical downscaling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timbal, B.; Dufour, A.; McAvaney, B. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, GPO Box 1289k, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2003-05-01

    Heading Abstract A statistical downscaling procedure based on an analogue technique is used to determine projections for future climate change in western France. Three ocean and atmosphere coupled models are used as the starting point of the regionalization technique. Models' climatology and day to day variability are found to reproduce the broad main characteristics seen in the reanalyses. The response of the coupled models to a similar CO{sub 2} increase scenario exhibit marked differences for mean sea-level pressure; precipitable water and temperature show arguably less spread. Using the reanalysis fields as predictors, the statistical model parameters are set for daily extreme temperatures and rain occurrences for seventeen stations in western France. The technique shows some amount of skill for all three predictands and across all seasons but failed to give reliable estimates of rainfall amounts. The quality of both local observations and large-scale predictors has an impact on the statistical model skill. The technique is partially able to reproduce the observed climatic trends and inter annual variability, showing the sensitivity of the analogue approach to changed climatic conditions albeit an incomplete explained variance by the statistical technique. The model is applied to the coupled model control simulations and the gain compared with direct model grid-average outputs is shown to be substantial at station level. The method is then applied to altered climate conditions; the impact of large-scale model uncertain responses and model sensitivities are quantified using the three coupled models. The warming in the downscaled projections are reduced compared with their global model counterparts. (orig.)

  17. Unsaturated fish assemblages in rivers of the North-Western France : potential consequences for species introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELKESSAM D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Introductions of freshwater fish into French rivers have been carried out with increasing frequency in the last decades. Thus, the potential impact of these introductions is of major concern for biologists and fishery managers. Knowledge of the degree of saturation of a community provides an important basis for understanding how the community reacts or will react to the introduction of new species. In this paper, we compare local and regional freshwater fish species richness in similar sizes tributaries and coastal rivers located in the same biogeographic region (North-Western France. We show 1 that species richness is greater for tributaries than for coastal rivers on both local (station and regional (catchment scales, and 2 that, whatever the rivers studied (tributaries or coastal rivers, there is a significant, positive linear relationship between local species richness and regional species richness. These findings suggest that local, and probably regional, freshwater fish communities in North-Western French rivers are unsaturated and thus, that major impacts on the community, such as short-term extinctions, are not to be expected. However, competition for food and space, predation, introduction of exotic parasites and diseases, could also affect some native species.

  18. Spatial autocorrelation in farmland grasshopper assemblages (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhausser, I; Gouat, M; Goarant, A; Cornulier, T; Bretagnolle, V

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural intensification in western Europe has caused a dramatic loss of grassland surfaces in farmlands, which have resulted in strong declines in grassland invertebrates, leading to cascade effects at higher trophic levels among consumers of invertebrates. Grasshoppers are important components of grassland invertebrate assemblages in European agricultural ecosystems, particularly as prey for bird species. Understanding how grasshopper populations are distributed in fragmented landscapes with low grassland availability is critical for both studies in biodiversity conservation and insect management. We assessed the range and strength of spatial autocorrelation for two grasshopper taxa (Gomphocerinae subfamily and Calliptamus italicus L.) across an intensive farmland in western France. Data from surveys carried out over 8 yr in 1,715 grassland fields were analyzed using geostatistics. Weak spatial patterns were observed at small spatial scales, suggesting important local effects of management practices on grasshopper densities. Spatial autocorrelation patterns for both grasshopper taxa were only detected at intermediate scales. For Gomphocerinae, the range of spatial autocorrelation varied from 802 to 2,613 m according to the year, depending both on grasshopper density and on grassland surfaces in the study site, whereas spatial patterns for the Italian locust were more variable and not related to grasshopper density or grassland surfaces. Spatial patterns in the distribution of Gomphocerinae supported our hypothesis that habitat availability was a major driver of grasshopper distribution in the landscape, and suggested it was related to density-dependent processes such as dispersal.

  19. Assessment of static flood modeling techniques: application to contrasting marshes flooded during Xynthia (western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Breilh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the performance of raster-based flood modeling methods on a wide diversity of coastal marshes. These methods are applied to the flooding associated with the storm Xynthia, which severely hit the western coast of France in February 2010. Static and semi-dynamic methods are assessed using a combination of LiDAR data, post-storm delineation of flooded areas and sea levels originating from both tide gauge measurements and storm surge modeling. Static methods are applied to 27 marshes showing a wide geomorphological diversity. It appears that these methods are suitable for marshes with a small distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh, which causes these marshes to flood rapidly. On the contrary, these methods overpredict flooded areas for large marshes where the distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh is large, because the flooding cannot be considered as instantaneous. In this case, semi-dynamic methods based on surge overflowing volume calculations can improve the flooding prediction significantly. This study suggests that static and semi-dynamic flood modeling methods can be attractive and quickly deployed to rapidly produce predictive flood maps of vulnerable areas under certain conditions, particularly for small distances between the coastline and the landward boundary of the low-lying coastal area.

  20. Spatial distribution of living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera in the Loire estuary (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahid, M.; Geslin, E.; Coynel, A.; Gorse, L.; Vella, C.; Davranche, A.; Zozzolo, L.; Blanchet, L.; Bénéteau, E.; Maillet, G.

    2016-12-01

    Ninety-seven surface sediment samples were collected in September 2012 from intertidal and subtidal areas along the Loire estuary (western France). The main objective of this work is to study the spatial distributional patterns of living benthic foraminifera and their link to the environmental parameters (distance to sea, elevation, grain size, total organic carbon, trace metals, sedimentary carbonates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the Loire estuary. Foraminiferal analysis was also extended to the dead assemblages in thirty-three surface samples from the lower inner estuary. The highest absolute densities of living benthic foraminifera are found in the lower inner estuary within the polyhaline domain. This is attributed to the presence of mudflats with abundant food source, i.e. microphytobenthos. The low densities found in the outer estuary (euhaline domain) are attributed partly to the sandy nature of the sediments and the food source inhabiting this substrate. The near absence of foraminifera in the inner estuary (mesohaline and polyhaline domains) is inferred to the physical disturbance resulting from the regular dredging of the navigation channel. The living assemblages are dominated by three typical estuarine species: Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica in the intertidal mudflats of the lower inner estuary and Cribroelphidium excavatum in the sandy subtidal sediments of the lower inner and outer estuary. In the Loire estuary, H. germanica has an unusual intermediate geographical distribution along the estuary between A. tepida and C. excavatum while in most temperate estuaries this species is present upstream in the mesohaline domain. This is most likely the result of the regular dredging of the navigation channel damaging its natural habitat. This might be also the explanation for the total absence of agglutinated species usually dominating the oligohaline domain. The canonical correspondence analysis shows that elevation (and its link to time

  1. Processes and mechanisms governing hard rock cliff erosion in western Brittany, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laute, Katja; Letortu, Pauline; Le Dantec, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of rocky coasts is controlled by the interplay between subaerial, marine as well as biological processes, and the geological context. In times of ongoing climate change it is difficult to predict how these erosional landscapes will respond for example to anticipated sea-level rise or to an increase in storminess. However, it can be expected that changes in the morphodynamics of rocky coasts will have a noticeable effect on society and infrastructure. Recent studies have proven that monitoring cliff micro-seismic ground motion has been very effective in exploring both marine and atmospheric actions on coastal cliffs. But only few studies have focused so far on the effects of wave loading and water circulation (runoff, infiltration, water table variations) on cliff stability and subsequent erosion, considering the interaction between subaerial and marine processes. This project focuses on the identification and quantification of environmental controls on hard rock cliff erosion with an emphasis on discriminating the relative contributions of subaerial and marine processes. We aim at relating different sources of mechanical stress (e.g. wave loading, direct wave impact, hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion) to cliff-scale strain (cliff-top swaying and shaking) and micro-fracturing (generation, expansion and contraction of micro-cracks) with the objective to unravel and discriminate triggering mechanisms of cliff failure. A four-month monitoring field experiment during the winter period (February-May) of 2017 is carried out at a cliff face located in Porsmilin beach (western Brittany, France). The selected cliff section is exposed to Atlantic swell from the south/southwest with a significant wave height of ca. 1.5 m on average and, reaching up to 4 m during storm events. The cliff rises ca. 20 m above the beach and is mainly formed of orthogneiss with intrusions of granodiorite. The entire cliff is highly fractured and altered, which can promote slope

  2. High-resolution imaging of the Pyrenees and Massif Central from the data of the PYROPE and IBERARRAY portable array deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, Sébastien; Villaseñor, Antonio; Sylvander, Matthieu; Benahmed, Sébastien; Beucler, Eric; Cougoulat, Glenn; Delmas, Philippe; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Diaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; Grimaud, Franck; Lagabrielle, Yves; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mocquet, Antoine; Pauchet, Hélène; Paul, Anne; Péquegnat, Catherine; Quillard, Olivier; Roussel, Sandrine; Ruiz, Mario; Wolyniec, David

    2014-08-01

    The lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees, which holds the key to settle long-standing controversies regarding the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Pyrenees, are still poorly known. The temporary PYROPE and IBERARRAY experiments have recently filled a strong deficit of seismological stations in this part of western Europe, offering a new and unique opportunity to image crustal and mantle structures with unprecedented resolution. Here we report the results of the first tomographic study of the Pyrenees relying on this rich data set. The important aspects of our tomographic study are the precision of both absolute and relative traveltime measurements obtained by a nonlinear simulated annealing waveform fit and the detailed crustal model that has been constructed to compute accurate crustal corrections. Beneath the Massif Central, the most prominent feature is a widespread slow anomaly that reflects a strong thermal anomaly resulting from the thinning of the lithosphere and upwelling of the asthenosphere. Our tomographic images clearly exclude scenarios involving subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath the Pyrenees. In contrast, they reveal the segmentation of lithospheric structures, mainly by two major lithospheric faults, the Toulouse fault in the central Pyrenees and the Pamplona fault in the western Pyrenees. These inherited Hercynian faults were reactivated during the Cretaceous rifting of the Aquitaine and Iberian margins and during the Cenozoic Alpine convergence. Therefore, the Pyrenees can be seen as resulting from the tectonic inversion of a segmented continental rift that was buried by subduction beneath the European plate.

  3. Prevalence of faecal carriage of colistin-resistant Gram-negative rods in a university hospital in western France, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saly, Marion; Jayol, Aurelie; Poirel, Laurent; Megraud, Francis; Nordmann, Patrice; Dubois, Veronique

    2017-06-01

    Plasmid-mediated and chromosomally-encoded colistin resistance is increasingly being reported worldwide. We aimed to determine the prevalence of faecal carriage of colistin-resistant Gram-negative rod isolates in a university hospital in western France. From February to May 2016, rectal swabs from 653 patients hospitalized in various clinical settings were recovered and subsequently screened for colistin resistance using the SuperPolymyxin medium. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined according to EUCAST guidelines. Genetic detection of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance was performed by PCR. The faecal carriage with intrinsic colistin-resistant isolates was high (23 %), while the faecal carriage with Gram-negative rods showing acquired resistance was low (1.4 %). No isolate carried the plasmid-mediated mcr-1/mcr-2 genes. It was noteworthy that none of the patients carrying isolates with acquired colistin resistance had previously received a colistin-based treatment, while these isolates were not multidrug resistant.

  4. Ecology of leishmaniasis in the South of France. 22. Reliability and representativeness of 12 Phlebotomus ariasi, P. perniciosus and Sergentomyia minuta (Diptera: Psychodidae) sampling stations in Vallespir (eastern French Pyrenees region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Jean-Antoine; Carron, Stéphane; Dereure, Jacques; Périères, José; Zeraia, Lamri; Franquet, Evelyne; Babinot, Michel; Gállego, Montserrat; Prudhomme, Jorian

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted around Céret (Pyrénées-Orientales, mean elevation 200 m) to test the statistical reliability of 12 stations devoted to sampling the Leishmania infantum vectors Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in the South of France. Each station included a retaining wall and the surrounding phytoecological environment (total area: 2,000 m2). The wall had rectangular drainage cavities (weep holes) in which flight interception traps (sticky paper) were inserted and stretched every 10 days from May to October. For both vector species, the statistical analysis of 10-day and annual frequencies led to the following conclusions: (1) P. ariasi densities were significantly higher than P. perniciosus densities, (2) densities per species were significantly different at the 12 stations : none of them could be considered as representative of local vector densities, which depend on the wall structure (exposure, shade, vertebrate hosts), (3) the 10-day variation trends were not significantly different between stations, indicating that these variations are not determined by the station structure but rather by a common external factor (likely meteorological) and (4) the phytoecological features at the stations were not correlated with the sandfly densities. Most of the observations obtained with P. ariasi and P. perniciosus are also relevant for the non-vectorial species S. minuta. In conclusion, future research on the dynamics of leishmaniasis outbreaks relative to climate change and agricultural-silvicultural modifications should be very cautiously carried out, while focusing especially on the vector sampling quality and the use of phytoecological maps as vector density indicators. PMID:24112589

  5. Neogene-Quaternary slow coastal uplift of Western Europe through the perspective of sequences of strandlines from the Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, K.; Jara-Muñoz, J.; De Gelder, G.; Robertson, J.; Meschis, M.; Fernandez-Blanco, D.; Nexer, M.; Poprawski, Y.; Dugué, O.; Delcaillau, B.; Bessin, P.; Benabdelouahed, M.; Authemayou, C.; Husson, L.; Regard, V.; Menier, D.; Pinel, B.

    2018-02-01

    The Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, France) displays sequences of marine terraces and rasas, the latter being wide Late Cenozoic coastal erosion surfaces, that are typical of Western European coasts in Portugal, Spain, France and southern England. Remote sensing imagery and field mapping enabled reappraisal of the Cotentin coastal sequences. From bottom to top, the N Cotentin sequence includes four previously recognized Pleistocene marine terraces (T1 to T4) at elevations France, the sequences morphostratigraphy is very similar to that of Cotentin. The onset of such Western European sequences occurred during the Miocene (e.g. Spain) or Pliocene (e.g. Portugal). We interpret this Neogene-Quaternary coastal uplift as a symptom of the increasing lithospheric compression that accompanies Cenozoic orogenies.

  6. Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the western Alps (Italy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of the Alps. The huge bryophyte collection made during 1997 in the Western Alps is presented. A total of 152 bryophyte species were recorded, including 113 mosses and 39 hepatics.

  7. The 3000-4000 cal. BP anthropogenic shift in fire regime in the French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, D.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Richard, H.

    2009-04-01

    role of fire in landscape management during the last 3000 years. These fire records emphasizes a shift in fire regime between ca 4000 and 3000 cal BP with similar trends during the last 3000 years (i.e. Mean Fire Interval = 150 years), which appear to be human-driven. However, both Neolithic and Bronze Age periods have different charcoal accumulation patterns suggesting discrepancies between local fire histories and thus different land-use trends and intensity. References Colombaroli D., Vannière B., Chapron E., Magny M. & Tinner W., 2008. Fire-vegetation interactions during the Mesolithic-Neolithic at Lago dell'Accesa, Italy. The Holocene 18: 679-692. Galop, D., Vanniere, B., Fontugne, M., 2002. Human activities and fire history since 4500 BC on the northern slope of the Pyrenees: a record from Cuguron (Central Pyrenees, France). Proceedings of the Second International Meeting of Anthracology, Paris, September 2000, BAR International Series, 43-51. Pitkanen A., 2000. Fire frequency and forest structure at a dry site between Ad 400 and 1110 based on charcoal and pollen records from a laminated lake sediment in eastern Finland. The Holocene 10,2: 221-228. Rius D., Vanniere B. & Galop D., in press. Fire frequency and landscape management in the north-western Pyrenean piedmont (France) since early Neolithic (8000 cal. BP). The Holocene. Stähli, M., Finsinger, W., Tinner, W., Allgower, B., 2006. Wildfire history and fire ecology of the Swiss National Park (Central Alps): new evidence from charcoal, pollen and plant macrofossils. The Holocene 16, 805-817. Tinner, W., Hubschmid, P., Wehrli, M., Ammann, B., Conedera, M., 1999. Long-term forest fire ecology and dynamics in southern Switzerland. Journal of Ecology 87, 273-289. Turner R., Roberts N. & Jones M. D., 2008. Climatic pacing of Mediterranean fire histories from lake sedimentary microcharcoal. Global and Planetary Change 63: 317-324. Vanniere, B., Galop, D., Rendu, C., Davasse, B., 2001. Feu et pratiques agro

  8. Fold-Thrust mapping using photogrammetry in Western Champsaur basin, SE France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totake, Y.; Butler, R.; Bond, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing demand for high-resolution geometric data for outcropping geological structures - not only to test models for their formation and evolution but also to create synthetic seismic visualisations for comparison with subsurface data. High-resolution 3D scenes reconstructed by modern photogrammetry offer an efficient toolbox for such work. When integrated with direct field measurements and observations, these products can be used to build geological interpretations and models. Photogrammetric techniques using standard equipment are ideally suited to working in the high mountain terrain that commonly offers the best outcrops, as all equipment is readily portable and, in the absence of cloud-cover, not restricted to the meteorological and legal restrictions that can affect some airborne approaches. The workflows and approaches for generating geological models utilising such photogrammetry techniques are the focus of our contribution. Our case study comes from SE France where early Alpine fore-deep sediments have been deformed into arrays of fold-thrust complexes. Over 1500m vertical relief provides excellent outcrop control with surrounding hillsides providing vantage points for ground-based photogrammetry. We collected over 9,400 photographs across the fold-thrust array using a handheld digital camera from 133 ground locations that were individually georeferenced. We processed the photographic images within the software PhotoScan-Pro to build 3D landscape scenes. The built photogrammetric models were then imported into the software Move, along with field measurements, to map faults and sedimentary layers and to produce geological cross sections and 3D geological surfaces. Polylines of sediment beds and faults traced on our photogrammetry models allow interpretation of a pseudo-3D geometry of the deformation structures, and enable prediction of dips and strikes from inaccessible field areas, to map the complex geometries of the thrust faults and

  9. Loiseleuria procumbens (Ericaceae in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Boratyński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the distribution and occurrence conditions of Loiseleuria procumbens in the Spanish Pyrenees. The species represents a typical arctic-alpine element in the flora of Europe. In the Pyrenees it reaches its southernmost European localities. The Pyrenean populations of the species are not numerous in the majority of the localities. L. procumbens occurs most frequently in the alpine and subalpine zones, at altitudes between 2100 and 2650 m, with a minimum at 1750 m and a maximum at 2900 m. It has been reported nearly exclusively in the siliceous substrata, and predominantly on the north-facing slopes, on the regosols and/or on flat tops of rocks. It forms its own communities, mostly included into the Loiseleurio-Vaccinion alliance, and rarely enters associations of the Festucion airoidis and Rhododendro-Vaccinion alliances. Its typical community, Cetrario-Loiseleurietum procumbentis, is found only in the eastern and central parts of the Spanish Pyrenees.

  10. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Roullet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Chevaillier, Servanne; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Massanet, Ana; Triquet, Sylvain; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril; Desboeufs, Karine; Dulac, François; Bergametti, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French) have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps). Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south-north gradient, with values from 7.4 g m-2 year-1 in Lampedusa (35°31' N, 12°37' E) to 1 g m-2 year-1 in Le Casset (44°59' N, 6°28' E). The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m-2 wk-1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1 g m-2 wk-1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m-2 wk-1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m-2 year-1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11-14 g m-2 year-1). From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more than 80 % of the major dust deposition events are recorded at only one station, suggesting that the dust

  11. A new Echinogammarus of the berilloni – group E. Aquilifer nov.sp., from the Pyrenees (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, S.

    1969-01-01

    During a short trip in the western part of the Pyrenees in August 1968 many samples of Gammaridae were collected both on the French and Spanish slopes of this mountain chain. Most of the specimens collected appeared to belong to the species Echinogammarus berilloni (Catta, 1878), or to closely

  12. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps. Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south–north gradient, with values from 7.4 g m−2 year−1 in Lampedusa (35°31′ N, 12°37′ E to 1 g m−2 year−1 in Le Casset (44°59′ N, 6°28′ E. The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m−2 wk−1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1 g m−2 wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m−2 wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m−2 year−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14 g m−2 year−1. From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more

  13. CCS in the Southern Pyrenees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, E. L.; Klimowitz, J.; García-Lobón, J. L.; Calvín, P.; Casas, A. M.; Oliva, B.; Algeco2 Team

    2012-04-01

    The project "Identification and preliminary characterization of geological structures for geological storage of CO2" (ALGECO2) led by the IGME between 2009 and 2010 has made the first rigorous selection of potential CO2 reservoirs in Spain; more than one hundred structures were identified and subjected to preliminary evaluation. This assortment comprises more than thirty structures within the Pyrenees and the Ebro Basin (PE) domain. The discussion, based on the oil-exploration experience and regional geological knowledge (with the compilation of over 500 cross sections) has finally chosen 8 structures in the Pyrenees. Seismic data, oil industry wells and surface mapping have allowed building three-dimensional preliminary models of these structures. These potential reservoirs display storage capacities from a few Mt to hundreds Mt CO2. Besides, some Pyrenean structures are among the most favorable and reliable in the national ranking according to the panel of more than 150 experts of the ALGECO2 project. Two Pyrenean structural traps are notable for their large potential capacity; they have been coded as PE-GE-13 and PE-GE-14. The first one is a large and wide basement antiform located in the Northern Jaca-Pamplona Basin. There is an extensive seismic coverage in the area and a dozen of deep wells (2 of them 4,000 m deep). The reservoir consists of Buntsandstein sands (>80 m in thickness), being the Röt and Keuper facies the seal. The top of the reservoir is 1,720 m deep and the structure has a map-view surface > 500 km2. Preliminary 3D models allow estimating storage capacity > 300 Mt. On the other hand, the PE-GE-14 structure (partially overlapped in map-view with PE-GE-13) is a cover anticline related to an underneath thrust (but structurally higher than PE-GE-13). In this case, the reservoir-seal pair is formed by upper Paleocene platform limestones and the Eocene flysch and talus marls respectively. The structure has an area > 100 km2. The top of the reservoir

  14. An experimental peri-urban basin in North-western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancibault, K.; Rodriguez, F.; Mosini, M.-L.; Furusho, C.; Bocher, E.; Palaccio, M.; Palma-Lopes, S.; Letellier, L.; Benot, R.; Andrieu, H.

    2009-04-01

    Basins located in the suburbs, known as peri-urban basins, face a quick land-use change, increasing pollution and flood risks. Being neither urban nor rural basins, they have been left apart by hydrologists. Improving hydrological models taking into account both natural and anthropogenic surfaces and pathways is the objective of the French project AVuPUR. One of the two peri-urban basins chosen for this project is the Chézine basin, located in northwestern France, in the suburbs of Nantes. The Chézine basin is subject to an oceanic climate and has a quite flat topography. Whereas the upstream part of the catchment remains essentially rural, the urbanization is dense in the downstream part and under development in the medium part. The mean urbanization over the basin is about 18%. A first part of the project consists of collecting geographical and hydrological data, followed by a first hydrological data analysis. Then different spatial segmentation methods are tested based on a geomorphological analysis and ultimately hydrological models well adapted for these particular basins will be developed. Nantes Metropole supplies geographical data as roads, buildings, land-use, sewer networks, Digital Elevation Model, etc. They also have monitored Chézine basin since 2001, with a water level recorder and a rain gauge. The outlet, at the water level recorder, defines a 29 km² basin with a 15km long river. During summer 2008, additional recorders were installed, in the medium part of the basin, at the outlet of the rural subcatchment : a rain gauge and a flow meter. This will help to analyse the hydrological behaviour of the catchment, by characterizing the rainfall spatial variability over the basin and by pointing out the rural surface contribution. In autumn 2008, a geophysical experimental study was carried out, using different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar, DC-electrical resistivity tomography and EM31 electromagnetic profiling method. The aim of this

  15. Rock glaciers in the Pyrenees, Spain and France, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study and inventory of active rock glaciers was carried out by means of the usual techniques used in the study of alpine permafrost. First, the rock glaciers...

  16. Geology of the Upper Cretaceous and part of the lower tertiary between the Rio Aragon subordan and the Rio Gallego (Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, G.F.J.

    1968-01-01

    This study deals with the stratigraphy and the tectonics of the Upper Cretaceous and part of the Lower Tertiary between the Rio Aragon Subordan (western boundary) and the Rio Gallego (eastern boundary) in the Spanish Western Pyrenees. The thesis forms part of the geological investigations carried

  17. Widespread occurrence of chemical residues in beehive matrices from apiaries located in different landscapes of Western France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lambert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is frequently used as a sentinel to monitor environmental pollution. In parallel, general weakening and unprecedented colony losses have been reported in Europe and the USA, and many factors are suspected to play a central role in these problems, including infection by pathogens, nutritional stress and pesticide poisoning. Honey bee, honey and pollen samples collected from eighteen apiaries of western France from four different landscape contexts during four different periods in 2008 and in 2009 were analyzed to evaluate the presence of pesticides and veterinary drug residues. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC-MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28 than in the pollen (n = 23 or honey bee (n = 20 samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Honey bees, honeys and pollens are appropriate sentinels for monitoring pesticide and veterinary drug environmental pollution. This study revealed the widespread occurrence of multiple residues in beehive matrices and suggests a potential issue with the effects

  18. Widespread Occurrence of Chemical Residues in Beehive Matrices from Apiaries Located in Different Landscapes of Western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Piroux, Mélanie; Puyo, Sophie; Thorin, Chantal; L'Hostis, Monique; Wiest, Laure; Buleté, Audrey; Delbac, Frédéric; Pouliquen, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Background The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is frequently used as a sentinel to monitor environmental pollution. In parallel, general weakening and unprecedented colony losses have been reported in Europe and the USA, and many factors are suspected to play a central role in these problems, including infection by pathogens, nutritional stress and pesticide poisoning. Honey bee, honey and pollen samples collected from eighteen apiaries of western France from four different landscape contexts during four different periods in 2008 and in 2009 were analyzed to evaluate the presence of pesticides and veterinary drug residues. Methodology/Findings A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC−MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28) than in the pollen (n = 23) or honey bee (n = 20) samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods. Conclusions/Significance Honey bees, honeys and pollens are appropriate sentinels for monitoring pesticide and veterinary drug environmental pollution. This study revealed the widespread occurrence of multiple residues in beehive matrices and suggests a potential issue with the effects of these residues

  19. Disentangling the control of tectonics, eustasy, trophic conditions and climate on shallow-marine carbonate production during the Aalenian-Oxfordian interval: From the western France platform to the western Tethyan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, Simon; Brigaud, Benjamin; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Lasseur, Eric; Saucède, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to improve our understanding of the processes controlling changes in the architecture and facies of intracontinental carbonate platforms. We examined the facies and sequence stratigraphy of Aalenian to Oxfordian limestones of western France. Seventy-seven outcrop sections were studied and thirty-one sedimentary facies identified in five depositional environments ranging from lower offshore to backshore. Platform evolution was reconstructed along a 500 km cross-section. Twenty-two depositional sequences were identified on the entire western France platform and correlated with European third-order sequences at the biozone level, demonstrating that eustasy was the major factor controlling the cyclic trend of accommodation. The tectonic subsidence rate was computed from accommodation measurements from the Aalenian to the Oxfordian in key localities. Tectonism controlled the sedimentation rate and platform architecture at a longer time scale. Tectonic subsidence triggered the demise of carbonate production at the Bathonian/Callovian boundary while the uplift made possible the recovery of carbonate platform from Caen to Le Mans during the mid Oxfordian. Topography of the Paleozoic basement mainly controlled lateral variations of paleodepth within the western France platform until the mid Bathonian. A synthesis of carbonate production in the western Tethyan domain at that time was conducted. Stages of high carbonate production during the Bajocian/Bathonian and the middle to late Oxfordian are synchronous with low δ13C, high eccentricity intervals, and rather dry climate promoting (1) evaporation and carbonate supersaturation, and (2) oligotrophic conditions. Periods of low carbonate production during the Aalenian and from the middle Callovian to early Oxfordian correlate with high δ13C and low eccentricity intervals, characterized by wet climate and less oligotrophic conditions. Such conditions tend to diminish growth potential of carbonate

  20. Spatial and temporal variations of loads and sources of total and dissolved Phosphorus in a set of rivers (Western France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-04-01

    In intensive agricultural regions with important livestock farming, long-term land application of Phosphorus (P) both as chemical fertilizer and animal wastes, have resulted in elevated P contents in soils. Since we know that high P concentrations in rivers is of major concern, few studies have been done at to assess the spatiotemporal variability of P loads in rivers and apportionment of point and nonpoint source in total loads. Here we focus on Brittany (Western France) where even though P is a great issue in terms of human and drinking water safety (cyano-toxins), environmental protection and economic costs for Brittany with regards to the periodic proliferations of cyanobacteria that occur every year in this region, no regional-scale systematic study has been carried out so far. We selected a set of small rivers (stream order 3-5) with homogeneous agriculture and granitic catchment. By gathering data from three water quality monitoring networks, covering more than 100 measurements stations, we provide a regional-scale quantification of the spatiotemporal variability of dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) interannual loads from 1992 to 2012. Build on mean P load in low flows and statistical significance tests, we developed a new indicator, called 'low flow P load' (LFP-load), which allows us to determine the importance of domestic and industrial P sources in total P load and to assess their spatiotemporal variability compared to agricultural sources. The calculation and the map representation of DP and TP interannual load variations allow identification of the greatest and lowest P contributory catchments over the study period and the way P loads of Brittany rivers have evolved through time. Both mean DP and TP loads have been divided by more than two over the last 20 years. Mean LFDP-load decreased by more than 60% and mean LFTP-load by more than 45% on average over the same period showing that this marked temporal decrease in total load is largely due to the

  1. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Asch

    Full Text Available The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure.

  2. Reconstruction of Drought Periods in South-Western France Based on the Isotopic Composition of Tree Rings and Speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuhn, I.; Daux, V.; Genty, D.; Pierre, M.; Stievenard, M.; Regnier, E.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this project is to reconstruct drought periods in south-western France based on the analysis of two complementary continental archives: tree rings and speleothems. The use of multiple proxies with different resolution and seasonality can exploit the strengths of each for a better climate reconstruction. The oxygen isotopic composition of tree ring cellulose depends on the source water delta-18O and the hydric state of the tree, and has been shown to provide a good proxy for summer maximum temperatures in temperate climate. Oxygen isotopes of water in speleothem fluid inclusions reflect the mean annual delta-18O of local rainfall, while the delta-18O of calcite is a function of the delta-18O of drip water and fractionation processes between water and calcite, controlled by temperature during calcite precipitation. Cores have been collected from up to 400 year old oak trees at Braconne forest (Charente, FR), as well as from from timbers of historic buildings in the nearby town of Angouleme, which extends the chronology back to the 14th century. The provenance of the wood is most likely the same forest. Two stalagmites have been sampled from Bois du Clos cave, located also at Braconne. Furthermore, a stable isotope monitoring of delta-18O in precipitation and cave drip water over 15 years is available from Villars cave, 50 km away. As a preliminary step, the oxygen isotopic composition of two groups of "young" (150 years) and "old" (400 years) living trees, 1 km away from each other, was analyzed and compared. show that the delta-18O of young trees displays a slight upward trend in delta-18O over their first 20 years. It is on average 0.5 per mill higher than that of the older trees over their common period, although the interannual variations are similar. There is a strong common signal between the young trees (r=0.91) and a strong correlation between cellulose delta-18O and maximum summer temperatures for both tree groups (r=0.70). These results

  3. Geology of the Upper Cretaceous and part of the lower tertiary between the Rio Aragon subordan and the Rio Gallego (Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, G.F.J.

    1968-01-01

    This study deals with the stratigraphy sis forms part of the geological investigations and the tectonics of the Upper Cretaceous gations and part of the Lower Tertiary between Pyrenees, under the Rio Aragon Subordan (western boundary) and the Rio Gallego (eastern boundary), carried out in the

  4. An area for para-petroleum development in Western France; Un pole parapetrolier a l'Ouest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-08-01

    The Brest Offshore Industrie and Brest Offshore Developpement groups sited in Brest (Brittany, France) belong to a general interest pool with advanced competences in offshore technologies. In order to celebrate the construction of the Sedco Energy semi-submersible platform, built by the direction of naval constructions (DCN) of Brest for Transocean Sedco Forex company, an information day was organized on May 11, 2000 by Brest-Iroise Technopole to show the R and D capabilities of the local companies in offshore technology. (J.S.)

  5. Architecture of ductile-type, hyper-extended passive margins: Geological constraints from the inverted Cretaceous basin of the North-Pyrenean Zone ('Chaînons Béarnais', Western Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Benjamin; Lagabrielle, Yves; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Boulvais, Philippe; Bergamini, Geraldine; Fourcade, Serge; Clerc, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Sub-continental lithospheric mantle rocks are exhumed at the foot of magma-poor distal passive margins as a response to extreme stretching of the continental crust during plate separation. Remnants of the Northern Iberian paleo-passive margin are now exposed in the North-Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and represent field analogues to study the processes of continental crust thinning and subcontinental mantle exhumation. The NPZ results from the inversion of basins opened between the Iberia and Europa plates during Albo-Cenomanian times. In the western NPZ, the 'Chaînons Béarnais' ranges display a fold-and-thrust structure involving the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, decoupled from its continental basement and associated with peridotite bodies in tectonic contact with Palaeozoic basement lenses of small size. Continental extension developed under hot thermal conditions, as demonstrated by the syn-metamorphic Cretaceous ductile deformation affecting both the crustal basement and the allochthonous Mesozoic cover. In this study, we present structural and geochemical data providing constraints to reconstruct the evolution of the northern Iberia paleo-margin. Field work confirms that the pre-rift Mesozoic cover is intimately associated to mantle rocks and to thin tectonic lenses of crustal basement. It also shows that the pre-rift cover was detached from its bedrock at the Keuper evaporites level and was welded to mantle rocks during their exhumation at the foot of the hyper-extended margin. The crust/mantle detachment fault is a major shear zone characterized by anastomosed shear bands defining a plurimetric phacoidal fabric at the top of the serpentinized mantle. The detachment is marked by a layer of metasomatic rocks, locally 20 meters thick, made of talc-chlorite-pyrite-rich rocks that developped under greenschist facies conditions. Raman Spectroscopy on Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM), performed on the Mesozoic cover reveal that the entire sedimentary pile underwent temperatures

  6. Stakeholder engagement and biodiversity conservation challenges in social-ecological systems: some insights from biosphere reserves in western Africa and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Bouamrane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere reserves are an example of social-ecological systems that combine biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic development with knowledge generation and dissemination (both scientific and local. We review lessons learned from case studies biosphere reserves in western African and France, highlighting the importance of early stakeholder engagement to build knowledge for achieving sustainable development. We discuss the evolution of the concept of biosphere reserves and its application over time in different socioeconomic and cultural settings. The diversity of stakeholders and their different needs and perceptions about nature conservation complicate implementation processes, sometimes resulting in conflicts about the objectives and zonation of biosphere reserves. Dialogue among the different stakeholders must start at an early planning phase and be based on the principle of social and ecological solidarity. Dialogue must then be pursued, formalized, ritualized, and translated both in terms of biosphere reserve management and in terms of political support. Tools and methods exist that can facilitate such dialogue and colearning.

  7. Management of postindustrial problems in Western Europe: energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    This study assesses the political feasibility of national as opposed to supranational policy choices available to governments of advanced, industrialized democracies, focusing on the energy strategies pursued by the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the Netherlands. Ordering the empirical analysis are three central hypotheses: (1) the nature of energy as a public policy issue has undergone fundamental change, resulting in a significantly different decisionmaking process; (2) the consequence has been an increasingly complex domestic policy sphere which has precipitated greater uncertainty among policymakers; and (3) as international interdependencies become more complex and tightly coupled, recourse to increased international management of mutual dependencies will be viewed by national actors as a viable alternative to the severance of interdependent relationships. Within the context of the first two hypotheses, German and Dutch energy policies were found to have experienced the most distinct transition from incremental to comprehensive. This tendency, however, was also evident in France, despite some forms of planning in various energy sectors as early as 1946-1947. Regarding the final hypothesis, collaborative arrangements were initiated; however, there was substantial variation in the degree to which these international regimes circumscribed national autonomy: the energy R and D regimes institutionalized in the EC and IEA imposed few constraints on national actions; more demanding was the regime for long-term cooperation which evolved through the IEA and high-level summitry; the most restrictive regime involved the IEA's emergency program.

  8. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.-F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sanchez, R.

    2015-05-01

    The seasonal snow in the Pyrenees is critical for hydropower production, crop irrigation and tourism in France, Spain and Andorra. Complementary to in situ observations, satellite remote sensing is useful to monitor the effect of climate on the snow dynamics. The MODIS daily snow products (Terra/MOD10A1 and Aqua/MYD10A1) are widely used to generate snow cover climatologies, yet it is preferable to assess their accuracies prior to their use. Here, we use both in situ snow observations and remote sensing data to evaluate the MODIS snow products in the Pyrenees. First, we compare the MODIS products to in situ snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements. We estimate the values of the SWE and SD best detection thresholds to 40 mm water equivalent (w.e.) and 150 mm, respectively, for both MOD10A1 and MYD10A1. κ coefficients are within 0.74 and 0.92 depending on the product and the variable for these thresholds. However, we also find a seasonal trend in the optimal SWE and SD thresholds, reflecting the hysteresis in the relationship between the depth of the snowpack (or SWE) and its extent within a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85) for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81) for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67). We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the

  9. SKS splitting beneath the Pyrenees domain: an insight on the upper mantle deformation from central Iberia to French Massif Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, Mickael; Chevrot, Sébastien; Gaudot, Ianis; Haugmard, Méric

    2016-04-01

    We performed shear-wave splitting analysis for 270 permanent (French RLPB, CEA and Catalan) and temporary (PyrOPE and IberArray) broadband stations around the Pyrenees range. These measurements considerably enhance the spatial resolution and regional extent of seismic anisotropy pattern in that region. In particular, we determine the small-scale variations of splitting parameters φ and δt along three dense (5 km inter-station spacing) transects crossing the western, central and eastern Pyrenees. The anisotropy pattern in the Pyrenees is in good agreement with those in previous studies, with relatively constant N100° E directions of polarization of the fast waves and delay times around 1 s. However, the new stations from the PyrOPE experiment installed in the Aquitaine basin indicate a sharp transition both in directions (from N100° E to ˜ N60° E) and delay times (from 1 s to ˜ 0.5 s) just north of the North Pyrenean Fault. This could indicate the presence of the Iberian lithospheric "slab" beneath the North Pyrenean Zone. This transition also suggests that the main contribution to anisotropy is located inside the lithosphere. Further East, the analysis of the French permanent broadband stations complete the anisotropy map beneath western Alps. These new observations, especially in Savoie, confirm the overall N-80° E to N40° E smooth rotation of the directions of polarization following the curvature of the belt.

  10. 700 years reconstruction of mercury and lead atmospheric deposition in the Pyrenees (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, J. P.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Wang, F.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Cuevas, C. A.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical analyses in varved lake sediment cores (Lake Montcortès, Pre-Pyrenees) allowed reconstruction of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) atmospheric deposition over the past seven centuries in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Accumulation Rates (AR) from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Period ranged from 2500 to 26130 μg m2.y-1 and 15-152 μg m2.y-1 for Pb and Hg respectively. Significant metal pollution started ca CE 1550 during a period of increased exploitation of ore resources in Spain. Colder and humid conditions in the Pyrenees during the Little Ice Age may have also favoured Hg and Pb atmospheric deposition in the lake. Therefore, the interplay between increased rainfall (wet deposition) and mining activities in the Iberian Peninsula has driven Hg and Pb AR during the Pre-industrial Period. More recently, the use of leaded gasoline in Europe in the mid-20th century may explain the highest Pb AR between CE 1953 and 1971. The highest Hg AR occurred in CE 1940 synchronous with the highest Hg production peak in Almadén mining district (southern Spain) and the Second World War. The record of Hg enrichment in Lake Montcortès shows a decrease during the last decades in Western Europe similar to other regional records and global emission models. This study highlights the exceptional quality of varved sequences to tease apart pollutants depositional mechanisms, identify historical periods of increased atmospheric pollution and provide a historical context for pollutant baseline values to make correct assessments of recent (atmospheric) pollution in lake ecosystems.

  11. [Study of dental attrition in a medieval adult population from Southwest France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, R; Boimond, L; Sevin, A; Donat, R; Lucas, S; Grimoud, A M

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the authors was to study dental attrition in a medieval sample of paired mandibles and maxillas from the Southwest France (IX to XV century). We selected 58 adult individuals with maxillas and mandibles in good state of conservation, 29 women and 29 men from the medieval collection of Vilarnau-d'Amont (Western Pyrenees, France). Attrition was graded according to the Brabant index. We found a high prevalence of attrition in this sample. The first molars (M1) were the maxillary and mandibular teeth most concerned by attrition. The most frequent attrition level was level 2, with dentin exposure. We did not find any significant difference of tooth wear between maxillary and mandibular teeth, even if maxillary teeth seemed to be more worn. There was symmetry of attrition between the left and right side. There was no significant difference between men and women. Working on paired mandibles and maxillas showed that attrition in the middle age was a global phenomenon, intermaxillary and symmetric. It was much more severe than today, rapidly evolving and generalized because of the abrasive quality of food, cooking, chewing habits, and intensity of chewing pressure.

