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Sample records for western pyrenees basque

  1. Neolithic flint mines of Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees, Spain

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    Antonio Tarriño

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English:The prehistoric Treviño flint mine complex is located in the Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Treviño, Burgos, inside the lacustrine-palustrine Cenozoic (Aquitanian, Miocene materials of the South-Pyrenean syncline of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. It is a landscape unit constituted by a set of carbonated layers with abundant nodular and stratiform silicifications. The extraction mining works (often referred to as ‘tailing’ are usually identified as dumps or trenches, subtly visible and associated with archaeological materials.An archaeological excavation was carried out in one potential mining structure (dump or pit that was detected by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging in the mountain pass of “Pozarrate” near the villages of Grandival and Araico (Treviño, Burgos. In this work we present the results of the excavation of the last two years. The existence of a Neolithic mining dump (the tailings with a chronology ca. 5000 cal. BC was confirmed. The base rock level with nodular flint was reached and the impressions of the exploited nodules have been identified. As well, the extraction front which reaches about 4.0-5.0 metres in height was delimited. Thousands of lithic remains associated with the extraction and the initial processing (shaping of flint were collected, as along with mining tools. We have found and described three types of mining structures: trenches, linear dumps and crescent-shaped (or “half-moon-shaped” dumps.This site is one of the few prehistoric flint mines dated in the Iberian Peninsula. Recent investigations in the Cantabrian Mountains and Western Pyrenees indicate that the circulation and use of Treviño flint during Prehistory reached many Holocene and Pleistocene archaeological sites, located hundreds of kilometres away from the outcrops.Español:El complejo prehistórico minero de sílex de Treviño se sitúa en la Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Trevi

  2. Precisions on the structure of the Basque Arc (western Pyrenees, Spain): preliminary results from magnetic fabrics from the Biscay Synclinorium

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    Vegas, Néstor; Aranguren, Aitor; Rodríguez-Méndez, Lidia; Cuevas, Julia; María Tubía, José; Julián Esteban, José

    2017-04-01

    The Mesozoic Basque-Cantabrian basin (western Pyrenees) was inverted during the Alpine Orogeny in late Cretaceous-Eocene times. The central sector of the basin, the Basque Arc is characterized by the existence of large folds (80 km long) that outline an arc. This study focuses on the interpretation of AMS fabrics in rocks from the Biscay Synclinorium, a major fold system of the Basque Arc that verges to the NE, with sub-horizontal, N110˚ E trending axes and axial planes striking to N110˚ E and dipping steeply to the SW (Calvo-Rathert et al., 2007). The aim of this contribution is characterize the deformation around the Biscay Synclinorium. For this reason we combined fieldwork with magnetic fabric analysis of 95 cores in Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Biscay Synclinorium. 68 cores come from the Calcareous formation (marls, sandy limestones and limestones of Cenomanian to Campanian age) that makes part of the northeastern limb of the synclinorium and the remaining 27 cores from the Detrital-calcareous flysch (a multilayer sequence with sandy limestones and marls of Maastrichtian age) that crops out in the synclinorium core (Garrote et al., 1991). In the Upper Cretaceous Calcareous formation there is a penetrative cleavage that mainly strikes to N110˚ E dipping 50˚ to 60˚ to the SW (S1). In the Detrital-calcareous flysch of the core, the best-preserved planar structure is the bedding and only locally an axial planar cleavage is observed. Intersection lineations are sub-horizontal and N110˚ E-trending. The measurements of the magnetic susceptibility provide low k values ranging between 99x10-6 and 403x10-6 SI. The anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility, P, reaches values of 1.213, pointing to the overprinting of tectonic deformation on primary magnetic fabrics of sedimentary origin. The magnetic foliation shows a fairly uniform arrangement that is nearly coincident with the dominant planar structures of the rocks, S0 or S1in the core and the limb

  3. Chronology and pedogenic effects of mid- to late-Holocene conversion of forests to pastures in the French western Pyrenees

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    David S. Leigh; Theodore L. Gragson; Michael R. Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a place-based examination of the timing and long-term pedogenic effects of human-induced forest to pasture conversion in the French western Pyrenees Mountains, Basque commune of Larrau. We analyzed colluvial stratigraphic sections to derive the chronology of landscape change using radiocarbon dating, charcoal concentrations, magnetic...

  4. Y-STR variation in the Basque diaspora in the Western USA: evolutionary and forensic perspectives.

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    Valverde, Laura; Rosique, Melania; Köhnemann, Stephan; Cardoso, Sergio; García, Ainara; Odriozola, Adrián; Aznar, Jose María; Celorrio, David; Schuerenkamp, Marianne; Zubizarreta, Josu; Davis, Michael C; Hampikian, Greg; Pfeiffer, Heidi; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2012-03-01

    Individuals of Basque origin migrated in large numbers to the Western USA in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the flow continued with less intensity during the last century. The European source population, that of the Basque Country, has long been a cultural and geographical isolate. Previous studies have demonstrated that Y-STR frequencies of Basques are different from those of other Spanish and European populations [1]. The Basque diaspora in the Western USA is a recent migration, but the founder effect and the incorporation of new American Y chromosomes into the paternal genetic pool of the Basque diaspora could have influenced its genetic structure and could thus have practical implications for forensic genetics. To check for genetic substructure among the European source and Basque diaspora populations and determine the most suitable population database for the Basque diaspora in the Western USA, we have analysed the haplotype distribution of 17 Y-STRs in both populations. We have found that the Basque diaspora in the Western USA largely conserve the Y chromosome lineage characteristic of the autochthonous European Basque population with no statistically significant differences. This implies that a common 17 Y-STR Basque population database could be used to calculate identification or kinship parameters regardless of whether the Basque individuals are from the European Basque Country or from the Basque diaspora in the Western USA.

  5. Reactivation of a segmented hyper-extended rift system: the example of the Pamplona transfer zone in the western Pyrenees

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    Lescoutre, Rodolphe; Schaeffer, Frédéric; Masini, Emmanuel; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the importance of rift-inheritance on the formation of orogens but little consideration was given to rift segmentation and the role of transfer zones on the architecture of mountain chains. Indeed, structural mapping of passive margins pointed out the occurrence of a strong variability in the rift architecture along the margin when crossing through peculiar features that represent transfer zones. These transfer zones are generally oriented in the extension direction and relay the deformation between rift segments. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) characterize and define the Pamplona fault system as well as the structures and architecture of the basins bounding this major paleo-transfer fault located in the Western Pyrenees, and 2) understand its role during the subsequent Pyrenean convergence. The influence of the Pamplona fault system on the structuration of the Mauléon basin to the northeast and the Basque-Cantabrian basin to the southwest is substantial as expressed by their large offset and the occurrence of exhumed deep crustal and mantle rocks flooring the two basins. On the one hand, field work in the Labourd Massif and the western termination of the Mauléon basin enabled to describe faults and their relations to sedimentary sequences. This work also allowed describing the formation and reactivation of faults according to their orientation and their activity with respect to key markers (pre-Trias and post-Cenomanian). A strong relationship between rift architecture (proximal to distal domains) and structural inheritance is suggested. On the other hand, preliminary results from fieldwork, literature compilation and new tomographic imaging enable to determine the role and the history of the Pamplona fault system during Late Cretaceous compression. A significant work of this starting PhD project will be to determine the rift structures that have been reactivated and to assess their influence on the final architecture of the

  6. First comprehensive contribution to medical ethnobotany of Western Pyrenees

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    Calvo María

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical and medical study was carried out in the Navarre Pyrenees, an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance. As well as the compilation of an ethnopharmacological catalogue, a quantitative ethnobotanical comparison has been carried out in relation to the outcomes from other studies about the Pyrenees. A review of all drugs used in the area has also been carried out, through a study of the monographs published by the institutions and organizations responsible for the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants (WHO, ESCOP, and the E Commission of the German Department of Health in order to ascertain the extent to which the Navarre Pyrenees ethnopharmacology has been officially evaluated. Methods Fieldwork was carried out over two years, from November 2004 to December 2006. During that time we interviewed 88 local people in 40 villages. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews and the data was analyzed using quantitave indexes: Ethnobotonicity Index, Shannon-Wiener's Diversity, Equitability and The Informant Consensus Factor. The official review has been performed using the official monographs published by the WHO, ESCOP and the E Commission of the German Department of Health. Results The ethnobotanical and medical catalogue of the Navarre Pyrenees Area comprises 92 species, of which 39 have been mentioned by at least three interviewees. The quantitative ethnobotany results show lower values than those found in other studies about the Pyrenees; and 57.6% of the Pyrenees medical ethnobotany described does not figure in documents published by the above mentioned institutions. Conclusion The results show a reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in the area of study, when compared to other studies carried out in the Pyrenees. Nevertheless, the use of several species that may be regarded as possible sources for pharmacological studies is

