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Sample records for western pyrenees france

  1. Origin of the interstitial isopod Microcharon (Crustacea, Microparasellidae from the western Languedoc and the northern Pyrenees (France with the description of two new species

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    Nicole COINEAU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The interstitial groundwater genus Microcharon (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae is highly diversified in southern France. A new species, Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is described from the Aude River, whereas specimens from the Lachein River in the central Pyrenees are reassigned to another species, M. ariegensis new to Science. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is closely related to the species of the group rouchi and may belong to the phylogenetic western Mediterranean lineage. The two-step model of colonization and evolution provides an understanding of the origin and age of this stygobite. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is derived from marine ancestors that lived in the interstitial littoral shallow bottoms of the Atlantic embayment which covered southwestern France at the very beginning of the early Eocene period. Both the regression of this gulf at the start of the Eocene and the Pyrenees uplift may have played a major role in the evolutionary history through vicariance of Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. and of the northern Pyrenean species of the group rouchi.

  2. Anthropic changes to the biotic factor of soil formation from forests to managed grasslands along summits of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France

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    Leigh, David; Gragson, Theodore

    2017-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that highland pastures of the humid-temperate western Pyrenees were converted from mixed forests to managed grasslands thousands of years ago, as early as during the late Neolithic and Bronze age by human actions including use of fire. We observe pronounced differences between soil profiles of ancient pastures and old-growth forests in otherwise similar landscape positions. In order to test physical and chemical differences, we collected paired samples of forest versus grassland soils at four separate hillslope sites where there was a clear boundary between the two vegetation types. Animal trails were excluded from sampling. Factors of climate, topography, parent material, and time of soil formation were essentially identical in the forests and pastures of each site, but the time of soil under grassland vegetation may have varied. Each paired hillslope site included five core samples (7.6 cm diameter) from the upper 7.6 cm of the mineral soil within each vegetation type, and the A horizon thickness was recorded at each core hole site. In addition, one complete soil profile was sampled in each vegetation type at each site, making a total of 20 core samples and 4 complete profiles from each respective vegetation type. In addition, we measured the magnetic susceptibility of the mineral soil surface on two transects crossing the vegetation boundary. Core samples have been measured for bulk density, pH, plant-available nutrients, and organic matter; and tests for total carbon and nitrogen, amorphous silica, charcoal, and other forms of black carbon are ongoing. Preliminary results indicate pastured A horizons are about three times as thick as forested soils, contain more organic matter, have lower soil bulk densities, have much finer and stronger structural development of soil aggregates. These traits favor much greater infiltration and water holding capacities of the pastured soils, which we have validated with saturated hydraulic

  3. First comprehensive contribution to medical ethnobotany of Western Pyrenees

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    Calvo María

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical and medical study was carried out in the Navarre Pyrenees, an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance. As well as the compilation of an ethnopharmacological catalogue, a quantitative ethnobotanical comparison has been carried out in relation to the outcomes from other studies about the Pyrenees. A review of all drugs used in the area has also been carried out, through a study of the monographs published by the institutions and organizations responsible for the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants (WHO, ESCOP, and the E Commission of the German Department of Health in order to ascertain the extent to which the Navarre Pyrenees ethnopharmacology has been officially evaluated. Methods Fieldwork was carried out over two years, from November 2004 to December 2006. During that time we interviewed 88 local people in 40 villages. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews and the data was analyzed using quantitave indexes: Ethnobotonicity Index, Shannon-Wiener's Diversity, Equitability and The Informant Consensus Factor. The official review has been performed using the official monographs published by the WHO, ESCOP and the E Commission of the German Department of Health. Results The ethnobotanical and medical catalogue of the Navarre Pyrenees Area comprises 92 species, of which 39 have been mentioned by at least three interviewees. The quantitative ethnobotany results show lower values than those found in other studies about the Pyrenees; and 57.6% of the Pyrenees medical ethnobotany described does not figure in documents published by the above mentioned institutions. Conclusion The results show a reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in the area of study, when compared to other studies carried out in the Pyrenees. Nevertheless, the use of several species that may be regarded as possible sources for pharmacological studies is

  4. First comprehensive contribution to medical ethnobotany of Western Pyrenees.

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    Akerreta, Silvia; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

    2007-06-06

    An ethnobotanical and medical study was carried out in the Navarre Pyrenees, an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance. As well as the compilation of an ethnopharmacological catalogue, a quantitative ethnobotanical comparison has been carried out in relation to the outcomes from other studies about the Pyrenees. A review of all drugs used in the area has also been carried out, through a study of the monographs published by the institutions and organizations responsible for the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants (WHO, ESCOP, and the E Commission of the German Department of Health) in order to ascertain the extent to which the Navarre Pyrenees ethnopharmacology has been officially evaluated. Fieldwork was carried out over two years, from November 2004 to December 2006. During that time we interviewed 88 local people in 40 villages. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews and the data was analyzed using quantitative indexes: Ethnobotonicity Index, Shannon-Wiener's Diversity, Equitability and The Informant Consensus Factor. The official review has been performed using the official monographs published by the WHO, ESCOP and the E Commission of the German Department of Health. The ethnobotanical and medical catalogue of the Navarre Pyrenees Area comprises 92 species, of which 39 have been mentioned by at least three interviewees. The quantitative ethnobotany results show lower values than those found in other studies about the Pyrenees; and 57.6% of the Pyrenees medical ethnobotany described does not figure in documents published by the above mentioned institutions. The results show a reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in the area of study, when compared to other studies carried out in the Pyrenees. Nevertheless, the use of several species that may be regarded as possible sources for pharmacological studies is reported here such as the bark of Sambucus nigra, the roots of

  5. Contingency & Agency in the Holocene Anthropization of Mountain Landscapes of the Western Pyrenees

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    Gragson, Theodore; Coughlan, Michael; Leigh, David

    2017-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that mixed forests of the humid-temperate western Pyrenees mountains were converted by human agency to managed grasslands by at least the late Neolithic. We first realized major ramifications of the conversation process from pronounced differences we observed between soil profiles of ancient pastures and old-growth forests in otherwise similar landscape positions. Subsequently through radiocarbon dating of colluvial deposits we established a chronology for anthropic manipulation of the biotic factor of pedogenesis resulting in the creation of new soil materials, processes and functions. Regional- and biome-scale paleoecological analyses and archaeological syntheses suggest that it was Neolithic agropastoral land use that initiated anthropization of mountain landscapes of the western Pyrenees. However, such macroscopic views of human behavior cannot reveal the contingency and agency on which human causality rests. We have thus followed a complementary place-based investigative strategy that couples geoarchaeological, biophysical and socio-ecological factors spatially and temporally to arrive at the coevolutionary processes of human-environment interactions and landscape history. The results often contrast sharply with conventional narratives about human landscape degradation in agropastoral systems. For the last 2000 years, the western Pyrenees mountains were spatially removed from regional centers such as Pamplona and Bordeaux, and economically and politically peripheral to continental social and governmental processes. This marginality favored a macroscopic and time-invariant interpretation of agropastoral production in the western Pyrenees as the result of unambiguously enforced social norms exacted by intense solidarities of kin and neighbors. However, anthropization of the western Pyrenees was a spatially and temporally heterogeneous process in which land transitions appear to precede intensification. Radiocarbon dating shows three

  6. Chronology and pedogenic effects of mid- to late-Holocene conversion of forests to pastures in the French western Pyrenees

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    David S. Leigh; Theodore L. Gragson; Michael R. Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a place-based examination of the timing and long-term pedogenic effects of human-induced forest to pasture conversion in the French western Pyrenees Mountains, Basque commune of Larrau. We analyzed colluvial stratigraphic sections to derive the chronology of landscape change using radiocarbon dating, charcoal concentrations, magnetic...

  7. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

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    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  8. Thermal evolution of a hyperextended rift basin, Mauléon Basin, western Pyrenees

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    Hart, Nicole R.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Lavier, Luc L.; Hayman, Nicholas W.

    2017-06-01

    Onshore and offshore geological and geophysical observations and numerical modeling have greatly improved the conceptual understanding of magma-poor rifted margins. However, critical questions remain concerning the thermal evolution of the prerift to synrift phases of thinning ending with the formation of hyperextended crust and mantle exhumation. In the western Pyrenees, the Mauléon Basin preserves the structural and stratigraphic record of Cretaceous extension, exhumation, and sedimentation of the proximal-to-distal margin development. Pyrenean shortening uplifted basement and overlying sedimentary basins without pervasive shortening or reheating, making the Mauléon Basin an ideal locality to study the temporal and thermal evolution of magma-poor hyperextended rift systems through coupling bedrock and detrital zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data from transects characterizing different structural rifting domains. These new data indicate that the basin was heated during early rifting to >180°C with geothermal gradients of 80-100°C/km. The proximal margin recorded rift-related exhumation/cooling at circa 98 Ma, whereas the distal margin remained >180°C until the onset of Paleocene Pyrenean shortening. Lithospheric-scale numerical modeling shows that high geothermal gradients, >80°C/km, and synrift sediments >180°C, can be reached early in rift evolution via heat advection by lithospheric depth-dependent thinning and blanketing caused by the lower thermal conductivity of synrift sediments. Mauléon Basin thermochronometric data and numerical modeling illustrate that reheating of basement and synrift strata might play an important role and should be considered in the future development of conceptual and numerical models for hyperextended magma-poor continental rifted margins.

  9. Western Pyrenees facing global change: comparison of the effects of climatic and anthropogenic change on water abstractions

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    Terrasson, Isabelle; Chazot, Sebastien; Maton, Laure; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Caballero, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    In the French Western Pyrenees, the trend to the decrease of low water flows that has been observed during the current years should be going on in the future. This may increase the hydric stress on aquatic ecosystems, and the competition among water uses and users for accessing water resources. The research project ANR-VULCAIN compared the impacts of climatic and socio-economic change on the hydro-systems of the French Western Pyrenees. Modeling and participative prospect analysis have been coupled to quantify the evolution of water abstractions under these two types of change. Socio-economic scenarios have been built together with local stakeholders during workshops (urbanism / land planning on the one hand and agriculture on the other hand). Their results have been quantified with the models developed so as to assess anthropogenic change impacts on domestic and agricultural abstractions. In parallel, the agricultural model has been fed with climatic scenarios so as to assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural water needs. In the created scenarios, the evolution of agricultural water needs under climate change have a bigger range than the evolution of abstractions for domestic water and agricultural needs under anthropic change, which are the same order of magnitude. To satisfy this evolution, there are some rooms to maneuver: make distribution modalities more efficient, optimize the management of storage capacity, or use substitution resources. This paper presents the approach that has been followed, and some of the main results. (authors)

  10. Second births in western Germany and France

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    Katja Köppen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

  11. Coeval gravity-driven and thick-skinned extensional tectonics in the mid-Cretaceous of the western Pyrenees

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    Bodego, Arantxa; Agirrezabala, Luis M.

    2010-05-01

    The Mesozoic Basque-Cantabrian Basin in the western Pyrenees constitutes a peri-cratonic basin originated by rifting related to the Cretaceous opening of the Bay of Biscay. During the mid-Cretaceous the basin experienced important extensional/transtensional tectonics, which controlled the deposition of thick sedimentary successions. Many extensional structures have been documented in the basin but their thin-skinned/thick-skinned character is an unresolved question. In this field-based study, we characterize contemporaneous thin-skinned and thick-skinned deformations that took place during the filling of the mid-Cretaceous Lasarte sub-basin, located in the northeastern margin of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (western Pyrenees). Most of these extensional structures and associated growth strata are preserved and allow us to characterize and date different deformation phases. Moreover, verticalization and overturning of the successions during Tertiary compression allow mapping the geometry of the extensional structures at depth. The Lasarte sub-basin constitutes a triangular sag bordered by three major basement-involved faults, which trend N, E and NE, respectively. These trends, common in the Variscan fault pattern of Pyrenees, suggest that they are old faults reactivated during the mid-Cretaceous extension. Stratigraphy of the area shows very thin to absent Aptian-Albian (and older) deposits above the upward border blocks, whereas on the downward blocks (sub-basin interior) contemporaneous thick successions were deposited (up to 1500 m). The sub-basin fill is composed of different sedimentary systems (from alluvial to siliciclastic and carbonate platforms) affected by syndepositional extensional faults (and related folds). These faults die out in a southwestward dipping (~4°) detachment layer composed of Triassic evaporites and clays. A NE-SW cross-section of the sub-basin shows NW- to N-trending six planar and two listric extensional faults and associated folds

  12. Neolithic flint mines of Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees, Spain

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    Antonio Tarriño

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English:The prehistoric Treviño flint mine complex is located in the Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Treviño, Burgos, inside the lacustrine-palustrine Cenozoic (Aquitanian, Miocene materials of the South-Pyrenean syncline of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. It is a landscape unit constituted by a set of carbonated layers with abundant nodular and stratiform silicifications. The extraction mining works (often referred to as ‘tailing’ are usually identified as dumps or trenches, subtly visible and associated with archaeological materials.An archaeological excavation was carried out in one potential mining structure (dump or pit that was detected by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging in the mountain pass of “Pozarrate” near the villages of Grandival and Araico (Treviño, Burgos. In this work we present the results of the excavation of the last two years. The existence of a Neolithic mining dump (the tailings with a chronology ca. 5000 cal. BC was confirmed. The base rock level with nodular flint was reached and the impressions of the exploited nodules have been identified. As well, the extraction front which reaches about 4.0-5.0 metres in height was delimited. Thousands of lithic remains associated with the extraction and the initial processing (shaping of flint were collected, as along with mining tools. We have found and described three types of mining structures: trenches, linear dumps and crescent-shaped (or “half-moon-shaped” dumps.This site is one of the few prehistoric flint mines dated in the Iberian Peninsula. Recent investigations in the Cantabrian Mountains and Western Pyrenees indicate that the circulation and use of Treviño flint during Prehistory reached many Holocene and Pleistocene archaeological sites, located hundreds of kilometres away from the outcrops.Español:El complejo prehistórico minero de sílex de Treviño se sitúa en la Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Trevi

  13. Precisions on the structure of the Basque Arc (western Pyrenees, Spain): preliminary results from magnetic fabrics from the Biscay Synclinorium

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    Vegas, Néstor; Aranguren, Aitor; Rodríguez-Méndez, Lidia; Cuevas, Julia; María Tubía, José; Julián Esteban, José

    2017-04-01

    The Mesozoic Basque-Cantabrian basin (western Pyrenees) was inverted during the Alpine Orogeny in late Cretaceous-Eocene times. The central sector of the basin, the Basque Arc is characterized by the existence of large folds (80 km long) that outline an arc. This study focuses on the interpretation of AMS fabrics in rocks from the Biscay Synclinorium, a major fold system of the Basque Arc that verges to the NE, with sub-horizontal, N110˚ E trending axes and axial planes striking to N110˚ E and dipping steeply to the SW (Calvo-Rathert et al., 2007). The aim of this contribution is characterize the deformation around the Biscay Synclinorium. For this reason we combined fieldwork with magnetic fabric analysis of 95 cores in Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Biscay Synclinorium. 68 cores come from the Calcareous formation (marls, sandy limestones and limestones of Cenomanian to Campanian age) that makes part of the northeastern limb of the synclinorium and the remaining 27 cores from the Detrital-calcareous flysch (a multilayer sequence with sandy limestones and marls of Maastrichtian age) that crops out in the synclinorium core (Garrote et al., 1991). In the Upper Cretaceous Calcareous formation there is a penetrative cleavage that mainly strikes to N110˚ E dipping 50˚ to 60˚ to the SW (S1). In the Detrital-calcareous flysch of the core, the best-preserved planar structure is the bedding and only locally an axial planar cleavage is observed. Intersection lineations are sub-horizontal and N110˚ E-trending. The measurements of the magnetic susceptibility provide low k values ranging between 99x10-6 and 403x10-6 SI. The anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility, P, reaches values of 1.213, pointing to the overprinting of tectonic deformation on primary magnetic fabrics of sedimentary origin. The magnetic foliation shows a fairly uniform arrangement that is nearly coincident with the dominant planar structures of the rocks, S0 or S1in the core and the limb

  14. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

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    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  15. Isotopic reconstruction of ancient human migrations: A comprehensive Sr isotope reference database for France and the first case study at Tumulus de Sables, south-western France

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    Willmes, M.; Boel, C.; Grün, R.; Armstrong, R.; Chancerel, A.; Maureille, B.; Courtaud, P.

    2012-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) can be used for the reconstruction of human and animal migrations across geologically different terrains. Sr isotope ratios in rocks are a product of age and composition and thus vary between geologic units. From the eroding environment Sr is transported into the soils, plants and rivers of a region. Humans and animals incorporate Sr from their diet into their bones and teeth, where it substitutes for calcium. Tooth enamel contains Sr isotope signatures acquired during childhood and is most resistant to weathering and overprinting, while the dentine is often diagenetically altered towards the local Sr signature. For the reconstruction of human and animal migrations the tooth enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratio is compared to the Sr isotope signature in the vicinity of the burial site and the surrounding area. This study focuses on the establishment of a comprehensive reference map of bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios for France. In a next step we will compare human and animal teeth from key archaeological sites to this reference map to investigate mobility. So far, we have analysed plant and soil samples from ~200 locations across France including the Aquitaine basin, the western and northern parts of the Paris basin, as well as three transects through the Pyrenees Mountains. The isotope data, geologic background information (BRGM 1:1M), field images, and detailed method descriptions are available through our online database iRhum (http://rses.anu.edu.au/research/ee). This database can also be used in forensic studies and food sciences. As an archaeological case study teeth from 16 adult and 8 juvenile individuals were investigated from an early Bell Beaker (2500-2000 BC) site at Le Tumulus des Sables, south-west France (Gironde). The teeth were analysed for Sr isotope ratios using laser ablation ICP-MS. Four teeth were also analysed using solution ICP-MS, which showed a significant offset to the laser ablation results. This requires further

  16. A high-order 3-D spectral-element method for the forward modelling and inversion of gravimetric data—Application to the western Pyrenees

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    Martin, Roland; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Seoane, Lucia; Spangenberg, Hannah; Wang, Yi; Dufréchou, Grégory; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Bruinsma, Sean

    2017-04-01

    We image the internal density structure of the Pyrenees by inverting gravity data using an a priori density model derived by scaling a Vp model obtained by full waveform inversion of teleseismic P-waves. Gravity anomalies are computed via a 3-D high-order finite-element integration in the same high-order spectral-element grid as the one used to solve the wave equation and thus to obtain the velocity model. The curvature of the Earth and surface topography are taken into account in order to obtain a density model as accurate as possible. The method is validated through comparisons with exact semi-analytical solutions. We show that the spectral-element method drastically accelerates the computations when compared to other more classical methods. Different scaling relations between compressional velocity and density are tested, and the Nafe-Drake relation is the one that leads to the best agreement between computed and observed gravity anomalies. Gravity data inversion is then performed and the results allow us to put more constraints on the density structure of the shallow crust and on the deep architecture of the mountain range.

  17. Crustal-scale alpine tectonic evolution of the western Pyrenees - eastern Cantabrian Mountains (N Spain) from integration of structural data, low-T thermochronology and seismic constraint

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    DeFelipe, I.; Pedreira, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Van der Beek, P.; Bernet, M.; Pik, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Pyrenean-Cantabrian Mountain belt extends in an E-W direction along the northern border of Spain and resulted from the convergence between the Iberian and European plates from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene, in the context of the Alpine orogeny. The main aim of this work is to characterize the tectonic evolution at a crustal-scale of the transition zone from the Pyrenees to the Cantabrian Mountains, in the eastern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (BCB). We integrate structural work, thermochronology (apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He) and geophysical information (shallow seismic reflection profiles, deep seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles and seismicity distribution) to propose an evolutionary model since the Jurassic to the present. During the Albian, hyperextension related to the opening of the Bay of Biscay yielded to mantle unroofing to the base of the BCB. This process was favored by a detachment fault that connected the mantle in its footwall with the base of a deep basin in its hanging wall. During this process, the basin experienced HT metamorphism and fluid circulation caused the serpentinization of the upper part of the mantle. There is no evidence of seafloor mantle exhumation before the onset of the Alpine orogeny. The thermochronological study points to a N-vergent phase of contractional deformation in the late Eocene represented by the thin-skinned Leiza fault system followed in the early Oligocene by the S-vergent, thick-skinned, Ollín thrust. Exhumation rates for the late Eocene-early Oligocene are of 0.2-0.7 km/Myr. After that period, deformation continues southwards until the Miocene. The crustal-scale structure resultant of the Alpine orogeny consists of an Iberian plate that subducts below the European plate. The crust is segmented into four blocks separated by three S-vergent crustal faults inherited from the Cretaceous extensional period. The P-wave velocities in this transect show anomalous values (7.4 km/s) in the

  18. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The French energy system, like that of most energy-importing nations, was profoundly transformed by the first oil shock. But France was more vulnerable than any other industrialized country besides Japan to oil supply disruption: in 1973, the nation imported 77 percent of total primary energy requirements of 7.6 EJ, and 98 percent of its petroleum. Two imperatives have since formed the 'French response' to the threat of external energy supply disruptions: augmentation of the rate of energy self-sufficiency, and minimization of major macroeconomic dislocations. These two objectives displaced a high priority in France in the early 1970s - protection of the natural environment. Because France has embraced nuclear power, it is often viewed by its European neighbors as having feeble ecological sensibility. At that time, France had a rather advanced policy in this field: sulfur emissions laws were enacted in 1967 and a Ministry of Environment was created in January 1971. Now that environmental concerns have re-emerged as an important force, France finds itself with a plausible greenhouse response in a mix of policies - without environmental protection having been the objective envisioned

  19. France

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    Schubert, K.

    1991-01-01

    The grandeur of the nation is the most important national concern in the France of the Fifth Republic. National independence and maximum world status have been (and still are) characteristic imperatives of French policy. Any asset or resource which promises to strengthen the nation, which seems suitable for improving the global status and glory of France, becomes a worthwhile policy device. Of course, the sots incurred in the pursuit of these objectives are frequently the subject of critical discussion, but all in all these costs are accepted. This has been the case with numerous prestige projects including the French nuclear deterrent, the force de frappe. This paper reports that an analysis of the French ambition to possess nuclear weapons must begin with the complete loss of world status which France suffered as a consequence of World War II. Throughout the post-war period, French political leaders have concentrated their efforts on reversing this loss of status and on preventing a similar occurrence

  20. Recent changes in the summer distribution of the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus off western France

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    Pierre Yésou

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveys carried out in the 1980s showed that 8,000-10,000 Balearic shearwaters regularly gathered in inshore waters of central and northern Biscay, particularly off the coast of Vendée and in the Mor-Braz area, western France. This distribution, apparently linked to particular oceanographical conditions (thermal front, was strikingly overlapping with that of clupeid fish, particularly anchovies. Recent surveys (1999-2000 have shown that the species has become far less numerous in these "traditional" haunts. Conversely, its abundance has increased in the western Channel, some hundreds of kilometres to the North, during the 1990s. Reasons for this northward shift (e.g. changes in prey distribution due to fishing activities or water warming in Biscay remain hypothetical and further study is needed.

  1. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and its determinants among nursing homes personnel in western France

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    Christelle Elias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza-associated deaths is an important risk for the elderly in nursing homes (NHs worldwide. Vaccination coverage among residents is high but poorly effective due to immunosenescence. Hence, vaccination of personnel is an efficient way to protect residents. Our objective was to quantify the seasonal influenza vaccination (IV coverage among NH for elderly workers and identify its determinants in France. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in March 2016 in a randomized sample of NHs of the Ille-et-Vilaine department of Brittany, in western France. A standardized questionnaire was administered to a randomized sample of NH workers for face-to-face interviews. General data about the establishment was also collected. Results Among the 33 NHs surveyed, IV coverage for the 2015–2016 season among permanent workers was estimated at 20% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 15.3%–26.4% ranging from 0% to 69% depending on the establishments surveyed. Moreover, IV was associated with having previously experienced a “severe” influenza episode in the past (Prevalence Ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.01–2.17, and varied by professional categories (p < 0.004 with better coverage among administrative staff. Better knowledge about influenza prevention tools was also correlated (p < 0.001 with a higher IV coverage. Individual perceptions of vaccination benefits had a significant influence on the IV coverage (p < 0.001. Although IV coverage did not reach a high rate, our study showed that personnel considered themselves sufficiently informed about IV. Conclusions IV coverage remains low in the NH worker population in Ille-et-Vilaine and also possibly in France. Strong variations of IV coverage among NHs suggest that management and working environment play an important role. To overcome vaccine “hesitancy”, specific communication tools may be required to be adapted to the various NH professionals to improve influenza prevention.

  2. Improving microcystin monitoring relevance in recreative waters: A regional case-study (Brittany, Western France, Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Vezie, Chantal; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are known as a health hazard in recreative and distributed waters. Monitoring data from 2004 to 2011 were collected at regional scale to characterize exposition parameters to microcystins in Brittany (Western France). The data show that cyanobacteria populations are experiencing a composition shift leading to a longer duration of cell densities higher than WHO alert levels 2 and 3. Microcystins however appear to be more frequently detected with subacute concentrations in low cell density samples than in high cell density samples or during bloom episodes. Positive relations are described between microcystin concentrations, detection frequencies and cyanobacteria biovolumes, allowing for a novel definition of alert levels and decision framework following WHO recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and its determinants among nursing homes personnel in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Christelle; Fournier, Anna; Vasiliu, Anca; Beix, Nicolas; Demillac, Rémi; Tillaut, Hélène; Guillois, Yvonnick; Eyebe, Serge; Mollo, Bastien; Crépey, Pascal

    2017-07-07

    Influenza-associated deaths is an important risk for the elderly in nursing homes (NHs) worldwide. Vaccination coverage among residents is high but poorly effective due to immunosenescence. Hence, vaccination of personnel is an efficient way to protect residents. Our objective was to quantify the seasonal influenza vaccination (IV) coverage among NH for elderly workers and identify its determinants in France. We conducted a cross-sectional study in March 2016 in a randomized sample of NHs of the Ille-et-Vilaine department of Brittany, in western France. A standardized questionnaire was administered to a randomized sample of NH workers for face-to-face interviews. General data about the establishment was also collected. Among the 33 NHs surveyed, IV coverage for the 2015-2016 season among permanent workers was estimated at 20% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 15.3%-26.4%) ranging from 0% to 69% depending on the establishments surveyed. Moreover, IV was associated with having previously experienced a "severe" influenza episode in the past (Prevalence Ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.17), and varied by professional categories (p benefits had a significant influence on the IV coverage (p communication tools may be required to be adapted to the various NH professionals to improve influenza prevention.

  4. U/Pb zircon dating and Sr and Nd isotope characteristics of Permian volcanism in the Western Pyrenees: the Ossau and Anayet Massif. Datation U/Pb sur zircon et geochimie isotopique Sr et Nd du volcanisme permien des Pyrenees Occidentales (Ossau et Anayet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briqueu, L [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France); Innocent, C [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1993-03-01

    Several zircon populations have been extracted from a peraluminous rhyolite and from a dacite which are the rock types characteristic of the first two volcanic phases of the Pic du Midi d'Ossau (Eastern Pyrenees). Using a Concordia Diagram, their U/Pb isotopic study confirms that volcanism started in the Autunian age (272 to 278 My). These two volcanic cycles display initial Sr and Nd isotopic signatures which are comparable, and show a strong crustal imprint. Volcanism subsequently evolves towards an increasingly alkaline composition and the corresponding isotopic characteristics are compatible with a depleted asthenospheric mantle source.

  5. Spatial autocorrelation in farmland grasshopper assemblages (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhausser, I; Gouat, M; Goarant, A; Cornulier, T; Bretagnolle, V

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural intensification in western Europe has caused a dramatic loss of grassland surfaces in farmlands, which have resulted in strong declines in grassland invertebrates, leading to cascade effects at higher trophic levels among consumers of invertebrates. Grasshoppers are important components of grassland invertebrate assemblages in European agricultural ecosystems, particularly as prey for bird species. Understanding how grasshopper populations are distributed in fragmented landscapes with low grassland availability is critical for both studies in biodiversity conservation and insect management. We assessed the range and strength of spatial autocorrelation for two grasshopper taxa (Gomphocerinae subfamily and Calliptamus italicus L.) across an intensive farmland in western France. Data from surveys carried out over 8 yr in 1,715 grassland fields were analyzed using geostatistics. Weak spatial patterns were observed at small spatial scales, suggesting important local effects of management practices on grasshopper densities. Spatial autocorrelation patterns for both grasshopper taxa were only detected at intermediate scales. For Gomphocerinae, the range of spatial autocorrelation varied from 802 to 2,613 m according to the year, depending both on grasshopper density and on grassland surfaces in the study site, whereas spatial patterns for the Italian locust were more variable and not related to grasshopper density or grassland surfaces. Spatial patterns in the distribution of Gomphocerinae supported our hypothesis that habitat availability was a major driver of grasshopper distribution in the landscape, and suggested it was related to density-dependent processes such as dispersal.

  6. Assessment of static flood modeling techniques: application to contrasting marshes flooded during Xynthia (western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Breilh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the performance of raster-based flood modeling methods on a wide diversity of coastal marshes. These methods are applied to the flooding associated with the storm Xynthia, which severely hit the western coast of France in February 2010. Static and semi-dynamic methods are assessed using a combination of LiDAR data, post-storm delineation of flooded areas and sea levels originating from both tide gauge measurements and storm surge modeling. Static methods are applied to 27 marshes showing a wide geomorphological diversity. It appears that these methods are suitable for marshes with a small distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh, which causes these marshes to flood rapidly. On the contrary, these methods overpredict flooded areas for large marshes where the distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh is large, because the flooding cannot be considered as instantaneous. In this case, semi-dynamic methods based on surge overflowing volume calculations can improve the flooding prediction significantly. This study suggests that static and semi-dynamic flood modeling methods can be attractive and quickly deployed to rapidly produce predictive flood maps of vulnerable areas under certain conditions, particularly for small distances between the coastline and the landward boundary of the low-lying coastal area.

  7. Analyzing farming systems diversity: a case study in south-western France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choisis, J. P.; Thevenet, C.; Girbon, A.

    2012-11-01

    The huge changes in agricultural activities, which may be amplified by the forthcoming Common Agriculture Policy reform, call the future of crop-livestock systems into question and hence the impact of these changes on landscapes and biodiversity. We analyzed relationships between agriculture, landscape and biodiversity in south-western France. The study area covered about 4,000 ha and included four villages. We conducted a survey of 56 farms. Multivariate analysis (multiple factor analysis and cluster analysis) were used to analyze relationships between 25 variables and to build a typology. The type of farming (beef and/or dairy cattle, cash crops), size (area and workforce) and cultivation practices, among others, were revealed as differentiating factors of farms. Six farming types were identified (1) hillside mixed crop-livestock farms, (2) large corporate farms, (3) extensive cattle farms, (4) large intensive farms on the valley sides, (5) small multiple-job holdings, and (6) hobby farms. The diversity of farming systems revealed the variable impact of the main drivers of change affecting agricultural development, particularly the enlargement and modernization of farms along with the demography of agricultural holdings. (Author) 41 refs.

  8. BIOINDICATION USING VEGETATION OF THREE REGULATED RIVERS UNDER AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRESSURE IN WESTERN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BERNEZ

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal changes of richness and composition of aquatic plants have been studied from headwaters to the fifth stream order in three near-by rivers or Western Brittany (France, the Orne, Sélune and Rance. All rivers were regulated years ago with dams located on the lower third of the studies river stretches. A shifting evolution of the macrophyte richness was revealed in a previous study along the river continuum, related 10 habitat heterogeneity. influences of regulated sectors and geological changes. Nutrient enrichment and organic pollution influences were the main secondary gradients. On this basis we improved a methodology to complete a biotic index used in Europe for water trophy assessment, following the European water frame work directive the IBMR based on aquatic plant survey: a validation with classical statistical tests and a comparison to a canonical analysis were performed. Finally this approach permitted to make a proposition of adaptation of the index to the Local particularities of each three high anthropised rivers

  9. BIOINDICATION USING VEGETATION OF THREE REGULATED RIVERS UNDER AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRESSURE IN WESTERN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. LE COEUR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal changes of richness and composition of aquatic plants have been studied from headwaters to the fifth stream order in three near-by rivers or Western Brittany (France, the Orne, Sélune and Rance. All rivers were regulated years ago with dams located on the lower third of the studies river stretches. A shifting evolution of the macrophyte richness was revealed in a previous study along the river continuum, related 10 habitat heterogeneity. influences of regulated sectors and geological changes. Nutrient enrichment and organic pollution influences were the main secondary gradients. On this basis we improved a methodology to complete a biotic index used in Europe for water trophy assessment, following the European water frame work directive the IBMR based on aquatic plant survey: a validation with classical statistical tests and a comparison to a canonical analysis were performed. Finally this approach permitted to make a proposition of adaptation of the index to the Local particularities of each three high anthropised rivers

  10. Normal Faulting in the 1923 Berdún Earthquake and Postorogenic Extension in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Daniel; Martín, Rosa; Batlló, Josep; Macià, Ramón; Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Morales, Jose

    2018-04-01

    The 10 July 1923 earthquake near Berdún (Spain) is the largest instrumentally recorded event in the Pyrenees. We recover old analog seismograms and use 20 hand-digitized waveforms for regional moment tensor inversion. We estimate moment magnitude Mw 5.4, centroid depth of 8 km, and a pure normal faulting source with strike parallel to the mountain chain (N292°E), dip of 66° and rake of -88°. The new mechanism fits into the general predominance of normal faulting in the Pyrenees and extension inferred from Global Positioning System data. The unique location of the 1923 earthquake, near the south Pyrenean thrust front, shows that the extensional regime is not confined to the axial zone where high topography and the crustal root are located. Together with seismicity near the northern mountain front, this indicates that gravitational potential energy in the western Pyrenees is not extracted locally but induces a wide distribution of postorogenic deformation.

  11. [Exploring the prospects for general practitioners over 55 years old from three counties of western France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, Stéphane; Buis, Hélène; Delansorne, Fanny; Tomas, Josiane; Huez, Jean-François; La Combe, Antoine; Fanello, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Medical demography and the practice of medicine will be influenced by the personal plans of GPs and their decisions to stop practicing in the coming years. This study aims to understand the events that could potentially worsen the medical demography in terms of shortages of GPs for primary care in the short term. 455 GPs (all aged over 55 years) practicing in three districts of western France were selected to participate in this prospective study. 258 valid and complete questionnaires (56%) were received. With the use of a special programme, SPSS version 1.5, an overall comprehensive analysis and one by geographical sub-regional groups were performed. When queried about their plans or wishes for their practice between the present time and their age of 65, of the responding physicians, 27% wanted to continue working under the same conditions, 10% were undecided, and 63% wanted to stop or adjust their professional activity before age 65. The main reasons and factors motivating these plans were their current time constraints, the workload related to administrative tasks and the continuity of care; moreover, GPs noted the demands and expectations of patients, professional burnout and difficulties in obtaining a healthy work-life balance as factors contributing to these plans. Physicians who wanted to stop practicing (30%) were the least satisfied with their work and seem to have anticipated this plan of action given that they reduced their number of hours in the office and on-call. Those who wish to adapt their work time (33%) are for the most part satisfied even if they work more, but 70% want to reduce their work hours. The impact of these projects is a potentially heavy one, especially since two of the counties concerned have a low medical density and high rate of practicing physicians. Government measures currently proposed do not seem to respond to the evolution of private practice expected by GPs over 55 years.

  12. Processes and mechanisms governing hard rock cliff erosion in western Brittany, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laute, Katja; Letortu, Pauline; Le Dantec, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of rocky coasts is controlled by the interplay between subaerial, marine as well as biological processes, and the geological context. In times of ongoing climate change it is difficult to predict how these erosional landscapes will respond for example to anticipated sea-level rise or to an increase in storminess. However, it can be expected that changes in the morphodynamics of rocky coasts will have a noticeable effect on society and infrastructure. Recent studies have proven that monitoring cliff micro-seismic ground motion has been very effective in exploring both marine and atmospheric actions on coastal cliffs. But only few studies have focused so far on the effects of wave loading and water circulation (runoff, infiltration, water table variations) on cliff stability and subsequent erosion, considering the interaction between subaerial and marine processes. This project focuses on the identification and quantification of environmental controls on hard rock cliff erosion with an emphasis on discriminating the relative contributions of subaerial and marine processes. We aim at relating different sources of mechanical stress (e.g. wave loading, direct wave impact, hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion) to cliff-scale strain (cliff-top swaying and shaking) and micro-fracturing (generation, expansion and contraction of micro-cracks) with the objective to unravel and discriminate triggering mechanisms of cliff failure. A four-month monitoring field experiment during the winter period (February-May) of 2017 is carried out at a cliff face located in Porsmilin beach (western Brittany, France). The selected cliff section is exposed to Atlantic swell from the south/southwest with a significant wave height of ca. 1.5 m on average and, reaching up to 4 m during storm events. The cliff rises ca. 20 m above the beach and is mainly formed of orthogneiss with intrusions of granodiorite. The entire cliff is highly fractured and altered, which can promote slope

  13. The 3000-4000 cal. BP anthropogenic shift in fire regime in the French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, D.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Richard, H.

    2009-04-01

    role of fire in landscape management during the last 3000 years. These fire records emphasizes a shift in fire regime between ca 4000 and 3000 cal BP with similar trends during the last 3000 years (i.e. Mean Fire Interval = 150 years), which appear to be human-driven. However, both Neolithic and Bronze Age periods have different charcoal accumulation patterns suggesting discrepancies between local fire histories and thus different land-use trends and intensity. References Colombaroli D., Vannière B., Chapron E., Magny M. & Tinner W., 2008. Fire-vegetation interactions during the Mesolithic-Neolithic at Lago dell'Accesa, Italy. The Holocene 18: 679-692. Galop, D., Vanniere, B., Fontugne, M., 2002. Human activities and fire history since 4500 BC on the northern slope of the Pyrenees: a record from Cuguron (Central Pyrenees, France). Proceedings of the Second International Meeting of Anthracology, Paris, September 2000, BAR International Series, 43-51. Pitkanen A., 2000. Fire frequency and forest structure at a dry site between Ad 400 and 1110 based on charcoal and pollen records from a laminated lake sediment in eastern Finland. The Holocene 10,2: 221-228. Rius D., Vanniere B. & Galop D., in press. Fire frequency and landscape management in the north-western Pyrenean piedmont (France) since early Neolithic (8000 cal. BP). The Holocene. Stähli, M., Finsinger, W., Tinner, W., Allgower, B., 2006. Wildfire history and fire ecology of the Swiss National Park (Central Alps): new evidence from charcoal, pollen and plant macrofossils. The Holocene 16, 805-817. Tinner, W., Hubschmid, P., Wehrli, M., Ammann, B., Conedera, M., 1999. Long-term forest fire ecology and dynamics in southern Switzerland. Journal of Ecology 87, 273-289. Turner R., Roberts N. & Jones M. D., 2008. Climatic pacing of Mediterranean fire histories from lake sedimentary microcharcoal. Global and Planetary Change 63: 317-324. Vanniere, B., Galop, D., Rendu, C., Davasse, B., 2001. Feu et pratiques agro

  14. A new Echinogammarus of the berilloni – group E. Aquilifer nov.sp., from the Pyrenees (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, S.

    1969-01-01

    During a short trip in the western part of the Pyrenees in August 1968 many samples of Gammaridae were collected both on the French and Spanish slopes of this mountain chain. Most of the specimens collected appeared to belong to the species Echinogammarus berilloni (Catta, 1878), or to closely

  15. MANAGEMENT OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES IN WESTERN FRANCE: ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TROUILHE M. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In France, the distribution of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858, is restricted, fragmented and mainly located in headwaters. To preserve this indigenous species, it is necessary to characterize its ecological requirements (water and habitat quality. With this aim in view, a two-year study is being conducted in the Deux-Sèvres department (Western France since November 2002. Nine brooks from four different catchments are monitored regularly; eight of the nine brooks harbour whiteclawed crayfish populations. Two sampling sites are surveyed per brook, the first being where the crayfish population is located and the second 2 to 3 km downstream. Physicochemical parameters (18 are measured twice monthly and biotic factors are estimated twice yearly. In this study, the I.B.G.N. (Indice Biologique Global Normalisé protocol based on the determination of macroinvertebrates was used as a biotic index of biological water quality. Results of this preliminary study on two brooks (Thouet and Verdonnière show that physico-chemical and biological data considered separately do not provide reliable information about A. pallipes ecological requirements. However, the use of multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis to combine abiotic and biotic factors highlights a good correlation between these parameters. Organic matter appears to be a better discriminating factor than mineral matter affecting presence or absence of the whiteclawed crayfish.