  12. Large landslides in the Pyrenees: preliminary tasks carried out for a harmonized cross-border risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José; Grandjean, Gilles; Copons, Ramon; Vaunat, Jean; Buxó, Pere; Colas, Bastien; Darrozes, José; Gasc, Muriel; Guinau, Marta; Gutiérrez, Francisco; García, Juan Carlos; Virely, Didier; Crosetto, Michele; Mas, Raül

    2017-04-01

    Large landslides are recognised as one of the main erosional agents in mountain ranges, having a significant influence on landscape evolution. However, few efforts have been carried out to assess their geomorphological impact from a regional perspective. Regional-scale investigations are also necessary for the reliable evaluation of the associated risks (i.e. for land-use planning). Large landslides are common in the Pyrenees but: 1) their geographic distribution on a regional scale is not well known; 2) their geological and geomorphological controlling factors have been only studied preliminarily; and 3) their state of activity and stability conditions are unknown for most of the cases. Regional analyses of large landslides, as those carried out by Crosta et al. (2013) in the Alps, are rare worldwide. Jarman et al. (2014) conducted a very preliminary analysis in a sector of the Pyrenees. The construction of a cartographic inventory constitutes the basics for such type of studies, which are typically hindered by the lack of cross-border landslide data bases and methodologies. The aim of this contribution is to present the preliminary works carried out for constructing a harmonized inventory of large landslides in the Pyrenees, involving for the first time both sides of the cordillera and the main groups working in landslide risk in France, Spain and Andorra. Methods used for landslide hazard and risk analysis have been compiled and compared, showing a significant divergence, even as regards the terminology. A preliminary cross-border inventory sheet on risk of large landslides has been prepared. It includes specific fields for the assessment of landslide activity (by using complimentary methods such as morpho-stratigraphy, morphometric analysis and remote techniques) and indirect potential costs (that typically overcome direct ones), which usually are neglected in the existing data bases. Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. and Agliardi, F., 2013. Deep seated gravitational

  13. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

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    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  14. Temporal distributions, habitat associations and behaviour of the green lizard (Lacerta bilineata and wall lizard (Podarcis muralis on roads in a fragmented landscape in Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Meek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the green lizard (Lacerta bilineata and wall lizard (Podarcis muralis on roads in Western France indicated that basking close to the road edge was the predominant activity in L. bilineata but P. muralis mostly foraged. Spatial locations of road mortalities in both species reflected this with the median distances from the road edge greater in P. muralis. Temporal differences in road presence, based on mortality counts and those of live lizards, indicated significantly more lizards were present on roads during late summer and autumn, especially in P. muralis. A significant correlation was found between the monthly presence of live lizards and monthly road mortalities in P. muralis (r = 0.73 but not in L. bilineata (r = 0.64.  Numbers of L. bilineata found on roads bisecting low-density urban areas and roads bordered by hedgerows were higher than expected in relation to the occurrence of these habitats at roadsides. In P. muralis higher than expected numbers were found alongside low-density urban areas and roads bisecting woodland. Generally both species were less commonly seen on roads alongside agricultural areas with no hedgerow border.

  15. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink.

  16. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Suchet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province. This article analyses the governance of this international sports competition. More specifically, this case study will enable us to find out more about the conditions of organisation of a cross-border project in the early 1990s. What were the various political, social and cultural exchanges between the valleys in terms of sports and tourism in the Pyrenees? The results show that the French organisation and the Spanish organisation functioned side by side instead of working together on the field. This division in working enabled them to bypass the language problem. The cross-border dimension of these adventure Olympics in 1993 stemmed from pressure from the French regional planning agency, DATAR right from the beginning of the project, i.e. in October 1989, to be exact. This dimension made the 1993 Pyrenees Adventure Games a testimony to the new political Europe that was being built after 1989. This period was marked by the proactiveness of institutions, which far exceeded the motivations of the populations of the Union.Organisés au printemps 1993 sur la frontière entre la France et l’Espagne, les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure, ou los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, réunirent plus de 1 000 athlètes venus de 26 pays du monde sous les yeux de 21 000 visiteurs. Olympiade des sports d’aventure et de nature patronnée par le CIO, les épreuves se déroulèrent dans la vallée d’Aure en France (département des Hautes-Pyrénées et le Sobrarbe en Espagne (province de

  17. Methodology for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: Applications to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    This research was carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Sea level is a key variable in marine, climate, and coastal process studies. In this research, a new methodology was implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the sea level by combining classical harmonic models to high statistical methods. In agreement with previous studies, this work indicates that sea level heights are correlated to climate conditions of sea level pressures (SLP). After averaging out surface waves from the mean sea level, the deterministic tides and the stochastic processes of residual surges were investigated using classical harmonic analyses and a statistical model of autoregressive moving average (ARMA), respectively. The estimation of the residual surges was also investigated together with the SLP. This new methodology was applied to the Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel (western France). Results have shown that the developed model reproduces the observations with RMSE of 4.5 cm and 7 cm for 12 days and 30 days of gaps, respectively. For medium scales of 6 months, the RMSE reaches 9,2 cm. Larger scales more than 10 months were also statistically reproduced. Accordingly, the proposed model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at short- to large- time scales. This new methodology presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the deterministic nature of tidal processes and the stochastic framework of residual surges. Key words: sea level forecast, astronomical tides, residual surges, ARMA, sea level pressure.

  18. 100-million-year-old conifer tissues from the mid-Cretaceous amber of Charente (western France) revealed by synchrotron microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Jean-David; Néraudeau, Didier; Perrichot, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial plant remains in fossilized tree resin are relatively common. However, histology and preservation of plants entombed in Cretaceous ambers remain poorly known. We report an exquisitely preserved conifer leafy axis from 100-million-year-old opaque amber of western France that is assignable to Glenrosa carentonensis Moreau, Néraudeau, Tafforeau & Dépré. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the taphonomy and the use of microtomography for studies of palaeobotanical remains in amber. A leafy axis was examined using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography with voxel sizes of 14·9, 1·4, and 0·7 μm. The conifer leafy axis described is preserved in three dimensions. Despite desiccation of the specimen within the surrounding amber, the cuticle, as well as most of inner tissues, is preserved in three dimensions down to the cellular level. Epidermis, palisade parenchyma, spongy parenchyma, transfusion tracheids and vascular bundles are clearly distinguished. Gross morphology and histology of the specimen were revealed using synchrotron microtomography, allowing an unprecedented resolution for the study of soft-bodied plants entombed in amber. The study reveals a peculiar combination of authigenic and duripartic preservation as well as permineralization, and highlights the complexity of taphonomic processes that can occur in amber inclusions. This fossil demonstrates the difficulty of studying amber-preserved plant remains under certain conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other mustelids from south-western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippa, Joost; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Fournier, Pascal; Schaftenaar, Willem; van de Bildt, Marco; van Herweijnen, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs; Liabeuf, Marie; Ditcharry, Sébastien; Joubert, Laurent; Bégnier, Michel; Osterhaus, Ab

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the possible role of selected pathogens in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations and the potential for these pathogens to affect mink survival, a serologic survey was conducted using serum samples collected from March 1996 to March 2003 in eight departments of south-western France. In total, 481 free-ranging individuals of five mustelid species (including the European mink) were tested. Sympatric mustelids can serve as sentinels to determine the presence of antibodies to viruses in the study area that could potentially infect mink. Antibodies to Canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected in all species; 9% of 127 European mink, 20% of 210 polecats (Mustela putorius), 5% of 112 American mink (Mustela vison), 33% of 21 stone marten (Martes foina) and 5% of 20 pine marten (Martes martes). Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in stone marten and polecats, possibly because their ranges overlap more closely with that of domestic species than that of the other species tested. Antibodies to Canine adenovirus were detected in all species but the pine marten; antibody prevalence estimates ranging from 2% to 10%. Antibodies to canine parainfluenza virus were detected in 1% of European mink, 1% of American mink and 5% of tested polecats but were not detected in Martes species. Antibodies to Rabies virus (RV) were detected in three animals, possibly because of interspecies transmission of bat lyssaviruses as the sampling area is considered to be free of RV, or to a lack of test specificity, as antibody titers were low. The high antibody prevalence to potentially lethal CDV suggests that this pathogen could have significant effects on the free-ranging populations and has implications for the conservation efforts for the endangered European mink.

  20. Changes in European precipitation seasonality and in drought frequencies revealed by a four-century-long tree-ring isotopic record from Brittany, western France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Raffalli-Delerce, G.; Yiou, P.; Stievenard, M.; Jouzel, J. [UMR CEA-CNRS 1572, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, IPSL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Danis, P.A. [UMR CEA-CNRS 1572, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, IPSL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Guibal, F. [IMEP, Faculte des Sciences St-Jerome, Marseille (France); Mestre, O. [Ecole Nationale de la Meteorologie, Toulouse (France); Bernard, V. [Universite de Rennes 1, UMR 6566 (C2A), Rennes (France); Goosse, H.; Hoffmann, G. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    A new paleoclimatic reconstruction for western France is obtained from tree-ring cellulose stable isotopes. Living trees from Rennes Forest and beams from two ancient buildings in Rennes city have been combined to cover the past four centuries with a gap from 1730 to 1750. The cellulose {delta}{sup 13}C reflects the progressive changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2} isotopic composition. The combined {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O measurements are used to propose a reconstruction of interannual fluctuations in local summer temperature and water stress. At the decadal time scale, the reconstructed water stress profile exhibits a significant similarity with the historical wine harvest dates, an indicator of warm and dry growth seasons, as well as with the summer central England and central Alps instrumental temperature records and climate model results. Combined with instrumental precipitation records from Paris, these reconstructions suggest a dramatic and widespread change in the seasonality of the precipitation at the beginning of the nineteenth century, with drier winters and wetter summers, which may have contributed to the Alpine glacier decline at the end of the Little Ice Age. The tree-ring isotope records also show a relationship with large-scale North Atlantic circulation changes and the interannual variability is modified between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (7-8 year periodicities) and the seventeenth century (11-14 year periodicities). By classifying 20-year-long subsets of the reconstructed climatic parameters, we estimate that a decadal mean summer warming of 0.8{+-}0.1 C induced extreme dry years to be 2.2{+-}0.7 times more frequent. (orig.)

  1. 20th century sediment budget trends on the Western Gulf of Lions shoreface (France): An application of an integrated method for the study of sediment coastal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, C.; Certain, R.; Sabatier, F.; Robin, N.; Barusseau, J. P.; Aleman, N.; Raynal, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a shoreface sediment budget established for the 20th century (1895-1984-2009) along the microtidal wave-dominated coast of the western Gulf of Lions (Languedoc-Roussillon, Mediterranean Sea, SE France). The implementation of a diachronic bathymetric approach, coupled with the definition of sand reservoirs (upper sand unit - USU) by very high-resolution seismic surveys and the results of LiDAR investigations, offers a new means of defining precisely the magnitude and change trends of the sediment budget. The aim of this study is to link the Large Scale Coastal Behaviour (LSCB) of the littoral prism (expressed in terms of shoreface sediment budget, shoreface sediment volume and spatial distribution pattern of cells) to climatic change, river sediment input to the coast, longshore sediment transport distribution, impact of hard coastal defence structures and artificial beach nourishment. The results show a significant reduction of the volume of the western Gulf of Lions littoral prism over 114 years (- 26.1 ± 4.6 × 106 m3). From 1895 to 1984, the overall budget is slightly positive, with a volume estimated at 4.1 ± 3.5 × 106 m3. For 1984-2009, however, the estimated sediment budgets clearly indicate that erosion is dominant over the last 25 years, with a volume loss of - 30.2 ± 4.2 × 106 m3. In relation to the long-term sediment budget and longshore drift pattern, the long-term trend of the USU volume distribution displays strong spatio-temporal contrasts linked to longshore sediment drift, spatial distribution of fluvial sediment inputs and hard engineering structures. Locally, the sedimentary reservoir is significantly eroded within a century (- 80% of USU), since the initial amount present was low and not sustainable. The emphasis is on the importance of considering the volume changes of available sediment reservoirs rather than their losses and gains. Erosion of the Languedoc-Roussillon shoreface is likely to continue in the future due to

  2. Tectonic and eustatic control on a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate platform during the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (La Rochelle platform, western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcel, Damien; Colombié, Claude; Giraud, Fabienne; Courtinat, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Boreal and Tethyan realms of Western Europe present significant sedimentological, paleontological, and stratigraphic differences. The purpose of this study is to constrain regional versus global controls on the dynamics of a sedimentary system located at the interface of these two realms in order to better understand the origin of their differences. Detailed sedimentological, palynofacies and calcareous nannofossil analyses were performed on two sections from the La Rochelle platform (western France). The Pas section includes part of the Late Oxfordian and Early Kimmeridgian, and the Rocher d'Yves section is assigned to the Late Kimmeridgian. They correspond to monotonous marl-argillaceous limestone alternations. Limestones are essentially mudstones with echinoderms, bivalves and foraminifera that suggest low-energy, open-marine conditions. Highly bioclastic and/or peloidal deposits occur commonly, and show wackestones to wacke-pack-grainstones textures. These deposits indicate frequent high-energy events, and are interpreted as storm deposits. Marls dominate in the most proximal depositional environments, while calcareous deposits are more important in more distal environments. The Rocher d'Yves section is globally more marly than the Pas section, suggesting a more proximal setting. Palynofacies are dominated by woody particles, suggesting shallow-water, proximal depositional environments. Calcareous nannofossils are ascidian spicules, coccoliths, and schizospheres. Watznaueria britannica dominate calcareous nannofossil assemblages in the Pas section. The Rocher d'Yves assemblages are quasi-exclusively composed of Cyclagelosphaera margerelii, and indicate more proximal paleoenvironments than those of the Pas section. Different orders of depositional sequences are defined, with sequence boundaries corresponding to the most rapid relative sea-level falls. They are hierarchically stacked, and correlate, on the basis of ammonite zones, with the sequences of

  3. Past climate variability inferred from statistical processing of documentary data: a case study on extreme meteorological events in western central France from 1500 to 2000 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Audé, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-01

    Recent human-induced climate changes are expected to have an impact on extreme events including shifts in storm tracks, heavier precipitations and more severe droughts (Planton, 2008). Although climate models successfully describe the past mean climate variability, they often fail to correctly reproduce such extreme events, mainly because of a low spatial and temporal resolution (Sánchez et al., 2004). Reports of extreme meteorological events gathered from documentary archives are be useful to fill this gap, and would also provide insights into local climatic variations (Leijonhufvud et al., 2008; Rodrigo, 2008; Wheeler, 2006). In this study, a local text book published by Audé (2006) was used as a source of climatic data. It consists of a list of extreme meteorological events recorded in historical archives (diaries mainly) in western central France, along the Bay of Biscay. From the book, 284 extreme meteorological events that occurred between 1500 and 2000 were selected. A presence-absence matrix was built, the events being classified in 7 distinct categories by Audé. A preliminary multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis) was used to group these categories into 4 classes of events. First axis (22.3% of explained variance) discriminated the events related to temperature, with frosts and snowfalls on one side, versus gales and storms on the other side. Second axis (18.5% of explained variance) discriminated the events related to precipitation, with floods and rainfalls on one side (humid), versus droughts on the other (dry). For each class, a 29-year running mean was computed to convert binary qualitative data to semi-quantitative curves. A spectral analysis was also performed on the same binary data to detect potential climatic cycles. Despite the randomness of the historical records reported in this book, that much relies on the subjective perception of meteorological events by past witnesses, the results obtained are consistent with existing data

  4. Projections of meteorological and snow conditions in the Pyrenees using adjusted EURO-CORDEX climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Current and future availability of seasonal snow is a recurring topic in mountain regions such as the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenues in France, Spain and Andorra. Associated changes in river discharges, their consequences on water storage management, the future vulnerability of Pyrenean ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as debris flows and avalanches are also under consideration. However, to generate projections of snow conditions, a traditional dynamical downscaling approach featuring spatial resolutions typically between 10 and 50 km is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. Indeed, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Moreover, simulations from general circulation models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) suffer from biases compared to local observations, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted before they can be used to drive specific models such as land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. Meteorological observations used for the quantile mapping consist of the regional scale reanalysis SAFRAN, which operates at the scale of homogeneous areas on the order of 1000 km2 within which meteorological conditions vary only with elevation. SAFRAN combines large-scale NWP reanalysis (ERA40, ARPEGE) with in-situ meteorological observations. The SAFRAN reanalysis is available

  5. An application of luminiscence dating to building archaeology: The study of ceramic building materials in early medieval churches in north-western France and south-eastern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blain, Sophie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this thesis concerns the re-evaluation of an archaeological assumption surrounding the origin of Ceramic Building Materials (CBM used from the 9th to the 11th century in religious buildings of north-western France and south-eastern England. Are the bricks used in the masonry structures Roman spolia or a novo productions? Amongst the dating methods that can contribute to building archaeology, it is the technique of stimulated luminescence applied to CBM that is the focus of this study. Results from thermoluminescence (TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating performed on 52 CBM samples from 11 churches showed that the practice of reusing Roman brick was commonplace in small parish churches, but also that brick-making was not a totally unknown skill of the early medieval craftsmen as it has long been supposed. Most importantly, by identifying that the building material is contemporary to the church, a defined chronology emerges resulting in a new and extremely useful reference point in the history of early medieval architecture.La investigación presentada en esta tesis se ocupa de la reevaluación de un supuesto arqueológico entorno al origen del material cerámico constructivo (CBM empleado entre los siglos IX y XI en los edificios religiosos del Noroeste de Francia y el Sudeste de Inglaterra. ¿Son los ladrillos empleados en las estructuras de fábrica spolia romana o producciones a novo? Entre los métodos de datación que pueden contribuir a la arqueología del edificio, la técnica de luminiscencia estimulada aplicada al CBM es el centro de este estudio. Los resultados de la termoluminiscencia (TL y de la luminiscencia estimulada ópticamente (OSL, aplicadas en 52 muestras de CBM tomadas en 11 iglesias, evidencian que la práctica de reutilizar ladrillos romanos era común en pequeñas iglesias parroquiales, pero que también la técnica de elaboración de ladrillos no era totalmente desconocida para los

  6. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2017-07-01

    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  7. Structure of Stockmen Collaboration Networks Under Two Contrasting Touristic Regimes in the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saiz, Hugo; Gartzia, Maite; Errea, Paz; Fillat, Federico; Alados, Concepción L

    .... This study examined the collaboration networks among stockmen within two traditionally agropastoral regions in the Spanish Central Pyrenees, which in the past 30 yr included touristic activities...

  8. Blood-feeding patterns of horse flies in the French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, F; Gardès, L; De Stordeur, E; Jay-Robert, P; Garros, C

    2014-01-31

    Horse flies can mechanically transmit Besnoitia besnoiti, the agent of bovine besnoitiosis. Although previously limited to enzootic areas, especially the French Pyrenees Mountains, bovine besnoitiosis is now considered a re-emerging disease in western Europe. To improve understanding of the role of horse flies as mechanical vectors, this study investigated their blood-feeding ecology in the eastern French Pyrenees, in two high-altitude summer pastures whose main domestic ungulates were cattle, and in a wildlife park with native fauna. Species-specific PCR assays were conducted to identify the sources of blood meals: wild boar, horse, cattle (or bison), sheep (or mouflon), goat, red deer, roe deer and izard (or Pyrenean chamois). In La Mouline pasture, tabanids (N=20) fed on red deer (70%) and cattle (30%). In Mantet pasture, tabanids (N=24) fed on cattle (52%), red deer (20%), wild boar (16%), horse (8%) and sheep (4%). In the wildlife park, Tabanus bromius (N=32), the most abundant species collected, fed on red deer (85%), bison (9%) and wild boar (6%). Despite relatively high densities in both the pastures and in the wildlife park, small wild ungulates (izard, mouflon and roe deer) were not detected as a source of blood meals. Only two mixed blood meals were identified in two specimens of T. bromius: cattle/horse for the specimen collected in the pastures, and bison/wild boar for the specimen collected in the wildlife park. Our findings showed that tabanids display a level of opportunistic feeding behaviour, in addition to a preference for red deer, the latter being particularly true for Philipomyia aprica, the most abundant species collected in the pastures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Explaining attitudes to immigration in France

    OpenAIRE

    DENNISON, James; TALÒ, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes to immigration in France, as in most European countries, are highly stable and are in fact becoming slightly more favourable. • France has relatively negative attitudes to immigration when compared with other western European countries. • However, the French see immigration as a relatively unimportant issue affecting their country, considerably less so than other western European electorates. • The recent uptick in perceived importance of immigration in almost all western European c...

  10. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, P.; Sanjuán-López, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW) and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213). Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22%) to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%). Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP), while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP. (Author)

  11. Democracy as a Contested Concept in Postwar Western Europe: A Comparative Study of Political Debates in France, West Germany and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corduwener, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330209159

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how political parties in France, West Germany, and Italy conceptualized democracy and challenged the conceptions of democracy of their political adversaries between the end of the 1940s and the early 1960s. It studies from a comparative perspective the different conceptions of

  12. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 6; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 6 concerns the Aquitaine, Limousin, Midi-Pyrenees and Poitou-Charentes regions. (J.S.)

  13. Linking time-Temperature history of the Aquitaine basin with post-orogenic evolution of the Pyrenees : new insights from borehole thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Calassou, Sylvain; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Gautheron, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Within their sedimentary record, foreland basins document vertical movements of the lithosphere, climatic changes, paleogeograhic evolution but also history of exhumation of the adjacent mountain belt. Comparing vertical movements in a range and in its foreland is key to identify processes involved in growth and destruction of mountain belts. The Aquitaine basin, geomorphologically stable since the early Pyrenean orogenesis has the potential to help understanding the driving mechanisms during the late to post-orogenic phases, but the lack of outcrops makes the studies particularly difficult to achieve. To bring a new point of vue on the processes involved in the Cenozoic exhumation of this range, we present new low-Temperature thermochronology data from boreholes of the Aquitaine basin. With the objectives to study rift-related to post-orogenic processes, numerous low-T thermochronological ages ( 300 across the range) have been published, documenting pre-, syn- , and post-orogenic exhumation in the Pyrenees. Using thermal modeling of a new low-T database in the western Axial Zone, we show that a late Miocene (around 10 Ma) uplift occured in the western Pyrenees, which generalizes the post-orogenic signal already detected in the south central Pyrenees. In previous studies, we linked the post-orogenic exhumation in the Southern Pyrenees to the excavation of the foreland valleys caused by the opening of the endorheic Ebro basin towards the Mediterranean Sea. To the West, the tectonic out-of sequence reactivation of the Gavarnie thrust has been invoked to explain the late Miocene AHe ages in the Bielsa massif. These new data might lead us to re-think the causes for such an exhumation signal during "post-orogenic" times. We thus summarize all evidences for the post-orogenic phase and attempt to provide explanation for it: is exhumation driven by Aquitaine foreland basin evolution? Does it reflect a tectonic reactivation of the Pyrenees? or is the signature of a regional

  14. The geology of the upper Salat and Pallaresa Valleys, Central Pyrenees, France/Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, J.

    1960-01-01

    A sequence of more than 4000 m of marine sediments, mainly unfossiliferous and apparently without any unconformities, range in age from probable Cambrian to pre-Hercynian Carboniferous. The lower formations are of neritic facies and there is no indication of a Pyrenean basin before the Devonian, the

  15. Globalization and ethnic diversity in Western newspaper coverage of literary authors: Comparing developments in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States, 1955 to 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke); M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne); M.N.M. Verboord (Marc)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn contrast to most studies on cultural globalization, this article examines the dynamics of cross-cultural exchange between and within (Western) nation-states. Through content analysis, the authors study the extent and composition of newspaper coverage given to literary authors of

  16. Blood-feeding patterns of horse flies in the French Pyrenees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldacchino, F; Gardès, L; De Stordeur, E; Jay-Robert, P; Garros, C

    2014-01-01

    .... To improve understanding of the role of horse flies as mechanical vectors, this study investigated their blood-feeding ecology in the eastern French Pyrenees, in two high-altitude summer pastures...

  17. Shifting agriculture: the main cause of landscape degradation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, Teodoro; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz

    2017-04-01

    Cereal agriculture occupied large areas in the Spanish Pyrenees to feed the population in a socio-economic system of limited exchanges with the outside. In the Western valleys, shifting agriculture constitutes the dominant field pattern, representing almost three-quarters of the traditional agricultural space (Lasanta et al., in press). These were cultivated at times of heavy population growth, necessitating steep and stony hillsides with poor soil to be tilled, or the ones that were far away from the village. The fields were created by clearing the vegetation from a slope, then burning it to use the ash as a fertilizer. Cereal was grown for 3-4 years, after which they were abandoned for 20-30 years to recover fertility, and the cycle was repeated. Almost all the fields (99%) using shifting agriculture had been abandoned by the 1950s. This study analyzes the role of the shifting agriculture in soil erosion and landscape degradation. For this purpose, (i) experimental plots, which reproduce the traditional agriculture in the Pyrenees and the abandonment processes, and (ii) the cartography made from the SIOSE (2009), which shows the present land cover 50 years after cropland abandonment, were used. The results show that shifting agriculture caused higher soil losses than other agricultural uses (1.36 kg m-2 yr-1): fallow land (0.87 kg m-2 yr-1), chemically fertilized cereal (0.86 kg m-2 yr-1) and meadow (0.14 kg m-2 yr-1). Also, after land abandonment, soil losses are higher in shifting agriculture (0.78 kg m-2 yr-1) than cereal lands (0.73 kg m-2 yr-1). The burning of the shrub cover and the use of ashes as fertilizer did not contribute to improve the soil quality, which explains both the higher soil losses during the cultivated period and after the abandonment, since slower plant succession occurs. The results obtained from the SIOSE confirm that the change from meadows to shrubland is relatively fast, as a consequence of the low relationship with livestock

  18. On the Upper Ordovician unconformity in the Pyrenees: New evidence from the La Cerdanya area

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Tuset, Josep Maria; Fernández, Óscar

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, contradictory reports about whether or not an unconformity exists at the base of the Upper Ordovician succession of the Pyrenees have been made. In the Cerdanya area (Central Pyrenees), good outcrop evidence for this unconformity is displayed at the base of the Rabassa conglomerates. In this area, the Upper Ordovician rocks overlie a tilted Cambro-Ordovician sequence, displaying an angular unconformity and indicating a break in the stratigraphic series. Moreover, the existenc...

  19. On the Upper Ordovician unconformity in the Pyrenees : new evidence from the La Cerdanya area

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Tuset, Josep Maria

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, contradictory reports about whether or not an unconformity exists at the base of the Upper Ordovician succession of the Pyrenees have been made. In the Cerdanya area (Central Pyrenees), good outcrop evidence for this unconformity is displayed at the base of the Rabassa conglomerates. In this area, the Upper Ordovician rocks overlie a tilted Cambro-Ordovician sequence, displaying an angular unconformity and indicating a break in the stratigraphic series. Moreover, the existenc...

  20. Technological variability during the Early Middle Palaeolithic in Western Europe. Reduction systems and predetermined products at the Bau de l'Aubesier and Payre (South-East France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carmignani

    Full Text Available The study of the lithic assemblages of two French sites, the Bau de l'Aubesier and Payre, contributes new knowledge of the earliest Neanderthal techno-cultural variability. In this paper we present the results of a detailed technological analysis of Early Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblages of MIS 8 and 7 age from the two sites, which are located on opposite sides of the Rhône Valley in the south-east of France. The MIS 9-7 period is considered in Europe to be a time of new behaviours, especially concerning lithic strategies. The shift from the Lower Palaeolithic to the Early Middle Palaeolithic is "classically" defined by an increase in the number of core technologies, including standardized ones, which are stabilized in the full Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 5-3, associated with the decline of the "Acheulean" biface. Applying a common technological approach to the analysis of the two assemblages highlights their technological variability with respect to reduction systems and end products. Differences between Payre and the Bau de l'Aubesier concerning raw material procurement and faunal exploitation only partially explain this multifaceted technological variability, which in our opinion also reflects the existence of distinct technological strategies within the same restricted geographic area, which are related to distinct traditions, site uses, and/or as yet unknown parameters.

  1. Polydor France

    OpenAIRE

    Roig, Gérard

    1984-01-01

    Reconstituer le système de numérotation utilisé depuis leur origine par les marques de disques constitue une tâche probablement insurmontable, particulièrement lorsque l'on s'attaque à une " multinationale" dont la carrière commence hors de France. Et c'est le cas de la firme POLYDOR qui naquit en Allemagne et ne prit racine à Paris qu'à la fin des années 20...

  2. Variations of the age of the carboniferous limestones and Culm facies sediments in the variscan chain of southern France: migration of the variscan orogenic front. Variations de l'age des sediments calcaires et Culm carbonifere dans la chaine varisque du Sud de la France: migration de l'orogenese varisque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvolve, J.-J.; Perret, M.-F. (Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Dept. de Geologie-Petrologie-Geologie Structurale Tectonophysique)

    1989-01-01

    In the Montagne Noire, the Mouthoumet Massif and in the Pyrenees, the Carboniferous consists of pelagic limestones (Calcaires supra-griottes, Calcaires intercalaires and Calcaires post-jaspes) overlain by detrital flyschoid sediments of the Culm facies. Abundant conodont fauna show that limestone deposition ended much earlier in the east (early Visean (VIa) in the Montagne Noire) than in the West (latest Namurian (G2) in the western Pyrenees). This conclusion is supported by the age of fragments of benthonic platform limestones in Culm strata. These limestone fragments, ranging in size from sand grains to olistolits, are rich in microfossils such as foraminifers and algae. In the east (Montagne Noire), the limestones are lower (VIa) to late (V3bx{alpha}) Visean. To the southwest, in the Massif de Mouthoumet, they are late Visean (V3c) to earliest Namurian (E1) in age. To the west, in the central Pyrenees, they are early Namurian (E2). In the western Pyrenees they are Namurian: R2-G1 in the Ossau and Aspe valleys, G1 in the Gallego and Aragon Subordan valleys. At the western end of the Pyrenees (Cinco Villas massif) they are lower Westphalian C (Kachirian). The progressive westerly decrease in the age of the youngest limestones indicates that the tectonic activity responsible for the arrival of the Culm detrital sediments began later to the west. From the directions observed now, the Varisc orogeny appears to have migrated from north to south in the Montagne Noire and in the Mouthoumet Massif, then to west in the central and western Pyrenees. This migration can be traced on nearly 40 M.y., from early Visean to late Westphalian C time. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  3. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  4. A new hybrid model for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: application to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    This research is carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Here, a new hybrid model is implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the hourly sea level variability by combining classical harmonic analyses to high statistical methods to reproduce the deterministic and stochastic processes, respectively. After simulating the mean trend sea level and astronomical tides, the nontidal residual surges are investigated using an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) methods by two ways: (1) applying a purely statistical approach and (2) introducing the SLP in ARMA as a main physical process driving the residual sea level. The new hybrid model is applied to the western Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel. Using ARMA model and considering the SLP, results show that the hourly sea level observations of gauges with are well reproduced with a root mean square error (RMSE) ranging between 4.5 and 7 cm for 1 to 30 days of gaps and an explained variance more than 80 %. For larger gaps of months, the RMSE reaches 9 cm. The negative and the positive extreme values of sea levels are also well reproduced with a mean explained variance between 70 and 85 %. The statistical behavior of 1-year modeled residual components shows good agreements with observations. The frequency analysis using the discrete wavelet transform illustrate strong correlations between observed and modeled energy spectrum and the bands of variability. Accordingly, the proposed model presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the total sea level at timescales from days to months. The ARMA model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at larger scales of years by introducing more physical processes driving its stochastic variability.

  5. Genetic diversity and phylogeography in two diploid ferns, Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, in the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, H V; Ansell, S W; Russell, S J; Schneider, H; Vogel, J C

    2009-12-01

    Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens are diploid rock ferns of limestone outcrops of the western Mediterranean region. Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum occurs from Valencia through northeastern Spain to the Alpes-Maritimes and Swiss Jura. Asplenium petrarchae subsp. bivalens occurs only on Majorca, in Valencia and possibly in southern Spain. We analysed allozyme and chloroplast genetic marker diversity in 75 populations of A. fontanum subsp. fontanum and 12 populations of A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens sampled from across their respective ranges. The two species show similar levels of species and population genetic diversity to one another and to other diploid European Asplenium taxa. Both are predominantly outbreeding, as indicated by F(IS) = 0.108 and 0.167 respectively. Substantial between-population differentiation results largely from differentiation between regions. Isolation by distance operates over limited geographic ranges, up to 50 km. In A. fontanum subsp. fontanum, the major geographical differentiation between Valencia and the rest of the taxon range probably represents an ancient range fragmentation. A less pronounced differentiation divides populations in the SW from those in the NE of the range, with evidence for a biogeographic link between the eastern Pyrenees and southeastern France. High diversity in the Pyrenees may either represent ancient population differentiation, or a suture zone. In A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, populations on Majorca exhibit a subset of the genetic diversity present in Valencia, although the two regions are strongly differentiated by differing allele frequencies. Dispersal from the mainland may have founded Majorcan populations, although a role for in situ island survival cannot be excluded.

  6. Debris flow characteristics and relationships in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconfined debris flows (i.e. not in incised channels are one of the most active geomorphic processes in mountainous areas. Since they can threaten settlements and infrastructure, statistical and physically based procedures have been developed to assess the potential for landslide erosion. In this study, information on debris flow characteristics was obtained in the field to define the debris flow runout distance and to establish relationships between debris flow parameters. Such relationships are needed for building models which allow us to improve the spatial prediction of debris flow hazards. In general, unconfined debris flows triggered in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees are of the same order of magnitude as others reported in the literature. The deposition of sediment started at 17.8°, and the runout distance represented 60% of the difference in height between the head of the landslide and the point at which deposition started. The runout distance was relatively well correlated with the volume of sediment.

  7. Evidence for a (15)N positive excursion in terrestrial foodwebs at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France: Implications for early modern human palaeodiet and palaeoenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G; Madelaine, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition around 35,000 years ago coincides with the replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans in Europe. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this replacement, one of them being the ability of anatomically modern humans to broaden their dietary spectrum beyond the large ungulate prey that Neanderthals consumed exclusively. This scenario is notably based on higher nitrogen-15 amounts in early Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern human bone collagen compared with late Neanderthals. In this paper, we document a clear increase of nitrogen-15 in bone collagen of terrestrial herbivores during the early Aurignacian associated with anatomically modern humans compared with the stratigraphically older Châtelperronian and late Mousterian fauna associated with Neanderthals. Carnivores such as wolves also exhibit a significant increase in nitrogen-15, which is similar to that documented for early anatomically modern humans compared with Neanderthals in Europe. A shift in nitrogen-15 at the base of the terrestrial foodweb is responsible for such a pattern, with a preserved foodweb structure before and after the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France. Such an isotopic shift in the terrestrial ecosystem may be due to an increase in aridity during the time of deposition of the early Aurignacian layers. If it occurred across Europe, such a shift in nitrogen-15 in terrestrial foodwebs would be enough to explain the observed isotopic trend between late Neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans, without any significant change in the diet composition at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. GHG Fluxes in semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouk, Haifa; Altimir, Nuria; Ribas, Angela; Ibañez, Mercedes; Sebastià, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Mountain areas are identified by the IPCC report (2013) as particularly sensitive to climate change. The need to understand mountain grasslands is crucial since these ecosystems can act as both sinks and sources of CO2. Investigating CH4 and N2O fluxes is important because they can offset potential CO2 sequestration. While most studies have been focusing on CO2, the knowledge on the temporal and spatial variability of CH4 and N2O, particularly in semi-natural mountain grasslands, is scarce. This study describes the magnitude and range of variability of the fluxes of CO2, N2O, and CH4 from four semi-natural pastures in the Pyrenees across an altitudinal gradient (1026 to 2436 m a.s.l.) during the growth period in 2012 and 2013. We measured GHG fluxes of the grassland during both light and dark conditions in the study sites using a photoacoustic field gas-monitor (INNOVA 1412, LumaSense Technologies). After completing the GHG measurements, we collected vegetation samples for the estimation of above-ground and below-ground biomass and separated them into functional groups and species. We present here the analysis of the relationship between GHG fluxes and above-ground biomass including the contribution of the relative abundance of plant functional types. Our preliminary results showed a clear seasonal pattern of GHG fluxes. We observed a negative impact of the summer period on the GHG fluxes, which was mostly pronounced in the CO2. We will further elaborate in-depth the effect of the temporal and spatial variability on the fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4. Also, we will present the relationship between the GHG fluxes and the contribution of the vegetation in terms of the relative abundance of different plant functional types.

  9. Changes in land cover and shallow landslide activity: a case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pyrenees, like many other mountain areas in Europe, have experienced depopulation and land abandonment during the 20th Century. This has encouraged vegetation recovery in formerly occupied areas, including reforestation to promote woodland. The objective of this study is to analyse the

  10. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan

  11. Temporal and spatial interactions of slope and catchment processes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J.M.; Lana-Renault, N.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Lasanta, T.; Arnáez, J.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Regüés, D.; Martí-Bono, C.

    2004-01-01

    Historical and present day changes in land uses and plant cover explain the complex interactions assessed in the Central Spanish Pyrenees between geomorphic processes in hillslopes and channels. More intense erosion periods caused an enlargement of sediment sources areas and an increase of

  12. Description of certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts of the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Kerst Th.

    1973-01-01

    Certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts are described from the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Of the Polygnathus foveolatus group, defined here, P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson, P. lenzi Klapper, P. pireneae n. sp., P. cf. P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson and P. cf. P. lenzi Klapper are described. P.

  13. Geomorphic and hydrological effects of traditional shifting agriculture in a Mediterranean mountain, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasanta, T.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting agriculture occupied large areas of middle latitude mountains during periods of strong demographic pressure. On average, this practice accounted for about 22.8% of the total cultivated area in the Central Spanish Pyrenees at the beginning of the 20th century. The use of experimental

  14. Arabis soyeri Reuter ex Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae en el Pirineo aragonés [Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae, in the Aragonese Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente FERRÁNDEZ PALACIO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En esta nota confirmamos la presencia de Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri en el Pirineo aragonés (provincia de Huesca. Esta cita oscense se sitúa en el límite SW de su área de distribución endémica. Además, comentamos algunos aspectos sobre su autoecología y conservación.SUMMARY: Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri is confirmed for the flora of the Aragonese Pyrenees (Huesca province, Spain. Moreower, this new station is located on the south-western border of its endemic range. Some aspects on its autecology and conservation are discussed as well.

  15. Unravelling the long-term cooling history of the northern Pyrenees from rifting-to-orogenic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacherat, Arnaud; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Gautheron, Cécile; Bernet, Matthias; Tibari, Bouchaib; Pinna, Rosella; Daudet, Maxime; Radal, Julien

    2015-04-01

    -related architecture is well preserved in the northern part of the Ariège area. We propose this results from the inversion of a moderately thinnned part of the European domain. This contrasts with the highly deformed south Ariège région (Aulus basin) and with the Mauléon basin in western Pyrenees, interpeted as developed on an extremely thinned part of the European domain. This study brings major constraints to a tectonic model in which shortening and exhumational patterns in orogens are largely controlled by the inherited pre-orogenic structure of the inverted domain.

  16. HT-LP thermometamorphism modelling : Agly massif, French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournaire Guille, Baptiste; Pascal, Marie-Lola; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Annen, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the strongly anomalous thermal gradients implied, HT-LP metamorphism is a worldwide type of processes in which magma emplacement and solidification at relatively high levels in the crust must be considered as a potentially major heat source. Thermal modelling (e.g. Annen et al. 2005) is an appropriate tool for constraining the part played by such processes in practical cases of thermometamorphism. We study the Agly massif, an exhumed part of middle crust from the Variscan belt in the French Pyrenees. This massif is a classical example of HT-LP metamorphism (Vielzeuf 1996), composed of a metasedimentary cover, mainly micaschists aged from upper Cambrian to Devonian, unconformably overlying an older basement of para- and orthogneisses. The Variscan metamorphic facies extend from greenschists, in the upper part of the cover, to granulites in the basement (Fonteilles 1976). The apparent geotherm of about 110°/km in the metasedimentary cover (amphibolite and greenschist facies) has given way to contrasting interpretations. Magmatic activity partly synchronous with and probably related to the Variscan thermometamorphism is observed at the outcropping level as at least 4 magmatic bodies of mantle origin (Touil 1994), of Stephanian age, including granodiorites and subordinate diorites and gabbros. Recent U/Pb datations on zircons (Tournaire-Guille et al., in prep) also reveal the presence of lower Cambrian magmatism in the gneisses, therefore confirming their interpretation as a pre-Variscan basement. The location (depth), volume (thickness), temperature (composition) and timing of magma emplacement are the parameters controlling the thermal effect to be modelled with a Matlab® code (Annen et al. 2005). In order to constrain these parameters, we have updated the lithostratigraphy and the PT conditions of the Variscan metamorphism in the Agly area. Mineralogic and petrologic data exploited in thermobarometric analyses compared with thermodynamic PerpleX modelling

  17. RESEARCH: Managing Mountainous Degraded Landscapes After Farmland Abandonment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinillo; Lasanta; Garcia-Ruiz

    1997-07-01

    / Plant succession and pasture resources have been studied in abandoned fields of the central Spanish Pyrenees, in an environment severely affected by strong demographic pressure in the past. Several hydromorphological features (runoff and sediment yield) were also analyzed for different environments of the abandoned fields, in order to forecast the effects of their reclamation and transformation into areas for livestock use. The availability and accessibility of pastures as well as soil and water conservation is related to the process of colonization of Genista scorpius. Under a dense shrub cover both runoff and sediment yield are strongly controlled. As the shrub cover becomes open, sediment yield and runoff increase greatly. A dense herbaceous cover yields high runoff coefficients but moderate soil losses. From the results obtained, the possibility of abandoned field reclamation by means of selective clearing of scrub is discussed.KEY WORDS: Abandoned fields; Plant succession; Degraded environments; Soil erosion; Runoff; Spanish Pyrenees

  18. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Castroviejo, Ricardo

    1990-01-01

    The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees). Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in di...

  19. Changes in land cover and shallow landslide activity: a case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    S. Beguería

    2006-01-01

    The Pyrenees, like many other mountain areas in Europe, have experienced depopulation and land abandonment during the 20th century. This has encouraged vegetation recovery in formerly occupied areas, including reforestation to promote woodland. The objective of this study is to analyse the effects of these changes on shallow landsliding, a process responsible for erosion and land degradation in many mountain areas. A sequence of aerial images reveals a slight decrease in the landslide occurre...

  20. Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Description and analysis of major debris flows occurred during 2008 in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, G.; Postilla, M.; Hürlimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the Eastern Pyrenees, debris flows are not as frequent as in other mountainous areas such as the Alps. Nevertheless, several important events have occurred in 2008 provoking damages to essential infrastructures and causing large economic loss. A rainstorm at the beginning of June 2008 generated various surficial slides and debris flows in the area of Berga, located in the Pre-Pyrenees. A major flow obstructed the tunnel entrance of a national road during several days. Another rainstorm on August 1 caused several debris flows and debris floods in the Southern sector of Andorra, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. The most important event occurred in the Riu Runer torrent and destroyed the main building at the Andorran border. Finally, a large debris flow was triggered by a thunderstorm on September 11 near Rialp, Axial Pyrenees. Some installations of Port-Ainé's ski-resort were damaged and its access road was destroyed at several points. Preliminary results of these three events are presented focussing on the initiation, flow behaviour and deposition processes. Moreover, the influence of human activity on the initiation was analysed. Field surveys and interpretation of aerial photographs are carried out in order to obtain geomorphologic information as well as data on the hydraulic characteristics. Additionally, rainfall as triggering is studied using records from nearby observation stations and data from weather radars. Finally, the dynamic behaviour is simulated at one site applying numerical modelling. Volume estimates of the two events occurred in the Axial Pyrenees range from 5000 up to 10000 m3. These are rather large magnitudes compared to historic debris flows in the same area. The initiation process of both events can be defined as in-channel formation. Field observations indicated important erosion rates of up to 10 m3/m characteristic of the high flow velocities estimated along the flow trajectory. In contrast, the Berga event was caused by a surficial

  2. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystal preferred orientation in peridotite ultramylonites deformed by grain size sensitive creep, étang de Lers, Pyrenees, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drury, M.R.; Avé Lallemant, H.G.; Pennock, G.M.; Palasse, L.N.