  7. Positive effects of millennial grazing on soils in the western French Pyrenees

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    Leigh, David; Gragson, Ted; Coughlan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Many hillslopes of the western French Pyrenees have been grazed for thousands of years following the introduction of sheep about 7500 years ago, yet little is known about the long-term effects of pastoral activities on soil properties and pedogenic processes in this humid-temperate mountain range. In the 13 square kilometer Basque commune of Larrau we compare the status of soils under old pastures to those under old-growth forests at elevations ranging from 1000 to 1600 masl. Four separate tracts of side-by-side pairs of pasture and old-growth forest were sampled to discriminate differences in physical and chemical soil properties. Five paired soil profile samples were taken from each vegetation type on each tract so that all factors of soil formation, except vegetation type, were similar for each pair. Animal trails were excluded from sampling. We also developed radiocarbon chronologies of sedimentation rates from colluvial deposits at four other pasture sites to evaluate possible differences in the magnitude of soil erosion and sedimentation before and after conversion to pastures during the Holocene. Results indicate pastured A horizons are about three times as thick as forested soils, have significantly lower soil bulk densities, and much finer and stronger structural development of soil aggregates. These traits favor much greater infiltration and water holding capacities of the pastured soils. Thus, very significant pedogenic reorganization occurred in the pastures that can be viewed as improvements in soil quality. Inorganic nutrients in the pastured soils have significantly lower concentrations than in forested soils, except that amorphous silica is more abundant within pastured soils presumably due to greater phytolith production. The amount of nutrient depletion does not appear to be a limiting factor for grass growth and biomass production. Sedimentation chronologies indicate that erosion and sedimentation rates slightly increased following the earliest

  8. Contingency & Agency in the Holocene Anthropization of Mountain Landscapes of the Western Pyrenees

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    Gragson, Theodore; Coughlan, Michael; Leigh, David

    2017-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that mixed forests of the humid-temperate western Pyrenees mountains were converted by human agency to managed grasslands by at least the late Neolithic. We first realized major ramifications of the conversation process from pronounced differences we observed between soil profiles of ancient pastures and old-growth forests in otherwise similar landscape positions. Subsequently through radiocarbon dating of colluvial deposits we established a chronology for anthropic manipulation of the biotic factor of pedogenesis resulting in the creation of new soil materials, processes and functions. Regional- and biome-scale paleoecological analyses and archaeological syntheses suggest that it was Neolithic agropastoral land use that initiated anthropization of mountain landscapes of the western Pyrenees. However, such macroscopic views of human behavior cannot reveal the contingency and agency on which human causality rests. We have thus followed a complementary place-based investigative strategy that couples geoarchaeological, biophysical and socio-ecological factors spatially and temporally to arrive at the coevolutionary processes of human-environment interactions and landscape history. The results often contrast sharply with conventional narratives about human landscape degradation in agropastoral systems. For the last 2000 years, the western Pyrenees mountains were spatially removed from regional centers such as Pamplona and Bordeaux, and economically and politically peripheral to continental social and governmental processes. This marginality favored a macroscopic and time-invariant interpretation of agropastoral production in the western Pyrenees as the result of unambiguously enforced social norms exacted by intense solidarities of kin and neighbors. However, anthropization of the western Pyrenees was a spatially and temporally heterogeneous process in which land transitions appear to precede intensification. Radiocarbon dating shows three

  9. Kinematic Evolution of the Western Pyrenees Thrust Front From Paleomagnetic Analysis on its Foreland Basin.

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    Almar, Y.; Beamud, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Garcés, M.; Murelaga, X.

    2007-12-01

    The Pyrenees is a collisional orogen formed during the Alpine orogeny. Its southwestern frontal thrust was originated as a result of the Cenozoic inversion of preexisting extensional faults. The emplacement of the frontal thrust in the Western Pyrenees generated a foreland basin, which locally accumulated more than 4,500 meters of Tertiary sediments. The kinematic evolution of the Western Pyrenees thrust front is poorly constrained due to the scarcity of reliable age constraints within the Tertiary sediments. However, the good exposure conditions of syntectonic continental deposits in its foreland basin makes it an excellent scenario to carry out paleomagnetic and structural studies in order to unravel the kinematic history, geometry and evolution of the thrust front. A magnetostratigraphic composite section along the continental basin infill was sampled covering up to 3,000 m of succession. Correlation of the local magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS was helped by a new mammal fossil locality found in continental sediments and attributed to the Agenian local biozone Y (MN2D). The cronostratigraphy of the tectosedimentary units, ranging from lower Oligocene (Cr12r) to lower Miocene, provides further constraints on the timing of two main tectosedimentary events recorded as major unconformities within the basin infill. From this study, sedimentation rates have been also obtained. The analysis of several paleomagnetic sites revealed that no vertical axes rotations occurred in the Tertiary sediments regardless superimposed folding with oblique axes could be observed, and the proximity of adjacent structures as the Estella diapir and the Pamplona fault. Finally, the analysis of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility together with collected sedimentary data suggests that magnetic fabrics record both, a depositional and tectonic fabric.

  10. Analysis of the genetic structure of endangered bovine breeds from the Western Pyrenees using DNA microsatellite markers.

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    Rendo, F; Iriondo, M; Jugo, B M; Aguirre, A; Mazón, L I; Vicario, A; Gómez, M; Estonba, A

    2004-04-01

    In the Western Pyrenees, three out of four native cattle breeds are in grave danger of extinction. Genetic variation of all four breeds was assessed by analyzing 478 animals using 11 microsatellite markers. A moderate/high within-breed variability was found, a favorable factor to consider when planning conservation and improvement programs. Interestingly, the only selected commercial breed, the Pirenaica, showed depressed heterozygosity levels and a low average number of alleles, perhaps explainable by intensive human selection exacerbated by a bottleneck effect. The Pirenaica also exhibited pronounced genetic differences and was the largest contributor of diversity among the breeds from the Western Pyrenees. Among endangered cattle breeds from this region, our results highlight the singularity of the Betizu. Geographic isolation among herds may be responsible for the large F(IS) value found in the Betizu breed. Lastly, our study suggests that the use of highly selected breeds may be one of the causes of distortion in phylogenetic analyses.

  11. Mapping the indentation between the Iberian and Eurasian plates beneath the Western Pyrenees/Eastern Cantabrian Mountains from receiver function analysis

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    Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Ruiz, M.; Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.

    2012-10-01

    In the last decades, active seismic profiling in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula has evidenced that the Alpine collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates resulted in a complex crustal structure, with the Iberian crust underthrusting the Eurasian crust and reaching depths of at least 45-50 km beneath the Pyrenean chain and the Cantabrian Mountains. In the transition between these two zones the situation is particularly complex, as evidenced in previous wide-angle and passive seismic studies. This contribution focuses in getting new clues on the crustal structure of this transitional zone through receiver function (RF) analysis of teleseismic data recorded at permanent and temporary stations located in both the Spanish and French sides of the Western Pyrenees. Different techniques (H-κ stacking, pseudo-migration, synthetic 2D modeling) have been considered in the analysis. Passive seismic data from previous temporary deployments in the zone have been reworked and added to the discussion. A first order result is that passive seismic data are broadly consistent with the indentation of the Iberian and Eurasian crusts inferred from active seismic profiling, thus providing a completely independent confirmation of this feature. For the first time, an Iberian Moho underlying the Eurasian crust is documented from RF beneath the stations located at the Northern side of the Pyrenean range. Moreover, clear indications of dipping interfaces are observed at some stations. The new RF results suggest that in the crustal indentation beneath the Basque Massifs area, the Eurasian crust extends farther south with respect to the image inferred from active seismic data. This new geometry implies that the Pamplona transfer zone has played a major role in the regional geodynamic history.