  16. Mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentès, Sophie; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Monperrus, Mathilde; André, Jean-Marc; Davail, Stéphane; Legeay, Alexia

    2013-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. In various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for Hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. Our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (South Western France) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. This work establishes original data concerning Hg bioaccumulation in organisms (plants, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) from five contrasting ecosystems. For low trophic level species, total Hg (THg) concentrations were low (from 27±2ngTHgg(-1)dw in asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea to 418±114ngTHgg(-1)dw in crayfish Procambarus clarkii). THg concentrations in some carnivorous fish (high trophic level) were close to or exceeded the International Marketing Level (IML) with values ranging from 1049±220ngTHgg(-1)dw in pike perch muscle (Sander lucioperca) to 3910±1307ngTHgg(-1)dw in eel muscle (Anguilla Anguilla). Trophic levels for the individuals were also evaluated through stable isotope analysis, and linked to Hg concentrations of organisms. A significant Hg biomagnification (r(2)= 0.9) was observed in the Aureilhan lake, despite the absence of top predator fish. For this site, Ludwigia sp. periphyton, as an entry point of Hg into food webs, is a serious hypothesis which remains to be confirmed. This study provides a first investigation of Hg transfer in the ecosystems of south western France and allows the assessment of the risk associated with the presence of Hg in aquatic food webs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Geothermal state of the deep Western Alpine Molasse Basin, France-Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Chelle-Michou, C; Do Couto, D; Moscariello, A; Renard, Philippe; Rusillon, E

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few years the Western Alpine Molasse Basin (WAMB) has been attracting large institutional, industrial and scientific interest to evaluate the feasibility of geothermal energy production. However, the thermal state of the basin, which is instrumental to the development of such geothermal projects, has remained to date poorly known. Here, we compile and correct temperature measurements (mostly bottom hole temperature) from 26 existing well data mostly acquired during former hydroc...

  18. Rock glaciers in the Pyrenees, Spain and France, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study and inventory of active rock glaciers was carried out by means of the usual techniques used in the study of alpine permafrost. First, the rock glaciers...

  19. Study geomorphology, past and present, linear trench, tectonics relationship between Pyrenees and Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 images obviously show up some large linear features trending N 80 E or N 30 E common to both Alps and Pyrenees. One of them, the Ligurian Fault, had been previously forecast by Laubscher in an interpretation of the Alps by the plate tectonic theory, but it extends westward farthest from the Alps, cutting the Pyrenees axis. These lineaments have been interpreted as reflections of deep seated wrench faults in the surficial part of the sedimentary series. A large set of such lineaments is perceptible in western Europe, such as the Guadalquivir Fault in southern Spain, Ligurian Fault, Insubrian Fault, Northern-Jura Fault, Metz Fault. Perhaps these may be interpreted as transform faults of the mid-Atlantic ridge or of a paleo-rift seated in the Rhine-Rhone graben.

  20. Deep structure of Pyrenees range (SW Europe) imaged by joint inversion of gravity and teleseismic delay time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufréchou, G.; Tiberi, C.; Martin, R.; Bonvalot, S.; Chevrot, S.; Seoane, L.

    2018-04-01

    We present a new model of the lithosphere and asthenosphere structure down to 300 km depth beneath the Pyrenees from the joint inversion of recent gravity and teleseismic data. Unlike previous studies, crustal correction were not applied on teleseismic data in order (i) to preserve the consistency between gravity data, which are mainly sensitive to the density structure of the crust.lithosphere, and travel time data, and (ii) to avoid the introduction of biases resulting from crustal reductions. The density model down to 100 km depth is preferentially used here to discuss the lithospheric structure of the Pyrenees, whereas the asthenospheric structure from 100 km to 300 km depth is discussed from our velocity model. The absence of a high density anomaly in our model between 30-100 km depth (except the Labourd density anomaly) in the northern part of the Pyrenees seems to preclude eclogitization of the subducted Iberian crust at the scale of the entire Pyrenean range. Local eclogitization of the deep Pyrenean crust beneath the western part of the Axial Zone (West of Andorra) associated with the positive Central density anomaly is proposed. The Pyrenean lithosphere in density and velocity models appears segmented from East to West. No clear relation between the along-strike segmentation and mapped major faults is visible in our models. The Pyrenees' lithosphere segments are associated to different seismicity pattern in the Pyrenees suggesting a possible relation between the deep structure of the Pyrenees and its seismicity in the upper crust. The concentration of earthquakes localized just straight up the Central density anomaly can result of the subsidence and/or delamination of an eclogitized Pyrenean deep root. The velocity model in the asthenosphere is similar to previous studies. The absence of a high-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle and transition zone (i.e. 125 to 225 km depth) seems to preclude the presence of a detached oceanic lithosphere beneath the

  1. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps. Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south–north gradient, with values from 7.4 g m−2 year−1 in Lampedusa (35°31′ N, 12°37′ E to 1 g m−2 year−1 in Le Casset (44°59′ N, 6°28′ E. The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m−2 wk−1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1 g m−2 wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m−2 wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m−2 year−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14 g m−2 year−1. From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more

  2. Widespread occurrence of chemical residues in beehive matrices from apiaries located in different landscapes of Western France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lambert

    Full Text Available The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is frequently used as a sentinel to monitor environmental pollution. In parallel, general weakening and unprecedented colony losses have been reported in Europe and the USA, and many factors are suspected to play a central role in these problems, including infection by pathogens, nutritional stress and pesticide poisoning. Honey bee, honey and pollen samples collected from eighteen apiaries of western France from four different landscape contexts during four different periods in 2008 and in 2009 were analyzed to evaluate the presence of pesticides and veterinary drug residues.A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC-MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28 than in the pollen (n = 23 or honey bee (n = 20 samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods.Honey bees, honeys and pollens are appropriate sentinels for monitoring pesticide and veterinary drug environmental pollution. This study revealed the widespread occurrence of multiple residues in beehive matrices and suggests a potential issue with the effects of these residues alone or in combination on honey bee health.

  3. The anthropogenic nature of present-day low energy rivers in western France and implications for current restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, L.; Viel, V.; Rollet, A. J.; Delahaye, D.

    2015-12-01

    As in other European countries, western France has seen an increase in river restoration projects. In this paper, we examine the restoration goals, methods and objectives with respect to the long-term trajectory and understanding of the contemporary dynamics of the small low energy rivers typical of the lowlands of Western Europe. The exhaustive geomorphological, paleoenvironmental and historical research conducted in the Seulles river basin (Normandy) provides very accurate documentation of the nature and place of the different legacies in the fluvial systems we have inherited. The sedimentation rate in the Seulles valley bottom has multiplied by a factor of 20 since the end of the Bronze Age and has generated dramatic changes in fluvial forms. Hydraulic control of the rivers and valley bottoms drainage throughout the last millennium has channelized rivers within these deposits. The single meandering channel which characterizes this river today is the legacy of the delayed and complex effects of long term exploitation of the river basin and the fluvial system. Bring to light that the "naturalness" of the restored rivers might be questioned. Our research emphasizes the gap between the poor knowledge of the functioning of these rivers and the concrete objectives of the restoration works undertaken, including dam and weir removal. Account of the long-term history of fluvial systems is required, not only to produce a pedagogic history of the "river degradation" but more fundamentally (i) to situate the current functioning of the fluvial system in a trajectory to try to identify thresholds and anticipate the potential turning points in a context of climate and land use change, (ii) to understand the role of morphosedimentary legacies on the current dynamics, (iii) to open the discussion on reference functioning or expected states and (iv) to open discussion on the sustainability of ecological restoration. To conclude, we point out the necessity to take into account the

  4. Neogene-Quaternary slow coastal uplift of Western Europe through the perspective of sequences of strandlines from the Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, K.; Jara-Muñoz, J.; De Gelder, G.; Robertson, J.; Meschis, M.; Fernandez-Blanco, D.; Nexer, M.; Poprawski, Y.; Dugué, O.; Delcaillau, B.; Bessin, P.; Benabdelouahed, M.; Authemayou, C.; Husson, L.; Regard, V.; Menier, D.; Pinel, B.

    2018-02-01

    The Cotentin Peninsula (Normandy, France) displays sequences of marine terraces and rasas, the latter being wide Late Cenozoic coastal erosion surfaces, that are typical of Western European coasts in Portugal, Spain, France and southern England. Remote sensing imagery and field mapping enabled reappraisal of the Cotentin coastal sequences. From bottom to top, the N Cotentin sequence includes four previously recognized Pleistocene marine terraces (T1 to T4) at elevations 5e), sequential morphostratigraphy and modelling, we have reappraised uplift rates and derived: (i) mean Upper Pleistocene (i.e. since MIS 5e 122 +/- 6 ka, i.e. kilo annum) apparent uplift rates of 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/yr, (ii) mean Middle Pleistocene eustasy-corrected uplift rates of 0.09 ± 0.03 mm/yr, and (iii) low mean Pleistocene uplift rates of 0.01 mm/yr. Extrapolations of these slow rates combined with geological evidence implies that the formation of the sequences from the Cotentin Peninsula occurred between 3 Ma (Pliocene) and 15 Ma (Miocene), which cannot be narrowed down further without additional research. Along the coasts of Western Europe, sequences of marine terraces and rasas are widespread (169 preserve the MIS 5e benchmark). In Spain, Portugal, S England and other parts of western France, the sequences morphostratigraphy is very similar to that of Cotentin. The onset of such Western European sequences occurred during the Miocene (e.g. Spain) or Pliocene (e.g. Portugal). We interpret this Neogene-Quaternary coastal uplift as a symptom of the increasing lithospheric compression that accompanies Cenozoic orogenies.

  5. Disentangling the control of tectonics, eustasy, trophic conditions and climate on shallow-marine carbonate production during the Aalenian-Oxfordian interval: From the western France platform to the western Tethyan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, Simon; Brigaud, Benjamin; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Lasseur, Eric; Saucède, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to improve our understanding of the processes controlling changes in the architecture and facies of intracontinental carbonate platforms. We examined the facies and sequence stratigraphy of Aalenian to Oxfordian limestones of western France. Seventy-seven outcrop sections were studied and thirty-one sedimentary facies identified in five depositional environments ranging from lower offshore to backshore. Platform evolution was reconstructed along a 500 km cross-section. Twenty-two depositional sequences were identified on the entire western France platform and correlated with European third-order sequences at the biozone level, demonstrating that eustasy was the major factor controlling the cyclic trend of accommodation. The tectonic subsidence rate was computed from accommodation measurements from the Aalenian to the Oxfordian in key localities. Tectonism controlled the sedimentation rate and platform architecture at a longer time scale. Tectonic subsidence triggered the demise of carbonate production at the Bathonian/Callovian boundary while the uplift made possible the recovery of carbonate platform from Caen to Le Mans during the mid Oxfordian. Topography of the Paleozoic basement mainly controlled lateral variations of paleodepth within the western France platform until the mid Bathonian. A synthesis of carbonate production in the western Tethyan domain at that time was conducted. Stages of high carbonate production during the Bajocian/Bathonian and the middle to late Oxfordian are synchronous with low δ13C, high eccentricity intervals, and rather dry climate promoting (1) evaporation and carbonate supersaturation, and (2) oligotrophic conditions. Periods of low carbonate production during the Aalenian and from the middle Callovian to early Oxfordian correlate with high δ13C and low eccentricity intervals, characterized by wet climate and less oligotrophic conditions. Such conditions tend to diminish growth potential of carbonate

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of loads and sources of total and dissolved Phosphorus in a set of rivers (Western France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-04-01

    In intensive agricultural regions with important livestock farming, long-term land application of Phosphorus (P) both as chemical fertilizer and animal wastes, have resulted in elevated P contents in soils. Since we know that high P concentrations in rivers is of major concern, few studies have been done at to assess the spatiotemporal variability of P loads in rivers and apportionment of point and nonpoint source in total loads. Here we focus on Brittany (Western France) where even though P is a great issue in terms of human and drinking water safety (cyano-toxins), environmental protection and economic costs for Brittany with regards to the periodic proliferations of cyanobacteria that occur every year in this region, no regional-scale systematic study has been carried out so far. We selected a set of small rivers (stream order 3-5) with homogeneous agriculture and granitic catchment. By gathering data from three water quality monitoring networks, covering more than 100 measurements stations, we provide a regional-scale quantification of the spatiotemporal variability of dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) interannual loads from 1992 to 2012. Build on mean P load in low flows and statistical significance tests, we developed a new indicator, called 'low flow P load' (LFP-load), which allows us to determine the importance of domestic and industrial P sources in total P load and to assess their spatiotemporal variability compared to agricultural sources. The calculation and the map representation of DP and TP interannual load variations allow identification of the greatest and lowest P contributory catchments over the study period and the way P loads of Brittany rivers have evolved through time. Both mean DP and TP loads have been divided by more than two over the last 20 years. Mean LFDP-load decreased by more than 60% and mean LFTP-load by more than 45% on average over the same period showing that this marked temporal decrease in total load is largely due to the

  7. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.-F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sanchez, R.

    2015-05-01

    The seasonal snow in the Pyrenees is critical for hydropower production, crop irrigation and tourism in France, Spain and Andorra. Complementary to in situ observations, satellite remote sensing is useful to monitor the effect of climate on the snow dynamics. The MODIS daily snow products (Terra/MOD10A1 and Aqua/MYD10A1) are widely used to generate snow cover climatologies, yet it is preferable to assess their accuracies prior to their use. Here, we use both in situ snow observations and remote sensing data to evaluate the MODIS snow products in the Pyrenees. First, we compare the MODIS products to in situ snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements. We estimate the values of the SWE and SD best detection thresholds to 40 mm water equivalent (w.e.) and 150 mm, respectively, for both MOD10A1 and MYD10A1. κ coefficients are within 0.74 and 0.92 depending on the product and the variable for these thresholds. However, we also find a seasonal trend in the optimal SWE and SD thresholds, reflecting the hysteresis in the relationship between the depth of the snowpack (or SWE) and its extent within a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85) for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81) for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67). We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the

  8. A new miniaturized lizard from the late Eocene of France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolet, Arnau; Augé, Marc

    2014-03-01

    We report here a new lizard genus and species shared by two late Eocene localities situated at both versants of the present Pyrenees (South-Western Europe), one located in France (Escamps, MP19), and the other in Catalonia, Spain (Sossís, MP17a). The recovered specimens are remarkable because of their small size and peculiar morphology. Features of the dentary are interpreted as adaptations to a fossorial or semi-fossorial lifestyle, although such modifications obscure the exact phylogenetic relationships of the new taxon. We suggest that it might represent a further example of scincoid lizard that independently achieved adaptations for burrowing or surface-dwelling. This taxon reinforces the hypotheses that link the Southern Pyrenean assemblages to those from France rather than to those of the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, which are supposed to be somehow isolated and endemic to a certain degree during the middle and late Eocene, forming part of the so-called Western Iberian Bioprovince. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An area for para-petroleum development in Western France; Un pole parapetrolier a l'Ouest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2000-08-01

    The Brest Offshore Industrie and Brest Offshore Developpement groups sited in Brest (Brittany, France) belong to a general interest pool with advanced competences in offshore technologies. In order to celebrate the construction of the Sedco Energy semi-submersible platform, built by the direction of naval constructions (DCN) of Brest for Transocean Sedco Forex company, an information day was organized on May 11, 2000 by Brest-Iroise Technopole to show the R and D capabilities of the local companies in offshore technology. (J.S.)

  10. An area for para-petroleum development in Western France; Un pole parapetrolier a l'Ouest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-08-01

    The Brest Offshore Industrie and Brest Offshore Developpement groups sited in Brest (Brittany, France) belong to a general interest pool with advanced competences in offshore technologies. In order to celebrate the construction of the Sedco Energy semi-submersible platform, built by the direction of naval constructions (DCN) of Brest for Transocean Sedco Forex company, an information day was organized on May 11, 2000 by Brest-Iroise Technopole to show the R and D capabilities of the local companies in offshore technology. (J.S.)

  11. U-Pb dating on zircons for the la Borie eclogite (Haut-Allier, France) and consequences for the pre-Variscan evolution of the Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducrot, J.; Lancelot, J.R. (Montpellier-2 Univ., 44 (France). Lab. de Geochimie-Isotopique); Marchand, J. (Nantes Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Petrologie et Minerologie)

    1983-03-01

    A crystallization age of 432sub(-10)/sup +20/Ma has been determined for the 'La Borie' eclogite (Haut-Allier, France), by U-Pb dating on zircons. This age is yielded by the upper intercept with the Concordia curve. In agreement with recent dates obtained in the southern part of the Massif Central, in Brittany and in Vendee, these data indicate that the high-pressure/high-temperature-metamorphic phase representative of the pre-Variscan evolution of the western Europe, took place at the Silurian/Ordovician boundary. This high-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism could be significant of subduction processes more or less synchronous, preceeding the main continental collision responsible of the Variscan belt.

  12. U-Pb dating on zircons for the la Borie eclogite (Haut-Allier, France) and consequences for the pre-Variscan evolution of the Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducrot, J.; Lancelot, J.R.; Marchand, J.

    1983-01-01

    A crystallization age of 432sub(-10) +20 Ma has been determined for the 'La Borie' eclogite (Haut-Allier, France), by U-Pb dating on zircons. This age is yielded by the upper intercept with the Concordia curve. In agreement with recent dates obtained in the southern part of the Massif Central, in Brittany and in Vendee, these data indicate that the high-pressure/high-temperature-metamorphic phase representative of the pre-Variscan evolution of the western Europe, took place at the Silurian/Ordovician boundary. This high-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism could be significant of subduction processes more or less synchronous, preceeding the main continental collision responsible of the Variscan belt. (s.s.). (orig.)

  13. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in intertidal salt marshes (Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétillon, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize spider (Araneae and ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae communities in managed (cutting and sheep grazing and non-managed salt marshes and to assess the efficiency of management regimes in these particular ecosystems. The two groups were studied during 2002 in salt marshes of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (NW France using pitfall traps. By opening soil and vegetation structures cutting and grazing enhanced the abundances of some halophilic species of spiders and ground beetles. Nevertheless, grazing appeared to be too intensive as spider species richness decreased. We discuss the implications of management practices in terms of nature conservation and their application in the particular area of intertidal salt marshes.

  14. The rotation of Spain: Palaeomagnetic evidence from the eastern Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, P.G. van

    1967-01-01

    The results of a palaeomagnetic investigation on igneous and sedimentary Permo-Triassic rocks from the Spanish Pyrenees are presented and some conclusions are drawn. During demagnetization with a.c. magnetic fields and after correction for the dip, 41 andesitic samples revealed a characteristic

  15. Successive Hercynian structures in some areas of the Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, D.

    1963-01-01

    In the central part of the axial zone of the Pyrenees five distinct phases of folding have been distinguished from the study of minor structures. Traces of a very early phase have been found only in the northern and southern part of the region, which appear on the map as oblique fold structures, and

  16. Complex climate constraints of upper treeline formation in the Pyrenees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzalez de Andres, E.; Julio Camarero, J.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2015), s. 941-952 ISSN 0931-1890 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : pinus-uncinata * spanish pyrenees * summer temperature * sierra-nevada * wood density * ring growth * variability * altitude * mountain * dynamics * Basal area increment * Drought stress * Mediterranean * Pinus uncinata * Temperature * Treeline Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2015

  17. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Suchet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province. This article analyses the governance of this international sports competition. More specifically, this case study will enable us to find out more about the conditions of organisation of a cross-border project in the early 1990s. What were the various political, social and cultural exchanges between the valleys in terms of sports and tourism in the Pyrenees? The results show that the French organisation and the Spanish organisation functioned side by side instead of working together on the field. This division in working enabled them to bypass the language problem. The cross-border dimension of these adventure Olympics in 1993 stemmed from pressure from the French regional planning agency, DATAR right from the beginning of the project, i.e. in October 1989, to be exact. This dimension made the 1993 Pyrenees Adventure Games a testimony to the new political Europe that was being built after 1989. This period was marked by the proactiveness of institutions, which far exceeded the motivations of the populations of the Union.Organisés au printemps 1993 sur la frontière entre la France et l’Espagne, les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure, ou los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, réunirent plus de 1 000 athlètes venus de 26 pays du monde sous les yeux de 21 000 visiteurs. Olympiade des sports d’aventure et de nature patronnée par le CIO, les épreuves se déroulèrent dans la vallée d’Aure en France (département des Hautes-Pyrénées et le Sobrarbe en Espagne (province de

  18. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    to bedding-parallel, have been identified along low-dipping limbs of the folds. They can be recognized due to the high colour contrast between the red-coloured Permian beds and the concentration of calcite veins in the decollements. The development of the structures above described has to be linked to the Alpine compressional tectonics. This interpretation is supported by the good correlation in geometry and orientation between the structures observed in the Permian basin and in southernmost areas of the South Pyrenean Zone, where the deformation is imprinted in Cretaceous to Tertiary rocks. In this regard, the southern border of the Anayet basin, at least in the western part, can be interpreted as a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the Alpine Orogeny. Bixel, F., 1987. Le volcanisme stephano-permien des Pyrenees petrographie, mineralogie, geochimie. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica 11, 41-55. Gisbert, J., 1984. Las molasas tardihercínicas del Pirineo, in: Geología de España. Libro Jubilar de J. M. Ríos, Comba, J.A. (Ed.), IGME, Madrid, 168-186.

  19. Projections of meteorological and snow conditions in the Pyrenees using adjusted EURO-CORDEX climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Current and future availability of seasonal snow is a recurring topic in mountain regions such as the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenues in France, Spain and Andorra. Associated changes in river discharges, their consequences on water storage management, the future vulnerability of Pyrenean ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as debris flows and avalanches are also under consideration. However, to generate projections of snow conditions, a traditional dynamical downscaling approach featuring spatial resolutions typically between 10 and 50 km is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. Indeed, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Moreover, simulations from general circulation models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) suffer from biases compared to local observations, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted before they can be used to drive specific models such as land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. Meteorological observations used for the quantile mapping consist of the regional scale reanalysis SAFRAN, which operates at the scale of homogeneous areas on the order of 1000 km2 within which meteorological conditions vary only with elevation. SAFRAN combines large-scale NWP reanalysis (ERA40, ARPEGE) with in-situ meteorological observations. The SAFRAN reanalysis is available

  20. [Early suspension of private practice: the current trends for general practitioners in three counties in western France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delansorne, Fanny; Buis, Hélène; Robino, Stéphane; Tomas, Josiane; Huez, Jean-François; Fanello, Serge

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a census of general practitioners in order to better understand their early withdrawal from primary care practice and to assess the impact of such withdrawal on current medical demography. The study covers the withdrawals from January 2000 to December 2005 in three western French counties. Data were collected through the district councils of the practitioners'guild, followed by a questionnaire filled in by 75 doctors. The participation rate was 60%. The study reveals that only 29% of these withdrawals are due to retirement. More than one in two doctors left to pursue another paid employment, and more than 25% chose to relocate their practice in a different area of the county. Two thirds of them were practicing in rural or semi-rural locations. Less than half, 47%, were replaced by a successor. General practitioners surveyed did not stop all professional medical care provision and service activities. Their careers are complex, and they are mobile professionals. The main reasons for suspending their activities in a given location were essentially related to the difficulties they had in dealing with their work loads and in maintaining a healthy work-life balance. They have noted that they will leave a range of possibilities open, either looking for private practice or not, exploring the possibility of primary care or not; the basis of their decision is whether a new position will correspond to their desire of mobility and meet their needs for more free.

  1. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  2. Temporal distributions, habitat associations and behaviour of the green lizard (Lacerta bilineata and wall lizard (Podarcis muralis on roads in a fragmented landscape in Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Meek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the green lizard (Lacerta bilineata and wall lizard (Podarcis muralis on roads in Western France indicated that basking close to the road edge was the predominant activity in L. bilineata but P. muralis mostly foraged. Spatial locations of road mortalities in both species reflected this with the median distances from the road edge greater in P. muralis. Temporal differences in road presence, based on mortality counts and those of live lizards, indicated significantly more lizards were present on roads during late summer and autumn, especially in P. muralis. A significant correlation was found between the monthly presence of live lizards and monthly road mortalities in P. muralis (r = 0.73 but not in L. bilineata (r = 0.64.  Numbers of L. bilineata found on roads bisecting low-density urban areas and roads bordered by hedgerows were higher than expected in relation to the occurrence of these habitats at roadsides. In P. muralis higher than expected numbers were found alongside low-density urban areas and roads bisecting woodland. Generally both species were less commonly seen on roads alongside agricultural areas with no hedgerow border.

  3. Sandwave Morphologies and Dynamics in a Continental Shelf Environment : Example of the Banc du Four (western Brittany, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, M.; Garlan, T.; Le Roy, P.; Delacourt, C.; Cancouët, R.; Graindorge, D.; Deschamps, A.

    2011-12-01

    Marine sand dunes and sandbanks are mainly observed in continental tidal shelves (North Sea, South China Sea, North Atlantic America) and may be highly dynamic (for example up to 75 m/y in the Marsdiep inlet). So they may pose a potential risk to offshore installations and shipping. Multitemporal mapping of sandwaves, necessary to mitigate this hazard, is complicated by their dynamic character, which is still poorly understood especially in the offshore domain. In consequence, these structures are often defined as moribund at depths greater than 30 meters. The aim of this investigation is to study evolution of deeper (110 meters) complex set of sand bedforms : "Banc du Four" located in the Iroise Sea. The study area is exposed to strong tidal currents and storm waves at the junction of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Western English Channel, conditions favorable to sediment dynamics. The bathymetric data, which form the basis of this study, are two Digital Terrain Modeling's (DTM's) derived from MultiBeam Echosounder (MBES) surveys : "Pourquoi-Pas?" oceanographic research vessel (R/V) in February 2009 (5 meters resolution DTM) and R/V "Albert Lucas" in August 2010 (2 meters resolution DTM). Sandwave parameters (water depth, shape, wavelength, height, symmetry index, ...) have been derived from the 2009 bathymetric data. The Banc du Four is characterized by a large sandbank (45 meters height and 2 km width) flanked by dune fields. The morphological characteristics of the dunes vary greatly (range 30 to 110 meters depth, 40 meters maximal height, 600 meters maximal width, symmetrical to asymmetrical, ...). However, this complexity can be explained by the involved sandwave dynamic (range 0 to 30 meters per year migration velocity). Spatial correlation method, applied on the two DTM's, are used to measure the migration rate. The high migration rates for deeper giant dunes bring to light the dynamic sandwave existence at depths exceeding 30-40 meters, contrary to

  4. External controls on Quaternary fluvial incision and terrace formation at the Segre River, Southern Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, K.M.; van Balen, R.T.; Vandenberghe, J.; Peña, J.L.; Sancho, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on climatic- and structural (tectonic) controls, we aim to determine their relative importance for the (Pliocene to Quaternary) fluvial landscape evolution in the Southern Pyrenees foreland. We investigate the Segre River, which is one of the major streams of the Southern Pyrenees that

  5. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sans

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW and Willingness to Pay (WTP for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213. Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22% to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%. Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP, while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP.

  6. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, P.; Sanjuán-López, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW) and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213). Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22%) to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%). Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP), while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP. (Author)

  7. The Midi-Pyrenees regional energy observatory - Release 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, Martin; Daubigny, Jean; Fraysse, Jean-Marie; Dedieu-Casties, Francoise; RIEY, Benedicte

    2005-01-01

    Illustrated with maps and graphs, this publication proposes a synthetic and brief energy assessment for the Midi-Pyrenees region. It briefly presents the regional energy situation in terms of final energy consumption between 1990 and 2003, of primary energy production during the same period, of inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, and of CO 2 emissions by the energy sector. It also proposes an overview of the situation, evolution and production of various energy sources: hydroelectricity, wood, wind, solar photovoltaic, solar and thermal energy, co-generation, and other types of energy valorisation modes (biogas, combustion). It proposes a focus on two important sectors, transports and housing

  8. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2017-07-01

    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  9. An application of luminiscence dating to building archaeology: The study of ceramic building materials in early medieval churches in north-western France and south-eastern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blain, Sophie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this thesis concerns the re-evaluation of an archaeological assumption surrounding the origin of Ceramic Building Materials (CBM used from the 9th to the 11th century in religious buildings of north-western France and south-eastern England. Are the bricks used in the masonry structures Roman spolia or a novo productions? Amongst the dating methods that can contribute to building archaeology, it is the technique of stimulated luminescence applied to CBM that is the focus of this study. Results from thermoluminescence (TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating performed on 52 CBM samples from 11 churches showed that the practice of reusing Roman brick was commonplace in small parish churches, but also that brick-making was not a totally unknown skill of the early medieval craftsmen as it has long been supposed. Most importantly, by identifying that the building material is contemporary to the church, a defined chronology emerges resulting in a new and extremely useful reference point in the history of early medieval architecture.La investigación presentada en esta tesis se ocupa de la reevaluación de un supuesto arqueológico entorno al origen del material cerámico constructivo (CBM empleado entre los siglos IX y XI en los edificios religiosos del Noroeste de Francia y el Sudeste de Inglaterra. ¿Son los ladrillos empleados en las estructuras de fábrica spolia romana o producciones a novo? Entre los métodos de datación que pueden contribuir a la arqueología del edificio, la técnica de luminiscencia estimulada aplicada al CBM es el centro de este estudio. Los resultados de la termoluminiscencia (TL y de la luminiscencia estimulada ópticamente (OSL, aplicadas en 52 muestras de CBM tomadas en 11 iglesias, evidencian que la práctica de reutilizar ladrillos romanos era común en pequeñas iglesias parroquiales, pero que también la técnica de elaboración de ladrillos no era totalmente desconocida para los

  10. Genetic differentiation of the Iberian amphiodus Gammarus ibericus Margalef, 1951 and G. gauthieri S. Karaman, 1935, with reference to some related species in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepmaker, Maarten; Meer, van der Frits; Pinkster, Sjouk

    1988-01-01

    Populations of five related species belonging to the Gammarus pulex group from the Iberian Peninsula and southern France have been studied electrophoretically at 21 enzyme loci. Morphologically distinct forms from the same side of the Pyrenees proved to be genetically more similar than

  11. Modeling and Inversion of three-dimensional crustal structures beneath the Pyrenees and their foreland basins based upon geological, gravimetric and seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Hannah; Chevrot, Sébastien; Courrioux, Gabriel; Guillen, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Our goal is to obtain a three-dimensional (3D) model of mass density and seismic velocities beneath the Pyrenees and their foreland basins (Aquitaine and Ebro basins), which accounts for all the geological and geophysical information available for that region. This model covers the whole mountain range going from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the Iberian range to the Massif Central. The model is described by different units: the lower, middle, and upper crusts, the accretionary prism, and the consolidated and unconsolidated sediment layers. Furthermore, a sub-continental, serpentinized European mantle is introduced to describe the exhumed mantle bodies which are responsible for the positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the western Pyrenees. We build a first 3D model using all the geological information: drill-hole surveys, seismic sections, and the geological map. We use the potential field method implemented in Geomodeler to interpolate these geological data. However, these data are too sparse to build a model that explains seismic travel times or gravimetric data, especially the Labourd and the St. Gaudens Bouguer gravity anomalies. In addition, inconsistencies between the different data sets exist. We thus add by trial and error additional data points, comparing modeled and observed Bouguer gravimetric anomalies. The result of this procedure is a 3D geological model that respects the geological data and explains the measured Bouguer gravimetric anomalies. In a second step, we use this model to determine the average density and seismic velocities inside each geological unit assuming uniform layers. To constrain the seismic velocities we use travel time picks extracted from the bulletin of the Pyrenean seismicity released by the Observatoire Midi Pyrenées. In a third step, we use this 3D a priori model in a Monte Carlo inversion to invert jointly gravimetric data and seismic travel times from the bulletin. This probabilistic approach

  12. A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morellón, M.; Pérez-Sanz, A.; Corella, J.P.; Büntgen, U.; Catalán, J.; González-Samprizé, P.; González-Trueba, J.J.; López-Sáez, J.A.; Moreno, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Saz-Sánchez, M.Á.; Scussolini, P.; Serrano, E.; Steinhilber, F.; Stefanova, V.; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T.; Valero-Garcés, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews multi-proxy paleoclimatic reconstructions with robust age-control derived from lacustrine, dendrochronological and geomorphological records and characterizes the main environmental changes that occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively

  13. Shifting agriculture: the main cause of landscape degradation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, Teodoro; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz

    2017-04-01

    Cereal agriculture occupied large areas in the Spanish Pyrenees to feed the population in a socio-economic system of limited exchanges with the outside. In the Western valleys, shifting agriculture constitutes the dominant field pattern, representing almost three-quarters of the traditional agricultural space (Lasanta et al., in press). These were cultivated at times of heavy population growth, necessitating steep and stony hillsides with poor soil to be tilled, or the ones that were far away from the village. The fields were created by clearing the vegetation from a slope, then burning it to use the ash as a fertilizer. Cereal was grown for 3-4 years, after which they were abandoned for 20-30 years to recover fertility, and the cycle was repeated. Almost all the fields (99%) using shifting agriculture had been abandoned by the 1950s. This study analyzes the role of the shifting agriculture in soil erosion and landscape degradation. For this purpose, (i) experimental plots, which reproduce the traditional agriculture in the Pyrenees and the abandonment processes, and (ii) the cartography made from the SIOSE (2009), which shows the present land cover 50 years after cropland abandonment, were used. The results show that shifting agriculture caused higher soil losses than other agricultural uses (1.36 kg m-2 yr-1): fallow land (0.87 kg m-2 yr-1), chemically fertilized cereal (0.86 kg m-2 yr-1) and meadow (0.14 kg m-2 yr-1). Also, after land abandonment, soil losses are higher in shifting agriculture (0.78 kg m-2 yr-1) than cereal lands (0.73 kg m-2 yr-1). The burning of the shrub cover and the use of ashes as fertilizer did not contribute to improve the soil quality, which explains both the higher soil losses during the cultivated period and after the abandonment, since slower plant succession occurs. The results obtained from the SIOSE confirm that the change from meadows to shrubland is relatively fast, as a consequence of the low relationship with livestock

  14. Microsatellite marker analysis reveals the complex phylogeographic history of Rhododendron ferrugineum (Ericaceae in the Pyrenees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Charrier

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within plant species is determined by a number of factors such as reproductive mode, breeding system, life history traits and climatic events. In alpine regions, plants experience heterogenic abiotic conditions that influence the population's genetic structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of the subalpine shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum across the Pyrenees and the links between the populations in the Pyrenees, the Alps and Jura Mountains. We used 27 microsatellite markers to genotype 645 samples from 29 Pyrenean populations, three from the Alps and one from the Jura Mountains. These data were used to estimate population genetics statistics such as allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, fixation index, inbreeding coefficient and number of migrants. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in the Alps than in the Pyrenees suggesting colonization waves from the Alps to the Pyrenees. Two separate genetic lineages were found in both the Alps and Pyrenees, with a substructure of five genetic clusters in the Pyrenees where a loss of genetic diversity was noted. The strong differentiation among clusters is maintained by low gene flow across populations. Moreover, some populations showed higher genetic diversity than others and presented rare alleles that may indicate the presence of alpine refugia. Two lineages of R. ferrugineum have colonized the Pyrenees from the Alps. Then, during glaciation events R. ferrugineum survived in the Pyrenees in different refugia such as lowland refugia at the eastern part of the chain and nunataks at high elevations leading to a clustered genetic pattern.

  15. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 6 concerns the Aquitaine, Limousin, Midi-Pyrenees and Poitou-Charentes regions. (J.S.)

  16. Democracy as a Contested Concept in Postwar Western Europe: A Comparative Study of Political Debates in France, West Germany and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corduwener, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how political parties in France, West Germany, and Italy conceptualized democracy and challenged the conceptions of democracy of their political adversaries between the end of the 1940s and the early 1960s. It studies from a comparative perspective the different conceptions of

  17. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 6; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 6 concerns the Aquitaine, Limousin, Midi-Pyrenees and Poitou-Charentes regions. (J.S.)

  18. The Golfech nuclear power plant, at the service of a safe, competitive and CO2-free power generation in the heart of the Midi-Pyrenees region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In less than 20 years, Electricite de France (EDF) has built up a competitive park of 58 nuclear power plants, with no equivalent elsewhere, which represents an installed power of 63.1 GW (85% of EDF's power generation). Inside this nuclear park, the national power generation centre of Golfech comprises two production units of 1300 MW each (2600 MW as a whole). The facility generated 19.7 billion kWh in 2009, i.e. more than 5% of the French national power generation and 100% of the energy consumed in the Midi-Pyrenees region. This brochure presents the life of the power plant under various aspects: power generation, safety priority and culture, maintenance investments, respect of the environment, long-term fuel and wastes management, local economical involvement, transparency and public information, key figures and dates. (J.S.)

  19. Post-mining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This plentifully illustrated book aims at showing how new equilibria are building up during the transition between mining activity and post-mining, and at stressing on the necessity to keep up the cultural elements, the competencies and knowledge of mining works. The first chapter - mine and men - shows the importance of mineral substances in the objects of the everyday life, illustrates the importance of the mining tradition in France and describes the technical and administrative organisation of the end of the mining activity (works, rehabilitation, regulation, monitoring..). Chapter two - exploitation methods - presents the surface and underground facilities and their impact on the environment (extraction machines, workshops, ore processing plants, decantation ponds..). The third chapter deals with the rehabilitation and monitoring aspects: impact of mining activity stoppage on underground and surface waters, land stability, soils cleansing.. The last chapter summarizes the history of French mining region by region: Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lorraine-Alsace, Massif central, Bretagne-Normandie, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur and Pyrenees

  20. Peculiarity of the Relationship between the Seismicity and Tectonic Structure of the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The geotectonic position of the Pyrenees mountain massif in the Alpine-Indonesian mobile belt is considered. The geological data testify to the formation of the structure of the Pyrenees in the setting of a subhorizontal compression perpendicular to the ridge. The commonly accepted interpretation considers this compression in the context of plate tectonic notions related to the collision between the Iberian and Eurasian lithospheric plates resulting from the convergence of the Eurasian and African plates. However, this interpretation is challenged by the the geodetic and seismological measurements. The GPS measurements suggest a certain cross-strike spreading rather than shortening of the Earth's crust; the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes indicate the predominance of a subhorizontal extension perpendicular to the strike of the Pyrenees mountain range. The processes of the gravitational collapse of the mountain chain during the isostatic upwelling of the orogenic crust are considered as the most probable cause of this spreading by a number of the authors.

  1. Numerical modelling of Quaternary terrace staircase formation in the Ebro foreland basin, southern Pyrenees, NE Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balen, R.T.; Stange, K.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.

    2016-01-01

    The southern foreland basin of the Pyrenees (Ebro basin) is an exorheic drainage basin since Late Miocene times. Remnants of an early exorheic Ebro drainage system are not preserved, but morphology provides evidence for the Pliocene–Quaternary drainage development. The incision history of the Ebro

  2. Oxygen isotopes of marine mollusc shells record Eocene elevation change in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Emmanuel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Constraining paleoaltimetry of collisional orogens is critical to understand the dynamics of topographic evolution and climate/tectonics retroactions. Here, we use oxygen stable-isotope record on oyster shells, preserved in marine foreland deposits, to examine the past elevation of the Pyrenees during the Eocene. Our approach is based on the comparison with the Paris basin, an intracratonic basin not influenced by orogenic growth. The finding of a shift of 1.5‰ between 49 and 41 Ma, indicating more negative δ18Oc in the south Pyrenean foreland, is interpreted to reflect the inflow of river water sourced from higher elevation in the Pyrenees. To test this and provide paleoelevation estimate, we adopt a morphologic-hydrological model accounting for the hypsometry of drainage basin. Our best fitting model shows that the Pyrenees rose up to 2000 m. This indicates that the Pyrenees reached high elevation in the Eocene, thus providing new critical constraints on their long-term orogenic development. δ18O of marine mollusc shells are proved potentially attractive for paleoelevation studies, especially for mountain belts where elevated continental surfaces have not been preserved.

  3. Temporal and spatial interactions of slope and catchment processes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J.M.; Lana-Renault, N.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Lasanta, T.; Arnáez, J.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Regüés, D.; Martí-Bono, C.