    2011-01-01

    In naturally deformed upper mantle rocks a strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) occurs in rocks with grain sizes larger than about 15 mm. Finer grained peridotites tend to have weak to random olivine CPO. The different types of olivine CPO are usually interpreted in relation

  4. ShakeMap implementation for Pyrenees in France-Spain border: regional adaptation and earthquake rapid response process.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertil, Didier; Roviró, Jordi; Antonio Jara, Jose; Susagna, Teresa; Nus, Eduard; Goula, Xavier; Colas, Bastien; Dumont, Guillaume; Cabañas, Luis; Anton, Resurección; Calvet, Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The USGS-ShakeMap package is used with a regional adaptation to provide automatic shake maps in rapid response for Pyrenean earthquakes. The Near Real Time system relies on servers designed for data exchange between transborder organizations involved in the Sispyr project. First maps will be provide as soon as possible after the shock, and updated with observed macroseismic intensities on the following hours. Regional Predictive Equations Tapia (2006) and Goula et al. ...

  5. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  6. Soil removed by voles of the genus Pitymys in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi, C. E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosiogenic activity of Pyrenean mountain voles is studied following the measures taken in an experimental plot in the Western Pyrenees. An easy model for estimating the volume and weight of soil carried to the surface by voles is presented and used to quantify this amount in natural conditions. Fossorial Pyrenean rodents seem to dislodge well over 6Tm/ha.yr of soil on the colonized areas above the timberline. The four stages (new, recent, old, and vegetated of the evolution of soil heaps are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the rate of horizontal sediment transport due to the direct action of voles, with a maximum result of 17 cm3/cm.yr, quite comparable to pure geoclimatic rates.

    [es] Se estudia la actividad de movimiento del suelo de los roedores pirenaicos del género Pitymys, a partir de los datos obtenidos en una parcela experimental situada en los Pirineos Occidentales. Se presenta un modelo sencillo para estimar la cantidad de tierra removida a partir de medidas que pueden tomarse fácilmente en el campo, y se emplea dicho modelo para evaluar esta magnitud en condiciones naturales. Al parecer, los roedores subterráneos pueden sacar al exterior más de 6 Tm de tierra por hectárea y año en las zonas epiforestales que colonizan. También se discute la evolución del suelo removido y sus condiciones para la erosión por escorrentía. Finalmente se intenta evaluar la tasa de transporte horizontal del sedimento debida a los animales, que resulta ser de hasta 17 cm3 por cm y año, un valor claramente comparable con los debidos a agentes geoclimáticos.
    [fr] On a étudié l'activité fouisseuse des campagnols pyrénéens du genre Pitymys, d'après les données recueillies dans une enclosure expérimentale située dans les Pyrénées de l'Ouest. On présente un modèle simple permettant d'estimer la quantité de sol mue par les campagnols a partir de mésurements qu

  7. Serological survey of Coxiella burnetii at the wildlife-livestock interface in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Cabezón, Óscar; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2016-04-27

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species and causes the disease Q fever. Both wild and domestic ruminants may be relevant in the epidemiology of C. burnetii infection. In order to investigate the significance of the ruminant host community in the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees, Northeastern Spain, in the epidemiology of Q fever, a serological survey was performed on samples from 599 wild and 353 sympatric domestic ruminants. Specific antibodies against C. burnetii were detected with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Domestic sheep showed the highest prevalence (12.7 %, CI 95 % 8.6-16.9), followed by European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) with a 6.8 % prevalence (CI 95 % 1.6-12.1), red deer (Cervus elaphus) with 2.4 % (CI 95 % 0-5.6), and cattle with a prevalence of 1.1 % (CI 95 % 0-3.2). No positive domestic goats, fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) were detected. Sheep flock prevalence was 75 % (nine of the 12 sheep flocks sampled were positive, within-flock prevalence ranging from 11.1 to 25.0 %), whereas cattle herd prevalence was 11.1 % (one out of the nine cattle herds sampled was positive, within-herd prevalence of 10.0 %. Both domestic and wild ruminants from the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees were exposed to C. burnetii. The higher seroprevalence in sheep and its relative abundance suggest that this species may have a major contribution to the ecology of C. burnetii. Conversely, wild ruminants do not seem to represent a relevant host community for C. burnetii maintenance in the Eastern Pyrenees.

  8. Contradictory indications from terrestrial archives for the asynchronous LGM glaciation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Studies from several Mediterranean sites suggest a nonuniform glaciation during the last glacial cycle. For the Pyrenees an asynchronous maximum ice extent compared to the global last glacial maximum (LGM) is controversially discussed. Our study sites are located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, namely the Aragon and Gallego Valley. Both valleys are type locations for the Pleistocene glaciations and the early maximum ice extent for the Pyrenees was dated amongst other sites in the Gallego Valley to about 36 ka. Due to the potential time span since the earlier deglaciation compared to LGM sites from Central Europe we used a pedological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct the Late Quaternary landscape development. Our results indicate a considerable reshaping of the LGM landscape prior to the onset of the Holocene. The LGM tills are covered by a deposit with high content of fine sand and coarse silt. On the slopes the clasts in these fine-grained sediments are aligned parallel to the slope direction, whereas in the underlaying tills the clasts are aligned rectangular to the slope direction and therefore representing the direction of the Pleistocene glacier movement. We attribute the alignment of the clasts in the sediment covering the tills to solifluction induced by periglacial conditions. The high contents of coarse silt and fine sand are also characteristic for the eolian component in periglacial slope deposits. OSL datings suggest an age of about 14 ka for these sediments. Soil micromorphology shows that the periglacial deposits were not subject to intensive pedogenic processes prior to the sedimentation but that profiles are strongly affected by lessivation after deposition. Soil erosion is only evident during the Holocene and we associate these phases of soil erosion with the human impact. We found no indications for geomorphologic and pedogenic processes between the reported deposition of the LGM till around 36 ka and the periglacial conditions dated

  9. Representation of paleomagnetic data in virtual globes: A case study from the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochales, Tania; Blenkinsop, Thomas G.

    2014-09-01

    Virtual globes allow geo-referencing and visualization of diverse geologic datasets. A vertical axis paleomagnetic rotation study in the Southern Pyrenees, Spain, is used to illustrate the potential of virtual globes for representing paleomagnetic data. A macro-enabled workbook that we call P2K, allows KML files to be generated from conventional paleomagnetic datasets. Cones and arch models are used to represent the paleomagnetic vector, and the rotation with regard to the local reference direction, respectively. This visualization provides simultaneous representation of local magnetic declination, inclination and precise confidence cones, shown in their geographic position from diverse perspectives and scales.

  10. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  11. [Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation history in the mountain range of central Pyrenees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Sandrine; Belet, Jean-Marc; Bouchette, Anne; Otto, Thierry; Dedoubat, Jean-Jacques; Fontugne, Michel; Jalut, Guy

    2004-04-01

    We present the pollen analysis of a new sedimentary sequence taken at La Pouretère ( 1720 m), in the mountain vegetation zone of the Marcadau valley (central Pyrenees). The Lateglacial and Holocene chronology is supported by six 14C-dating results. The complementary analysis of some vegetal macroremains, stomata, pollen-clusters and the use of pollen influx allows us to elucidate the dynamic of mountain species such as Pinus and specially Abies but also to infer the unusual part played by Betula at the beginning of the Postglacial period.

  12. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software.

  13. Stratigraphic and structural reconstruction of an Upper Ordovician super-eruption (Catalan Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Joan; Casas, Josep Maria; Muñoz, Josep A.

    2017-04-01

    Pre-Variscan basement of the Pyrenees includes evidence of many magmatic episodes represented by different types of granitoids and volcanic rocks, which indicates the complex geodynamic history of this peri-Gondwana terrane during Palaeozoic. One of the most significative magmatic episodes is that of Upper Ordovician (Caradocian) age, which is represented by several granitic and granodioritic bodies and volcanic rocks mostly of pyroclastic nature. In the Catalan Pyrenees this magmatism is well represented in the Ribes de Freser and Nuria area, where the orthogneisses from the Nuria massif and the Ribes granophyre, both with a similar age of 457 Ma, seem to form a calc-alkaline plutonic suite covering terms from deeper to shallower levels. The presence of numerous pyroclastic deposits and lavas interbedded with Caradocian sediments and intruded by and immediately above the Ribes granophyre, suggests that this intrusive episode also generated significant volcanism. The area also hosts an important volume of rhyolitic ignimbrites and andesitic lavas strongly affected by Alpine tectonics and commonly showing tectonised contacts at the base and top of the sequences. These volcanic rocks were previously attributed to the Upper Carboniferous late-Variscan volcanism, extensively represented in the Pyrenees. However, new laser ablation U-Pb zircon geochronology from these rocks has revealed an Upper Ordovician age ( 455 Ma), similar to that of the plutonic rocks of the same area, thus suggesting a probable genetic relation between all them. The palinspatic reconstruction of the Alpine and Variscan tectonic units that affect this area has permitted to infer the geometry, facies distribution, original position, and thickness of these volcanic rocks previously attributed to the late-Variscan volcanism, and reveals how they are spatially (and stratigraphically) associated with the previously identified Late Ordovician volcanic rocks. In particular, the volcanic rocks cropping

  14. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  15. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gascoin

    2015-05-01

    a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85 for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81 for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67. We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the time above 1600 m between December and April. We finally analyze the snow patterns for the atypical winter 2011–2012. Snow cover duration anomalies reveal a deficient snowpack on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees, which seems to have caused a drop in the national hydropower production.

  16. Hydrological effects of the increasing vegetation in the headwaters of the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. I.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Beguería, S.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mediterranean mountains are key areas for providing water to their semiarid surrounding lowlands. Land abandonment and intense reforestation activities have caused a marked increase of vegetation in the headwaters of the Pyrenees during the 20th century. This research shows evidences on how this increase of vegetation has caused a severe reduction in the runoff generation that may not simply be explained by the recent climatic evolution. The reduction in water yield is already severely affecting to water resources availability and water management in the region. Scenarios for the future suggest that afforestation may continue or even be accelerated in the Pyrenees affecting mostly to the subalpine belt. Increasing vegetation around the current tree line is expected to continue enhancing evapotranspiration rates, but also to alter the accumulation and melting of the snowpack by increasing interception and producing an earlier melting onset. Such changes are likely to interact with the projected temperature warming for this region. Implications of the climate and land cover scenarios on water availability for the next decades are examined and discussed in depth.

  17. Climate signals in Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.; Cantalejo, B.; Scotchman, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, occupies a crucial position between the non-marine, marginal-marine and shallow-marine environments that acted as the sediment-supply and staging areas for sediment transfer processes into the deep-marine environments of the Ainsa Basin, and the more distal Jaca and Pamplona basins. Studies of source-to-sink systems make the Eocene stratigraphy of the Pyrenees and adjoining areas one of the best natural laboratories worldwide for understanding a complete sedimentary system. The hydrocarbon industry requires good predictive models for the distribution of reservoir and non-reservoir deposits. Using a wide range of proxy physical and geochemical data, we show with a high degree of confidence that Milankovitch forcing at a range of astronomical scales controlled deposition of the thin-bedded, fine-grained sandy turbidites and hemipelagites throughout the basin (~ 70% of the stratigraphy). The driver on sandy channelised submarine-fan deposition (the principal sandbodies) cannot be simply related to Milankovitch frequencies and is likely to be due to a combination of climatic, tectonic and/or autocyclic processes.

  18. Subalpine Pyrenees received higher nitrogen deposition than predicted by EMEP and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Marion; Lamaze, Thierry; Couvidat, Florian; Pornon, André

    2015-08-01

    Deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere is expected to be the third greatest driver of biodiversity loss by the year 2100. Chemistry-transport models are essential tools to estimate spatially explicit N deposition but the reliability of their predictions remained to be validated in mountains. We measured N deposition and air concentration over the subalpine Pyrenees. N deposition was found to range from 797 to 1,463 mg N m-2 year-1. These values were higher than expected from model predictions, especially for nitrate, which exceeded the estimations of EMEP by a factor of 2.6 and CHIMERE by 3.6. Our observations also displayed a reversed reduced-to-oxidized ratio in N deposition compared with model predictions. The results highlight that the subalpine Pyrenees are exposed to higher levels of N deposition than expected according to standard predictions and that these levels exceed currently recognized critical loads for most high-elevation habitats. Our study reveals a need to improve the evaluation of N deposition in mountains which are home to a substantial and original part of the world’s biodiversity.

  19. Cadomian volcanosedimentary complexes across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition of the Eastern Pyrenees, southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padel, Maxime; Álvaro, J. Javier; Casas, Josep Maria; Clausen, Sébastien; Poujol, Marc; Sánchez-García, Teresa

    2017-11-01

    The volcanism hosted by the Ediacaran-Terreneuvian Canaveilles Group of the Eastern Pyrenees displays two distinct geochemical affinities: (1) metabasites of the Nyer and Olette formations reflect the emplacement of a tholeiitic magmatism linked to extensional conditions, whereas (2) subsequent felsic and calc-alkaline magmatic rocks marking the top of the Olette Formation and forming the overlying Fabert and Finestrelles members represent Cadomian magmatic events. Based on U-Pb zircon dating constraints, palaeotopographic relationships linked to onlap geometries and distance from vent sources, three volcanosedimentary edifices can be distinguished, the so-called Tregurà (ca. 565-552 Ma), Cap de Creus (ca. 558 Ma) and Coll d'Ares (ca. 542-532 Ma) edifices. The top of their palaeoreliefs recorded locally the nucleation of centres of microbial carbonate productivity (Puig Sec Member) linked to synsedimentary tilting and karstification. Throughout West Gondwana, the presence of carbonate production across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition is exclusively located in back-arc settings (Central-Iberian Zone) and areas far from the Cadomian subduction trench and devoid of significant terrigenous input, such as those reported in the Eastern Pyrenees and the neighbouring Montagne Noire.

  20. Discovery of Unusual Minerals in Paleolithic Black Pigments from Lascaux (France) and Ekain (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmin, E.; /Marne la Vallee U.; Farges, F.; /Marne l Vallee U. /Museum Nat. Hist., Paris /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Vignaud, C.; /Unknown; Susini, J.; /ESRF,; Menu, M.; /unknown; Brown, G.E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-13

    Analyses of archaeological materials aim to rediscover the know-how of Prehistoric people by determining the nature of the painting matter, its preparation mode, and the geographic origin of its raw materials. This study deals with identification of manganese oxides in black pigments by micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) based on previous TEM (transmission electron microscopy) studies. Complex mixtures of the manganese oxides studied are present in some of mankind's oldest known paintings, namely those from the caves of Lascaux (Dordogne, France) and Ekain (Basque country, Spain). Scarce manganese oxide minerals, including groutite, hausmannite, and manganite, were found for the first time in Paleolithic art at these archaeological sites. Because there are no known deposits of such minerals in these areas, more distant origins and trade routes are inferred. The closest known Mn-rich geological province for Lascaux is the central Pyrenees, which is {approx} 250 km from the Dordogne area.

  1. Sedimentology, paleoclimatology, and diagenesis of Post-Hercynian continental deposits in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, Peter J.C.

    1969-01-01

    The first chapter of the post-Hercynian geologic history of the South-Central Pyrenees is recorded in a sequence of fluvial and volcanic deposits which reach a total of added maximum thicknesses of more than 2300 m and date from the Westphalian D up to and including the Lower Triassic. The present

  2. Spatial pattern and temporal variability of runoff processes in Mediterranean Mountain environments - a case study of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzen, V.; Seeger, K.M.; Casper, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain environments like the Central Spanish Pyrenees show a highly variable rainfall-runoff response, mainly explained by the intense intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitation yield. This leads to a highly differentiated moisture status and therefore it is assumed to lead

  3. Pollen and non-pollen palynomorph indicators of vegetation and highland grazing activities obtained from modern surface and dung datasets in the eastern Pyrenees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ejarque, Ana; Miras, Yannick; Riera Mora, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    .... in the south-eastern Pyrenees. This research aimed to analyse highland pollen and NPP in relation to vegetation and grazing, and to evaluate the local and regional significance of modern pollen deposition...

  4. Salt structures and vertical axis rotations; a case study in the Barbastro-Balaguer anticline, Southern Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Emilio L.; Oliván, Carlota; Soto, Ruth; Rodríguez-Pintó, Adriana; Santolaria, Pablo; Luzón, Aránzazu; Casas, Antonio M.; Ayala, Conxi

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis rotations are common in all deformation settings. At larger scales, for example in fold and thrust belts, they are usually related to differential shortening along strike and this may be caused by a number of reasons (interplay of plate boundaries, sedimentary wedges, detachment level distribution, etc.). At smaller scales, local stress fields, interference of non-coaxial deformation phases, development of non-cylindrical structures, etc. may play an important role to accommodate significant magnitudes of rotation. Apart from their implication in the truly 4D understanding of geological structures, the occurrence of vertical axis rotation usually precludes the application of most 3D restoration techniques and thus, increases the uncertainty in any 3D reconstruction. Salt structures may form in different geological settings, but focusing on compressive regimes, very little is known about the relation between their geometry and kinematics and their ability to accommodate vertical axis rotations (i.e. local or regional lateral gradients of shortening). The Barbastro-Balaguer anticline (BBA) is the southernmost structure of the Central Pyrenees. It is a large detachment fold spreading more than 150 km along the front. In contrast to most frontal Pyrenean structures, the BBA is detached in Priabonian evaporites and was folded during Oligocene times as witnessed by well exposed growth strata. Along strike changes in the fold axis trend may reach 50°, an overall the anticline displays a convex shape towards the foreland (south). A residual Bouguer anomaly map based on a densely sampled gravimetric surveying (10.000 stations) has helped delineating a heterogeneous distribution of the Eocene detachment level in the subsurface. In this contribution we explore the interplay between vertical axis rotations, detachment level distribution and the fold geometry (structural trend and style based on hundreds of data). Seventy paleomagnetic sites evenly and densely

  5. Description and analysis of the debris flows occurred during 2008 in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Portilla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-triggered landslides taking place in the Spanish Eastern Pyrenees have usually been analysed on a regional scale. Most research focussed either on terrain susceptibility or on the characteristics of the critical rainfall, neglecting a detailed analysis of individual events. In contrast to other mountainous regions, research on debris flow has only been performed marginally and associated hazard has mostly been neglected.

    In this study, five debris flows, which occurred in 2008, are selected; and site specific descriptions and analysis regarding geology, morphology, rainfall data and runout were performed. The results are compared with worldwide data and some conclusions on hazard assessment are presented.

    The five events can be divided into two in-channel debris flows and three landslide-triggered debris flows. The in-channel generated debris flows exceeded 10 000 m3, which are unusually large mass movements compared to historic events which occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees. In contrast, the other events mobilised total volumes less than 2000 m3. The geomorphologic analysis showed that the studied events emphasize similar patterns when compared to published data focussing on slope angle in the initiation zone or catchment area.

    Rainfall data revealed that all debris flows were triggered by high intensity-short duration rainstorms during the summer season. Unfortunately, existing rainfall thresholds in the Eastern Pyrenees consider long-lasting rainfall, usually occurring in autumn/winter. Therefore, new thresholds should be established taking into account the rainfall peak intensity in mm/h, which seems to be a much more relevant factor for summer than the event's total precipitation.

    The runout analysis of the 2008 debris flows confirms the trend that larger volumes generally induce higher mobility. The numerical simulation of the Riu Runer event shows that its dynamic behaviour

  6. Influence of spring snowpack melting on thunderstorm activity in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, R.; Callado, A.; Terradelles, E.; Téllez, B.

    2009-09-01

    Catalan Pyrenees, the eastern half of the Pyrenees range, is a very popular area for tourism, hiking and climbing. This sector of the range is 200 km long and, on average, 80 km wide. Its highest peaks reach 3000 m ASL and there are many summits above 2500 m ASL. Two of the main climatic characteristics of the region are the very frequent summer convective storms and the late autumn, winter and spring snow-cover. Both characteristics have normally been studied from different points of view, and weather forecasts in late spring have not normally considered the plausible relationship between them. The snowpack melting from April to June, especially rapid in May, leads to important changes on the surface energy balance since the evolution from snow-covered ground to bare soil or canopy, significantly alters the surface albedo and the turbulent, latent and sensible, heat fluxes. These modifications have a noticeable influence in developing or inhibiting thermally-induced mesoscale circulations such as upslope winds, valley breezes or plane-mountain breezes, and could condition the triggering of convection, showers and storm activity. In order to gain insight into the relationship between the spring snowpack melting and the location of thunderstorm activity, a comparison between seasonal snow-cover and thunderstorm frequency evolution (using lightning network data) for a period of 5 years has been carried out, showing a progressive transition from a non-convective to a convective precipitation regime in areas where the snowpack has melted recently Furthermore, a meso-beta scale non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model at a 2.5-km horizontal resolution is used to study the sensitivity of snowpack extension on the thunderstorms development over the complex orography of the Catalan Pyrenees. A spring case with thunderstorm activity restricted to snow-free areas has been selected and accurately simulated. A number of sensitivity runs with different initial snow

  7. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  8. Industrial Psychology in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  9. CORRUPTION IN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the research conducted by Transparency International, in the period from 2009 until 2012, it is found that this European country did not undergo drastic changes during this period, when it comes to its ranking. According to this research, France belongs to the countries that undertake appropriate measures for the fight against corruption – and it is at a satisfactory level in modern conditions, even in well-developed countries. Corruption in France rests on three major authorities: the Financial Intelligence Unit, the Central Service for the Prevention of Corruption (SCPC and the Central Brigade for the Fight against Corruption (BCLC. As a result of the good institutional cooperation, France is prepared to prevent corruption in the state authorities. The international community disposes of data that refer to the detrimental and difficult consequences caused by corruption. Such findings led to two key issues – prevention of corruption and fight against corruption, not only in France, but in other countries as well. In order to overcome this large-scale problem, many international documents have been adopted, ratified by the Republic of Macedonia.

  10. [Nurse prescribing in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissy, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    While the ability to prescribe has long remained outside the scope of nursing practice in France, successive changes to legislation have resulted in the real activities of nurses in this field to be taken into account. This constitutes an evolution in the nursing profession from a legal perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    For a long time in France, readaptation and reinsertion have been considered separately. While readaptation focuses on the way the patient "adapts again", reintegration looks at the place of the readaptation, the society or the group. Today, psychosocial rehabilitation encompasses both of these notions by taking into account the medical and social aspects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  13. A new lichenicolous Enterographa species from Britanny (France)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrius, L.B.; Aptroot, A.

    2007-01-01

    Enterographa brezhonega, a fourth lichenicolous species in the genus is described. The species has been collected in an ancient woodland in western France growing on Porina rosei and probably other crustose lichens with a Trentepohlia photobiont. It shows affinities with the similar Enterographa

  14. Climate and Energy Roadmaps towards 2050 in north-western Europe. A concise overview of long-term climate and energy policies in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notenboom, J.; Boot, P.; Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.

    2013-10-15

    Many European countries are developing plans for a transition towards a low-carbon economy in 2050. These plans are often named climate and energy roadmaps. Although roadmaps are also developed and discussed at EU level, this paper expressly follows a bottom-up approach by looking at developments in six north-western European countries. These countries' roadmaps are in various stages of development and cannot be compared in detail. Main differences, common approaches and possible needs for closer cooperation are therefore explored in a stylised way.

  15. Detecting human mobility in the Pyrenees through the analysis of chert tools during the Upper Palaeolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sánchez de la Torre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary results of PhD research focused on hunter-gatherer groups that occupied the Central and Eastern Pyrenees during the Magdalenian period. This research aims to improve the knowledge we have about those Magdalenian groups, specifically concerning their lithic procurement strategies. The core of the study is based on the lithic tools collected from two archaeological sites - Alonsé Cave and Forcas I Shelter, both in Huesca, Spain-, and in particular those made from chert, because they are both a spatial and a cultural marker at the same time. These cherts have been studied using petroarchaeological methods, and as a result, it has been possible to detect the type of procurement strategies carried out and to guess the relation existing between those human groups and their environment, especially in what refers to mobility strategies.

  16. Home Garden Ecosystem Services Valuation through a Gender Lens: A Case Study in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Calvet-Mir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services have become a critical issue in the environmental literature, however knowledge on whether women and men similarly value ecosystem services is still nascent. We aim at advancing the understanding of the relation between gender and environmental perceptions through the analysis of values assigned by women and men to ecosystem services supplied by home gardens in Vall Fosca (Catalan Pyrenees, north-eastern Spain. We found that women give a higher value than men to all ecosystem services. Overall, women’s valuation of the full range of ecosystem services provided by home gardens was 7.55% higher than men’s valuation. Gender socialization influences the way people interact with and value the environment, including highly managed environments such as home gardens. We argue that considering gendered differences in ecosystem services valuation may lead to policies more effective in enhancing ecosystem services provision.

  17. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.

  18. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) from 2011 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Rico, Ibai; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i) continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS), (ii) detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology) for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season) and (iii) time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA). The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface), and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277) is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological

  19. Recycling an uplifted early foreland basin fill: An example from the Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roigé, M.; Gómez-Gras, D.; Remacha, E.; Boya, S.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Teixell, A.

    2017-10-01

    In the northern Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees), the replacement of deep-marine by terrestrial environments during the Eocene records a main drainage reorganization in the active Pyrenean pro-wedge, which leads to recycling of earlier foreland basin sediments. The onset of late Eocene-Oligocene terrestrial sedimentation is represented by four main alluvial fans: Santa Orosia, Canciás, Peña Oroel and San Juan de la Peña, which appear diachronously from east to west. These alluvial fans are the youngest preserved sediments deposited in the basin. We provide new data on sediment composition and sources for the late Eocene-Oligocene alluvial fans and precursor deltas of the Jaca basin. Sandstone petrography allows identification of the interplay of axially-fed sediments from the east with transversely-fed sediments from the north. Compositional data for the alluvial fans reflects a dominating proportion of recycled rock fragments derived from the erosion of a lower to middle Eocene flysch depocentre (the Hecho Group), located immediately to the north. In addition, pebble composition allows identification of a source in the North Pyrenean Zone that provided lithologies from the Cretaceous carbonate flysch, Jurassic dolostones and Triassic dolerites. Thus we infer this zone as part of the source area, located in the headwaters, which would have been unroofed from turbidite deposits during the late Eocene-Oligocene. These conclusions provide new insights on the response of drainage networks to uplift and topographic growth of the Pyrenees, where the water divide migrated southwards to its present day location.

  20. Spatial variations of b-value and crustal stress in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, A.; Souriau, A.; Sylvander, M.

    2017-10-01

    The seismicity in the Pyrenees is continuous and well surveyed since more than 20 years. We use the catalogue of seismicity between 1997 and 2013 to explore the spatial variations of the b-value, which corresponds to the slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes. Especially, variations of the b-value characterise the state of stress of the crust, possibly highlighting a deficit of large earthquake occurrence. We estimate the differential crustal stress from the b-value using a relationship published by Scholz (Geophys Res Lett 42:1399-1402, 2015). We also estimate the stress drop variations by determining a power law which links the magnitude to the seismic source radius in the Pyrenees. We focus on the depth variations and we analyse vertical profiles of b-value, differential stress and stress drop, first in the whole Pyrenean belt, then in 10 subregions. The b-values are generally smaller than 1, except in the uppermost 3-5 km where the obtained high values could be linked to the presence of fluids. Downward, the b-values decrease slowly or remain constant until a depth of increase, which could correspond to the brittle-ductile limit of the crust. We propose that this depth and the regional and vertical variations of the b-values are related to the regional tectonic context and possibly to the density heterogeneities. We also suggest that stress drop and differential stress are linearly correlated and that the stress drop is at least 1.8‰ of the differential stress.

  1. Hemovigilance in France

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé, Patrick; Floris, Marie-Françoise L. des; Rebibo, Danielle; Morei, Pascal; Andreu, Georges

    2000-01-01

    In this work the organization of the hemovigilance system in France, the alert system related to undesirable transfusion effects and the search for seropositive blood donors is discussed. No relato são apresentados aspectos da organização da hemovigilância na França, o sistema de alerta relacionado com reações transfusionais indesejáveis e a busca de receptores sorologicamente positivos.

  2. Taxation in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  3. Carbon stable isotope (δ13C) and elemental (TOC, TN, C/N) geochemistry in salt marsh surface sediments (Western Brittany, France): Adequate proxies for relative sea-level reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jerome; Sans-jofre, Pierre; Van Vliet Lanoë, Brigitte; Delacourt, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing a dense network of precise and reliable records of Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) changes is still a major challenge for the paleo climate scientific community. In some regions, the use of traditional foraminifera-based transfer function is prevented by micro-fauna scarcity (e.g. Stéphan et al., 2014, Goslin et al., 2015), thus fostering the need for alternative proxies to be developed and used. Rather recently, isotopic and elemental geochemistry tools have been shown to form promising alternative proxies for RSL reconstruction (e.g. Wilson et al., 2005, Engelhart et al., 2013, Khan et al., 2015). Questions remain nonetheless open regarding the possibility for such markers to allow (i) distinguishing between freshwater and brackish to marine domains (this condition being needed if RSL index-points are to be derived from sedimentary markers) and (ii) to adequately identify the source of the organic matter preserved in the sediment. Concerns about the preservation of carbon and nitrogen compounds during diagenesis have also arose questioning the reliability of such markers for paleo-environmental reconstruction purposes (Wilson et al., 2005; Lamb et al., 2006). We analyzed stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and Total Nitrogen (TN) values within 94 surface sediments sampled across two C-3 plants dominated saltmarshes (Brittany, France). The distributions of δ13C, TOC, TN and C/N values is observed to follow clear and strong elevation-dependent trends. Some slight local variability appears between the studied sites that can be easily explained by the different morphological configuration and functioning of these latter. An indicator is found that allows sediments from below and above the high-tide level to be discriminated. This finding forms an interesting advance in the field as it permits to ensure that samples formed under saline conditions and thus suggests that these can be used as stand-alone proxies for RSL

  4. Integrated multi-stratigraphic study of the Coll de Terrers late Permian-Early Triassic continental succession from the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula): A geologic reference record for equatorial Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujal, Eudald; Fortuny, Josep; Pérez-Cano, Jordi; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Ibáñez-Insa, Jordi; Oms, Oriol; Vila, Isabel; Bolet, Arnau; Anadón, Pere

    2017-12-01

    The most severe biotic crisis on Earth history occurred during the Permian-Triassic (PT) transition around 252 Ma. Whereas in the marine realm such extinction event is well-constrained, in terrestrial settings it is still poorly known, mainly due to the lack of suitable complete sections. This is utterly the case along the Western Tethys region, located at Pangaea's equator, where terrestrial successions are typically build-up of red beds often characterised by a significant erosive gap at the base of the Triassic strata. Henceforth, documenting potentially complete terrestrial successions along the PT transition becomes fundamental. Here, we document the exceptional Coll de Terrers area from the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula), for which a multidisciplinary research is conducted along the PT transition. The red-bed succession, located in a long E-W extended narrow rift system known as Pyrenean Basin, resulted from a continuous sedimentary deposition evolving from meandering (lower Upper Red Unit) to playa-lake/ephemeral lacustrine (upper Upper Red Unit) and again to meandering settings (Buntsandstein facies). Sedimentary continuity is suggested by preliminary cyclostratigraphic analysis that warrants further analysis. Our combined sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical data infer a humid-semiarid-humid climatic trend across the studied succession. The uppermost Permian strata, deposited under an orbitally controlled monsoonal regime, yields a relatively diverse ichnoassemblage mainly composed of tetrapod footprints and arthropod trace fossils. Such fossils indicate appropriate life conditions and water presence in levels that also display desiccation structures. These levels alternate with barren intervals formed under dry conditions, being thus indicative of strong seasonality. All these features are correlated with those reported elsewhere in Gondwana and Laurasia, and suggest that the Permian-Triassic boundary might be recorded somewhere around

  5. Biodiversity and Greenhouse Gases in Grasslands: A Flux Network along Climate and Management Gradients in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastia, M. T.; Debouk, H.; Ibañez, M.; Llurba, R.; Ribas, A.; Altimir, N.

    2016-12-01

    Grassland in the Pyrenees is critically threatened by climate and land use changes. Ecologically, these ecosystems contain a rich biodiversity and contribute many ecosystem services, including feed production, soil carbon storage and water regulation. Socioeconomically, grasslands fuel the rural economy in the Pyrenees, including organic stockbreeding, outdoor activities and recreation. Three eddy covariance stations were established in the Eastern Pyrenees between 2009 and 2011 along altitudinal and climatic gradients by the FLUXPYR project (EU INTERREG IV-A-POCTEFA). The network of flux towers on climatically diverse grasslands is included in the European Fluxes Database Cluster. The three locations are representative of the typical managements in the region: Pla de Riart (ES-PRt, 1000 m a.s.l.), intensively managed sown grassland grazed in the fall; La Bertolina (ES-LBr, 1300 m a.s.l.), montane grassland grazed from spring to fall; and Castellar de n'Hug (ES-Cst, 2000 m a.s.l.), subalpine grassland grazed in summer. The flux studies are completed by chamber measurements of CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes by photoacoustic. The focus of study is the relationship biodiversity-ecosystem function in response to climate, management and other environmental changes. Results show how sown and spontaneous plant diversity regulates grassland functioning including greenhouse gas fluxes. Polycultures in particular have a tendency to increase NEE and Reco compared to monocultures, enhancing CO2 uptake. Grasses are less efficient photosynthetically per biomass unit than other plant functional types, but this is not reflected at the ecosystem scale, where they are dominant. N2O is a greenhouse gas particularly dependent on plant functional diversity and climatic conditions. Soil function responds to changes in plant functional type distribution within the grassland. In conclusion, biodiversity regulates greenhouse gas fluxes in many ways in grasslands in the Pyrenees, through multiple

  6. Annual and seasonal analysis of temperature and precipitation in Andorra (Pyrenees) from 1934 to 2008: quality check, homogenization and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Pere; Prohom, Marc; Aguilar, Enric; Mestre, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    ://www.meteo.cat) - Spagnoli B, Planton S, Mestre O, Déqué M, Moisselin, JM (2002). Detecting climate change at a regional scale: the case of France. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, n.10, pp. 91-94. - Maris M, Giraud G, Durand Y, Navarre JP, Mérindol L. 2009. Results of 50 years of climate reanalysis in the French Pyrenees (1958-2008) using SAFRAN and CROCUS models. International Snow Science Workshop, Davos 2009, Proceedings.

  7. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085

  8. Assessing the human health risk for aluminium, zinc and lead in outdoor dusts collected in recreational sites used by children at an industrial area in the western part of the Bassin Minier de Provence, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A. P.; Patinha, C.; Noack, Y.; Robert, S.; Dias, A. C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    The Western part of the “Bassin Minier de Provence”, a former coal mining area, is still occupied by old polluting industries such as a coal-fired power plant and an alumina factory. In 2011 a preliminary outdoor dust survey was carried out in the area as the first step to an exposure and health risk assessment study. Dust samples were taken at 19 sites distributed across the study area, depending on the location of recreational areas used by children to play outdoors. Pseudo-total concentrations of Al, Zn and Pb were determined by ICP-MS and bioaccessible concentrations were estimated using the Unified BARGE Method. Exposure was calculated according to a scenario evaluation approach for dust ingestion and dermal contact routes. Estimation of health risk for exposure to Al, Zn and Pb in outdoor dust was based on the summation of individual risks for the oral and dermal routes. Results show that Al occurs in very high concentrations but mainly innon-bioaccessible forms, especially near the alumina plant. Zinc and Pb occur in low-average levels but mainly in bioaccessible forms. The estimated potential risk decreases according to Pb ≫ Al > Zn and is lower for the ingestion route. The preliminary results presented in this study indicate that, for Al and Zn, the outdoor dusts of the BMP represent an acceptable risk to children's health. However, the estimated hazard quotients suggest that there is some health risk associated to environmental Pb.

  9. Spatial distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides at the catchment scale (South Central Pyrenees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, A., E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.e [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, Department of Soil and Water, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Apartado 13034, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, L. [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, Department of Soil and Water, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Apartado 13034, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez-Vicente, M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium); Machin, J. [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, Department of Soil and Water, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Apartado 13034, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs) were measured in the soils of a small catchment in the Central Pyrenees, Spain. The study was carried out in a mountainous area that was representative of the Tertiary Flysch landscapes in the Southern Pyrenees. Bulk soil cores (n = 77) were collected at the intersections of a 200 x 200-m grid established in the Arnas River Catchment. Mean radioisotope activities (Bq kg{sup -1}) were 40 ({sup 238}U), 27 ({sup 226}Ra), 35 ({sup 232}Th), 74 ({sup 210}Pb), 48 ({sup 210}Pb{sub ex}), 590 ({sup 40}K), and 31 ({sup 137}Cs). The {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs exhibited the greatest variability, whereas {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K showed the least spatial variation. The relationships between basic soil properties and radionuclide activities indicate that only the radionuclides, {sup 210}Pb{sub ex} and {sup 137}Cs, that are fixed to the fine fraction of the soil are directly correlated with the organic matter content, whereas the natural radionuclides are inversely correlated with the carbonate content. GIS and geospatial interpolations revealed patterns in the spatial concentrations of radionuclides and indicated important differences in their distributions showing the different behaviour of natural and fallout-derived radionuclides. The radionuclide spatial patterns were strongly correlated with physiographic features such as gradient, orientation, and vegetation cover of the slopes. Within the catchment, the least vegetated and steepest slopes had the lowest radionuclide activities, which suggest that physical processes such as erosion are primary factors in the mobilization of radionuclides in association with soil particles. The results provide insights into the main factors that have affected the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the soils of the catchment, which improves our knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment

  10. Increasing interannual and altitudinal ozone mixing ratios in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Peñuelas, Josep; Ribas, Àngela

    2009-12-01

    Interannual, seasonal, daily and altitudinal patterns of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios, as well as ozone phytotoxicity and the relationship with NO x precursors and meteorological variables were monitored in the Central Catalan Pyrenees (Meranges valley and Forest of Guils) over a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Biweekly measurements using Radiello passive samplers were taken along two altitudinal transects comprised of thirteen stations ranging from 1040 to 2300 m a.s.l. Visual symptoms of ozone damage in Bel-W3 tobacco cultivars were evaluated biweekly for the first three years (2004-2006). High ozone mixing ratios, always above forest and vegetation protection AOT40 thresholds, were monitored every year. In the last 14 years, the AOT40 (Apr-Sept.) has increased significantly by 1047 μg m -3 h per year. Annual means of ozone mixing ratios ranged between 38 and 67 ppb v (38 and 74 ppb v during the warm period) at the highest site (2300 m) and increased at a rate of 5.1 ppb v year -1. The ozone mixing ratios were also on average 35-38% greater during the warm period and had a characteristic daily pattern with minimum values in the early morning, a rise during the morning and a decline overnight, that was less marked the higher the altitude. Whereas ozone mixing ratios increased significantly with altitude from 35 ppb v at 1040 m-56 ppb v at 2300 m (on average for 2004-2007 period), NO 2 mixing ratios decreased with altitude from 5.5 ppb v at 1040 m-1 ppb v at 2300 m. The analysis of meteorological variables and NO x values suggests that the ozone mainly originated from urban areas and was transported to high-mountain sites, remaining aloft in absence of NO. Ozone damage rates increased with altitude in response to increasing O 3 mixing ratios and a possible increase in O 3 uptake due to more favorable microclimatic conditions found at higher altitude, which confirms Bel-W3 as a suitable biomonitor for ozone concentrations during summer time. Compared to the

  11. Inventory and Spatial distribution of rock glaciers in the Eastern Pyrenees: paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Pérez-Sánchez, Jordi; Salvà-Catarineu, Montserrat; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    In this communication we present a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution and morphometric characteristics of all the rock glaciers identified in the massifs located in the easternmost fringe of the Eastern Pyrenees. From west to east, this area encompasses the massifs of Puigmal (2910 m)-Bastiments (2881 m)-Costabona (2465 m) and Canigó (2784 m). The presence of rock glaciers in these mountains shows evidence of the cold-climate geomorphological processes that occurred during the Late Pleistocene in the Pyrenees. Moreover, they constitute a paleoclimate indicator of the conditions that occurred during their development. Up to 122 rock glaciers have been identified, either formed by individualized or by complex landforms formed by coalescence units. For each of these units several variables have been determined: a) location: topographic and geomorphological setting, valley and flow aspect, maximum and minimum elevation, slope, maximum and mean slope; b) lithology and morphology: underlying/prevailing lithology, general morphology, surface morphological features, grain size characterization, vegetation cover, degree of preservation, maximum elevation of the surrounding area; and c) morphometry: maximum length of the landform in the flow direction, width, perimeter and total surface. The Puigmal-Bastiments-Costabona massifs, most extensive and higher, concentrate 89% of the landforms, while the Canigó massif encompasses the remaining 11%. Most of them are located on the north slopes (69%), with a significant percentage south exposed (31%). In total, they extend over an area of 985 Ha. The distribution of rock glaciers in the study area presents significant irregularities, with a remarkable asymmetry between slopes in some sections. Consequently, we have also analyzed the dual presence/absence of rock glaciers based on the identification and morphometry of all headwaters that due to their altitude and/or morphotopography could be susceptible to house them

  12. 3D architecture of a complex transcurrent rift system: The example of the Bay of Biscay-Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Suzon; Tiberi, Christel; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2010-06-01

    The Parentis and Arzacq-Mauléon basins located in front of the V-shaped oceanic propagator in the Bay of Biscay present evidence for extreme crustal thinning. In this paper we investigate the 3D structure of these rift basins, based on field observations and the interpretation of seismic data. We compare these results with those obtained from two different and independent inversion methods: first a 3D gravity inversion and second the standard Euler deconvolution. For the Mauléon Basin our results show that the positive gravimetric anomaly identified above its southern margin is the consequence of two shallower high density bodies that are separated by the Pamplona fault and a deeper high density body. The high density bodies can be explained by the presence of mid-crustal and mantle rocks that were exhumed or uplifted at shallower depth during Early Cretaceous rifting before they were reworked and integrated to the Pyrenean chain during compression phase. Also, during this reactivation phase, some slices of the exhumed mid-crustal and mantle rocks were sheared off and were integrated in the present-day thrust belt in the Mauléon basin. For the Parentis Basin we can demonstrate, based on seismic data and gravimetric inversion methods, a decrease in extension from west to east, which is compatible with the V-shape geometry of the overall basin. Along strike, a change in the fault geometry from downward concave top-basement detachment faults to upward concave high-angle faults can be observed eastwards, i.e. towards the termination of the basin. A key structure, controlling the evolution of the Parentis Basin, is the east-west trending Ibis fault. We interpret this fault to have initially formed as a strike slip fault before it was reactivated during later crustal thinning. At present, it forms the limit between an upper plate sag basin to the north and a lower plate sag basin, floored at least locally by a top-basement detachment faults to the south. The strong asymmetry of the basin is supported by the shape of the basin and the results of standard Euler deconvolution.