  12. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees

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    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  13. Woodland clearance alters geomorphic, hydrologic, and pedogenic drivers of ecosystem services: examples from the southern Blue Ridge (USA) and the French western Pyrenees Mountains

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    Leigh, David

    2016-04-01

    The southern Blue Ridge (USA) and French western Pyrenees both are humid-temperate mountains where native woodlands have been cleared on soils formed in residuum and colluvium on hillslopes. Forest removal increased rates of erosion and sediment yield that drove both negative and positive ecosystem services. For example, the supportive ecosystem service of soil formation was diminished on eroded hillslopes, but may have been enhanced by accumulation of sediment on bottomlands far downstream from the highland source areas. Negative effects on provisional ecosystem services (e.g. water supply) resulted in aggraded bottomlands by increasing the depth to the water table. Legacy effects linger on hillslopes that reforested (diminished soil properties), and ongoing alteration of pedogenic and hydrologic processes affect pastures that persisted from cleared woodlands. Beyond those general similarities, pastures of the two regions exhibit very different pedogenic pathways and ecosystem service outcomes. Soils of the Blue Ridge pastures adhere to a typical degradation scenario of erosion, compaction, and reduced infiltration capacities, whereas Pyrenees pastures exhibit soil qualities trending in the opposite direction and arguably now are better quality soils than their forested predecessors. Major differences in temporal duration and management styles apparently have led to such contrasts in soil quality. The Blue Ridge pastures are only tens to hundreds of years old, whereas Pyrenees pastures are thousands of years old. Blue Ridge pastures are maintained by mowing with tractors and year-round grazing primarily with beef cattle, whereas Pyrenees pastures (outfields) lack tractors and are only grazed seasonally (summer), primarily with sheep. Fire is rarely used as a management tool in the Blue Ridge, while Pyrenees pastures frequently are burned. Such management practices, and their influence on pedogenic and hydrologic processes, generally have resulted in negative

  14. The effects of salt diapirs on the thermal maturity of surrounding sediments in the western Pyrenees, Spain

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    Downs, Nicholas Martin

    Salt diapirs have been modeled as having a large effect on the thermal maturity of surrounding sediments as a result of the high thermal conductivity contrast between halite and other lithologies. The goal of this study was to confirm these and other theoretical predictions through sampling of three salt structures in the western Pyrenees, Spain. Stratigraphic units around these three diapirs were targeted based on their lithologies and positions relative to the diapirs. Samples were analyzed for vitrinite reflectance and quartz cementation to determine their levels of thermal maturity. Remote sensing instruments were used to attempt to measure present day heat flow above the diapirs, and available well logs and seismic data were analyzed to determine the subsurface extent and orientation of the diapirs. Vitrinite reflectance revealed that sediments closest to the Ribera Alta and Orduna diapirs were undermature compared to regional values. The extent of the thermal anomalies around the Ribera Alta and Orduna diapirs extended to approximately 1.5 times the radii of the diapirs. Samples located above the Gernika salt weld were generally more mature than samples located below the weld, and samples closest to the root of the weld were less mature than samples further from the root. Remote sensing proved ineffective in this locality due to the high moisture content in surface vegetation. Determining the effects of salt on the thermal maturity of surrounding sediments is important because it allows a more comprehensive understanding of source rock maturity and reservoir porosity preservation within the context of petroleum systems in basins that contain salt.

  15. Origin of the interstitial isopod Microcharon (Crustacea, Microparasellidae from the western Languedoc and the northern Pyrenees (France with the description of two new species

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    Nicole COINEAU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The interstitial groundwater genus Microcharon (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae is highly diversified in southern France. A new species, Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is described from the Aude River, whereas specimens from the Lachein River in the central Pyrenees are reassigned to another species, M. ariegensis new to Science. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is closely related to the species of the group rouchi and may belong to the phylogenetic western Mediterranean lineage. The two-step model of colonization and evolution provides an understanding of the origin and age of this stygobite. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is derived from marine ancestors that lived in the interstitial littoral shallow bottoms of the Atlantic embayment which covered southwestern France at the very beginning of the early Eocene period. Both the regression of this gulf at the start of the Eocene and the Pyrenees uplift may have played a major role in the evolutionary history through vicariance of Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. and of the northern Pyrenean species of the group rouchi.

  16. [History of biological anthropology of the Basque population: empiricism with molecular genetics].

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    Bauduer, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    For decades, biological and cultural pecularities of the Basques represent major points of interest for scholars. Studies on biological anthropology began in the mid XIXth century with anthropometry and craniology. From the 1930's, hemotypology revealed characteristics (ABO and Rhesus groups) existing also within the surrounding zones of the North-Western Pyrenees (Gascony) which seem to share the same toponymic elements or successoral rights anterior to the Romanization. Current molecular biology techniques exploring mitochondrial DNA or Y chromosome have strengthened the scenario which considers the present Basques as the most direct descendants of a preneolithic Pyrenean people. During the last glacial maximum, the aquitanocantabric area would have served as a refuge for human groups who contributed thereafter to the repopulation of Western Europe. The genetic profile argues in favour of a strong degree of endogamy and drift. These two elements explain the presence of numerous cases of inherited disorders related to founding effects. The origin of the genetic heterogeneity is not yet established.

  17. Multi-proxy record of land use change derived from colluvial soils of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France

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    Leigh, David S.; Gragson, Theodore L.; Coughlan, Michael R.

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological evidence and paleoenvironmental proxies from wetland bogs (e.g. charcoal, pastoral pollen, fungal spores of sheep dung) clearly outline the regional chronology of Holocene pastoral activity in the Pyrenees. We increase the spatial and temporal resolution of this chronology through a place-based, millennial-scale investigation of land use activities within individual fields in the commune of Larrau, Pyrénées Atlantiques, France. We have identified several stratigraphic records of slopewash colluvium that span the entire Holocene that occur at the outlets of zero-order watersheds, each draining several hectares. To examine forest-to-pasture transformation, two to three meter long auger holes were sampled in contiguous five centimeter intervals. These samples were analyzed for charcoal content, radiocarbon age, magnetic susceptibility, particle size, organic matter, and n-alkane concentrations. Results indicate that intentional burning and clearing were initiated by the Late Neolithic (ca. 5000-6000 cal. BP), but more intense burning, clearing, and pronounced soil erosion occurred later during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Charcoal concentrations and low frequency magnetic susceptibility provide evidence of initial burning and subsequent variation in the intensity of fire use. Radiocarbon chronologies exhibit order-of-magnitude spikes in sedimentation rates (1-10 mm/yr) during the Bronze Age and Iron Age that are asynchronous between sites. Asynchronous records suggest anthropic, rather than climatic, drivers and imply that land use varied in intensity across the landscape, unlike the uniform intensity of pasture use typical of the modern landscape. Sedimentation rates, and presumably erosion rates, returned to very near pre-pastoral background levels (pastures around the world persist with stereotypical degraded soils. N-alkane analyses are in progress, testing for changes in past vegetation communities (trees vs. grass), and we anticipate results and

  18. Anthropic changes to the biotic factor of soil formation from forests to managed grasslands along summits of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France

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    Leigh, David; Gragson, Theodore

    2017-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that highland pastures of the humid-temperate western Pyrenees were converted from mixed forests to managed grasslands thousands of years ago, as early as during the late Neolithic and Bronze age by human actions including use of fire. We observe pronounced differences between soil profiles of ancient pastures and old-growth forests in otherwise similar landscape positions. In order to test physical and chemical differences, we collected paired samples of forest versus grassland soils at four separate hillslope sites where there was a clear boundary between the two vegetation types. Animal trails were excluded from sampling. Factors of climate, topography, parent material, and time of soil formation were essentially identical in the forests and pastures of each site, but the time of soil under grassland vegetation may have varied. Each paired hillslope site included five core samples (7.6 cm diameter) from the upper 7.6 cm of the mineral soil within each vegetation type, and the A horizon thickness was recorded at each core hole site. In addition, one complete soil profile was sampled in each vegetation type at each site, making a total of 20 core samples and 4 complete profiles from each respective vegetation type. In addition, we measured the magnetic susceptibility of the mineral soil surface on two transects crossing the vegetation boundary. Core samples have been measured for bulk density, pH, plant-available nutrients, and organic matter; and tests for total carbon and nitrogen, amorphous silica, charcoal, and other forms of black carbon are ongoing. Preliminary results indicate pastured A horizons are about three times as thick as forested soils, contain more organic matter, have lower soil bulk densities, have much finer and stronger structural development of soil aggregates. These traits favor much greater infiltration and water holding capacities of the pastured soils, which we have validated with saturated hydraulic