    2004-01-01

    Historical and present day changes in land uses and plant cover explain the complex interactions assessed in the Central Spanish Pyrenees between geomorphic processes in hillslopes and channels. More intense erosion periods caused an enlargement of sediment sources areas and an increase of

  4. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan

  5. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian)

  6. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees Part II, Valle de Arán, Sheet 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    1963-01-01

    The structural geology and metamorphic petrology of the Bosost area in the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees) is discussed. The rocks exposed in this area consist of Cambro-Ordovician mica-schists with numerous granite and pegmatite bodies, phyllites and limestones; Silurian slates and schists and

  7. Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Albères coast (France, North-western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Thierry; Pinedo, Susana; Torras, Xavier; Ballesteros, Enric

    2005-12-01

    Only five of fourteen species of Fucales reported at the end of the XIXth century are currently present in the Albères Coast (France, NW Mediterranean). According to historical data there has been a steady decrease of all the populations since the 1940s. Seven taxa now extinct (Cystoseira crinita, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa, Cystoseira spinosa, Cystoseira spinosa var. compressa, Sargassum hornschuchii and Sargassum vulgare) were considered frequent and some of them were the dominant and engineering species in several phytobenthic assemblages. Moreover, only one of the five species left, shows no signs of regression (Cystoseira compressa), two are considered as rare (Cystoseira caespitosa, Cystoseira zosteroides), and one is very rare (Cystoseira elegans). Cystoseira mediterranea, a species that was reported to make a continuous belt along the shores of the Albères coast, has almost disappeared from some areas. Overgrazing by sea urchins, outcompetition by mussels, habitat destruction, scientific research sampling and, probably, human trampling and chemical pollution are to be blamed for the decline of populations thriving in shallow waters. Deep-water species have been affected by an increase in water turbidity and, probably, chemical pollution and direct plant destruction attributed to net fishing. If degradation of the environmental conditions continues, the remaining Cystoseira species will face a most unwelcome prospect. Even after the removal of the causes that led to its die-off, natural restoration of extinct species seems not to be possible because the decline has also affected populations from nearby areas and zygotes are unable to disperse over long distances. Urgent management actions have to be designed in order to improve the current situation of the populations of Fucales in the Albères coast.

  8. Arabis soyeri Reuter ex Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae en el Pirineo aragonés [Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae, in the Aragonese Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente FERRÁNDEZ PALACIO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En esta nota confirmamos la presencia de Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri en el Pirineo aragonés (provincia de Huesca. Esta cita oscense se sitúa en el límite SW de su área de distribución endémica. Además, comentamos algunos aspectos sobre su autoecología y conservación.SUMMARY: Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri is confirmed for the flora of the Aragonese Pyrenees (Huesca province, Spain. Moreower, this new station is located on the south-western border of its endemic range. Some aspects on its autecology and conservation are discussed as well.

  9. Agrotis fatidica (Hübner, 1824 species-group revisited, with description of two new species from the Alps and the Pyrenees (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Ronkay

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrative taxonomic analysis of the European species of the Agrotis fatidica species-group is presented with special reference to the European sister taxa of A. fatidica (Hübner, 1824; in addition, a general overview of the entire species-group is given. The remarkable differences found in the barcodes of the Central and Western European populations of A. fatidica (sensu lato led us to recognise isolated species of the A. fatidica complex. Two new species, A. mayrorum sp. n. (Northern Italy and the French Alps and A. mazeli sp. n. (French Pyrenees are described. The neotype of A. fatidica is designated. Agrotis luehri von Mentzer & Moberg, 1987 is treated as a subspecies of A. fatidica (stat. n..

  10. Rainfall erosivity in the Upper Llobregat Basin, SE Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallart, F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity in a 504 km2 river basin in Eastern Pyrenees and assess its uncertainties. The study area is topographically complex and is dominated by Mediterranean climate with intense rains during summer. Available rainfall dataset includes 14 years spanning from 1991 to 2004 at daily resolution from seven weather stations and sub-hourly from one station. Daily R values were calculated from sub-hourly data, and then by using the relationship between daily R values and precipitation, the R values for weather stations having only daily rainfall resolution were calculated. The error propagation by using such upscaling approach was analyzed. The studied sources of uncertainty of R factor at annual scale were: the use of the relationship between daily R values and precipitation, the temporal averaging of R values and spatial variation. Results have shown that at annual scale the temporal averaging was the largest contributor of uncertainty (70%; however this contribution decreased significantly (14% when R was estimated for the long term.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución espacial de la erosividad de precipitación en una cuenca de 504 km2 en el Este de los Pirineos y evaluar sus incertidumbres. El área de estudio presenta una topografía compleja y está dominada por un clima Mediterráneo con lluvias intensas durante el verano. Los datos de precipitación utilizados abarcan 14 años, desde 1991 hasta 2004, a una resolución diaria en siete estaciones meteorológicas y minutal en una estación. Los valores diarios de R se calcularon a partir de datos con resolución minutal, y luego se estableció una relación entre valores diarios de R y precipitación, con el fin de calcular los valores de R para las estaciones meteorológicas que sólo presentan resolución diaria. Las fuentes de incertidumbre considerados para el

  11. Short and long term evolution of deep giant submarine dunes in continental shelf environment: the example of the 'Banc du Four' (Western Brittany, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, M.; Le Roy, P.; Garlan, T.; Delacourt, C.; Thibaud, R.; Cancouet, R.; Graindorge, D.; Prunier, C.; Sukhovich, A.; Deschamps, A.

    2013-12-01

    The deep sandwave dynamics is still in debate. Understanding the migration processes and the resulting evolution of their 3D internal architecture are scientifically challenging. To address these questions we realized two swath bathymetry surveys complemented with seismic reflection across the large sandwaves field named 'Banc du Four'. It is located offshore the Western Brittany and is composed of more 500 dunes. Some of the dunes' wavelengths and heights exceed 1000m and 30m respectively placing them among the largest dunes ever described. Equilibrium laws obtained from our morphological analysis are not completely in agreement with those described in previous studies of similar structures in shallow waters. Relatively high migration velocities on deep continental shelves (from 3 to 20m.yr-1) attest of their still present dynamical equilibrium. Internal-external morphological and kinematical analyses show the existence of two different dynamic regimes. Interpretation of the seismic reflection data allowed reconstructing long-term evolution of the sandbank and the establishment of progressive connections between stepped submarine channels and tidal dynamics during the last sea-level rise.

  12. Petrologic and stable isotopic studies of a fossil hydrothermal system in ultramafic environment (Chenaillet ophicalcites, Western Alps, France): Processes of carbonate cementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Romain; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Stephane, Schwartz; Suzanne, Picazo; German, Montes-Hernandez; Torsten, Vennemann

    2017-12-01

    The Late Jurassic Chenaillet ophiolitic complex (Western Alps) represents parts of an oceanic core-complex of the Liguria-Piemonte domain. A model for the origin and evolution of the Chenaillet ophicalcites based on textural and isotopic characterization is presented. The Chenaillet ophicalcites correspond to brecciated serpentinized peridotites that record seafloor shallow serpentinization at a minimum temperatures of 150 °C followed by authigenic carbonation. Carbonation starts with a network of micrometric to millimetric pre- or syn-clast formation calcite veins accompanied by a pervasive carbonation of residual olivine and serpentine inside the serpentinite mesh core. A matrix of small calcite (values that range between - 5‰ and + 0.4‰. The lower values were obtained for calcite within the serpentinite clasts. The δ18O (VSMOW) values have a range between + 11‰ and + 16‰ in carbonated clasts. The δ18O values in the matrix are fairly homogeneous with an average at + 12‰ and the late calcite veins have values between + 12.5 and + 15.5‰. These values suggest a relatively high temperature of formation for all the carbonates. Carbonates within clast are mainly characterized by a formation temperature in the range of 110 °C to 180 °C assuming a δ18O value of seawater of 0‰, the matrix forms at a temperature of ca. 165 °C. Late veins are characterized by a formation temperature ranging between 120and 155 °C. We propose a model where serpentinization is followed by discrete carbonation then brecciation and cementation as a consequence of continuous hydrothermal fluid circulation in the serpentinite basement. This is comparable to observations made in the stockwork of present-day long-lived oceanic hydrothermal systems.

  13. New Tree-Ring Evidence from the Pyrenees Reveals Western Mediterranean Climate Variability since Medieval Times

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Krusic, P. J.; Verstege, A.; Sanguesa-Barreda, G.; Wagner, S.; Camarero, J. J.; Ljungqvist, F. C.; Zorita, E.; Oppenheimer, C.; Konter, O.; Tegel, W.; Gärtner, H.; Cherubini, P.; Reinig, F.; Esper, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 14 (2017), s. 5295-5318 ISSN 0894-8755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Europe * Volcanoes * Climate variability * Interannual variability * Multidecadal variability * Trends Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 4.161, year: 2016

  14. HT-LP thermometamorphism modelling : Agly massif, French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournaire Guille, Baptiste; Pascal, Marie-Lola; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Annen, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the strongly anomalous thermal gradients implied, HT-LP metamorphism is a worldwide type of processes in which magma emplacement and solidification at relatively high levels in the crust must be considered as a potentially major heat source. Thermal modelling (e.g. Annen et al. 2005) is an appropriate tool for constraining the part played by such processes in practical cases of thermometamorphism. We study the Agly massif, an exhumed part of middle crust from the Variscan belt in the French Pyrenees. This massif is a classical example of HT-LP metamorphism (Vielzeuf 1996), composed of a metasedimentary cover, mainly micaschists aged from upper Cambrian to Devonian, unconformably overlying an older basement of para- and orthogneisses. The Variscan metamorphic facies extend from greenschists, in the upper part of the cover, to granulites in the basement (Fonteilles 1976). The apparent geotherm of about 110°/km in the metasedimentary cover (amphibolite and greenschist facies) has given way to contrasting interpretations. Magmatic activity partly synchronous with and probably related to the Variscan thermometamorphism is observed at the outcropping level as at least 4 magmatic bodies of mantle origin (Touil 1994), of Stephanian age, including granodiorites and subordinate diorites and gabbros. Recent U/Pb datations on zircons (Tournaire-Guille et al., in prep) also reveal the presence of lower Cambrian magmatism in the gneisses, therefore confirming their interpretation as a pre-Variscan basement. The location (depth), volume (thickness), temperature (composition) and timing of magma emplacement are the parameters controlling the thermal effect to be modelled with a Matlab® code (Annen et al. 2005). In order to constrain these parameters, we have updated the lithostratigraphy and the PT conditions of the Variscan metamorphism in the Agly area. Mineralogic and petrologic data exploited in thermobarometric analyses compared with thermodynamic PerpleX modelling

  15. Different weathering stages indicated by the magnetization of limestones: An example from the southeast Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P.; Gehring, A. U.

    1992-06-01

    Paleomagnetic and structural data from the Pedraforca thrust sheet in the southeast Pyrenees show that the chemical weathering of the late Cretaceous limestones is a multistage process. The first weathering stage, of latest Eocene to early Oligocene age, is indicated by a chemical remanent magnetization carried by hematite. The formation of hematite as the dominant weathering product suggests a subtropical climate in northeast Spain during this period. The second weathering stage is indicated by the presence of goethite, which carries a chemical remanent magnetization parallel to the present earth field. This suggests formation of the goethite since the late Pleistocene under cooler climatic conditions similar to the present-day climate in the Pyrenees.

  16. Consumers’ willingness to pay for beef direct sales. A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuán-López, Ana Isabel; Resano, Helena; Zeballos, Gabriela; Sans, Pierre; Panella-Riera, Nuria; Campo, Maria del Mar; Khliji, Saoussan; Guerrero, Ana; Oliver, Maria Angels; Sañudo, Carlos; Santolaria, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for direct market of beef is investigated in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees. Given the novelty of this distribution system, especially in Spain, a contingent valuation approach is undertaken, and a double-bounded model is estimated. Different patterns of awareness, use and WTP are found across regions. Likewise, the profile of current and potential users of direct sale chains is investigated. Experience in the different stages...

  17. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian) sedimentary basins, and the influence of Late Paleozoic faulting on the underlying Variscan basement. The present structure of the basement is rather complex as it results from multiple Variscan an...

  18. Soil formation on Holocene moraines in the cirque de Troumouse, Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson, Robert

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting rates and degree of soil formation on Holocene moraines are discussed with reference to moraine sequences in the Cirque de Troumouse, French Pyrenees. In particular, the role of time, slope position and post-depositional history are evaluated for three moraines ranging in age from c. 5000 to c. 1000 yr BP. Soil profile development, as determined by visual criteria, indicates differences in soil development between moraines of different age as well as between soils developed on the same moraine but occupying different slope positions. Particle size analysis and soil chemical analyses confirm that microtopography exerts a strong control on the extent and rate of soil formation, and must therefore be considered when sampling and describing soil chronosequences on glacial moraines.

    [es] Se discuten los factores que afectan a las tasas y al grado de formación del suelo en morrenas Holocenas, con referencia a la secuencia de morrenas en el Circo de Troumouse, Pirineo francés. En particular, se evalúa el papel del tiempo, la posición de la pendiente y la historia postdeposicional para tres morrenas ordenadas en edad desde c. 5000 a c. 1000 años BP. El desarrollo del perfil del suelo, determinado por criterios visuales, indica diferencias de desarrollo del suelo entre morrenas de diferente edad así como entre suelos desarrollados en la misma morrena, pero ocupando diferentes posiciones de la pendiente. Análisis granulométricos y químicos del suelo confirman que la microtopografía ejerce un fuerte control en la extensión y en la tasa de formación del suelo y, por tanto, deberla ser tenida en cuenta en los muéstreos y descripciones de las cronosecuencias del suelo en morrenas glaciares.
    [fr] On discute les facteurs qui affectent les taux et le degré de formation du sol en moraines Holocènes, avec référence à la séquence de moraines du Cirque de Troumouse, Pyrénées français. En particulier, on

  19. Palaeomagnetic evidence for post-thrusting tectonic rotation in the Southeast Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P.; Lowrie, W.; Gehring, A. U.

    1994-12-01

    The structural framework of the Southeast Pyrenees led to two conflicting interpretations—thrust tectonics vs. wrench tectonics—to explain the geometry of this mountain range. In the present study palaeomagnetic data are presented in an attempt to resolve this conflict. The data reveal different magnetisation directions that indicate tectonic rotations about vertical axes. By means of a regionally homogeneous pattern of rotation, three tectonic units could be distinguished in the Southeast Pyrenees. The Internal Unit in the north reveals no rotation since the Permian. The External Unit to the south shows anticlockwise rotation of 25°, younger than the Early Oligocene. The Pedraforca Unit, placed on the External Unit, shows 57° clockwise rotation which can be assigned to the Neogene. The anticlockwise rotation of the External Unit can be explained by differential compression during the last phase of Pyrenean thrusting, whereas the clockwise rotation of the Pedraforca Unit can be interpreted by post-thrusting tectonics. The rotation pattern of the Southeast Pyrenees provides evidence for both Cretaceous to Paleogene N-S compression and Neogene right-lateral wrench tectonics.

  20. Soil removed by voles of the genus Pitymys in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi, C. E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosiogenic activity of Pyrenean mountain voles is studied following the measures taken in an experimental plot in the Western Pyrenees. An easy model for estimating the volume and weight of soil carried to the surface by voles is presented and used to quantify this amount in natural conditions. Fossorial Pyrenean rodents seem to dislodge well over 6Tm/ha.yr of soil on the colonized areas above the timberline. The four stages (new, recent, old, and vegetated of the evolution of soil heaps are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the rate of horizontal sediment transport due to the direct action of voles, with a maximum result of 17 cm3/cm.yr, quite comparable to pure geoclimatic rates.

    [es] Se estudia la actividad de movimiento del suelo de los roedores pirenaicos del género Pitymys, a partir de los datos obtenidos en una parcela experimental situada en los Pirineos Occidentales. Se presenta un modelo sencillo para estimar la cantidad de tierra removida a partir de medidas que pueden tomarse fácilmente en el campo, y se emplea dicho modelo para evaluar esta magnitud en condiciones naturales. Al parecer, los roedores subterráneos pueden sacar al exterior más de 6 Tm de tierra por hectárea y año en las zonas epiforestales que colonizan. También se discute la evolución del suelo removido y sus condiciones para la erosión por escorrentía. Finalmente se intenta evaluar la tasa de transporte horizontal del sedimento debida a los animales, que resulta ser de hasta 17 cm3 por cm y año, un valor claramente comparable con los debidos a agentes geoclimáticos.
    [fr] On a étudié l'activité fouisseuse des campagnols pyrénéens du genre Pitymys, d'après les données recueillies dans une enclosure expérimentale située dans les Pyrénées de l'Ouest. On présente un modèle simple permettant d'estimer la quantité de sol mue par les campagnols a partir de mésurements qu

  1. U-Pb zircon dating of the Bassies granite (Pyrenees): a syn-tectonic pluton of Westphalian age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    A new U-Pb zircon age of 312 ± 2 Ma for the Bassies pluton (Pyrenees) contradicts the previous whole-rock Rb-Sr dating at 276 ± 16 Ma, which was considered as the age of emplacement, therefore regarded as post-tectonic. The new date is in agreement with recent structural studies which suggest a Hercynian syn-tectonic emplacement for the Bassies pluton. These results strengthen the few U-Pb ages already published for the Pyrenean granites and indicate that the Hercynian plutonism of the Pyrenees is essentially Carboniferous in age and syn-tectonic. (authors)

  2. Sulfur isotope composition of orogenic spinel lherzolite massifs from Ariege (north-eastern pyrenees, France): An ion microprobe study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussidon, M. (Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Lorand, J. (Unite associee au CNRS, Paris (France))

    1990-10-01

    The orogenic spinel lherzolite massifs from Ariege, which represent tectonically emplaced fragments of the sub-continental upper mantle, are composed mainly of variously depleted peridotites. These rocks are crosscut by two generations of pyroxenites. The first is made up of layered pyroxenites, which are interpreted either as crystal segregates from Triassic continental tholeiites or as subducted parts of the oceanic crust re-injected within the upper mantle. The second consists of amphibole-rich dikes separated from Cretaceous alkali basalts. Forty sulfide grains, occurring either as inclusions within silicates or as interstitial grains, were investigated by ion microprobe for their sulfur isotopic compositions. Comparison between sulfide inclusions in silicates and interstitial sulfide grains strongly suggests that serpentinization and pyrenean metamorphism had no significant effect don the {delta}{sup 34}S values. Likewise, these values are broadly independent of the degree of partial melting. The negative {delta}{sup 34}S values of the massive peridotites could represent an ancient depletion event in the upper mantle. By contrast, the positive {delta}{sup 34}S values observed in the layered pryoxenites and the amphibole-rich dikes indicate that the two parent magmas had in common a mantle source variously enriched in {sup 34}S. Therefore, the present study reveals two extreme reservoirs characterized by different {delta}{sup 34}S values in the upper mantle. This range of variations can explain most {delta}{sup 34}S values found in MORB, continental tholeiites, and alkali basalts.

  3. VIGILANCE POISON: Illegal poisoning and lead intoxication are the main factors affecting avian scavenger survival in the Pyrenees (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berny, Philippe; Vilagines, Lydia; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Mastain, Olivier; Chollet, Jean-Yves; Joncour, Guy; Razin, Martine

    2015-08-01

    A specific surveillance program has been set up to monitor avian scavenger populations in the French Pyrenean Mountains, hosting a high proportion of the French populations. The two main purposes of the study were to identify all causes of death and to investigate poisoning cases. All 170 birds found dead during the 7-year program were submitted to full necropsy, X-Ray, parasitological investigations and consistent analytical toxicology screenings (Cholinesterase inhibitors, anticoagulant rodenticides, organochlorine insecticides, Pb, Cd). Over the study period, 8 Bearded Vultures, 120 Griffon Vultures, 8 Egyptian Vultures and 34 Red kites were eventually collected. Mortality events were often multifactorial, but poisoning was by far the most common cause of death (24.1%), followed by trauma/fall (12%), bacterial diseases and starvation (8%) and electrocution (6%). Illicit use of banned pesticides was identified as a common cause of poisoning (53% of all poisoning cases) and lead poisoning was also identified as a significant toxicant issue (17% of all poisoning cases). Lead isotopic signature could be associated primarily with ammunition. Last, a positive association between trauma and lead contamination was detected, indicating that lead could be a significant contributor to different causes of death. These results urge for severe restrictions on the use of lead ammunition to prevent scavengers from detrimental exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Commons in the Central Pyrenees. Idealizing the past and rethinking the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Beltran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The debate around the commons has often been dominated by ideological opinions about their social, economic, environmental, and political implications. Catalan High Pyrenees districts, where historically common property has had a wide territorial presence, provide many arguments to analyze the discussions around common property from a conceptual standpoint. In the context of the changes occurred during the last two centuries, where the mountains have gone from sustaining an agroranching economy, to become a space devoted to tourism and conservation, the commons are interpreted as a central dimension of socio-ecological relations and a factor with high political potential.

  5. Spatial pattern of a subalpine forest-alpine pasture ecotone (Las Cutas, Ordesa, Central Pyrenees)

    OpenAIRE

    Camarero, J. J.; Gutierrez, E.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the spatial pattern of a subalpine forest-alpine pasture ecotone in the Central Pyrenees, that includes altitudinal timberline and treeline, and it is dominated by Pinus uncinata Ram. A rectangular (30 x 140 m) plot was located crossing the ecotone with its longest side parallel to the slope. We measured for each P. uncinata individual inside the plot: location (coordinates x, y), and structure (e. g. height) and growth form variables (number and type —living or dead, vertical or ...

  6. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  7. Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides and debris flows in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Gamboa, M.; Hürlimann, M.; Corominas, J.

    2009-09-01

    The inventory of rainfall-induced mass movements, rainfall data, and slope characteristics are considered the basis of the analysis determining appropriate rainfall thresholds for mass movements in a specific region. The rainfall-induced landslide thresholds established in the literature for the Catalan Pyrenees have been formulated referring to the rainfall events of November 1982, September 1992, December 1997, and others occurred after 1999. It has been shown that a rainfall intensity greater than 190 mm in 24 hours without antecedent rainfall would be necessary to produce mass movements (Corominas and Moya, 1999; Corominas et al, 2002) or 51mm in 24h with 61 mm of accumulated rainfall (Marco, 2007). Short duration-high intensity rainfalls have brought about several mass movements in some Catalonian regions throughout the course of twenty-first century (Berga, Bonaigua, Saldes, Montserrat, Port-Ainé, Riu Runer, and Sant Nicolau). Preliminary analysis of these events shows that it is necessary to review the thresholds defined so far and redo the existing inventory of mass movements for the Catalan Pyrenees. The present work shows the usefulness of aerial photographs in the reconstruction of the inventory of historic mass movements (Molló-Queralbs, 1940; Arties-Vielha, 1963; Barruera-Senet, 1940 and 1963, and Berga-Cercs, 1982, 1997 and 2008). Also, it highlights the treatment given to scarce and scattered rainfall data available inside these Catalonia’s regions, and the application of Geographic Information Systems (ArcGIS) in the management of the gathered information. The results acquired until now show that the historic rainfall events occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees have yielded many more mass movements than those reported in the literature. Besides, it can be said that the thresholds formulated for the Pyrenees are valid for longstanding regional rainfalls, and not for local downpours. In the latter cases it should be necessary to take into account the

  8. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Geography and clear political leadership have combined to put France in the forefront of both nuclear and hydro-electric generation and energy efficiency so that about 90% of France's electricity is generated by non-fossil fuels. This article explains how and why France has developed its energy mix. (Author)

  9. The sedimentary record and petrophysical logs from the Spanish Central Pyrenees: Implications for paleoclimate change in the Early Devonian

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Liao, J-Ch.; Hušková, Aneta; Calvo, H.; Hrstka, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2015), s. 350-350 ISSN 1608-8166. [International Congress on Stratigraphy /2./. STRATI 2015. 19.07.2015-23.07.2015, Graz] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : stratigraphy * Early Devonian * sedimentary record * paleoclimate change * Spanish Central Pyrenees Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Inst-Erdwiss-Univ-Graz_21_0001-0437.pdf

  10. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  11. Seasonal frost conditions in different periglacial landforms in the Eastern Pyrenees from 2003 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Salvà-Catarineu, Montserrat; Oliva, Marc; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers shaped the headwaters and valley floors in the Eastern Pyrenees during the Last Glaciation at elevations above 2100-2200 m. Since the deglaciation of these areas, periglacial processes have generated a wide range of periglacial landforms, such as rock glaciers, patterned ground and debris slopes. The role of soil temperatures is decisive for the degree of activity of periglacial processes: cryoturbation, solifluction, frost weathering, etc. Nowadays, periglacial processes in the Eastern Pyrenees are driven by a seasonal frozen layer extending 5-7 months. In general, at 2100 m the seasonal frost reaches 20 cm depth, while at 2700 m reaches 50 cm depth. However, soil temperatures, and thus, periglacial processes are strongly controlled by the large interannual variability of the snow cover. With the purpose of understanding the rhythm and intensity of soil freezing/thawing in 2003 we set up several monitoring sites along a vertical transect from the valley floors (1100 m) to the high plateaus (2700 m) across the southern slope of the Puigpedrós massif (2914 m), in the Eastern Pyrenees. The monitoring of soil temperatures has been conducted from 2003 to 2015 in different periglacial landforms using UTL and Hobo loggers. These loggers were installed at depths of 5, 20 and 50 cm at five sites: Calmquerdós (2730 m), Malniu (2230 m), La Feixa (2150 m), Meranges (1600 m) and Das (1097 m). Air temperatures used as reference come from two automatic stations of the Catalan Meteorological Survey in Malniu and Das, and with two loggers installed in La Feixa and Meranges. No permafrost regime was detected in none of the sites. Data shows evidence of the control of snow cover on the depth of the frozen layer and on the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Air temperatures at 2000-2200 m show a mean of 150 freeze-thaw cycles per year. In La Feixa, with very thin snow cover, only 67 cycles are recorded at 5 cm depth and 5 cycles at 50 cm depth. In Malniu, located at a higher

  12. Monitoring of debris flows and landslides by wired and wireless systems. Experiences from the Catalan Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya, José; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Llosa, Jordi

    2013-04-01

    Sophisticated monitoring of landslides for research purpose has started in the 1990thies in the Catalan Pyrenees. Since then several types of mass movements (large landslides, debris flows, shallow landslides and rock falls) and multiples techniques have been applied. In this contribution, special attention will be given to the debris-flow monitoring system installed since summer 2009 in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees. The monitoring system has continuously been improved during the last years and nowadays includes devices studying the three major aspects: 1) initiation, 2) flow dynamics, and 3) accumulation. While some parts of the monitoring network include a traditional wired system, the newer parts were installed using low-power wireless devices. Two major aspects will be discussed. First, results of the Rebaixader monitoring site will be presented. Second, experience regarding the monitoring will be evaluated focussing on technical aspects and the comparison between wired and wireless techniques. In the Rebaixader catchment, 6 debris flows and 11 debris floods were observed between August 2009 and October 2012. Surprisingly, also 4 major rock falls were recorded. The rainfall analysis shows that the debris flows were triggered by short, high-intensity rainstorms with a preliminary threshold of about 15 mm during 1 hour. In addition, there was observed a positive trend between event volume and rainfall amount or intensity. The analysis of the ground vibration signals shows significant differences between the time series recorded at the different geophones. These differences are associated with the geophone location in the channel (distance and material), the mounting or the data acquisition system. For instance, the most downstream geophone, installed in bedrock, shows the clearest debris-flows vibration time series, while the uppermost is the most reliable regarding the detection of rockfalls. An evaluation of wired versus wireless monitoring

  13. The Spirit of France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Jr, Philip

    1994-01-01

    .... Demonstrating unyielding perseverance to elevate France to a position of respect in the world arena, de Gaulle aggressively pursued national interest objectives to restore French national identity...

  14. Detecting human mobility in the Pyrenees through the analysis of chert tools during the Upper Palaeolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sánchez de la Torre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary results of PhD research focused on hunter-gatherer groups that occupied the Central and Eastern Pyrenees during the Magdalenian period. This research aims to improve the knowledge we have about those Magdalenian groups, specifically concerning their lithic procurement strategies. The core of the study is based on the lithic tools collected from two archaeological sites - Alonsé Cave and Forcas I Shelter, both in Huesca, Spain-, and in particular those made from chert, because they are both a spatial and a cultural marker at the same time. These cherts have been studied using petroarchaeological methods, and as a result, it has been possible to detect the type of procurement strategies carried out and to guess the relation existing between those human groups and their environment, especially in what refers to mobility strategies.

  15. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Angels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2007-09-05

    An ethnobotanical study has been carried out in the high river Ter valley (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) a small area located in the eastern Pyrenees, with 294 km(2) and 4526 inhabitants. Through 42 interviews with 60 informants of a mean age of 71.1, 220 species belonging to 71 botanical families were reported, 90.6% of which were used in human medicine and 7.8% in veterinary therapy. The present paper is focused on human medicinal plant uses. One fungal and four vascular plant species have not, or have very rarely been cited as medicinal, and for other taxa some very scarcely reported medicinal uses have been recorded (110 uses concerning 78 species).

  16. Home Garden Ecosystem Services Valuation through a Gender Lens: A Case Study in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Calvet-Mir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services have become a critical issue in the environmental literature, however knowledge on whether women and men similarly value ecosystem services is still nascent. We aim at advancing the understanding of the relation between gender and environmental perceptions through the analysis of values assigned by women and men to ecosystem services supplied by home gardens in Vall Fosca (Catalan Pyrenees, north-eastern Spain. We found that women give a higher value than men to all ecosystem services. Overall, women’s valuation of the full range of ecosystem services provided by home gardens was 7.55% higher than men’s valuation. Gender socialization influences the way people interact with and value the environment, including highly managed environments such as home gardens. We argue that considering gendered differences in ecosystem services valuation may lead to policies more effective in enhancing ecosystem services provision.

  17. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) from 2011 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Rico, Ibai; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i) continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS), (ii) detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology) for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season) and (iii) time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA). The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface), and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277) is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological or ecological perspective in which snow dynamics play a

  18. The France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  19. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  20. A three-dimensional model of the Pyrenees and their foreland basins from geological and gravimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, H.; Chevrot, S.; Courrioux, G.; Guillen, A.

    2018-06-01

    We construct a three-dimensional geological model of the Pyrenees and their foreland basins with the Geomodeller. This model, which accounts for different sources of geological and geophysical informations, covers the whole Pyrenees, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the Iberian range to the Massif Central, down to 70 km depth. We model the geological structure with a stratigraphic column composed of a superposition of layers representing the mantle, lower, middle, and upper crusts. The sedimentary basins are described by two layers which allow us to make the distinction between Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, which are characterized by markedly different densities and seismic velocities. Since the Pyrenees result from the convergence between the Iberian and European plates, we ascribe to each plate its own stratigraphic column in order to be able to model the imbrication of Iberian and European crusts along this fossile plate boundary. We also introduce two additional units which describe the orogenic prism and the water column in the Bay of Biscay and in the Mediterranean Sea. The last ingredient is a unit that represents bodies of shallow exhumed and partly serpentinized lithospheric mantle, which are assumed to produce the positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the North Pyrenean Zone. A first 3D model is built using only the geological information coming from geological maps, drill-holes, and seismic sections. We use the potential field method implemented in Geomodeller to interpolate these geological data. This model is then refined in order to better explain the observed Bouguer anomalies by adding new constraints on the main crustal interfaces. The final model explains the observed Bouguer anomalies with a standard deviation less than 3.4 mGal, and reveals anomalous deep structures beneath the eastern Pyrenees.

  1. Integrated multi-stratigraphic study of the Coll de Terrers late Permian-Early Triassic continental succession from the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula): A geologic reference record for equatorial Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujal, Eudald; Fortuny, Josep; Pérez-Cano, Jordi; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Ibáñez-Insa, Jordi; Oms, Oriol; Vila, Isabel; Bolet, Arnau; Anadón, Pere

    2017-12-01

    The most severe biotic crisis on Earth history occurred during the Permian-Triassic (PT) transition around 252 Ma. Whereas in the marine realm such extinction event is well-constrained, in terrestrial settings it is still poorly known, mainly due to the lack of suitable complete sections. This is utterly the case along the Western Tethys region, located at Pangaea's equator, where terrestrial successions are typically build-up of red beds often characterised by a significant erosive gap at the base of the Triassic strata. Henceforth, documenting potentially complete terrestrial successions along the PT transition becomes fundamental. Here, we document the exceptional Coll de Terrers area from the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula), for which a multidisciplinary research is conducted along the PT transition. The red-bed succession, located in a long E-W extended narrow rift system known as Pyrenean Basin, resulted from a continuous sedimentary deposition evolving from meandering (lower Upper Red Unit) to playa-lake/ephemeral lacustrine (upper Upper Red Unit) and again to meandering settings (Buntsandstein facies). Sedimentary continuity is suggested by preliminary cyclostratigraphic analysis that warrants further analysis. Our combined sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical data infer a humid-semiarid-humid climatic trend across the studied succession. The uppermost Permian strata, deposited under an orbitally controlled monsoonal regime, yields a relatively diverse ichnoassemblage mainly composed of tetrapod footprints and arthropod trace fossils. Such fossils indicate appropriate life conditions and water presence in levels that also display desiccation structures. These levels alternate with barren intervals formed under dry conditions, being thus indicative of strong seasonality. All these features are correlated with those reported elsewhere in Gondwana and Laurasia, and suggest that the Permian-Triassic boundary might be recorded somewhere around

  2. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  3. Annual and seasonal analysis of temperature and precipitation in Andorra (Pyrenees) from 1934 to 2008: quality check, homogenization and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Pere; Prohom, Marc; Aguilar, Enric; Mestre, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    ://www.meteo.cat) - Spagnoli B, Planton S, Mestre O, Déqué M, Moisselin, JM (2002). Detecting climate change at a regional scale: the case of France. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, n.10, pp. 91-94. - Maris M, Giraud G, Durand Y, Navarre JP, Mérindol L. 2009. Results of 50 years of climate reanalysis in the French Pyrenees (1958-2008) using SAFRAN and CROCUS models. International Snow Science Workshop, Davos 2009, Proceedings.

  4. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  5. Case study - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture concerns the training of the personnel of the PWR 900 MW twin units nuclear power station which is located in the Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China. The following points are covered: General organization of the training; preparation and recruitment of personnel trained in France; training and qualification of the personnel trained in France; complementary training in PRC for the above personnel; training of additional personnel in PRC; attended retraining. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines the organizational and technical aspects of nuclear safety in France. From the organization point of view, the roles of the operator, of the safety authority and of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety are developed. From the technical viewpoint, the evolution of safety since the beginning of the French nuclear programme, the roles of deterministic and probabilistic methods and the severe accident policy (prevention and mitigation, venting containment) in France are explained

  7. Colluvial legacies of millennial landscape change on individual hillsides, place-based investigation in the western Pyrenees Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Leigh; T.L. Gragson; M.R. Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    We detect transition to agropastoral land use in a mountain landscape by radiocarbon dating physical signatures (sedimentation rates, charcoal concentrations, magnetic susceptibility) of conversion from native forest to pasture contained within colluvial stratigraphic sections. Focus is on two study sites located on toeslopes directly beneath zero-order hollows...

  8. Biomonitoring of trace metal elements by lichens of the Western Pyrenees.Study of elemental and isotopic signature of mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Queipo Abad, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The lichens, organisms originated by symbiotic relationship between an algae and a fungus, have shown good properties as biomonitors of pollution from Trace Metal Elements. They can be used as indicators of local and long-range atmospheric pollution. The assessment of deposition of atmospheric pollutants results difficult to know their long term impact. This happens specially when the study is focalized in remote areas. In this project it has been developed the elemental and isotopic analy...

  9. Climate Change and Policy Effects: The Development of Renewable Energy in the Midi-Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, Laurie; Leroy, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the construction of regional-scale policies for fighting climate change, we have chosen to study windmill development, wood energy and solar power in the region of Midi-Pyrenees. More precisely, we study the interactions between public actors, local associations and renewable energy experts, the manner in which this interface has been institutionalized and what this process means in terms of knowledge acquisition among the actors involved. Theoretically, we seek to shed light on neo-institutionalist and sociology of science approaches. By drawing upon the 'policy arrangements' framework of analysis, we show that three of the dimensions characterizing the policy arrangement of renewable energy - coalitions among actors, the distribution of resources and the legal framework - have gradually been modified. This has led to changes in a fourth dimension - that of dominant discourse. Finally, even if interactions between experts and local associations may play a decisive role in the initial phase of the construction of energy policies, public actors gradually succeed in bringing the implementation of these policies under their control

  10. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  11. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  12. Climate and Energy Roadmaps towards 2050 in north-western Europe. A concise overview of long-term climate and energy policies in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notenboom, J.; Boot, P.; Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.

    2013-10-15

    Many European countries are developing plans for a transition towards a low-carbon economy in 2050. These plans are often named climate and energy roadmaps. Although roadmaps are also developed and discussed at EU level, this paper expressly follows a bottom-up approach by looking at developments in six north-western European countries. These countries' roadmaps are in various stages of development and cannot be compared in detail. Main differences, common approaches and possible needs for closer cooperation are therefore explored in a stylised way.

  13. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  14. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: purpose and context (includes information about France's energy supplies, use and responsible organizations); evolution of relationships among institutions; review of prevailing preoccupations of sectors (separate headings for oil, gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and unconventional energy sources: under the nuclear heading information is given about the organization of the nuclear industry in France, mining, enrichment, reprocessing, reactor construction); nature and operation of government control; energy in the plans; formulation of policy; opposition to the nuclear policy. (U.K.)

  15. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  16. Immediate changes in topsoil chemical properties after controlled shrubland burning in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre-Galarza, Raquel; Fernández Campos, Marta; Badía-Villas, David; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Girona-García, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed fire has recently been adopted as an encroachment-fighting strategy in the Central Pyrenees. Despite relatively large information on wildfire impacts on soil, there is little information on prescribed fire effects, especially in mountain ecosystems (Shakesby et al, 2015). Fire effects are noticeable in the topsoil, particularly in relation to soil organic matter and nutrient contents and quality (Alexis et al, 2012). These components change with time after fire and at the scale of the upper few centimetres of mineral soil (Badía et al, 2014). The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effects of prescribed shrubland burning on soil's nutrients and organic matter content to detect changes at cm-scale, trying to differentiate the heat shock from the subsequent incorporation of ash and charcoal. The study area, densely covered with spiny broom (Echinospartum horridum), is located in Tella (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) at 1900 meters above sea level. Three sites were sampled before burning and immediately after burning just in its adjacent side. The soils belong to the WRB unit Leptic Eutric Cambisol, Soil samples were collected separating carefully the organic layers (litter in unburned soils and ashes and fire-altered organic residues in burned soils) and the mineral horizon at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved to 2 mm. Soil organic C (by the wet oxidation method), total N (Kjeldahl method), water-soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4=, NO3- and NH4+), exchangeable ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+ and Mn2+), total and available P, pH (1:5) and the electrical conductivity (in a 1:10 soil-to-water ratio) were measured. Immediately after the controlled fire, soil organic carbon content on burned topsoil decreases significantly within 0-3 cm of soil depth studied while total N decrease was not significant. Moreover, only a slight increase of the electrical conductivity, water-soluble ions and exchangeable ions was

  17. Spatial distribution and environmental analysis of the alpine flora in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gómez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the digital edition of the “Atlas of the vascular flora of the Pyrenees” (www.florapyrenaea. org, the alpine flora of this mountain range is delimited in order to know its diversity and the different patterns of its spatial distribution, along with some other environmental characteristics. The Pyrenean alpine flora is made up of 645 taxa (630 species and 15 subspecies. All the administrative regions harbour more than 60% of the alpine plants, with Catalonia and Aragon reaching the highest values (around 90%. Along the altitudinal gradient, the highest plant diversity is found between 2300 and 2600 m. a. s. l., although 25% of the total alpine flora goes beyond 3000 m. On the other hand, a remarkable number of alpine plants live in the lowlands, and thus more than 300 alpine plants can be found below 1500 m. The average altitude range of the alpine plants is 1369 m, 300 m wider than that observed for the whole Pyrenean flora. Life-forms, habitat distribution and habitat naturalness of alpine plants are significantly different from those of the whole Pyrenean flora. Distribution of abundance categories also shows values of rarity significantly lower among alpine plants than for the whole flora. More than half the Pyrenean endemic plants are present in the alpine flora. High diversity and wide ecological amplitude of the alpine flora must be taken into account either when considering vulnerability of alpine plants facing “global change” or when addressing conservation policies for the whole Pyrenees from a common perspective.