  13. Colluvial legacies of millennial landscape change on individual hillsides, place-based investigation in the western Pyrenees Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Leigh; T.L. Gragson; M.R. Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    We detect transition to agropastoral land use in a mountain landscape by radiocarbon dating physical signatures (sedimentation rates, charcoal concentrations, magnetic susceptibility) of conversion from native forest to pasture contained within colluvial stratigraphic sections. Focus is on two study sites located on toeslopes directly beneath zero-order hollows...

  14. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  15. Medicolegal anthropology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işcan, M Y; Quatrehomme, G

    1999-03-15

    Medicolegal anthropology has a very long history in France. Basic studies on human skeletal remains started as early as the 18th century. The 19th century produced many medical theses and research papers on age, sex, as well as stature estimation. The research proliferated in the first 60 years of the 20th century, much of which is still in use in France and abroad. The later half of the 20th century, however, was dormant in research on human skeletal biology at a time when forensic anthropology was becoming an active field worldwide. In the last decade, medicolegal anthropology took a different perspective, independent of its traditional roots. Research and practice have both been in the professional domain of forensic physicians unlike the situation in many other countries. Population based studies requiring large databases or skeletal collections have diminished considerably. Thus, most research has been on factors of individualization such as trauma, time since death, crime scene investigation, and facial reconstruction. It is suggested that there is a need for cooperation between the forensic physician and anthropologist to further research. This also encourages anthropologists to carry out research and practice that can fulfill the needs of the medicolegal system of the country.

  16. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  17. Magnetic fabrics in overthrusted terrains: example from the Buntsandstein Facies in the southern edge of the Axial Zone (Nogueres unit, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo Llavall, E.; Casas Sainz, A.; Oliva Urcia, B.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic fabrics in deformed domains are a source of information of the strain rate and the tectonic evolution of the rocks. The present study shows the results derived from the application of this methodological approach to the Permian-Triassic red beds in the western sector of the Nogueres unit and eastern sector of the Gavarnie thrust sheet (Central Pyrenees). From the structural point of view, the sampled domain constitutes a key area since it is located in the transition between the antiformal stack of the Axial Zone to the West, including non-overturned basement thrust sheets, and the têtes plongeantes domain of the Nogueres unit to the East. The latter comprises three folded thrust sheets, involving Stephanian, Permian and Triassic rocks, whose fronts define several synformal anticlines. Alpine cleavage is generally absent within the têtes plongantes domain but Triassic outcrops located North and West are affected by WNW-ESE-striking, North-dipping cleavage planes. Samples for the study of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility were collected from 31 sites, distributed throughout the different structural domains (in the têtes plongeantes domain and in the red beds unconformably overlying the Paleozoic, North and West of the Nogueres unit). Measurements of the magnetic fabric were made at room and low temperature (~77°K) with a KLY-3S susceptibility meter (AGICO, Czech Republic) that combined with a CS-3 apparatus was also used to perform thermomagnetic runs. Mean magnetic susceptibility (Km) in the sampled sites ranges between 35 and 221·10-6 S.I. It is lower in the sandstones (

  18. New species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Europe: Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Malicky, Hans

    2015-01-20

    New species are described from the genera Consorophylax and Anisogamus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Stenophylacini). Additionally the larva of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, the male of A. waringeri sp. nov. has more-slender superior appendages; a more-rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of species in the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on abdominal segment I, a unique feature among Eurasian Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The discovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess an incompletely described biodiversity under threat of extinction. 

  19. Effects of reclamation measures on plant colonization on lignite waste in the eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninot, J.M.; Herrero, P.; Ferre, A.; Guardia, R. [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Plant Biology

    2001-07-01

    This paper deals with vegetation establishment on waste dumps in the montane and submontane belts of the eastern Pyrenees, where submediterranean Quercus humilis forests, Pinus sylvestris forests and mesoxerophilous pastures make up most of the landscape; these are considered as target communities for reclamation. The waste consists of marl and lime regolith, very poor in nutrients and structure. The dumps were terraced in 1985-1986; some were left for spontaneous re-colonization and others were reclaimed in various ways. In 1992 the authors took 36 vegetation samples on the dumps, based on the point quadrat procedure, to evaluate the colonization status and the differences between reclamation techniques. The samples were analysed on the basis of their species composition (ecological groups and multivariate analysis) and structural aspects (coverage, diversity, etc.). Reclamation treatment results varied widely, most of the dumps showing a low degree of naturalness. Colonizing vegetation ranged from a mixture of opportunist and stress-resistant taxa, forming poorly covered surfaces on the dumps where colonization has been poor, to dense grasslands dominated by one (or a few) introduced competitive grass species, where reclamation procedures had been intensive. Sowing treatments, where pasture species were sown onto dumps, produced intermediate results, as resulting vegetation cover was similar to control plots and naturalness was low, but in a few cases they yielded more interesting swards, fairly dense and diverse, and including high numbers of spontaneous species. Choice of sown species and proximity to undisturbed vegetation accelerate succession.

  20. A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, M.; Pérez-Sanz, A.; Corella, J. P.; Büntgen, U.; Catalán, J.; González-Sampériz, P.; González-Trueba, J. J.; López-Sáez, J. A.; Moreno, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Saz-Sánchez, M. Á.; Scussolini, P.; Serrano, E.; Steinhilber, F.; Stefanova, V.; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T.; Valero-Garcés, B.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews multi-proxy paleoclimatic reconstructions with robust age-control derived from lacustrine, dendrochronological and geomorphological records and characterizes the main environmental changes that occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ca. 900-1300 AD), with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes). The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300-1800 AD) was generally colder and moister, with an expansion of deciduous taxa and cold-adapted montane conifers. Two major phases occurred within this period: (i) a transition MCA-LIA, characterized by fluctuating, moist conditions and relatively cold temperatures (ca. 1300 and 1600 AD); and (ii) a second period, characterized by the coldest and most humid conditions, coinciding with maximum (recent) glacier advances (ca. 1600-1800 AD). Glaciers retreated after the LIA when warmer and more arid conditions dominated, interrupted by a short-living cooling episode during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. Some records suggest a response to solar activity with colder and slightly moister conditions during solar minima. Centennial-scale hydrological fluctuations are in phase with reconstructions of NAO variability, which appears to be one of the main climate mechanisms influencing rainfall variations in the region during the last millennium.

  1. A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morellón

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews multi-proxy paleoclimatic reconstructions with robust age-control derived from lacustrine, dendrochronological and geomorphological records and characterizes the main environmental changes that occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ca. 900–1300 AD, with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes. The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300–1800 AD was generally colder and moister, with an expansion of deciduous taxa and cold-adapted montane conifers. Two major phases occurred within this period: (i a transition MCA–LIA, characterized by fluctuating, moist conditions and relatively cold temperatures (ca. 1300 and 1600 AD; and (ii a second period, characterized by the coldest and most humid conditions, coinciding with maximum (recent glacier advances (ca. 1600–1800 AD. Glaciers retreated after the LIA when warmer and more arid conditions dominated, interrupted by a short-living cooling episode during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. Some records suggest a response to solar activity with colder and slightly moister conditions during solar minima. Centennial-scale hydrological fluctuations are in phase with reconstructions of NAO variability, which appears to be one of the main climate mechanisms influencing rainfall variations in the region during the last millennium.

  2. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI technique, (SPN, has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain. The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  3. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, G.; Davalillo, J. C.; Mulas, J.; Cooksley, G.; Monserrat, O.; Pancioli, V.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) technique, (SPN), has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain). The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs) in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  4. Deglaciation in the central Pyrenees during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: Timing and geomorphological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, David; García-Ruiz, José M.; Andrés, Nuria; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Campos, Néstor; Léanni, Laëtitia; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier L.; Keddadouche, Karim

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we document deglaciation in a sector of the southern-central Pyrenees (the Panticosa massif and the upper Gállego and Ossau valleys) using cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) dating methods, which were applied to samples from high altitude polished rock steps and rock glacier boulders. The obtained CRE dates show a coherent spatial distribution and confirm results previously obtained in this study area, thus demonstrating the reliability and robustness of the method. The results of analyses based on two distinct isotopes (10Be and 36Cl) are consistent, although the error is higher for results based on the 36Cl isotope. The study provides evidence for ice extent in the High Gállego Valley during the Oldest Dryas, with glacial advance until the bottom of the valleys, although the main glacier tongues remained disconnected from each other. During this period, the extent of glacier advance was directly related to the elevation of the associated summits. The Younger Dryas glaciers were constrained to cirques or very short ice tongues, and dating of the polished rock steps indicates that the ice masses were present until the first millennium of the Holocene. The Brazato rock glacier developed at the beginning of the Holocene and remained active until the Holocene Thermal Optimum, because of the protective effect of large masses of blocks and boulders.

  5. Snowpack modelling in the Pyrenees driven by kilometric-resolution meteorological forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéno, Louis; Vionnet, Vincent; Dombrowski-Etchevers, Ingrid; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Dumont, Marie; Karbou, Fatima

    2016-07-01

    Distributed snowpack simulations in the French and Spanish Pyrenees are carried out using the detailed snowpack model Crocus driven by the numerical weather prediction system AROME at 2.5 km grid spacing, during four consecutive winters from 2010 to 2014. The aim of this study is to assess the benefits of a kilometric-resolution atmospheric forcing to a snowpack model for describing the spatial variability of the seasonal snow cover over a mountain range. The evaluation is performed by comparisons to ground-based measurements of the snow depth, the snow water equivalent and precipitations, to satellite snow cover images and to snowpack simulations driven by the SAFRAN analysis system. Snow depths simulated by AROME-Crocus exhibit an overall positive bias, particularly marked over the first summits near the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation of mesoscale orographic effects by AROME gives a realistic regional snowpack variability, unlike SAFRAN-Crocus. The categorical study of daily snow depth variations gives a differentiated perspective of accumulation and ablation processes. Both models underestimate strong snow accumulations and strong snow depth decreases, which is mainly due to the non-simulated wind-induced erosion, the underestimation of strong melting and an insufficient settling after snowfalls. The problematic assimilation of precipitation gauge measurements is also emphasized, which raises the issue of a need for a dedicated analysis to complement the benefits of AROME kilometric resolution and dynamical behaviour in mountainous terrain.

  6. Rift-to-collision transition recorded by tectonothermal evolution of the northern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacherat, Arnaud; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël.; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Gautheron, Cécile; Bernet, Matthias; Daudet, Maxime; Balansa, Jocelyn; Tibari, Bouchaib; Pinna Jamme, Rosella; Radal, Julien

    2016-04-01

    The impact of rift-related processes on tectonic and thermal evolution of collisional orogens is poorly documented. Here, we study the northern Pyrenees, a region that has preserved a geological record of the transition from rifting to collision. Using modeling of new low-temperature thermochronological data, including fission track and (U-Th)/He on apatite and zircon, we propose a temporal reconstruction of the inversion of the European rifted margin. Our data confirm that rifting and related cooling started in the Late Paleozoic-Triassic. Throughout the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous the European margin recorded slow heating during postrift subdsidence. Modeling of thermochronological data allows distinguishing subsidence and denudation controlled by south dipping normal faults in granitic massifs that reflect a second episode of crustal thinning at 130-110 Ma. Following onset of convergence at 83 Ma, shortening accumulated into the weak and hot Albian-Cenomanian rift basins floored by both hyperextended continental crust and exhumed subcontinental mantle. The lack of cooling during this initial stage of convergence is explained by the persistence of a high geothermal gradient. The onset of exhumation-related cooling is recognized in the whole Pyrenean region at 50-35 Ma. This timing reveals that the main phase of mountain building started when hyperextended rift basins closed and collision between proximal domains of the rifted margin occurred.

  7. CHANGES IN THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF A VALLEY IN THE PYRENEES (CATALONIA, SPAIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Pámpanas, Leyre; García, David; Pettener, Davide; González-Martin, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In some situations the use of isonymy is the best strategy for studying the genetic structure of a population and its biological history. In this study different population parameters were calculated for one of the most isolated valleys in the Pyrenees - the region of the Alta Ribagorça in Catalonia, Spain. Surnames from marriage records covering the continuous period from 1638 to 1988 were used. From 1950 onwards this region underwent important social, economic and biological changes related to the introduction of hydroelectric and mining industries, and the change from livestock farming to a society based on services. Two periods were analysed (1638-1950 and 1951-1988) allowing population changes that occurred in the region to be determined. The study focused on calculating the number of surnames by gender, diversity index (H), population sub-structure (RP-RPr)/RPr and inbreeding coefficient (F t) and detection of possible genetic barriers. The results demonstrate the importance that geography initially had in shaping the genetic structure of the population and how this was gradually replaced by other parameters such as roads or the social and economic importance of towns. An interesting phenomenon is that inbreeding has traditionally been associated with rural life, isolation and endogamy. However, for the Alta Ribagorça it was observed that in the second period, 1951-1988, inbreeding mainly depended on the composition of migrant groups and the reaction of the native population to the arrival of migrants from outside the region.

  8. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  9. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  10. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  11. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  12. Groundwater management in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margat, Jean

    1987-06-01

    Groundwater, like other extensive natural and renewable resources, easily accessible and, at the same time, vulnerable, has to be managed so as to reconcile the unique resource with its many users, and its long-term preservation with short-term utilization requirements. Under the natural, legal, and economic conditions prevailing in France, where groundwater constitutes a large part of water production and resources, where there are tens of thousands of economic developers and users of a few hundred natural groundwater management units, such management concerns these users as well as the public and collective authorities that control the users' activities for the common present and future good of all. Legislative, financial, and educational means are applied simultaneously to preserve and protect the quality and quantily of the groundwater and at times to encourage its use and stimulate its development.

  13. International Relations in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    Why is the French International Relations (IR) discipline different from the transnational-American discipline? By analysing argument structures in research articles across time, this book shows how the discipline in France is caught between the American character of the discipline and the French...... state as regulator of legitimate forms of expression. Concretely, French research arguments are less explicit about what their propositions are and what academic discussions they draw on and add to than their transnational-American counterparts. Based on a comparative case study of French and American...... IR research from 1950 to 2011, the book is a major contribution to the meta-IR literature on global, regional and national traditions of IR. The challenge to the French discipline of whether and how to position itself in relation to the evolving American discipline is in many ways exemplary for other...

  14. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  15. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  16. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  17. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  18. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  19. Égalité ou Réalité: Where Do Muslims Truly Reside in Today’s France?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the author focuses on France, exclusively, to illuminate the potential causes for material and/or ideological support to terror in that society, and further indicates how these trends may be evident or potential throughout Western societies. As in recent years, the word "Muslim" has become synonymous with terror in the daily lexica of France and other Western societies, this thesis demonstrates that terrorism is not a spontaneous or stand-alone problem. Terror and other forms o...

  20. Paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic constraints on transverse fault kinematics during basin inversion: The Pamplona Fault (Pyrenees, north Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LarrasoañA, Juan Cruz; ParéS, Josep MaríA.; MilláN, HéCtor; Del Valle, JoaquíN.; Pueyo, Emilio Luis

    2003-12-01

    The Pamplona Fault in the Pyrenees is a major transverse structure that has been classically interpreted as a strike-slip fault. However, lack of consensus concerning the sense of movement casts doubt on its actual kinematics and, as a consequence, its role in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pyrenees remains controversial. In order to assess its kinematics, we have conducted a paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic study focused on the Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks that outcrop around the southern segment of the fault. Restoration of balanced cross sections allows us to examine the present-day spatial relationship of the sedimentary sequences on both sides of the fault and to reconstruct the geometry of the extensional basins formed during Mesozoic rifting episodes in the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenean domains. Paleomagnetic results indicate that no significant tectonic rotations occurred around the fault during Tertiary inversion of the Pyrenees. The lack of tectonic rotations and revaluation of previous hypotheses argues against a strike-slip movement of the fault. We propose a new model in which the Pamplona Fault is treated as a large-scale "hanging wall drop" fault whose kinematics was determined by variations in the geometry and thickness of Mesozoic sequences on both sides of the fault. These variations influenced the geometry of the thrust sheet developed during Tertiary compression. We are unaware of any other transverse fault that has been interpreted in this fashion; thus the Pamplona Fault serves as a case study for the evolution of transverse faults involved in basin inversion processes.

  1. Testing the reliability of detrital cave sediments as recorders of paleomagnetic secular variations, Seso Cave System (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno Caballud, Ana; Gil-Romera, Graciela; Sancho Marcén, Carlos; Muñoz, Arsenio; Osácar, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on a waterlaid detrital sedimentary sequence of ~240cm thick within the Seso Cave System (West-Central Pyrenees). In these sediments, seven charcoal samples were dated using 14C AMS ranging from 2080 to 650calyrBP (130BC-1300AD). Two levels of human occupation of the cave have been recognized by ceramics associated to the Iberian Period and to the Roman Period, respectively. The detrital sedimentary sequence is made of autochthonous (piping detached ...

  2. Temporal Trends in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in France: FRANCE 2 to FRANCE TAVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffret, Vincent; Lefevre, Thierry; Van Belle, Eric; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Iung, Bernard; Koning, René; Motreff, Pascal; Leprince, Pascal; Verhoye, Jean Philippe; Manigold, Thibaut; Souteyrand, Geraud; Boulmier, Dominique; Joly, Patrick; Pinaud, Frédéric; Himbert, Dominique; Collet, Jean Philippe; Rioufol, Gilles; Ghostine, Said; Bar, Olivier; Dibie, Alain; Champagnac, Didier; Leroux, Lionel; Collet, Frédéric; Teiger, Emmanuel; Darremont, Olivier; Folliguet, Thierry; Leclercq, Florence; Lhermusier, Thibault; Olhmann, Patrick; Huret, Bruno; Lorgis, Luc; Drogoul, Laurent; Bertrand, Bernard; Spaulding, Christian; Quilliet, Laurent; Cuisset, Thomas; Delomez, Maxence; Beygui, Farzin; Claudel, Jean-Philippe; Hepp, Alain; Jegou, Arnaud; Gommeaux, Antoine; Mirode, Anfani; Christiaens, Luc; Christophe, Charles; Cassat, Claude; Metz, Damien; Mangin, Lionel; Isaaz, Karl; Jacquemin, Laurent; Guyon, Philippe; Pouillot, Christophe; Makowski, Serge; Bataille, Vincent; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Gilard, Martine; Le Breton, Hervé

    2017-07-04

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is standard therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. However, national data regarding procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes over time are limited. The aim of this study was to assess nationwide performance trends and clinical outcomes of TAVR during a 6-year period. TAVRs performed in 48 centers across France between January 2013 and December 2015 were prospectively included in the FRANCE TAVI (French Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) registry. Findings were further compared with those reported from the FRANCE 2 (French Aortic National CoreValve and Edwards 2) registry, which captured all TAVRs performed from January 2010 to January 2012 across 34 centers. A total of 12,804 patients from FRANCE TAVI and 4,165 patients from FRANCE 2 were included in this analysis. The median age of patients was 84.6 years, and 49.7% were men. FRANCE TAVI participants were older but at lower surgical risk (median logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE]: 15.0% vs. 18.4%; p FRANCE TAVI underwent transfemoral TAVR. Transesophageal echocardiography guidance decreased from 60.7% to 32.3% of cases, whereas more recent procedures were increasingly performed in hybrid operating rooms (15.8% vs. 35.7%). Rates of Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined device success increased from 95.3% in FRANCE 2 to 96.8% in FRANCE TAVI (p FRANCE TAVI compared with 8.2% and 10.1%, respectively, in FRANCE 2 (p FRANCE TAVI registry provided reassuring data regarding trends in TAVR performance in an all-comers population on a national scale. Nonetheless, given that TAVR indications are likely to expand to patients at lower surgical risk, concerns remain regarding potentially life-threatening complications and pacemaker implantation. (Registry of Aortic Valve Bioprostheses Established by Catheter [FRANCE TAVI]; NCT01777828). Copyright © 2017 American College of

  3. [Nurse anesthetist in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Yann, Douchy; De Almeida, Sylvie; Deckert, Christine; Gauss, Tobias; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Merckx, Paul; Mantz, Jean

    2006-12-01

    We present the system of nurse anesthetist (Infirmier Anesthésiste Diplômé d'Etat: IADE) in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. This French system with 70 years' history is older than the Japan Society of Anesthesiologists itself. There are 7000 nurse anesthetists in France now and the number of nurse anesthetists increases by 450-500 each year. Training to become a nurse anesthetist requires at least two years' experience as a general nurse and the general nurse must pass an examination after two years' special training in an anesthetistic nurse school to acquire the national certification. The nurse anesthetist's profession is regulated by French law. They work in a team with certified anesthesiologists. They can perform many kinds of anesthetic tasks including tracheal intubation and insertion of arterial catheter under the responsibility and supervision of certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to perform spinal, epidural, conduction and local anesthesia, although they can maintain these anesthesia and control these methods, e.g., by injecting local anesthetic agents through epidural catheter, following a specified prescription. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to insert central venous and pulmonary artery catheters, although they can manage them. They are allowed to administer inhalation anesthetic agents, and inject venous anesthetic agents, muscle relaxants, their antagonists, and opioids by their own initiatives, but the decision for the use of catecholamine and emergency drugs is reserved to certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists perform other tasks preparing and checking anesthetic agents and equipment such as anesthetic machine, monitor, and defibrillator everyday, and sometimes use autologous blood recovery systems. The relationship between the certified anesthesiologist and the nurse anesthetist is marked by mutual respect, confidence and cooperation at each step of the anesthetic

  4. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Immediate changes in topsoil chemical properties after controlled shrubland burning in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre-Galarza, Raquel; Fernández Campos, Marta; Badía-Villas, David; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Girona-García, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed fire has recently been adopted as an encroachment-fighting strategy in the Central Pyrenees. Despite relatively large information on wildfire impacts on soil, there is little information on prescribed fire effects, especially in mountain ecosystems (Shakesby et al, 2015). Fire effects are noticeable in the topsoil, particularly in relation to soil organic matter and nutrient contents and quality (Alexis et al, 2012). These components change with time after fire and at the scale of the upper few centimetres of mineral soil (Badía et al, 2014). The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effects of prescribed shrubland burning on soil's nutrients and organic matter content to detect changes at cm-scale, trying to differentiate the heat shock from the subsequent incorporation of ash and charcoal. The study area, densely covered with spiny broom (Echinospartum horridum), is located in Tella (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) at 1900 meters above sea level. Three sites were sampled before burning and immediately after burning just in its adjacent side. The soils belong to the WRB unit Leptic Eutric Cambisol, Soil samples were collected separating carefully the organic layers (litter in unburned soils and ashes and fire-altered organic residues in burned soils) and the mineral horizon at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved to 2 mm. Soil organic C (by the wet oxidation method), total N (Kjeldahl method), water-soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4=, NO3- and NH4+), exchangeable ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+ and Mn2+), total and available P, pH (1:5) and the electrical conductivity (in a 1:10 soil-to-water ratio) were measured. Immediately after the controlled fire, soil organic carbon content on burned topsoil decreases significantly within 0-3 cm of soil depth studied while total N decrease was not significant. Moreover, only a slight increase of the electrical conductivity, water-soluble ions and exchangeable ions was

  6. Inequalities, social ties and health in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Z

    2009-01-01

    To discuss the evidence of social health inequalities in France and, in this context, to examine the association of social ties and socio-economic status (SES) with self-reported health (SRH). A literature search and a nationally representative cross-sectional study of 5046 French adults with data about SRH, socio-economic status and relationships with family and friends etc. SRH was analysed by three measures of SES: income, education and socioprofessional group. The frequency of five single and four composite measures of social ties by SES was calculated. Logistic regression models estimated the association between SRH and the social ties variables. Compared with other countries in Western Europe, France has large social class health inequalities, particularly in relation to premature male mortality. This study found that 'less than good' SRH was significantly more likely to be reported by people in lower education, lower socioprofessional and lower income groups. Social isolation and weak social relationships were associated with low SES. For eight of the nine variables, weak social ties were associated with 'less than good' SRH even after adjusting for SES. Weak social ties are associated with poor health. In the context of a country with large health inequalities, the effect of social isolation on health is independent of SES.

  7. CYP2C9 polymorphism in five autochthonous population of the same geographic area (Spanish Pyrenees).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borobia, Alberto M; López-Parra, Ana María; Tabarés, Beatriz; Ramirez, Elena; Baeza, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Carcas, Antonio J

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the frequency of CYP2C9 polymorphisms in a cohort of Caucasians (Spanish Pyrenees), previously classified in autochthonous populations. Blood samples from 154 anonymous volunteer donors were collected. All the individuals were autochthonous to their respective populations (four grandparents born in the region): 23 from Valle de Arán (Lérida), 29 from Alto Urgel (Lérida), 32 from La Cerdaña (Gerona), 30 from Jacetania (Huesca) and 40 from Cinco Villas (Navarra). The analyses for allelic mutation, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, were identified with Taqman Allelic Discrimination kits. No statistical differences were found when allelic frequencies in the five autochthonous populations were compared. Frequency distribution of genotypic classes (wt/wt, wt/mut and mut/mut) in Alto Urgel was different from that in La Cerdaña, Cinco Villas and Jacetania samples. Comparison of Pyrenean and other European populations through exact test revealed significant differences in the distribution of genotypic classes: Alto Urgel, Barcelona, and Croatia yielded the highest significant differences. According to the exact test these populations were pooled in four groups. This classification produced a statistically significant percentage of variation explained by differences among groups (1.94%, P= 0.036), but not by differences among populations within groups (P=0.914), although most of the percentage of variance is explained by differences within populations (97.46%, P<0.001). This study increases the evidence of intra-population genotypic variability and highlights the significant genotypic heterogeneity when different autochthonous populations are considered, despite no clear differences in allelic frequencies do exist.

  8. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Cleavage development within a foreland fold and thrust belt, southern Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, James E.; Anastasio, David J.

    1995-03-01

    In the southern Pyrenees lithologically distinct cleavage fronts are each parallel to bedding and dip ˜20° towards the foreland. Pressure solution was the dominant mechanism of cleavage development. The mudstone cleavage front is coincident with the ˜195°C paleoisotherm and is associated with a pressure solution strain of ˜5%, a mechanical twin strain of ˜4%, and a deviatoric stress magnitude of ˜65 MPa. Illite crystallinity measurements define a geothermal gradient of 15°C km -1 and indicate that the paleoisotherms are bedding-parallel. Deviatoric stress magnitudes, from calcite twins, were regionally constant at ˜65 MPa and principal stress axes were perpendicular to cleavage. Temperature was the primary control on deformation micromechanisms and the position and orientation of the cleavage front within the foreland thrust wedge. Deformation below the cleavage front occurs predominantly by pressure solution, which in conjunction with mechanical twinning and microfracturing produces a quasi-plastic rheology. Stress magnitudes determined from mechanical twinning of carbonate grains and long-term (10 6-10 76 y) strain rates determined for regional folds and faults suggest an apparent macroscopic viscosity of 9.8 × 10 18 to 7.2 × 10 19 Pa s for the lower thrust wedge. Above the cleavage front temperature, pressure solution strain, total strain, and mesoscale deformation diminish. The region of the thrust wedge above the ˜100°C paleoisotherm is characterized by large brittle faults with cataclastic fault zones and negligible grain-scale deformation indicating an elastico-frictional rheology.

  10. Human-Related Forest Fires in the Subalpine Belt of the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Yasmina; María García-Ruiz, José; Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Muela, María Pilar; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Arnáez, José

    2014-05-01

    The subalpine belt of the Central Pyrenees ranges approximately between 1700 and 2200 m a.s.l. This area should be covered with dense forests of Pinus sylvestris and P. uncinata, with increasingly open formations towards the upper forest limit. At present, most of the subalpine belt is occupied with grasslands due to human-induced deforestation for enlarging the area occupied by summer pastures. Two are the most important scientific problems related to deforestation of the subalpine belt: (i) the timing of deforestation, and (ii) the geomorphic consequences of a sudden substitution of forests by grasslands. Up to now, intense deforestation is clearly recorded in regional palaeoenvironmental sequences since the Middle Ages and, traditionally, this practice was usually attributed to large fires with the purpose of balance the winter and summer pasture resources. Nevertheless, the presence of abundant remnants of prehistoric monuments (dolmens, cromlechs, tumulus) in the subalpine belt induced to think in a previous seasonal presence of human populations, most probably practicing some primitive type of transhumance. This would only be possible if part of the subalpine forests would be burnt to allow a limited expansion of grasslands, despite the consequences in the landscape of this kind of practices were not permanent in time. We present here new dates of fire occurrence from charcoal obtained from soils in the hillslopes and from lacustrine sediments. Two periods of human-induced fires have been identified: (i) between 2500 and 2000 cal. yr BP, and (ii) between 1100 and 900 cal yr BP. The consequences of deforestation can be easily observed in the landscape, particularly shallow landslide activity, gelifluction, solifluction and the rapid development of parallel incisions in the steepest slopes.

  11. Hydro-morphological dynamics of traditional shifting agriculture in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; Serrano, Pili

    2014-05-01

    Shifting agriculture is still a traditional practice in many countries worldwide. In Mediterranean mountains, shifting agriculture was used for cereal crops until the middle of the 20th century, in times of high population pressure. Very steep slopes far from the villages and with poor soils were plowed. In the Central Spanish Pyrenees, shifting agriculture accounted on average 22.8% of the total cultivated area, representing about 4% of the territory. In order to know the hydro-morphological consequences and the effects in the landscape, cereal crops were reproduced in experimental plots during 20 years (1992-2011). Specifically, 4 plots were selected: (i) fertilized cereal (barley), (ii) shifting cereal (barley), (iii) abandoned field after shifting cereal and (iv) dense scrub. Results show that shifting agriculture produces the highest runoff coefficients (mean value of 19.5%), while runoff coefficient in the fertilized cereal is 13.5% and in the dense scrub cover the mean value is 4.6%. Soil losses are also higher in the shifting agriculture (1356 kg/ha/year) than in the fertilized cereal (858 kg/ha/year) and in the dense scrub cover (166 kg/ha/year). Abandonment after shifting agriculture involves a fast herbaceous growing (100% after 6 years) and a slow scrub growing (40% after 16 years). The increase in vegetation cover represents a slow decrease in runoff coefficient and a more pronounced decrease in soil erosion rates. However, in old shifting system cultivated slopes, severe erosion processes can be observed after decades of abandonment, which explains the landscape degradation and the occurrence of shallow landslides, and the frequent presence of stone pavement.

  12. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees) since the end of the Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, R.; Gascoin, S.; Houet, T.; Ribière, O.; Laffly, D.; Condom, T.; Monnier, S.; Schmutz, M.; Camerlynck, C.; Tihay, J. P.; Soubeyroux, J. M.; René, P.

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the fluctuations of the Pyrenean glaciers. In this study, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2), which is located in the central Pyrenees, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) onwards. To do so, length, area, thickness, and mass changes in the glacier were generated from historical data sets, topographical surveys, glaciological measurements (2001-2013), a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey (2006), and stereoscopic satellite images (2013). The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60 % of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion were identified: 1850-1890, 1928-1950, and 1983-2013, as well as two short periods of stabilization: 1890-1894, 1905-1913, and a longer period of slight growth: 1950-1983; these agree with other Pyrenean glacier reconstructions (Maladeta, Coronas, Taillon glaciers). Pyrenean and Alpine glaciers exhibit similar multidecadal variations during the 20th century, with a stable period detected at the end of the 1970s and periods of ice depletion during the 1940s and since the 1980s. Ossoue Glacier fluctuations generally concur with climatic data (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation). Geodetic mass balance over 1983-2013 was -1.04 ± 0.06 w.e.a-1 (-31.3 ± 1.9 m w.e.), whereas glaciological mass balance was -1.45 ± 0.85 m w.e. a-1 (-17.3 ± 2.9 m w.e.) over 2001-2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate remains constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  13. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees since the end of the Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the fluctuations of the Pyrenean glaciers. In this study, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2, which is located in the central Pyrenees, from the Little Ice Age (LIA onwards. To do so, length, area, thickness, and mass changes in the glacier were generated from historical data sets, topographical surveys, glaciological measurements (2001–2013, a ground penetrating radar (GPR survey (2006, and stereoscopic satellite images (2013. The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60 % of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion were identified: 1850–1890, 1928–1950, and 1983–2013, as well as two short periods of stabilization: 1890–1894, 1905–1913, and a longer period of slight growth: 1950–1983; these agree with other Pyrenean glacier reconstructions (Maladeta, Coronas, Taillon glaciers. Pyrenean and Alpine glaciers exhibit similar multidecadal variations during the 20th century, with a stable period detected at the end of the 1970s and periods of ice depletion during the 1940s and since the 1980s. Ossoue Glacier fluctuations generally concur with climatic data (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geodetic mass balance over 1983–2013 was −1.04 ± 0.06 w.e.a−1 (−31.3 ± 1.9 m w.e., whereas glaciological mass balance was −1.45 ± 0.85 m w.e. a−1 (−17.3 ± 2.9 m w.e. over 2001–2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate remains constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in snow accumulation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, I.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Water stored in winter snowpack represents a valuable resource in mountainous regions. The distribution of the snow determines the availability of water resources during snowmelt period, as well as the development of the economy based on winter sports. This work analyses the main factors that explain the variation in snow accumulation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Data about evolution of snowpack is provided by the measurement of 106 sticks installed in the study area from 1985. The snow depth is measured in two moments of the year, at the beginning of March and at the end of April or beginning of May. Snow depth, of both measurements moments, has been mapped using linear regression between snow depth and different topographic and geographic variables derived from the digital terrain model. In order to improve the estimation interpolated residuals values have been subtracted. The variability of the interannual snow distribution has been analysed with a factorial analysis in order to obtain different annual patterns of snowpack distribution. Relation between the dominant winter weather-type and the different patterns, provided by the factorial analysis, has been studied. The weather-type classification has been obtained using the Jenkinson and Collison system based on daily series of sea level atmospheric pressure measured around the Iberian Peninsula with a 5º x 10º scale. Thus, it is possible to know the influence of the prevailing winter synoptic situations in the snowpack distribution. The results show that topographic and geographic variables have a high capacity to explain the spatial distribution of the average snow cover during the study period. Nevertheless, the annual snow accumulation is the result of the arrival of frontal disturbances that come from different directions. By that, it is complex to relate the different snow distribution patterns to the main winter synoptic conditions of each year.

  15. Forecasting and modelling ice layer formation on the snowpack due to freezing precipitations in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéno, Louis; Vionnet, Vincent; Cabot, Frédéric; Vrécourt, Dominique; Dombrowski-Etchevers, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    In the Pyrenees, freezing precipitations in altitude occur at least once per winter, leading to the formation of a pure ice layer on the surface of the snowpack. It may lead to accidents and fatalities among mountaineers and skiers, with sometimes a higher human toll than avalanches. Such events are not predicted by the current operational systems for snow and avalanche hazard forecasting. A crowd-sourced database of surface ice layer occurrences is first built up, using reports from Internet mountaineering and ski-touring communities, to mitigate the lack of observations from conventional observation networks. A simple diagnostic of freezing precipitation is then developed, based on the cloud water content and screen temperature forecast by the Numerical Weather Prediction model AROME, operating at 2.5-km resolution. The performance of this diagnostic is assessed for the event of 5-6 January 2012, with a good representation of altitudinal and spatial distributions of the ice layer. An evaluation of the diagnostic for major events over five winters gives good skills of detection compared to the occurrences reported in the observation database. A new modelling of ice formation on the surface of the snowpack due to impinging supercooled water is added to the detailed snowpack model Crocus. It is combined to the atmospheric diagnostic of freezing precipitations and resulting snowpack simulations over a winter season capture well the formation of the main ice layers. Their influence on the snowpack stratigraphy is also realistically simulated. These simple methods enable to forecast the occurrence of surface ice layer formations with good confidence and to simulate their evolution within the snowpack, even if an accurate estimation of freezing precipitation amounts remains the main challenge.

  16. Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The SHETRAN model for simulating the sediment yield arising from shallow landslides at the scale of a river catchment was applied to the 45-km2 Ijuez catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees, to investigate the effect of loss of forest cover on landslide and debris flow incidence and on catchment sediment yield. The application demonstrated how such a model, with a large number of parameters to be evaluated, can be used even when directly measured data are not available: rainfall and discharge time series were generated by reference to other local records and data providing the basis for a soil map were obtained by a short field campaign. Uncertainty bounds for the outputs were determined as a function of the uncertainty in the values of key model parameters. For a four-year period and for the existing forested state of the catchment, a good ability to simulate the observed long term spatial distribution of debris flows (represented by a 45-year inventory and to determine catchment sediment yield within the range of regional observations was demonstrated. The lower uncertainty bound on simulated landslide occurrence approximated the observed annual rate of landsliding and suggests that landslides provide a relatively minor proportion of the total sediment yield, at least in drier years. A scenario simulation in which the forest cover was replaced by grassland indicated an increase in landsliding but a decrease in the number of landslides which evolve into debris flows and, at least for drier years, a reduction in sediment delivery to the channel network.

  17. The fluvial sediment budget of a dammed river (upper Muga, southern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, G.; Batalla, R. J.; López, R.; Sabater, S.

    2017-09-01

    Many rivers in the Mediterranean region are regulated for urban and agricultural purposes. Reservoir presence and operation results in flow alteration and sediment discontinuity, altering the longitudinal structure of the fluvial system. This study presents a 3-year sediment budget of a highly dammed Mediterranean river (the Muga, southern Pyrenees), which has experienced flow regulation since the 1969 owing to a 61-hm3 reservoir. Flow discharge and suspended sediment concentration were monitored immediately upstream and downstream from the reservoir, whereas bedload transport was estimated by means of bedload formulae and estimated from regional data. Results show how the dam modifies river flow, reducing the magnitude of floods and shortening its duration. At the same time, duration of low flows increases. The downstream flow regime follows reservoir releases that are mostly driven by the irrigation needs in the lowlands. Likewise, suspended sediment and bedload transport are shown to be notably affected by the dam. Sediment transport upstream was mainly associated with floods and was therefore concentrated in short periods of time (i.e., > 90% of the sediment load occurred in sediments were transported more constantly (i.e., 90% of the load was carried during 50% of the time). Total sediment load upstream from the dam equalled 23,074 t, while downstream it was sediment load was equally distributed between suspension and bedload (i.e., 10,278 and 12,796 t respectively), whereas suspension dominated sediment transport downstream. More than 95% of the sediments transported from the upstream basins were trapped in the reservoir, a fact that explains the sediment deficit and the river bed armouring observed downstream. Overall, the dam disrupted the natural water and sediment fluxes, generating a highly modified environment downstream. Below the dam, the whole ecosystem shifted to stable conditions owing to the reduction of water and sediment loads.

  18. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  19. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  20. Les Consortia en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Berard

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les consortia se sont développés un peu partout dans le monde dès le début des années 90, la France est restée à l’écart de cette dynamique jusqu’en 1997: après un timide démarrage autour de la cellule Mathdoc du Réseau national des bibliothèques de mathématiques et la création de groupements d’achat de produits comme Datastream ou ABI-Inform, il faudra attendre 1999 pour assister au véritable essor des consortia. La raison majeure tient à la faible tradition coopérative des bibliothèques académiques françaises, la gestion de nombreux dossiers qui fondent en partie les consortia américains - catalogue commun, prêt entre bibliothèques, acquisitions partagées - relevant du niveau national.

  1. Early Child Care In France

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Myriam; Lezine, Irene

    1974-01-01

    The present monograph describes in detail the history and current status of early child care in France and discusses it in the contexts of family and cultural realities and attitudes toward children and upbringing. (Ed)

  2. A surgical sabbatical in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, F; Launois, B

    2000-06-01

    During my stay in France I had the unique opportunity to meet surgical professors from all over the world and made many friends and contacts in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. Brittany is a beautiful province of France, having unique way of life and approach to social and societal problems. The cultural enrichment that I received from my year there will last a lifetime, as well the many fond memories of the people, the culinary delights and the spectacular seashore.

  3. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  4. Geology of the Ara-Cinca region, Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca : (with special reference to compartmentation of the Flysch basin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsen, , H.A. van

    1970-01-01

    Geological investigations have been carried out from 1955 to 1968 in the Spanish Pyrenees, Province of Huesca, directed by Prof. Dr. M.G. Rutten (Geological Institute of the State University of Utrecht). Locations are indicated on Fig.I. These investigations resulted in a number of theses and papers

  5. Geology of the Ara-Cinca region, Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca : (with special reference to compartmentation of the Flysch basin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsen, H.A. van

    1970-01-01

    Geological investigations have been carried out from 1955 to 1968 in the Spanish Pyrenees, Province of Huesca, directed by Prof. Dr. M.G. Rutten (Geological Institute of the State University of Utrecht). Locations are indicated on Fig.I. These investigations resulted in a number of theses and

  6. Seasonal differences in runoff between forested and non-forested catchments: a case study in the Spanish Pyrenees. Revisiting Experimental Catchment Studies in Forest Hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lana-Renault, N.; Latron, J.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Serrano, P.; Regües, D.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrological response of two neighbouring catchments in the central Spanish Pyrenees with similar lithology and topography but different land use was compared. One catchment (2.84 km2) was extensively cultivated in the past, and the other (0.92 km2) is covered by dense natural forest.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the Trechus brucki group, with description of two new species from the Pyreneo-Cantabrian area (France, Spain (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Faille

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A molecular phylogeny of the species from the Trechus brucki clade (previously T. uhagoni group based on fragments of four mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene is given. We describe Trechus (Trechus bouilloni sp. n. from the western pre–Pyrenees: Sierras de Urbasa–Andía, Navarra, Spain. The species was collected in mesovoid shallow substratum (mss, a subterranean environment. Molecular as well as morphological evidences demonstrate that the new species belongs to the Trechus brucki clade. A narrow endemic species of high altitude in western French Pyrenees merged with T. brucki Fairmaire, 1862a, T. bruckoides sp. n., is described. A lectotype is designated for T. brucki and T. planiusculus Fairmaire, 1862b (junior synonym of T. brucki. The species group is redefined based on molecular and morphological characters, and renamed as the brucki group, as T. brucki was the first described species of the clade. A unique synapomorphy of the male genitalia, a characteristic secondary sclerotization of the sperm duct, which is shared by all the species of the brucki group sensu novo, is described and illustrated. The T. brucki group sensu novo is composed of Trechus beusti (Schaufuss, 1863, T. bouilloni sp. n., T. brucki, T. bruckoides sp. n., T. grenieri Pandellé, 1867, T. uhagoni uhagoni Crotch, 1869, T. uhagoni ruteri Colas, 1935 and T. pieltaini Jeannel, 1920. We discuss the taxonomy of the group and provide illustrations of structures showing the differences between the species, along with distribution data and biogeographical comments.