  19. Pyrenees Mtns., Spain

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    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image, acquired on August 1, 2000, covers an area of 57 by 29 km and covers part of the central Pyrenees in Spain. The Pyrenees in southwestern Europe extend for about 435 kilometers (about 270 miles) from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea, separating the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe. The Pyrenees form most of the boundary between France and Spain, and encompass the tiny principality of Andorra. Approximately two-thirds of the mountains lie in Spain. The central Pyrenees extend to the Collines du Perche and contain the highest peaks of the system, including Pico de Aneto, the highest at 3,404 meters (11,168 feet). ASTER bands 4, 3 and 2 were displayed in red, green and blue. In this combination, snow is blue, vegetation is green, bare rocks are pink and dark blue, and clouds are white. The image is located at 42.6 degrees north latitude and 0.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Mapping crustal thinning beneath the Eastern Pyrenees

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    Diaz, Jordi; Chevrot, Sebastien; Verges, Jaume; Sylvander, Matthieu; Ruiz, Mario; Antonio-Vigil, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    The eastern termination of the Pyrenees is a complex region marked by two large tectonic events, the building of the Pyrenees during the Alpine orogeny and the Neogene extensional processes associated to the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block and the opening of the Valencia Trough. This complex tectonic history has left major imprints in crustal structures. Previous studies based on gravity data and active seismic profiles have documented a crustal thinning from 40-45 km about 80 km to the west of the Mediterranean coastline to less than 25 km beneath the eastern termination of the Pyrenees. To progress in the knowledge of the geometry of this transition, two passive seismic profiles have been acquired from mid 2015 to late 2016 within the OROGEN project, an academic-industrial collaboration between CNRS-Total-BRGM and CSIC. Up to 38 broad-band stations were deployed along two orthogonal lines, with an interstation spacing close to 10 km. First results of receiver function migration on the E-W profile suggest a smooth Moho thinning smoothly from 40 km beneath the western termination of the line to 23 km close to the coastline. The NNE-SSW profile shows a clearly defined Moho beneath Iberia, slightly deepening from 32 to 35 km northwards, a 28-30 km thick crust underneath the North Pyrenean Front Thrust and a complex geometry in the Axial Zone. Data from natural events located in the Gulf of Roses and near the intersecting point of the profiles have been recorded along the lines, hence allowing to produce wide angle reflection/refraction profiles providing additional constraints on the geometry of the crust/mantle boundary in the Eastern Pyrenees. These new results will be integrated with the available geophysical and geologic information for a more accurate geodynamical interpretation of the results. (Additional founding by the MISTERIOS project, CGL2013-48601-C2-1-R)

  1. Different Evolutionary History for Basque Diaspora Populations in USA and Argentina Unveiled by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Baeta

    Full Text Available The Basque Diaspora in Western USA and Argentina represents two populations which have maintained strong Basque cultural and social roots in a completely different geographic context. Hence, they provide an exceptional opportunity to study the maternal genetic legacy from the ancestral Basque population and assess the degree of genetic introgression from the host populations in two of the largest Basque communities outside the Basque Country. For this purpose, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA control region of Basque descendants living in Western USA (n = 175 and in Argentina (n = 194. The Diaspora populations studied here displayed a genetic diversity in their European maternal input which was similar to that of the Basque source populations, indicating that not important founder effects would have occurred. Actually, the genetic legacy of the Basque population still prevailed in their present-day maternal pools, by means of a haplogroup distribution similar to the source population characterized by the presence of autochthonous Basque lineages, such as U5b1f1a and J1c5c1. However, introgression of non-Basque lineages, mostly Native American, has been observed in the Diaspora populations, particularly in Argentina, where the quick assimilation of the newcomers would have favored a wider admixture with host populations. In contrast, a longer isolation of the Diaspora groups in USA, because of language and cultural differences, would have limited the introgression of local lineages. This study reveals important differences in the maternal evolutionary histories of these Basque Diaspora populations, which have to be taken into consideration in forensic and medical genetic studies.

  2. Different Evolutionary History for Basque Diaspora Populations in USA and Argentina Unveiled by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Piñeiro-Hermida, Sergio; Arriba-Barredo, Miren; Villanueva-Millán, María Jesús; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The Basque Diaspora in Western USA and Argentina represents two populations which have maintained strong Basque cultural and social roots in a completely different geographic context. Hence, they provide an exceptional opportunity to study the maternal genetic legacy from the ancestral Basque population and assess the degree of genetic introgression from the host populations in two of the largest Basque communities outside the Basque Country. For this purpose, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA control region of Basque descendants living in Western USA (n = 175) and in Argentina (n = 194). The Diaspora populations studied here displayed a genetic diversity in their European maternal input which was similar to that of the Basque source populations, indicating that not important founder effects would have occurred. Actually, the genetic legacy of the Basque population still prevailed in their present-day maternal pools, by means of a haplogroup distribution similar to the source population characterized by the presence of autochthonous Basque lineages, such as U5b1f1a and J1c5c1. However, introgression of non-Basque lineages, mostly Native American, has been observed in the Diaspora populations, particularly in Argentina, where the quick assimilation of the newcomers would have favored a wider admixture with host populations. In contrast, a longer isolation of the Diaspora groups in USA, because of language and cultural differences, would have limited the introgression of local lineages. This study reveals important differences in the maternal evolutionary histories of these Basque Diaspora populations, which have to be taken into consideration in forensic and medical genetic studies.

  3. A high-order 3-D spectral-element method for the forward modelling and inversion of gravimetric data—Application to the western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roland; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Seoane, Lucia; Spangenberg, Hannah; Wang, Yi; Dufréchou, Grégory; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Bruinsma, Sean

    2017-04-01

    We image the internal density structure of the Pyrenees by inverting gravity data using an a priori density model derived by scaling a Vp model obtained by full waveform inversion of teleseismic P-waves. Gravity anomalies are computed via a 3-D high-order finite-element integration in the same high-order spectral-element grid as the one used to solve the wave equation and thus to obtain the velocity model. The curvature of the Earth and surface topography are taken into account in order to obtain a density model as accurate as possible. The method is validated through comparisons with exact semi-analytical solutions. We show that the spectral-element method drastically accelerates the computations when compared to other more classical methods. Different scaling relations between compressional velocity and density are tested, and the Nafe-Drake relation is the one that leads to the best agreement between computed and observed gravity anomalies. Gravity data inversion is then performed and the results allow us to put more constraints on the density structure of the shallow crust and on the deep architecture of the mountain range.

  4. High-resolution imaging of the Pyrenees and Massif Central from the data of the PYROPE and IBERARRAY portable array deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, Sébastien; Villaseñor, Antonio; Sylvander, Matthieu; Benahmed, Sébastien; Beucler, Eric; Cougoulat, Glenn; Delmas, Philippe; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Diaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; Grimaud, Franck; Lagabrielle, Yves; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mocquet, Antoine; Pauchet, Hélène; Paul, Anne; Péquegnat, Catherine; Quillard, Olivier; Roussel, Sandrine; Ruiz, Mario; Wolyniec, David

    2014-08-01

    The lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees, which holds the key to settle long-standing controversies regarding the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Pyrenees, are still poorly known. The temporary PYROPE and IBERARRAY experiments have recently filled a strong deficit of seismological stations in this part of western Europe, offering a new and unique opportunity to image crustal and mantle structures with unprecedented resolution. Here we report the results of the first tomographic study of the Pyrenees relying on this rich data set. The important aspects of our tomographic study are the precision of both absolute and relative traveltime measurements obtained by a nonlinear simulated annealing waveform fit and the detailed crustal model that has been constructed to compute accurate crustal corrections. Beneath the Massif Central, the most prominent feature is a widespread slow anomaly that reflects a strong thermal anomaly resulting from the thinning of the lithosphere and upwelling of the asthenosphere. Our tomographic images clearly exclude scenarios involving subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath the Pyrenees. In contrast, they reveal the segmentation of lithospheric structures, mainly by two major lithospheric faults, the Toulouse fault in the central Pyrenees and the Pamplona fault in the western Pyrenees. These inherited Hercynian faults were reactivated during the Cretaceous rifting of the Aquitaine and Iberian margins and during the Cenozoic Alpine convergence. Therefore, the Pyrenees can be seen as resulting from the tectonic inversion of a segmented continental rift that was buried by subduction beneath the European plate.