  18. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The SHETRAN model for simulating the sediment yield arising from shallow landslides at the scale of a river catchment was applied to the 45-km2 Ijuez catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees, to investigate the effect of loss of forest cover on landslide and debris flow incidence and on catchment sediment yield. The application demonstrated how such a model, with a large number of parameters to be evaluated, can be used even when directly measured data are not available: rainfall and discharge time series were generated by reference to other local records and data providing the basis for a soil map were obtained by a short field campaign. Uncertainty bounds for the outputs were determined as a function of the uncertainty in the values of key model parameters. For a four-year period and for the existing forested state of the catchment, a good ability to simulate the observed long term spatial distribution of debris flows (represented by a 45-year inventory and to determine catchment sediment yield within the range of regional observations was demonstrated. The lower uncertainty bound on simulated landslide occurrence approximated the observed annual rate of landsliding and suggests that landslides provide a relatively minor proportion of the total sediment yield, at least in drier years. A scenario simulation in which the forest cover was replaced by grassland indicated an increase in landsliding but a decrease in the number of landslides which evolve into debris flows and, at least for drier years, a reduction in sediment delivery to the channel network.

  20. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  1. France - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of France is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  2. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  3. The action of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a selection of energy statistics in France on, the energy in the economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating systems, rational use of energy, prices, energy and the environment and some useful addresses. (A.L.B.)

  5. France energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The monthly (May 1991) energy situation analysis in France is presented: the energy consumption rise is lowered and especially, oil imports have fallen from -3.1 pc; natural gas imports and domestic electric power production have risen. The energy import dependence rate have very slightly risen, around 50 pc. Diagrams for 1989, 1990, 1991 are presented [fr

  6. Long term evolution and internal architecture of high-energy banner ridges of Mer d'Iroise (Western Brittany, France) : interplay of sea-level, basement morphology, biogenic productivity and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, P., Sr.; Le Dantec, N.; Franzetti, M.; Delacourt, C.; Ehrhold, A.

    2016-12-01

    The recent completion of a coupled seismic and swath bathymetric survey, conducted across the Mer d'Iroise (Atlantic continental shelf, France), provided new data for the study of the long term evolution of deep tidal sand ridges. Three major banner sand ridges composed of biogenic sands were investigated: the Banc du Four, the Haut Fond d'Ouessant and the Banc d'Ar Men. Seismic interpretation reveals a compound internal architecture of these sand ridges with a sedimentary core forming the lower units interpreted to be shoreface deposits and overlain by sandwaves. Sandwave climbing, which combines progradation and accretion, is the major process controlling the growth of the ridges. The elevation of the preserved dune foresets reaches values of about 20 to 30 m and indicate a combination of giant dunes characterized by numerous steep (up to 20°) clinoforms corresponding to a high-energy depositional environment. All of the radiocarbon ages of the biogenic surficial deposits of the Banc du Four range from 10,036 to 2,748 cal years B.P. and suggest it has grown during the last sea-level rise. The apparent absence of recent surface deposits could be caused by a change in benthic biogenic productivity or the non-conservation of recent deposits. The multiphase accretion of the ridge is closely linked to the progressive flooding of the coastal promontories and straits that structured the igneous basement. A comparable evolutionary scheme is observed for the Haut-Fond d'Ouessant where a counter-clock wise migration of dunes characterizes the surface of the ridge. In contrast, the Banc d'Ar Men located above a regular basement displays a simpler structure with a consistent Northwestward migration of steep clinoforms. Therefore, the sand ridges of the Mer d'Iroise should be thought of as a representative example of large-scale high-energy banner banks controlled by interaction of sea-level, basement morphology, biogenic productivity, tidal and wave hydrodynamics.

  7. Assessing the human health risk for aluminium, zinc and lead in outdoor dusts collected in recreational sites used by children at an industrial area in the western part of the Bassin Minier de Provence, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A. P.; Patinha, C.; Noack, Y.; Robert, S.; Dias, A. C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    The Western part of the “Bassin Minier de Provence”, a former coal mining area, is still occupied by old polluting industries such as a coal-fired power plant and an alumina factory. In 2011 a preliminary outdoor dust survey was carried out in the area as the first step to an exposure and health risk assessment study. Dust samples were taken at 19 sites distributed across the study area, depending on the location of recreational areas used by children to play outdoors. Pseudo-total concentrations of Al, Zn and Pb were determined by ICP-MS and bioaccessible concentrations were estimated using the Unified BARGE Method. Exposure was calculated according to a scenario evaluation approach for dust ingestion and dermal contact routes. Estimation of health risk for exposure to Al, Zn and Pb in outdoor dust was based on the summation of individual risks for the oral and dermal routes. Results show that Al occurs in very high concentrations but mainly innon-bioaccessible forms, especially near the alumina plant. Zinc and Pb occur in low-average levels but mainly in bioaccessible forms. The estimated potential risk decreases according to Pb ≫ Al > Zn and is lower for the ingestion route. The preliminary results presented in this study indicate that, for Al and Zn, the outdoor dusts of the BMP represent an acceptable risk to children's health. However, the estimated hazard quotients suggest that there is some health risk associated to environmental Pb.

  8. The FlatModel: a 2D numerical code to evaluate debris flow dynamics. Eastern Pyrenees basins application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Hürlimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    Debris flows are present in every country where a combination of high mountains and flash floods exists. In the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, at the Pyrenees, sporadic debris events occur. We selected two different events. The first one was triggered at La Guingueta by the big exceptional flood event that produced many debris flows in 1982 which were spread all over the Catalonian Pyrenees. The second, more local event occurred in 2000 at the mountain Montserrat at the Pre-litoral mountain chain. We present here some results of the FLATModel, entirely developed at the Research Group in Sediment Transport of the Hydraulic, Marine and Environmental Engineering Department (GITS-UPC). The 2D FLATModel is a Finite Volume method that uses the Godunov scheme. Some numerical arranges have been made to analyze the entrainment process during the events, the Stop & Go phenomena and the final deposit of the material. The material rheology implemented is the Voellmy approach, because it acts very well evaluating the frictional and turbulent behavior. The FLATModel uses a GIS environment that facilitates the data analysis as the comparison between field and numerical data. The two events present two different characteristics, one is practically a one dimensional problem of 1400 m in length and the other has a more two dimensional behavior that forms a big fan.

  9. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  10. Middle Jurassic shear zones at Cap de Creus (eastern Pyrenees, Spain) : a record of pre-drift extension of the Piemonte–Ligurian Ocean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Wilkinson, Camilla M.; Ganerød, Morgan

    The Cap de Creus peninsula in NE Spain consists of greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metasediments and granitoid bodies of the Variscan Axial Zone of the Pyrenees, overprinted in the north by anastomosed greenschist-facies shear zones. Current tectonic interpretations ascribe these shear zones to

  11. Biostratigraphy, palaeoecology and palaeogeography of the mainly marine Ager Formation (Upper Paleocene — Lower Eocene) in the Tremp Basin, Central-South Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, Pieter A.M.

    1978-01-01

    During the greater part of the Palaeogene the Tremp Basin was an area which underwent rapid subsidence as compared with the axial zone of the Pyrenees to the north, and the Ebro Massif to the south. As a result the sea occupied this area for a long time and deposition of the Ager Formation took

  12. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  13. Tidal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author first discusses the potential theoretical production of tidal energy in the world and more particularly in France, and compares this potential production with that of hydroelectric energy. He discusses the existence of potentially interesting sites in France in terms of sizing and exploitation modes. He describes the main associated works for turbines and sea walls, impacts on the environment, on the economy and on employment. He discusses the production possibilities and their cost, and the issue of energy storage. He indicates sites which could be built before 2025: Saint-Brieuc, Portbail-Coutainville or Granville, Mers or Cayeux, Penly or Saint-Valery en Caux. For each of this site, the author describes the project implantation, gives an gross assessment of the construction cost, and therefore of the kWh cost

  14. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. La titrisation en France.

    OpenAIRE

    BIROUK, O.; CASSAN, L.

    2012-01-01

    La crise financière a justifié une surveillance accrue de la titrisation dans le refinancement de l’économie. Les créances titrisées en France sont en grande majorité représentatives de crédits octroyés par les banques aux ménages et aux sociétés non financières résidents.

  16. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  17. Pharmacy education in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  18. Nuclear Education in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of nuclear engineering training in France. The nuclear sector is very active and developed in France and covers all the aspects of the fuel cycle which implies a strong demand for highly skilled and trained staff. There are both an active involvement of industry in the education process through the design of adequate curricula and a strong support of the State. There are 5 masters dedicated to Science Nuclear Energy (Paris), Nuclear Waste Management (Nantes), Separation Chemistry (Montpellier), Materials for Nuclear Engineering (Grenoble), and 1 engineer degree in nuclear engineering (Saclay). In 2010-2011 there were about 1000 students completing a nuclear energy curriculum (nuclear engineering or specialized nuclear domains) at the master-engineer level throughout France. The detailed curriculum of the Master of Science Nuclear Energy is given. The National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Techniques (INSTN) plays an important role, it has trained a large fraction of the French leading nuclear practitioners through its 50 years old 'Genie Atomique' curriculum. INSTN proposes also high level courses in nuclear disciplines including training of nuclear physicians, radio-pharmacists and medical physicists and is a major player for continuing education in nuclear sciences. (A.C.)

  19. Energy options in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid rise of oil price and the future shortage of oil are the problems, to which those in charge of energy must face. The method of maintaining and increasing energy consumption without destroying financial balance must be found. As the common points in Japan and France, domestic energy resources are scarce, coal reserves are small and the cost is high, the room for expanding water power generation hardly remains, and the atomic energy projects of large scale seem to be the only solution, but actually, they encountered many difficulties. In France, Energy Conservation Agency was established in 1974. The energy consumption per man was 4500 kWh in 1979, and it is not high level, accordingly it is difficult to reduce the present consumption further. The growth of electricity consumption in 1979 slowed down remarkably. The present crisis is oil crisis instead of energy crisis. Therefore electric power is the most suitable medium to get rid of the bondage of oil. The breakdown of heat production is as follows: coal 41%, oil 32%, gas 4%, and uranium 23%. Since 1976, 15 power plants of 3.5 million kW were converted to coal burning, but more staffs are required for the operation and maintenance. Water power generation is valuable to supplement nuclear power generation which lacks flexibility. As the nucleus of energy projects in France, PWR development project is in progress. Six 900 MW PWR plants are in operation. (Kako, I.)

  20. Taxation in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  1. Middle Class Fortunes in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kochhar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the middle classes in the U.S. and 11 countries in Western Europe and how it has changed since 1991. Among Western Europe's six largest economies, the shares of adults living in middle-income households increased in France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2010, but shrank in Germany, Italy and Spain. France, the Netherlands and the UK also experienced notable growth in disposable household income, but incomes were either stagnant or falling...

  2. Characteristics and mode of emplacement of gneiss domes and plutonic domes in central-eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Jean-Claude

    Gneiss domes and plutonic granitoid domes make up almost 50% of the pre-Hercynian terrains in the Central and Eastern Pyrenees. From a structural study of the shape and internal structure of the domes and of their relationships with the enclosing rocks, it can be shown that both types of domes were emplaced diapirically during the major regional deformation phase and the peak of regional metamorphism. The study also shows that the internal structure, the overall shape and general behaviour relative to the host rocks are similar for plutonic domes and for gneiss domes. This appears to be in good agreement with H. Ramberg's (1967, Gravity Deformation and the Earth's Crust. Academic Press, London; 1970, Model studies in relation to intrusion of plutonic bodies. In: Mechanisms of Igneous Intrusion (edited by Newall, G. & Rast, N.) Geol. J. Spec. Issue2, 261-286.) model studies showing that dome or mushroom-like structures, similar to those observed, develop when there is a small viscosity ratio between the rising body and its enclosing medium. This implies a high crystal content for the granitoid magma. This crystal content has been estimated by (i) calculating the viscosity and density in natural conditions from petrological data for the magma considered as a suspension, using the model and program of J. P. Carron et al. (1978 Bull Soc. géol. Fr.20, 739-744.); (ii) using the recent results of experimental deformation of partially melted granites of I. van der Molen & M. S. Paterson (1979, Contr. Miner. Petrol.70, 299-318.) and (ii) comparing the preceding results with the data obtained by deformation experiments on rocks similar to those enclosing the domes. The minimum crystal content for the development of a dome-like structure has been, thus, estimated to about 70%, i.e. a value very close to that estimated by van der Molen & Paterson (1979) to be the critical value separating the granular framework flow from suspension-like behaviour. The effect of small

  3. The mountainous space as a commodity: the Pyrenees at the age of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Vaccaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In these pages we reflect on the process of transformation of the Catalan Pyrenees from a peripheral and economically decaying area to a first-rate tourism center. Real estate speculation has replaced depopulation. The economic and social value of the territory has dramatically shifted as it has gone from supporting low profitability ranching activities to become the space where resorts and parks are built. The paper analyzes the process of commodification and patrimonialization that have reintegrated the area into the national and international leisure markets paying special attention to the role of conservation practices, ski resorts and second residences in such a process. Finally, we attempt to identify the similarities and differences that characterize the two emergent tourism models: mass tourism versus small scale ecotourism.Au fil de ces pages, nous réfléchissons au processus de transformation des Pyrénées catalanes de zone périphérique et en déclin économique en centre touristique de qualité. La spéculation immobilière a remplacé le dépeuplement. La valeur économique et sociale du territoire a radicalement changé, la promotion des activités d’élevage peu rentables ayant cédé la place aux stations touristiques et aux parcs. Cet article analyse le processus de marchandisation et de patrimonialisation qui a réintégré la région sur les marchés de loisirs nationaux et internationaux en prêtant une attention particulière au rôle des pratiques de conservation, des stations de ski et des résidences secondaires. Enfin, nous tentons d’identifier les similitudes et les différences qui caractérisent les deux modèles touristiques émergents : le tourisme de masse contre l’écotourisme à l’échelle locale.

  4. Radiometric dating of brittle fault rocks; illite polytype age analysis and application to the Spanish Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pluijm, B. A.; Haines, S. H.

    2008-12-01

    A variety of approaches have been available to indirectly date the timing of deformation and motion on faults, but few approaches for direct, radiometric dating of shallow crustal fault rocks were available until recently. The growing recognition of clay neomineralization at low temperatures in many fault rocks, particularly the 1Md illite polytype, allows the successful application of Ar dating to these K-bearing phases. In this presentation we will discuss our recent illite age analysis approach (sampling, treatments, analytical methods), and present new results from fault dating along the Spanish Pyrenean orogenic front as an example. X-ray quantification of polytype ratios in three or more size fractions is used to define a mixing line between (1Md illite) authigenic and (2M illite) detrital end-member phases that constrain the fault age and host rock provenance/cooling age for each fault. The common problem of recoil in clays is addressed by encapsulating samples before irradiation. Nine fault gouge ages in the south-central and south-eastern Pyrenees support several contractional pulses in the Pyrenean orogen: 1) Late Cretaceous thrusting (Boixols), 2) Latest Paleocene-Early Eocene deformation (Nogueres Zone and Freser antiformal stack), 3) Middle-Late Eocene deformation (Ripoll syncline, Vallfogona, Gavernie, Abocador and L'Escala thrusts), and 4) Middle Oligocene thrusting in the central portion of the Axial Zone (Llavorsi-Senet). The late Paleocene-Early Eocene and Middle-Late Eocene events may or may not be one single phase, due to slightly overlapping error estimates. The outboard thrusts give Hercynian ages for the detrital component of the fault rock, while the inboard thrusts, which juxtapose metamorphic units, give Cretaceous ages for the non-authigenic component, reflecting the cooling age of the adjacent wallrocks. Based on our latest work, the illite polytype dating method complements previously developed illite-smectite dating (van der Pluijm et

  5. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  6. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, M.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover) vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio. We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW) and sediment pore water (SPW) from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰), with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes. In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (-9.4‰ to 7.4‰) than for nitrate (-11.4‰ to -3.4‰), as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water). For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion). Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil interaction; and another highly influenced by soil conditions. The snow-type flow path contributes low DIN

  7. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  8. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  9. Energy statistics. France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  10. Literatures of Medieval France

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Dear Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues, Deep forests, enchanted castles, monsters, damsels in distress, stout-hearted heroes and boundless love. The literature of the Middle Ages has everything it takes to appeal to the imagination of children and teenagers. However, can it do more than that? And does it even still have this appeal? Anatole France claims that, to the loves of Abeille des Clarides and Georges de Blanchelande and to the magnanimity of the King of the Dwarves, his pretty little n...

  11. Planeteria: news from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, J.; Acker, A.; Delfosse, X.

    2011-10-01

    France has a good network of planetaria. They are linked through a network called Association of the French Speaking Planetaria. In this talk, I will present this organization and its different activities. I will also report on the making of a Art and Science museum in Grenoble which will include a planetarium. The grand opening is foreseen in 2014. Finally, I will present an astronomical show which has been adapted for planetaria and demonstrate how this benefits both to the show and the planetarium.

  12. Mael-e(st-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Mée, Mael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A performance of Mael Le Mée and France Geoffroy Photos and videos (France: Denis Louis Photo (Montreal: Alexandre Cv France Geoffroy’s assistant: Rosalie Chrétien Production: Espace Projet and Dorsa Barlow Performance co-developed within the project BIOGRAPHIES, with the support of CNC – DICRéAM, Aquitaine Regional Council and the City of Bordeaux.

  13. Gas de France international strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the main international objectives of Gaz de France, and actions taken to achieve them. The safety and the reliability of natural gas supplies is the priority-holder axis of the international strategy of Gaz de France. The second axis is to obtain a consolidated position in Europe on natural gas markets and valorize the know-how of Gaz de France in foreign countries

  14. The footprint of marginal agriculture in the Mediterranean mountain landscape: An analysis of the Central Spanish Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, T; Nadal-Romero, E; Errea, M P

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland. This article studies the role of traditional agriculture in the deterioration of the landscape. By using experimental plots in the Central Pyrenees to reproduce traditional agriculture and abandonment, maps of field types, and current uses and ground cover, it could be confirmed that shifting agriculture has caused very heavy soil loss, which explains the deterioration of the landscape on several slopes. Burning scrub and adding the ash to the soil as a fertilizer did not greatly help to improve soil quality, but caused high rates of erosion and a very slow process of regrowth. The average data obtained from the shifting experimental plots recorded losses of 1356kgha -1 years -1 , 1.6 times more than the plot of fertilized cereal, and 8.2 times more than the dense scrub plot. Following abandonment, losses in the shifting agriculture plot were almost three times higher than the abandoned sloping field plot. Traditional shifting agriculture in the Pyrenees is the main cause of the deterioration of the landscape 50-70years after agriculture ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrospective study of pestivirus infection in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) and other ungulates in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Allepuz, Alberto; Lavín, Santiago

    2011-04-21

    In 2001 a new Pestivirus (Family Flaviviridae) was associated with an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Molecular characterization assigned this virus to the Border Disease Virus (BDV) cluster, BDV-4 genotype. A retrospective study was performed in archived sera and spleen of 74 Pyrenean chamois and in archived sera of 28 mouflon (Ovis ammon), 56 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 43 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 29 fallow deer (Dama dama) from the Pyrenees between the years 1990 and 2000. Thirty six of 74 (48.6%) sera of Pyrenean chamois, one of mouflon and one of red deer were positive by an ELISA antibody test. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on 26 seropositive chamois, one mouflon and one red deer, using five pestivirus strains. An ELISA antigen test was performed on 37 seronegative chamois and yielded positive results in one chamois and inconclusive result in two. RT-PCR and virus isolation performed on spleen samples from these three animals gave positive results in the positive and one inconclusive animal. Sequence analysis in the 5' unstranslated region revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. Virological and serological data of the present study indicate that BDV infection has been present in the chamois population since at least 1990, 11 years before the first outbreak of disease. Therefore, the emergence of the disease in 2001 is apparently due to other factors rather than the introduction of a new virus in the chamois population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  17. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1991-01-01

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  18. Numerical modelling comparison of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Central Pyrenees-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Merodo, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Davalillo, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    Slow-moving landslides are a wide-spread type of active mass movement that cause severe damages to infrastructures and may be a precursor of sudden catastrophic slope failures. In this context, modelling slow-moving landslide behaviour is an important task in order to quantify and reduce the risk associated to this geological process. In practice, landslide occurrence and stability conditions are evaluated for a given scenario through a stability factor based on limit equilibrium analysis. This "static" approximation is hardly applied when boundary conditions are time dependent. Apart from earthquake studies, time dependent analysis is required when: (i) hydrological conditions change as in the case of rainfall; (ii) resistant parameters are reduced as in the case of strain softening or weathering processes and (iii) creep behaviour is taken into account. Different numerical models can be applied to reproduce the kinematic behaviour of large slow landslides. This paper compares four different models: i) a direct correlation with measured rainfall, ii) a simple 1D infinite slope viscoplastic model [1], iii) a 2D elasto-plastic finite element model [2] and iv) a 2D visco-plastic finite element model [3]. These models, ordered by increasing level of complexity, are compared by applying them to the Portalet case study. The Portalet landslide (Central Spanish Pyrenees) is an active paleo-landslide that has been "reactivated" by the construction of a parking area at the toe of the slope in 2004. This landslide is still active despite the corrective measures carried out to stabilize it. The measurements obtained with different monitoring techniques (ground based SAR, advanced DInSAR processing of satellite SAR images, DGPS and inclinometers) indicate that the hillside is still moving today following two patterns. The first one corresponds to a slow continuous motion of constant speed of about 100 mm/year, the second one corresponds to accelerations of the moving mass when

  19. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bartrons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio.

    We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW and sediment pore water (SPW from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰, with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes.

    In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (−9.4‰ to 7.4‰ than for nitrate (−11.4‰ to −3.4‰, as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water. For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion. Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil

  20. Soil properties relevant to land degradation in abandoned sloping fields in Aisa valley, Central Pyrenees (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardini, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-approach characterization of soil properties in abandoned fields in the Aisa valley, at mid mountain in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, demonstrated that the soil's own peculiar characteristics are concerned with conservation problems. Aggregate stability and shrinkage tests pointed to a relatively good soil performance due to the aggregating role of organic matter and calcium carbonates, although calcium ions, in some instances, may exert and additional antagonistic role for a sealed surface, increasing runoff. On the other hand, soil micromorphology suggests that the poor condition of the soils is in some contradiction to paedogenic activity. These findings, together with the presence of ashes, support the hypothesis that land degradation in these areas is mainly related to human activity thought unsuitable management after land abandonment.

    [es] La caracterización de diversas propiedades del suelo en campos abandonados del valle de Aisa, montaña media del Pirineo Central, ha mostrado que dichos suelos presentan algunos caracteres de interés desde el punto de vista de la conservación. La estabilidad de los agregados y los test de agrietamiento evidencian un comportamiento aceptable, gracias al papel agregante de la materia orgánica y carbonatos de calcio, a pesar que los iones calcio, en algunas ocasiones, pueden ejercer un papel antagonista adicional y favorecer el sellado de la superficie del suelo, aumentando la escorrentía superficial. Por otra parte, la micromorfología sugiere que el estado de degradación de los suelos contrasta con la actividad pedogénica. Estos resultados, juntamente con la presencia de cenizas, apoyan la hipótesis de que el estado de degradación en estas áreas es consecuencia principalmente de una utilización incorrecta después del abandono de los cultivos.
    [fr] Un étude des propriétés des sois dans une zone à cultures en pente abandonnées dans la vallée d'Aisa (Pyr

  1. Spatial distribution and morphometry of permafrost-related landforms in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Palma, Pedro; Pereira, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    Present and past permafrost distribution in the Pyrenees is still under discussion. As in other mid-latitude mountain regions, rock glaciers and protalus lobes are the min indicators of permafrost conditions. In this study, we examine the distribution of these landforms in the Boí valley, a formerly glaciated U-shaped valley ranging from 850 to 3000 m a.s.l. The valley encompasses a surface of 247 km2, mainly composed of granite and shales. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers and protalus lobes and their chronostratigraphic position within the valley allow a better understanding of the climatic and environmental conditions necessary for their development. Geomorphological mapping of these landforms was built using high resolution imagery provided by the Institut Cartogràfic i Geologic de Catalunya, complemented with Basemap ESRI images and Google Earth Pro, and subsequently improved with field observations. The map was generated in a GIS environment following the RCP 77 mapping system of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Joly, 1997). Several parameters of each landform have been measured (Table 1): area (ha), altitude (maximum, minimum, mean), length (L), width (W), aspect and slope. This information provides accurate characterization of the morphometric properties of these landforms as well as a detailed identification of their spatial distribution. Up to 121 permafrost-related landforms were identified in the Boí valley, including 84 rock glaciers and 37 protalus lobes. Most of the landforms (93% for rock glaciers and 95% for protalus lobes) are located inside the glacial cirques, while the rest is distributed in the valley bottom or slopes of the formerly glaciated valleys. The lowest elevation of both forms is situated at 2100 m a.s.l. Therefore, this altitude may be indicative of the lowest level recording permafrost conditions during the period in which these landforms formed. The maximum elevation of the landforms usually

  2. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana; Gaspar, Leticia; Palazon, Leticia [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei (EEAD- CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Soil and Water; Valero-Garces, Blas [Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The sediments accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (Central Spanish Pyrenees) have greatly decreased its water storage capacity and are a major threat to the sustainability of water resources in the region. This study examines the contents of radionuclides and stable elements in the reservoir sediments and relates their variations with the sediment composition and local sedimentary dynamics, particularly flood frequency and intensity, which are responsible for changes in the main supply and distribution of radionuclides in the basin. Materials and methods: The sedimentary sequence accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (471 Hm{sup 3}), which supplies water to ca. 1,000,000 people and for irrigation, was examined in two 4-m long sediment cores (Y1, Y2) and one profile (Y3) retrieved at its central part. In the sediments, radionuclide activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were measured using a hyperpure Ge coaxial detector. The stable elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Li, K and Na were analysed by ICP-OES. Complementary analyses to characterize the sediments included: XRD in the profile, grain size distribution by laser equipment and the contents of organic matter, carbonates and the residual fraction by loss on ignition. Results and discussion: The variation in radionuclide activities is associated with grain size and sediment composition. The activity levels (becquerels per kilogram) ranged between 20 and 43 for{sup 238}U, 14 and 40 for {sup 226}Ra, 7 and 56 for {sup 210}Pb, 19 and 46 for Th{sup 232}, 1 and 48 for {sup 137}Cs and 185 and 610 for {sup 40}K. Enriched activity levels are associated with clayey and silty layers, and depleted levels with sandy layers. The levels of radionuclides and trace elements were significantly lower in the cores than in the profile because of its higher silicate content and the influence of inflow of spring mineral-rich waters. The correlations among

  3. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  4. Amphibian distribution patterns in western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, Annie

    1980-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the distribution of amphibians in western Europe have been studied in France where related species, isolated from each other at least during the last glacial period, are now sympatric. Occurrences and biotope preferences of the various species were investigated in several

  5. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  6. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  7. Women in physics in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives

  8. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  9. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  10. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  11. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  12. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  13. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  14. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  15. Energy in France. References

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet is a compilation of key data about the energy in France: energy and economy (energy industries and gross internal product, employment, investments), overall energies (primary energy production and consumption, sectoral consumption, energy bill, price of imported crude oil), petroleum (primary production, sectoral consumption of refined petroleum products, automotive fuels demand, import and export of petroleum products), natural gas (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of origin), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports), electric power (production per origin, classical thermal production per type of fuel, sectoral consumption), renewable energies (overall production, heat networks supplied with non-conventional energy sources, wood consumption, wind power production, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, cumulated energy saving), energy prices (in industries and households, automotive fuel prices, energy consumptions in households), energy and environment (CO 2 emissions). A synthesis of the main energy tariffs and prices is given in a separate folder. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear prospects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    At the present time, then, we are on the threshold of the second phase of nuclear development, in the. course of which nuclear activities will play a more telling role in the economic cycle. We must therefore consider the development of nuclear energy during its first two decades in the light of the above conclusions and in the realization that for some time to come we shall find ourselves in a delicate transitional stage, during which various influences from the period behind us and the period ahead will make themselves felt. This train of events is not restricted to France, where in 1970 the CEA undertook a complete restructuring of its departments. It is also taking place in other countries, where the various atomic energy commissions are feeling the need to reorganize in order to fit themselves for essential changes. We must therefore be prepared to act in the most effective way possible during this nuclear industrial period. To this end we must establish structures and adopt ways of thinking that art in keeping with the objectives of the period, which will be accompanied by a large growth of investment in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Success will depend to a large extent on timely joint efforts in the public and private sectors. Taken together, these requirements imply that we must follow a long-term policy covering at least the next 20 years. As our remarks are to concern the peaceful applications of nuclear energy in France, leaving aside questions of fundamental research and military applications, we shall concentrate ori the fuel cycle and the production of nuclear power, enlarging the subject at each step to encompass the necessary and increasing international co-operation.

  17. Shielding research in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafore, P

    1964-10-01

    Shielding research as an independent subject in France dates from 1956. The importance of these studies has been reflected in the contribution which they have made to power reactor design and in the resultant savings in expenditure for civil engineering and machinery for the removal of mobile shields. The Reactor Shielding Research Division numbers approximately 60 persons and uses several experimental facilities. These include: NAIADE I, installed near the ZOE reactor and operating with a natural uranium slab 2 cm thick (an effective diameter of 60 cm is the one most commonly used); the TRITON pool-type reactor, mainly used in shielding studies, includes an active-water loop, by means of which the secondary shields required for light-water reactors can be studied; core, NEREIDE, which is situated near a 2 m x 2 m aluminium window enables a large neutron source to be placed in a compartment without water in which large-scale mock-ups can be mounted for the study, in particular, of neutron diffusion in large cavities, and of reactor shielding of greater thickness than that in NAIADE I; SAMES 600 keV accelerator is used for monoenergetic neutron studies. Instrumentation studies are an important part of the work, mainly in the measurement of fast neutrons and their spectra by activation detectors. Of late, attention has been directed towards the use of (n, n') (rhodium) reactions and of heavy detectors for low-flux measurements. The simultaneous use of a large number of detectors poses automation problems. With our installation we can count 16 detectors simultaneously. Neutron spectrum studies are conducted with nuclear emulsions and a lithium-6 semiconductor spectrometer. As to the materials used, the research carried out in France involves chiefly graphite, iron and concrete at various temperatures up to 800 deg C. Different compounds, borated and non-borated and of densities up to between 1 and 9 are under consideration. Problems connected with applications are

  18. CIRCULATION AU MOYEN AGE DES MATERIAUX FERREUX ISSUS DES PYRENEES ARIEGEOISES ET DE LA LOMBARDIE. APPORT DU COUPLAGE DES ANALYSES EN ELEMENTS TRACES ET MULTIVARIEES.

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy , Stéphanie

    2010-01-01

    This provenance study concerns the trade understanding in the Middle Ages of iron objects originally from specific ironmaking processes linked to the use of manganese rich ores. We were particularly interested in the case studies of the Ariège (French Pyrenees) and the Lombardy (Italian Alps) areas, two separate geographic areas that held a major place in the medieval economy of their region. This work deals with three specific historical questions. The first part is to clarify the trade rout...

  19. Depositional setting and early diagenesis of the dinosaur eggshell-bearing Aren Fm at Bastus, Late Campanian, south-central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Molina, Margarita; Kälin, Otto; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; López Martínez, Nieves; Vicens, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Aren Fm exposed north of Bastus in the Tremp Basin (south-central Pyrenees) preserves an excellent record of dinosaur eggs laid in a marine littoral setting. Different from other cases reported in literature, at the Bastus site the preferential nesting ground was original beach sand. The coastal deposits of Aren Fm can be grouped into four facies assemblages, representing respectively shoreface, beachface, beach ridge plain and backbarrier lagoon environments. Shoreface de...

  20. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  1. Active surveillance of bat rabies in France: a 5-year study (2004-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Picard-Meyer , Evelyne; Dubourg-Savage , Marie-Jo; Arthur , Laurent; Barataud , Michel; Bécu , David; Bracco , Sandrine; Borel , Christophe; Larcher , Gérald; Meme-Lafond , Benjamin; Moinet , Marie; Robardet , Emmanuelle; Wasniewski , Marine; Cliquet , Florence

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Active surveillance of bats in France started in 2004 with an analysis of 18 of the 45 bat species reported in Europe. Rabies antibodies were detected in six indigenous species, mainly in Eptesicus serotinus and Myotis myotis, suggesting previous contact with the EBLV-1 rabies virus. Nineteen of the 177 tested bats were shown serologically positive in seven sites, particularly in central and south-western France. Neither infectious viral particles nor viral genomes were de...

  2. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  3. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. France looks to biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-22

    France's Solar Energy Commission has announced a series of measures it is backing to increase the country's production of energy from biomass. Following consultations on suitable equipment, it has decided to go ahead with experiments of 15 systems designed to produce methane from animal wastes. Its eventual target is the production of between 1 million and 1.5 million tons per year of oil equivalent (toe) from this source. Secondly, it has launched a tender for the supply of domestic and industrial heating equipment capable of functioning on straw. It has calculated that the amount of straw available for this end use is in the region of 6 million ton per year, equivalent to about 2 million tons per year toe. Finally, tests are to be carried out in 14 different areas to determine the best variety of Jerusalem artichoke for the production of ethanol. Together with the Institut Francais du Petrole the Commission is building a demonstration unit for the production of acetone/butyric acid by fermentation of sugars from Jerusamlem artichoke and beet roots.

  5. Nuclear electricity from France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.

    1987-01-01

    This second volume of the Berlin series presents the papers and discussion of the eleventh discussion meeting on energy law, for the first time held in Berlin, on May 12-13, 1987. The leading subject of the first conference day, namely electricity imports from France, has since then widely been discussed in the media or at other meetings, although the legal problems or obstacles revealed at this Berlin meeting are far from being solved. There is EdF's wish to export electricity to West Germany on the other hand, and there is the West German coal industry's scepticism on the other hand. Much is at stake for West Germany's national concept of enhanced use of coal for electricity generation, and the related system of subventions. Supply concepts and franchise charges, a standing topic of the power sector for quite a time now, have been discussed on the second conference day. The papers read there gave an account of the situation and also presented some new aspects. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.

    1981-02-01

    The principles and rules governing the safety of nuclear installations are defined as from three fundamental principles and three practical rules as follows: First principle: the operator is responsible and of the highest order. Second principle: the public authorities exercise their control responsibility with respect to the design, construction and running of the installations. Third principle: nuclear safety, this is to accept that man and his technique are not infallible and that one must be prepared to control the unpredictable. First rule: the installations must include several 'lines of defence' in succession and to the extent where this is possible these must be independent of each other. Second rule: procedures are required and supervised by the Government Departments. Third rule: nuclear safety requires that any incident or anomaly must undergo an analysis in depth and is also based on a standing 'clinical' examination of the installations. The definition is given as to how the public authorities exercise their intervention: terms and conditions of the intervention by the safety authorities, authorization procedures, surveillance of the installations, general technical regulations. Two specific subjects are presented in the addendum, (a) the choice of nuclear power station sites in France and (b) the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  7. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  8. Outreach in southern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year

  9. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  10. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  11. The nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear energy in France is done. The great centers and the great research lines of the French nuclear program, as well as its present status and prospects for the future are presented. (EG) [pt

  12. Electricite de France in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menage, G.; Bergougnoux, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes financial results of a french electric utility (Electricite de France) in 1992. Statistical data on investments, tariffs, and prices of electric power in Europe are also given. 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Gaz de France. Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  14. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  15. France without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. In brief...France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Among the different news we can find information about the situation of the radiation accidents at the hospital of Epinal in the east of France. The medical surveillance of the irradiated patients has allowed to find others cases of over exposure.These new cases add to a series of events enlightened in this service: 24 patients treated for a prostate cancer between may 2004 and august 2005 have been over exposed of about 20 % because of a bad use of the treatment planning software. 4 hundred patients treated for a prostate cancer between 2001 and 2006 have been over exposed of about 8% by an excessive use of the imaging controlling the positioning during the treatment. Among 4500 patients treated for different cancers between september 1987 and july 2000 and concerned by a programming error of an internal software, 312 patients have received an overexposure of about 7%. The Authority of nuclear safety and the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) publish the report of management 2006 on the Internet gate of the National network of environmental radioactivity measurements. The Internet site of the pluralist expertise group on the uranium mines sites of the Limousin opens at the address :www.gep-nucleaire.org. The high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety is officially created. The Asn has classified at the level 4+ of the experimental scale Asn-S.F.R.O. the accident occurred at the teaching hospital of Toulouse between the 11. april 2006 and the 18. april 2007 implying 145 patients treated by intracranial radiosurgery. (N.C.)

  17. New species of aquatic insects from Europe (Insecta: Trichoptera): Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON; PREVIŠIĆ, ANA; MALICKY, HANS

    2016-01-01

    New species are described from the following genera: Consorophylax and Anisogamus, (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Additionally the larvae of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri nov. sp. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs distinctly from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, A. waringeri sp. nov. develops more slender superior appendages; a more rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on the 1st abdominal segment, a unique feature among Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The recovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess a biodiversity under threat of extinction that has yet to be fully described. PMID:25661619

  18. The influence of knowledge on the public policy making process: the case of renewable energies in Midi Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, L.