  8. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  9. Evaluating the spatial uncertainty of future land abandonment in a mountain valley (Vicdessos, Pyrenees-France) : insights form model parameterization and experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Houet, Thomas; Vacquié, Laure; Sheeren, D

    2014-01-01

    International audience; European mountains are particularly sensitive to climatic disruptions and land use changes. The latter leads to high rates of natural reforestation over the last 50 years. Faced with the challenge of predicting possible impacts on ecosystem services, LUCC models offer new opportunities for land managers to adapt or mitigate their strategies. Assessing the spatial uncertainty of future LUCC is crucial for the defintion of sustainable land use strategies. However, the so...

  10. Autogenic versus allogenic controls on the evolution of a coupled fluvial megafan-mountainous catchment system: numerical modelling and comparison with the Lannemezan megafan system (northern Pyrenees, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchené, Margaux; van der Beek, Peter; Carretier, Sébastien; Mouthereau, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Alluvial megafans are sensitive recorders of landscape evolution, controlled by both autogenic processes and allogenic forcing, and they are influenced by the coupled dynamics of the fan with its mountainous catchment. The Lannemezan megafan in the northern Pyrenean foreland was abandoned by its mountainous feeder stream during the Quaternary and subsequently incised, leaving a flight of alluvial terraces along the stream network. We use numerical models to explore the relative roles of autogenic processes and external forcing in the building, abandonment and incision of a foreland megafan, and we compare the results with the inferred evolution of the Lannemezan megafan. Autogenic processes are sufficient to explain the building of a megafan and the long-term entrenchment of its feeding river on time and space scales that match the Lannemezan setting. Climate, through temporal variations in precipitation rate, may have played a role in the episodic pattern of incision on a shorter timescale. In contrast, base-level changes, tectonic activity in the mountain range or tilting of the foreland through flexural isostatic rebound do not appear to have played a role in the abandonment of the megafan.

  11. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  12. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, M.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover) vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio. We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW) and sediment pore water (SPW) from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰), with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes. In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (-9.4‰ to 7.4‰) than for nitrate (-11.4‰ to -3.4‰), as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water). For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion). Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil interaction; and another highly influenced by soil conditions. The snow-type flow path contributes low DIN

  13. Comparative analysis of three data treatment techniques for landslide susceptibility assessment in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, S.; Corominas, J.; Lantada, N.; Angulo, C.; Baeza, C.

    2009-04-01

    In this communication, the comparison of three data treatment methodologies for assessing landslide susceptibility is presented. The artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis, discriminant analysis (DA) and logistic regression (LR) have been performed in a test area of the Eastern Pyrenees (Spain), at a local scale (1:5.000). The main objective of our research is the comparison of the results obtained with the different techniques and to discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each of them. A database containing an inventory of 280 shallow landslides triggered during the intense rainy event of November of 1982 has been used. Additional information on significant conditioning factors such as vegetation cover and presence of superficial formation has been included as well as other input variables captured automatically from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ANN was performed with MATLAB while DA and LR with the statistical package SPSS. The input data and the results have been implemented on a GIS platform (ArcGIS). The test area has a size of about 40km2 and the susceptibility has been determined at each cell (15x15m). The input variables were selected from previous susceptibility assessment studies carried out in the area. The training and validation analyses have worked with two input cell classes (stable and unstable) and final maps with five susceptibility levels have been prepared. DA and LR classify dichotomous variables. The ANN analysis has been carried out with both classification and regression structures. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves obtained are similar in all the models. However, frequency histograms on stable and unstable populations show significant differences in the distance between the mean values of the populations and in the distribution of the overlapping area. The susceptibility maps prepared with ANN and LR minimize the potentially unstable area. The cumulative percentage curves (Duman et al. 2006) show that using

  14. The mountainous space as a commodity: the Pyrenees at the age of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Vaccaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In these pages we reflect on the process of transformation of the Catalan Pyrenees from a peripheral and economically decaying area to a first-rate tourism center. Real estate speculation has replaced depopulation. The economic and social value of the territory has dramatically shifted as it has gone from supporting low profitability ranching activities to become the space where resorts and parks are built. The paper analyzes the process of commodification and patrimonialization that have reintegrated the area into the national and international leisure markets paying special attention to the role of conservation practices, ski resorts and second residences in such a process. Finally, we attempt to identify the similarities and differences that characterize the two emergent tourism models: mass tourism versus small scale ecotourism.Au fil de ces pages, nous réfléchissons au processus de transformation des Pyrénées catalanes de zone périphérique et en déclin économique en centre touristique de qualité. La spéculation immobilière a remplacé le dépeuplement. La valeur économique et sociale du territoire a radicalement changé, la promotion des activités d’élevage peu rentables ayant cédé la place aux stations touristiques et aux parcs. Cet article analyse le processus de marchandisation et de patrimonialisation qui a réintégré la région sur les marchés de loisirs nationaux et internationaux en prêtant une attention particulière au rôle des pratiques de conservation, des stations de ski et des résidences secondaires. Enfin, nous tentons d’identifier les similitudes et les différences qui caractérisent les deux modèles touristiques émergents : le tourisme de masse contre l’écotourisme à l’échelle locale.

  15. Fluvial-system response to climate change: The Paleocene-Eocene Tremp Group, Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombera, Luca; Arévalo, Oscar J.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-10-01

    The Tremp Group of the Tremp-Graus Basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) is a succession of predominantly continental origin that records the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a transient episode of extreme global warming that occurred across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. For this succession, the stratigraphic position of the PETM is accurately determined, and histories of tectonic and sea-level controls are well constrained. Building upon previous studies, this work assesses changes in sedimentary architecture through the PETM in the Tremp Group, based on quantitative sedimentological analyses documented over a km-scale strike-oriented transect in the Arén area, with the scope to better understand the response of this alluvial system to the hyperthermal event. The analysed features represent a partial record of the geomorphic organization and processes of the system at the time of deposition, and are therefore interpretable in terms of geomorphic change in alluvial landscapes caused by the PETM. The record of the PETM, as previously recognized, begins at a time when erosional palaeotopographic relief was developed and deposition was confined in valleys. A shift between valley back-filling and widespread aggradation is observed at the onset of the PETM interval, which demonstrates uniquely the impact of the hyperthermal on both depositional loci and interfluves. Compared to underlying strata, the interval that embodies the onset and main phase of the PETM is characterized by: (i) higher proportion of channel deposits; (ii) channel complexes of greater average thickness and width; (iii) barforms and channel fills that are slightly thicker; (iv) increased thickness of sets of cross-stratified sandstones; (v) similar values of maximum extraclast size, by architectural element. An evident change in the facies organization of channel deposits is also seen through the stratigraphy, though this appears to predate the PETM. Increased channel-body density in the PETM

  16. 5 years of continuous seismic monitoring of a mountain river in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Sanchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Gallart, Josep

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of background seismic noise variations in the proximity of river channels has revealed as a useful tool to monitor river flow, even for modest discharges. Nevertheless, this monitoring is usually carried on using temporal deployments of seismic stations. The CANF seismic broad-band station, acquiring data continuously since 2010 and located inside an old railway tunnel in the Central Pyrenees, at about 400 m of the Aragón River channel, provides an excellent opportunity to enlarge this view and present a long term monitoring of a mountain river. Seismic signals in the 2-10 Hz band clearly related to river discharges have been identified in the seismic records. Discharge increases due to rainfall, large storms resulting in floods and snowmelt periods can be discriminated from the analysis of the seismic data. Up to now, two large rainfall events resulting in large discharge and damaging floods have been recorded, both sharing similar properties which can be used to implement automatic procedures to identify seismically potentially damaging floods. Another natural process that can be characterized using continuouly acquired seismic data is mountain snowmelt, as this process results in characteristic discharge patterns which can be identified in the seismic data. The time occurrence and intensity of the snowmelt stages for each season can be identified and the 5 seasons available so far compared to detect possible trends The so-called fluvial seismology can also provide important clues to evaluate the beadload transport in rivers, an important parameter to evaluate erosion rates in mountain environments. Analyzing both the amplitude and frequency variations of the seismic data and its hysteresis cycles, it seems possible to estimate the relative contribution of water flow and bedload transport to the seismic signal. The available results suggest that most of the river-generated seismic signal seems related to bed load transportation, while water

  17. Archeomagnetism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data

  18. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  19. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in France in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, D; Lepoutre, A; Fonteneau, L; Baudon, C; Halftermeyer-Zhou, F; LE Strat, Y; Lévy-Bruhl, D

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains the leading cause of congenital virus infection in developed countries. Measuring the national prevalence of this infection, especially among women of childbearing age, is of great value to estimate the risk of congenital CMV infection, as well as to identify risk groups that should be targeted for behavioural interventions and/or vaccination once a CMV vaccine finally becomes available. In order to fulfil these objectives, a seroprevalence survey was conducted in 2010, using a nationally representative, population-based sample of 2536 people aged between 15 and 49 years, living in metropolitan France and attending private microbiological laboratories for blood testing. All blood samples were analysed in the same laboratory and screened for CMV-specific IgG using an enzyme-linked immunoassay technique (Elisa PKS Medac Enzyme immunoassay). The overall point estimate of CMV infection seroprevalence for individuals aged 15-49 years was 41.9%. The estimates were higher in women than in men (respectively 45.6% and 39.3%), and people born in a non-Western country were more likely to be CMV seropositive than those born in France or in another Western country (93.7% vs. 37.7%). Our results showed that a substantial percentage of women of childbearing age in France are CMV seronegative and therefore at risk of primary CMV infection during pregnancy. Educational measures and future vaccine are key issues to prevent infection in pregnant women and congenital CMV disease.

  20. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  1. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  2. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. Évaluation, impacts et perceptions du changement climatique dans le Grand Ouest de la France métropolitaine : le projet CLIMASTER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merot, Philippe; Corgne, Samuel; Delahaye, Daniel; Desnos, Philippe; Dubreuil, Vincent; Gascuel, Chantal; Giteau, Jean-Luc; Joannon, Alexandre; Quenol, Herve; Narcy, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    We describe the methods and the main results obtained in the framework of the climaster project with the aim of contributing to the debate on climate change in the Grand Ouest (western part) of France...

  4. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Basa de la Mora glacial lake (Central Pyrenees) during the Holocene: preliminary results from palynological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanz, Ana; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Morellón, Mario; Belmonte, Anchel; Sancho-Marcén, Carlos; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Moreno, Ana; Rico, María. Teresa; Corella, Juan Pablo

    2010-05-01

    La Basa de la Mora (42° 33'N, 0° 20'E, 1914 m a.s.l.) is a glacial lake located at the central zone of the southern Pyrenees (Spain). It is a shallow lake with only 2.5 m water depth and 6.3 ha floodplain. Its position halfway between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean lends to both mediterranean and oceanic climatic influences. Currently the zone has peri-mediterranean climate and is the limit of the atlantic fronts influence. Thus, the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Basa de la Mora record (BSM) could facilitate the understanding of the complex climate patterns and forcings that interplay in this transition area, particularly at the Early Holocene, when different and apparent opposite climatic patrons has been recorded in NE Spain. To achieve this goal, we are mainly reconstructing the Holocene palaeoenvironmental conditions, including vegetation dynamics, of different lacustrine records of the region across a complete E-W / N-S transect in the Pyrenees, including the BSM sequence. Four cores were taken from the sediments of the Basa de la Mora lake and peatbog using a Uwitec piston coring equipment with platform. Pollen analyses and chronological control is being carried out on the longest core (12m length) extracted from the deepest part of the lake. Preliminary chronology is based on six AMS 14C dates, four of them obtained from terrestrial plant macrofossil remains and the other two from charcoal. According to the age model obtained, the studied sequence spans the last ca 10000 years. The base of the sequence (between ca 10-9 ka cal BP) reveals relatively arid climate conditions, characterized with the predominance of Juniperus versus Betula, in comparison with those observed in other palynological sequences previously studied. Xeric conditions are confirmed by the presence of Helianthemum, with a single appearance on the whole sequence, what contrasts with the well established assumption that the Early Holocene is the most humid period

  5. Assessing The Hazard of Sediment Yield From Debris Flows. A Case Study In The Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Adrián; Beguería, Santiago; García-Ruiz, José M.

    A total of 961 debris flows have been identified and mapped in the Upper Aragon and Gallego Valleys, Central Spanish Pyrenees. Information on lithology, plant cover, land uses as well as different maps derived from the Digital Terrain Model has been implemented into a Geographic Information System in order to apply a Discriminant Analysis. A logistic regression was used to produce a debris flow susceptibility map focused in the Flysch Sect or, where most of debris flows occurred. Information on different debris flow parameters have been taken in the field in order to forecast the runout distance according to the characteristics of these parameters. This procedure allow us to produce a model that forecast the probabilities of each debris flow to arrive to a fluvial channel and to become a sediment source.

  6. Influence of the Yesa reservoir on floods of the Aragón River, central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. López-Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yesa reservoir, the largest Pyrenean reservoir, was constructed in 1959 to supply water to new irrigated areas in the Ebro Depression, NE Spain. It is filled from October to May-June and then releases large quantities of water in the summer via the Bardenas Canal. The results confirm that the frequency of floods downstream of the dam decreased. The reduction mainly depends on two factors: i the water storage level, and ii the season of the year. Floods are very well controlled when the reservoir level is lower than 50%. Between 50 and 70%, only the highest floods are controlled. Finally, the reservoir retains mainly autumn and spring floods; most winter floods are released downstream to ensure the safety of the dam. Keywords: reservoir, flood control, flood seasonality, flood frequency, river regime, Pyrenees

  7. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/08/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.

  9. In Remembrance: Mary Frances Lyon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Remembrance: Mary Frances Lyon. (15 May 1925 – 25 December 2014). I start this piece from that day in 1969 when I first heard of the Lyon's hypothesis in the final semester of my master degree course in zoology at Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi. A lecture on evolution of sex chromosomes introduced us to.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of Tabanidae in the Pyrenees Mountains: the influence of altitude and landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, F; Porciani, A; Bernard, C; Jay-Robert, P

    2014-02-01

    In high-altitude summer pastures, horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance to livestock, as well as mechanical vectors of animal diseases such as besnoitiosis, an enzootic disease in the Pyrenees. However, the activity of horseflies in mountainous environments is poorly documented. To study the seasonality and distribution of tabanids in the Pyrenees Mountains, a sampling design was set up in two valleys on opposite sides of the mountain, one north-facing and one south-facing, along high-elevation gradients and at different distances from a water body between May and October 2011. The influence of the landscape on species richness and abundance was assessed by taking into account forested and unforested areas in 200 m radii around the trapping sites. Our findings indicated that: (1) The slope, the altitude and the size of unforested patches significantly influenced community composition of tabanids. (2) Altitude had a positive or a negative effect, depending on the species. (3) Species richness and abundance were negatively correlated with large open habitats and positively correlated with patch-shape complexity. (4) Seasonal succession of the most abundant species was observed in both valleys, with a maximum of catches at the beginning of August; however, tabanid activity ended earlier in the southern valley, which was more exposed to sunlight. (5) Philipomyia aprica, Tabanus bromius, Tabanus glaucopis and Hybomitra auripila were active from 9:00 to 19:00 h (GMT+1), with a peak of activity at midday. This paper also discusses the implications of these findings in relation to changes in horsefly distribution and their control in mountainous environments.

  11. The footprint of marginal agriculture in the Mediterranean mountain landscape: An analysis of the Central Spanish Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, T; Nadal-Romero, E; Errea, M P

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland. This article studies the role of traditional agriculture in the deterioration of the landscape. By using experimental plots in the Central Pyrenees to reproduce traditional agriculture and abandonment, maps of field types, and current uses and ground cover, it could be confirmed that shifting agriculture has caused very heavy soil loss, which explains the deterioration of the landscape on several slopes. Burning scrub and adding the ash to the soil as a fertilizer did not greatly help to improve soil quality, but caused high rates of erosion and a very slow process of regrowth. The average data obtained from the shifting experimental plots recorded losses of 1356kgha -1 years -1 , 1.6 times more than the plot of fertilized cereal, and 8.2 times more than the dense scrub plot. Following abandonment, losses in the shifting agriculture plot were almost three times higher than the abandoned sloping field plot. Traditional shifting agriculture in the Pyrenees is the main cause of the deterioration of the landscape 50-70years after agriculture ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution and space use of seed-dispersing rodents in central Pyrenees: implications for genetic diversity, conservation and plant recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgoiti, Jon; Muñoz, Alberto; Espelta, Josep Maria; Bonal, Raúl

    2018-01-09

    The function and conservation of many forest ecosystems depend on the distribution and diversity of the community of rodents that consume and disperse seeds. The habitat preferences and interactions are especially relevant in alpine systems where such granivorous rodents reach the southernmost limit of their distribution and are especially sensitive to global warming. We analysed the community of granivorous rodents in the Pyrenees, one of the southernmost mountain ranges of Europe. Rodent species were identified by DNA with particular attention to the Apodemus species, which are prominent seed-dispersing rodents in Europe. We confirmed for the first time the presence of the yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, in central Pyrenees, a typical Eurosiberian species that reaches its southernmost distribution limit in this area. We also found the wood mouse, A. sylvaticus, a related species more tolerant to Mediterranean environments. Both rodents were spatially segregated by altitude. A. sylvaticus was rare at high altitudes, which might cause the genetic differentiation between populations of the different valleys reported here. We also found other seed consumers like dormice, Elyomis quercinus, and voles, Myodes glareolus, with marked habitat preferences. We suggest that population isolation among valleys may increase the genetic diversity of rodents, like A. sylvaticus. We also highlight the potential threat that global warming may represent for species linked to high-altitude refuges at the southern edge of its distribution, like A. flavicollis. Finally, we discuss how this threat may have a dimension in the conservation of alpine forests dispersed by these rodent populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. High resolution imaging of lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees by full waveform inversion of shortperiod teleseismic P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Monteiller, Vadim; Durochat, Clément

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the deployment of permanent and temporary broadband arrays, coverage and data quality have dramatically improved in the last decade, especially for regional-scale studies. In addition, owing to the progress of high-performance resources and numerical simulation techniques, waveform inversion approaches nowadays become a viable alternative to classical asymptotic ray based tomographic approaches. Exploiting full waveforms in seismic tomography requires an efficient and precise method to solve the elastic wave equation in 3D inhomogeneous media. Since resolution of waveform inversion is limited by the seismic wavelength as well as the wavefield sampling density, it is crucial to exploit short-period teleseismic waves recorded by dense regional arrays. However, modeling the propagation of short-period body waves in heterogeneous media is still very challenging, even on the largest modern supercomputers. For this reason, we have developed a hybrid method that couples a global wave propagation method in a 1D Earth to a 3D spectral-element method in a regional domain. This hybrid method restricts the costly 3D computations to inside the regional domain, which dramatically decreases the computational cost, allows us to compute teleseismic wavefields down to 1s period, thus accounting for the complexities that affect the propagation of seismic waves in the regional domain. We present the first application of this new waveform inversion approach to broadband data coming from two dense transects deployed during the PYROPE experiment across the Pyrenees mountains. We obtain the first high-resolution lithospheric section of compressional and shear velocities across an orogenic belt. The tomographic model provides clear evidence for the under-thrusting of the thinned Iberian crust beneath the European plate and for the important role of rift-inherited mantle structures during the formation of the Pyrenees.

  14. Spatial distribution and morphometry of permafrost-related landforms in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Palma, Pedro; Pereira, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    Present and past permafrost distribution in the Pyrenees is still under discussion. As in other mid-latitude mountain regions, rock glaciers and protalus lobes are the min indicators of permafrost conditions. In this study, we examine the distribution of these landforms in the Boí valley, a formerly glaciated U-shaped valley ranging from 850 to 3000 m a.s.l. The valley encompasses a surface of 247 km2, mainly composed of granite and shales. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers and protalus lobes and their chronostratigraphic position within the valley allow a better understanding of the climatic and environmental conditions necessary for their development. Geomorphological mapping of these landforms was built using high resolution imagery provided by the Institut Cartogràfic i Geologic de Catalunya, complemented with Basemap ESRI images and Google Earth Pro, and subsequently improved with field observations. The map was generated in a GIS environment following the RCP 77 mapping system of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Joly, 1997). Several parameters of each landform have been measured (Table 1): area (ha), altitude (maximum, minimum, mean), length (L), width (W), aspect and slope. This information provides accurate characterization of the morphometric properties of these landforms as well as a detailed identification of their spatial distribution. Up to 121 permafrost-related landforms were identified in the Boí valley, including 84 rock glaciers and 37 protalus lobes. Most of the landforms (93% for rock glaciers and 95% for protalus lobes) are located inside the glacial cirques, while the rest is distributed in the valley bottom or slopes of the formerly glaciated valleys. The lowest elevation of both forms is situated at 2100 m a.s.l. Therefore, this altitude may be indicative of the lowest level recording permafrost conditions during the period in which these landforms formed. The maximum elevation of the landforms usually

  15. Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López-Vicente

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events, soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content and current tillage practices in a set of agricultural fields in a mountainous area of the Central Pyrenees in NE Spain. To this purpose the rainfall and runoff erosivity (R, the soil erodibility (K and the cover-management (C factors of the empirical RUSLE soil loss model were used. The R, K and C factors were calculated at monthly scale. The first erosive period extends from July to October and presents the highest values of erosivity (87.8 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, maximum rainfall intensity (22.3 mm h−1 and monthly soil erosion (0.25 Mg ha−1 month−1 with the minimum values of duration of erosive storms, freeze-thaw cycles, soil moisture content and soil erodibility (0.007 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1. This period includes the harvesting and the plowing tillage practices. The second erosive period has a duration of two months, from May to June, and presents the lowest total and monthly soil losses (0.10 Mg ha−1 month−1 that correspond to the maximum protection of the soil by the crop-cover ($C$ factor = 0.05 due to the maximum stage of the growing season and intermediate values of rainfall and runoff erosivity, maximum rainfall intensity and soil erodibility. The third erosive period extends from November to April and has the minimum values of rainfall erosivity (17.5 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 and

  16. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Castroviejo, Ricardo

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees. Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in diameter, are up to six times more abundant, in percentage of total weight, in transports caused by heavy rainfalls than in the material collected after snowmelt flows. In its turn, bed load mobilized by snowmelt flows is mainly composed by medium and fine gravel, from 2 to 8 mm. These may amount up to 60 % of total weight of bed load. The reasons for these so different size distributions are discussed.

    [es] En una cuenca de alta montaña localizada en el alto valle del río Gallego (Pirineo central se comparan las distribuciones por tamaños de los acarreos movilizados por diferentes tipos de caudal. Tres tipos de eventos hidrológicos han podido ser caracterizados: los ocasionados por intensas lluvias de otoño, los originados por tormentas estivales aisladas y los producidos por la fusión de la nieve acumulada durante el invierno. Se concluye que cada uno de ellos lleva asociada una distribución por tamaños típica de la carga de fondo. Así, se ha comprobado que las fracciones más gruesas consideradas -superiores a los 30 mm de diámetro- son hasta seis veces más abundantes -en porcentaje sobre el peso total- en las exportaciones causadas por lluvias de gran intensidad que en las generadas por caudales de fusión. A su vez, las descargas ocasionadas por la fusión arrastran principalmente gravas de calibre medio y fino -entre 2y8 mm- que llegan a suponer el 60 % en peso del volumen movilizado. Este artículo discute las razones que provocan

  17. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows (;TRIG rainfalls;) were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows (;NonTRIG rainfalls;) were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot

  18. Soil properties relevant to land degradation in abandoned sloping fields in Aisa valley, Central Pyrenees (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardini, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-approach characterization of soil properties in abandoned fields in the Aisa valley, at mid mountain in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, demonstrated that the soil's own peculiar characteristics are concerned with conservation problems. Aggregate stability and shrinkage tests pointed to a relatively good soil performance due to the aggregating role of organic matter and calcium carbonates, although calcium ions, in some instances, may exert and additional antagonistic role for a sealed surface, increasing runoff. On the other hand, soil micromorphology suggests that the poor condition of the soils is in some contradiction to paedogenic activity. These findings, together with the presence of ashes, support the hypothesis that land degradation in these areas is mainly related to human activity thought unsuitable management after land abandonment.

    [es] La caracterización de diversas propiedades del suelo en campos abandonados del valle de Aisa, montaña media del Pirineo Central, ha mostrado que dichos suelos presentan algunos caracteres de interés desde el punto de vista de la conservación. La estabilidad de los agregados y los test de agrietamiento evidencian un comportamiento aceptable, gracias al papel agregante de la materia orgánica y carbonatos de calcio, a pesar que los iones calcio, en algunas ocasiones, pueden ejercer un papel antagonista adicional y favorecer el sellado de la superficie del suelo, aumentando la escorrentía superficial. Por otra parte, la micromorfología sugiere que el estado de degradación de los suelos contrasta con la actividad pedogénica. Estos resultados, juntamente con la presencia de cenizas, apoyan la hipótesis de que el estado de degradación en estas áreas es consecuencia principalmente de una utilización incorrecta después del abandono de los cultivos.
    [fr] Un étude des propriétés des sois dans une zone à cultures en pente abandonnées dans la vallée d'Aisa (Pyr

  19. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana; Gaspar, Leticia; Palazon, Leticia [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei (EEAD- CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Soil and Water; Valero-Garces, Blas [Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The sediments accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (Central Spanish Pyrenees) have greatly decreased its water storage capacity and are a major threat to the sustainability of water resources in the region. This study examines the contents of radionuclides and stable elements in the reservoir sediments and relates their variations with the sediment composition and local sedimentary dynamics, particularly flood frequency and intensity, which are responsible for changes in the main supply and distribution of radionuclides in the basin. Materials and methods: The sedimentary sequence accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (471 Hm{sup 3}), which supplies water to ca. 1,000,000 people and for irrigation, was examined in two 4-m long sediment cores (Y1, Y2) and one profile (Y3) retrieved at its central part. In the sediments, radionuclide activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were measured using a hyperpure Ge coaxial detector. The stable elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Li, K and Na were analysed by ICP-OES. Complementary analyses to characterize the sediments included: XRD in the profile, grain size distribution by laser equipment and the contents of organic matter, carbonates and the residual fraction by loss on ignition. Results and discussion: The variation in radionuclide activities is associated with grain size and sediment composition. The activity levels (becquerels per kilogram) ranged between 20 and 43 for{sup 238}U, 14 and 40 for {sup 226}Ra, 7 and 56 for {sup 210}Pb, 19 and 46 for Th{sup 232}, 1 and 48 for {sup 137}Cs and 185 and 610 for {sup 40}K. Enriched activity levels are associated with clayey and silty layers, and depleted levels with sandy layers. The levels of radionuclides and trace elements were significantly lower in the cores than in the profile because of its higher silicate content and the influence of inflow of spring mineral-rich waters. The correlations among

  20. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bartrons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio.

    We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW and sediment pore water (SPW from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰, with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes.

    In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (−9.4‰ to 7.4‰ than for nitrate (−11.4‰ to −3.4‰, as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water. For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion. Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil

  1. December 9, 2000. Visits of wind farms settled in Languedoc-Roussillon in the framework of EOLE 2005 program. Other wind farms in France. Eole training courses: 2001 session; 9 decembre 2000. Visites de parc eoliens implantes en Languedoc-Roussillon dans le cadre d'EOLE 2005. Les autres parcs eoliens en France Stages Eole: session 2001. Les autres parcs eoliens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This last day of colloquium was devoted to visits and presentations of French wind farms in Languedoc-Roussillon (Souleilla, Lastours, Corbieres-Maritimes, Salleles-Limousis (S France)), in Corsica (Cap Corse), in Drome region (Donzere (SE France)); in Northern France (Dunkerque, Widehem), and in western France (Goulien, Plouarzel (Brittany)). For each farm, a brief description is given with the financing and investment costs of the project and the expected power production. The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) also organizes training courses for the implementation of big and small wind power projects. (J.S.)

  2. Paleosol charcoal : Reconstructing vegetation history in relation to agro−pastoral activities since the Neolithic. A case study in the Eastern French Pyrenees.

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Marie; Rendu, Christine; Ruas, Marie-Pierre; Campmajo, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This article uses a method that combines pedoanthracological and pedo-archaeological approaches to terraces, complemented with archaeological pastoral data, in order to reconstruct the history of ancient agricultural terraces on a slope of the Enveitg Mountain in the French Pyrenees. Four excavations revealed two stages of terrace construction that have been linked with vegetation dynamics, which had been established by analyses of charcoal from the paleosols and soils...

  3. Detrital zircon (U-Th)/(He-Pb) double-dating constraints on provenance and foreland basin evolution of the Ainsa Basin, south-central Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kelly D.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Clark, Julian D.; Puigdefàbregas, Cai; Fildani, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    South central Pyrenean foreland basin fill preserves the eroded remnants of the early stages of fold-thrust belt evolution and topographic growth. Specifically, the Eocene Hecho Group in the Ainsa Basin contains a succession of turbiditic channels and levees deposited in the transition zone between the fluvial-deltaic and deep marine depozones. Detailed isotopic provenance analyses allow for the reconstruction of sediment sources of the ancient sediment routing systems. This study presents 2332 new detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb ages and 246 new DZ double-dated (U-Th)/(He-Pb) ages from 19 turbiditic and fluvio-deltatic sandstones in the Ainsa Basin. These data indicate a progressive provenance shift from Cadomian/Caledonian plutonic and metamorphic rocks of the eastern Pyrenees to Variscan plutonic rocks in the central Pyrenees. Minor sediment contributions from sources located to the S and SE of the basin are seen throughout the section. New DZ (U-Th)/He results identify four main cooling events: Pyrenean orogenesis ( 56 Ma), initial basin inversion ( 80 Ma), Cretaceous rifting ( 100 Ma), and pre-Mesozoic cooling ages related to earlier tectonic phases. This study imposes new constraints on the paleogeographic evolution of the Pyrenees and illustrates that high-frequency fluctuations in sediment delivery processes and sediment routing introduce superimposed noise upon the basin-scale long-term provenance evolution during orogenesis.

  4. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  5. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  6. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  7. Laboratory medicine in France. A jeopardized situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiguié, P M; de Graeve, J S; Guerre, J P

    1997-11-06

    The expenses for health care in France have risen considerably during the present decade, ranking third after USA and Canada in the Western world. In spite of the very low cost of laboratory medicine (2.4% of the total expenditure in 1995), clinical laboratories have undergone a severe squeeze, due to two limiting factors; a decrease in the ordering of laboratory tests from private physicians and a reduction in the total expenses for laboratory services from the Social Security. Consequently, there has been unemployment of technical and secretarial staff and severe restriction in investment for buying new equipment. However, hospital laboratories will manage to assume their challenge in developing robotics, automation, molecular pathology techniques and expert systems. Private laboratories, in spite of their efforts to follow the technological advances in automation, will survive thanks to consolidation of regional networks that operate in a cooperative rather than competitive mode. Therefore, the challenge will be not in the adaptation of clinical laboratories, but in the limitation of overspending at the national level and in modification of the behaviour of irresponsible citizens accustomed to spending freely on health care services.

  8. Portion of Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Violette, Paul E.

    At a meeting in Palma (on the Mediterranean island of Majorca), on October 20, 1986, ocean scientists affiliated with the Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment (WMCE) met to discuss the completion of their 1-year field experiment. The convenors represented a consortium of 60 scientists from laboratories and institutions in the United States, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The consortium members pooled their talents, instruments, and resources to achieve their common goal: the derivation of the spatial and temporal variability of the circulation of the western Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Set-up of debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Preliminary results and first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Claudia; Moya, Jose; Chevalier, Guillaume; Raïmat, Carles; Luis-Fonseca, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Direct observations of debris flows in the field by monitoring stations are of great importance to improve understandings of triggering, flow behaviour and accumulation of debris flows. Upon the knowledge of the authors, in Europe debris-flow monitoring stations are only situated in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland), while no test site is located in a catchment affected by Mediterranean climate. In 2005, the first monitoring system was set up by GEOBRUGG IBERICA SA in the Erill catchment, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. A flexible ring net VX160-H4 with load-cells was installed together with a video camera and four geophones. In addition, a meteorological station completed the instrumentation. During 2009, the monitoring of two additional catchments has been set up; Senet in the Axial Pyrenees and Ensija in the Pre-Pyrenees. Four geophones and one ultrasonic device are installed along the torrent in order to determine the flow velocity and flow depth/discharge of the events. As in Erill, a meteorological station completes the devices and measures rainfall and temperature. The main objective of the three monitoring stations is to get some insights on how the Mediterranean climate influences the critical rainfall for debris-flow initiation. The flow behaviour of debris flows is another major goal, while the Erill test site focuses basically on the effectiveness of flexible ring nets. In addition, the Erill installation also acts as protection for the village located on the fan. The calibration, installation and analysis during the testing phase showed that a correct implementation of the different sensors is not an easy task and needs knowledge in geophysics, electronics, telecommunications etc. Especially geophones and ultrasonic devices need special attentions. Geophone outputs are strongly affected by the type of underground and the distance to the torrent, while the measures of the ultrasonic sensor clearly depend on the temperature. To simplify the data storage

  10. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  11. Post-orogenic evolution of mountain ranges and associated foreland basins: Initial investigation of the central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas; Sinclair, Hugh; Ford, Mary; Naylor, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Mountain topography, including surrounding foreland basins, results from the long-term competition between tectonic and surface processes linked to climate. Numerous studies on young active mountain ranges such as the Southern Alps, New Zealand and Taiwan, have investigated the interaction between tectonics, climate and erosion on the topographic landscape. However most of the mountain ranges in the world are in various stages of post-orogenic decay, such as the European Alps, Urals, Caledonides, Appalachians and Pyrenees. The landscape evolution of these decaying mountains, which involve relatively inactive tectonics, should appear simple with progressive and relatively uniform erosion resulting in a general lowering of both elevation and topographic relief. However, in a number of examples, post-orogenic systems suggest a complex dynamism and interactions with their associated foreland basins in term of spatio-temporal variations in erosion and sedimentary flux. The complexity and transition to post-orogenesis is a function of multiple processes. Underpinning the transition to a post-orogenic state is the competition between erosion and crustal thickening; the balance of these processes determines the timing and magnitude of isostatic rebound and hence subsidence versus uplift of the foreland basin. It is expected that any change in the parameters controlling the balance of erosion versus crustal thickening will impact the topographic evolution and sediment flux from the mountain range and foreland basin to the surrounding continental margin. This study will focus on the causes and origins of the processes that define post-orogenesis. This will involve analyses of low-temperature thermochronological and topographic data, geodynamical modelling and sedimentological analyses (grainsize distribution). The Pyrenees and its associated northern retro-foreland basin, the Aquitaine basin, will form the natural laboratory for the project as it is one of the best

  12. From plot to regional scales: Interactions of slope and catchment hydrological and geomorphic processes in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Beguería, Santiago; Lasanta, Teodoro; Regüés, David; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Serrano-Muela, Pilar; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Alvera, Bernardo; Martí-Bono, Carlos; Alatorre, Luis C.

    2010-08-01

    The hydrological and geomorphic effects of land use/land cover changes, particularly those associated with vegetation regrowth after farmland abandonment were investigated in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. The main focus was to assess the interactions among slope, catchment, basin, and fluvial channel processes over a range of spatial scales. In recent centuries most Mediterranean mountain areas have been subjected to significant human pressure through deforestation, cultivation of steep slopes, fires, and overgrazing. Depopulation commencing at the beginning of the 20th century, and particularly since the 1960s, has resulted in farmland abandonment and a reduction in livestock numbers, and this has led to an expansion of shrubs and forests. Studies in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, based on experimental plots and catchments, in large basins and fluvial channels, have confirmed that these land use changes have had hydrological and geomorphic consequences regardless of the spatial scale considered, and that processes occurring at any particular scale can be explained by such processes acting on other scales. Studies using experimental plots have demonstrated that during the period of greatest human pressure (mainly the 18th and 19th centuries), cultivation of steep slopes caused high runoff rates and extreme soil loss. Large parts of the small catchments behaved as runoff and sediment source areas, whereas the fluvial channels of large basins showed signs of high torrentiality (braided morphology, bare sedimentary bars, instability, and prevalence of bedload transport). Depopulation has concentrated most human pressure on the valley bottoms and specific locations such as resorts, whereas the remainder of the area has been affected by an almost generalized abandonment. Subsequent plant recolonization has resulted in a reduction of overland flow and declining soil erosion. At a catchment scale this has caused a reduction in sediment sources, and channel incision in the

  13. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department), creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European ...

  14. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  15. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  16. Increasing Aridity is Enhancing Silver Fir (Abies Alba Mill). Water Stress in its South-Western Distribution Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Andreu, L.; Bosch, O.; Gutierrez, E. [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal, 645, Barcelona, 08028, Catalonia (Spain); Camarero, J.J. [Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigacion Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragon, Apdo. 727, Zaragoza, 50080, Aragon (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Tree populations located at the geographical distribution limit of the species may provide valuable information about the response of tree growth to climate warming across climatic gradients. Dendroclimatic information was extracted from a network of 10 silver-fir (Abies alba) populations in the south-western distribution limit of the species (Pyrenees, NE Iberian Peninsula). Ring-width chronologies were built for five stands sampled in mesic sites from the Main Range in the Pyrenees, and for five forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges where summer drought is more pronounced. The radial growth of silver-fir in this region is constrained by water stress during the summer previous to growth, as suggested by the negative relationship with previous September temperature and, to a lesser degree, by a positive relationship with previous end of summer precipitation. Climatic data showed a warming trend since the 1970s across the Pyrenees, with more severe summer droughts. The recent warming changed the climate-growth relationships, causing higher growth synchrony among sites, and a higher year-to-year growth variation, especially in the southernmost forests. Moving-interval response functions suggested an increasing water-stress effect on radial growth during the last half of the 20th century. The growth period under water stress has extended from summer up to early autumn. Forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges experienced a more intense water stress, as seen in a shift of their response to precipitation and temperature. The Main-Range sites mainly showed a response to warming. The intensification of water-stress during the late 20th century might affect the future growth performance of the highly-fragmented A. alba populations in the southwestern distribution limit of the species.

  17. The public safety and Gaz de France; La securite du public et Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of its utilities missions, Gaz de France has to assure the public safety and the continuity of the gas supply chain. To avoid accidents and help victims of accidents, Gas de France implemented a system of financial assistance but also a preventive action to verify the installations. The first part of the document presents the liabilities of Gas de France, the second part deals with the voluntarist approach of Gas de france towards the public safety. (A.L.B.)

  18. The Late Neoproterozoic magmatism in the Ediacaran series of the Eastern Pyrenees: new ages and isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. M.; Navidad, M.; Castiñeiras, P.; Liesa, M.; Aguilar, C.; Carreras, J.; Hofmann, M.; Gärtner, A.; Linnemann, U.

    2015-06-01

    Geochronological U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS), geochemical and isotopic data from metavolcanic felsic rocks of the Canigó and Cap de Creus massifs in the Eastern Pyrenees provide evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic event lasting 30 Ma in NE Iberia. These data also constrain the age of the Late Neoproterozoic succession in the Cap de Creus massif, where depositional ages range from 577 to 558 Ma, and in the Canigó massif, where the data (575-568 Ma) represent minimum ages. The geochemistry of the felsic rocks indicates that they were formed in a back-arc environment and they record a fragment of a long-lived subduction-related magmatic arc (620-520 Ma) in the active northern Gondwana margin. The homogeneity shown by all these crustal fragments along this margin suggests that the individualization of the Pyrenean basement from the Iberian Massif started later, probably during its transition from an active to a passive margin in Cambro-Ordovician times.

  19. Analysis of spatial and temporal evolution of vegetation cover in the Spanish Central Pyrenees: role of human management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Lasanta, Teodoro; Romo, Alfredo

    2004-12-01

    A vegetation cover increase has been identified at global scales using satellite images and vegetation indices. This fact is usually explained by global climatic change processes such as CO(2) and temperature increases. Nevertheless, although these causes can be important, the role of socioeconomic transformations must be considered in some places, since in several areas of Northern Hemisphere an important change in management practices has been detected. Rural depopulation and land abandonment have reactivated the natural vegetation regeneration processes. This work analyses the vegetation evolution in the central Spanish Pyrenees from 1982 to 2000. The analysis has been done by using calibrated-NDVI temporal series from NOAA-AVHRR images. A positive and significant trend in NDVI data has been identified from 1982 to 2000 coinciding with a temperature increase in the study area. However, the spatial differences in magnitude and the sign of NDVI trends are significant. The role of land management changes in the 20th century is considered as a hypothesis to explain the spatial differences in NDVI trends. The role of land-cover and human land-uses on this process has been analyzed. The highest increment of NDVI is detected in lands affected by abandonment and human extensification. The importance of management changes in vegetation growth is discussed, and we indicate that although climate has great importance in vegetal evolution, land-management changes can not be neglected in our study area.

  20. Tree-ring based assessment of rockfall frequency on talus slopes at Solà d'Andorra, Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, J.; Corominas, J.; Pérez Arcas, J.; Baeza, C.