  5. Basque and Catalan Nationalism: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    occupy a position on the nationalist left, stealing votes from the PNV and the PSOE. Today, it commands 18% of the electorate in the Basque provinces ( EL ...Basques, Protests, and Politics. Reno, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1991. Periodicals and Journals Alameda, Soledad." Retrato de HB...Entrevista a Floren Aoiz, Portavoz de Herri Batasuna". El Pais Semanal 95 (13 Dec 1992):10- 36. Della Porta, Donatella and Liborio Mattina. "Ciclos

  6. Basque Nationalism: History, Roots and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    of the Basque lifestyle, such as marriage, dowry, inheritance and even political appointments. 6 Jose Antonio Vaca de Osma, Los vascos en la historia ...Alianza Editorial, 1997), 82. 29 Fernando Garcia de Cortazar, El nacionalismo vasco, ( Historia 16, 1991), 142. 30 Basque Land and Freedom, also known as...alcazaba.unex.es/constitucion/tituloVIII.html#capitulo3 >; available in English from < http://www.congreso.es/ ingles /funciones/constitucion

  7. Identity and Acculturation: Interethnic Relations in the Basque Autonomous Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Nekane; Garcia, Iñaki; Azurmendi, Maria-Jose; Bourhis, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the influence of ethnic identity on the acculturation orientations of Basque undergraduates, towards groups in traditional contact (native Basques and native Spaniards) and towards recent immigrant groups. Five dimensions were used to measure the Basque and/or Spanish identities: linguistic, cultural, political, global, and the…

  8. Loiseleuria procumbens (Ericaceae in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Boratyński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the distribution and occurrence conditions of Loiseleuria procumbens in the Spanish Pyrenees. The species represents a typical arctic-alpine element in the flora of Europe. In the Pyrenees it reaches its southernmost European localities. The Pyrenean populations of the species are not numerous in the majority of the localities. L. procumbens occurs most frequently in the alpine and subalpine zones, at altitudes between 2100 and 2650 m, with a minimum at 1750 m and a maximum at 2900 m. It has been reported nearly exclusively in the siliceous substrata, and predominantly on the north-facing slopes, on the regosols and/or on flat tops of rocks. It forms its own communities, mostly included into the Loiseleurio-Vaccinion alliance, and rarely enters associations of the Festucion airoidis and Rhododendro-Vaccinion alliances. Its typical community, Cetrario-Loiseleurietum procumbentis, is found only in the eastern and central parts of the Spanish Pyrenees.

  9. A new Echinogammarus of the berilloni – group E. Aquilifer nov.sp., from the Pyrenees (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, S.

    1969-01-01

    During a short trip in the western part of the Pyrenees in August 1968 many samples of Gammaridae were collected both on the French and Spanish slopes of this mountain chain. Most of the specimens collected appeared to belong to the species Echinogammarus berilloni (Catta, 1878), or to closely

  10. CCS in the Southern Pyrenees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, E. L.; Klimowitz, J.; García-Lobón, J. L.; Calvín, P.; Casas, A. M.; Oliva, B.; Algeco2 Team

    2012-04-01

    The project "Identification and preliminary characterization of geological structures for geological storage of CO2" (ALGECO2) led by the IGME between 2009 and 2010 has made the first rigorous selection of potential CO2 reservoirs in Spain; more than one hundred structures were identified and subjected to preliminary evaluation. This assortment comprises more than thirty structures within the Pyrenees and the Ebro Basin (PE) domain. The discussion, based on the oil-exploration experience and regional geological knowledge (with the compilation of over 500 cross sections) has finally chosen 8 structures in the Pyrenees. Seismic data, oil industry wells and surface mapping have allowed building three-dimensional preliminary models of these structures. These potential reservoirs display storage capacities from a few Mt to hundreds Mt CO2. Besides, some Pyrenean structures are among the most favorable and reliable in the national ranking according to the panel of more than 150 experts of the ALGECO2 project. Two Pyrenean structural traps are notable for their large potential capacity; they have been coded as PE-GE-13 and PE-GE-14. The first one is a large and wide basement antiform located in the Northern Jaca-Pamplona Basin. There is an extensive seismic coverage in the area and a dozen of deep wells (2 of them 4,000 m deep). The reservoir consists of Buntsandstein sands (>80 m in thickness), being the Röt and Keuper facies the seal. The top of the reservoir is 1,720 m deep and the structure has a map-view surface > 500 km2. Preliminary 3D models allow estimating storage capacity > 300 Mt. On the other hand, the PE-GE-14 structure (partially overlapped in map-view with PE-GE-13) is a cover anticline related to an underneath thrust (but structurally higher than PE-GE-13). In this case, the reservoir-seal pair is formed by upper Paleocene platform limestones and the Eocene flysch and talus marls respectively. The structure has an area > 100 km2. The top of the reservoir

  11. Geology of the Upper Cretaceous and part of the lower tertiary between the Rio Aragon subordan and the Rio Gallego (Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, G.F.J.

    1968-01-01

    This study deals with the stratigraphy and the tectonics of the Upper Cretaceous and part of the Lower Tertiary between the Rio Aragon Subordan (western boundary) and the Rio Gallego (eastern boundary) in the Spanish Western Pyrenees. The thesis forms part of the geological investigations carried

  12. Basque violence: a reappraisal of culturalist explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt Beck, J.; Markusse, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    David Laitin has explained the occurrence of Basque and Georgian nationalist violence as the outcome of language revival in a bilingual setting and a specific locale. Based on game theory, he has suggested that violence, as a rational nationalist strategy, will increasingly be used if specific

  13. The Basque Language: History and Origin1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Basque Language: History and Origin1. John D. Bengtson. John D. Bengtson is currently Vice-President of the Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory. (ASLIP), and a participant in the Evolution of Human Language Project (Santa Fe Institute). He has published more than 70 articles on historical linguistics ...

  14. Basque Diaspora in the USA and Language Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David

    2008-01-01

    The Basques first immigrated on a large scale to the USA during the Gold Rush of 1848. After immigrating to the USA, they settled in pockets throughout the West, especially in California, Nevada and Idaho, and it is currently estimated that more than 35,000 Basque-Americans live in these three states. This represents one of the largest…

  15. Minority Language Learning in the Administration: Data from the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Perales, Josu

    1997-01-01

    Provides data on the acquisition of Basque in the Basque Autonomous Community (Spain). Reports recent data and results of research studies on bilingual education and the use of Basque, and then focuses on one of the language plans developed by the Basque Government: the "Basquisation" of civil servants. Analyzes results of this plan and…

  16. Geology of the Upper Cretaceous and part of the lower tertiary between the Rio Aragon subordan and the Rio Gallego (Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, G.F.J.

    1968-01-01

    This study deals with the stratigraphy sis forms part of the geological investigations and the tectonics of the Upper Cretaceous gations and part of the Lower Tertiary between Pyrenees, under the Rio Aragon Subordan (western boundary) and the Rio Gallego (eastern boundary), carried out in the

  17. The Basque farmhouses of Zelaa and Maiz Goena : New dendrochronology-based findings about the evolution of the built heritage in the northern Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susperregi, J.; Telleria, I.; Urteaga, M.; Jansma, E.