    2012-01-01

    Even though energy policy makers were novices when wind power was introduced in the Midi Pyrenees region, the situation had changed when the photovoltaic was implemented. The new challenges policy makers experimented about the wind power and their opponents, the wood energy and the primacy of the wood's industrials, the photovoltaic and the preservation of the agricultural lands, fostered their learning and gradually lead them to change their perception of inherent issues. The coalitions forged between technical experts and policy makers unbind along the progressive empowerment of the formers. Shared between different forms of knowledge, however, the resources needed to implement renewable energies projects cannot be reduced to the technical dimension. Local knowledge and engineering knowledge increasingly compete with expert knowledge. This evolution corresponds to a policy arrangement change. Since the dynamic but also the elements that compose this political system change, a new reality gradually emerges. This whole process will be the main concern of this thesis. We will finally notice that there are some differences between the implementation of these renewable energies among the territories but also among the three forms of renewable energies we analyze. This means that although renewable energy policy are based on interactions between actors' resources, discourse and rules, they also emerge from the action of intermediates actors, and from the characteristic of each territories in which they are implemented. (author)

  19. A CHARACEAN THALLUS WITH ATTACHED GYROGONITES AND ASSOCIATED FOSSIL CHAROPHYTES FROM THE MAASTRICHTIAN OF THE EASTERN PYRENEES (CATALONIA, SPAIN)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Breva, Sheila; Martín-Closas, Carles

    2011-02-01

    The new species Clavatoraxis microcharophorus is described from the Lower Maastrichtian of the Eastern Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain). Microchara sp. gyrogonites were found in anatomical connection with this thallus, attached to bract-cell rosettes and coated by a structural tunica, formed by an expanded bract cell. This is a feature unknown in extant characeans, which only display lime incrustations similar to tunicae in extremely alkaline and well-illuminated environments. This is the first time that a complete fossil characean is described. The attribution of characean vegetative remains to the genus Clavatoraxis shows that this genus is not exclusive of clavatoraceans as previously thought. The taphonomic study of C. microcharophorus sp. nov. and associated fossil charophytes, along with sedimentological and microfacies analyses, has enabled us to characterize the habitat of this species in the Maastrichtian lake of Vallcebre. They grew forming meadows, and their remains were deposited in the poorly oxygenated lake bottom, where they were well preserved. A number of other characeans and porocharaceans were living in shallower belts. This was the case for Peckichara sp. and Munieria grambasti in the freshwater lacustrine meadows. Another species, Feistiella malladae, was found parautochthonous in brackish lakes. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  1. France's 2010 energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    2010 in Europe was marked by a moderate economic upturn after the crisis year of 2009, when consumption dropped. At the global level, the energy demand from emerging countries continued to push up prices. In France, 2010 was a year in which the winter months were particularly cold, causing additional consumption for heating of more than 10 per cent, estimated at 4.6 millions tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). National primary energy production was 138.6 Mtoe, 0.2 Mtoe higher than the previous record year 2008. Nearly all forms of energy contributed to the increase. Nuclear power increased its output by 4.6 per cent and was only 5 per cent below its maximum, reached in 2005. Hydro production returned to a regime almost in line with the average. Wind power once again increased significantly (+19%) and photovoltaic electricity tripled, although it still only accounts for 0.6 Mtoe. Extraction of conventional fossil fuels was stable at 2.5 Mtoe. Thermal renewable energy and energy recovered from waste also increased markedly, by 10.7 per cent (+1.7 Mtoe). Total primary energy consumption increased by 3.8 per cent. Once corrected for climatic variations, it increased slightly (+1.7%) but remained well below its pre-crisis level. With 266 Mtoe it was even below its 2000 level. It progressed by 4 Mtoe per year on average in the 1990's, then by only 2 Mtoe in 2001 and 2002. Since then, despite a rebound in 2004, it had remained stable until the clear drop in 2009. Aggregated renewable thermal energy and energy recovered from waste continued their progression (+5.1%). The pace dipped slightly, but progress has been permanent since 2006 (+37% in 4 years). However, this group of sources still only accounts for 6.4 per cent of primary consumption. Stimulated by the rigours of the climate, gas beat all its records. However, after correction, its level was close to that around which it was fluctuating before the crisis, between 2002 and 2008. Primary electricity consumption (+2

  2. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of 137CS in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of 137 Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of 137 Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout 137 Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the 134 Cs activity for estimating 137 Cs ( 137 Cs / 134 Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare 137 Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this 137 Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their 137 Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m 2 10 m 2 or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the 137 Cs fallout. The 137 Cs specific activity is, on average, 25% (from 18 to 35% at

  3. Circulation of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Damiani, Céline; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Quinio, Dorothée; Moalic, Elodie; Saliou, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Le Meur, Yann; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2012-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutants in France are still limited. In this study, mutant prevalence in the Brest region (western France) was determined. Archival pulmonary specimens from 85 patients infected with P. jirovecii and admitted to our institution (University Hospital, Brest) from October 2007 to February 2010 were retrospectively typed at the DHPS locus using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Type identification was successful in 66 of 85 patients. Sixty-four patients were infected with a wild type, whereas mutants were found in 2 patients (2/66, 3%). Medical chart analysis revealed that these 2 patients usually lived in Paris. Another patient usually lived on the French Riviera, whereas 63 patients were from the city of Brest. Thus, the corrected prevalence of mutants in patients who effectively lived in our geographic area was 0% (0/63). Taking into account that i) Paris is characterized by a high prevalence of mutants from 18.5% to 40%, ii) infection diagnoses were performed in the 2 Parisians during their vacation Paris to Brest through infected vacationers. The study shows that the usual city of patient residence, rather than the city of infection diagnosis, is a predictor of mutants and that P. jirovecii infections involving mutants do not represent a public health issue in western France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  5. Increasing Aridity is Enhancing Silver Fir (Abies Alba Mill). Water Stress in its South-Western Distribution Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Andreu, L.; Bosch, O.; Gutierrez, E. [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal, 645, Barcelona, 08028, Catalonia (Spain); Camarero, J.J. [Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigacion Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragon, Apdo. 727, Zaragoza, 50080, Aragon (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Tree populations located at the geographical distribution limit of the species may provide valuable information about the response of tree growth to climate warming across climatic gradients. Dendroclimatic information was extracted from a network of 10 silver-fir (Abies alba) populations in the south-western distribution limit of the species (Pyrenees, NE Iberian Peninsula). Ring-width chronologies were built for five stands sampled in mesic sites from the Main Range in the Pyrenees, and for five forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges where summer drought is more pronounced. The radial growth of silver-fir in this region is constrained by water stress during the summer previous to growth, as suggested by the negative relationship with previous September temperature and, to a lesser degree, by a positive relationship with previous end of summer precipitation. Climatic data showed a warming trend since the 1970s across the Pyrenees, with more severe summer droughts. The recent warming changed the climate-growth relationships, causing higher growth synchrony among sites, and a higher year-to-year growth variation, especially in the southernmost forests. Moving-interval response functions suggested an increasing water-stress effect on radial growth during the last half of the 20th century. The growth period under water stress has extended from summer up to early autumn. Forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges experienced a more intense water stress, as seen in a shift of their response to precipitation and temperature. The Main-Range sites mainly showed a response to warming. The intensification of water-stress during the late 20th century might affect the future growth performance of the highly-fragmented A. alba populations in the southwestern distribution limit of the species.

  6. Application of the SWAT model to an endorheic watershed in the Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees: Methodological approach and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; White, Sue; Navas, Ana; López-Vicente, Manuel; Palazón, Leticia

    2013-04-01

    Modelling runoff and sediment transport at watershed scale are key tools to predict hydrological and sediment processes, identify soil sediment sources and estimate sediment yield, with the purpose of better managing soil and water resources. This study aims to apply the SWAT model in an endorheic watershed in the Central Spanish Pre-Pyrenees, where there have been a number of previous field-based studies on sediment sources and transfers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a process based semi-distributed watershed scale hydrologic model, which can provide a high level of spatial detail by allowing the watershed to be divided into sub-basins. This study addresses the challenge of applying the SWAT model to an endorheic watershed that drains to a central lake, without external output, and without a network of permanent rivers. In this case it has been shown that the SWAT model does not correctly reproduce the stream network when using automatic watershed delineation, even with a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (5 x 5 metres). For this purpose, different approaches needed to be considered, such as i) user-defined watersheds and streams, ii) burning in a stream network or iii) modelling each sub-watershed separately. The objective of this study was to develop a new methodological approach for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes in an endorheic and complex karst watershed of the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees. The Estanque de Arriba Lake watershed (74 ha) is an endorheic system located in the Spanish Central Pre-Pyrenees. This watershed holds a small and permanent lake of fresh water (1.7 ha) and is a Site of Community Importance (European NATURA 2000 network). The study area is characterized by an abrupt topography with altitude range between 679 and 862 m and an average slope gradient of 24 %. Steep slopes (> 24 %) occupy the northern part of the watershed, whereas gentle slopes (

  7. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  8. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 13, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    View or download the full issue, Untitled () PDF. Table of Contents. Articles. Morphology of the Zambezi River plume in the Sofala Bank, Mozambique · EMAIL ... (Iles Eparses, France) in the Mozambique Channel, South Western Indian Ocean.

  9. Warming or cooling in the Pragian? Sedimentary record and petrophysical logs across the Lochkovian-Pragian boundary in the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Liao, J.-Ch.; Hušková, Aneta; Calvo, H.; Hrstka, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 449, May (2016), s. 300-321 ISSN 0031-0182 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100131201 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : climate change * correlation * Early Devonian * gamma-ray spectrometry * magnetic susceptibility * Pyrenees Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.578, year: 2016

  10. Approach and institutions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.

    1989-01-01

    In France, safety training for workers is compulsory under general legislation, supplemented in some cases by specific regulations on certain individual hazards. The radiation protection training for exposed workers is largely left to the initiative of the qualified officers, and there are regulations governing the training of the officers themselves. Qualified officers play a fundamental part in France in disseminating the radiation protection training and information which the regulations require them to have. It should be pointed out that qualification for the purposes of these regulations, implies having a clear grasp of the mechanisms involved rather than the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and requires a thorough understanding of the relevant legislation

  11. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Long-term entrenchment and consequences in present flood hazard in Garona River (Val d'Aran, central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Flood risk is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in mountainous areas. Risk management and mitigation have to be based on exhaustive risk evaluation. Moreover, hazard analysis requires a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a complete understanding of the dynamics of the phenomena. The Val d'Aran valley is located in the axial part of the Pyrenees and is drained by the Garona River. Flooding events are relatively frequent there. The last extraordinary episode occurred in June 2013. Considering both the main effects of this flooding and the geomorphology, the long-term dynamics of the Garona River was studied in two different areas (Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les), which are representative of the whole length along the Val d'Aran. In fact, present short-term processes can be partly explained as a result of the long-term fluvial tendency. During the analysis of the 2013 flood effects, several entrenchment and incision indicators were found. Under the hypothesis that the fluvial network tends to incise, an entrenchment indicator analysis was carried out. Firstly, we considered the geomorphologic features, such as two generations of alluvial fans, two generations of alluvial terraces and, incisions on geomorphologic features and in Paleozoic bedrock. Secondly, we found out that erosion dominated over overflow and deposition during the 2013 flooding. Finally, great erosion was identified in engineering structures, for instance, in bridges, channelization dikes, gauging stations and dams. The geomorphologic analysis and the entrenchment indicators are essential to perform a post-glacial evolution interpretation. During the last Pleistocene glacial retreat, a fluvio-torrential network was developed at the bottom of the ancient glacial valley. An early post-glacial phase with a high sediment transport lead to the formation of first generation alluvial fans and alluvial terraces (nowadays located ≈15m above the channel). As sediment transport decreased

  13. Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Revuelto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.

  14. Middle-to-late Holocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from the A294 ice-cave record (Central Pyrenees, northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Belmonte, Ánchel; Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno, Ana; Leunda, María; López-Martínez, Jerónimo

    2018-02-01

    Perennial ice deposits in caves represent unique, but underexplored, terrestrial sequences that potentially contain outstanding palaeoclimatic records. Here, we present a pioneer palaeoenvironmental study of an ice deposit preserved in a small sag-type cave (A294) in the Central Pyrenees (northern Iberian Peninsula). The 9.25-m-thick sequence, which is dated from 6100 ± 107 to 1888 ± 64 cal BP, represents the oldest known firn ice record worldwide. The stratigraphy (detrital layers, unconformities, and cross stratification), plant macrofossils, and isotopic signature (similarity between the ice linear distribution, δ2H = 7.83δ18O + 8.4, and the Global Meteoric Water Line) of the ice point to the diagenesis of snow introduced to the cave by winter snowstorms. Four phases of rapid ice accumulation (6100-5515, 4945-4250, 3810-3155, and 2450-1890 cal BP) are related to wetter and colder winters. Comparison of the isotopic composition (δ18O and deuterium excess) of the ice with other paleoclimate records show that both source effects and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mechanism exert a dominant influence on the ice cave record. The NAO signal may be a combination of source effects and rainfall amount. Three intervals with low ice accumulation occurred between the phases of rapid accumulation and were related to drier, and possibly warmer, winters. These centennial-scale episodes appear to be in-phase with regional arid events, as established from high altitude lacustrine records and can be correlated to global Rapid Climate Change events. The current warming trend has dramatically decreased the volume of the ice deposit in cave A294.

  15. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza Usuga, Juan Carlos; Jarauta Bragulat, Eusebio; Porta Casanellas, Jaume; Poch Claret, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  16. Streamflow response and sediment yield after farmland abandonment: results from a small experimental catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano-Muela, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A small catchment affected by agricultural practices in the past, then progressively abandoned and naturally re-vegetated was monitored in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The results obtained over a 9-year period revealed the complexity of its hydrological and geomorphological behaviour. Several runoff generation processes can occur at the same time and in different parts of the catchment, depending on the water reserves conditions and rainfall characteristics. Sediment response is mainly controlled by the spatial and temporal dynamics of water and sediment contributing areas within the catchment. The sediment output illustrates the complexity of the geomorphic response of mountain environments modified by past farmland activities.

    Se presenta una síntesis de la investigación realizada en una pequeña cuenca experimental afectada por una intensa actividad agraria en el pasado y sujeta a un proceso de revegetación natural en la actualidad en el Pirineo Central. Los principales resultados obtenidos demuestran su complejo comportamiento hidrogeomorfológico. El análisis de la información hidrológica sugiere que diferentes procesos dominantes de generación de escorrentía pueden ocurrir de manera simultánea en diferentes áreas de la cuenca, en función del estado de humedad de la misma y de las características de la precipitación. La respuesta sedimentológica está principalmente controlada por la dinámica espacio-temporal de las áreas fuente de escorrentía y de sedimento. La exportación de sedimento ilustra la complejidad de la respuesta geomorfológica en los ambientes de montaña afectados por actividades agrarias en el pasado.

  17. Co-evolution of soils and vegetation in the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Muela, Maria Pilar; Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; María García Ruiz, José

    2013-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. This study analyzes soil and vegetation characteristics under various plant covers, using information from the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (AVES), Spanish Pyrenees, from 1991 to 2010. The land uses considered were: dense shrub cover, grazing meadow, abandoned field, cereal (barley), abandoned shifting agriculture, active shifting agriculture, burnt1 and burnt2 plots, and in-fallow plot. All the plots were installed on a field abandoned 45 years ago. Some of the plots did not change in plant cover through the study period (e.g., the meadow, cereal and shifting agriculture plots), but others underwent changes in density and composition, such as: (i) The dense shrub cover plot represents the natural evolution of the abandoned field. When the AVES was equipped, this plot was completely dominated by Genista scorpius, with a few stands of Rosa gr. Canina. Twenty years later, Genista scorpius is affected of senescence and shows almost no regeneration capacity. (ii) The abandoned field had previously been cultivated with cereals until 1993. Once abandoned, the progression of plant colonization was very rapid. Firstly with grasses and, 10 years later, with Genista scorpius. At present, this latter occupies more than 50% of the plot. (iii) The evolution of plant colonization in the abandoned shifting agriculture plot was slower than that in the 'normal' abandoned field, mainly because of the differences in fertilization when they were cultivated. (iv) One of the burnt plots evolved from 0% to a coverage of almost 100% in a shot period, whereas the other plot remained with a shrub density of about 60% several years after the fire. Soil samples (superficial and depth) were analyzed to obtain physical and chemical properties: structure, texture, pH, CaCO3, Organic Matter and various anions and cations. The main purpose was to detect differences in the soil

  18. 2004 energy accounting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  19. 2003 energy situation of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    This short document summarizes the key data of the 2003 energy status of France: real and climate-corrected total primary energy consumption, end-use energy consumption (demand per energy source and per sector of use), power supply and demand, and CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  20. Human coronavirus NL63, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vabret, Astrid; Mourez, Thomas; Dina, Julia; van der Hoek, Lia; Gouarin, Stéphanie; Petitjean, Joëlle; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François

    2005-01-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in The Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been investigated. We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory

  1. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  2. Further contributions to a new tectonic interpretation of the Sainte Victoire Mountain (Provence, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricour, J.; Monteau, R.; Laville, P.; Agryriadis, I.

    2016-10-01

    A new tectonic interpretation of the Sainte Victoire Mountain (north of Marseille, south eastern France) is proposed, principally invoking vertical movements and providing evidence which suggests an uplift which may be still active today in the western part. Some new observations confirm our hypothesis. (Author)

  3. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  4. France under a microscope - Nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The first French nuclear power plant was built in 1956, but it was only after the 1970's oil shock that nuclear power gained an important place in the French energy sector. Planning Act 2005-781 of 13 July 2005 laying down French energy policy orientations confirmed that nuclear energy was to remain the primary source of electricity supply in France. The Act also encourages diversification of sources of electricity production through renewable energies (wind power, biomass) and the security of electricity supply from oil, gas and coal. Nuclear energy accounted for 78.4% of electricity production in France in 2006. French nuclear capacity includes 58 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that produced 450 billion nuclear kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2006, i.e. 78.4% of total electricity production which is of 574 billion kWh. The lifetime of a third of currently operating nuclear plants will end in around 2020 and, with a view to the renewal of its nuclear capacity, France is about to deploy new-generation reactors that meet requirements in terms of production, environmental protection and enhanced nuclear safety. In April 2007, France started building a third-generation EPR reactor at Flamanville in the Manche Department. The EPR is to be operational by 2012. France is also devoting research programmes to fourth generation reactor technology with a view to those reactors being operational by 2040. There are a number of reasons for choosing nuclear power: it enables France to ensure its national energy independence (France imports less than 50% of its energy resources) and environmental protection (France is one of the European countries which emits the least greenhouse gases) at a stable and competitive price. Decree 2008-378 of 21 April 2008 instituted a council on nuclear policy presided by the President of the Republic. The council will define the broad lines of nuclear policy and monitor their implementation, particularly with regard to exports and international

  5. The potential effects of global warming on changes in canine leishmaniasis in a focus outside the classical area of the disease in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereure, Jacques; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Malé, Pierre; Martinez, Susana; Pratlong, Francine; Balard, Yves; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-12-01

    In 1994, an ecoepidemiologic study was carried out in the mid-Ariège valley (French Pyrenees) where autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniasis had been previously reported. Serologic samples were collected from 336 dogs in two groups of villages. The seroprevalences were 11.67% in the valley villages and only 1.43% in the foothill villages. Five lymph node biopsies were taken from serologically positive dogs, and resultant isolates were identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Phlebotomine sandflies were collected in five locations by CDC light traps. Both of the known French vectors, Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, were identified. Bioclimatic and floristic studies showed that this area is an enclave of the supra-Mediterranean climatic zone, containing a typically xerothermophilic Mediterranean flora. The Pyrenees Mountains are usually considered to be outside of the endemic range of leishmaniasis in southern France, and so our demonstration of a microfocus of canine leishmaniasis in the northern foothills is noteworthy. A second serologic survey carried out in 2007 (216 dogs) showed an inversion of the seropositive rates between the two groups of villages compared with those of 1994: only 2.72% in the valley villages and 11.32% in the foothills villages. The decrease of seroprevalence in the first area (valley villages) can be related to a considerable use of deltamethrin collars during the transmission season. The increase of seroprevalence of the foothill villages could be related to climatic conditions, since there was an increase of about 1 degrees C in the mean annual temperature.

  6. Lateral variations in foreland flexure of a rifted continental margin: The Aquitaine Basin (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrand, P.; Ford, M.; Watts, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    We study the effects of the inherited Aptian to Cenomanian rift on crustal rheology and evolution of the Late Cretaceous to Neogene flexural Aquitaine foreland basin, northern Pyrenees. We use surface and subsurface geological data to define the crustal geometry and the post-rift thermal subsidence, and Bouguer gravity anomalies and flexural modeling to study the lateral variation of the elastic thickness, flexure of the European plate and controlling loads. The Aquitaine foreland can be divided along-strike into three sectors. The eastern foreland is un-rifted and is associated with a simple flexural subsidence. The central sector is affected by crustal stretching and the observed foreland base is modeled by combining topographic and buried loads, with post-rift thermal subsidence. In the western sector the foreland basin geometry is mainly controlled by post-rift thermal subsidence. These three sectors are separated by major lineaments, which affect both crustal and foreland geometry. These lineaments seem to be part of a larger structural pattern that includes the Toulouse and Pamplona Faults. The European foreland shows lateral variations in flexural behavior: the relative role of surface and sub-surface (i.e., buried) loading varies along-strike and the elastic thickness values decrease from the north-east to the south-west where the plate is the most stretched. We suggest that foreland basins are influenced by the thermal state of the underlying lithosphere if it was initiated soon after rifting and that thermal cooling can contribute significantly to subsidence.

  7. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  8. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  9. Coal: a revival for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brones, W.

    2007-01-01

    All energy consumption forecasts indicate a world production peak of fossil fuels around 2030 followed by a rapid decline. The oil peak should probably occur earlier. In this context the huge worldwide reserves of coal represent a fantastic opportunity to meet the world power demand which should double between 2002 and 2030 with in particular a huge growth in China and India. If promising alternate technologies (coal liquefaction..) exist which would allow to replace petroleum by coal, the main question remains the management of CO 2 . Capture and sequestration techniques are already implemented and tested and the search for new coal deposits is going on, in particular in France in the Nievre area. Economic studies about the profitability of coal exploitation in France stress on the socio-economical advantage that a revival of this activity would represent, in particular in terms of employment. (J.S.)

  10. User's inspection authorities in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robault, B.; Paquet, D.

    2004-01-01

    The article 14 of the directive 97/23 EC concerning pressure equipment has been introduced in french regulation. Electricite de France (EDF) and Gaz de France (GDF) decided to become user inspectorates. The EDF user inspectorate was authorized by the departmental order of 10/10/2000 re-conducted by departmental order of 19/12/2002. The GDF user inspectorate was authorized by the departmental order of 10/07/2002 re-conducted by departmental order of 09/02/2004. The presentation of user inspectorates evaluation methods associated with the experience of firsts evaluations shows the interest of user inspectorates. This interest concerned specific equipments with experience accumulated in manufacturing and plant working. (authors)

  11. Nuclear safety organisation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report outlines the public authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear installations in France. The composition and responsibilities of the Central Safety Service of Nuclear Installations within the Ministry of Industry, the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety within the CEA, the Central Service of Protection Against Ionising Radiation and the Interministerial Committee of Nuclear Safety are given. Other areas covered include the technical safety examination of large nuclear installations, the occurrence of accidents, treatment and control of release of radioactive wastes and decommissioning. The section on regulations covers the authorisation procedure, plant commissioning, release of radioactive effluents, surveillance and protection of workers exposed to ionising radiation. The situation is compared with the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany. A list of commercial nuclear installations in France is given

  12. Training at Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1985-01-01

    With 41 nuclear power units operating and another 21 units under construction, France is serious about improving personnel training for the 3000 new employees each year. Electricite de France (EdF) takes a paternalistic approach to personnel training and to recruitment and advancement from within the organization. Courses in the training program range from one day to one year in length, and may take place either on or off the site. The author describes the training centers and schedule, but emphasizes the training is an ongoing process. Most instructors come from operating power stations. The courses use simulators to train operators in the use of fault analysis during an emergency. Computer-aided teaching systems are also widely used. 1 figure

  13. Developing solar energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alary-Grall, L.

    2003-01-01

    3 years ago the 'Soleil' program was launched and today 660.000 m 2 of solar cells have been installed which has made France to rank 4 behind Germany, Greece and Austria in terms of the use of solar energy. The 'Soleil' program, that will end in 2006, aims at developing solar energy in France and is composed of 4 axis: 1) the contribution to the funding of solar equipment through enticing financial helps, 2) the implementation of a quality plan for the installers of solar equipment, 3) the setting of a quality label for innovative and efficient solar equipment and 4) the promoting of solar energy to the professionals of the construction sector. (A.C.)

  14. Regional indexes for France. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of regional weather indexes for France. Each regional index covers an homogenous area in terms of temperature represented by the biggest city. Five reference cities are used to represent the 22 economical regions of France (Paris Orly, Lyon, Marignane, Bordeaux and Strasbourg). (J.S.)

  15. Jihadists’ Grievance Narratives against France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bindner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available France ranks first in the EU as a provider of foreign terrorist fighters in Syria and Iraq, and as the most-targeted European country in the context of the Syrian-Iraqi conflict. France has a longstanding history related to jihadism, correlated with multiple grievances from jihadist groups: it has been depicted as an enemy of Islam because of its foreign policy, its domestic policy towards religion, and, last but not least, its very essence. These grievances have been conveyed, like the baton of a relay race, from the first generations of North-African Islamist networks and the “elder brothers of jihad” to contemporary jihadists. The French jihadist media ecosystem has been instrumental in attracting a particularly large contemporary following. From the French perspective, a range of social, cultural, religious, economic, political, demographic drivers and identity factors converged to create a fertile ground for receptive radicals to emerge and break away from democratic values. Informed by these issues, this Policy Brief aims to identify avenues of further development for the French counter-terrorism strategic communication strategy. It concludes by stressing the need for this communication strategy to strive for positive, alternative messaging to re-create a continuum between individuals in the jihadist milieu and France as a nation state.

  16. 2035: a no nuclear France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a prospective scenario: the newly elected French president decides of a 20-year program to give up nuclear energy production. First, the Fessenheim and Gravelines reactors are closed. The others are to be closed by 2035. Investments are decided for offshore wind energy production, methanation projects, housing thermal insulation. Employees of the nuclear energy sector are taken into account. The authors describe the situation in 2020: energy supply problems, 5 more years of lifetime awarded to some nuclear power stations, decision to build only positive energy buildings, mandatory housing renovation, job creation, decision to develop carbon capture and storage projects. In 2025: the dismantling of nuclear reactors is going on and its cost is assessed, always more electrical vehicles, drastic cost reduction for lithium batteries. In 2035: renewable energies represent the half of the energy mix, the dismantling activity is a success for Areva. In parallel, current figures are given for energy consumption per year and per person in France and Germany, for energy French exports and imports, for electricity cost associated with the different energy sources, for the energy mix in France, for the number of jobs in the nuclear sector. In an interview, a member of the CEA comments the Italian, German and Swiss decisions to give up nuclear energy, the possibilities of its replacement by renewable energies, and the challenges associated with such a decision in France

  17. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  18. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  19. Climate index for France - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  20. Electrical energy statistics for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, national electrical consumption reached 494.5 TWh, an increase of 2.9 % compared with 2007 (480.4 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies and leap year, its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +1.3 % Consumption by business and private customers came to 198.0 TWh, an increase of 5.9 % compared with 2007 (187.0 TWh); consumption by Large-scale industry and SME/SMIs came to 263.0 TWh, an increase of 0.7 % compared with 2007 (261.3 TWh). Generation in France came to 549.1 TWh, as in 2006, an increase of 4.3 TWh or +0.8 % compared with 2007 (544.8 TWh). Hydro-electric generation reached 68.0 TWh, an increase of 7.5 % compared with 2007 (63.3 TWh). Renewable energy sources generation but hydro reached 9.7 TWh, an increase of 23.8 % compared with 2007 (7.8 TWh), mainly due to an increase of 37.5 % of wind energy (5.6 TWh in 2008 compared with 4.0 TWh in 2007). This progression is coherent with the increase of 48% of the installed capacity for wind generation. Nuclear generation came to 418.3 TWh in 2008, a decrease of 0.1 % compared with 2007 (418.6 TWh). Fossil thermal generation came to 53.1 TWh, a decrease of 3.5 % compared with 2007 (55.1 TWh). The heaviest load in terms of capacity reaches 92.4 GW during winter 2008/2009. Its evolution rate compared with 2007 is +3.8 % with a temperature lower by 2.2 deg. C. Since 2001, the heaviest load in winter has increased by 16% whereas the national electrical consumption has increased by 10%. The year 2008 is marked by the commissioning of the 400 kV line VIGY-MARLENHEIM. Besides, the underground circuits lengths grow by 118 km over the entire network. In terms of physical exchanges of electrical energy between France and the neighbouring countries France exported a net total of 48.0 TWh, a decrease of 15.4 % compared with 2007 (56.7 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries came to a cumulative value for exports and imports of 116.2 TWh, an increase of 5.1 % compared with 2007 (110.5 TWh

  1. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  2. Cultures of the Western World. Grade Ten. Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Chester School District, PA.

    This curriculum guide presents nine units for the study of western cultures in the tenth grade. The units contain up to 13 lessons each and comprise a two-semester course. Content includes ancient Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Reformation, Great Britain, France as a case study of revolution, Russia, and nationalism and the…

  3. Climate index for France - Methodology; Indice climatique France - Methodologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of France. (J.S.)

  4. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  5. Statistical data on energy. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy status of France for the year 2001: supplies, consumption and uses, national production, evolution per energy source and per sector of the national production and consumption since 1973, general indicators (evolution of the energy bill, prices, energy independence and gross internal product since 1973), projections. Details about the resources, uses and prices are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electricity and solid mineral fuels and compared with the average data of the European Union. (J.S.)

  6. Le probleme du controle de la liquidité en France. (The problem of controlling liquidity in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FOURNIER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of liquidity in France finds expression in more or less the same way as in the other western countries. It is normal practice to distinguish between the “liquidity of the economy” on the one hand, and the “liquidity of the banking system” on the other. The former corresponds to the money supply, while the latter comprises the banks’ holdings of notes and coin and their balances on sight accounts with the Bank of France, together with the total amount of the items which they can put into the Bank of France. The methods of influencing liquidity are also similar to those employed in other countries. However, to make them easier to understand, the present article first recalls certain special features of France’s monetary institutions, namely the banks, the specialised institutions and the Treasury. The author then examines the duel problems of controlling the liquidity of the economy and bank liquidity.JEL: E51, E52, E58, G21

  7. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department), creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European ...

  8. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  9. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear materials transport in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korycanek, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 1.5 million tons of uranium ore, 8000 tons of uranium concentrate, 1000 tons of UF 6 , 340 spent fuel containers, and 30 000 m 3 of nuclear wastes are transported annually by trucks, trains and ships in France. Annual costs of this transportation amount to 500-600 million FRF, and about 200 employees are engaged in this activity. Transportation of spent fuel to the La Hague and Marcoule fuel reprocessing plants, and the transport of plutonium are dealt with in detail. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 ref

  11. Energy statistics. France. August 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the statistical data relative to the production, consumption, supplies, resources, and prices of energies in France: 1 - all energies (coal, oil, gas, electric power, renewable energies): supplies, uses per sector, national production and consumption of primary energies, final consumption, general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices index, prices of imported crude oil, energy independence, internal gross product, evolution between 1973 and 2000, and projections for 2020). 2 - detailed data per energy source (petroleum, natural gas, electric power, solid mineral fuels): resources, uses, and prices. An indicative comparison is made with the other countries of the European Union. (J.S.)

  12. Electricite de France: Lifetime Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Jean-Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Electricite de France produces almost 80% of its electricity by means of standardized PWR nuclear power stations. Starting in 1986, therefore, a project known as the 'Lifetime Project' was developed, whose aim was initially to ensure that the lifetime defined at design stage (40 years in general) could be attained without major difficulty (follow up of the aging process). It then became apparent that it would be useful to know just how far it would be technically and economically possible to go. As a result, the project is now working towards increasing the lifetime of power stations. (author)

  13. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  14. France's Climate Plan - update 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosciusko-Morizet, Nathalie

    2011-07-01

    After a presentation of the background of the French climate policy and of prospective data regarding carbon emissions by 2020 (global evolution, sector-based analysis, vigilance items, scenario by 2030), this report presents the different policies and measures implemented in France. After the transverse policies and measures, it presents the current status and policies and measures for different sectors: housing and office building, transports, industry, agriculture and forest, energy (energy demand and management of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy production), wastes, public authorities and local communities

  15. The energy future in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, Paul Henri

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, the author indicates figures for primary energy sources in France, outlines what is expected from a source of energy, and discusses the energy transformation efficiency. He addresses the case of electricity production and consumption, production costs for the different sources, nuclear energy, primary fluid mechanical energies, issue of intermittency and storage, photovoltaic, storage, subsidies and purchase obligation for EDF, fossil energies and carbon dioxide production. He questions the possibility of reduction of energy consumption, evokes and criticizes the French energy policy concerning electricity production, and possibilities of energy saving in housing and in transports, and by developing smart grids

  16. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, S.; Manet, M.

    1985-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled France to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsibilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  17. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.; Brignon, P.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled FRANCE to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning, and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsabilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  18. [Violence against persons in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The violence against persons in France are various, from those inflicted by society against human groups or individuals, from those, almost unrecognizable, occurring inside the families. It is an important public health problem and need population-based surveys to evaluate and to prevent it. The numerous publications about violence, and particularly about violence against women which have been recently published reflect the actual awareness. But they demonstrate also the diversity and the evolution of the policies which do not simplify the the ways to find solutions.

  19. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km 2 , central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Identification of active erosion areas and areas at risk by remote sensing: an example in the Esera Isabena watershed, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Vicente Serrano, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of eroded areas at basin scale can be very useful for environmental planning and can help to reduce land degradation and sediments yield. In this paper remote sensing technique are used to discriminate eroded areas and areas at risk in a badlands landscape developed on Eocene marls. In the Esera Isabena watershed (Spanish Pyrenees). The spatial distribution, the scarce vegetal cover and the high level of erosion let a good visual and digital discrimination of badlands, as opposed to other land covers and surfaces. A maximum likelihood supervised method was used to discriminate heavily eroded areas (badlands) from scarce or densely vegetated lands. the classification distance was used to obtain thresholds for eroded areas and areas at risk. Two error statistics (sensitivity and specificity), where used to determine the most adequate threshold values. The resulting map shows that most areas at risk are located surrounding the badlands areas. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Identification of active erosion areas and areas at risk by remote sensing: an example in the Esera Isabena watershed, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Vicente Serrano, S. M.

    2009-07-01

    The identification of eroded areas at basin scale can be very useful for environmental planning and can help to reduce land degradation and sediments yield. In this paper remote sensing technique are used to discriminate eroded areas and areas at risk in a badlands landscape developed on Eocene marls. In the Esera Isabena watershed (Spanish Pyrenees). The spatial distribution, the scarce vegetal cover and the high level of erosion let a good visual and digital discrimination of badlands, as opposed to other land covers and surfaces. A maximum likelihood supervised method was used to discriminate heavily eroded areas (badlands) from scarce or densely vegetated lands. the classification distance was used to obtain thresholds for eroded areas and areas at risk. Two error statistics (sensitivity and specificity), where used to determine the most adequate threshold values. The resulting map shows that most areas at risk are located surrounding the badlands areas. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Glaciolacustrine deposits formed in an ice-dammed tributary valley in the south-central Pyrenees: New evidence for late Pleistocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Arenas, Concha; Pardo, Gonzalo; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Rhodes, Edward J.; Bartolomé, Miguel; García-Ruiz, José M.; Martí-Bono, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    Combined geomorphic features, stratigraphic characteristics and sedimentologic interpretation, coupled with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates, of a glacio-fluvio-lacustrine sequence (Linás de Broto, northern Spain) provide new information to understand the palaeoenvironmental significance of dynamics of glacier systems in the south-central Pyrenees during the Last Glacial Cycle (≈130 ka to 14 ka). The Linás de Broto depositional system consisted of a proglacial lake fed primarily by meltwater streams emanating from the small Sorrosal glacier and dammed by a lateral moraine of the Ara trunk glacier. The resulting glacio-fluvio-lacustrine sequence, around 55 m thick, is divided into five lithological units consisting of braided fluvial (gravel deposits), lake margin (gravel and sand deltaic deposits) and distal lake (silt and clay laminites) facies associations. Evolution of the depositional environment reflects three phases of progradation of a high-energy braided fluvial system separated by two phases of rapid expansion of the lake. Fluvial progradation occurred during short periods of ice melting. Lake expansion concurred with ice-dam growth of the trunk glacier. The first lake expansion occurred over a time range between 55 ± 9 ka and 49 ± 11 ka, and is consistent with the age of the Viu lateral moraine (49 ± 8 ka), which marks the maximum areal extent of the Ara glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle. These dates confirm that the maximum areal extent of the glacier occurred during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3 in the south-central Pyrenees, thus before the Last Glacial Maximum. The evolution of the Linás de Broto depositional system during this maximum glacier extent was modulated by climate oscillations in the northern Iberian Peninsula, probably related to latitudinal shifts of the atmospheric circulation in the southern North-Atlantic Ocean, and variations in summer insolation intensity.

  5. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Revuelto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS, (ii detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season and (iii time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA. The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface, and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277 is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological or ecological perspective in which

  6. Solar energy perspectives in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In a context combining climate change, energy supply crisis, an increased interest in solar energy, a strongly increasing market of solar installations, new technologies, a promotion of the development of the use solar energy in France and a fast development of the water heater and photovoltaic generator markets in France, this report proposes a wide overview of the past, present and future development of solar energy. It discusses the evolution of the French national energy policy and of the solar energy within this policy. It presents and discusses the solar energy resources, their strengths and weaknesses, their geographical and time distribution. It describes the various uses and applications of solar energy in buildings, discusses different aspects of this market (actors, economical data, evolutions, public incentives, perspectives). Then, it describes and discusses technical and economical aspects of two important technologies, the photovoltaic solar energy and the thermodynamic conversion of solar energy. Public incentives, laws and regulations, technical and economic aspects of the connection to the distribution network are then discussed. Some recommendations and ideas are formulated concerning research activities, industrial development, quality of equipment and facilities, personnel education, investment needs

  7. Management of mycetomas in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioni, S; Develoux, M; Brun, S; Martin, A; Jaureguy, F; Naggara, N; Bouchaud, O

    2013-07-01

    Mycetomas are chronic sub-cutaneous tropical infections in which exogenous causative agents, fungal (eumycetes) or bacterial (actinomycetes), generate grains. The typical presentation is multi-fistulized pseudotumors. This disease, particularly eumycetoma, is difficult to treat. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. In France, the disease is rare, but patients have access to a broader range of treatments. The authors had for objective to present the cases of mycetomas diagnosed in developed country and their management. A retrospective study was made on the clinical presentation and management of mycetomas from 1995 to 2011, in the Bobigny Avicenne teaching hospital. Six patient files were studied. The patients were men with a median age of 31 years (16-70). Five patients were from Sub Saharan Africa, one from Sri Lanka. The etiologies were one actinomycetoma and five eumycetomas. There was bone involvement in five cases. There was one atypical presentation: a primary intra-osseous mycetoma. Three patients were cured including two by surgical management and one by medical treatment (actinomycetoma). Antifungal therapy failed (four patients) in every case (voriconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, caspofungin). The results of this study made in a non-epidemic zone revealed that despite a typical clinical presentation, the diagnosis and management were delayed because this imported disease is rare in France. The patients received new broad-spectrum triazole and caspofungin, but none were cured with antifungal therapy alone. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  8. Relationships between mountain pine and climate in the French Pyrenees (Font-Romeu studied using the radiodensitometrical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolland, Cristian

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiodensitometrical study was carried out on 46 Pinus uncinata (Ramond in Font-Romeu (French Pyrenees. Correlation functions with monthly climatical data were calculated using separately the ring-widths, the earlywood and the latewood densities. The Mountain Pine shows narrow rings (1.5 mm and a high sensitivity to climate (M.S. = 0.221, but it does not seem to suffer from drought despite the dryness of the climate (788 mm rainfall per year. This species is more sensitive to temperature than to precipitation, since temperature governs latewood formation. A hot spring and a mild autumn with maximum temperatures above threshold levels will extend the growing period. A warm autumn also increases the latewood density, whereas cold nights during the previous year's autumn are unfavourable to growth because they may affect the cambium and bud initiations.

    [es] Se ha llevado a cabo un trabajo densitométrico sobre 46 Pinus uncinata (Ramond en Font-Romeu (Cerdaña francesa. Las funciones de correlación con el clima han sido calculadas sucesivamente con el espesor de los anillos de crecimiento, la densidad de la madera temprana y de la madera tardía. Esta especie produce anillos de crecimiento delgados (1.5 mm y presenta una elevada sensibilidad con el clima (S.M. = 0.221 pero no parece afectada por la falta de lluvia aunque el clima es más xérico (788 mm/ año. La madera tardía parece muy sensible a las temperaturas. Una primavera cálida ejerce un efecto favorable y un otoño suave con temperaturas máximas superiores a límites críticos permite continuar su desarollo. De la misma manera un otoño caliente aumenta la densidad de la madera tardía aunque las noches frías durante el otoño precedente son desfavorables para el crecimiento porque pueden afectar al Inicio de las yemas y del cambium.
    [fr] Une étude radiodensitométrique de46 Pinus uncinata (Ramond a été réalisée à Font-Romeu (Pyrénées Françaises. Les

  9. Electrical energy in France 2002; Energie electrique en France 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This report presents the provisional results of power flows on the French power system (RTE) in 2002: generation, national consumption, physical exchanges with foreign countries (instantaneous exchange balances measured by metering on each interconnection line, recorded as imports or exports, depending on the sign), adjusted consumption (for climate contingencies and leap years), energy balance (generated and imported, consumed), noteworthy data (all flows on the RTE network as well as generation auto-consumed by the industrial customers connected to this network), electricity market (contractual exchanges with foreign countries, base load blocks exchanged between balance responsible entities), power facilities (thermal, hydro-, transmission lines), main transmission facilities commissioned during the year (interconnections between France and Spain, Italy, Germany and Belgium). (J.S.)

  10. A safe energy supplying for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffin-Payne, J.

    2001-01-01

    Contrarily to other European nations like United-kingdom, Germany or Norway, France has no important fossil energy resources. The 2 major oil crisis (in 1973 and 1979) made public opinion abruptly aware of the urgent necessity for the diversification of energy supplying. Today the French production of electricity rests on nuclear energy, fossil energy and renewable energies (hydroelectricity). France is the first European country for nuclear energy (88 millions tons of oil equivalent in 1999) and for renewable energy (29 millions toe). The energy independence rate has sharply increased in 20 years from 26% in 1973 it reaches now 49%. France has developed an important capacity of fossil fuels storage about 10.5 milliards m 3 , it means that France can face a 30% decrease in its energy imports for a year without reducing its industrial output. Because of their energy choices Switzerland and France are the European countries the least sensible to price fluctuations of oil and gas. The doubling of oil price has implied a 0.32 francs rise of kWh cost in France and a 1.8 francs rise elsewhere in Europe. (A.C.)