    2010-06-01

    The determination of the frequency of rockfall events continues to challenge quantitative hazard assessments in most mountain areas. Dendrogeomorphological analysis was used to assess rockfall frequency on talus slopes at Solà d'Andorra (Eastern Pyrenees, Andorra). Rockfall events were dated at two sites: one at the outlet of a chute, and the other below a rock wall. The impact wounds visible on the tree surface were analyzed with a seasonal temporal resolution. At each site, trees were sampled in three forest strips 15 to 30 m wide located at different heights on the talus. All the trees with visible injuries in the strips were sampled. Rockfall frequency cannot be assessed by a simple analysis of time series of tree damage. A satisfactory assessment requires a prior interpretation of the location of the damaged trees in relation to a number of rockfall events. At Solà d'Andorra, the rockfall chronology was reconstructed for the last 25 years by dating visible wounds. For older periods, the tree wound record of rockfalls is incomplete owing to progressive closure of wounds. Wounds exceeding 40 years in age had already disappeared from the tree surface in the study area. Our results show a clear reduction of the rockfall frequency down the talus, a noticeable lateral change in frequency, and an influence of source morphology (chute or wall) on rockfall activity on the talus.

  1. POLYGNATHUS ROSAE N. SP. (CONODONTA AND ITS BIOSTRATIGRAPHICAL CORRELATION POTENTIAL (LOWER EMSIAN, LOWER DEVONIANIN THE SPANISH CENTRAL PYRENEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems around the Pragian/Emsian (P/E boundary have been widely discussed by several authors, who have pointed out that the present Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP in the Zinzilban section (Kitab Reserve, Uzbekistan, is much older than the traditional German Siegenian-Emsian boundary, a fact that considerably reduces the duration of the traditional Pragian Stage. A comprehensive conodont study of two important sections (Isábena 1 and Baliera 6 demonstrates the presence of the conodont indexes for the P/E boundary in both senses (official and traditional in the Spanish Central Pyrenees (SCP. Within the important conodont faunas registered, the presence of a new early polygnathid species Polygnathus rosae n. sp. stands out. Its stratigraphic range in the two sections is restricted to a short interval around the traditional beginning of the Emsian Stage. This particular distribution permits direct relation between both indexes, a better characterization of the P/E boundary in the traditional German sense and increases the palaeontological knowledge of this stratigraphic interval. Conodont records in the SCP suggest that Po. rosae n. sp. could be a good local index, too. In addition, Po. rosae n. sp. represents the last known step of the lineage Po. pireneaePo. rosae n. sp., a new early polygnathid lineage that supports the early radiation of the genus around the P/E boundary. 

  2. On the reliability of AMS in ilmenite-type granites: an insight from the Marimanha pluton, central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Casas, A. M.; Ramón, M. J.; Leiss, B.; Mariani, E.; Román-Berdiel, T.

    2012-04-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) at room temperature has been used for decades to obtain the petrofabric orientation in granites as a kinematic marker to establish models explaining the emplacement of plutons. To assess the significance of AMS in terms of mineral orientation, we have performed a multidisciplinary study at five sites of an ilmenite-type pluton (Marimanha, central Pyrenees) with significant facies changes. To test the reliability of AMS measurements at room temperature, the following methods were applied: low temperature AMS; image analyses and X-ray texture goniometry (XTG) of biotites; and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to obtain c-axes directions of quartz. The total (para-, ferro- and dia-)magnetic fabric analysed by AMS is compared with the paramagnetic fabric (low-T AMS), mica orientation (with image analyses and XTG) and the diamagnetic fabric (EBSD). Results indicate that weakly oriented paramagnetic minerals can give well-defined magnetic fabrics (AMS at room and low temperatures). Furthermore, the AMS ellipsoid is the result of composite biotite fabrics resulting from both orientation and spatial distribution of crystals, as demonstrated by 2-D mathematical models presented in this study. AMS is the most effective technique for quickly measuring composite fabrics. In addition, the advantage of using AMS analyses is twofold: (1) it is a fast way of analysing standard samples that can give clues for subsequent image/mineral orientation analysis and (2) it is a volume-related method that gives a picture of the rock fabric as a whole.

  3. Management of snakebites in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Luc

    2012-09-15

    Although not a major health problem in Europe, snakebite in the old continent was the focus of recent studies to evaluate their overall incidence and define management techniques. The purpose of this three-part report is to present the experience of the Marseille Poison Centre with snakebite in France. The first section deals with viper envenomation that now benefits from a validated therapeutic protocol using of purified antivenom of proven efficacy and tolerance in patients showing grade 2 and 3 symptoms. The second section describes the highly variable snakebite situation in French overseas territories that include areas where local species require specialized management, e.g. Martinique and French Guiana. The third section involves the emerging problems associated with the keeping of exotic snakes as pets with problems related to the use of antivenoms from foreign countries. The exotic-snake pets fashion was at the origin of the creation of a national antivenom bank by two French poison centers (Angers and Marseille) to ensure prompt delivery of antivenoms for exotic snake envenomation anywhere in mainland France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Sources Of Protracted Conflict In The Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    increasing unrest, the French and Spanish divided the Sherifian Empire into three territories in (1912). France promoted colonization to secure its...opinions on two questions: 1. Was Western Sahara a territory belonging to no one (terra nullius) at the time of Spanish colonization ? 2. What were the...1. History Leading up to the Occupation .......................................16 2. Spanish Decolonization (1956–1976

  5. Administrative and Judicial Cooperation in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is very little knowledge in the Netherlands of how economic private law and public law are enforced in France. In France too, however, scant information can be gleaned. There is little if any contact in the university community between criminal law and administrative law, partly because

  6. Recent Demographic Developments in France

    OpenAIRE

    France Prioux

    2006-01-01

    L?accroissement naturel en France continue à être l?un des plus élevés de l?Union européenne, car la structure par âge de la population est encore assez favorable aux naissances, et relativement peu aux décès. Le solde migratoire évalué est relativement faible en comparaison denos voisins, mais lenombre de titres de séjour délivrés à des étrangers s?est beaucoup accru ces dernières années. Après une forte hausse en 2000, l?indicateur conjoncturel de fécondité est resté stable en 2001 et 2002 ...

  7. Sheep feed and scrapie, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie; Calavas, Didier

    2005-08-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor.

  8. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays a central role in the appropriate performance of the activity. The legislative body - normally, the legislation is voted by Parliament. French Parliament is comprised of two chambers: the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly is elected for five years by way of direct universal voting. The Senate is elected by way of indirect universal voting by the electoral group. The election system is based on rules contained in the Election Code. The executive authority is divided between the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister. The President of the Republic makes the appointments for civil and military positions located at the highest state level. The Council of Ministers is responsible for appointing the positions of state councillors, prefect and public administration director. The central government is headed by the Prime Minister. Regional authorities – the regions are free territories administered by elected Councils. As far as the metropolitan part of France is concerned, there are 22 such territories, to which are added other four districts / counties which are located out of borders. The region’s Prefect represents the state and is empowered to deploy legal actions in order to protect the state’s best interest. County authorities – there are currently 96 de districts, to which four other territories located out of borders are added, as well as the territorial communities of Mayoutte and St-Pierre et Miquelon. There are

  9. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  10. Tectonic evolution of the Northern Pyrenees. Results of the PYRAMID project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary; Mouthereau, Fredéric; Christophoul, Fredéric; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Espurt, Nicolas; Labaume, Pierre; Vergés, Jaume; Teixell, Antonio; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Vacharat, Arnaud; Pik, Raphael; Pironon, Jacques; Carpentier, Cédric; Angrand, Paul; Grool, Arjan; Salardon, Roland; Huismans, Ritske; Bader, Anne-Gaëlle; Baudin, Thierry; Aubourg, Charles

    2017-04-01

    The aims of the PYRAMID project funded by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche of France, were to investigate and constrain the 3D structural style and architecture of the North Pyrenean retrowedge and foreland basin, their evolution through time, to define the character and role of inherited crustal geometries, to investigate the interactions between deformation, fluids and thermicity in the different structural units, and to carry out source to sink studies In this talk we present a series of restored cross sections through the central and eastern Pyrenean retrowedge to illustrate structural style, amount and type of deformation and how it was accommodated within the upper crust along the orogen. The total amount of convergence appears to have been constant and the timing of onset of convergence was synchronous. However, in the retrowedge the complexity of the Cretaceous oblique rift system has led to high lateral structural variability. Inherited vertical late Variscan faults trending NE-SW to ENE-WSW segment the European crust and have strongly compartmentalised both retrowedge and foreland basin evolution along the orogen. Crustal scale restorations provide new evolutionary models for the geometry and style of inversion of the pre-orogenic hyper-extended rift system where mantle was exhumed in the most distal domain. Numerical models provide insight into retrowedge inversion. A new stratigraphic scheme has been developed for the eastern and central foreland. Subsidence analyses and foreland basin reconstructions document two pulses of convergence (Late Santonian to Early Paleocene and Eocene to Oligocene) separated by a quiet phase during the Paleocene. These phases can be linked to deformation in the North Pyrenean Zone thrust belt. The first phase was caused mainly by inversion and emplacement of the Metamorphic Internal Zone onto external zones associated with subduction of the exhumed mantle domain. Little or no relief was created during this phase

  11. Long-term entrenchment and consequences in present flood hazard in Garona River (Val d'Aran, central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Flood risk is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in mountainous areas. Risk management and mitigation have to be based on exhaustive risk evaluation. Moreover, hazard analysis requires a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a complete understanding of the dynamics of the phenomena. The Val d'Aran valley is located in the axial part of the Pyrenees and is drained by the Garona River. Flooding events are relatively frequent there. The last extraordinary episode occurred in June 2013. Considering both the main effects of this flooding and the geomorphology, the long-term dynamics of the Garona River was studied in two different areas (Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les), which are representative of the whole length along the Val d'Aran. In fact, present short-term processes can be partly explained as a result of the long-term fluvial tendency. During the analysis of the 2013 flood effects, several entrenchment and incision indicators were found. Under the hypothesis that the fluvial network tends to incise, an entrenchment indicator analysis was carried out. Firstly, we considered the geomorphologic features, such as two generations of alluvial fans, two generations of alluvial terraces and, incisions on geomorphologic features and in Paleozoic bedrock. Secondly, we found out that erosion dominated over overflow and deposition during the 2013 flooding. Finally, great erosion was identified in engineering structures, for instance, in bridges, channelization dikes, gauging stations and dams. The geomorphologic analysis and the entrenchment indicators are essential to perform a post-glacial evolution interpretation. During the last Pleistocene glacial retreat, a fluvio-torrential network was developed at the bottom of the ancient glacial valley. An early post-glacial phase with a high sediment transport lead to the formation of first generation alluvial fans and alluvial terraces (nowadays located ≈15m above the channel). As sediment transport decreased

  12. Ragweed pollen source inventory for France - The second largest centre of Ambrosia in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaudon, Michel; Šikoparija, Branko; Oliver, Gilles; Smith, Matt; Skjøth, Carsten A.

    2014-02-01

    France, in particular the Rhône-Alpes region, is one of the three main centres of ragweed (Ambrosia) in Europe. The aim of this study is to develop a gridded ragweed pollen source inventory for all of France that can be used in assessments, eradication plans and by atmospheric models for describing concentrations of airborne ragweed pollen. The inventory combines information about spatial variations in annual Ambrosia pollen counts, knowledge of ragweed ecology, detailed land cover information and a Digital Elevation Model. The ragweed inventory consists of a local infection level on a scale of 0-100% (where 100% is the highest plant abundance per area in the studied region) and a European infection level between 0% and 100% (where 100% relates to the highest identified plant abundance in Europe using the same methodology) that has been distributed onto the EMEP grid with 5 km × 5 km resolution. The results of this analysis showed that some of the highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were recorded at Roussillon in the Rhône-Valley. This is reflected by the inventory, where the European infection level has been estimated to reach 67.70% of the most infected areas in Europe i.e. Kecskemét in central Hungary. The inventory shows that the Rhône Valley is the most heavily infected part of France. Central France is also infected, but northern and western parts of France are much less infected. The inventory can be entered into atmospheric transport models, in combination with other components such as a phenological model and a model for daily pollen release, in order to simulate the dispersion of ragweed pollen within France as well as potential long-distance transport from France to other European countries.

  13. [Chronic facial ulceration in France and potential involvement of Leishmania infantum cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenvers, P; Marty, P; Peyron, F

    2013-11-01

    In France, cutaneous leishmaniasis is frequently seen in patients returning from North Africa or South America. Autochthonous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum causes rather visceral forms. Nevertheless, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by this parasite is occasionally seen in immunocompetent patients who have never been outside France. An 8-year-old girl living in the Haute-Savoie region and who had never travelled overseas presented with chronic ulceration of the right cheekbone that failed to regress under topical therapy. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of L. infantum. Following cryotherapy and intralesional injections of meglumine antimonite, the lesion resolved within a month. The patient's medical history revealed repeated journeys to the Pyrénées-Orientales region of southern France. For chronic ulceration on an uncovered area that does not resolve with topical therapy, cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis even if the patient has never left France. Trips to the South of France (an endemic region) should be sought in the history. In addition to direct examination of the product from curettage of the lesion and histopathology, non-invasive methods such as Western blotting with PCR run on filter paper impressions allow accurate diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Middle-to-late Holocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from the A294 ice-cave record (Central Pyrenees, northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Belmonte, Ánchel; Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno, Ana; Leunda, María; López-Martínez, Jerónimo

    2018-02-01

    Perennial ice deposits in caves represent unique, but underexplored, terrestrial sequences that potentially contain outstanding palaeoclimatic records. Here, we present a pioneer palaeoenvironmental study of an ice deposit preserved in a small sag-type cave (A294) in the Central Pyrenees (northern Iberian Peninsula). The 9.25-m-thick sequence, which is dated from 6100 ± 107 to 1888 ± 64 cal BP, represents the oldest known firn ice record worldwide. The stratigraphy (detrital layers, unconformities, and cross stratification), plant macrofossils, and isotopic signature (similarity between the ice linear distribution, δ2H = 7.83δ18O + 8.4, and the Global Meteoric Water Line) of the ice point to the diagenesis of snow introduced to the cave by winter snowstorms. Four phases of rapid ice accumulation (6100-5515, 4945-4250, 3810-3155, and 2450-1890 cal BP) are related to wetter and colder winters. Comparison of the isotopic composition (δ18O and deuterium excess) of the ice with other paleoclimate records show that both source effects and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mechanism exert a dominant influence on the ice cave record. The NAO signal may be a combination of source effects and rainfall amount. Three intervals with low ice accumulation occurred between the phases of rapid accumulation and were related to drier, and possibly warmer, winters. These centennial-scale episodes appear to be in-phase with regional arid events, as established from high altitude lacustrine records and can be correlated to global Rapid Climate Change events. The current warming trend has dramatically decreased the volume of the ice deposit in cave A294.

  15. Evolution of vegetation activity on well-vegetated and degraded areas in the central Spanish Pyrenees, using multitemporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre, Luis Carlos; Beguería, Santaigo; Lana-Renault, Noemí

    2010-05-01

    The temporal evolution of vegetation activity on various land cover classes in the Spanish Pyrenees was analyzed. The study area is located at 620-2,149 m altitude approximately 23 km north of the Barasona Reservoir, is an integrated badlands landscape orientated northwest-southeast and developed on Eocene marls. The objectives of this study were: i) to obtain time series of vegetation activity during two contrasting periods of the growth cycle (early spring and the end of summer) for various land cover classes, including both well-vegetated and degraded areas (badlands and erosion risk areas); ii) to determine the extent by which climate controls vegetation activity in the various land cover classes, and to define temporal trends; and, iii) to analyze the spatial distribution of trends in vegetation activity on erosion risk areas, as indicators of recovery and degradation, and to quantify the effects of various topographical factors on such trends. Two time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were used, corresponding to March (early spring) and August (the end of summer). The series were generated from Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images for the period 1984-2007. An increase in the NDVI in March was found for vegetated areas, and the opposite trend was found in both March and August for degraded areas (badlands and erosion risk areas). The rise in minimum temperature during the study period appears to be the most important factor explaining the increased NDVI in the vegetated areas. In degraded areas, no climatic or topographic variable was associated with the negative trend in the NDVI, which may be related to erosion processes taking place in these regions.

  16. The "bear" essentials: actualistic research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for paleontology and archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, Maite; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2014-01-01

    Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass's trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all) from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus]) and non-durophagus (modelled here by brown bears and

  17. Examining the concept of “mousterian variability” at Roca dels Bous (Southeast pre-pyrenees, Lleida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the implications arising from changes in the movement of raw materials from levels N10 and N12 of Roca dels Bous (Southeastern Prepyrenees. Studies of the lithic assemblages reveal differences in stone tool technologies, especially knapping and retouching. These variations enable us to reflect on the function of the settlement within the context of Neanderthal mobility patterns in the area that connects the Ebro Valley with the Pyrenees. The characteristics of the artefacts suggest changes in the strategies employed in the acquisition, production, use and discard of stone tools. Importantly, these observations allow us to examine issues related to “variability”, a key concept in any discussion related to the cultural change in the Middle Palaeolithic.

    En este artículo se discute las implicaciones derivadas del cambio en la aportación de materias primas detectado en los niveles N10 y N12 de Roca dels Bous (Prepirineo suroriental. En estos contextos se recuperan conjuntos líticos con unos atributos en los métodos de talla y en el instrumental retocado que sugieren modificaciones en los comportamientos relacionados con la adquisición, elaboración, uso y abandono del instrumental. De estas observaciones se derivan varias implicaciones sobre la función del asentamiento dentro de los patrones de movilidad de los neandertales que habitan en la vertiente sur de los Pirineos. Paralelamente, permite abordar la noción de “variabilidad”, concepto clave al referir el significado cultural del Paleolítico Medio.

  18. The "bear" essentials: actualistic research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for paleontology and archaeology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Arilla

    Full Text Available Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass's trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus] and non-durophagus (modelled here by

  19. Streamflow response and sediment yield after farmland abandonment: results from a small experimental catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano-Muela, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A small catchment affected by agricultural practices in the past, then progressively abandoned and naturally re-vegetated was monitored in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The results obtained over a 9-year period revealed the complexity of its hydrological and geomorphological behaviour. Several runoff generation processes can occur at the same time and in different parts of the catchment, depending on the water reserves conditions and rainfall characteristics. Sediment response is mainly controlled by the spatial and temporal dynamics of water and sediment contributing areas within the catchment. The sediment output illustrates the complexity of the geomorphic response of mountain environments modified by past farmland activities.

    Se presenta una síntesis de la investigación realizada en una pequeña cuenca experimental afectada por una intensa actividad agraria en el pasado y sujeta a un proceso de revegetación natural en la actualidad en el Pirineo Central. Los principales resultados obtenidos demuestran su complejo comportamiento hidrogeomorfológico. El análisis de la información hidrológica sugiere que diferentes procesos dominantes de generación de escorrentía pueden ocurrir de manera simultánea en diferentes áreas de la cuenca, en función del estado de humedad de la misma y de las características de la precipitación. La respuesta sedimentológica está principalmente controlada por la dinámica espacio-temporal de las áreas fuente de escorrentía y de sedimento. La exportación de sedimento ilustra la complejidad de la respuesta geomorfológica en los ambientes de montaña afectados por actividades agrarias en el pasado.

  20. On the arsenic source mobilisation and its natural enrichment in the sediments of a high mountain cirque in the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos George; Hooda, Peter S; Fernandez, Javier; Soler, Antonio Palanca; Burghelea, Carmen Ionela

    2009-11-01

    Recently arsenic contamination and its environmental and human health problems have been raising concerns worldwide. The occurrence of natural high levels of arsenic contamination has generally been reported for low altitude environments. Here we report a study conducted to assess the extent of arsenic mobilisation/transportation from previously identified arsenic source areas in a high altitude cirque of the Pyrenees as well as the potential contribution of As by snow. The concentration of arsenic in sediments of several tributaries was enriched up to about ten folds due to mobilisation of arsenic from the source areas within the catchment. The highest arsenic enrichments were found in an area dominated by quartzite and slate formation in the southern side of the basin, and it generally diminished towards the major lake downstream, possible due to mixing with sediments from non-source areas. At these sites arsenic exceeded the hazard quotient (HQ) limits for the protection of aquatic life. The potential hazard of the As-enriched sediments may be further enhanced outside the catchment as samples collected downstream the cirque have also shown arsenic concentration exceeding HQ unity. The arsenic concentrations in the water collected at a number of sites exceeded its guide value for the protection of aquatic life. The potential As contribution by snow in the area was low and was largely of lithospheric origin. The PCA analysis showed strong association of arsenic in sediments with the sediment mineralogical composition (Fe2O3, TiO2 and Mn). Arsenic in water was positively correlated with its concentration in the sediments and could potentially increase if the environmental/climate conditions change.

  1. Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Revuelto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.

  2. Co-evolution of soils and vegetation in the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Muela, Maria Pilar; Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; María García Ruiz, José

    2013-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. This study analyzes soil and vegetation characteristics under various plant covers, using information from the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (AVES), Spanish Pyrenees, from 1991 to 2010. The land uses considered were: dense shrub cover, grazing meadow, abandoned field, cereal (barley), abandoned shifting agriculture, active shifting agriculture, burnt1 and burnt2 plots, and in-fallow plot. All the plots were installed on a field abandoned 45 years ago. Some of the plots did not change in plant cover through the study period (e.g., the meadow, cereal and shifting agriculture plots), but others underwent changes in density and composition, such as: (i) The dense shrub cover plot represents the natural evolution of the abandoned field. When the AVES was equipped, this plot was completely dominated by Genista scorpius, with a few stands of Rosa gr. Canina. Twenty years later, Genista scorpius is affected of senescence and shows almost no regeneration capacity. (ii) The abandoned field had previously been cultivated with cereals until 1993. Once abandoned, the progression of plant colonization was very rapid. Firstly with grasses and, 10 years later, with Genista scorpius. At present, this latter occupies more than 50% of the plot. (iii) The evolution of plant colonization in the abandoned shifting agriculture plot was slower than that in the 'normal' abandoned field, mainly because of the differences in fertilization when they were cultivated. (iv) One of the burnt plots evolved from 0% to a coverage of almost 100% in a shot period, whereas the other plot remained with a shrub density of about 60% several years after the fire. Soil samples (superficial and depth) were analyzed to obtain physical and chemical properties: structure, texture, pH, CaCO3, Organic Matter and various anions and cations. The main purpose was to detect differences in the soil

  3. Lithology controls the regional distribution and morphological diversity of montane Mediterranean badlands in the upper Llobregat basin (eastern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc

    2016-11-01

    Badlands are pervasive in a wide range of environmental conditions across the Mediterranean region, including arid, semiarid, and humid environments. On montane (cold subhumid and humid) Mediterranean landscapes, harsh thermal conditions on north-facing hillslopes favour intense bedrock weathering by freezing and impose serious constraints on plant colonization. The above are the customary arguments to explain the high abundance of montane badlands on north-exposed shady aspects. We studied the distribution and morphological diversity of badlands in the upper Llobregat basin (Catalan Pyrenees, NE Spain), using remote sensing information (high-resolution orthophotos and complementary Landsat 8 imagery), digital elevation data, and regional information on lithology. Badlands extend over about 200 ha in the upper Llobregat basin and occur on two different parent materials, swelling (smectite-rich) continental Garumnian lutites of late Cretaceous age, and nonswelling (illitic) marine Eocene marls. Vegetation, assessed by remote-sensed vegetation greenness, is less developed on north-facing badland slopes. However, badland slope-aspect distribution varies considerably with lithology. While badlands on Eocene marls show preferential distribution on north-facing shady slopes, badland occurrence on Garumnian lutites does not reveal clear slope-aspect anisotropy patterns. Lithology also affects slope gradient, with badlands on Eocene marls showing rougher topography (30-40° average slope angle) than on Garumnian lutites (20-30°). Badland morphological differences induced by lithology are discussed in terms of the greater weathering susceptibility and slope instability of the swelling, smectite-rich Garumnian lutites than of the nonswelling Eocene marls. Elevation, which broadly controls annual precipitation and winter air temperature within the region, shows no clear influence on badland distribution. Overall, our results reveal lithology as the main factor controlling

  4. The PermaFRANCE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneich, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    A French long term monitoring network of permafrost and frost related processes, named PermaFRANCE, is being built since two years. It will represent the French contribution to the Alpine wide PermaNET network. The PermaFRANCE network will focus not only on permafrost, but on all frost related phenomena at different altitudinal levels, including both thermal monitoring and process observation and monitoring : 1) continuous and discontinuous permafrost in rock walls : - thermal monitoring is mainly performed at the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc massif) and includes rock surface temperature (RST) and temperature profils in medium depth boreholes (10 m) ; - inventory and observation of rockfall activity in high mountain rock walls : this action concerns the whole Mont Blanc area and is based on a hitorical inventory and an observation of current activity based on a network of observers and contributors ; 2) discontinuous permafrost is surficial deposits and flat bedrock : - thermal monitoring is performed on five rockglacier sites and includes ground surface temperature (GST) and annual BTS campaigns on some sites. Two medium depth boreholes (15 m) have been made in 2009 on one site, and equipped for thermal profile monitoring. A deep borehole (100 m) will be made in 2010 at 45° N latitude ; - geophysical monitoring is performed on 4 sites : repeated vertical electrical soundings exist for some sites since 20 years, and have been complemented since 2007 by eletrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismics ; - surficial displacements of rockglaciers : surficial displacements are measured either by classical geodesy or by DGPS on 6 rockglaciers ; 3) sporadic permafrost at middle altitudes : - an inventory of cold scree slopes and biological investigations on soil and tree growth (dendrogeomorphology) have already been achieved ; - a thermal monitoring should be initiated on selected sites in 2010 ; 4) seasonal frost and frost/thaw cycles at middle and low

  5. Franc-maçonnerie et alchimie

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Réactualisation d'un article paru sous ce titre : " Alchimie et franc-maçonnerie au XVIIIe siècle ", dans : Mutus Liber Latomorum. "Le Livre Muet des Francs-Maçons", Paris : J.-C. Bailly Éditeur, 1993, p. 25-38.; We try here to give a short historical account of the relationship between alchemy and freemasonry in the 18th century.; On tente ici un rapide historique des rapports entre franc-maçonnerie et alchimie au XVIIIe siècle.

  6. Mesozoic vein-type Pb-Zn mineralization in the Pyrenees: Lead isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence from the Les Argentières and Lacore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marguerite; Baron, Sandrine; Boucher, Adrien; Béziat, Didier; Salvi, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The Axial Zone of the Pyrenees contains numerous sedimentary-exhalative Pb-Zn deposits formed during the Early Palaeozoic, which have been the subject of several studies. In addition to these, base-metal vein-type mineralizations are also exposed within the Axial Zone metasediments. These deposits, however, have not been investigated in depth and the timing and geodynamic context of their formation has not been specifically addressed. The vein-type Pb-Zn deposits of Les Argentières and Lacore are located in Devonian terranes of the eastern Pyrenees, south of the Mesozoic Aulus basin. They are interpreted as having been emplaced under an extensional setting. They are characterized by silver-rich tetrahedrite that occurs with Pb-Zn sulphides deposited by low-temperature NaCl-CaCl2 brines. Lead isotopic 208Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios acquired on galena show more radiogenic values compared to those from the Palaeozoic sedimentary-exhalative mineralization, thus indicating younger ages. According to the model ages, the formation of the two deposits may be narrowed down to middle Late Triassic and Late Jurassic periods, respectively, which allows us to argue in favour of the role of pre-Alpine rifting phases in hydrothermal fluids circulation and mineralization deposition in a vein system bounding the Mesozoic Aulus basin.

  7. Governing obesity policies from England, France, Germany and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    . All plans define the physical and food environment as a crucial factor in the obesity development, but only the Scottish Government is prepared to use statutory means towards industry and other actors to achieve change. The policies convey an unresolved dilemma: To govern or not to govern......Defining a phenomenon as a political problem could be considered a crucial part of any political process. Body weight, when categorised as obesity, has been defined as a political problem since the beginning of the 21st century and has entered the political agenda in many countries. In this article......, I present a study of four plans from four Western European countries: England, France, Germany and Scotland, identifying how obesity is defined as a political issue. The questions addressed are: How is the development in the obesity prevalence explained and who is considered responsible...

  8. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  9. Cold wake of Hurricane Frances

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asaro, Eric A.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Niiler, P. Peter; Terrill, Eric J.

    2007-08-01

    An array of instruments air-deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances measured the three-dimensional, time dependent response of the ocean to this strong (60 ms-1) storm. Sea surface temperature cooled by up to 2.2°C with the greatest cooling occurring in a 50-km-wide band centered 60-85 km to the right of the track. The cooling was almost entirely due to vertical mixing, not air-sea heat fluxes. Currents of up to 1.6 ms-1 and thermocline displacements of up to 50 m dispersed as near-inertial internal waves. The heat in excess of 26°C, decreased behind the storm due primarily to horizontal advection of heat away from the storm track, with a small contribution from mixing across the 26°C isotherm. SST cooling under the storm core (0.4°C) produced a 16% decrease in air-sea heat flux implying an approximately 5 ms-1 reduction in peak winds

  10. Cervical cancer screening in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, P; Sancho-Garnier, H; Fender, M; Dellenbach, P; Carbillet, J P; Monnet, E; Gauthier, G P; Garnier, A

    2000-11-01

    In France, as in other European countries the incidence and mortality rates of carcinoma of the cervix uteri indicate a clear decrease in invasive cancers. Opportunistic screening has spread and, presently, approximately 60% of the female population undergo a regular cytological test. This rate increases up to 80% in the younger age groups and decreases to 20% after the age of 60 years. In 1990, intervention procedures were defined at a consensus conference; the major recommendations were to screen all women exclusively by cervical smears, for ages 25-65 years over a 3-year period. Guidelines on the quality control of cervical smear taking and reading were published by the national agency of evaluation of health intervention (ANAES). Since 1990, four population-based, organised pilot programmes, have been implemented in Isère. Doubs, Bas-Rhin and Martinique. These programmes evaluate the participation rate (from approximately 20-80% depending upon the age and the geographical area), the rate of abnormal tests (0.2-3%), according to the laboratories, the cancer detection rate (0.04%-0.15%) and some other quality indicators. Recently (November 1998) a law was passed stipulating that the screening test will be free of charge when performed in agreement with the national recommendations. A specific organisation for cytological quality control will be implemented. An effort to better identify and to include the screening process the women in the population who are not yet participating has to be made.

  11. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  12. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  13. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR FURTHER...

  14. U.S. — France Counterterrorism Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Ivkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the ground aspects of the U.S. — France counterterrorism cooperation. Main forms and realization principles of this cooperation after September 11, 2001 are under analysis.

  15. Register for the local elections in France

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Department

    2007-01-01

    If you are a European Union citizen residing in France and wish to vote in the forthcoming local elections you must register on the supplementary register at your town hall (mairie) before 31 December 2007. EU citizens are regarded as residing in France if their primary residence is in France or if they live there continuously. To be eligible to vote you must: be a national of one of the 26 listed States of the European Union and present a valid identification document. Residence permits are valid; be at least 18 years old by the closing date of revision of the supplementary electoral register, i.e. by the last day of February; enjoy civic rights both in France and in your State of origin. For more information: http://vosdroits.service-public.fr/particuliers/F1937.xhtml?&n=Elections&l=N4&n=Elections%20politiques&l=N47

  16. Quantifying soil erosion with GIS-based RUSLE in La Baells Reservoir (Llobregat River Basin), SE Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catari, G.; Gallart, F.; Josa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Sediment yield in mountain areas is a matter of concern not only because of the loss of the fertile topsoil but also due to its off-site effects such as sediment deposition in reservoirs and damage to aquatic life. There are few soil erosion estimates at the river basin for non agricultural areas, and the uncertainty of estimates is scarcely assessed. This research was conducted in the Llobregat river basin at the headwaters of La Baells Reservoir which supplies water to Barcelona city. This basin (504km2) is located in the South Eastern Pyrenees, land cover is mainly coniferous forest and pastures with some intensely eroded areas (bad lands). Annual average soil erosion was quantitatively estimated with an integration of geographic information system (IDRISI) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Maps for each of the factors involved where obtained with a 20 m resolution. Rainfall dataset from eight weather stations and spanning 14 years, soil properties, land cover inventory, land management features and digital elevation model were used as resource datasets to generate each of the RUSLE factor maps. Annual average sediment yield was computed by applying a sediment delivery ratio to the results obtained by RUSLE, and this result was compared with existing bathymetric survey results for the same reservoir. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were undertaken for each of the RUSLE factors, in order to assess its magnitude and determine which of the factors influences the most the soil loss estimate. Results show that the annual average sediment yield was 2.9 Mg km-2y-1 and its confidence interval lied between 1.1 Mg km-2y-1 and 7.5 Mg km-2y-1 with 90% confidence. These results are in agreement with results from reservoir bathymetric survey (4.3 Mg km-2y-1). Additional comparisons of estimated sediment yield were done with empirical methods such as PSIAC, Factorial Scoring Model and Drainage Area; the results of these methods are within the

  17. Dinosaur eggshell isotope geochemistry as tools of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction for the upper Cretaceous from the Tremp Formation (Southern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, V.; Anadón, P.; Oms, O.; Estrada, R.; Maestro, E.

    2013-08-01

    The isotopic compositions (δ13C and δ18O) of dinosaur eggshells have been widely used in palaeoenvironmental studies, although the geochemical signatures of eggshells are not usually contrasted with other proxies. In this work, the isotopic signatures of eggshells from a large Maastrichtian succession from the Tremp Formation (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) are compared to those of carbonate pedogenic nodules occurring in the same levels. The isotopic signatures of eggshells vary according to the stratigraphic unit and geographical location. A group of samples from several localities corresponding to eggshells without significant diagenetic imprints has isotopic values differing from the associated nodules; The Late Cretaceous isotopic composition record from the Tremp Fm. is consistent that is, the eggshells have distinct primary signatures preserved. However, the eggshells from another locality, which exhibit neomorphed textures, display isotopic signatures similar to the associated pedogenic carbonate, which suggests a diagenetic isotopic signature and confirms alteration in the eggshells. Both microscopic and geochemical data suggest that an early meteoric diagenesis (pedogenesis) is responsible for the secondary signatures. The δ13C values in the carbonate pedogenic nodules indicate a carbon isotopic composition typical of C3 plants, although the slight difference in δ13C between the palaeosol carbonate of coeval successions may be due to slightly different palaeoenvironmental conditions. The small discrepancy in the δ13C calculated for C3 plants, from carbonate nodules and from eggshells may be because the palaeosol carbonate gives the isotopic composition of the vegetation grown at a local site whereas the δ13C from eggshells is a proxy for the ingested food in the area in which the dinosaurs lived. The oxygen isotopic compositions from palaeosol carbonate nodules have been used for calculation of the air temperature, and we may conclude that the mean air

  18. Holocene climate variability, vegetation dynamics and fire regime in the central Pyrenees: the Basa de la Mora sequence (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanz, A.; González-Sampériz, P.; Moreno, A.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Gil-Romera, G.; Rieradevall, M.; Tarrats, P.; Lasheras-Álvarez, L.; Morellón, M.; Belmonte, A.; Sancho, C.; Sevilla-Callejo, M.; Navas, A.

    2013-08-01

    High resolution multiproxy data (pollen, sedimentology, geochemistry, chironomids and charcoal) from the Basa de la Mora (BSM) lake sequence (42° 32' N, 0° 19' E, 1914 m a.s.l.) show marked climate variability in the central southern Pyrenees throughout the Holocene. A robust age model based on 15 AMS radiocarbon dates underpins the first precise reconstruction of rapid climate changes during the Holocene from this area. During the Early Holocene, increased winter snowpack and high snowmelt during summer, as a consequence of high seasonality, led to higher lake levels, a chironomid community dominated by non-lacustrine taxa (Orthocladiinae) related to higher inlet streams, and a forested landscape with intense run-off processes in the watershed. From 9.8 to 8.1 cal ka BP, climate instability is inferred from rapid and intense forest shifts and high fluctuation in surface run-off. Shifts among conifers and mesophytes reveal at least four short-lived dry events at 9.7, 9.3, 8.8 and 8.3 cal ka BP. Between 8.1 and 5.7 cal ka BP a stable climate with higher precipitation favoured highest lake levels and forest expansion, with spread of mesophytes, withdrawal of conifers and intensification of fires, coinciding with the Holocene Climate Optimum. At 5.7 cal ka BP a major change leading to drier conditions contributed to a regional decline in mesophytes, expansion of pines and junipers, and a significant lake level drop. Despite drier conditions, fire activity dropped as consequence of biomass reduction. Two arid intervals occurred between 2.9 and 2.4 cal ka BP and at 1.2-0.7 cal ka BP (800-1300 AD). The latter coincides with the Medieval Climate Anomaly and is one of the most arid phases of the Holocene in BSM sequence. Anthropogenic disturbances were small until 700 AD, when human pressure over landscape intensified, with Olea cultivation in the lowlands and significant deforestation in highlands. Colder and unfavourable weather conditions during the second part of the

  19. Potential of airborne LiDAR data analysis to detect subtle landforms of slope failure: Portainé, Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, María; Guinau, Marta; Calvet, Jaume; Furdada, Glòria; Bordonau, Jaume; Ruiz, Antonio; Camafort, Miquel

    2017-10-01

    Slope failures have been traditionally detected by field inspection and aerial-photo interpretation. These approaches are generally insufficient to identify subtle landforms, especially those generated during the early stages of failures, and particularly where the site is located in forested and remote terrains. We present the identification and characterization of several large and medium size slope failures previously undetected within the Orri massif, Central Pyrenees. Around 130 scarps were interpreted as being part of Rock Slope Failures (RSFs), while other smaller and more superficial failures were interpreted as complex movements combining colluvium slow flow/slope creep and RSFs. Except for one of them, these slope failures had not been previously detected, albeit they extend across a 15% of the studied region. The failures were identified through the analysis of a high-resolution (1 m) LIDAR-derived bare earth Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Most of the scarps are undetectable either by fieldwork, photo interpretation or 5 m resolution topography analysis owing to their small heights (0.5 to 2 m) and their location within forest areas. In many cases, these landforms are not evident in the field due to the presence of other minor irregularities in the slope and the lack of open views due to the forest. 2D and 3D visualization of hillshade maps with different sun azimuths provided an overall picture of the scarp assemblage and permitted a more complete analysis of the geometry of the scarps with respect to the slope and the structural fabric. The sharpness of some of the landforms suggests ongoing activity, which should be explored in future detailed studies in order to assess potential hazards affecting the Portainé ski resort. Our results reveal that close analysis of the 1 m LIDAR-derived DEM can significantly help to detect early-stage slope deformations in high mountain regions, and that expert judgment of the DEM is essential when dealing with subtle

  20. Calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner in the Montsec Area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi; Abellán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Magnitude-frequency relations are a key issue when evaluating the rockfall hazard. It is a common practice to calculate them using databases of past events. However, in some cases, they are not available or complete. Alternatively, the analysis of the scar volume distribution on the wall face provides useful information on the slope's rockfall activity. The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, is a limestone cliff from upper cretaceous. In some parts, clear evidences of rockfall activities are present: Large recent rockfall scars are distinguished by their orange colour in comparison with grey non active surfaces on the slope face. To identify the scars and analyse their volume distribution, a methodology has been carried out (Santana et al. 2011) which is based on the elaboration of data from a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). This methodology requires a point cloud of the slope and it includes the following steps: a) identification of discontinuity sets b) generation of discontinuity surfaces c) calculation of areas of the exposed discontinuity surfaces and rockfall scar heights, and d) calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution. Three discontinuity sets were identified on the point cloud. To generate the discontinuity surfaces, SEFL software was used. The input data for accepting that two neighbouring points of the point cloud belong to the same surface, was a minimum spacing of 0.4m. The resulting planes were visually checked. Assuming that the discontinuities of set 1 preserve the basal shape of the rockfall scars and the altitude is parallel to the discontinuities of set 2, the volume can be calculated as the product of the area of surfaces of set 1 with the length of the surfaces of set 2 using the afore mentioned SEFL software. Areas were found to follow a Lognormal distribution and lengths a Pearson6 one. The volume calculation was then made probabilistically by means

  1. Strain partitioning evolution and segmentation in hyperextended rift systems: insights from the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nick J.

    2014-05-01

    The understanding of the formation of hyper-extended domains has greatly benefited from combined studies at present-day and fossil rift systems preserved in collisional orogens. However, even though domains of extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning have been increasingly recognized, the spatial and temporal evolution of their tectonic processes remains poorly constrained. The Bay of Biscay and Pyrenees correspond to a Late Jurassic to Mid Cretaceous rift system including both oceanic and hyper-extended rift domains. The transition from preserved oceanic and rift domains to the West to their complete inversion in the East provide simultaneous access to seismically imaged and exposed parts of a hyper-extended rift system. We combine seismic interpretations and gravity inversion results with field mapping to identify and map former rift domains from the Bay of Biscay margins to their fossil analogues preserved in the Pyrenean orogen. This onshore/offshore map of the rift systems enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution and the strain distribution related to the formation of a strongly segmented rift system preserved at the transition between the European and Iberian plate boundary. The restoration of the hyper-extended domains reveals the occurrence of spatially disconnected rift systems separated by weakly thinned continental ribbons (e.g. Landes High, Ebro block). While the offshore Bay of Biscay represent a former mature oceanic domain, the fossil remnants of hyper-extended domains preserved onshore in the Pyrenean-Cantabrian orogen record distributed extensional deformation partitioned between strongly segmented rift basins (e.g. Basque-Cantabrian, Arzacq-Mauléon basins). Rift system segmentation controls lateral variations of architecture and may be partly inherited from the pre-rift structuration. The relative timing of hyper-extensional processes is diachronous between the different rift systems recording the polyphased evolution of the

  2. Magnetic fabric as a tool to decipher the kinematics of inverted basins; examples from the western Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Casas, A. M.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Soto, R.; García-Lasanta, C.; Izquierdo-Llavall, E.; Moussaid, B.; El'Ouardi, H.; Villalain, J.; Torres, S.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic fabrics have been widely used in different scenarios and rock types since Graham (1954) become aware of the parallelism between the magnetic fabric and the petrofabric of a rock. Two key points are used to decipher the kinematics and strain partitioning within inverted basins where strain markers are scarce: i) the long axis of the magnetic ellipsoid is parallel to extension direction in extensional regimes (Sagnotti et al. 1999; Cifelli et al. 2004); ii) the long axis of the magnetic ellipsoid becomes parallel to the elongation direction in compressive regimes (usually perpendicular to the compression direction) (Parés et al., 1999). Between these two end-members, intermediate fabrics can be also obtained in inverted basins, depending on factors as buttressing, fault inversion and cleavage development (Oliva-Urcia et al., 2011; 2012). In addition, the proper interpretation of magnetic fabrics needs complementary sources of information (i.e., low-temperature magnetic fabric, ferromagnetic fabric, neutron or X-ray texture goniometry, classical structural field analyses, magnetic mineralogy analyses…). Some Mesozoic inverted basins have been studied mainly by means of magnetic fabrics, that allow deciphering (i) the main extensional directions during the basinal stage in Cameros (Iberian Range), Organyá (South Pyrenean Zone), Lusitanian (Portugal) and central and west High Atlas (Aïtt Atab, Ouaouizaght and Argana, Morocco) basins; (ii) the strain distribution and partitioning during compression in the Mauléon (North Pyrenean Zone, France), Cabuérniga (west Pyrenees), and Triassic Nogueres (central Pyrenees) basins, where the fabric is interpreted as the result of the overprint of compressional deformation onto a primary extensional fabric.