    2017-01-01

    The Basque farmhouse, a characteristic building type for north-western Spain, is an architectural solution that allows the combined management of different rural activities. In addition to providing living quarters and a space for a cider press these farmhouses were designed to function as, among

  18. Architecture of ductile-type, hyper-extended passive margins: Geological constraints from the inverted Cretaceous basin of the North-Pyrenean Zone ('Chaînons Béarnais', Western Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Benjamin; Lagabrielle, Yves; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Boulvais, Philippe; Bergamini, Geraldine; Fourcade, Serge; Clerc, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Sub-continental lithospheric mantle rocks are exhumed at the foot of magma-poor distal passive margins as a response to extreme stretching of the continental crust during plate separation. Remnants of the Northern Iberian paleo-passive margin are now exposed in the North-Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and represent field analogues to study the processes of continental crust thinning and subcontinental mantle exhumation. The NPZ results from the inversion of basins opened between the Iberia and Europa plates during Albo-Cenomanian times. In the western NPZ, the 'Chaînons Béarnais' ranges display a fold-and-thrust structure involving the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, decoupled from its continental basement and associated with peridotite bodies in tectonic contact with Palaeozoic basement lenses of small size. Continental extension developed under hot thermal conditions, as demonstrated by the syn-metamorphic Cretaceous ductile deformation affecting both the crustal basement and the allochthonous Mesozoic cover. In this study, we present structural and geochemical data providing constraints to reconstruct the evolution of the northern Iberia paleo-margin. Field work confirms that the pre-rift Mesozoic cover is intimately associated to mantle rocks and to thin tectonic lenses of crustal basement. It also shows that the pre-rift cover was detached from its bedrock at the Keuper evaporites level and was welded to mantle rocks during their exhumation at the foot of the hyper-extended margin. The crust/mantle detachment fault is a major shear zone characterized by anastomosed shear bands defining a plurimetric phacoidal fabric at the top of the serpentinized mantle. The detachment is marked by a layer of metasomatic rocks, locally 20 meters thick, made of talc-chlorite-pyrite-rich rocks that developped under greenschist facies conditions. Raman Spectroscopy on Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM), performed on the Mesozoic cover reveal that the entire sedimentary pile underwent temperatures

  19. SKS splitting beneath the Pyrenees domain: an insight on the upper mantle deformation from central Iberia to French Massif Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, Mickael; Chevrot, Sébastien; Gaudot, Ianis; Haugmard, Méric

    2016-04-01

    We performed shear-wave splitting analysis for 270 permanent (French RLPB, CEA and Catalan) and temporary (PyrOPE and IberArray) broadband stations around the Pyrenees range. These measurements considerably enhance the spatial resolution and regional extent of seismic anisotropy pattern in that region. In particular, we determine the small-scale variations of splitting parameters φ and δt along three dense (5 km inter-station spacing) transects crossing the western, central and eastern Pyrenees. The anisotropy pattern in the Pyrenees is in good agreement with those in previous studies, with relatively constant N100° E directions of polarization of the fast waves and delay times around 1 s. However, the new stations from the PyrOPE experiment installed in the Aquitaine basin indicate a sharp transition both in directions (from N100° E to ˜ N60° E) and delay times (from 1 s to ˜ 0.5 s) just north of the North Pyrenean Fault. This could indicate the presence of the Iberian lithospheric "slab" beneath the North Pyrenean Zone. This transition also suggests that the main contribution to anisotropy is located inside the lithosphere. Further East, the analysis of the French permanent broadband stations complete the anisotropy map beneath western Alps. These new observations, especially in Savoie, confirm the overall N-80° E to N40° E smooth rotation of the directions of polarization following the curvature of the belt.

  20. Transfer and Contact-Induced Variation in Child Basque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eAustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Young Basque-speaking children produce Differential Object Marking (DOM and pre-verbal complementizers in their speech, variants argued to stem from contact with Spanish (Austin, 2006, Rodríguez-Ordóñez, 2013. In this paper, I claim that despite their contact-induced origin, these forms reflect distinct developmental tendencies on the part of the child acquiring Basque. Children's use of pre-verbal complementizers in Basque seems to be a relief strategy that bilingual children employ until they have acquired the post-verbal complementizers in Basque, which are low-frequency morphemes. In contrast, the use of DOM is present in the adult input, although children use this construction to a greater extent than adults do. Finally, I discuss the implications of these findings for the part that child learners play in advancing language change.

  1. [Some traditional representations of the human body in Basque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This work is a selection of ethnographic data chiefly collected in the North of the Basque Country. It suggests restoring the traditional image of body and proposes interpretation of "historical meanings".

  2. Paternal genetic history of the Basque population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristin L; Sun, Guangyun; Deka, Ranjan; Crawford, Michael H

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the genetic variation in Basque Y chromosome lineages using data on 12 Y-short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a sample of 158 males from four Basque provinces of Spain (Alava, Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa, and Navarre). As reported in previous studies, the Basques are characterized by high frequencies of haplogroup R1b (83%). AMOVA analysis demonstrates genetic homogeneity, with a small but significant amount of genetic structure between provinces (Y-short tandem repeat loci STRs: 1.71%, p = 0.0369). Gene and haplotype diversity levels in the Basque population are on the low end of the European distribution (gene diversity: 0.4268; haplotype diversity: 0.9421). Post-Neolithic contribution to the paternal Basque gene pool was estimated by measuring the proportion of those haplogroups with a Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) previously dated either prior (R1b, I2a2) or subsequent to (E1b1b, G2a, J2a) the Neolithic. Based on these estimates, the Basque provinces show varying degrees of post-Neolithic contribution in the paternal lineages (10.9% in the combined sample).

  3. 700 years reconstruction of mercury and lead atmospheric deposition in the Pyrenees (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, J. P.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Wang, F.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Cuevas, C. A.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical analyses in varved lake sediment cores (Lake Montcortès, Pre-Pyrenees) allowed reconstruction of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) atmospheric deposition over the past seven centuries in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Accumulation Rates (AR) from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Period ranged from 2500 to 26130 μg m2.y-1 and 15-152 μg m2.y-1 for Pb and Hg respectively. Significant metal pollution started ca CE 1550 during a period of increased exploitation of ore resources in Spain. Colder and humid conditions in the Pyrenees during the Little Ice Age may have also favoured Hg and Pb atmospheric deposition in the lake. Therefore, the interplay between increased rainfall (wet deposition) and mining activities in the Iberian Peninsula has driven Hg and Pb AR during the Pre-industrial Period. More recently, the use of leaded gasoline in Europe in the mid-20th century may explain the highest Pb AR between CE 1953 and 1971. The highest Hg AR occurred in CE 1940 synchronous with the highest Hg production peak in Almadén mining district (southern Spain) and the Second World War. The record of Hg enrichment in Lake Montcortès shows a decrease during the last decades in Western Europe similar to other regional records and global emission models. This study highlights the exceptional quality of varved sequences to tease apart pollutants depositional mechanisms, identify historical periods of increased atmospheric pollution and provide a historical context for pollutant baseline values to make correct assessments of recent (atmospheric) pollution in lake ecosystems.

  4. School bullying and violence in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garaigordobil Landazabal, Maite; Oñederra Ramírez, José A

    2009-01-01

    School bullying and violence in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. This study explores some characteristics of school bullying in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, using descriptive methodology...

  5. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A.; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M.; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe—one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory—is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter–gatherers. The proportion of hunter–gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665

  6. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-09-22

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe--one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory--is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter-gatherers. The proportion of hunter-gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people.

  7. English Medium Instruction: A Way towards Linguistically Better Prepared Professionals in the Basque Autonomous Community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the Basque Autonomous Community, besides the official languages Spanish and Basque, English is considered an important third language for internationally operating companies. However, employees are not believed to be linguistically well enough prepared, due to shortcomings in English language learning in the Basque educational system. The…

  8. Peace in The Basque Country. An Interpretation from Social Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Mínguez-Alcaide

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study goal is to identify key elements for the peace building in the Basque Country from the visions of the citizenship. Following this objective, the paper presents a psycho-social approach to the building of peace in the Basque Country from meanings socially constructed. The study was developed on the basis of 60 interviews made to people of different sectors from the Basque society, and analyzed from a qualitative analysis. The results aim at 7 central elements for the construction of peace in the Basque Country: the ETA end; changes on antiterrorist and penitentiary policy of the Spanish State; to repair of integral way to the victims of human rights violations committed by ETA and compatible groups, the terrorism of tardo-francoist groups, and the Spanish state; dialogue, negotiation and agreements; the paper of the civil society for peace; the work by memory; psycho-social changes. Finally, this concludes about the needs to approach the construction of peace in the Basque Country being followed a complex optics and considering the social, political and psycho-social dimensions.

  9. The Effect of Individual and Contextual Factors in Adult Second-Language Acquisition in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Josu; Cenoz, Jasone

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effect of individual and contextual variables on the acquisition of Basque by adult learners in the Basque Country. Participants were learners who were attending Basque classes in nine different specialized schools for teaching Basque to adults. Participants completed questionnaires about metalinguistic awareness, anxiety, learning…

  10. Basque speakers and the media: opinions, habits and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Salces Alcalde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to shed light on the relationship of Basque language speakers with the media, as its main aim is to help understand which social, psychological and cognitive mechanisms influence the media consumption of minoritised language speakers. To fulfill this purpose, it was used an integrated methodological perspective, which has combined conducting in-depth interviews, on the qualitative side, and the compilation of audience data, on the quantitative one. Given that both the media landscape and the Basque linguistic community are involved in a process of deep transformation, this work´s conclusions try to set out some findings and lines of reflection that could help Basque language media understand better their potential audience and anticipate the challenges of the near future.