  11. France intends to raise electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotelueschen, M.; Boiteux.

    1986-01-01

    In this interview with the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Electricite de France (EdF), the promotion of nuclear power in France, the chances on the export sector, and the structure of electric power supply are discussed and compared with the situation in West Germany. (UA) [de

  12. Teaching with "Voix et Images de France"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrow, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    A report on the classroom use of Voix et Images de France," the French text prepared by the Centre de Recherche et d'Etude pourla Diffusion du Francais (CREDIF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud in France. (FB)

  13. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France... U.S.C. 1675d(c)) (the Act), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France... views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4164 (June 2010), entitled Sorbitol from...

  14. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish, F.

    2004-11-01

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  15. Administrative and Judicial Cooperation in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is very little knowledge in the Netherlands of how economic private law and public law are enforced in France. In France too, however, scant information can be gleaned. There is little if any contact in the university community between criminal law and administrative law, partly because

  16. Which energy transition for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    While recalling the five main objectives of the French bill project for energy transition, the author proposes some critical reflections. He notices that economic, political and financial means to reach the expected decrease of energy consumption are not sufficient. He notably comments the content of the various retained scenarios, discusses and explains the fact that there will always be a gap between the expected optimal energy efficiency and the obtained results: economic actors are not ready to make the required investments, France lacks of a culture of territorial energy governance, and a way of paying the produced carbon emissions is missing. He discusses the introduction of a carbon tax. He states that the Efficiency scenario seems difficult to be reached and briefly discusses the associated consequences. He finally outlines that the nuclear issue is not clearly addressed, either in the Ademe's scenario or by the bill project

  17. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  18. France energy assessment for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the economic and energetic context for 2010: revival of activity and trade at the world level but moderate in the euro zone and in France, an exceptionally cold year, a new increase of energy prices. It briefly comments the moderate demand resumption. It comments the evolutions of productions, trade and consumptions of different energies (coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and renewable energies). It comments the resumption of energy final consumption in the main sectors (industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture and fishery, transports). It outlines a slight improvement of energy efficiency, the slight decrease of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy consumption, and a 20% increase of the French energy bill

  19. Wind energy in France: impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Josette, R.

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of 2004, the European Union is the first producer of wind energy in the world (34205 MW), far beyond the USA (6740 MW) and India (2110 MW). Three countries are in the pole position: Germany (16629 MW), Spain (8263 MW) and Denmark (3117 MW). On the other hand, despite a voluntarist policy, the other countries encounter administrative and local difficulties in the development of wind energy. This is the case with France which has the second biggest potential wind resource of Europe, behind the UK. The French situation is explained by its centralized energy system, by the priority given to nuclear power, by important wind variations, and by a bad image of wind turbines in general (aesthetic, environmental). This situation should change in the future with the scheduling of pluri-annual investments, with adapted tariffs and with improved administrative procedures. (J.S.)

  20. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for radioactive waste management are already in existence and applied on an industrial scale for short-lived wastes. France has acquired an aknowledged expertise on the international level and several foreign contemporaries are interested in the relevant techniques developed. An intensive international cooperation has allowed to define bases for an underground deep repository for long-lived wastes. It is therefore important to choose a site which meets the expected storage conditions. This development work has been started in several countries in a similar way and which should be completed by the beginning of the next century. An 'open channel' with the public about this emotional topic can smooth the way for solutions by which mankind can master its technological challenges

  1. Liberalization of electricity markets in Quebec and France: crossed prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This essay focuses on the liberalization of electricity markets in Quebec and France. As in most Western states, Quebec and France have undertaken reforms to liberalize their domestic electricity markets. Starting from a similar arrangement, namely occupied by a state monopoly, the French and Quebecois markets have evolved into a more or less liberalized model. What were the changes brought about by these reforms? What reasons have motivated them? What is the functioning of the model in place in both states? What are the prospects for these markets? To identify the issues of these reforms, this essay will be divided into four chapters. The first chapter will discuss the organization of markets in Quebec and French before the liberalizing reforms: in addition to the organization as such, this chapter will address the reasons why the two states have chosen a market controlled by the state. It emerges from this chapter that both states nationalized and regulated the electricity market to promote economic development and quality standards for a service considered public. The second chapter will examine the genesis of liberalization reforms, the different models of market organization and a summary of selected experiences of liberalization that took place both before those of Quebec and France ones. The diversity of market models and the pitfalls have lived through some states raised the fact that successful liberalization reforms is a complex process. The third chapter will analyse the reforms that changed markets in Quebec and France and more specifically, the organization of the market that has resulted. It is established that if the two markets have been forced to reform themselves by forces outside the two states, the paths that were taken differ greatly. Finally, the fourth chapter will conduct an initial assessment of the reforms and provide some forecast for the future. The reforms that have taken place in both states have produced satisfactory results taking

  2. Secularism stated, rejected and reaffirmed. France, Italy and Canada and the dilemmas of multi-religious societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, western societies have been confronted with immigration on a considerable scale. As a result, they have become more pluralistic, particularly as far as religion is concerned. This paper seeks to analyze the response to these developments in France, Italy, and the Canadian

  3. Archaeointensity study of five Late Bronze Age fireplaces from Corent (Auvergne, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé , Gwenaël; Chauvin , Annick; Milcent , Pierre-Yves; Tramon , Arthur

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Recent excavations at Corent (France) unearthed a vast Late Bronze Age settlement. The high density of fireplaces especially highlights it. The present study focuses on the archaeomagnetic study of five fireplaces. These ones were dated between 950 and 800 BCE by cross-dating of metallic and ceramic artefacts and by radiocarbon. The main objective of our study is to increase the archaeointensity database in Western Europe at the beginning of the first millennium BCE. T...

  4. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.

    1999-12-01

    time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswald facility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies

  5. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of {sup 137}CS in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, avenue de la Terrasse, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of {sup 137}Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of {sup 137}Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout {sup 137}Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the {sup 134}Cs activity for estimating {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137}Cs /{sup 134}Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare {sup 137}Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this {sup 137}Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their {sup 137}Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m{sup 2} 10 m{sup 2} or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the {sup 137}Cs fallout. The

  6. The PermaFRANCE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneich, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    A French long term monitoring network of permafrost and frost related processes, named PermaFRANCE, is being built since two years. It will represent the French contribution to the Alpine wide PermaNET network. The PermaFRANCE network will focus not only on permafrost, but on all frost related phenomena at different altitudinal levels, including both thermal monitoring and process observation and monitoring : 1) continuous and discontinuous permafrost in rock walls : - thermal monitoring is mainly performed at the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc massif) and includes rock surface temperature (RST) and temperature profils in medium depth boreholes (10 m) ; - inventory and observation of rockfall activity in high mountain rock walls : this action concerns the whole Mont Blanc area and is based on a hitorical inventory and an observation of current activity based on a network of observers and contributors ; 2) discontinuous permafrost is surficial deposits and flat bedrock : - thermal monitoring is performed on five rockglacier sites and includes ground surface temperature (GST) and annual BTS campaigns on some sites. Two medium depth boreholes (15 m) have been made in 2009 on one site, and equipped for thermal profile monitoring. A deep borehole (100 m) will be made in 2010 at 45° N latitude ; - geophysical monitoring is performed on 4 sites : repeated vertical electrical soundings exist for some sites since 20 years, and have been complemented since 2007 by eletrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismics ; - surficial displacements of rockglaciers : surficial displacements are measured either by classical geodesy or by DGPS on 6 rockglaciers ; 3) sporadic permafrost at middle altitudes : - an inventory of cold scree slopes and biological investigations on soil and tree growth (dendrogeomorphology) have already been achieved ; - a thermal monitoring should be initiated on selected sites in 2010 ; 4) seasonal frost and frost/thaw cycles at middle and low

  7. Gaz de France annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  8. Western European gas: economic versus strategic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoppard, Michael.

    1994-01-01

    Concerns over the export of Russian gas to Western Europe are aired in this paper. Although gas deliveries continue to flow to the economic benefit of both buyers and seller, some critics fear supply disruptions, of the sort common in the old Soviet Union. Proponents of the scheme argue for its economic benefits and dismiss concerns of the strategic leverage it gives the Russian Federation, pointing out that Western Europe's dependence on imported oil is much higher than upon natural gas. The technology for gas storage is seen as a priority to defeat the strategic importance of possible supply disruptions. It is argued that the United Kingdom will eventually distance itself economically from Germany, France, Italy and Spain in terms of its energy policy as our policy of diversification moves away from their commitment to free market forces. (UK)

  9. Ground thermal conditions along a vertical transect with contrasted topography in a high mountain Mediterranean environment (Puigpedrós massif, eastern Pyrenees), from 2003 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Salvà-Catarineu, Montserrat; Oliva, Marc; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    During the Last Glaciation glaciers shaped the headwaters and valley floors in the Eastern Pyrenees above 2100-2200 m. Since the deglaciation of these high mountain environments, periglacial processes have generated rock glaciers, patterned ground and debris slopes. The role of soil temperatures is decisive regarding the contemporary activity of several processes: cryoturbation, solifluction, frost weathering, etc. Nowadays, periglacial processes are driven by a seasonal frozen layer extending 4-5 months. At 2100 m the seasonal frost reaches 20 cm depth, while at 2700 m reaches 50 cm depth. However, soil temperatures, and thus, periglacial processes are strongly controlled by the large interannual variability of the snow cover. With the purpose of understanding the rhythm and intensity of soil freezing/thawing we have set up several monitoring sites along a vertical transect from the high plateaus (2700 m) to the valley floors (1100 m) across the southern slope of the Puigpedrós massif (2914 m), in the Eastern Pyrenees. The monitoring of soil temperatures extends from 2003 to 2014. TinyTalk, UTL and Hobo loggers have been used in this study. These loggers were installed at depths of -5, -20 and -50 cm at five sites: Calmquerdós (2730 m), Malniu (2230 m), La Feixa (2150 m), Meranges (1600 m) and Das (1097 m). Air temperatures used as reference come from two automatic stations of the Catalan Meteorological Survey (Malniu, Das) as well as from two loggers installed in La Feixa and Meranges. Data shows the control of snow cover on the depth of the frozen layer and on the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Air temperatures at 2000-2200 m show a mean of 150 freeze-thaw cycles per year. In La Feixa, with very thin snow cover, only 67 cycles are recorded at 5 cm depth and 5 cycles at 50 cm depth. In Malniu, located at a higher elevation showing a thicker and longer snow cover, only 17 freeze-thaw cycles per year are recorded at 5 cm depth, with no cycles recorded at 50 cm

  10. "The Pyrenees are not hollow": the mountain as a boundary object "Os Pirineus não são ecos": a montanha como objeto de fronteira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Lamy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Toulouse, around 1850, a controversy about the structure of the Pyrenees pitted observatory director Frederic Petit against geology professor Alexandre Leymerie. The object of the debate was an assumption formulated by Petit: that the inside of the Pyrenees was practically hollow. This proposal was based on work that Petit initiated in order to determine the latitude of Toulouse. The debates, which took place within the Toulouse Academy of Science and also in local newspapers, illustrate the organization of disciplinary spaces in the nineteenth century. Petit defended his research method based on calculation; the geologist's perspective was from the field. The emergence of the less mathematical science of geology came up against nineteenth-century astronomical practices, centered on calculation. Dissected by calculation or by visual observation, the mountain was an object of controversy from the perspective of distinct scientific practices.Em Toulouse, por volta de 1850, uma controvérsia sobre a estrutura dos Pirineus colocou o diretor do Observatório, Frederic Petit, contra o professor de geologia Alexandre Leymerie. O motivo do debate foi a hipótese formulada por Petit: o interior dos Pirineus era praticamente oco. A proposição baseava-se no trabalho que Petit iniciara para determinar a latitude de Toulouse. Os debates, que tiveram lugar na Academia de Ciências de Toulouse e também em periódicos locais, ilustram a organização dos espaços disciplinares no século XIX. Petit defendia seu método de pesquisa baseado em cálculos; a perspectiva do geólogo provinha do campo. A emergência da ciência geológica, menos matemática, vinha de encontro às práticas da astronomia daquele século. Analisada por cálculos ou pela observação visual, a montanha foi um objeto de controvérsia entre diferentes práticas científicas.

  11. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  12. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  13. Severe accident research in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; Reocreux, M.; Tattegrain, A.

    1988-01-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. Nevertheless, an overall safety objective was issued in 1977 by the safety authority which set an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences; this resulted, in particular, in the elaboration of the ''H'' procedures, aimed at reducing significantly the risk of core uncovery subsequent to the loss of redunbant safety-related systems. The U1 symptom-oriented procedure, based on the nuclear steam supply system ''cooling states'', was introduced later, in order to prevent core melting in situations where the operating crew was confused by multiple failures and/or inappropriate previous actions. In the event that a core-melt should occur, the ultimate procedures U2, U4 and U5 - the latter providing a venting of the containment through a filtration system - should enable the radioactive releases to be limited to characteristics compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans. Such emergency management procedures necessitate a significant study effort in order to be elaborated and qualified; this also presupposes that an adequate level of scientific knowledge has been gained as regards the response of specific components of a PWR under beyond-design conditions. The purpose of severe accident research in France is to attain a level of basic knowledge such that emergency procedures may be conceived and ultimately tested

  14. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  15. France's energy balance for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Jean-Paul; Dussud, Francois-Xavier; Louati, Sami; Mordant, Guillaume; Rouquette, Celine; Cadin, Didier; Collet, Isabelle; Fratacci, Lisa; Lauverjat, Jean; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Rabai, Yacine; Reynaud, Didier; Wong, Florine; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2014-07-01

    As in 2012, activity in France increased slightly (+0.3%), thanks to an upturn in the second half. Fossil energy prices on the international markets took a downward turn in 2013 under the influence of the morose world economic climate, dropping sharply for oil and coal and rising, but at a slowed rate, for gas. Quoted prices nonetheless remained high: the Brent price remained well above US$100/barrel and steam coal above US$ 80/ton. Conversely, the price of natural gas took an upward path three years ago in continental Europe. Electricity prices dropped on the European markets, notably as a result of strong production of renewable energy in Germany and Spain. Energy prices in France continued to increase but at a slowed rate and more slowly than the prices for goods and services as a whole for the first time in 10 years. Prices for oil products saw a downturn, something which had not happened since 2009 but gas and electricity prices rose sharply. French households' average gasoline and diesel oil expenditure was euro 60 less in 2013 than in 2012, due almost entirely to the price drop. Spending on energy for household use increased by euro 100 under the combined effect of price increase and greater heating needs. French people's expenditure for energy represented 6.2% of their effective consumption. 2013 was characterised by a colder first half which induced an additional need for heating of 3.1 Mtoe in 2013 in relation to the previous year. The physical foreign trade gap, structurally biased towards imports, accordingly widened slightly in 2013 to 124 Mtoe, as a result of the refined oil products, and additional purchasing of coal made necessary by greater use of thermal power plants. The effect of decreasing international energy prices outweighed the physical flows: France's energy bill reduced by 4.6% in relation to the record 2012, reaching euro 66 billion. The oil bill was therefore significantly reduced as a result of the dual decrease in volume and price

  16. France's energy assessment for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This report first gives a description of the world economic context in 2007 (GDP evolutions of several countries), and of the French macro-economic context in 2007 (GDP, goods production, demographic, household consumption, and trade evolutions). It comments the evolution of international oil product prices and of other energy prices (gas, coal) during the same year, and since 1980, and evokes other factors influencing the French energy bill (money market, climate). It briefly comments the evolution of the total primary energy consumption from 1973 to 2007. It describes the evolution of the national energy production, globally and for each energy source (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, renewable energies and wastes), indicating the energy independence rate for each of them, as well as the import origins. Energy consumption is then analysed in the same way, i.e., globally and for each energy source, and also by economic sectors (non-energetic uses, industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, electricity production). Some comments are made on the opening of the electricity market in France. The evolutions of the energy intensity and of carbon emissions related to energy consumption are finally discussed

  17. Energy in France. Reference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This small guidebook summarizes the main statistical data on energy for France. Data are presented in tables and graphs for the last decades up to the year 2000: energy in economy (contribution of energy industries to the national gross product, employment and investments in the energy sector), overall energies (average monthly price of crude oil, public opinion about nuclear energy, supplies and consumptions, primary energy production, consumption per energy and per sector, energy bill, import crude oil prices), petroleum (primary production, sectoral end-consumption of refined petroleum products, consumption per type of product, automotive fuels demand, imports and exports of petroleum products, petroleum bill), natural gas (total production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of production, imports bill), coal (production, sectoral consumption, imports per country of production), electricity (gross production, classical thermal production per type of fuel, simplified status, sectoral final consumption, nuclear sites, electricity trades with foreign countries), renewable energies (total production, district heating networks, wood consumption, installed wind power, solar thermal and photovoltaic production), rational use of energy (primary energy intensity, compared evolutions of the national gross product with the energy consumption, cumulated energy savings), prices (energies in the industry and in the domestic sectors, automotive fuels, energy consumptions in households), environment (sectoral and net CO 2 emissions). An energy units conversion table is added at the end of the booklet. (J.S.)

  18. France's energy balance for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louati, Sami; Ouradou, Frederic; Rouquette, Celine; Cadin, Didier; Korman, Bernard; Lauverjat, Jean; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Rabai, Yacine; Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene; Wong, Florine; Albertini, Jean-Paul; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia; Grosset, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Economic activity in France stagnated in 2012. Energy prices continued to increase globally, sweeping along with them the prices of energy products imported into France, notably oil products and natural gas. In addition, the difference in temperatures between 2011 and 2012 created an additional energy need for 5.7 million tons oil equivalent (Mtoe) in 2012 in relation to the previous year. The volume of imports of refined oil products and coal increased to meet the additional needs of thermal power stations. The physical trade deficit thus increased for refined oil products (+29%) and for coal (+7%). In parallel, exports of electricity decreased. Nonetheless, the overall physical trade deficit decreased in 2012 (-1.5%). However, this apparent improvement was actually due to difficulties in the refining sector, resulting in a 12% decrease in crude oil imports. Increased imported energy prices and additional needs therefore explain the new peak in France's energy bill, which reached almost euro 69 billion, an increase of more than euro 7 billion in relation to 2011. National primary energy production settled back in 2012 at a little over 136 Mtoe, a decrease of 1.2% in relation to the record reached in 2011. This can be attributed almost entirely to the nuclear power sector which reduced production by more than 4 Mtoe as a result of decreased availability of nuclear power plants. National production of fossil energies, already marginal, continued to decline. Conversely, all of the renewable sources saw an upturn, after a year in 2011 marked by severe contrasts. After reaching a historical low in 2011, hydropower production increased by 25% as a result of the end of the period of drought. Installations continued to increase, with wind-generated and photovoltaic electricity and energy from renewable thermal sources and from waste all increasing their production in 2012. In all, the renewable energy sectors combined produced around 4 Mtoe more than in 2011. In 2012

  19. France energy status for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    2001 was marked by a lifeless global economic context: growth in output, and especially in world trade, slowed sharply. The euro zone was particularly affected. In a tense geopolitical context, especially in the Middle East, international prices of raw materials rose sharply in 2011, in particular oil prices. This affected France's energy bill which, at euro 61.4 billion, increased by almost one-third and accounted for 88% of the country's trade deficit. It thus represents 3.1% of GDP, compared with just 1% in the 1990's. The bill for oil alone is now more than euro 50 billion. The impact could have been even greater if 2011 had not been the warmest year on record since 1900, with an average annual temperature 1.3 deg. C above the reference (1981-2010). As a result, energy needs for heating were much lower than average. The physical trade deficit decreased by 4%, as imports of gas and coal decreased. In terms of consumption, 6.6 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) were saved. Corrected for climate variations, total primary energy consumption continued its rise in 2011 (+0.8%) after the dip registered in 2009, a consequence of the economic crisis. It thus exceeded 266 Mtoe, but still remains below pre-crisis levels. In spite of lower growth than in the previous year (+ 3.6% against + 4.5% in 2010), consumption of thermal energy from renewable sources and energy recovered from waste showed the strongest increase in 2011. However, at 17.1 Mtoe, this still represents only 6.4% of total primary energy consumption. After two years of reduction, oil showed an upturn (+ 2 %). Primary electricity, also on the rise, consolidated its share of total primary consumption (almost 44%). Conversely, coal dropped by 14 % and its share in primary consumption has been quartered since the 1970's, at less than 4%. The structure of France's primary energy mix has thus stabilised since the mid 2000's. According to European directive indicators, and contrary to the situation in 2010

  20. LPG fuels in France in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This short note gives a statement of the sales of butane, propane and LPG fuels in France during the year 1997. Details are given for conditioned butane and propane products, cylinders and fixed reservoirs. (J.S.)

  1. Energy data book. France in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catz, H.

    1999-01-01

    This memento about energy provides a series of tables with numerical data relative to energy resources and uses in France, in the European Union and in the rest of the world: energy consumption and demand (primary energy demand, consumption, and efficiency per region and per source; forecasting, CO 2 emissions, energy independence, supplies, uses and imports, demand scenarios, energy savings..), power production (production per geopolitical region, in OECD countries and in France; peak load demand, power consumption and generation in France; hydro-power and thermal plants in France; total capacity, forecasts and exports), nuclear power (production, forecasting, reactors population, characteristics of French PWRs, uranium needs and fuel cycle), energy resources (renewable energies, fossil fuels and uranium reserves and production), economic data (gross national product, economic and energy indicators, prices and cost estimations), energy units and conversion factors (counting, calorific value of coals, production costs, energy units). (J.S.)

  2. Energy bill of France in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The energy situation in France is presented. Data and charts illustrate the prices evolution at the import for the petroleum and the other energies, the exchanged energies volume and the bill for each energy sector. (A.L.B.)

  3. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dana Lofgren (202...

  4. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  5. The gas de France group in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1999-01-01

    The speech by the Chairman of France's largest gas company is always a highlight of the Gas Conference's closing session. This year, Pierre Gadonneix outlined the gas supply context in which Gaz de France will be running its business operations, and revealed the group's development strategy in a Europe-wide market soon to become a reality, with the implementation of the gas directive in August 2000. (authors)

  6. Evolution of maintainability in France since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make the point of maintainability in France since 1971. The importance of maintainability is recalled. Publications in France from 1971 to 1975 show the interest arose by maintainability; their analysis permits to make clear the general plan followed by the studies and gives indications on the directions of actual efforts. Conclusion is drawn on the orientation of work at short, medium and long term [fr

  7. Status of food irradiation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Yves

    1985-01-01

    The situation regarding food irradiation in France is one of cautious progress, with clearance of specific food items including onions, garlic, shallots, deboned poultry meats and 72 spices. A general clearance for the use of ionizing radiation treatment up to 1 kilogray is under consideration. A most important guiding principle has apparently been accepted in France that no further toxicological studies are required for food irradiation dose levels up to ten kilograys

  8. France's energy assessment for 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussud, Xavier; Guggemos, Fabien; Riedinger, Nicolas; Cavaud, Denis; Delamare, Karine; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Gong, Zheng; Hagege, Claire; Lepoittevin, Daniel; Lauverjat, Jean; Misak, Evelyne; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Mombel, David; Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This accounting document has been elaborated in compliance with standards defined by the European Union, the International Agency of Energy, and the United Nations. It gives a global overview of the supply and usage chain for each energy source (coal, oil, gas, electricity, thermal renewable energies and wastes). It also gives data related to energy efficiency, supply dependence on other countries, and carbon dioxide emissions. A first part presents the economic and climatic context for 2015: slow world economic growth and an oil market always in surplus, GDP growth at a higher rate, the third hottest year since 1900 with rainfall deficit and sunshine higher than normal. The second part analyses the weight of energy in the French economy: evolutions of energy and oil markets, decrease of energy bill, stronger decrease of oil product prices, higher energy expenses and lower fuel expenses for households. The third part analyses France's energy supply: slight increase of primary production, further decrease of coal imports, recovery of crude oil imports but decrease of refined product trade deficit, moderate increase of natural gas imports, moderate increase of some renewable productions (biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal, heat pumps), slight increase of electricity production with increased use of natural gas. The fourth part analyses quantities and forms of consumed energy: globally, for coal, oil, gas, biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal and heat pumps, and electricity. The fifth part analyses usages and sectors of energy consumption: global final energy, and case of housing and office building, transports, industry, agriculture and fishery. The sixth part proposes an assessment for overseas territories, globally and for the different energy sources. The seventh part discusses other energy-related issues: evolution of energy intensity, of CO_2 emissions due to energy combustion, co-generated heat and heat networks. Numerous data and methodological

  9. The Models of Personal Bankruptcy in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal bankruptcy is regulated in all the countries from Western Europe. We selected a groupof three countries: France, Ireland and Germany, to analyze the ways in which physical personsare put under bankruptcy law protection, while considering that implementation of the personalbankruptcy law is constantly delayed in Romania. Taking into account some comparative studies,we have found out that in all three countries is applied the principle of “consumer-friendlylegislation”.

  10. Geology and taphonomy of the L'Espinau dinosaur bonebed, a singular lagoonal site from the Maastrichtian of South-Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevilla, V.; Vicente, A.; Battista, F.; Sellés, A. G.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Martín-Closas, C.; Anadón, P.; Vila, B.; Razzolini, N. L.; Galobart, À.; Oms, O.

    2017-06-01

    The L'Espinau site is a dinosaur bonebed from the Upper Cretaceous of the South-Central Pyrenees (north-eastern Spain) that have provided hundreds of bone remains attributed to hadrosauroids, together with a rich assemblage of herpetofauna, fish and microflora. Magnetostratigraphy calibrated the site with the early late Maastrichtian, and the combined sedimentology, stable isotope geochemistry and palaeoecology revealed that this fossil site formed in a lagoon, in which a mixed freshwater-brackish palaeoenvironment was developed. This setting displays a south-north charophyte zonation from freshwater (Clavator brachycerus-dominated assemblage) to brackish or eurihaline conditions (Feistiella malladae-dominated assemblage), revealing a palaeoenvironment change towards the coast. Sedimentology and taphonomy (bidirectional arrangement of long bones, abrasion and disarticulation) indicate that the L'Espinau site is the result of a cohesive mass flow event originated very close to the sea. This process entrained and mixed fauna from both the terrestrial and the brackish/marine environment of a lagoon. An increasing of the water runoff (e.g. by intense rainfall) reworking poorly consolidated sediments is considered here as the most probable triggering mechanism. Mass flow-hosted bonebeds are commonly linked to fluvial palaeoenvironments, so our study case is a rare example of bones accumulating near the sea. This study adds evidence that hadrosauroids inhabited littoral environments during the Maastrichtian in the southern Pyrenean area.

  11. Calculation of the rockwall recession rate of a limestone cliff, affected by rockfalls, using cosmogenic chlorine-36. Case study of the Montsec Range (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Corominas, Jordi; Mavrouli, Olga; Merchel, Silke; Abellán, Antonio; Pavetich, Stefan; Rugel, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Cliff erosion may be a major problem in settled areas affecting populations and producing economic and ecological losses. In this paper we present a procedure to calculate the long-term retreat rate of a cliff affected by rockfalls in the Montsec Range, Eastern Pyrenees (Spain). It is composed of low, densely fractured limestones; and the rockwall is affected by rockfalls of different sizes. The rockfall scars are clearly distinguishable by their regular boundaries and by their orange colour, which contrast with the greyish old reference surface (S0) of the cliff face. We have dated different stepped surfaces of the rockwall, including S0, using cosmogenic 36Cl. The total amount of material released by rockfall activity was calculated using a high definition point cloud of the slope face obtained with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The present rockwall surface has been subtracted from the reconstructed old cliff surface. This has allowed the calculation of the total volume released by rockfalls and of the retreat rate. The latter ranges from 0.31 to 0.37 mm·a- 1. This value is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained by other researchers in neighbouring regions in Spain, having similar geology and affected by rockfalls.

  12. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, I.; Grimalt, J.O.; Ventura, M.; Catalan, J.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K ow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  13. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, I. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Grimalt, J.O. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)]. E-mail: jgoqam@cid.csic.es; Ventura, M. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Catalan, J. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Rosseland, B.O. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), P.O.B. 173 Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Institute for Biology and Nature Conservation, The Agricultural University of Norway (NLH) (Norway)

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K{sub ow} > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants.

  14. Supercritical sedimentary structures and bedforms and criteria for recognition in the field: insights from the Middle Eocene deep-marine Morillo and Guaso systems, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torley, John; Pickering, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    It has long been acknowledged that for most submarine slopes with gradients > 0.5, common to many deep-water environments, they should contain abundant evidence of supercritical flows and their deposits. However, it is common for deep-marine sands/sandstones to be routinely modelled using the Bouma (1962) sequence for turbidites. Recently, the importance of supercritical flows has been highlighted from seafloor observations, with numerical and physical experiments. Such experiments have produced previously unrecognised bedforms which fail to be interpreted adequately by Bouma's model, including antidunes, chutes-and-pools, and cyclic steps. Fieldwork in the Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, has been undertaken in the Morillo and Guaso systems of the Upper Hecho Group. Approximately 5,000 beds were measured and documented in detail, e.g., grain size, sedimentary structures, bedforms and facies. Collectively, this data can be used to understand supercritical versus subcritical flow. The relative importance of supercritical flow can then be compared and contrasted within individual ancient deep-marine systems. The Morillo System is relatively coarse-grained, compared with the Guaso System. The results of this research contribute to an improved understanding of the processes in deep-marine systems, and directly benefit the hydrocarbon industry by providing better constraints to predict deep-water reservoir composition and architecture.

  15. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  16. Allodaposuchus palustris sp. nov. from the upper cretaceous of Fumanya (South-Eastern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula: systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the enigmatic allodaposuchian crocodylians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco

    Full Text Available The controversial European genus Allodaposuchus is currently composed of two species (A. precedens, A. subjuniperus and it has been traditionally considered a basal eusuchian clade of crocodylomorphs. In the present work, the new species A. palustris is erected on the base of cranial and postcranial remains from the lower Maastrichtian of the southern Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analyses here including both cranial and postcranial data support the hypothesis that Allodaposuchus is included within Crocodylia. The studied specimen suggests little change in postcranial skeleton along the evolutionary history of crocodylians, except for some bone elements such as the axis, the first caudal vertebra and the ilium. The specimen was found in an organic mudstone corresponding to a coastal wetland environment. Thus, A. palustris from Fumanya is the first Allodaposuchus reported in lacustrine-palustrine settings that expand the ecological range for this genus. The S-DIVA palaeobiogeographic reconstruction of ancestral area suggests that early members of Crocodylia rapidly widespread for the Northern Hemisphere landmasses no later than the Campanian, leading the apparition of endemic groups. In that way "Allodaposuchia" represents an endemic European clade probably originated in the Ibero-Armorican domain in the late Campanian and dispersed by the Southern European archipelago prior to the early Maastrichtian.

  17. Integrated mapping of establishment risk for emerging vector-borne infections: a case study of canine leishmaniasis in southwest France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Hartemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the northeast Pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled in 2005 using sticky traps placed uniformly over an area of approximately 100 by 150 km. High- and low-resolution satellite data for the area were combined to construct a model of the sandfly data, which was then used to predict sandfly abundance throughout the area on a pixel by pixel basis (resolution of c. 1 km. Using literature- and expert-derived estimates of other variables and parameters, a spatially explicit R(0 map for leishmaniasis was constructed within a Geographical Information System. R(0 is a measure of the risk of establishment of a disease in an area, and it also correlates with the amount of control needed to stop transmission. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that combines a vector abundance prediction model, based on remotely-sensed variables measured at different levels of spatial resolution, with a fully mechanistic process-based temperature-dependent R(0 model. The resulting maps should be considered as proofs-of-principle rather than as ready-to-use risk maps, since validation is currently not possible. The described approach, based on integrating several modeling methods, provides a useful new set of tools for the study of the risk of outbreaks of vector-borne diseases.

  18. [Kidney transplantation epidemiology in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesse, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Kidney transplantation activity in France is among the most important worldwide: in 2011, 2976 transplants have been performed (47.5 per million population), and the number of patients living with a functional graft is estimated around 30,000, representing 44.7% of all patients (n = 67,270) treated for end-stage renal failure. However, the rate of preemptive kidney transplants remains very low, only 3.3% of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy. The analysis of demand showed a progressive increase in recent years, as demonstrated by the registration rate on the kidney transplantation waiting list, increasing by 5% yearly between 2006 and 2010, but with huge differences according to age categories and regional registration areas, reflecting discrepant appreciations in indications for kidney transplantation. The median waiting time between registration and transplantation increased progressively in recent years, reaching 22.3 months with considerable variations according to regional areas and transplantation teams. Kidney transplantation activity, while increasing continuously, is far to cover the rising demand, and inexorably patients accumulate on the waiting list (around 9000 patients were registered by January 2012). This situation is the consequence of insufficient organ procurement activity. The deceased organ procurement rate remained high: 1572 harvested donors in 2011 (24.1 per million population), but the proportion of older donors rose in recent years, to reach the rate of 26% of donors older than 65 years in 2011. The procurement activity of donors after cardiac arrest was reintroduced in 2006, but increased slowly: 65 transplants were performed in 2011 using kidney procured in non heart-beating donors. The living donor kidney transplantation activity has markedly increased recently: 302 living donor transplantations were performed in 2011, representing 10.1% of the kidney transplantations. Facing the predictable increase in the number of

  19. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  20. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J A; Carrat, J; Poughon, A; Sanselme, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  1. Drug prescribing before and during pregnancy in south west France: a retrolective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Sophie; Bourrel, Robert; Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Damase-Michel, Christine

    2011-07-01

    Several drugs that are known to exhibit teratogenic or fetotoxic risks when used during pregnancy should not be prescribed to pregnant women. However, most women of childbearing age use medications, and drug use cannot always be avoided during pregnancy, especially for women with chronic diseases for whom the benefit of treatment outweighs the potential risk of the drug for the fetus. Nevertheless, it is often possible to replace a drug with another one that has been better evaluated. The aim of the present study was to describe the prescribing of drugs to pregnant women before and during pregnancy in order to examine whether the occurrence of pregnancy modifies drug prescribing and dispensing to women. In particular, drugs that are contraindicated or must be avoided during pregnancy, such as retinoids, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, NSAIDs and valproic acid, will be analysed. This retrolective study used data already prospectively recorded in the database of the French Health Insurance Service. It analysed pharmacy records of women who gave birth between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2007 in Midi-Pyrenees. Pharmacy data were analysed from 9 months before pregnancy until delivery. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code. The study included 23 898 women. Approximately 77% and 96% of the women received at least one prescription before and during pregnancy, respectively. The number of women who were prescribed contraindicated drugs significantly decreased with pregnancy (p drugs were stopped during the 3 months before pregnancy without alternative treatment, even for chronic diseases. However, for some women, potentially dangerous prescriptions were maintained during pregnancy, and for others these drugs were dispensed for the first time during critical periods of pregnancy. Despite recommendations, some teratogenic and/or fetotoxic drugs are still prescribed and dispensed to pregnant women in France. There is

  2. Gaz de France 2006 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary

  3. Speleothem records of western Mediterranean. Hydrological variability along the Last Interglacial Period and marine linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Judit; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Belmonte, Anchel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Frigola, Jaime; Martrat, Belen; Fornós, Joan; Arnau Fernández, Pedro; Hellstrom, John; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to identify and characterize regional hydrological variability in the western Mediterranean region in base to different geochemical parameters (δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios). Speleothems have been recovered from several caves located in southern central Pyrenees one and the others form the Balearic Islands. Their chronologies have been constructed in base on U/Th absolute dating and indicate that the speleothem sequences cover the end of the last interglacial and the glacial inception. One of the most remarkable features of the records is the intense and abrupt shift toward more arid conditions that marks the end of the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Furthermore, our speleothem records also show relatively humid but highly variable hydrological conditions during the interstadial periods from MIS 5c to 5a. These speleothem records have been compared with new generated western Mediterranean marine records from the Balearic Sea (MD99-2343) and Alboran Sea (OPD-977). Marine records include (1) proxies of sea surface temperature and changes in evaporation-precipitation rates based on pair analysis of δ18O and the Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides; (2) proxies of deep-water currents associated with the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) based on grain size analyses. The results reveal that arid conditions on land were coeval with cold sea surface sub-stages (MIS 5b and 5d), and also with increases in the intensity of the WMDW-related currents. By contrast, humid and hydrological unstable atmosphere conditions were synchronous with sea surface warm sub-stages, and lower WMDW-related currents intensities (MIS 5a, c and e). Consequently, our results highly evidence a strong atmospheric-oceanic coupling, involving parallel changes in both surface but also deep western Mediterranean Sea conditions during the last interglacial period and the glacial inception.

  4. Etude et comparaison des restes d' Hipparion crassum gervais (Perissodactyla, Mammalia proyenant de la nouvelle localite «Le Soler (Lit de la Tet», Pyrenees Orientales, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymar, J.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is the study of fossil remains of Hipparion crassum ssp. collected in Lit de la Tet, district of «Le Soler», by J. Aymar, in November 1974.A comparison is carried out between the other forms of Upper Miocene and Pliocene Hipparion (Turolian and Lower Ruscinian from the Mediterranean basin and other sites where H. crassum is known to be found.El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de los restos fósiles de Hipparion crassum ssp. encontrados por J. Aymar, en Lit de la Tet («Le Soler», en noviembre de 1974. Se comparan detalladamente con otros restos de Hipparion procedentes del Mioceno superior y del Plioceno (Turoliense y Rusciniense inferior de la cuenca Mediterránea. así como con los de otras localidades conocidas en la actualidad con Hipparion crassum.

  5. Reverse migration: Western European Muslim women’s flights to ISIL territory

    OpenAIRE

    DeSitter, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since early 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has increasingly recruited Western Muslim men and women to its radical ideology. This thesis examines why Western European Muslim women—specifically from France and Great Britain—are voluntarily migrating to ISIL territory to support Islamic extremism. It evaluates women’s involvement in previous terrorist movements and proposes five potential motivations for migration: ...

  6. The production of photovoltaic electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The author presents, comments and discusses various data related to photovoltaic energy production in France: evolution of installed power until 2013, installed power, production, hours per year and load factor for different countries (France, Spain, Germany and Italy) and for the different French regions. He highlights and comments the intermittency of photovoltaic production in France. This intermittency is related to the difference between day and night, to the difference between seasons, and to weather conditions. He discusses the possible solutions to this intermittency. In this respect, he outlines that the expansion of the photovoltaic production and the use of interconnection do not solve the problem, and discusses the possibility of massive storage and the possible interest of local consumption

  7. Nuclear safety in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  8. Electrical energy in France in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The figures presented on this document account for the electricity flows recorded in Metropolitan France, including Corsica. Contents: national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries; electrical energy balance in France in 2008; net generation; noteworthy data for the year 2008 (daily maximum values of National consumption, Hydroelectric generation and non-Hydroelectric generation, Balance of physical exchanges); electricity market: cross-border contractual exchanges, balance responsible entities (Energy amount exchanged between balance responsible entities through the block exchange notifications), balancing mechanism (Global amount of energy activated upwards and downwards); power facilities: generating facilities in France (Nuclear, Fossil fuel thermal, Hydro-electric, Wind and Other renewable energy sources), transmission lines (circuit length in operation), transmission - transformers (installed capacity in operation); main transmission facilities commissioned during the year 2008 (substations connected to the RTE network and new or refurbished circuits)

  9. Energy use and planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaon, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Energy planning in France must compensate for a lack of natural resources and a 77% dependence on imports with conservation, an increased use of domestic sources, and diversified supplies. One problem is a high per-capita energy consumption that, although only half that of the US, has been a financial drain in recent years. Current plans to reduce oil consumption 25% by 1990 and energy dependence to less than 50% include conservation goals set for each sector. Nuclear energy is a cost-effective energy source that is compatible with France's energy goals and is the focus of much energy research. The emphasis on realistic goals and continuity are basic to France's continued success in energy planning. 4 figures, 10 tables

  10. Electrical energy in France in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The figures presented on this document account for the electricity flows recorded in Metropolitan France, including Corsica. Contents: national consumption; physical exchanges with foreign countries; electrical energy balance in France in 2009; net generation; noteworthy data for the year 2009 (daily maximum values of national consumption, thermal generation, hydro-electric generation, wind generation and balance of physical exchanges); electricity market: cross-borders contractual exchanges, balance responsible entities (Energy amount exchanged between balance responsible entities through the block exchange notifications), balancing mechanism (global amount of energy activated upwards and downwards), daily market coupling; power facilities: generating facilities in France (Nuclear, Fossil fuel thermal, Hydro-electric, Wind and Other renewable energy sources), transmission lines owned by RTE (circuit length in operation), transmission - transformers owned by RTE (installed capacity in operation); main transmission facilities commissioned during the year 2009 (substations connected to the RTE network and new or refurbished circuits)

  11. Gaz de France annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution, services

  12. Nuclear energy education and training in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its continuing use of nuclear power, France faces numerous challenges, including the operation and maintenance of its existing array of reactors, waste management, the decommissioning of obsolete reactors, and research and development for future nuclear systems. All of these efforts must recognize and conform to international requirements. These activities mean that all participants in the French nuclear industry must continually update their approaches and skills, with respect to both domestic and worldwide nuclear power development. This requirement calls for the hiring and training of thousands of scientists and engineers each year in France and its partner or customer countries. Over the next ten years, domestic and international nuclear power activities in France will call for the recruitment of about 13,000 engineers with Master of Science or Ph.D. degrees, and 10,000 science technicians and operators with Bachelor of Science degrees. The chief employers will be EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez, national agencies such as the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (ANDRA), sub-contractors, and R and D agencies such as the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), and the technical safety organization, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). France has made a commitment to support countries that are ready to create the human, institutional, and technical conditions required to establish a civilian nuclear energy programme that meets all the requirements of safety, security, non-proliferation and environmental protection for present and future generations. These efforts are conducted through the France International Nuclear Agency (AFNI). In response to the need for competence-building in nuclear energy production, France now offers training opportunities in both French and English education programmes. Partnerships created by French nuclear energy participants and by AFNI can provide dedicated programmes

  13. Panorama de la Dendrochronologie en France.

    OpenAIRE

    Astrade, Laurent; Miramont, Cécile

    2010-01-01

    Actes du colloque "Panorama de la dendrochronologie en France", octobre 2009, Digne les Bains. Ce nouveau numéro de la Collection Edytem accueille les contributions du colloque qui s'est déroulé, il y a moins d'un an, à Digne-les-Bains, autour de la dendrochronologie en France. Les différents textes de ce numéro et leur articulation en cinq grands thèmes (dendroécologie, dendroclimatologie, dendrogéomorphologie, dendroarchéologie, méthodes de la dendrochronologie) mettent en avant la diversit...