  3. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  4. Snow cover dynamics in the Catalan Pyrenees range using remote sensing data from 2002 to 2008 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, C.; Cristóbal, J.; Pons, X.

    2009-04-01

    Snow cover dynamics in the Catalan Pyrenees range using remote sensing data from 2002 to 2008 period. C. Cea (1), J. Cristóbal (1), X. Pons (1, 2) (1) Department of Geography. Autonomous University of Barcelona. Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193. Cristina.Cea@uab.cat, (2) Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193. Water resources and its management are essential in many alpine mountainous areas. Snow cover monitoring in the Mediterranean zone requires obtaining accurate snow cartography to estimate the volume of water derived from snow melting and species distribution modelling. Snow data is usually obtained by field campaigns, but to obtain a spatial and temporal cover of enough detail and quality it is necessary collect an important number of data. However, when a continuous surface is needed, Remote Sensing could provide better snow cover estimation due to its spatial and temporal resolution. The aim of this study is to map snow cover and analyse its spatial and temporal dynamics using medium and coarse remote sensing data at a regional scale over an heterogeneous area, the Catalan Pyrenees (NE of the Iberian Peninsula). The seasonal snow cover period is from October to June. In this period, regular snowfalls usually take place from December to April, although during the rest of the period, punctual but important episodes of snowfalls are frequent. To perform this analysis, a set of 96 Landsat images (36 Landsat-5 TM and 60 Landsat-7 ETM+) of path 197 and 198 and rows 31 and 32 from January 2002 to April 2007, and 90 Terra-MODIS images from October 2007 to July 2008, with a different percentage of cloudiness, have been chosen. The computation of the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ data used in snow cover mapping has been carried out by means of the following methodologies. Images have been geometrically corrected by means of techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of the relief

  5. Physico-chemical study of the ancient and recent accumulations of a braided system (Ara river. Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, V.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and mineralogical study of the Ara river sediments, in the Central Pyrenees (Spain, allows to recognize the genesis and evolution of its basin. The minerals of the sand fraction, the ones corresponding to the clay fraction and the minority elements, reveal certain processes and associations that, in addition to the identification of the fluvial terraces, fans, glacis and even morainic deposits, contribute to explain the geological history of the Central Pyrenees, the main objective of this work. The application of a multivariate factorial analysis to the data with BMDP-4M program was very helpful for the interpretation of the results. The more resistant minerals are found in the thinner textural fractions, whereas the more alterable are located in the thicker fractions. The cones and glacis, composed by materials of the flysch, reveal an alteration of the carbonated materials which is shown by the formation of feldspars and anphybols. The formation of iron and manganese metal oxides, of different crystallinity degrees, associated with chrome, lead and nickel, is also observed. The morainic deposits, mainly composed by silicate materials, bring along the formation of illite associated with copper and zinc. Finally, the fluvial terraces have a combination of both alteration processes previously described.

    [es] El estudio físico-químico y mineralógico de los sedimentos del río Ara, en el Pirineo Central (España, permite reconocer la génesis y evolución de su cuenca. Los minerales de la fracción arena, los correspondientes a la fracción arcilla y los elementos minoritarios, delatan ciertos procesos y asociaciones que, junto con la identificación de terrazas fluviales, conos, glacis e incluso depósitos morrénicos, ayudan a explicar la historia geológica del Pirineo Central, principal objetivo de este trabajo. La aplicación al conjunto de datos de un análisis factorial multivariante mediante el programa BMDP

  6. [Epidemiology of HIV infection in the world and in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaille, Caroline; Lot, Florence

    2006-05-15

    All continents are affected by HIV at various degrees and the situation of Africa is certainly one of the most serious with HIV prevalence over 20% in Austral Africa, and accounting for half of all HIV cases in the world. Eastern Europe has been recently affected by HIV mainly among IDU. In Asia, the spread of epidemic on general population follows HIV transmission linked to drug use and commercial sex. Similar trends have been observed in Western Europe: relapse of safer sex among men wich have sex with men (MSM) with new HIV contamination, decrease of HIV transmission among drug users and increase of new HIV diagnosis among heterosexuals originating from countries with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, notably sub-Saharan Africa. Since the introduction of potent anti-retroviral agents in 1996, the numbers of AIDS cases and mortality due to AIDS have sharply decreased in Western Europe. The number of new HIV diagnosis in 2004 is around 7 000 cases in France. The two mostly affected populations in 2003-2004 are homosexuals and sub-Saharan Africans. The harm reduction policies conducted has markedly reduced HIV transmission among injecting drug users.

  7. The Many Crises of Western Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The digital-cum-economic crisis facing Western journalism differs in subtle but significant ways from country to country, and fierce struggles play out between different parties over how to interpret the situation and how to confront it. This chapter presents a comparative analysis of how...... journalists, media executives, and media policymakers in six different Western democracies (Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the US) employ three distinctive frameworks to interpret the state of professional journalism in their country. The first is an economic frame that defines the crisis...... of professional journalism in existential terms; the second focuses on the weaknesses of the professional model itself; the third defines the crisis in symbolic terms, as a morally problematic relation among journalists, citizens, and power holders. These three crisis frameworks raise different questions...

  8. The International Heliophysical Year in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.

    We are preparing in France the anniversary of IGY 50 We are gathering our efforts around few actions 1 We planned to follow the international campaigns with our solar Telescope THEMIS in Tenerife with the spacecrafts SOHO Cluster and the magnetometers of Superdarn A group is already formed with C Hanuise as responsible to understand some physical processes involved in these phenomena by using former data 2 On the initiative of CAWSES SCOSTEP program we plan to rehabilitate our heliograph in Meudon in order to be able to participate to the international network of flare survey The Japonese are leading this program Shibata and Kurokawa 3 We are developping lectures for students in different places in France We planned to work on the development of a DVD and video games in a IHY European context 4 We have also an outreach program which consists of an exhibition This exibition could be duplicated in France and for French speaking countries

  9. [Estimation of cancer incidence in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplanche, A; Benhamou, E

    1991-01-01

    National cancer incidence rates are not available in most countries. An estimation of the national cancer incidence from regional incidence data in France is proposed here. National cancer incidence rates (1978-1982) were estimated from the incidence and the mortality observed during the same period in five French departments with a cancer registry and from national mortality data. The cancer registries used for this estimation are: Bas-Rhin, Calvados, Côte-d'Or, Doubs and Isère. The estimation was performed assuming that, for a given cancer site, sex and age group, the mortality/morbidity ratio is the same in the aggregate of the five departments and in France as Crude, age-specific and standardised on world population incidence rates were estimated for the most frequent cancer sites and for each sex. An estimation of the annual number of cases in France between 1978 and 1982 for the main cancer sites is also given.

  10. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Revuelto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS, (ii detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season and (iii time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA. The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface, and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277 is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological or ecological perspective in which

  11. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future. PMID:27467269

  12. Bottle wars: England versus Scotland versus France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robert B; Athanasopoulos, Athanassios A; Allan, Michael S; Atchia, Sarah M

    2002-05-01

    Four batches of four brands of bottled water from England, Scotland and France were tested for their microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during a 2-month study. The lowest priced brand of water had the highest nitrate content (46.9 mg/L), while the most expensive brand did not necessarily have the best values for pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity or plate count. While no sample was positive for E. coli, the range of other measured values varied widely between brands and batches during the study. The bottled water samples from France on average demonstrated better results than the other countries studied.

  13. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  14. The Effects of Western Feminist Ideology on Muslim Feminists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    debate in 2004 the French National Assembly passed a law banning "conspicuous religious symbols" to include Jewish skull caps, hijab , and large...towards a 4 "France Awaits Headscarves Report" at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3307995.stm. Hijab refers to modest Islamic dress and...intrigue, sex , and any number of things inherently pagan. These images were conveyed to the western public, through popular travel accounts, written

  15. The Models of Personal Bankruptcy in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal bankruptcy is regulated in all the countries from Western Europe. We selected a groupof three countries: France, Ireland and Germany, to analyze the ways in which physical personsare put under bankruptcy law protection, while considering that implementation of the personalbankruptcy law is constantly delayed in Romania. Taking into account some comparative studies,we have found out that in all three countries is applied the principle of “consumer-friendlylegislation”.

  16. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  17. Which sustainable energy policy in France?; Quelle politique energetique durable en France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Concurrently to the National Debate on the energies, a real debate has been proposed by seven associations of the environment protection and improvement. This debate, international, wonders on the energy choices in France. Presentations of the interveners and working documents are provided on the following topics: energy choices for the economic development, renewable energies, the possibilities and the development of the solar energy in France, the economic interest of the cogeneration, quick overview of the wind energy in France, energy production data, the transport and the greenhouse effect, the sustainable development and the energy policy and the local governments. (A.L.B.)

  18. No evidence of 1918 influenza pandemic origin in Chinese laborers/soldiers in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dennis Shanks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laborers and soldiers from China and Southeast Asia recruited during the First World War by Britain and France have been suggested as the origin of the 1918 influenza pandemic in Western Europe. This study aimed to review the available data to better understand the sources and origins of the 1918 influenza pandemic, and clarify whether, in fact, there was an Asian connection to its onset. We reviewed official mortality lists from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission and the French Ministry of Defence for all-cause (Britain and pneumonia/influenza (France mortality, respectively. The results indicated that influenza mortality (estimated 1/1000 in Chinese and Southeast Asian laborers and soldiers lagged other co-located military units by several weeks. This finding does not support a Southeast Asian importation of lethal influenza to Europe in 1918.

  19. Air France'i mõõdikuviga sai kinnitust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Prantsusmaa lennuõnnetuste uurimise agentuur BEA edastas info, et kaks aastat tagasi Atlandi ookeani kohal allakukkunud Air France'i lennuki kiirusmõõdikud vedasid alt. Skeem: AIr France'i lennu 447 viimased minutid

  20. "Being a Muslim" in France: The Case of Turkish Immigrants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasan Guler; Emrullah Ataseven

    2017-01-01

    In this article the "Muslim Question" of France in terms of Turkish immigrants, who are the subjects of a relatively recent migration movement compared to other immigrant groups in France, was examined...

  1. Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France Altarelli Guido, CERN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France. Altarelli Guido, CERN, Switzerland. Ananthanarayan Balasubramanian,. IISc, Bangalore, India. Antoniadis Ignatios, CERN, Switzer- land. Aziz T, TIFR, Mumbai, India. Babu K S, Oklahoma State Univ., USA. Bailey Stephen, Harvard/BaBar, USA. Bailin David, University of Sussex, UK.

  2. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central life...

  3. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  4. Haemovigilance and transfusion safety in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P; Noizat-Pirenne, F; Le Pennec, P Y

    2000-01-01

    The risks associated to red cell and platelet transfusions are essentially bound to the polymorphism of blood group antigens and to transfusion transmitted agents including virus, bacterias.... In France, the haemovigilance system and several investigations allowed to measure these different kinds of risks. We also developed analysis of failures in order to prevent errors and accidents to increase blood safety.

  5. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  6. Southern Europeans in France: Invisible Migrants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremenko, T.; El Qadim, N.; Steichen, E.; Lafleur, J.-M.; Stanek, M.

    2016-01-01

    France fared relatively well at the start of the current economic crisis, but has experienced low economic growth and high unemployment rates in the recent years. As a result it has been a less popular destination with Southern Europeans and EU migrants in general in search of economic

  7. CERN craftsman named Best in France

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Didier Lombard, metal worker in EST Division, was crowned 'France's Top Craftsman' during the 21st edition of the contest, which covered the period 1997 to 2000. CERN employs some of Europe's top crafts people to work on construction of components for experiments that are designed to a high degree of precision.

  8. Limits to expression on religion in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a

  9. Frances Rauscher: Music and Reasoning. Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Neal

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an interview with Frances Rauscher, a research psychologist and musician who has studied the effects of music on the brain. Maintains that students who have studied music have enhanced spatial reasoning. Recommends that music education begin at younger ages. (CFR)

  10. Lombroso in France. A paradoxical reception

    OpenAIRE

    Renneville, Marc

    2013-01-01

    International audience; La réception paradoxale de Lombroso en France. Initialement positive voire enthousiaste, cette réception est rapidement devenue critique tout en donnant une large audience à la théorie du criminel-né

  11. Petroleum in France: the main results in 2005; Petrole en France: les principaux resultats en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This presentation takes stock on the petroleum market in France in 2005. It provides information on the petroleum consumption, the imports and exports, the prices, the production, the refineries and the stocks. (A.L.B.)

  12. The Future of the CEMAC CFA Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Agbor Agbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 currency boards have come into existence at some point since the mid-19th century, but to date only about 15 of them still exist, among which is the CFA franc monetary zone. The future sustainability of the CFA franc zone, to which the CEMAC CFA franc belongs, is increasingly questioned in the light of increasing asymmetries in exposure to external shocks, differential speeds of adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks, differential impacts in economic fundamentals, and low levels of intra-regional trade and financial flows between CEMAC and WAEMU. For the CEMAC bloc of countries in particular, the future sustainability of the fixed exchange regime depends crucially on continued oil exports, which currently represent about 90percent of export revenues and 40 percent of GDP. Should oil reserves deplete in the near future or oil prices decline significantly, a substantial source of foreign reserves would be lost, thereby exposing the regime to collapse. Even without resource depletion, continued volatility in global financial markets is increasing the risks of collapse of the fixed exchange regime as oil and commodity price swings ignite currency speculation as well as render reserves much more volatile. Against this backdrop, the present study examines the stakes facing the CEMAC CFA franc, discusses the exit options from the currency board and makes recommendations towards a sustainable monetary policy framework for CEMAC countries going forward. The analysis points to the imperative of pursuing a full monetary union with a single CEMAC franc pegged to the U.S. dollar and further suggest that, like the experience of the eurozone, the CEMAC monetary arrangement can be best implemented only by complying with the principle of political union.

  13. High-throughput sequencing of Bacillus anthracis in France: investigating genome diversity and population structure using whole-genome SNP discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Guillaume; Blouin, Yann; Vergnaud, Gilles; Derzelle, Sylviane

    2014-04-16

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are ideal signatures for subtyping monomorphic pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis. Here we report the use of next-generation sequencing technology to investigate the historical, geographic and genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in France. 122 strains isolated over a 60-years period throughout the country were whole-genome sequenced and comparative analyses were carried out with a focus on SNPs discovery to discriminate regional sub-groups of strains. A total of 1581 chromosomal SNPs precisely establish the phylogenetic relationships existing between the French strains. Phylogeography patterns within the three canSNP sub-lineages present in France (i.e. B.Br.CNEVA, A.Br.011/009 and A.Br.001/002) were observed. One of the more remarkable findings was the identification of a variety of genotypes within the A.Br.011/009 sub-group that are persisting in the different regions of France. The 560 SNPs defining the A.Br.011/009- affiliated French strains split the Trans-Eurasian sub-group into six distinct branches without any intermediate nodes. Distinct sub-branches, with some geographic clustering, were resolved. The 345 SNPs defining the major B.Br CNEVA sub-lineage clustered three main phylogeographic clades, the Alps, the Pyrenees, and the Massif Central, with a small Saône-et-Loire sub-cluster nested within the latter group. The French strains affiliated to the minor A.Br.001/002 group were characterized by 226 SNPs. All recent isolates collected from the Doubs department were closely related. Identification of SNPs from whole-genome sequences facilitates high-resolution strain tracking and provides the level of discrimination required for outbreak investigations. Eight diagnostic SNPs, representative of the main French-specific phylogeographic clusters, were therefore selected and developed into high-resolution melting SNP discriminative assays. This work has established one of the most accurate phylogenetic

  14. Critical acidity loads in France; Charges critiques d`acidite en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, A.; Party, J.P.; Fevrier, C. [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface (UPR 06251 du CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Dambrine, E. [Centre de Recherches Forestieres, INRA, 45 - Orleans (France); Thomas, A.L.; King, D. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomique (INRA), 45 - ORDON (France); Stussi, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Based on results from several systematic forest and surface water monitoring programs, carried out in various parts of France as well as in Europe, acidity critical loads have been calculated for soils and surface waters; critical loads are presented for water and soils in crystalline mountainous regions such as Ardennes, Vosges and Massif Central; links with geochemistry, ecosystems and types of trees are discussed and perspectives are given for the calculation of acid and nitrogen critical loads on the whole France

  15. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  16. 78 FR 9634 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... directive (AD): Eurocopter France Helicopters (Eurocopter): Docket No. FAA-2013- 0119; Directorate...

  17. 77 FR 36220 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (Eurocopter... Civil Aviation (DGAC France) AD F-2008-04, dated June 4, 2008, for the Eurocopter Model EC 155 B, EC 155...

  18. 78 FR 51115 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France (Eurocopter...): Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters: Docket No. FAA-2013- 0737; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW-111-AD...

  19. 78 FR 21233 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...-010-AD; Amendment 39-17409; AD 2013-07-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France EC130B4 helicopters. This AD requires visually... 39 to include an AD that would apply to Eurocopter France EC130B4 helicopters with a center...

  20. 77 FR 64706 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...-064-AD; Amendment 39-17225; AD 2012-21-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... France (Eurocopter) Model EC225 helicopters with certain epicyclic modules installed. This AD requires...): 2012-21-09 Eurocopter France: Amendment 39-17225; Docket No. FAA- 2012-1128; Directorate Identifier...

  1. 78 FR 40072 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... France (Eurocopter) Model AS332C1 and AS332L1 helicopters. This proposed AD would require replacing the.... 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter France: Docket No. FAA...

  2. 78 FR 40045 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, D, AS355E, F, F1, F2, and N..., October 14, 2010), and adding the following new AD: Eurocopter France: Docket No. FAA-2013-0354...

  3. 78 FR 23107 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...-32-AD; Amendment 39-17424; AD 2013-08-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (ECF) Model AS332C, L, and L1 helicopters to...): 2013-08-07 Eurocopter France: Amendment 39-17424; Docket No. FAA- 2012-1087; Directorate Identifier...

  4. 77 FR 18965 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... Eurocopter France Model SA341G helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by an analysis and tests performed... 26, 2004, to correct an unsafe condition for Eurocopter France Model SA 341/342 helicopters. The DGAC...

  5. 77 FR 56755 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ...-51-AD; Amendment 39-17172; AD 2012-17-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model SA341G helicopters. This AD requires... apply to Eurocopter France Model SA341G helicopters, with rotating star, part number (P/N) 341A31.4116...

  6. 77 FR 36213 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France EC130B4 helicopters... unsafe condition for the Eurocopter France EC130B4 helicopters. EASA states that it received reports that...

  7. 78 FR 56599 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...-064-AD; Amendment 39-17574; AD 2013-18-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-365N...): 2013-18-11 EUROCOPTER FRANCE: Amendment 39-17574; Docket No. FAA- 2013-0399; Directorate Identifier...

  8. 78 FR 54380 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...-060-AD; Amendment 39-17565; AD 2013-17-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350 and AS355...): 2013-17-01 Eurocopter France Helicopters: Amendment 39-17565; Docket No. FAA-2013-0240; Directorate...

  9. 78 FR 857 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...-17302; AD 2012-26-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350BA helicopters with certain AERAZUR... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2012-26-07 Eurocopter France...

  10. 78 FR 25365 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-52-AD; Amendment 39-17437; AD 2013-08-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1...): ] 2013-08-19 Eurocopter France Helicopters: Amendment 39-17437; Docket No. FAA-2009-0951; Directorate...

  11. 78 FR 25380 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-049-AD; Amendment 39-17434; AD 2013-08-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2...): 2013-08-17 Eurocopter France: Amendment 39-17434; Docket No. FAA-2010-1303; Directorate Identifier 2010...

  12. 78 FR 37156 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... This AD applies to Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332C, AS332L, AS332L1, AS332L2 and EC225LP...

  13. 77 FR 36216 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS350B.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter France...

  14. 77 FR 20319 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new Airworthiness Directive (AD): Eurocopter France...

  15. 77 FR 63262 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (ECF) Model AS332C... airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter France: Docket No. FAA-2012-1087; Directorate Identifier 2009-SW-32-AD...

  16. 78 FR 34288 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... directive (AD): EUROCOPTER FRANCE: Docket No. FAA-2013-0487; Directorate Identifier 2010-SW-056-AD. (a...

  17. 78 FR 57047 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ...-034-AD; Amendment 39-17541; AD 2013-16-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350 and AS355 helicopters...): 2013-16-03 EUROCOPTER FRANCE HELICOPTERS (EUROCOPTER): Amendment 39- 17541; Docket No. FAA-2013-0119...

  18. 78 FR 24041 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... directive (EAD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B3 helicopters with certain part-numbered...): 2012-25-04 Eurocopter France: Amendment 39-17285; Docket No. FAA- 2012-1297; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW-100-AD. (a) Applicability This AD applies to Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B3...

  19. 77 FR 50582 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC155B and EC155B1... Eurocopter France Model EC155B and EC155B1 helicopters with a VIP 4-seat bench. That NPRM proposed to require... airworthiness directive (AD): 2012-16-02 Eurocopter France: Amendment 39-17149; Docket No. FAA- 2012-0177...

  20. 77 FR 54796 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ...-007-AD; Amendment 39-17166; AD 2012-17-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France Model AS350 helicopters. This AD...): 2012-17-03 Eurocopter France Helicopters: Amendment 39-17166; Docket No. FAA-2012-0222; Directorate...

  1. 78 FR 58256 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France... (AD): Eurocopter France: Docket No. FAA-2013-0822; Directorate Identifier 2013-SW-004-AD. (a...

  2. 78 FR 23692 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... directive (AD): Europcopter France (Eurocopter): Docket No. FAA-2013-0351; Directorate Identifier 2009-SW...

  3. 77 FR 14310 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France Model AS350... Directive (AD): Eurocopter France Helicopters: Docket No. FAA-2012-0222; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-007...

  4. 77 FR 44118 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...-056-AD; Amendment 39-17133; AD 2012-15-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... France (Eurocopter) Model EC155B1 helicopters with a certain automated flight control system installed...): ] 2012-15-04 EUROCOPTER FRANCE: Amendment 39-17133; Docket No. FAA- 2012-0766; Directorate Identifier...

  5. 77 FR 44513 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Eurocopter France: Docket No. FAA-2012-0794; Directorate Identifier 2006-SW-04-AD...

  6. 78 FR 17076 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-53-AD; Amendment 39-17395; AD 2013-05-23] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332C, L, and L1...): 2013-05-23 Eurocopter France (Eurocopter): Amendment 39-17395; Docket No. FAA-2012-0795; Directorate...

  7. 78 FR 66668 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter France Helicopters: Docket No. FAA-2013-0938; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW-057-AD. (a) Applicability This AD applies to Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model SA-365N, SA...

  8. 77 FR 11787 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC155B and.... 39.13 by adding the following new Airworthiness Directive (AD): EUROCOPTER FRANCE: Docket No. FAA...

  9. 77 FR 70382 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B... directive (AD): Eurocopter France: Docket No. FAA-2012-1214; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-071-AD. (a...

  10. 78 FR 26712 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... directive (AD): Eurocopter France: Docket No. FAA-2013-0399; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-064-AD. (a...

  11. 77 FR 44509 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model.... 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter France (Eurocopter...

  12. 77 FR 43734 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... amended by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter France: Docket No. FAA-2012...

  13. An African Muslim saint and his followers in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares, B.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the practice of Islam among a relatively understudied group of Muslim migrants in France, the Halpulaaren, some of whom have been living in France for more than three decades. Drawing on field research in Senegal, Mali and France, the author considers the contexts for Halpulaaren

  14. 78 FR 75579 - Low Enriched Uranium From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium from France would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Low Enriched Uranium from France: Investigation No. 731-TA-909 (Second Review). By order of the...

  15. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  16. 78 FR 70242 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter (Eurocopter) France Model... been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States...

  17. 78 FR 59298 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to revise airworthiness directive (AD) 2011-22-05 for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter... These helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for operation...

  18. 78 FR 59306 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model... helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and ] are approved for operation in the...

  19. 78 FR 65871 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332C... aviation authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral...

  20. 78 FR 70205 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...-056-AD; Amendment 39-17666; AD 2013-23-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 and EC225LP... aviation authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral...

  1. 78 FR 69989 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ...-091-AD; Amendment 39-17664; AD 2013-23-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1... These helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for operation...

  2. 78 FR 63429 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS332C, AS332L... approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States. Pursuant...

  3. 78 FR 76984 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ...-084-AD; Amendment 39-17696; AD 2013-24-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332C, AS332L, AS332L1... been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States...

  4. 78 FR 70202 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ...-072-AD; Amendment 39-17665; AD 2013-23-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2010- 21-01 for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, BA, B1... by the aviation authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States. Pursuant to...

  5. First reports of autochthonous eyeworm infection by Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs and cat from France

    OpenAIRE

    Dorchies, Philippe; Chaudieu, Gilles; Simeon, Ludovic; Cazalot, Guillaume; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Otranto, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a small nematode living in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing lacrimation, epiphora, conjunctivitis, keratitis and even corneal ulcers. The first autochthonous cases of thelaziosis affecting four dogs and one cat living in South Western France (Dordogne area) are reported and described. Nematodes recovered from the animals were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda and a partial region of the c...

  6. An example of GIS potentiality for coastal zone management: preselection of submerged oyster culture areas near Marennes-Oleron (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, H.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Loarer, Ronan; Loubersac, Lionel; Heral, Maurice; Prou, Jean

    1994-01-01

    The Charente Maritime coast, in central western France, is the most important area for oyster and mussel production in Europe. High density, in this restricted intertidal area, induces low growing rate and socio-economic difficulties. One of the possible solutions is to shift some oysters from intertidal area to submerged areas. Bathymetry, sedimentology, hydrodynamism, fisheries and administrative rules are some conditions which are considered to establish the better selection of potential z...

  7. The Post-traditional Chef in Traditional France: Negotiating the Gastronational myth in Le chef en France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    narrative. The paper will explore an example of this tendency, namely the French show Le Chef en France (2012)hosted by France celebrity chef number one: Cyril Lignac. The analysis will focus on how the show tries to reconstruct a myth of France as a unique culture united by specific French attitude towards...

  8. Geography of the environmental risks from the road transport in mountain Impacts of the nitrogen oxide emissions in the Aspe and Biriatou valley (Pyrenees, France); Geographie des risques environnementaux lies aux transports routiers en montagne. Incidences des emissions d'oxydes d'azote en vallees d'Aspe et de Biriatou (Pyrenees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deletraz, G.

    2002-12-15

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the impact of road pollution on mountain ecosystems and show that geographic approach is complementary to that of the chemists or biologists. Two valleys have been chosen for field studies: sites at Biriatou/Saint-Jean-de-Luz, an international corridor confronted with considerable growth in heavy vehicle traffic - more than 7500 trucks per day in 2000; and in the Aspe valley, to assess the situation before the opening of the new international road tunnel of the Somport. Road atmospheric pollution studies raises many methodological difficulties. To study the effects of this pollution, it must be first charted. We describe the model of spatial diffusion of pollution used. The studied pollutant is nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) because it contributes, with the other nitrogen compounds, to acidification and eutrophication of water and soils. The method integrates topography. We have established a cartography of nitrogen deposits for the two studied sectors. Then, this thesis talk about impacts. The evaluation of the deposition is not sufficient to determine the risk. Each ecosystem has specific characteristics (buffer capacity of soil, type of vegetation). The critical loads differ according to the environmental conditions. The definition of the risks areas needs the comparison of the levels of pollution and environmental conditions. The methodology used showed that the environmental risks of the road traffic is real, even when the traffic is weak, according to dispersion possibility. (author)

  9. Modeling the Historical Flood Events in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hani; Blaquière, Simon

    2017-04-01

    We will present the simulation results for different scenarios based on the flood model developed by AXA Global P&C CAT Modeling team. The model uses a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 75 m resolution, a hydrographic system (DB Carthage), daily rainfall data from "Météo France", water level from "HYDRO Banque" the French Hydrological Database (www.hydro.eaufrance.fr), for more than 1500 stations, hydrological model from IRSTEA and in-house hydraulic tool. In particular, the model re-simulates the most important and costly flood events that occurred during the past decade in France: we will present the re-simulated meteorological conditions since 1964 and estimate insurance loss incurred on current AXA portfolio of individual risks.

  10. Acerca de Juana Francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Orgaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la desigual visibilidad de Juana Francés frente al resto de compañeros de su generación, el artículo considera algunos de los factores que provocaron esta injusta situación. Así mismo se aborda un recorrido por la intensa y variada trayectoria creativa de la artista que incluye sus etapas más significativas analizadas.Taking into account the poor visibility of Juana Francés compared to tfie rest of tier generation colleagues, ttie article reflects on some of tfie causes ttiat provoked this unfair situation. In addition to that, tfie article explores the intense and diverse artistic career including her most significant stages.

  11. FRANCE : LE BILAN DEMOGRAPHIQUE DES MAIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Chalard, Laurent; Dumont, Gérard-François

    2008-01-01

    International audience; [Analyze common performance at the urban, economic, social or fiscal need. Another evaluation criterion is population growth, relevant indicator of the dynamism of a common, especially in a comparative perspective. But in France, it highlights significant disparities: municipalities have significantly increased their population; others, on the contrary, have lost population. The result is a precise geography of communal demographic changes.]; Analyser les performances ...

  12. France: Nukes Stuck between NATO and EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    achievements because of its numerous Nobel Prize winners in the fields of physics and chemistry . 39...material. Le Bouchet, built in 1949, was the first facility in France to begin extracting plutonium from the spent fuel rods from ZOE. The process became...with the predecessor of what would be the first operational warhead. The AN- 11 and later the AN-22 warheads were a plutonium -based fission weapon

  13. Cod (Gadus morhua) rearing attempts in France

    OpenAIRE

    Suquet, Marc; Omnes, Marie-helene; Normant, Yvon; Petton, Bruno; Severe, Armelle; Fauvel, Christian; Barone, Herve; Quemener, Loic; Buchet, Vincent; Pasco, Laurent; Menard, E.; Gaignon, Jean-louis

    2002-01-01

    Because of its rapid growth, its good reputation and the promising aquaculture experiences conducted in Norway and Scotland, cod is considered as a good candidate for cold water aquaculture. The aim of this paper is to present the work carried out in France since 1999: the selection of cod as a promising candidate for aquaculture and the assessment of its rearing performances in this environment.

  14. Frances Keesler Graham (1918-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    Frances Keesler Graham, noted psychophysiologist and developmental researcher, died on April 16, 2013. Fran was born in Canastota, New York, on August 1, 1918. Fran's high-quality research, her success in obtaining 39 years of uninterrupted funding, and the very high regard in which she was held among her colleagues led to numerous awards and honors. Fran was demanding but equally willing to provide extensive assistance to students willing to work hard. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  16. The e-Bug project in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Pia; Dunais, Brigitte; Urcun, Jeanne-Marie; Michard, Jean-Louis; Loarer, Christian; Azanowsky, Jean-Michel; Vincent, Isabelle; Jestin, Christine; Housseau, Bruno; de Warren, Anne; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The high rates of antibiotic prescriptions and antimicrobial resistance in France motivated its participation in the European e-Bug school project concerning microbes, and infection transmission, prevention and treatment. The prospect of raising awareness among children, helping them to adopt suitable attitudes and behaviour towards infection transmission and treatment starting from childhood, generated enthusiastic support from relevant national educational and health institutions throughout the Project. France was actively involved in every stage: background research showed that the subject matter was best suited to the national science curricula of the fourth and fifth forms in junior schools, and the sixth and ninth forms in senior schools; a focus group study with junior and senior teachers elicited teachers' needs concerning teaching resources; and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, after translation and pack review, enabled further adaptation of the packs. This evaluation showed an overall enthusiastic reception by teachers and their students in France, and reassured teachers on the ease of use of the Project's resources and students' progress. The e-Bug Project was launched through a national institutional implementation plan in September 2009 and orders for e-Bug tools increased rapidly. By the end of October, 57% of all senior science teachers and 16% of all junior school teachers had ordered the pack. France is one of the most frequent users of the e-Bug web site. The collaboration with both educational and health partners was particularly helpful to implementing the Project, and this was confirmed by the favourable reception and participation of teachers and students in the field.

  17. [Suicide in France, a situational analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facy, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    The fall in the number of suicides in France in no way diminishes the urgent need to act and reinforce the efforts, initiatives and resources to fight against this human tragedy. Public policies are starting to show results. The action of the French national suicide watch, associations, health professionals as well as the perspectives of the French national mental health council should amplify this movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  19. A paradox in physics education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  20. The State as a Terrorist: France and the Red Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riegler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores a less well-known episode in the history of terrorism: The Red Hand (La Main Rouge. During the Algerian war of independence (1954-1962 it emerged as an obscure counterterrorist organisation on the French side. Between 1956 and 1961, the Red Hand targeted the network of arms suppliers for the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN and executed hits against rebel emissaries both in Western Europe and in North Africa. Today, there is consensus among scholars that the Red Hand had been set up by the French foreign intelligence service in order to strike at the subversive enemy. This makes the Red Hand a telling example of state terrorism and its capacity for unrestricted violence in ‘emergency’ situations. Since the Red Hand’s counterterrorist acts ultimately proved to be futile and due to the repercussions caused in France as well, the case study also highlights the limits of this type of counter-terrorism. 

  1. "The Pyrenees are not hollow": the mountain as a boundary object "Os Pirineus não são ecos": a montanha como objeto de fronteira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Lamy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Toulouse, around 1850, a controversy about the structure of the Pyrenees pitted observatory director Frederic Petit against geology professor Alexandre Leymerie. The object of the debate was an assumption formulated by Petit: that the inside of the Pyrenees was practically hollow. This proposal was based on work that Petit initiated in order to determine the latitude of Toulouse. The debates, which took place within the Toulouse Academy of Science and also in local newspapers, illustrate the organization of disciplinary spaces in the nineteenth century. Petit defended his research method based on calculation; the geologist's perspective was from the field. The emergence of the less mathematical science of geology came up against nineteenth-century astronomical practices, centered on calculation. Dissected by calculation or by visual observation, the mountain was an object of controversy from the perspective of distinct scientific practices.Em Toulouse, por volta de 1850, uma controvérsia sobre a estrutura dos Pirineus colocou o diretor do Observatório, Frederic Petit, contra o professor de geologia Alexandre Leymerie. O motivo do debate foi a hipótese formulada por Petit: o interior dos Pirineus era praticamente oco. A proposição baseava-se no trabalho que Petit iniciara para determinar a latitude de Toulouse. Os debates, que tiveram lugar na Academia de Ciências de Toulouse e também em periódicos locais, ilustram a organização dos espaços disciplinares no século XIX. Petit defendia seu método de pesquisa baseado em cálculos; a perspectiva do geólogo provinha do campo. A emergência da ciência geológica, menos matemática, vinha de encontro às práticas da astronomia daquele século. Analisada por cálculos ou pela observação visual, a montanha foi um objeto de controvérsia entre diferentes práticas científicas.

  2. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  3. Nuclear safety in France in 2001; La surete nucleaire en France en 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  4. Management of outpatients in France with stable coronary artery disease. Findings from the prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease (CLARIFY) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Nicolas; Ferrieres, Jean; Guenoun, Maxime; Cattan, Simon; Rushton-Smith, Sophie K; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in the treatment of coronary artery disease mean that an increasing number of patients survive acute cardiovascular events and live as outpatients with or without anginal symptoms. To determine the characteristics and management of contemporary outpatients with stable coronary artery disease in Western Europe, and to compare France with the other Western European countries. CLARIFY (prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease) is an international, prospective, observational, longitudinal study. Between November 2009 and July 2010, 32,954 adult outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (defined as a history of documented myocardial infarction [of >3 months], prior coronary revascularization, chest pain with myocardial ischaemia, or coronary stenosis of>50% proven by angiography) were enrolled in 45 countries. The demographics and management of CLARIFY patients enrolled in France were compared with those enrolled in other Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). Of the 14,726 patients enrolled in Western Europe (mean age 66.2 [10.2] years; 79.6% male), 2432 (16.5%) were from France. The use of aspirin was lower in France than in other Western European countries (74.5% vs. 86.9%, respectively), whereas use of thienopyridines (48.5% vs. 21.7%), oral anticoagulants (12.3% vs. 9.0%) and lipid-lowering drugs (95.8% vs. 92.5%) was higher. Beta-blockers were used in 73% of both groups. Angina was less prevalent in France (6.3% vs. 15.5%) and French patients showed higher levels of physical activity than their counterparts in Western Europe. The management of patients with stable CAD in France appears favourable, with good adherence to guideline-based therapies, but there remains room for improvement in terms of symptom and risk factor control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  6. Origin and consequences of western Mediterranean subduction, rollback, and slab segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Spakman, Wim

    2014-04-01

    The western Mediterranean recorded subduction rollback, slab segmentation and separation. Here we address the questions of what caused Oligocene rollback initiation, and how its subsequent evolution split up an originally coherent fore arc into circum-southwest Mediterranean segments. We kinematically reconstruct western Mediterranean geology from subduction initiation to present, using Atlantic plate reconstructions as boundary condition. We test possible reconstructions against remnants of subducted lithosphere imaged by seismic tomography. Transform motion between Africa and Iberia (including the Baleares) between 120 and 85 Ma was followed by up to 150 km convergence until 30 Ma. Subduction likely initiated along the transform fault that accommodated pre-85 Ma translation. By the 30 Ma inception of rollback, up to 150 km of convergence had formed a small slab below the Baleares. Iberia was disconnected from Sardinia/Calabria through the North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ). Subduction below Sardinia/Calabria was slightly faster than below the Baleares, the difference being accommodated in the Pyrenees. A moving triple junction at the trench-NBTZ intersection formed a subduction transform edge propagator fault between the Baleares and Calabria slab segments. Calabria rolled back eastward, whereas the Baleares slab underwent radial (SW-S-SE) rollback. After Kabylides-Africa collision, the western slab segment retreated toward Gibraltar, here reconstructed as the maximum rollback end-member model, and a Kabylides slab detached from Africa. Opening of a slab window below the NBTZ allowed asthenospheric rise to the base of the fore arc creating high-temperature metamorphism. Western Mediterranean rollback commenced only after sufficient slab-pull was created from 100 to 150 km of slow, forced subduction before 30 Ma.

  7. The view from across the Pyrenees : changing perspectives on the Middle/Upper Paleolithic transition in Spanish Prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis B. Harrold

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Understandings of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition by prehistorians working in Spain have changed in the course of the last century. Most workers have associated this transition with the replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans, although in the context of persistent disagreements over the nature and extent of movements of populations and cultural influences into Spain from North Africa and from France. The current relevant archaeological database is of unprecedented quality and quantity. However, in the wake of indications of an early appearance of the Aurignacian in northern Spain, and the late persistence of the Mousterian and Neanderthals in southern Spain and Portugal, there is currently considerable disagreement over the nature of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition in the peninsula.La comprension de la transiclon del Paleolitico Medio al Superior ha cambiado entre los prehistoriadores que han trabajado en Espana durante el ultimo siglo. Muchos investigadores han asociado esta transicion con el reemplazamiento de los Neandertales por los humanos anatomicamente modemos, aunque en el contexto de las persistentes diferencias sobre la naturaleza y extension de los movimientos poblacionales y las influencias culturales en Espana desde el Norte de Africa o desde Francia. La Informacion arqueologica es de una calidad y cantidad sin precedentes. Sin embargo entre las indicaciones de una temprana aparicion del Aurihadense en el Norte de Espana y la persistencia, hasta fechas muy tardfas del Musteriense en el Sur, existe un considerable desacuerdo sobre la naturaleza de la transicion Paleolitico Medio-Superior en la peninsula.

  8. General presentation of the biomass in France; Presentation generale de la biomasse en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  9. Analysis and Predictability of the Hydrological Response of Mountain Catchments to Heavy Rain on Snow Events: A Case Study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier G. Corripio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From 18 to 19 June 2013, the Ésera river in the Pyrenees, Northern Spain, caused widespread damage due to flooding as a result of torrential rains and sustained snowmelt. We estimate the contribution of snow melt to total discharge applying a snow energy balance to the catchment. Precipitation is derived from sparse local measurements and the WRF-ARW model over three nested domains, down to a grid cell size of 2 km. Temperature profiles, precipitation and precipitation gradient are well simulated, although with a possible displacement regarding the observations. Snowpack melting was correctly reproduced and verified in three instrumented sites, and according to satellite images. We found that the hydrological simulations agree well with measured discharge. Snowmelt represented 33% of total runoff during the main flood event and 23% at peak flow. The snow energy balance model indicates that most of the energy for snow melt during the day of maximum precipitation came from turbulent fluxes. This approach forecast correctly peak flow and discharge during normal conditions at least 24 h in advance and could give an early warning of the extreme event 2.5 days before.

  10. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  11. Fluid-rock interactions related to metamorphic reducing fluid flow in meta-sediments: example of the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust (Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincal, Vincent; Buatier, Martine; Charpentier, Delphine; Lacroix, Brice; Lanari, Pierre; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Vennemann, Torsten

    2017-09-01

    In orogens, shortening is mainly accommodated by thrusts, which constitute preferential zones for fluid-rock interactions. Fluid flow, mass transfer, and mineralogical reactions taking place along thrusts have been intensely investigated, especially in sedimentary basins for petroleum and uranium research. This study combines petrological investigations, mineralogical quantifications, and geochemical characterizations with a wide range of analytical tools with the aim of defining the fluid properties (nature, origin, temperature, and redox) and fluid-host rock interactions (mass transfers, recrystallization mechanisms, and newly formed synkinematic mineralization) in the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust fault zone (Pyrenees, Spain). We demonstrate that two geochemically contrasted rocks have been transformed by fluid flow under low-grade metamorphism conditions during thrusting. The hanging-wall Triassic red pelite was locally bleached, while the footwall Cretaceous dolomitic limestone was mylonitized. The results suggest that thrusting was accompanied by a dynamic calcite recrystallization in the dolomitic limestone as well as by leaching of iron via destabilization of iron oxides and phyllosilicate crystallization in the pelite. Geochemical and physical changes highlighted in this study have strong implications on the understanding of the thrust behavior (tectonic and hydraulic), and improve our knowledge of fluid-rock interactions in open fluid systems in the crust.