  11. The genetic position of the autochthonous subpopulation of Northern Navarre (Spain) in relation to other basque subpopulations. A study based on GM and KM immunoglobulin allotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, R; Perez-Miranda, A; Peña, J A; Vidales, C; Aresti, U; Dugoujon, J M

    2000-08-01

    GM and KM immunoglobulin (Ig) allotypes were tested in 118 autochthonous Basques from northern Navarre. The results are compared to those obtained for the same genetic markers in 6 other Basque subpopulations, 3 from Spain (Guipúzcoa, Vizcaya, and Alava) and 3 from France: Macaye, Saint-Jean Pied de Port, and Mauleon. The northern Navarrese appear genetically closer to the Alava and Saint-Jean Pied de Port subpopulations. The Basques present 3 GM haplotypes that are uncommon in Caucasian populations, suggesting that they have not been completely isolated either from Asian or African populations. The GM*1,17 23' 10,11,13,15,16 north Asian haplotype was probably the first to be introduced into the Basque area. The GM*1,17 23' 5* haplotype, considered an African genetic marker although also detected in Central Asia, would have reached the Iberian Peninsula through consecutive historic migrations from North Africa. The rare haplotype GM*1,17 23 21,28 results probably from a genetic recombination or crossing-over between the 2 common haplotypes GM*1, 17 23' 21,28 and GM*3 23 5*. It is also found with a low frequency in other neighboring regions and countries; but the possibility of its having been introduced through the main passage connecting western France and Spain during the Roman Empire and Middle Ages cannot be ruled out.

  12. Impact of Climate Policy on the Basque Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Dellink, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the economic effects of CO2 emission reductions in the Basque Country (Spain) using an applied general equilibrium (AGE) model with specific attention to environment-energy-economy interactions. Environmental policy is implemented through a system of tradable pollution

  13. Creating a German–Basque electronic dictionary for German learners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we introduce the new electronic dictionary project EuDeLex, which is currently being worked on at UPV-EHU University of the Basque Country. The introduction addresses the need for and functions of a new electronic dictionary for that language pair, as well as general considerations about bilingual ...

  14. Structure of Stockmen Collaboration Networks Under Two Contrasting Touristic Regimes in the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saiz, Hugo; Gartzia, Maite; Errea, Paz; Fillat, Federico; Alados, Concepción L

    .... This study examined the collaboration networks among stockmen within two traditionally agropastoral regions in the Spanish Central Pyrenees, which in the past 30 yr included touristic activities...

  15. Are the Pyrenees a barrier for the transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Central Europe to the Iberian Peninsula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Alarcón, Marta; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; De Linares, Concepción; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Belmonte, Jordina

    2017-01-01

    This work provides a first assessment of the possible barrier effect of the Pyrenees on the atmospheric transport of airborne pollen from Europe to the North of the Iberian Peninsula. Aerobiological data recorded in three Spanish stations located at the eastern, central and western base of the Pyrenees in the period 2004-2014 have been used to identify the possible long range transport episodes of Betula pollen. The atmospheric transport routes and the origin regions have been established by means of trajectory analysis and a source receptor model. Betula pollen outbreaks were associated with the meteorological scenario characterized by the presence of a high-pressure system overm over Morocco and Southern Iberian Peninsula. France and Central Europe have been identified as the probable source areas of Betula pollen that arrives to Northern Spain. However, the specific source areas are mainly determined by the particular prevailing atmospheric circulation of each location. Finally, the Weather Research and Forecasting model highlighted the effect of the orography on the atmospheric transport patterns, showing paths through the western and easternmost lowlands for Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bellaterra respectively, and the direct impact of air flows over Vielha through the Garona valley. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood-feeding patterns of horse flies in the French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, F; Gardès, L; De Stordeur, E; Jay-Robert, P; Garros, C

    2014-01-31

    Horse flies can mechanically transmit Besnoitia besnoiti, the agent of bovine besnoitiosis. Although previously limited to enzootic areas, especially the French Pyrenees Mountains, bovine besnoitiosis is now considered a re-emerging disease in western Europe. To improve understanding of the role of horse flies as mechanical vectors, this study investigated their blood-feeding ecology in the eastern French Pyrenees, in two high-altitude summer pastures whose main domestic ungulates were cattle, and in a wildlife park with native fauna. Species-specific PCR assays were conducted to identify the sources of blood meals: wild boar, horse, cattle (or bison), sheep (or mouflon), goat, red deer, roe deer and izard (or Pyrenean chamois). In La Mouline pasture, tabanids (N=20) fed on red deer (70%) and cattle (30%). In Mantet pasture, tabanids (N=24) fed on cattle (52%), red deer (20%), wild boar (16%), horse (8%) and sheep (4%). In the wildlife park, Tabanus bromius (N=32), the most abundant species collected, fed on red deer (85%), bison (9%) and wild boar (6%). Despite relatively high densities in both the pastures and in the wildlife park, small wild ungulates (izard, mouflon and roe deer) were not detected as a source of blood meals. Only two mixed blood meals were identified in two specimens of T. bromius: cattle/horse for the specimen collected in the pastures, and bison/wild boar for the specimen collected in the wildlife park. Our findings showed that tabanids display a level of opportunistic feeding behaviour, in addition to a preference for red deer, the latter being particularly true for Philipomyia aprica, the most abundant species collected in the pastures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EHME: a new word database for research in Basque language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Landa, Josu; Salaburu, Pello

    2014-11-14

    This article presents EHME, the frequency dictionary of Basque structure, an online program that enables researchers in psycholinguistics to extract word and nonword stimuli, based on a broad range of statistics concerning the properties of Basque words. The database consists of 22.7 million tokens, and properties available include morphological structure frequency and word-similarity measures, apart from classical indexes: word frequency, orthographic structure, orthographic similarity, bigram and biphone frequency, and syllable-based measures. Measures are indexed at the lemma, morpheme and word level. We include reliability and validation analysis. The application is freely available, and enables the user to extract words based on concrete statistical criteria 1 , as well as to obtain statistical characteristics from a list of words

  18. Addressee Identity and Morphosyntactic Processing in Basque Allocutive Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Max; Mancini, Simona; Caffarra, Sendy

    2017-01-01

    Information about interlocutor identity is pragmatic in nature and has traditionally been distinguished from explicitly coded linguistic information, including mophosyntax. Study of speaker identity in language processing has questioned this distinction, but addressee identity has been less considered. We used Basque to explore how addressee identity is processed during morphosyntactic analysis. In the familiar register hika, Basque has obligatory allocutive agreement, where verbal morphology represents the gender of a non-argument addressee. We manipulated the gender of the allocutive verb and the congruence of addressee gender in conversations between two interlocutors. Items with person agreement manipulations were included as a control comparison. Basque speakers familiar with hika completed speeded acceptability judgments and unspeeded, offline naturalness ratings for each conversation. Results showed a main effect of addressee identity congruence for naturalness ratings, but there was no main effect for addressee identity congruence for reaction times or accuracy in the acceptability judgment. Interactions and correlations with biographical data showed that the effect of congruence was modulated by the gender of the allocutive verb and that hika proficiency was related to participants' performance for the acceptability judgment. These results show an interaction between morphosyntactic and pragmatic information and are the first experimental data of allocutive processing. In comparison, clear effects were seen for the person agreement condition, indicating that person disagreement is more disruptive to processing than addressee identity incongruence. This study has implications for investigation of the role of extralinguistic information in morphosyntactic processing, and suggests that not all such information plays an equal role.

  19. Spanish Migrants in Basque Social Science Textbooks from the Late Franco Era to the Transition to Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ander

    2017-01-01

    In this article I explore the ways in which migrants from other parts of Spain to the Basque Country are portrayed in Basque social science textbooks published in the Basque Country between the end of Franco's dictatorship and the period of the transition to democracy. I elucidate the role attributed to immigrants, who were culturally and…

  20. Iberian-Tartessian scripts/graffiti in Iruna-Veleia (Basque Country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spain. Abstract - 760 officially recognized scripts on ceramics from Iruña-Veleia excavated by the archaeology firm Lurmen S.L. (approximately between years 2002-2008) ... old Roman/Basque-Iberian City is close to Vitoria/Gasteiz in the Spanish Basque .... or other origins and “X” to Etruscan or Latin origin (Appendix 1).