  14. Oil in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article comments the evolution of oil product prices in France in 2008 and of the global oil product consumption in 2008. This consumption and its evolutions are also analysed with respect to the different consuming sectors: non-energetic uses (petrochemical industry and lubricants), industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, and electricity thermal production. Crude oil imports and their origins are the commented, as well as refined product imports and exports. The evolution of price of imported crude oil, the national oil production, the refining activity in France, and the amount of crude and refined oil stocks are also briefly commented

  15. Nuclear energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The peculiarities and the differences in the development of nuclear energy in the two neighboring countries are described. The development in France could be promoted more easily which was also due to the government structure. Uncomplicated licensing procedures and other factors permitted a less difficult realisation of the nuclear energy programme. Serious economic consequences in our country are pointed out. In this summary, the most important results and statements of a memorandum worked out by the KWU with the headline 'Germany/France - the electricity supply in comparison' are listed. (UA) [de

  16. General presentation of the biomass in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  17. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  18. The wind energy scam / The wind energy scam: the pillage of France - Synthesis, File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel; Antraigues, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes three more or less long versions of an article in which the author states that justifying wind energy by the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is nothing but a rip-off, that stating that wind energy is a major stake to phase out nuclear is another rip-off as only thermal energy could allow phasing out nuclear. He outlines the particularly high cost for France, and states that this development is negative in any respect for France, but will probably not be put into question again. He outlines that this operation is extremely profitable for investors. Then, he outlines the role of the European Commission and of the French Government in this affair, as well as that of media in smoking out public opinion. He indicates that the wind energy sector is facing a crisis in western countries, and that the worst is still to happen, but is maybe not certain

  19. Case Study: Effect of Climatic Characterization on River Discharge in an Alpine-Prealpine Catchment of the Spanish Pyrenees Using the SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Palazón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges in assessment of water resources demand new approaches and tools, such as the use of hydrologic models, which could serve to assist managers in the prediction, planning and management of catchment water supplies in view of increased demand of water for irrigation and climatic change. Good characterization of the spatial patterns of climate variables is of paramount importance in hydrological modelling. This is especially so when modelling mountain environments which are characterized by strong altitudinal climate gradients. However, very often there is a poor distribution of climatic stations in these areas, which in many cases, results in under representation of high altitude areas with respect to climatic data. This results in the poor performance of the models. In the present study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in order to assess the influence of different climatic characterizations in the monthly river discharges. Four simulations with different input data were assessed, using only the available climate data (A1; the former plus one synthetic dataset at a higher altitude (B1; and both plus the altitudinal climate gradient (A2 and B2. The model’s performance was evaluated against the river discharges for the representative periods of 2003–2005 and 1994–1996 by means of commonly used statistical measures. The best results were obtained using the altitudinal climate gradient alone (scenario A2. This study provided insight into the importance of taking into account the sources and the spatial distribution of weather data in modelling water resources in mountainous catchments.

  20. "A shepherd has to invent": Poetic analysis of social-ecological change in the cultural landscape of the central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernández-Giménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-20th century, the Pyrenean pastoral social-ecological system (SES has undergone socioeconomic and demographic transformations leading to changes in grazing practices and a decline in the livestock industry. Land abandonment has contributed to an ecological transition from herbaceous vegetation cover to shrublands and forests, leading to a loss of ecosystem services, including biodiversity and forage. I interviewed 27 stockmen (ganaderos in two valleys of the central Pyrenees to document their traditional ecological knowledge and observations of environmental, social, economic, and cultural changes in the valleys. I used poetic analysis, a qualitative data analysis approach, to illustrate and analyze one ganadero's experience of social-ecological change. First, I created seven poems based on an interview transcript with this ganadero. Second, I analyzed the poetry I created, to see what new insights and understanding about system dynamics and the lived experience of SES change emerged from analysis of the transcript re-presented as poetry. Third, I compared key themes that emerged from this analysis with findings across the other 26 interviews. Fourth, I read the poems and presented the associated analysis to multiple audiences, to gauge their impact and effectiveness in communicating research findings. Finally, I synthesized across the themes raised in the seven poems. Poetic analysis revealed emotional and cultural dimensions of change, especially the importance of occupational and place identity, in the experience of the ganadero. The transcript re-presented as poetry portrayed the ganadero as an agent in creating and maintaining a cultural landscape and as both an adaptor and resister to SES change. Poetic analysis also uncovered telling contradictions, adaptive capacities, and barriers to adaptation in this SES that went unappreciated with conventional qualitative analysis approaches. This exploratory study illustrates the

  1. Depositional setting and early diagenesis of the dinosaur eggshell-bearing Aren Fm at Bastus, Late Campanian, south-central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Molina, Margarita; Kälin, Otto; Benito, M. Isabel; Lopez-Martinez, Nieves; Vicens, Enric

    2007-07-01

    The Late Cretaceous Aren Fm exposed north of Bastus in the Tremp Basin (south-central Pyrenees) preserves an excellent record of dinosaur eggs laid in a marine littoral setting. Different from other cases reported in literature, at the Bastus site the preferential nesting ground was original beach sand. The coastal deposits of Aren Fm can be grouped into four facies assemblages, representing respectively shoreface, beachface, beach ridge plain and backbarrier lagoon environments. Shoreface deposits include fine- to coarse-grained hybrid arenites and subordinate quartz-dominated conglomerates with ripple structures of wave and wave-current origin. Beachface deposits are mainly storm beach conglomerates, but parallel-laminated foreshore arenites locally occur. Backbarrier lagoon deposits comprise of washover sandy conglomerates that grade laterally into sandy lime mudstones, biomicrites and marls. Beach ridge sediment, wherein the bulk of dinosaur eggs and eggshell debris occurs, predominantly is a reddish hybrid arenite that has undergone a complex early diagenetic evolution, including marine and meteoric cementation followed by soil development. The reddish arenites overlie wave-dominated shoreface deposits and in places pass laterally into lagoonal deposits. They originally formed shore ridges, that became stabilized during progradational episodes by pedogenesis (beach ridge, sensu [Otvos, E.G., 2000. Beach ridges—definitions and significance. Geomorphology 32, 83-108.]), which also affected the dinosaur eggs. The eggshell-bearing beach ridge arenites are typically preserved at the top of parasequences forming the systems tracts of a third-order sequence. Thick packages of this facies resulted from aggradation of barrier/beach ridge deposits, whose preservation below surfaces of transgressive erosion was favoured by incipient lithification.

  2. Characterisation and quantification of trace metal elements in atmospheric deposition and particularities in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees): implementation of road traffic air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veschambre, S.

    2006-04-01

    This study of inputs of trace metal elements (TME) in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees Atlantiques) has two objectives: (1) to define a reference state of metallic contaminants for the monitoring of road traffic emissions since the opening of the Somport tunnel and, (2) to evaluate sources and climatic conditions which contribute to TME inputs in the Aspe valley. To establish air quality indicators, TME (Al, Na, Mg, K, V, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Rb, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Ce, Pb and U) and lead isotopic ratios ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) were determined in the atmospheric receptors (fresh snow, wet deposition, atmospheric particulates and lichen). Sampling and analyses with ultra clean procedures were employed for TME quantification. Variability of atmospheric receptors studied, allows integration on a daily and pluri-annual temporal scale and a spatial scale in the North-South axis of the valley and as a function of the altitude from the road. The Aspe valley presents a level of contamination characteristic of remote European areas and the metallic contaminants identified are Cd, Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb and Sn. In the low valley, air quality indicators indicate contaminant contributions (i) from local emissions of domestic heat sources, from agricultural burning practices and road traffic, and (ii) from regional anthropogenic sources of waste incinerators, metallurgic industries and urban centres. In altitude, the valley is significantly influenced by wind erosion and long range transport of TME in the Northern Hemisphere. Characterisation of TME and the isotopic ratios of Pb in the Somport tunnel indicate (i) a significant emission of Cu, Sb, Zn and Ba and (ii) an isotopic composition from a slightly radiogenic source even though Pb concentrations indicate low emissions from road traffic emissions. Nevertheless, the low traffic volume in the Aspe valley prevents conclusive evidence of significant contamination from road traffic. (author)

  3. Effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil organic matter and biological properties: A 1-year study case in the Central Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona-García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Ortiz-Perpiñá, Oriol; Mora, Juan Luis; Armas-Herrera, Cecilia M

    2018-03-15

    Prescribed burning has been readopted in the last decade in the Central Pyrenees to stop the regression of subalpine grasslands in favour of shrublands, dominated among others by Echinospartum horridum (Vahl) Rothm. Nevertheless, the effect of this practice on soil properties is uncertain. The aim of this work was to analyse the effects of these burnings on topsoil organic matter and biological properties. Soil sampling was carried out in an autumnal prescribed fire in Buisán (NE-Spain, November 2015). Topsoil was sampled at 0-1cm, 1-2cm and 2-3cm depth in triplicate just before (U), ~1h (B0), 6months (B6) and 12months (B12) after burning. We analysed soil total organic C (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass C (C mic ), soil respiration (SR) and β-D-glucosidase activity. A maximum temperature of 438°C was recorded at soil surface while at 1cm depth only 31°C were reached. Burning significantly decreased TOC (-52%), TN (-44%), C mic (-57%), SR (-72%) and β-D-glucosidase (-66%) at 0-1cm depth while SR was also reduced (-45%) at 1-2cm depth. In B6 and B12, no significant changes in these properties were observed as compared to B0. It can be concluded that the impact of prescribed burning has been significant and sustained over time, although limited to the first two topsoil centimetres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Which sustainable energy policy in France?; Quelle politique energetique durable en France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Concurrently to the National Debate on the energies, a real debate has been proposed by seven associations of the environment protection and improvement. This debate, international, wonders on the energy choices in France. Presentations of the interveners and working documents are provided on the following topics: energy choices for the economic development, renewable energies, the possibilities and the development of the solar energy in France, the economic interest of the cogeneration, quick overview of the wind energy in France, energy production data, the transport and the greenhouse effect, the sustainable development and the energy policy and the local governments. (A.L.B.)

  5. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  6. Teaching the Western.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan, John H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the content of a course on the genre of western films that was utilized as a film study and a U.S. cultural history credit. Describes in detail the film, "Winchester '73," and addresses other films utilized in the course. States that the course also focuses on the development of the western genre. (CMK)

  7. Western Slope Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epis, R.C.; Callender, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A conference on the geology and geologic resources of the Western Slope of western Colorado and eastern Utah is presented. Fourteen papers from the conference have been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. These papers covered such topics as uranium resources, oil shale deposits, coal resources, oil and gas resources, and geothermal resources of the area

  8. Food-related life style in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in France, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The French consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central li...

  9. Southern Europeans in France: Invisible Migrants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremenko, T.; El Qadim, N.; Steichen, E.; Lafleur, J.-M.; Stanek, M.

    2016-01-01

    France fared relatively well at the start of the current economic crisis, but has experienced low economic growth and high unemployment rates in the recent years. As a result it has been a less popular destination with Southern Europeans and EU migrants in general in search of economic

  10. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  11. Lombroso in France. A paradoxical reception

    OpenAIRE

    Renneville, Marc

    2013-01-01

    International audience; La réception paradoxale de Lombroso en France. Initialement positive voire enthousiaste, cette réception est rapidement devenue critique tout en donnant une large audience à la théorie du criminel-né

  12. Medical physics in France, stakes and necessities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    2004-01-01

    This series of slides presents the situation of medical physics in France: - role of the medical physicist with respect to the medical procedures in radiotherapy, radiology and nuclear medicine; - responsibility in the treatment chain; - professional qualification and training; - present day and future situation of the profession; - authorities answer; - a profession in great precariousness situation. (J.S.)

  13. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  14. Gaz de France annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  15. World Foods. The Flavor of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Helen; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of France and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of French geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies French food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  16. CERN craftsman named Best in France

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    Didier Lombard, metal worker in EST Division, was crowned 'France's Top Craftsman' during the 21st edition of the contest, which covered the period 1997 to 2000. CERN employs some of Europe's top crafts people to work on construction of components for experiments that are designed to a high degree of precision.

  17. Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France Altarelli Guido, CERN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France. Altarelli Guido, CERN, Switzerland. Ananthanarayan Balasubramanian,. IISc, Bangalore, India. Antoniadis Ignatios, CERN, Switzer- land. Aziz T, TIFR, Mumbai, India. Babu K S, Oklahoma State Univ., USA. Bailey Stephen, Harvard/BaBar, USA. Bailin David, University of Sussex, UK.

  18. The wind energy in danger in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The law project of march 2005, concerning the energy policy in France is dangerous for the wind power development. The new regulation favor the big installations in order to protect the environment. In fact this decision will limit the wind turbines installations. (A.L.B.)

  19. Limits to expression on religion in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a

  20. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  1. Tables of energies consumption in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    This short paper presents the evolution of the energy consumption by sector (industry, domestic, tertiary industry, transports, agriculture and all sectors together), since 1973. It gives an abstract of a more complete book: tableaux des consommations d'energie en France; edition 1999. (A.L.B.)

  2. 2004 energy bill of the France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  3. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  4. The Future of the CEMAC CFA Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Agbor Agbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 currency boards have come into existence at some point since the mid-19th century, but to date only about 15 of them still exist, among which is the CFA franc monetary zone. The future sustainability of the CFA franc zone, to which the CEMAC CFA franc belongs, is increasingly questioned in the light of increasing asymmetries in exposure to external shocks, differential speeds of adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks, differential impacts in economic fundamentals, and low levels of intra-regional trade and financial flows between CEMAC and WAEMU. For the CEMAC bloc of countries in particular, the future sustainability of the fixed exchange regime depends crucially on continued oil exports, which currently represent about 90percent of export revenues and 40 percent of GDP. Should oil reserves deplete in the near future or oil prices decline significantly, a substantial source of foreign reserves would be lost, thereby exposing the regime to collapse. Even without resource depletion, continued volatility in global financial markets is increasing the risks of collapse of the fixed exchange regime as oil and commodity price swings ignite currency speculation as well as render reserves much more volatile. Against this backdrop, the present study examines the stakes facing the CEMAC CFA franc, discusses the exit options from the currency board and makes recommendations towards a sustainable monetary policy framework for CEMAC countries going forward. The analysis points to the imperative of pursuing a full monetary union with a single CEMAC franc pegged to the U.S. dollar and further suggest that, like the experience of the eurozone, the CEMAC monetary arrangement can be best implemented only by complying with the principle of political union.

  5. Recent progress towards climate services in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deandreis, C.; Lemond, J.; Dandin, P.; Braconnot, P.

    2013-01-01

    Important efforts have been made in recent years to develop climate services in France. Many initiatives have emerged to build an adapted System of information. This development is consistent with legislative and regulatory obligations, with a concern for economic advance, or a citizen questioning related to global change. The web portal 'DRIAS, les futurs du climat' provides an easy access to climate scenarios for France, opened to everyone concerned by impact and adaptation to climate change. This achievement results of a close co-operation between the major French climate modelling groups and the operational services of Meteo-France. It has been benefiting from the support of the Ministry in charge of Sustainable Development namely through its GICC program. The next steps with DRIAS will be defined both by a strong consistency with the scientific community work and by the requirements and expectations of users. In this, it is a real service. Following a different approach more focused on the specific and advanced needs of particular users, the French projects INVULNERABLe and SECIF sought to create a relevant and tailored to the industrial sector. This kind of products requires a support to educate operational users to climate change issue, and then to enhance the interface between climatologists and skilled users within the concerned companies. Both approaches are representative of current efforts of the French national scientific community to provide a useful part of the knowledge developed by the Academia and Meteo-France. The various initiatives are carried out with the wish to share and be consistent with research community work. They are mutually enriching, and with all stakeholders involved, they gradually build a real climate service in France. (authors)

  6. Les migrations de médecins de la Roumanie vers la France: un ‘brain drain’ en Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Séchet , Raymonde; Vasilcu , Despina

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The migration of highly skilled workers and more specifically of physicians has been a component of the globalisation of the recent few decades. In Europe, these physicians’ migration and mobility has increased with the dynamics of expansion of EU. Since 2007, many Romanian doctors have left their country to work in Western European Countries, especially in France where they either help to alleviate the lack of general practitioners in isolated rural areas, or work as ...

  7. Simulating nitrogen budgets in complex farming systems using INCA: calibration and scenario analyses for the Kervidy catchment (W. France)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Durand; P. Durand

    2004-01-01

    The integrated nitrogen model INCA (Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments) was used to analyse the nitrogen dynamics in a small rural catchment in Western France. The agrosystem studied is very complex, with: extensive use of different organic fertilisers, a variety of crop rotations, a structural excess of nitrogen (i.e. more animal N produced by the intensive farming than the N requirements of the crops and pastures), and nitrate retention in both hydrological stores and riparian zones. The ...

  8. Gaz de France. Source document; Gaz de France. Document de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents some informations relative to the stocks admitted to Euronext's Eurolist, some general informations about the company and its capital, some informations about the activities of Gaz de France group, about its financial situation and results, about its management, and about its recent evolution and future perspectives. (J.S.)

  9. Critical acidity loads in France; Charges critiques d`acidite en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, A.; Party, J.P.; Fevrier, C. [Centre de Geochimie de la Surface (UPR 06251 du CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Dambrine, E. [Centre de Recherches Forestieres, INRA, 45 - Orleans (France); Thomas, A.L.; King, D. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomique (INRA), 45 - ORDON (France); Stussi, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Based on results from several systematic forest and surface water monitoring programs, carried out in various parts of France as well as in Europe, acidity critical loads have been calculated for soils and surface waters; critical loads are presented for water and soils in crystalline mountainous regions such as Ardennes, Vosges and Massif Central; links with geochemistry, ecosystems and types of trees are discussed and perspectives are given for the calculation of acid and nitrogen critical loads on the whole France

  10. The Many Crises of Western Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    of professional journalism in existential terms; the second focuses on the weaknesses of the professional model itself; the third defines the crisis in symbolic terms, as a morally problematic relation among journalists, citizens, and power holders. These three crisis frameworks raise different questions...... and professionally relatively robust countries like Finland and Germany, where symbolic issues loom large; to countries like the US, where economic, professional, and symbolic crises seem to coincide -- and are interpreted in large part through the lens of technology; to countries like France, Italy, and the UK......, where crises are seen to coincide but where the roots of crises are seen as predating the rise of the internet and the erosion of existing business models for journalism. Each interpretation of the crisis in Western journalism points to different solutions, from appeals to state intervention in several...

  11. Inside France: Three Missing Pages from Your Students' Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conniffe, Patricia, Ed.

    This mini-unit seeks to fill the gap in textbooks that exists when teaching about modern France. Many textbooks end their coverage of France with the chapter on World War II. This unit offers high school students a unique introduction to France in the mid-1990s. The mini-unit includes a two-sided poster, teaching tips, and student pages. Student…

  12. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  13. G8 global partnership. France's contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    During the G8 summit at Kananaskis (Canada) in June 2002, G8 Leaders decided to launch the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Under this initiative, partners support specific cooperation projects to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues. Since then, thirteen other donor countries have joined the initiative from which the Ukraine may also now benefit. France intends to make an effective contribution, up to 750 million euros, to the implementation of this initiative, giving priority to a genuine partnership between France and Russia covering projects in the nuclear, chemical and biological fields. France intends to be involved in the various fields identified at Kananaskis: in the nuclear field, it is participating in nuclear submarine dismantling actions and contributes to the improvement of nuclear safety and security. It also supports the program for the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes. France is also involved in the destruction of chemical weapons and intends to develop responses to bio-terrorist threats, while promoting reemployment of scientists. To optimise its action, France has committed itself to both multilateral and bilateral programs. In the multilateral framework, France contributes to: - the NDEP fund (Northern Dimension Environment Partnership) which will finance projects related to the dismantling of nuclear submarines and remediation of the sites concerned; - the MPDG (Multilateral Plutonium Disposition Group), whose objective is to enable the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes; - the construction of the new Chernobyl shelter in the Ukraine. France is also developing bilateral cooperation, primarily with Russia: - in the nuclear field, the implementing agreement negotiated in the framework of the Multilateral Environmental

  14. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  15. Western Mountain Initiative - Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    unprecendented severity in the western United States, extensive tree mortality from outbreaks of bark beetles climatic stressors (Goals 1.1, 1.3) and identification of critical areas (Goal 1.2). Causal mechanisms

  16. Colbert's shadow: trade liberalisation and France's energy giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The slow pace of liberalisation in France's state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies are examined, and complaints from the British, Austrian, and Spanish power companies that France has failed to implement the EU directives while EdF has not been slow to expand overseas are considered. The climate of change in France illustrated by the hostile takeover battles, and suspicion of spot and futures trading as speculation rather than offsetting risks are noted. (UK)

  17. Fluid circulations in response to mantle exhumation at the passive margin setting in the north Pyrenean zone, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, B.; Boulvais, P.; Boiron, M. C.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Marasi, L.; Clerc, C.

    2018-02-01

    Sub-continental lithospheric mantle rocks are exhumed in the distal part of magma-poor passive margins. Remnants of the North Iberian paleo-passive margin are now exposed in the North-Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and offers a field analogue to study the processes of continental crust thinning, subcontinental mantle exhumation and associated fluid circulations. The Saraillé Massif which belongs to the `Chaînons Béarnais' range (Western Pyrenees), displays field, petrographic and stable isotopic evidence of syn-kinematic fluid circulations. Using electron probe micro-analyses on minerals, O, C, Sr isotopes compositions and micro thermometry/Raman spectrometry of fluid inclusions, we investigate the history of fluid circulations along and in the surroundings of the Saraillé detachment fault. The tectonic interface between the pre-rift Mesozoic sedimentary cover and the mantle rocks is marked by a metasomatic talc-chlorite layer. This layer formed through the infiltration of a fluid enriched in chemical elements like Cr leached from the exhuming serpentinized mantle rocks. In the overlying sediments (dolomitic and calcitic marbles of Jurassic to Aptian age), a network of calcitic veins, locally with quartz, formed as a consequence of the infiltration of aqueous saline fluids (salinities up to 34 wt% NaCl are recorded in quartz-hosted fluid inclusions) at moderate temperatures ( 220 °C). These brines likely derived from the dissolution of the local Triassic evaporites. In the upper part of the metasomatic system, upward movement of fluids is limited by the Albian metasediments, which likely acted as an impermeable layer. The model of fluid circulation in the Saraillé Massif sheds light onto other synchronous metasomatic systems in the Pyrenean realm.

  18. Computer Simulation Western

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)

  19. Acerca de Juana Francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Orgaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la desigual visibilidad de Juana Francés frente al resto de compañeros de su generación, el artículo considera algunos de los factores que provocaron esta injusta situación. Así mismo se aborda un recorrido por la intensa y variada trayectoria creativa de la artista que incluye sus etapas más significativas analizadas.Taking into account the poor visibility of Juana Francés compared to tfie rest of tier generation colleagues, ttie article reflects on some of tfie causes ttiat provoked this unfair situation. In addition to that, tfie article explores the intense and diverse artistic career including her most significant stages.

  20. Postglacial dispersal of Phlebotomus perniciosus into France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrotey S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomus perniciosus was identified morphologically in samples from France and northeast Spain, and individuals were then characterized at three polymorphic isoenzyme loci (by isoelectrofocusing and at the mitochondrial DNA locus (by comparative DNA sequence analysis of a fragment of the Cytochrome b gene. The four polymorphic loci gave conflicting patterns of population relationships, which can be explained by hypothesizing different amounts of gene introgression at each locus when two distinctive lineages met in southern France or northeast Spain after isolation in southern Italy and Spain during the Pleistocene Ice Ages. P. perniciosus is an important vector of Leishmania infantum and so these population differentiation studies are relevant for predicting the emergence and spread of leishmaniasis in relation to environmental changes, including climate.

  1. A study of nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1981-01-01

    It is stated that the purpose of the study is to identify and explain, for a British audience, what the author perceives to be the combination of forces and events that have led France to adopt the most thrustful nuclear programme in the world at the present time. The subject is discussed under the headings: nuclear perspectives (energy needs and supplies - forecasts and programmes); the national interest (government policies in relation to energy; reactor types - gas-graphite and LWR); the structure of the French nuclear industry; the State (the French corps of scientists; the existence of an Administrative Elite; the role of the State and its function in industrial management); decision making; the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique); Electricite de France; electricity growth and prices; financing the expansion; the international dimension (cooperation). (author)

  2. Research on hydrogen by Gaz de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, G.; Lecoanet, A.; Roncato, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    With the increasing energy needs of mankind and the earth's necessarily limited resources of fuel, the time will come when the demand for hydrocarbons will exceed the world production capacity. This situation will subsequently get even worse because of the depletion of recoverable reserves. Massive recourse to nuclear and solar energy thus appears indispensable, and the use of hydrogen as a vector for such energies has been under consideration for several years, especially in France where petroleum resources are very limited. Gaz de France has been doing research on the mass production of hydrogen by the decomposition of water and has just come to rather pessimistic conclusions as to the competitiveness of thermochemical processes in comparison with electrolytic methods. However, the electrolysis of water offers interesting prospects providing its efficiency and economics can be improved. Furthermore research on the storage and transportation of hydrogen has already enabled some conclusions to be drawn in these fields where gaseous vectors have very encouraging possibilities [fr

  3. Nuclear safety in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the milestones of 2001 concerning nuclear safety in France: 1) the new organization of nuclear safety in France, IPSN (institute of protection and nuclear safety) and OPRI (office for protection against ionizing radiation) have merged into an independent organization: IRSN (institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety); 2) a draft bill has been proposed by the government to impose to nuclear operators new obligations concerning the transfer of information to the public; 3) nuclear safety authorities have drafted a new procedure in order to cope with the demand concerning modification of nuclear fuel management particularly the increase of the burn-up; 4) new evolutions concerning the management of a major nuclear crisis as a consequence of the terrorist attack on New-york and the accident at the AZF plant in Toulouse; 5) a point is made concerning the work of the WENRA association about the harmonization of the nuclear safety policies of its different members. (A.C.)

  4. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  5. Irradiation and the food industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on food irradiation. The historical development in France of some industrial applications of food irradiation resulting from efficient technology transfer to the food industry is discussed. The 4 basic steps in successfully marketing any technology transfer, including irradiated foods, are that research must define conditions of the product's application, legislation must specify conditions of its application, consumers must accept the product, and appropriate processing capacity must exist

  6. France's Nuclear Arsenal: What Sort of Renewal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustlein, Corentin

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of the next few years, France will have to renew its nuclear arsenal to ensure that it remains a credible deterrent in the eyes of its potential enemies. This update must occur within an unfavourable context: the strategic environment, marked by the multiplication of Jihadi fronts, has deteriorated, and budgetary discipline is the order of the day. Sacrificing nuclear deterrence at the altar of the fight against terrorism would, however, be a fatal error

  7. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  8. Frances Keesler Graham (1918-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, W Keith

    2014-09-01

    Frances Keesler Graham, noted psychophysiologist and developmental researcher, died on April 16, 2013. Fran was born in Canastota, New York, on August 1, 1918. Fran's high-quality research, her success in obtaining 39 years of uninterrupted funding, and the very high regard in which she was held among her colleagues led to numerous awards and honors. Fran was demanding but equally willing to provide extensive assistance to students willing to work hard. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Spent fuel management in France: Programme status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudat, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    France's programme is best characterized as a closed fuel cycle including reprocessing, Plutonium recycling in PWR and use of breeder reactors. The current installed nuclear capacity is 52.5 GWe from 55 units. The spent fuel management scheme chosen is reprocessing. This paper describes the national programme, spent nuclear fuel storage, reprocessing and contracts for reprocessing of spent fuel from various countries. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  10. France's action plan for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first presents the French strategy for energy efficiency which is notably based on several commitments and an energy conservation policy. The second part describes the various policies and measures which have been implemented in France for different sectors: energy demand, housing and office building, transports, industry, exemplary State and local communities, agriculture, wastes, public information and sensitization. Several large appendices complete this report. They address assessment methods, policies and measures, and a European directive

  11. Charbonnages de France. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This annual report of the Charbonnages de France (CdF) group presents the financial results of the group for 1998: coal market, CdF's financial results (turnover, exploitation result, financial result, debt); power production (Snet, Cerchar, Surschiste, Sidec, and CdF Ingenierie activities); coal industry activities (coal mines, coke factories, coal products, environment); progressive ceasing of coal extraction (safety, manpower, reduction of working time, training, management of abandoned sites, rehabilitation, cleansing); management of industrialization and patrimony. (J.S.)

  12. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesson Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  13. Shielding design for PWR in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, G.; Charransol; Le Dieu de Ville, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T.

    1983-05-01

    Shielding calculation scheme used in France for PWR is presented here for 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants built by EDF the French utility giving electricity. Neutron dose rate at areas accessible by personnel during the reactor operation is calculated and compared with the measurements which were carried out in 900 MWe units up to now. Measurements on the first French 1300 MWe reactor are foreseen at the end of 1983

  14. A survey of renewable energies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals set by the Grenelle agreement was to reach a ratio of 23% for the part of renewable energies in the final energies consumed in France by 2020. In 2005 this ratio was 10 per cent. In this article the situation in 2010 for wind energy, solar energy, biomass, wood heating and geothermal energy are reported. It appears that the results are promising but the reduction of fiscal incentives might jeopardize the objective for 2020. (A.C.)

  15. Tables of energy consumptions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  16. Limits to expression on religion in France

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a certain religion in society. They often initiate judicial proceedings seeking to prohibit certain kinds of speech on their religion. This practice has resulted in a rich case law on the limits of expre...

  17. Insurance of the Nuclear Risk in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassard, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This March, Japan commemorated the first anniversary of the Fukushima tragedy, when an unhappy combination of natural disasters led to a nuclear accident. The material and human damage was enormous and it will be decades before memories fade and the Japanese can try to forget this tragedy, which attests to the great vulnerability of - even the most advanced - economies to natural and technological risks. In the wake of the accident, there has been much debate on the pertinence of the use of nuclear fission in energy production, particularly in France. Without going over these debates once again, it is nonetheless legitimate to ask not just how well equipped we are to prevent nuclear risks, but also how the consequences of a potential nuclear disaster would be dealt with in this country. It is this question that Guy Brassard latches on to. After reminding us of the limits of the responsibility of EDF (Electricite de France) and the state in France regarding the indemnification of the damage that would ensue from such a disaster, Brassard stresses the inadequacy of the guarantees in force and calls for the creation of a reserve fund for exceptional events. He stresses the need to mitigate the nuclear risk through a clear assessment of power stations on the basis of uniform security parameters, a publicly avail able economic analysis of the electricity mix, and the establishment of measures of efficiency and prudence in the use of France's nuclear resources. He ends by proposing a model, based on a large number of international studies, for calculating the costs of a scheme for insuring against exceptional risks. From these it emerges that a very moderate increase in the price of electricity would make it possible to set aside 100 billion euros over 18 years to meet a risk that would arise only once every century. A relatively negligible investment for the future by comparison with the cost to the public finances of such a disaster occurring. (author)

  18. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  19. Offshore wind power: does France remain ashore?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongrain, T.

    2015-01-01

    France benefits from favorable geographical conditions for offshore wind power but the development of a dedicated industrial sector is slow. 6 projects of wind power farms where turbines are rooted in the seabed are expected to operate progressively from 2018, they represent a cumulated power capacity of 2920 MW. A call for projects has been launched by French authorities for floating offshore wind farms off Brittany and in the mediterranean sea but it will not be sufficient to help to fulfill the declared goal of 40% of the electricity produced in France should be of renewable origin. The main weakness is the cost and countries like Germany benefit from the shallow waters of the North sea to install wind farms at lower costs. The solution could be the development in France of an industrial sector dedicated to floating wind turbines that are easier to install in deep water and can be settled farther off the coast to meet the demand of environmentalists for seascape preservation. More sites could become available for floating wind turbines than for seabed-rooted ones and as the consequence the market for floating systems may become more important. (A.C.)

  20. Gaz de France 2006 sustainable development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major European energy utility, the Gaz de France Group produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. this report presents the actions implemented by the group to incorporate sustainable development into its strategy. From the point of view of risks and opportunities, the group analyzes what it takes to ensure development that respects people and the environment, and it implements them in all its business lines and management systems. Content: Gaz de France, portrait of a major energy utility, highlights of 2006, challenges and strategy (defining strategy and sustainable development policy, specific risks and opportunities, activities of the Gaz de France group: challenges, impact for stakeholders, transparency and independence in governing), ranking and implementing (defining sustainable development policy: reviewing priorities, meeting all the challenges, publicizing and defending positions, increasing awareness, overseeing and monitoring results), results of the 2004-2006 sustainable development action plan, dialogue and action with stakeholders, performance assessment, performance in response to challenges: energy challenges (guaranteeing regular supplies, controlling atmospheric emissions, promoting energy conservation, developing renewable energy), industrial challenges (ensuring health and safety, limiting the overall environmental impact of group activities), social responsibility challenges (advocating corporate social responsibility, promoting human rights and fighting corruption, encouraging commitment to solidarity, promoting regional development through local initiatives, reconciling acquisitions, procurement and sustainable development, ensuring transparency in natural gas rates, providing shareholders with quality information, promoting diversity, a source of enrichment, making working conditions a performance factor), indicators and

  1. A decade of nuclear development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renon, G.

    1984-01-01

    After the first energy crisis, in France depended heavily on oil import, the broad lines of strategy were the improvement of efficiency in energy use, the diversification of energy sources and the development of domestic substitute energy sources. The energy conservation policy achieved in 1983 up to 35 million tons of oil equivalent saving. The coal and natural gas output in France decreased during the last ten years, but the national energy production covered 38.7 % of the national needs in 1983. This result is mainly due to the implementation of electro-nuclear program whose contribution to the total energy consumption was more than 17 % in 1983. In 10 reference years, 29 PWR units of 900 MWe and 17 PWR units of 1300 MWe have been launched, and 27 units of 900 MWe each have been commissioned. The power cost per kWh generated by nuclear energy remained about 2/3 of that by coal. The cumulative production of 900 MWe PWRs is already equivalent to 50 reactor-years at full power. The average availability of the units was 68 % in 1983, which showed that the problems have been solved. Also the state of nuclear fuel cycle in France, the trend of reactor improvement and the long term plan are explained. (Kako, I.)

  2. The history of tidal power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The first known use of tidal power in France concerns the tidal mills in general use during the Middle Age along the French coasts. The first research studies of tidal power plants started at the end of the first world war but it is only in 1940 with the stimulus of Robert Gibrat that was created the Research Society for the use of Tides and the Rance plant project. In 1946, Electricite de France (EdF) started again the studies of this company for a greater size project in the Chausey archipelago which was abandoned for the benefit of the Rance project in the 1960's. The start up of the plant took place in 1967 but the other projects were abandoned during the 1980's. This short paper recalls the historical aspects of the development of tidal power in France and focusses on the research and development studies and on the economical, political and legal factors that led to retain the Rance project among others proposed. (J.S.)

  3. [Increase of Hantavirus infections in France, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V; Haeghebaert, S; Fradet, M R; Capek, I; Zeller, H

    2005-02-01

    Hantaviral infections causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are endemic in North Eastern France. Humans are contaminated by the inhalation of aerosols contaminated by rodent faeces. In February 2003, the National reference centre (NRC) for hemorrhagic fevers detected an increased number of cases. An investigation was carried out to confirm the outbreak and take appropriate control measures. Cases were collected by the NRC. A case was defined as a person living in France with symptoms compatible with hantaviral infection and a positive blood test both for specific Puumala IgM, and IgG. Clinical information and at-risk exposures during the 2 weeks before onset were recorded. In 2003, 128 cases were diagnosed (61 in 2002). The median age of patients was 38, 77% were men and 82% were hospitalized. Patients were living in North-Eastern France. Clusters were detected in the Ardennes and Oise districts. Occupation (35%) (in agriculture, forestry, and construction work), manipulation of firewood (35%), gardening (29%), and outdoors leisure (14%) were identified as at-risk exposures in these cases. An increased number of positive diagnoses of hantaviral infections was confirmed. The location and at-risk exposures of the cases were identical in previous investigations. Exclusion and prevention of rodents' access to houses and avoiding the inhalation of contaminated dust are the only possible prevention measures of hantaviral infections. Information about the disease and its prevention needs to be made widely available to both healthcare professionals and the general population living in endemic areas.

  4. Gaz de France 2006 annual report; Gaz de France 2006 rapport d'activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Gaz de France is major European energy utility, which produces, purchases, transports, distributes and sells natural gas, electricity and related services for its residential, corporate and local government customers. Its strategic focuses are to develop an ambitious marketing strategy, pursue a supply and procurement policy that guarantees the Group's competitiveness, confirm its position as a benchmark infrastructure manager, and speed up its profitable growth in Europe. Gaz de France aligns its strategy with a concrete and ambitious sustainable development policy. Its growth model is based on responsiveness to customers and constructive dialogue with its employees and partners. This document is the activity report of the group for the year 2006. It presents: 1 - the corporate profile of the group; 2 - its strategies (energy, energy supply, infrastructures); 3 - its financial highlights; 4 - its governance, shareholders and human resources; 5 - the activities of the group (exploration and production, energy procurement, energy sales, services, transmission France, storage France, LNG terminals, distribution France, transmission and distribution international, research and development); 6 - its 2006 financial data and financial summary.