  12. Allodaposuchus palustris sp. nov. from the upper cretaceous of Fumanya (South-Eastern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula: systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the enigmatic allodaposuchian crocodylians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco

    Full Text Available The controversial European genus Allodaposuchus is currently composed of two species (A. precedens, A. subjuniperus and it has been traditionally considered a basal eusuchian clade of crocodylomorphs. In the present work, the new species A. palustris is erected on the base of cranial and postcranial remains from the lower Maastrichtian of the southern Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analyses here including both cranial and postcranial data support the hypothesis that Allodaposuchus is included within Crocodylia. The studied specimen suggests little change in postcranial skeleton along the evolutionary history of crocodylians, except for some bone elements such as the axis, the first caudal vertebra and the ilium. The specimen was found in an organic mudstone corresponding to a coastal wetland environment. Thus, A. palustris from Fumanya is the first Allodaposuchus reported in lacustrine-palustrine settings that expand the ecological range for this genus. The S-DIVA palaeobiogeographic reconstruction of ancestral area suggests that early members of Crocodylia rapidly widespread for the Northern Hemisphere landmasses no later than the Campanian, leading the apparition of endemic groups. In that way "Allodaposuchia" represents an endemic European clade probably originated in the Ibero-Armorican domain in the late Campanian and dispersed by the Southern European archipelago prior to the early Maastrichtian.

  13. Geology and taphonomy of the L'Espinau dinosaur bonebed, a singular lagoonal site from the Maastrichtian of South-Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevilla, V.; Vicente, A.; Battista, F.; Sellés, A. G.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Martín-Closas, C.; Anadón, P.; Vila, B.; Razzolini, N. L.; Galobart, À.; Oms, O.

    2017-06-01

    The L'Espinau site is a dinosaur bonebed from the Upper Cretaceous of the South-Central Pyrenees (north-eastern Spain) that have provided hundreds of bone remains attributed to hadrosauroids, together with a rich assemblage of herpetofauna, fish and microflora. Magnetostratigraphy calibrated the site with the early late Maastrichtian, and the combined sedimentology, stable isotope geochemistry and palaeoecology revealed that this fossil site formed in a lagoon, in which a mixed freshwater-brackish palaeoenvironment was developed. This setting displays a south-north charophyte zonation from freshwater (Clavator brachycerus-dominated assemblage) to brackish or eurihaline conditions (Feistiella malladae-dominated assemblage), revealing a palaeoenvironment change towards the coast. Sedimentology and taphonomy (bidirectional arrangement of long bones, abrasion and disarticulation) indicate that the L'Espinau site is the result of a cohesive mass flow event originated very close to the sea. This process entrained and mixed fauna from both the terrestrial and the brackish/marine environment of a lagoon. An increasing of the water runoff (e.g. by intense rainfall) reworking poorly consolidated sediments is considered here as the most probable triggering mechanism. Mass flow-hosted bonebeds are commonly linked to fluvial palaeoenvironments, so our study case is a rare example of bones accumulating near the sea. This study adds evidence that hadrosauroids inhabited littoral environments during the Maastrichtian in the southern Pyrenean area.

  14. U-Pb age and lead isotopic characterization of Au-bearing skarn related to the Andorra granite (central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, R. L.; Soler, A.

    1995-08-01

    Auriferous skarns are associated with post- and late-kinematic Hercynian granites that intruded into Cambro-Ordovician to Devonian sediments of the central Pyrenees. We determined the age of the Andorra granite and the associated skarn at 305 ± 3 Ma by U-Pb dating titanite from the endo-skarn. The sulfur isotopic composition from sulfides in the skarn (Cardellach et al. 1992) shows a significant variation with isotopically light sulfur (δ34S ≈ +3) in the barren skarns and heavy sulfur (δ34S ≈ +11) in the gold-bearing skarns. Outwards, it increasingly resembles sulfur from arsenopyrite disseminations in the Cambro-Ordovician sediments. The lead isotopic composition from sulfides of the skarns is very homogeneous (206Pb/204Pb = 18.410, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.699, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.574) in contrast to the one in gold-bearing arsenopyrite veins and in arsenopyrite disseminations in the sediments (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb varies from 18.54 to 30.36). Combined, sulfur and lead isotope data indicate that the lead in the skarn is dominantly derived from the granite, whereas the sulfur is derived at variable portions from both the granite and the sediments.

  15. Supercritical bedforms and sedimentary structures from field and core studies, Middle Eocene deep-marine base-of-slope environment, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornard, Pauline; Pickering, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, many researchers have focussed on supercritical- and subcritical-flow deposits using flume-tank experiments (e.g., Cartigny el al., 2011; Postma et al., 2014; Postma and Cartigny, 2014), or from direct observations on presently active deep-water systems (e.g., Hughes et al., 2012). Using outcrop and core examples from a base-of-slope environment in the Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, and with published experimental work, a range of deposits are interpreted as upper-flow regime sedimentary structures. This contribution focusses on the interpretation of several supercritical bedforms (antidunes and chutes-and-pools) observed on the field and upper-flow regime sedimentary structures recognized in cores. The spatial distribution of supercritical-flow deposits obtained from an analysis of field outcrops and core sedimentary logs are evaluated in relation to the depositional environment (channel axis, off-axis, margin and interfan). The frequency distributions of the bed thicknesses are also analysed in relation to supercritical versus subcritical bed-thickness distributions.

  16. Prior history of Mistral and Tramontane winds modulates heavy precipitation events in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségolène Berthou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation events (HPEs are frequent in southern France in autumn. An HPE results from landward transport of low-level moisture from the Western Mediterranean: large potential instability is then released by local convergence and/or orography. In the upstream zone, the sea surface temperature (SST undergoes significant variations at the submonthly time scale primarily driven by episodic highly energetic events of relatively cold outflows from the neighbouring mountain ranges (the Mistral and Tramontane winds. Here, we study the HPE of 22–23 September 1994 which is preceded by a strong SST cooling due to the Mistral and Tramontane winds. This case confirms that the location of the precipitation is modulated by the SST in the upstream zone. In fact, changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes due to SST changes induce pressure and stratification changes which affect the low-level dynamics. Using three companion regional climate simulations running from 1989 to 2009, this article statistically shows that anomalies in the HPEs significantly correlate with the SST anomalies in the Western Mediterranean, and hence with the prior history of Mistral and Tramontane winds. In such cases, the role of the ocean as an integrator of the effect of past wind events over one or several weeks does indeed have an impact on HPEs in southern France.

  17. France. Country profile. [France's economy adjusts to a declining birth rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, P

    1984-09-01

    This discussion of France focuses on regions and cities, age distribution, households and families, housing, labor force, consumption, education, and communications. France counted 54,334,871 citizens as of March 4, 1982. There were 250,000 more people than in 1975, yielding a 7-year growth rate of 3.3%. If present trends continue, there will be 56 million French by the end of the 1980s. Since 1975 when the last census was conducted, cities of more than 200,000 lost an average of 5% of their residents. For the 1st time in more than a century, urban areas of 20,000 or more did not gain population but merely held their own. France continues to experience the effects of the large-scale decimation of its male population during the 2 world wars. The World war i loss showed up March 1982 as a relatively smaller 60-74 group. Conversely the population aged 75 and over is growing, both in absolute numbers and as a percent of the population. There were 3.6 million aged 75 and over (6.6% of the population) in 1982 compared with 3 million (5.6%) in 1975. The 19 and under age group declined between 1975-85, from 31% (16.2 million) to 29% (15.6 million). The 20-59 year old group constitutes the largest segment of the population--about double the group aged 19 and under--and its growing. This group was 50% of the population in 1973 and 53% in 1982. The infant mortality rate has declined steadily in France, from 18.2 deaths/1000 births in 1970 to 13.6 in 1975 and 9.5 at present. The total fertility rate has continued to decline: 1.8 children/woman in the 1982 census a rate less than the number needed to replace the present French population. Between 1975-82 households grew 10.4% to a total of 19.6 million. The growth in the number of households is attributed to the increase in divorce and the tendency for French children to leave the parental home at an earlier age. France has nearly 23 million dwelling places. More than half of householders own their own homes. New housing starts

  18. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoureux, S

    2016-12-01

    Conduct a synthesis of existing knowledge about the frequency of induced abortion or termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies, the exposure factors of unplanned pregnancies and abortion and the associated morbidity and mortality. Consultation of The Medline database, and national and international reports on abortions in France and in developed countries. Voluntary termination of pregnancy is an induced abortion, opted for non-medical reasons, which in France can be performed before 14 weeks of gestation. Abortion is a common procedure, with rare complications, amounting to about 220,000 procedures per year in France with a stable rate over decades. Similarly to births, women aged 20 to 24 are most affected. The possibility of an abortion exists for all women; this potential event, however, is not equal for each and varies by age of women, socio-professional situations, geographical origins, marital status and past or present domestic and sexual violence. The French historical analysis shows that for 50 years the increase in contraceptive prevalence rate is associated with a decrease in the frequency of unplanned pregnancies. It is therefore possible that the prevention of unplanned pregnancy through early uptake of contraception and contraception options by women is related to a woman's lifestyle. Nonetheless, the number of abortion remains stable since its decriminalization despite the large increase in medicalized contraceptive prevalence rate. Good knowledge of the epidemiology of voluntary termination of pregnancy and unplanned pregnancies is a prerequisite to better adopt prevention and case management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  20. 78 FR 38821 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ...-071-AD; Amendment 39-17482; AD 2013-12-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N, SA... apply to Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2, and AS 365 N3...

  1. 77 FR 54353 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...; AD 2012-17-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal... directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, SA-366G1, AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, EC... to amend 14 CFR part 39 to include an AD that would apply to all Eurocopter France (EC) Model SA-365N...

  2. 78 FR 25367 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-021-AD; Amendment 39-17282; AD 2012-25-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1, AS350B2... apply to Eurocopter France Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1, AS350B2, AS350B3, AS350C, AS350D, AS350D1...

  3. France: 17th-20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Renneville, Marc

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Discutant du Panel 2 – 2.00-4.00 p.m. France: 17th-20th centuries Chair: Lorraine Paterson, Oxford University. An Experimental Penal Colony in the French Caribbean: The Fort-Royal ‘niggers chain’ (Martinique, 1764-1790) by Marie Houllemare, University of Amiens ; The Prison Administration in Morocco under the Era of the French Protectorate: The Improbable Control of an Institution by Nicolas Derasse, Lille 2 University; ‘Moral Rubbish in Close Proximity’: International...

  4. BSE Prevention Update: Comparing France and California

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, John

    2004-01-01

    Over the past four months we have read and heard more about BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Mad Cow Disease) than we may have ever wanted to know. The California Cattlemen’s Association and other allied groups, particularly the NCBA have done a wonderful job in terms of getting out the facts about BSE and the message that beef is safe for consumers. The BSE issue is extremely complicated and I will compare some of what has been done in France with our situation in California. ...

  5. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.

  6. La France mesurée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique PELLETIER

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available À la cartographie de cabinet se substitua à la fin du XVIIe et au XVIIIe siècle une cartographie de terrain dont la précision et la cohésion sont la conséquence de l'établissement d'un canevas géométrique couvrant tout le territoire français. La première carte de France, celle de Cassini, plus géométrique que topographique, est l'illustration, voire la caricature, des nouvelles méthodes.

  7. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  8. [National organization of forensic medicine in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Forensic medicine has long been characterized, in France, by diverse medical practices, which affected its recognition and development. A change was needed, Harmonization procedure includes the development of professional guidelines and allows forensic medicine to look at itself. However, the implementation of the recommendations is still far from complete. A national reform came into effect on 15 January 2011 and has defined a national reform of forensic medicine which includes funding by global budgets instead of fee-for-service. This reform allows easier organization and identification of forensic medicine units. One year later, tangible results are mixed. Forensic medicine is now more clearly identified but properly defined funding criteria are still lacking.

  9. France's contribution to the construction of the European regulatory framework for nuclear safety; Le role de la France dans l'elaboration d'un cadre reglementaire europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etienne, Ph. [France aupres de l' Union europeenne, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    As a key player in the nuclear industry, France has worked constantly to consolidate the EURATOM requirements and to develop the legislation derived from them. The recent upsurge in interest in nuclear power has led the European Commission, supported by France, to produce a true community safety framework, the principles of which are presented in the 2000 Green Paper. The initial debate on the 'nuclear package' was followed by a period of reflection and discussion which began at a European level, in particular outside strictly community circles, with the WENRA group (Western European Nuclear Regulators Association). It was also at that time that France acquired an enhanced safety framework with the adoption of the 'Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field' Act of 2006. In March 2007, the European Council was to give the necessary impetus for reviving the Community process. ENSREG and the European Nuclear Energy Forum contributed to the Community debate on safety, waste management and transparency. This debate was to continue under the French Presidency with the adoption of a resolution on the management of waste and of spent fuel, along with initial discussions around the 'Safety' directive adopted several months later by the Czech Presidency. The efforts of the Commission and of France continued, in particular with a proposed directive concerning the management of waste and spent fuel, planned for autumn of 2010. (author)

  10. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport environnement 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy invoice of France in 2000; Facture energetique de la France en 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The energy invoice of France increased of 102% in 2000, as a direct consequence of the crude oil prices increase. This document details the importation prices evolution, the exchanged energy volumes and the invoice by energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  12. The action of France; L'action de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  13. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  14. The international development of Electricite de France; Le developpement international d'Electricite de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 2001, Electricite de France (EdF) has pursued and increased its international development with a portfolio of participations in foreign electricity companies (Germany, Italy, UK, Brazil, Argentina etc..) that reached 6 billions of euros. This development has been tainted with poor results in South America and has led to some hostile reactions from the Italian and Spanish governments. (J.S.)

  15. The private vehicles in France: data and references; Les vehicules particuliers en France: donnees et references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catania, S.

    2004-03-01

    Each year the ADEME establishes and actualizes data bases from data provided by the UTAC and the Auxiliary Association of the Automobile. These data concern the emissions and consumptions of private vehicles approved and sold in France. The last part deals with the technological evolutions of vehicles concerning the fuel consumption decrease. (A.L.B.)

  16. 2004 energy bill of the France; Facture energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  17. Medical physics in France, stakes and necessities; La physique medicale en france, enjeux et necessites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P.

    2004-07-01

    This series of slides presents the situation of medical physics in France: - role of the medical physicist with respect to the medical procedures in radiotherapy, radiology and nuclear medicine; - responsibility in the treatment chain; - professional qualification and training; - present day and future situation of the profession; - authorities answer; - a profession in great precariousness situation. (J.S.)

  18. Energy statistical data in France april 2007; Statistiques energetiques France avril 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The monthly situation analysis in France at April 2007 is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  19. Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in the cfa franc zone after the cfa franc devaluation of January 1994

    OpenAIRE

    Kuikeu, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    In cfa franc zone, the exchange rate was devalued, in January 1994, in order to deal with the major macroeconomic imbalances that have affected the members during the 1980 decade. Thus, the aim of this paper is to assess the degree of over/undervaluation (namely real exchange rate misalignment) of the currency in the cfa franc zone since the cfa franc devaluation of January 1994.

  20. Electricity in France in 2007: a statistical analysis; L'electricite en France en 2007: une analyse statistique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the evolution of electricity generation and consumption in France over the last years and up to 2007. The production data are analyzed by source type (nuclear, renewable, fossil fuels). The consumption is analyzed by end-use sector and also by class of voltage. Finally, the status of power trades between France and other European countries, and the energy independence ratio of France are presented. (J.S.)

  1. Next step, the Tour de France?

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour de France, the Annecy-Semnoz time-trial, has already been won – by a CERN staff member!     In keeping with tradition, the organisers of the Tour de France organise another race, the Étape du Tour, which is open to the general public and follows the actual route of an official stage of the Tour proper. This year, the chosen venue was Annecy and its neighbouring mountain, Le Semnoz, which played host to 11,000 cycling enthusiasts from all parts. This penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour will be raced by the professionals on 20 July. The public race was won by Nicolas Roux, an experienced cyclist and member of CERN’s GS-IS Group, who devoured the 128-km course in just 4 hours and 15 minutes, nine seconds ahead of cycling champion Julien Absalon. “I just managed to overhaul Julien Absalon 500 m before the finishing line,” Nicolas recounts. “It was a fantastic race!” Come rain o...

  2. Short-wave contributions in the storm surge associated with Xynthia, February 2010, western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, X.; Li, K.; Roland, A.; Breilf, J. F.; Chaumillon, E.

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to hindcast and analyze the storm surge caused by Xynthia, a mid-latitude storm that severely hit the central part of the Bay of Biscay on the 27-28th of February 2010. This storm surge locally exceeded 1.5 m and peaked at the same time as a high spring tide (Bertin et al., 2012). A new storm surge modeling system was applied, based on the unstructured-grid circulation model SELFE (Zhang and Batista, 2008) and the spectral wave model WWM II (Roland et al., 2008). These two models are fully coupled and parallelized and share the same grid and domain decomposition. The modelling system was implemented over the North-East Atlantic Ocean and the space was discretized using an unstructured grid with a resolution ranging from 30 km in Deep Ocean to 25 m in near shore zones. Such a fine resolution was required to properly represent the surf zone. The modelling system resulted in tidal and wave predictions with errors of the order of 2 and 15%, respectively. The storm surge associated with Xynthia was also well predicted along the Bay of Biscay, with root mean square errors of the order of 0.10 m. Numerical experiments were then performed to analyze the physical processes controlling the development of the storm surge and revealed firstly that the wind caused most of the water level anomaly through an Ekman setup process. The comparison between a wave-dependant and a quadratic parameterization to compute wind stress showed that the storm surge was strongly amplified by the presence of steep and young wind-waves, related to their rapid development in the restricted fetch of the Bay of Biscay. The gradient of wave radiation stress contributed to the whole storm surge by about 0.05 to 0.10 m at the available tide gages. Nevertheless, these gages were located in sheltered harbors and modeling results showed that wave-induced setup locally exceeded 0.5 m in areas more exposed to ocean waves. The unstructured grid is currently being extended inland to simulate the flooding associated with Xynthia. Keywords: Xynthia, storm surge, coastal flooding, unstructured grid model, wave setup, friction velocity.

  3. Chlamydiaceae in North Atlantic Seabirds Admitted to a Wildlife Rescue Center in Western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaziz, R; Gourlay, P; Vorimore, F; Sachse, K; Siarkou, V I; Laroucau, K

    2015-07-01

    Birds are the primary hosts of Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium that can cause avian chlamydiosis in birds and psittacosis in humans. Wild seabirds are frequently admitted to wildlife rescue centers (WRC) at European Atlantic coasts, for example, in connection with oil spills. To investigate the extent of chlamydial shedding by these birds and the resulting risk for animals in care and the medical staff, seabirds from a French WRC were sampled from May 2011 to January 2014. By use of a quantitative PCR (qPCR), 195 seabirds belonging to 4 orders, 5 families and 13 species were examined, of which 18.5% proved to be Chlamydiaceae positive. The highest prevalence of shedders was found in northern gannets (Morus bassanus) (41%), followed by European herring gulls (Larus argentatus) (14%) and common murres (Uria aalge) (7%). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of qPCR-positive northern gannet samples revealed two variants of a strain closely related to C. psittaci. In European herring gulls and in one common murre, strains showing high sequence similarity to the atypical Chlamydiaceae-like C122 previously found in gulls were detected. Our study shows that seabirds from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean carry several chlamydial organisms, including C. psittaci-related strains. The staff in WRCs should take protective measures, particularly in the case of mass admissions of seabirds. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Chlamydiaceae in North Atlantic Seabirds Admitted to a Wildlife Rescue Center in Western France

    OpenAIRE

    Aaziz, R.; Gourlay, P.; Vorimore, F.; Sachse, K.; Siarkou, V. I.; Laroucau, K.

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the primary hosts of Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium that can cause avian chlamydiosis in birds and psittacosis in humans. Wild seabirds are frequently admitted to wildlife rescue centers (WRC) at European Atlantic coasts, for example, in connection with oil spills. To investigate the extent of chlamydial shedding by these birds and the resulting risk for animals in care and the medical staff, seabirds from a French WRC were sampled from May 2011 to January 2014. By use of a quantit...

  5. Description and first results of a BVDV control scheme in Brittany (western France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Alain; Fourichon, Christine; Beaudeau, François

    2005-11-15

    A collective zoo-sanitary control scheme for BVDV has been implemented in Brittany in successive steps since 1998. Prior evaluation of prevalence and dynamics of infection through bulk-milk ELISA showed that 40% of the dairy herds were likely to be free of BVDV but that, in the long term, no improvement was to be expected without control of new infections. The next step was a test-and-cull programme for PI animals in ELISA positive herds. Ten percentage of the herds were found to have at least one PI animal. The incidence decreased during this step. To lower costs of testing traded animals, a database was developed to collect all the available information to trace animals already known to be non-PI.

  6. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  7. 78 FR 60188 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ...-035-AD; Amendment 39-17601; AD 2013-19-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-19-19 Eurocopter France...

  8. 78 FR 16200 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France (Eurocopter... information identified in this proposed AD, contact American Eurocopter Corporation, 2701 N. Forum Drive...

  9. 78 FR 33766 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter France (Eurocopter): Docket No. FAA... (AD) for Eurocopter Model SA-365N, SA-365N1, AS-365N2, AS 365 N3, EC 155B, EC155B1, AS332C, AS332L...

  10. 77 FR 58971 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): Eurocopter France...

  11. 78 FR 44422 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...-026-AD; Amendment 39-17519; AD 2013-15-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-15-03 Eurocopter France...

  12. 77 FR 5991 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... the Eurocopter France (ECF) Model AS332L2 helicopter and superseding an AD for the Model EC225LP... 2010-SW-091-AD; Amendment 39-16914; AD 2012-01-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT...

  13. 78 FR 60681 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...-090-AD; Amendment 39-17589; AD 2013-19-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We...): 2013-19-07 Eurocopter France (Eurocopter): Amendment 39-17589; Docket No. FAA-2013-0480; Directorate...

  14. Introduction of two-way VSAT service in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabriel, J. F.; Bernard, A.

    France Telecom is developing a two-way VSAT service for a potential market in Europe. To prepare for the introduction of this service, preliminary tests with Matra and Alcatel-Telspace have been initiated. The France-Telecom development strategy is described, and results of tests performed during 1988 are discussed.

  15. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  16. Lambing results obtained with imported Ile de France rarn semen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two batches of lle de France ram semen frozen in 0,5 ml straws were imported from France during April 1929 and. September 198'1. Ewes were synchronized and artificial insemination was carried out either 54,5 h (fixed time single insemination) after sponge withdrawal, or with a doubre insemination, 12 h after the onset ...

  17. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  18. In Wake of Riots, France Refashions Priority Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with an initiative embarked upon by the government of France one year after widespread youth violence broke out in many disadvantaged communities in France. The initiative is aimed at adapting its 25-year-old "priority education" program to a landscape that has dramatically changed. The initiative is the centerpiece of…

  19. Les agences d’urbanisme en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Verdeil

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Si les agences d’urbanisme françaises ont, pour certaines, près de quarante ans d’existence, elles restent pourtant relativement méconnues. Le présent article, qui leur est consacré, vise à livrer en la matière plusieurs pistes de réflexion susceptibles d’être saisies par des chercheurs de différentes disciplines. Revendiquant son caractère exploratoire et programmatique, cet article collectif ne restreint donc pas son propos à une série de problématiques spécifiques (sociologie politique de l’expertise, l’histoire ou l’anthropologie des métiers et professions de l’urbanisme, monographies locales des diverses productions urbaines des agences, etc.. Il plaide plutôt pour une capitalisation des travaux qui prennent ou prendraient les agences d’urbanisme pour objet, tout en avançant à cette occasion quelques résultats de recherches menées récemment. Prolongeant le colloque organisé sur ce thème à Lille en février 2007, il entend ainsi contribuer à interroger de nouveau le statut et la reconnaissance accordés, en France, aux études urbaines.This article, which is devoted to those forty year old but poorly understood organisations, the planning agencies (“agences d’urbanisme” in France, is intended to be programmatic and exploratory in character. Its purpose is, therefore, to present a series of reflections on the subject that might be taken up by researchers in different disciplines. The intention is not to limit its remarks to a narrowly defined series of problems such as the political sociology of expertise, the history or anthropology of the planning profession or even the local histories of urban policy implementation in the particular areas where agencies are located. Like the conference organised in Lille in February 2007, this article, which was one of the products of the conference, takes up the opportunity to investigate again the status and recognition granted to urban studies in France

  20. Short-term effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil water repellency in the Central Pyrenees (NE-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Badía-Villas, David; Ortiz-Perpiñán, Oriol

    2016-04-01

    The decrease of livestock grazing during the last decades in the Central Pyrenees has led to a regression of grasslands in favour of shrublands, mainly composed by Echinospartum horridum. Prescribed burning might be a suitable tool for the control of this species that limits pastures development and therefore, the reclamation of grasslands; although, its effects on soil properties are still uncertain [1]. Controlled burnings are usually performed in spring or autumn, when soil moisture is high and temperature low, being easier to control and also reducing its effects on soil properties. However, burning during the wet seasons can increase the risk of soil erosion as the vegetation cover is partially destroyed. In this sense, soil water repellency (SWR) plays an important role reducing the infiltration rates and, thus, increasing runoff and soil erosion [2]. Then, it is of special interest to study parameters that influence SWR such as soil moisture, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil biological activity [3]. The aim of this work is, to analyse the effects of controlled burning on SWR as well as some of the influencing factors on this parameter. To achieve this, soil sampling was carried out in two prescribed fire events that took place in the Central Pyrenees: Tella (April, 2015) and Buisán (November, 2015). Temperature was simultaneously recorded during the fire via thermocouples placed at the surface level and at 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm depth. In each event, topsoil was scrapped and sampled from 0-1 cm, 1-2 cm and 2-3 cm depth in each sampling point (3 for Tella and 4 for Buisán) just before and immediately after burning. We analysed SWR persistence (Water Drop Penetration Time, WDPT) and intensity (Ethanol Percentage Test, EPT) as well as total C and N, microbial C, β-glucosidase activity, soil moisture and pH. Temperature measurements indicated a higher fire intensity in Tella than in Buisán burning. Surface unburned samples presented extreme SWR values

  1. First reports of autochthonous eyeworm infection by Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs and cat from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchies, Ph; Chaudieu, G; Siméon, L A; Cazalot, G; Cantacessi, C; Otranto, D

    2007-11-10

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a small nematode living in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing lacrimation, epiphora, conjunctivitis, keratitis and even corneal ulcers. The first autochthonous cases of thelaziosis affecting four dogs and one cat living in South Western France (Dordogne area) are reported and described. Nematodes recovered from the animals were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda and a partial region of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) was amplified by PCR from nematode specimens (from two dogs and the cat). In each case, this was shown to have an identical sequence to the haplotype 1 (h1) of T. callipaeda. So far, the arthropod acting as intermediate host of T. callipaeda eyeworms has not been identified in France although it might be Phortica variegata (Steganinae, Drosophilidae) as recently described in Italy.

  2. Effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil organic matter and biological properties: A 1-year study case in the Central Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona-García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Ortiz-Perpiñá, Oriol; Mora, Juan Luis; Armas-Herrera, Cecilia M

    2017-11-06

    Prescribed burning has been readopted in the last decade in the Central Pyrenees to stop the regression of subalpine grasslands in favour of shrublands, dominated among others by Echinospartum horridum (Vahl) Rothm. Nevertheless, the effect of this practice on soil properties is uncertain. The aim of this work was to analyse the effects of these burnings on topsoil organic matter and biological properties. Soil sampling was carried out in an autumnal prescribed fire in Buisán (NE-Spain, November 2015). Topsoil was sampled at 0-1cm, 1-2cm and 2-3cm depth in triplicate just before (U), ~1h (B0), 6months (B6) and 12months (B12) after burning. We analysed soil total organic C (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass C (Cmic), soil respiration (SR) and β-D-glucosidase activity. A maximum temperature of 438°C was recorded at soil surface while at 1cm depth only 31°C were reached. Burning significantly decreased TOC (-52%), TN (-44%), Cmic (-57%), SR (-72%) and β-D-glucosidase (-66%) at 0-1cm depth while SR was also reduced (-45%) at 1-2cm depth. In B6 and B12, no significant changes in these properties were observed as compared to B0. It can be concluded that the impact of prescribed burning has been significant and sustained over time, although limited to the first two topsoil centimetres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The “Bear” Essentials: Actualistic Research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and Its Implications for Paleontology and Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, Maite; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2014-01-01

    Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass’s trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all) from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus]) and non-durophagus (modelled here by brown bears

  4. Impact of climate and land use change on water availability and reservoir management: scenarios in the Upper Aragón River, Spanish Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, J I; Zabalza, J; Vicente-Serrano, S M; Revuelto, J; Gilaberte, M; Azorin-Molina, C; Morán-Tejeda, E; García-Ruiz, J M; Tague, C

    2014-09-15

    Streamflows in a Mediterranean mountain basin in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflow series projected for 2021-2050 were used to simulate the management of the Yesa reservoir, which is critical to the downstream supply of irrigation and domestic water. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys). The results show that increased forest cover in the basin could decrease annual streamflow by 16%, mainly in early spring, summer and autumn. Regional climate models (RCMs) project a trend of warming and drying in the basin for the period 2021-2050, which will cause a 13.8% decrease in annual streamflow, mainly in late spring and summer. The combined effects of forest regeneration and climate change are expected to reduce annual streamflows by 29.6%, with marked decreases affecting all months with the exception of January and February, when the decline will be moderate. Under these streamflow reduction scenarios it is expected that it will be difficult for the Yesa reservoir to meet the current water demand, based on its current storage capacity (476 hm(3)). If the current project to enlarge the reservoir to a capacity of 1059 hm(3) is completed, the potential to apply multi-annual streamflow management, which will increase the feasibility of maintaining the current water supply. However, under future climate and land cover scenarios, reservoir storage will rarely exceed half of the expected capacity, and the river flows downstream of the reservoir is projected to be dramatically reduced. © 2013.

  5. Application and validation of different geomatic techniques for the quantification of mass-wasting processes in a torrential catchment in the Axial Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Buill, Felipe; Nuñez, Amparo; López-Moreno, Juan; Moya, Jose; Abancó, Clàudia; Chevalier, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Torrential processes like debris flows and debris floods significantly change the morphology of high-mountain catchments. In addition, other types of mass movements and superficial erosion affect the landscape. In the present study, the mass-wasting in the Rebaixader catchment located in the Axial Pyrenees was quantified for a time span of more than 50 years by four different geomatic techniques: 1) Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), 2) Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), 3) Digital Photogrammetry from Historic Aerial Photographs (DP-HAP), and 4) Digital Photogrammetry from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (DP-UAV). The Rebaixader catchment is characterized by a large open scarp with a very heterogeneous and irregular morphology. This scarp is situated in a side moraine and affected by many types of mass-wasting processes. The results of the geomatic techniques were compared and validated with the data gathered at the monitoring system, which was installed in 2009 in the channel reach below the scarp. In addition, a detailed dendrogeomorphological study on the fan's depositional units spanning more than 70 years of activity, was used to compare the results. The results obtained by the different geomatic techniques show that the rate of mass wasting in the catchment is about 15000 m3 per year. This value is supported by the monitoring data gathered by the sensors installed. The comparison with the dendrogeomorphological study leads to less coherency due to the limitations of the dendrogeomorphological method. Other outcomes of our investigation refer to the applicability and precision of the different geomatic techniques. The study shows that TLS technique is rather difficult to apply to the scarp, where the morphology is very irregular, the surface is partly humid, the scan distances are large and the vegetation may avoid a good visibility. In contrast, DP-HAP of aerial photographs of 1975 (and with less significance of 1956) provided a rather precise digital elevation model

  6. "A shepherd has to invent": Poetic analysis of social-ecological change in the cultural landscape of the central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernández-Giménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-20th century, the Pyrenean pastoral social-ecological system (SES has undergone socioeconomic and demographic transformations leading to changes in grazing practices and a decline in the livestock industry. Land abandonment has contributed to an ecological transition from herbaceous vegetation cover to shrublands and forests, leading to a loss of ecosystem services, including biodiversity and forage. I interviewed 27 stockmen (ganaderos in two valleys of the central Pyrenees to document their traditional ecological knowledge and observations of environmental, social, economic, and cultural changes in the valleys. I used poetic analysis, a qualitative data analysis approach, to illustrate and analyze one ganadero's experience of social-ecological change. First, I created seven poems based on an interview transcript with this ganadero. Second, I analyzed the poetry I created, to see what new insights and understanding about system dynamics and the lived experience of SES change emerged from analysis of the transcript re-presented as poetry. Third, I compared key themes that emerged from this analysis with findings across the other 26 interviews. Fourth, I read the poems and presented the associated analysis to multiple audiences, to gauge their impact and effectiveness in communicating research findings. Finally, I synthesized across the themes raised in the seven poems. Poetic analysis revealed emotional and cultural dimensions of change, especially the importance of occupational and place identity, in the experience of the ganadero. The transcript re-presented as poetry portrayed the ganadero as an agent in creating and maintaining a cultural landscape and as both an adaptor and resister to SES change. Poetic analysis also uncovered telling contradictions, adaptive capacities, and barriers to adaptation in this SES that went unappreciated with conventional qualitative analysis approaches. This exploratory study illustrates the

  7. Case Study: Effect of Climatic Characterization on River Discharge in an Alpine-Prealpine Catchment of the Spanish Pyrenees Using the SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Palazón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges in assessment of water resources demand new approaches and tools, such as the use of hydrologic models, which could serve to assist managers in the prediction, planning and management of catchment water supplies in view of increased demand of water for irrigation and climatic change. Good characterization of the spatial patterns of climate variables is of paramount importance in hydrological modelling. This is especially so when modelling mountain environments which are characterized by strong altitudinal climate gradients. However, very often there is a poor distribution of climatic stations in these areas, which in many cases, results in under representation of high altitude areas with respect to climatic data. This results in the poor performance of the models. In the present study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in order to assess the influence of different climatic characterizations in the monthly river discharges. Four simulations with different input data were assessed, using only the available climate data (A1; the former plus one synthetic dataset at a higher altitude (B1; and both plus the altitudinal climate gradient (A2 and B2. The model’s performance was evaluated against the river discharges for the representative periods of 2003–2005 and 1994–1996 by means of commonly used statistical measures. The best results were obtained using the altitudinal climate gradient alone (scenario A2. This study provided insight into the importance of taking into account the sources and the spatial distribution of weather data in modelling water resources in mountainous catchments.

  8. Large landslides associated with a diapiric fold in Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees): Detailed geological-geomorphological mapping, trenching and electrical resistivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Rosell, Joan; Gutiérrez, Mateo

    2015-07-01

    Detailed geomorphological-geological mapping in Canelles Reservoir, the Spanish Pyrenees, reveals the presence of several large landslides overlooked in previous cartographic works. One of the slope movements, designated as the Canelles landslide, corresponds to a 40 × 106 m3 translational landslide reactivated in 2006 by a severe decline in the reservoir water level. The geomorphic features mapped in the upper part of the Canelles landslide, including surface ruptures corroborated by electrical resistivity imaging and trenching, indicate multiple displacement episodes previous to the 2006 human-induced event. Consistently, the stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench record at least two displacement events older and larger in magnitude than the 2006 reactivation. The oldest recorded event occurred in the 6th to 7th Centuries and the second in 1262-1679 yr AD. This latter episode might be correlative to the 1373 Ribagorza earthquake (Mw 6.2), which caused the reactivation of a landslide and the consequent destruction of a village in the adjacent valley. The available data indicate that over more than one millennium the kinematics of the landslide has been characterised by discrete small-displacement episodes. These data, together with the available literature on rapid rockslides, do not concur with the acceleration predicted by modelling in a previous investigation, which foresees a speed of 16 m s- 1 despite the low average dip of the sliding surface (9-10°). This case study illustrates that the trenching technique may provide valuable practical information on the past behaviour of landslides, covering a much broader time span than instrumental and historical records.

  9. Towards a debris-flow warning system based on hydrological measurements of the triggering conditions. A study of El Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José

    2014-05-01

    Debris flows represent a risk to the society due to their high destructive power. Rainfall is the main debris-flow triggering factor. Rainfall thresholds are generally used for warning of debris flow occurrence in susceptible catchments. However, the efficiency of such thresholds for real time hazard assessment is often conditioned by many factors, such as: the location and number of the rain gauges used (both to define the thresholds, and for setting off warnings); the temporal and spatial evolution of rainfall's convective cells or the effect of snow cover melting. These factors affect the length of the warning time, which is of crucial importance for issuing alert messages or alarms to the people and infrastructures at risk. The Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees, Spain) is being monitored since 2009 by six stations recording information on initiation (4 stations) and flow detection and cinematic behaviour (2 stations). Until December 2013, 7 debris flows, 17 debris floods and 4 rockfalls have been recorded. The objectives of this work were: a) the definition of rainfall thresholds at two different rain gauges; b) the analysis of the infiltration patterns in order to define their potential use for warning systems and c) preliminary testing of rainfall thresholds' efficiency in terms of warning time, in this catchment. This last goal consisted in the comparison of the time elapsed between the rainfall threshold was exceeded and the event occurrence was detected by the stations at the channel area. The results suggest that the intensity-duration rainfall thresholds sometimes provide warning times which would be too short for an adequate reaction in the Rebaixader catchment (less than 10 minutes). The combination of such rainfall thresholds with infiltration measurements is useful to increase the warning time. This occurs especially in the events triggered in spring, when the snowmelt plays an important role in the event's triggering conditions. However, the

  10. FRANCE at CERN - Visit of Firms

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Eighteen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each department secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. The list of exhibitors is given below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHERE ...

  11. FRANCE AT CERN - VISIT OF FIRMS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Seventeen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. You will find below the list of exhibitors. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHE...

  12. Homelessness in France: Labour market implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Mitra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses homelessness in France with regard to three major mutually interacting sets of factors: labour-market strains, illegal migration and institutional inadequacy. Macroeconomic challenges have resulted in the loss of jobs and subsequent labour-market hardships, and these have tended to affect those without adequate skills. As a result, labour-market problems together with a lack of social capital and adequate housing at affordable prices, accompanied by insufficient institutional support, has resulted in increased homelessness. All of this indicates that there should be active government intervention in the housing market in order to create space for the relatively weaker section of the population in the growth process, which is often unequal. Another important issue is how to create jobs with positive growth in real wages because, without adequate purchasing power, simply providing housing would mean transferring poverty from one space to another.

  13. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  14. [Conditions of induced abortion in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, D

    1997-12-01

    In France, each woman will have an average of one unintended pregnancy in her life and she'll decide to abort once out of two. 21 years after the vote of the law which authorized the abortion, according to certains conditions, the abortion rate decreases slightly. The socioeconomics characteristics of women requesting an abortion are very similar to those found in 1976. The medical and psychological complications are very low. The law is applied except that some difficulties persist: to recruit professionals becomes more difficult, inadequate solutions of public hospitals, inappropriate and not always comprehensive towards the clients, no possibility to choose the methods. The law is limited for the minors, the foreigners and the pregnancies up to 10 weeks which increases the social inegalities. It is a major public health concern to make abortion as safe as possible because it gives accessibility to choose freely motherhood which is the best way for safe pregnancy, birth and parent and child relationship.

  15. Roudet Bernard (dir.). Les jeunes en France

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Cet ouvrage dirigé par Bernard Roudet synthétise les résultats de recherches récentes en sociologie de la jeunesse en France, conformément au principe de la collection « Regard sur la jeunesse du monde » des presses de l’Université Laval. Bernard Roudet y propose une analyse des grandes mutations de la société française depuis la Libération à travers une mise en perspective historique des travaux sur la jeunesse. Cette question est ensuite déclinée sous l’angle de la condition étudiante (par ...

  16. The Tour de France: a physiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Alejandro; Earnest, Conrad; Arribas, Carlos

    2003-10-01

    On 5 July 2003, the Tour de France (TDF) has celebrated 100th running. Instead of a chimney sweep competing during his free time (as in 1903), the recent winner is a highly trained, professional cyclist whose entire life-style has been dedicated to reach his pinnacle during this event. The TDF has been held successfully for 100 years, but the application of the physiologic sciences to the sport is a relatively recent phenomenon. Although some historical reports help to understand the unique physiological characteristics of this race, scientific studies were not available in Sports Science/Applied Physiology journals until the 1990s. The aim of this article is to review the history of the TDF. Special emphasis is placed on the last decade where classic physiology has been integrated into applied scientific cycling data.

  17. Comparing Exceptionalism in France and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Devienne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges the current scholarship on the history of the death penalty and its abolition by adopting a transatlantic framework and debunking the popular contemporary conception of the “Barbaric Americans” against the “civilised” anti-death penalty French. The article focuses on the short period in the 1970s during which American executions were halted by the Supreme Court, while France was still putting prisoners to death in cases that were widely debated in public opinion. By observing the French media’s reactions to the two major decisions taken by the Supreme Court in the 1970s and their direct consequences, this essay analyzes not only the French gaze on American practices but also how these American decisions were manipulated by the journalists to stoke the French debate about abolition.

  18. Charbonnages de France group. Annual report 99; Groupe Charbonnages de France. Rapport annuel 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 1999 annual report of the French national collieries 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF) presents the turnover and financial data of the group, the situation of coal mining in France, the management of manpower, the rehabilitation of abandoned mine and plant sites, the impact of power market deregulation on the activities of the coal-fired power plants and cogeneration units of the national society of electric and thermal power (SNET) and of the SIDEC company, and the management of the real estate patrimony of the group in mining regions. Some conference texts written by engineers of the group are added at the end of the document and present the competences of CDF in environmental engineering (valorization of coal fly ash, cleansing of polluted sites, phyto-remediation) and development of biomass energy. (J.S.)

  19. Changing Economic Leadership : A New Benchmark of Sector Productivity in the United States and Western Europe, ca. 1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, Ewout; Woltjer, Pieter; Smits, Jan-Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The debate concerning the exact timing and causes of changes in economic leadership constitutes one of the central themes in economic history. This study aims to improve the measurement of economic performance in the United States and Western Europe (Britain, France and the Netherlands) during the

  20. Experience of Forming Professional and Communicative Competency of Future Social Workers in Education Systems of Western European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyuk, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the experience of forming professional and communicative competency of future social workers in the education systems of Western European countries, in particular, France, Germany and Switzerland. On the basis of generalization of the studied data it has been found out that each country has its own techniques of forming…