  5. Management of outpatients in France with stable coronary artery disease. Findings from the prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease (CLARIFY) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Nicolas; Ferrieres, Jean; Guenoun, Maxime; Cattan, Simon; Rushton-Smith, Sophie K; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in the treatment of coronary artery disease mean that an increasing number of patients survive acute cardiovascular events and live as outpatients with or without anginal symptoms. To determine the characteristics and management of contemporary outpatients with stable coronary artery disease in Western Europe, and to compare France with the other Western European countries. CLARIFY (prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease) is an international, prospective, observational, longitudinal study. Between November 2009 and July 2010, 32,954 adult outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (defined as a history of documented myocardial infarction [of >3 months], prior coronary revascularization, chest pain with myocardial ischaemia, or coronary stenosis of>50% proven by angiography) were enrolled in 45 countries. The demographics and management of CLARIFY patients enrolled in France were compared with those enrolled in other Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). Of the 14,726 patients enrolled in Western Europe (mean age 66.2 [10.2] years; 79.6% male), 2432 (16.5%) were from France. The use of aspirin was lower in France than in other Western European countries (74.5% vs. 86.9%, respectively), whereas use of thienopyridines (48.5% vs. 21.7%), oral anticoagulants (12.3% vs. 9.0%) and lipid-lowering drugs (95.8% vs. 92.5%) was higher. Beta-blockers were used in 73% of both groups. Angina was less prevalent in France (6.3% vs. 15.5%) and French patients showed higher levels of physical activity than their counterparts in Western Europe. The management of patients with stable CAD in France appears favourable, with good adherence to guideline-based therapies, but there remains room for improvement in terms of symptom and risk factor control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Channels to West: Exploring the Migration Routes between Romania and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Lupșa Matichescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The integration of East European Countries in European Union has long-term consequences, with migration being one of the main social effects of this process. From an economic perspective, the research on migration has attracted considerable attention, whereas the analyses focused on the social networks are more scarce. The importance of these social networks becomes more substantial due to their quality and ability to reduce costs, risks of movement and uncertainty. Although the migratory networks are known at national levels, there are very few data related to the territorial distribution of migration network between origin and destination areas. In this context, Romania registered the highest level of emigration toward Western European countries, and this case study offers illustrative insights for the broader literature. In order to illustrate the territorial distribution of migrants’ network between Romania and France, we used an exhaustive analysis of the trajectories of all clients who used one of the largest transport companies operating between Romania and France (8094 cases. Using the benefits of this evidence-based approach, we identified the regions and the Romanian towns most affected by the migration phenomenon. Complementary, we illustrated the territorial distribution and the preferred destination regions in France for the Romanian immigrants. We present the migration networks that exist between the towns of the two countries and identify the intensity of each migration circuit.

  7. Range expansion of the Asian native giant resin bee Megachile sculpturalis (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Féon, Violette; Aubert, Matthieu; Genoud, David; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Westrich, Paul; Geslin, Benoît

    2018-02-01

    In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species that is native to East Asia. To our knowledge, it is the first introduced bee species in Europe. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe the history of its range expansion. Besides our own observations, information was compiled from literature and Internet websites, and by contacting naturalist networks. We collected a total of 117 records ( locality  ×  year combinations) for the 2008-2016 period. The geographical range of M. sculpturalis has extended remarkably, now occupying a third of continental France, with the most northern and western records located 335 and 520 km from Allauch, respectively. Information on its phenology, feeding, and nesting behavior is also provided. We report several events of nest occupation or eviction of Osmia sp. and Xylocopa sp. individuals by M. sculpturalis . Our results show that M. sculpturalis is now well established in France. Given its capacity to adapt and rapidly expand its range, we recommend amplifying the monitoring of this species to better anticipate the changes in its geographical range and its potential impacts on native bees.

  8. The potential of liquid biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, Etienne

    1999-01-01

    The objective fixed by the European Commission in 1995 was that 5% of the fuel used for transport in Fance should be produced from renewable energy by 2005. As opposed to some other European countries, there is no environmental tax on fossil fuels in France, but the Government has agreed to a tax incentive system on biofuels. Experimental work on liquid biofuels as a transport fuel started in France in the early 80's, but the use of biofuels on a commercial basis really started to develop when the setaside rules and tax incentives came into force in 1991. Out of the two routes originally considered for development; bioethanol and its ETBE derivative, and vegetable oils and their methyl ester derivatives, priority has now been given to: ETBE produced from sugar beet and wheat and now from sub-products of starch industry, which are widely grown in France; ETBE is blended with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. Production of wheat and beet for energy purposes is very similar to food production. In France, ethanol produce from sugar beet is a traditional industry; this was the first route to be developed. The results of a life cycle analysis made for ETBE produce from sugar beet will be given, showing advantages and limitations. Alcohol produced from wheat is a more recent activity; two industrial plants have been built since beginning of the 90's and other projects are planned like for example a production from starch industry. RME (rapeseed methyl ester) for use in diesel engines at various blend rates. Vegetable oils or their derivatives such as esters can be used directly in diesel engines. Pure, filtered and degummed oils can be used in pre-chamber engines. Relatively advanced knowledge has now been gained about esters; because their characteristics are very similar to those of conventional diesel fuel, they are considered suitable for use in direct injection diesel engines without engine modification. In France, methyl ester is at present produced mainly

  9. Nuclear safety in France in 2001; La surete nucleaire en France en 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  10. Small-area distribution of multiple sclerosis incidence in western France: in search of environmental triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammas, Karima; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Lannes, Morgane; Edan, Gilles; Viel, Jean-François

    2017-09-21

    Despite intensive research over several decades, the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood, although environmental factors are supposedly implicated. Our goal was to identify spatial clusters of MS incident cases at the small-area level to provide clues to local environmental risk factors that might cause or trigger the disease. A population-based and multi-stage study was performed in the French Brittany region to accurately ascertain the clinical onset of disease during the 2000-2004 period. The municipality of residence at the time of clinical onset was geocoded. To test for the presence of MS incidence clusters and to identify their approximate locations, we used a spatial scan statistic. We adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation, known to be strongly associated with increased MS incident rates, and scanned simultaneously for areas with either high or low rates. Sensitivity analyses (focusing on relapsing-remitting forms and/or places of residence available within the year following clinical onset) were performed. A total of 848 incident cases of MS were registered in Brittany, corresponding to a crude annual incidence rate of 5.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The spatial scan statistic did not find a significant cluster of MS incidence in either the primary analysis (p value ≥ 0.56) or in the sensitivity analyses (p value ≥ 0.16). The findings of this study indicate that MS incidence is not markedly affected across space, suggesting that in the years preceding the first clinical expression of the disease, no environmental trigger is operative at the small-area population level in the French Brittany region.

  11. Chlamydiaceae in North Atlantic Seabirds Admitted to a Wildlife Rescue Center in Western France

    OpenAIRE

    Aaziz, R.; Gourlay, P.; Vorimore, F.; Sachse, K.; Siarkou, V. I.; Laroucau, K.

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the primary hosts of Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium that can cause avian chlamydiosis in birds and psittacosis in humans. Wild seabirds are frequently admitted to wildlife rescue centers (WRC) at European Atlantic coasts, for example, in connection with oil spills. To investigate the extent of chlamydial shedding by these birds and the resulting risk for animals in care and the medical staff, seabirds from a French WRC were sampled from May 2011 to January 2014. By use of a quantit...

  12. Chlamydiaceae in North Atlantic Seabirds Admitted to a Wildlife Rescue Center in Western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaziz, R; Gourlay, P; Vorimore, F; Sachse, K; Siarkou, V I; Laroucau, K

    2015-07-01

    Birds are the primary hosts of Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium that can cause avian chlamydiosis in birds and psittacosis in humans. Wild seabirds are frequently admitted to wildlife rescue centers (WRC) at European Atlantic coasts, for example, in connection with oil spills. To investigate the extent of chlamydial shedding by these birds and the resulting risk for animals in care and the medical staff, seabirds from a French WRC were sampled from May 2011 to January 2014. By use of a quantitative PCR (qPCR), 195 seabirds belonging to 4 orders, 5 families and 13 species were examined, of which 18.5% proved to be Chlamydiaceae positive. The highest prevalence of shedders was found in northern gannets (Morus bassanus) (41%), followed by European herring gulls (Larus argentatus) (14%) and common murres (Uria aalge) (7%). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of qPCR-positive northern gannet samples revealed two variants of a strain closely related to C. psittaci. In European herring gulls and in one common murre, strains showing high sequence similarity to the atypical Chlamydiaceae-like C122 previously found in gulls were detected. Our study shows that seabirds from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean carry several chlamydial organisms, including C. psittaci-related strains. The staff in WRCs should take protective measures, particularly in the case of mass admissions of seabirds. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution, services

  14. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  15. Prior history of Mistral and Tramontane winds modulates heavy precipitation events in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségolène Berthou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation events (HPEs are frequent in southern France in autumn. An HPE results from landward transport of low-level moisture from the Western Mediterranean: large potential instability is then released by local convergence and/or orography. In the upstream zone, the sea surface temperature (SST undergoes significant variations at the submonthly time scale primarily driven by episodic highly energetic events of relatively cold outflows from the neighbouring mountain ranges (the Mistral and Tramontane winds. Here, we study the HPE of 22–23 September 1994 which is preceded by a strong SST cooling due to the Mistral and Tramontane winds. This case confirms that the location of the precipitation is modulated by the SST in the upstream zone. In fact, changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes due to SST changes induce pressure and stratification changes which affect the low-level dynamics. Using three companion regional climate simulations running from 1989 to 2009, this article statistically shows that anomalies in the HPEs significantly correlate with the SST anomalies in the Western Mediterranean, and hence with the prior history of Mistral and Tramontane winds. In such cases, the role of the ocean as an integrator of the effect of past wind events over one or several weeks does indeed have an impact on HPEs in southern France.

  16. General presentation of the biomass in France; Presentation generale de la biomasse en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The biomass is the first source of renewable energy in France. It allows the thermal (heat, fuels) and electrical energy recovery.It satisfies many stakes in the energy, the environment and the employment. This document presents the energy stake, the environmental stake and the economic and social stake. It discusses also the wood energy recovery in France, provides statistical data, definitions and methodologies of evaluation. It analyzes the production and consumption of the wood energy for the industrial and domestic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  17. Activities of Gaz de France Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The Board of Directors of Gaz de France approved the Group's consolidated accounts for 2004. In a more dynamic economic environment than in 2003, the Gaz de France Group reports enhanced results and has continued to pursue its growth in Europe. Increase in net sales driven by sustained growth in sales (+ 8.9%): In 2004, net sales rose 8.9% compared with the 2003 financial year to reach a total of euro 18,129 m. This strong increase in business activities was driven by sustained growth in sales volumes both in France and Europe. Total Group sales volumes amounted to 730 TWh (approximately 66 billion cubic metres), equal to growth of 10.3%. Natural gas sales volumes increased by approximately 10% in France, and are almost 18% higher in Europe, notably in the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands. The Group has pursued the profitable development of its activities outside France. As a result, international activities account for 29% of total sales in 2004, against 23% in 2003. The contribution made by international subsidiaries - particularly those specializing in exploration and production - grew by a very substantial 44.3% to reach a total of euro 502 m in 2004. Energy and Services Offering Branch: this core business line, which includes natural gas and oil exploration and production, energy trading and sales, and services associated with the supply of energy, boasts net sales of euro 16,498 m, equal to growth of 10.8% compared with 2003. Infrastructures Branch: this division, which groups together all activities related to the management of transmission and distribution infrastructures in both the French domestic and international markets, generated net sales of euro 6,794 m in 2004, virtually unchanged from the previous year. This situation is the result of higher sales generated by the distribution subsidiaries operating outside France (+9.2%) offset by a decline in the sales performance of the Transmission, Storage and Distribution in France

  18. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  19. Electrical Energy Statistics for France 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Detailed statistics on electricity flows in France and on facilities. Regional data / Consumption per sector of activity / Records over last 10 years (definitive results). In 2002, national electrical consumption reached 449.9 TWh, an increase of 0.3% compared with 2001 (448.6 TWh). Adjusted for winter and summer climate contingencies, its growth rate was 0.9% compared with 2001. Consumption by customers connected at high or medium voltage levels came to 254.2 TWh, an increase of 0.8% compared with 2001 (252.3 TWh); consumption by customers connected at low voltage levels came to 165 TWh, a decrease of 0.8% compared with 2001 (166.4 TWh). Generation in France reached 534.3 TWh, an increase of 11.5 TWh or 2.2% compared with 2001 (522.8 TWh). This increase broke down between nuclear generation and conventional thermal generation. Net nuclear generation injected, as measured by RTE, came to 415.5 TWh in 2002, an increase of 4.0% compared with 2001 (399.6 TWh). Conventional thermal generation came to 51.1 TWh, an increase of 15.4 % compared with 2001 (44.3 TWh). Hydro-electric generation amounted to 65.5 TWh, a fall of 15.3% compared with 2001 (77.3 TWh). In terms of physical exchanges with foreign countries, France exported a net total of 77 TWh, an increase of 12.6% compared with 2001 (68.4 TWh). Contractual exchanges with foreign countries, recorded by RTE, fell by 9.9 % to reach a cumulative value for exports and imports of 107.8 TWh (compared with 120 TWh in 2001)

  20. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  1. The studies of historical seismicity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levret, A.

    1987-11-01

    Since 1975 in order to be in conformity with the requirements of the French nuclear program, a review of historical seismicity was undertaken in France. The method adopted for reviewing historical earthquakes who entails a systematic consultation of the original sources and their critical analysis in order to obtain a new interpretation, led to compile a computer file covering a period of time of about a millenary. The abundant contributions result of continuous researches involve annualy up-date of the file where macroseismic data each one assigned with a degree of reliability are recorded [fr

  2. Status of the methanization sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    This report aims at describing the status of methanization installations, either operating or under construction, on the French national territory, all sectors included (industry, agriculture, sewage treatment, municipal wastes). In a first part, the authors propose a definition of methanization, a presentation of the various implementation techniques, a presentation of the different sectors using methanization (industry, agriculture and breeding, sewage treatment plants, household wastes), and a presentation of a survey. Then, they comment and discuss more precisely the different sectors, their history, their geographical distribution in France, their technologies, their effluents, their production, their economic data, their perspectives

  3. Nuclear energy research and development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    1981-02-01

    Having described the general organization and main participants in charge of nuclear energy development in France, headed by the C.E.A. since the start of this activity at the end of World War II, the author gives a glimpse of the programmes shared out between four main headings: fundamental research, reactors, fuel cycle and nuclear safety. Two tables sum up the financial means of the C.E.A. in 1981 on the one hand and the personnel strengths on the other. A graph also shows the operational framework of the C.E.A. and its main subsidiaries and participations [fr

  4. Gaz de France. 2006 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document was issued by Gaz de France, the French gas utility, at the occasion of the opening of the capital of the company. It is intended to shareholders and presents the relevant informations relative to the annual consolidated financial statements of the group according to IFRS and French standards for the year 2005 (selected financial information, business overview, liquidity and capital resources, profit forecasts or estimates, compensation and benefits, issuer assets etc..). It includes also some complementary information about the activities of the group, its estate property, plants and equipments, its R and D and patenting activities, its management and administration, its 2005 and 2006 contracts etc.. (J.S.)

  5. Annual report ''nuclear safety in France''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). It summarizes the highlights of the year 2000 and details the following aspects: the nuclear safety in France, the organization of the control of nuclear safety, the regulation relative to basic nuclear facilities, the control of facilities, the information of the public, the international relations, the organisation of emergencies, the radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive wastes, the PWR reactors, the experimental reactors and other laboratories and facilities, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and the shutdown and dismantling of nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  6. The production of transplutonium elements in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Sontag, R.; Kertesz, C.

    1980-08-01

    The development of the program for the production of transplutonium elements, 241 Am, 243 Am and 244 Cm, in France, required a major effort from the technological and chemical standpoints. Pre-existing hot cells were reconditioned and others specially built for these production operations. From the chemical standpoint, the development of extractive chromatography on the preparative scale has allowed the definition of simple processes. This type of process, initially developed for the treatment of Pu/Al targets, is ideal for the treatment of industrial wastes for their decontamination and for the production of 241 Am

  7. Energy in France. Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic but comprehensive outlook of the energy situation in France: the importance of energy and its various forms; the production and transformation of energy (energy sources, production means, other sources of energy); the transport and the distribution of energy (transportation systems, energy losses, the case of electric power transportation and distribution systems), energy utilization (demand and supply, energy management), the energy policy (historical aspects, the nowadays energy policy and its transition towards a sustainable and renewable energy policy

  8. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  9. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  10. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1986-01-01

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  11. EDF - Electricite de France, 2004 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2004. It is made of several reports: The Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2004, the 2004 Half-year results presentation, and The Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2004

  12. Plant upgrading and backfitting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxley, Nigel; Raimondo, Emile

    1992-01-01

    The service life of a nuclear power plant is linked to good operating and maintenance practices and effective management which should begin when the plant starts operating. In France the construction of two series of virtually identical reactors has enabled Framatome to use feedback from early units to modify and improve later ones. The intention is to keep the plants safe and to extend life as far into the next century as is feasible. Remedial measures that can be applied include improvements to plant operation itself, plant modifications and the implementation of effective preventive and corrective maintenance operations which may cover planned provision for the replacement of obsolete or susceptible components. (author)

  13. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation's electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study's methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared

  14. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.

    1998-01-01

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  15. EDF - Electricite de France, 2005 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2005. It is made of several reports: the 2005 Annual Results presentation, the consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2005, the 2005 Half-year results presentation, and the Consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2005

  16. Number of Children, Partnership Status, and Later-life Depression in Eastern and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Emily; van den Broek, Thijs; Keenan, Katherine

    2017-05-03

    To investigate associations between number of children and partnership with depressive symptoms among older Europeans and assess whether associations are greater in Eastern than Western countries. We further analyze whether associations are mediated by provision and receipt of emotional and financial support. Using cross-sectional data for five Eastern (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Romania, and Russia) and four Western European countries (Belgium, France, Norway, and Sweden) (n = 15,352), we investigated variation in depressive symptoms using linear regression. We fitted conditional change score models for depressive symptoms using longitudinal data for four countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, and France) (n = 3,978). Unpartnered women and men had more depressive symptoms than the partnered. In Eastern, but not Western, European countries childlessness and having one compared with two children were associated with more depressive symptoms. Formal tests indicated that partnership and number of children were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms in Eastern than Western Europe. Availability of close family is more strongly associated with older people's depressive symptoms in Eastern than Western Europe. The collapse of previous state supports and greater economic stress in Eastern Europe may mean that having a partner and children has a greater psychological impact than in Western countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  17. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport environnement 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  18. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France pour 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  19. The energy in France benchmark; L'energie en France reperes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This book provides data on the following topics, concerning the France: the energy in the economy, the different energies, the petroleum, gas, coal and electric power, the renewable energies, the cogeneration, the rational use of the energy, the prices, the energy and the environment. (A.L.B.)

  20. The international development of Electricite de France; Le developpement international d'Electricite de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In 2001, Electricite de France (EdF) has pursued and increased its international development with a portfolio of participations in foreign electricity companies (Germany, Italy, UK, Brazil, Argentina etc..) that reached 6 billions of euros. This development has been tainted with poor results in South America and has led to some hostile reactions from the Italian and Spanish governments. (J.S.)

  1. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  2. 2004 energy accounting in France; Bilan energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  3. The private vehicles in France: data and references; Les vehicules particuliers en France: donnees et references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catania, S.

    2004-03-01

    Each year the ADEME establishes and actualizes data bases from data provided by the UTAC and the Auxiliary Association of the Automobile. These data concern the emissions and consumptions of private vehicles approved and sold in France. The last part deals with the technological evolutions of vehicles concerning the fuel consumption decrease. (A.L.B.)

  4. The action of France; L'action de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  5. 2004 energy bill of the France; Facture energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  6. Changing Economic Leadership : A New Benchmark of Sector Productivity in the United States and Western Europe, ca. 1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, Ewout; Woltjer, Pieter; Smits, Jan-Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The debate concerning the exact timing and causes of changes in economic leadership constitutes one of the central themes in economic history. This study aims to improve the measurement of economic performance in the United States and Western Europe (Britain, France and the Netherlands) during the

  7. Changing Economic Leadership. A New Benchmark of Sector Productivity in the United States and Western Europe, ca. 1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Woltjer, P.J.; Smits, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The debate concerning the exact timing and causes of changes in economic leadership constitutes one of the central themes in economic history. This study aims to improve the measurement of economic performance in the United States and Western Europe (Britain, France and the Netherlands) during

  8. Experience of Forming Professional and Communicative Competency of Future Social Workers in Education Systems of Western European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyuk, Vita

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the experience of forming professional and communicative competency of future social workers in the education systems of Western European countries, in particular, France, Germany and Switzerland. On the basis of generalization of the studied data it has been found out that each country has its own techniques of forming…

  9. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  10. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  11. Commercial nuclear power in Western Europe: experience and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    1986-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power in Western Europe is likely to bring nuclear's share of electricity production from its current level of 30% to as high as 50% by the year 2000. Although France will build most of this new capacity and Denmark and Austria are abstaining, there is a clear trend in the region. Western Europe will likely decline in its share of world nuclear power as capacity increases in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union even though its growth has been faster than that of the US. The author compares capacity changes, plant performance, and nuclear trade developments in the individual European countries with those of the US, Soviet Union, and Japan. The author also describes the nuclear fuel cycle, the commercialization of fast breeder reactors, and public opposition to the European Community's policy of expanding nuclear power. The use of nuclear heat for district heating in addition to electric power could change the prospects over the long term. 3 tables

  12. Radioactive waste treatment and handling in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Classification of radioactive wastes customary in France and the program of radiation protection in handling them are discussed. Various methods of radioactive waste processing and burial are considered. The French classification of radioactive wastes differs from one used in the other countries. Wastes are classified under three categories: A, B and C. A - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with short-lived radionuclides (half-life - less than 30 years, negligible or heat release, small amount of long-lived radionuclides, especially such as plutonium, americium and neptunium); B - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (considerable amounts of long-lived radionuclides including α-emitters, low and moderate-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, low and moderate heat release); C - high-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (high-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, high heat release, considerable amount of long-lived radionuclides). Volumetric estimations of wastes of various categories and predictions of their growth are given. It is noted that the concept of closed fuel cycle with radiochemical processing of spent fuel is customary in France

  13. Gaz de France and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriere, J.F.; Balard, Th.

    2004-01-01

    Following an overview of the specific features of the European gas sector (characterised by highly concentrated production and increasing levels of production outside Europe and over long distances), the article describes the lead up to the opening of the market place in France. Following the application of the first directive in 2000, Gaz de France has carried out various measures, the aim of which was to achieve immediate efficiency (with the organizational separation of the transport and trading divisions, the separation of activities from an accounting viewpoint and the publication of a transparent TPA tariff as opposed to a discriminatory one). This opening of the gas sector has seen the start of a gradual process based on this experience. In addition to these initial measures, the opening of the gas markets has been subject to a regulatory framework as from January 2003, and the task of regulating the French gas sector has been given to the CRE (Commission de regulation de l'electricite). Thanks to the ongoing dialogue initiated by the latter with all key players in the market, progress has been achieved in various fields related to regulation. Even if this process is not complete, the French example demonstrates that the combined actions of the regulator and the market operators working together in a constructive manner and in stages, makes it possible to successfully introduce a genuinely open market. (authors)

  14. The Dismantling of Nuclear Installations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaure, P.

    2011-01-01

    As we saw in the previous article by Pierre Bonnaure, though it has long been decried for the dangers inherent in its production structures and the very long-lived waste that it generates, nuclear power may yet recover its credibility, particularly in France. However, on close examination, we see that the nuclear industry is beset by a number of unresolved questions, beginning with the dismantling of installations that have become obsolete or are set to become so. Nuclear power took off after the Second World War, but several generations of technology have been developed since then, and most currently functioning power-stations - mainly second-generation installations - are theoretically nearing the end of their useful lives, at least in terms of what was said when they were being built. The problem therefore arises of their dismantling and the clean-up of the sites on which they were built, a thorny question on which Pierre Bonnaure casts light in this article (prospects, strategies, financing, management of waste etc.). Unfortunately, it emerges that in France nothing has really been resolved, that public debate on the matter is decidedly limited and that investment (both financial investment and research) is not commensurate with the needs of a sector which is, after all, the source of three quarters of national electricity production. (author)

  15. The photovoltaic sector in France Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick; Jacquin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    According to statistics drawn up in 2009 by the Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables (SER, France's professional association of bodies involved in renewable energies), 250 MW of generating capacity were added during the year. This brings France's total installed photovoltaic capacity up to 430 MW. France's photovoltaic market grew from the world's 12. largest in terms of market size to 7. The broad guidelines which followed on from the legislation that emerged from the 'Grenelle of the Environment' are influencing the ways in which the market is to grow over the next few years: largest by the end of 2009. This was due to growth that was sustained by high feed-in tariffs and a drop in the price of equipment. - a target of 1100 MW of photovoltaic installed capacity by 2012, reaching 5 400 MW by 2020; - confirmation that tariff incentives will remain in place until 2012 and creation of an additional tariff for photovoltaic installations in large-sized buildings, such as commercial premises and industrial warehouses. This tariff has been fixed at 0,45 EUR per kWh; however, adjustment measures were announced at the end of 2009 to reduce a speculative approach that could ultimately lead to an hardening of access conditions to the higher tariffs. - the issuing of an invitation to tender for the construction of a least one photovoltaic power plant per region in France by 2011, providing a total of 300 MW of power. 2009 was mainly marked by an increase in the number of medium- and high-power plants, together with the emergence of a number of new organizations in the photovoltaic sector. The market continues to be strongly influenced by the priorities given to the integration of photovoltaics into buildings. The effects of the incentive measures that have been in place since 2006 (feed-in tariffs and fiscal measures) are still being felt. They continue to stimulate investment - both from private individuals and manufacturing organizations. In

  16. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  17. Next step, the Tour de France?

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour de France, the Annecy-Semnoz time-trial, has already been won – by a CERN staff member!     In keeping with tradition, the organisers of the Tour de France organise another race, the Étape du Tour, which is open to the general public and follows the actual route of an official stage of the Tour proper. This year, the chosen venue was Annecy and its neighbouring mountain, Le Semnoz, which played host to 11,000 cycling enthusiasts from all parts. This penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour will be raced by the professionals on 20 July. The public race was won by Nicolas Roux, an experienced cyclist and member of CERN’s GS-IS Group, who devoured the 128-km course in just 4 hours and 15 minutes, nine seconds ahead of cycling champion Julien Absalon. “I just managed to overhaul Julien Absalon 500 m before the finishing line,” Nicolas recounts. “It was a fantastic race!” Come rain o...

  18. Commercial applications of food ionization in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Pierre-Louis

    1994-01-01

    Due to the long history of nuclear energy in France, French public is not frightened by nuclear applications in its everyday life. The first industrial initiative on food ionization dates back to 1956. In 1980, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Ionization concluded that food ionization up to a certain maximum dose presented neither toxicological nor nutritional hazard. This opened the new era for the industrial development. But in 1988, a draft directive to harmonize national legislations was issued by the Commission of European Communities. This stopped many industrial initiatives due to uncertainty. It is estimated that nearly 14,000 tons of various food items have been ionized in France in 1991. About 40% are spices, followed by dry fruit, vegetables, and deboned poultry meat. Most of the present applications are intended to eliminate microorganisms. In 1992, 8 industrial facilities were in operation, mostly using gamma sources. Local research associations were founded to promote food ionization. Food ionization development in the past 30 years has been rapid and important, but the future of this process depends on the European harmonization of legislations. (K.I.)

  19. The development of nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.

    1985-01-01

    The author of this contribution, who read a paper on the same subject on the evening he was appointed Honorary Member of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG), has been continuously engaged in a wide variety of activities within the French Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, for the past 32 years and has been in charge of the French breeder program since the late fifties. His analysis of the nuclear power situation in France and his survey of problems and development goals therefore is not only based on expert knowledge, but also reflects the official French idea of the rank nuclear power in the French energy supply policy and in the French economy. It shows that the foreseeable pronounced slowdown, due to declining demand, in the expansion of the network of nuclear power plants - a slowdown at a high level of capacity - does not detract from the growing importance of nuclear power in France. The awareness exists that this program can be, and must be, continued in its subareas. The French Government is convinced that the nuclear option was the only possible choice and that having decided in favor of it will pay even more in the future than it does already. (orig.) [de

  20. The chemical industry of uranium in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1955-01-01

    The actual CEA program is concerned with the construction of two large graphite reactors, each of those containing at least one hundred tons of uranium metal with nuclear purity. The uranium for these two reactors will be regularly supplied by new resources discovered in France and Madagascar in the last five years. The working and treatment of such ore have led to the creation of an important french industry of which the general outline and principle are described. The operated ores have got different natures and concentration, individual characteristics are described for the main ores.The most high-grade ore are transported to a central plant in Bouchet near Paris; the low-grade ore are concentrated by physical methods or chemical processes of which principles and economy are studied with constancy. The acid processes are the only used until now, although the carbonated alkaline processes has been studied in France. The next following steps after the acid process until the obtention of uranium rich concentrate are described. The purification steps of uranium compounds to nuclear purity material are described as well as the steps to elaborate metal of which the purity grade will be specify. Finally, the economic aspects of uranium production difficulty will be considered in relation with technical progresses which we can expect to achieve in the future. (M.P.)

  1. Shale gases, a windfall for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    After having recalled the definition and origin of shale gases, the different non conventional gases and their exploitation techniques (hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) this report examines whether these gases are an opportunity for France. Some characteristics and data of the fossil and gas markets are presented and commented: world primary energy consumption, proved reserves of non conventional gases and their locations, European regions which may possess reserves of shale gases and coal-bed methane, origins of gas imports in France. The second part addresses shale gas deposits and their exploitation: discussion of the influence of the various rock parameters, evolution of production. The third part discusses the exploitation techniques and specific drilling tools. The issue of exploitation safety and security is addressed as well as the associated controversies: about the pollution of underground waters, about the fact that deep drillings result in pollution, about the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and injections of chemical products, about the hold on ground and site degradation, about water consumption, about pollution due to gas pipeline leakage, about seismic risk, about noise drawbacks, about risks for health, about exploration and production authorization and license, and about air pollution and climate. The last part addresses the French situation and its future: status of the energy bill, recommendations made by a previous government, cancellation of authorizations, etc. Other information are provided in appendix about non conventional hydrocarbons, about shale gas exploitation in the USA, and about the Lacq gas

  2. Fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.; Le Bouhellec, J.; Eymery, R.; Viala, M.

    1984-08-01

    Simultaneous with the effort on fast breeder reactors launched several years ago in France, equivalent investigations have been conducted on the fuel cycle, and in particular on reprocessing, which is an indispensable operation for this reactor. The Rapsodie experimental reactor was associated with the La Hague reprocessing plant AT1 (1 kg/day), which has reprocessed about one ton of fuel. The fuel from the Phenix demonstration reactor is reprocessed partly at the La Hague UP2 plant and partly at the Marcoule pilot facility, undergoing transformation to reprocess all the fuel (TOR project, 5 t/y). The fuel from the Creys Malville prototype power plant will be reprocessed in a specific plant, which is in the design stage. The preliminary project, named MAR 600 (50 t/y), will mobilize a growing share of the CEA's R and D resources, as the engineering needs of the UP3 ''light water'' plant begins to decline. Nearly 20 tonnes of heavy metals irradiated in fast breeder reactors have been processed in France, 17 of which came from Phenix. The plutonium recovered during this reprocessing allowed the power plant cycle to be closed. This power plant now contains approximately 140 fuel asemblies made up with recycled plutonium, that is, more than 75% of the fuel assemblies in the Phenix core

  3. Panorama of mining activities in France during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinry, C.; Michel, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    1991 can be considered as year of transition during which the world economy was adapting to the new political situation arising out of the Gulf War and the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. Although a major conflict normally causes a rise in the price of gold and a high demand for base products, this time the raw materials market did not react in the normal way. The prices of almost all products dropped throughout the year, and the dollar increase (average exchange rate for the year = FF 5.65) did not compensate European industry for this drop in metal prices. The economic slowdown in America, Europe and, which is new, Japan, compounded by the consequences of CIS export, caused serious harm to western firms, including those of the European Community: seriously disrupted markets, price falls, production units in danger. The purpose of this paper is to give a panorama of mining activities in France during 1991. The French mineral sector continued with difficulty to adjust to the economic trend through reductions in staff and production capacities: the Malines Zn-Pb mine closed, uranium mines in the Vendee and Limousin closed, mining activities at the Salsigne gold mine and its refining plants stopped. The field of energy supplies saw a fall off in both coal and petroleum production. Gas production, however, rose to a level close to that of 1987. Uranium production continued to ease; in spite of a relatively stable demand, poor prices coupled with the exhaustion of certain deposits and the public's preoccupation with preserving the environment, led to mines being closed. 15 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs

  4. A new regional group of the lower paleolithic in Brittany (France), recently dated by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, J.L.; Hinguant, S.; Gebhardt, A.; Marguerie, D.; Molines, N.; Morzadec, H.; Hallegouet, B.; Laurent, M.; Auguste, P.; Bahain, J.J.; Falgueres, C.; Yokoyama, Y.

    1994-01-01

    ESR dates obtained at Menez-Dregan 1 (Brittany, France) focus interest on this Lower Paleolithic site and demonstrate that the preserved anthropic combustion structures are among the oldest known in the world. It allows the dating not only of the little known 'Colombanian Group' (it is an 'archaic' original group characterized by many choppers and very few handaxes, different from the Acheulian), but also, for the first time, of the old beaches on the southern coast of Brittany. Preserved bone remains are also very infrequent in Palaeolithic sites of Western France. The dating of the paleolithic layer at the top of the third fossil beach can be connected with isotopic stage 11 or the beginning of isotopic stage 10; it shows that the age of the geological and archaeological layers of Menez-Dregan 1 is probably between 350.000 and 500.000 years

  5. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    with a threat both abroad and within their homeland societies. Civilians fulfil a ..... we have now with the use of force and forces is their persistent structuring ... advanced equipment remains the main feature of Western military culture. Western.

  6. Western blotting: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is an important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. This process involves the transfer of protein patterns from gel to microporous membrane. Electrophoretic as well as non-electrophoretic transfer of proteins to membranes was first described in 1979. Protein blotting has evolved greatly since the inception of this protocol, allowing protein transfer to be accomplished in a variety of ways.

  7. Suicide and Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; McArthur, Milford

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the cultural roots and transmission of Western suicide and suicidal behaviour. We explored a period of antiquity (mythical Greece-61 CE) and selected accounts of 10 prominent suicides. The precipitating circumstances were tabulated and an assessment made of the most likely attendant emotions. The same process was followed for a recent period (1994-2008), from which 10 suicides were identified. The precipitating circumstances and the attendant emotions were compared. These circumstances and emotions were then compared to statements commonly encountered in clinical practice from people demonstrating suicidal behaviour. Finally, we looked for evidence that these stories (and the response models) had entered Western culture. Precipitating circumstances, loss of a loved one, actual or imminent execution or imprisonment, other losses and public disgrace, and the negative emotions of shame, guilt, fear, anger, grief and sorrow were common to both historical periods. These circumstances and emotions are similar to those commonly expressed by people who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour. There was a clear record (literature, visual arts) of these stories forming part of our cultural heritage. Models of maladaptive responses to certain adverse circumstances are part of Western culture. Suicide as a response to certain circumstances and negative emotions can be traced back more than 2000 years. Cultural change will be necessary to minimize suicide.

  8. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  9. EdF-Gaz de France. No merger without dismembering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Gathering together the two historical French energy monopolies, Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF), and warranting low electricity and gas prices is still an attractive idea for some political and syndicate representatives. However, such a merger would create a dominating position which is forbidden with respect to Brussels criteria. (J.S.)

  10. Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Arbez-Gindre, Francine; Mantion, Georges; Delabrousse, Eric; Millon, Laurence; Boué, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, liver infections caused by Echinococcus ortleppi tapeworms were diagnosed in 2 humans in France. In 2012, a nationwide slaughterhouse survey identified 7 E. ortleppi infections in cattle. The foci for these infections were spatially distinct. The prevalence of E. ortleppi infections in France may be underestimated. PMID:25417697

  11. The gas tariffing principles in France and the tariffs evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The gas tariffing, in France, is based on the cast tariffing and on the equality of treatment of the consumers. To respect these principles the gas utilities uses two actions: the prices control and the group contract between the State and Gaz de France. To illustrate this policy the tariffs evolution since 1997 are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Energy program and policy about nuclear industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, M.

    1985-01-01

    As for the various problems on energy, Japan and France have taken the similar strategy and development program. Both Japan and France lack mineral energy resources, but have the industrial technical ability to make up for this shortage by substitute resources and to limit the dependence on import. Similarly to France, Japan has attained 3 tons in terms of petroleum per 1000 dollars of gross national product, which is about a half of the rate of energy consumption in the U.S., and became one of the advanced countries saving energy most. The consumption of petroleum decreased by 23 % in Japan and 30 % in France from 1973 to 1983. Nuclear power increased to 20 % of the generated output in Japan and to 50 % of that in France. The dependence on imported energy decreased to 80 % in Japan and 60 % in France. The energy policy taken by France was to satisfy demand, to diversity supply sources, to reduce energy cost, and to strengthen stable supply. The total demond of primary energy in 1984 was 191.6 million tons in terms of petroleum. Nuclear power stations generated 182 billion kWh in 1984. The nuclear power program in France, nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel cycle are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. The Challenges Facing Catholic Education in France Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of secularisation on society demand a rethinking of the identity and mission of Catholic schools in France. In 2013, the French bishops published a new directory which offers new approaches, described here, based on the three challenges facing Catholic education in France: linking social responsibility and evangelisation, setting up…

  14. Gas de France, a major player in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    1999-01-01

    Present in approximately 20 countries, the Gaz de France group has, for several years now, committed itself to a major program for international development. This trend should speed up as the European gas market opens. Nowadays, GdF has nearly twelve million customers, including two million outside France. (author)

  15. Comparing Exceptionalism in France and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Devienne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges the current scholarship on the history of the death penalty and its abolition by adopting a transatlantic framework and debunking the popular contemporary conception of the “Barbaric Americans” against the “civilised” anti-death penalty French. The article focuses on the short period in the 1970s during which American executions were halted by the Supreme Court, while France was still putting prisoners to death in cases that were widely debated in public opinion. By observing the French media’s reactions to the two major decisions taken by the Supreme Court in the 1970s and their direct consequences, this essay analyzes not only the French gaze on American practices but also how these American decisions were manipulated by the journalists to stoke the French debate about abolition.

  16. The development of fast reactors in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrey, L.

    1982-01-01

    Only minor changes were introduced in the French nuclear programme by the new government in 1981. The operating conditions of Rapsodie were very satisfactory up to January 1982. After a leak in the double primary jacket (nitrogen circuit) the reactor was shut down for investigations. Phenix is continuing to operate smoothly. Construction of Super Phenix (Creys Malville power plant) is proceeding normally though with some delay. The studies for the future (after Creys Malville) are following their way both for the Project 1500 (Super Phenix 2) and for the specific plants of the fuel cycle. Research and development are largely directed toward Super Phenix 1 needs and the prospects of Super Phenix 2. International cooperation remains very intensive. The financial resources devoted to the development of fast reactors are globally stable. Including fuel cycle and safety (but excluding the Phenix operation) about 1300 millions of francs will be devoted to fast reactors by the C.E.A. in 1982. (author)

  17. Measures for recycling plastic wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossais, J C [Ministere de l' Industrie et de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France). Delegation aux Economies de Matieres Premieres

    1978-05-01

    Raw materials crisis and environmental awareness have lead to the question of intensively dealing with the recycling of plastics. Although plastic wastes (residues) industrially occuring have been recycled for a long time, this is certainly not always the case in the subsequent stages. One must particularly give thought to the considerable quantities of agricultural and municipal wastes. Besides the problem of collecting the waste which can only be satisfactorily solved by separate collection or setting up sorting places, it is necessary for the recycling plastic wastes on a large scale to find or develop sellable products. The product for sale is limited by economical aspects and prejudices against recycled materials. The public have taken to a series of measures in France to simplify recycling plastic wastes. Private industry is also beginning to take interest in this new sources of raw materials.

  18. EDF - Electricite de France, 2007 annual Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. This document is EDF Group's annual Results for 2007. It is made of several reports: the 2007 Annual Results presentation, the 2007 Financial Report, the press releases for the first and third quarters 2007 quarterly financial information, the 2007 Half-year results presentation, the Management Report for the first half 2007, and the consolidated financial statements at 30 June 2007

  19. Adaptation to climate change in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This report first comments some data and facts illustrating climate change. It discusses its various impacts (extreme meteorological events, dramatic impacts on ecosystems with the possible disappearance of some vegetal and animal species, crisis regarding food resources, health risks, population migrations notably because of sea level rise), and briefly evokes these impacts in France. It outlines the need for adaptation and describes the different adaptation principles: reduction of vulnerability, and anticipation of changes and of their impacts. It comments how adaptation and mitigation are two complementary approaches. It presents the French State strategy with its national adaptation strategy, its national adaptation plan, the mandatory elaboration of regional schemes for climate, air and energy, and the action of local communities

  20. FRANCE at CERN - Visit of Firms

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2007-01-01

    From 4 to 5 June 2007 Administration Building Bldg 61 - 1st floor - Room B 09.00 - 17.30 Eighteen companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place in technicians' offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each department secretariat or from the Purchasing web pages at the following URL http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies and civil engineering and buildings. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. The list of exhibitors is given below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: 40-30 ACC LA JONCHERE ...