  1. The Basque power-sharing experience: From a destructive to a constructive conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt Beck, J.

    2008-01-01

    Neither the devolution of powers to the Basque Autonomous Community in Spain nor more than a decade of power-sharing within this region has led to a peaceful settlement of the Basque conflict. Combining Kriesberg's approach to conflict resolution and consociational theory, past power-sharing

  2. Linking time-Temperature history of the Aquitaine basin with post-orogenic evolution of the Pyrenees : new insights from borehole thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Calassou, Sylvain; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Gautheron, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Within their sedimentary record, foreland basins document vertical movements of the lithosphere, climatic changes, paleogeograhic evolution but also history of exhumation of the adjacent mountain belt. Comparing vertical movements in a range and in its foreland is key to identify processes involved in growth and destruction of mountain belts. The Aquitaine basin, geomorphologically stable since the early Pyrenean orogenesis has the potential to help understanding the driving mechanisms during the late to post-orogenic phases, but the lack of outcrops makes the studies particularly difficult to achieve. To bring a new point of vue on the processes involved in the Cenozoic exhumation of this range, we present new low-Temperature thermochronology data from boreholes of the Aquitaine basin. With the objectives to study rift-related to post-orogenic processes, numerous low-T thermochronological ages ( 300 across the range) have been published, documenting pre-, syn- , and post-orogenic exhumation in the Pyrenees. Using thermal modeling of a new low-T database in the western Axial Zone, we show that a late Miocene (around 10 Ma) uplift occured in the western Pyrenees, which generalizes the post-orogenic signal already detected in the south central Pyrenees. In previous studies, we linked the post-orogenic exhumation in the Southern Pyrenees to the excavation of the foreland valleys caused by the opening of the endorheic Ebro basin towards the Mediterranean Sea. To the West, the tectonic out-of sequence reactivation of the Gavarnie thrust has been invoked to explain the late Miocene AHe ages in the Bielsa massif. These new data might lead us to re-think the causes for such an exhumation signal during "post-orogenic" times. We thus summarize all evidences for the post-orogenic phase and attempt to provide explanation for it: is exhumation driven by Aquitaine foreland basin evolution? Does it reflect a tectonic reactivation of the Pyrenees? or is the signature of a regional

  3. An insight into recent consanguinity within the Basque area in Spain. Effects of autochthony, industrialization and demographic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Sanchez, M A; Peña, J A; Aresti, U; Calderón, R

    2001-01-01

    The importance of studying the genetic kinship of those human groups characterized by a deeply rooted ethnicity has traditionally been and still is an interesting goal of anthropological and population genetic studies. However, only a few surveys have aimed to learn about the impact of industrial development on the consanguinity of these populations and even those have concentrated on industrialized regions. This approach is worth analysing in Spain, where industrialization was late in relation to other western European countries. In this work we analyse the characteristics of inbreeding in Guipúzcoa from 1951 to 1995. This Basque province underwent industrial and tourist development earlier than other Spanish regions. It has the highest density of Basque speakers and has always occupied a central position within the map of distribution of the Basque language. Guipúzcoa is geographically placed in the core of the Basque area. SUDJECTS AND METHODS: Data on consanguineous marriages recorded in the province of Guipúzcoa between 1951 and 1995 were taken from Roman Catholic dispensations stored in the Diocesan Archives of San Sebastián, the province's capital city. Over the whole time period, a total of 1152 consanguineous marriages were registered. The high frequencies of first cousin (M22) (F = 1/16) and uncle-niece, aunt-nephew (M12) (F = 1/8) consanguineous marriages distinguish Guipúzcoa from the rest of Iberian populations. The M22/M33 ratio (with M33 being second cousins) has never dropped below 0.67, which represents a significant deviation from the expectation value of 0.25. When consanguineous marriages are classified according to marriage partner birthplaces interesting results emerge. Provincial endogamy shows the highest consanguinity rates (57%) and the proportion of M22/M33 is also rather high (0.63). However, a major contribution to the consanguinity levels and mean inbreeding coefficient recorded in Guipúzcoa over recent decades has been made by

  4. West Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Balearic islands, Sardinia) and the Basque population: contribution of HLA class I molecular markers to their evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, M C; Crouau-Roy, B; Amoros, J P; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Carcassi, C; Orru, S; Viader, C; Contu, L

    2001-11-01

    The genetic structure of Balearic islands (Corsica and Sardinia), situated on the same trans-Mediterranean maritime routes and having very similar histories, were compared and their position among the neighbouring Caucasian populations was inferred. For this purpose, three HLA loci (HLA-A, -B and -Cw) were typed at the DNA level in these populations and the allelic and haplotypic frequencies were estimated. Because previous studies have shown common genetic features in the Sardinians and Basques, HLA-Cw molecular typing was also performed in a sample of French Basques in order to establish the haplotypic structure of this population for a more accurate comparison with the three others. By its allelic composition, the Corsican population has an intermediate position between the two other islander populations. Its close relationship with the Sardinian population, however, was clearly revealed by the phylogenetic analysis which also suggests a proximity with eastern Mediterranean peoples, whereas the Balearic islands are more narrowly related to Spain and western Europe. Peculiarities were observed in the distributions of some common haplotypes in the populations of the islands that confirm the results of the phylogenetic analysis and could be related to their history. Noteworthy is the presence of the HLA-A30-Cw*0501-B18 haplotype at frequencies approximately 2% in Corsica and the Balearic islands, yet the estimated frequencies of this haplotype are much lower than in the Sardinian and Basque populations.

  5. Addressee Identity and Morphosyntactic Processing in Basque Allocutive Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Wolpert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about interlocutor identity is pragmatic in nature and has traditionally been distinguished from explicitly coded linguistic information, including mophosyntax. Study of speaker identity in language processing has questioned this distinction, but addressee identity has been less considered. We used Basque to explore how addressee identity is processed during morphosyntactic analysis. In the familiar register hika, Basque has obligatory allocutive agreement, where verbal morphology represents the gender of a non-argument addressee. We manipulated the gender of the allocutive verb and the congruence of addressee gender in conversations between two interlocutors. Items with person agreement manipulations were included as a control comparison. Basque speakers familiar with hika completed speeded acceptability judgments and unspeeded, offline naturalness ratings for each conversation. Results showed a main effect of addressee identity congruence for naturalness ratings, but there was no main effect for addressee identity congruence for reaction times or accuracy in the acceptability judgment. Interactions and correlations with biographical data showed that the effect of congruence was modulated by the gender of the allocutive verb and that hika proficiency was related to participants' performance for the acceptability judgment. These results show an interaction between morphosyntactic and pragmatic information and are the first experimental data of allocutive processing. In comparison, clear effects were seen for the person agreement condition, indicating that person disagreement is more disruptive to processing than addressee identity incongruence. This study has implications for investigation of the role of extralinguistic information in morphosyntactic processing, and suggests that not all such information plays an equal role.

  6. The Pyrenees earthquake of 1660: Effects in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, J

    1983-09-01

    Until 1975 or so, scientists' knowledge of the major earthquake of 1660 in the Pyrenees (in Bigorre) was largely restricted to the meagre information repeated in the classical catalogues. Useful material published in local learned journals was mostly unknown, and has only been unearthed and interpreted since 1976, when two year's work of analysis was started for the "Projet Sismo-tectonique" in France. During and since that project, further routine work necessary for the revision of the historical seismicity of France, has brought to light a new wealth of information from archive sources. This new knowledge, at least from the French side, is used as the basis for a brief macroseismic review of the event north of the Pyrenees, putting forward proposals for the isoseismal lines. Emphasis is placed on the number and quality of the sources, some of which are quoted for evidence of major rockfalls in the meizoseismal region and the wide extent of the felt area, as far north as Salnt-Maixent in Poitou.

  7. Sibilant Merger in the Variety of Basque Spoken in Amorebieta-Etxano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oihane Muxika-Loitzate

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basque has an apico-alveolar /s̺/, a lamino-alveolar /s̻/, and a prepalatal sibilant /ʃ/ that are represented by the letters , , and , respectively. The apico-alveolar and the lamino-alveolar sibilants have merged in some areas of Biscay, Guipuzcoa, and the Basque-speaking territories of Alava (e.g., Hualde 2010, and Spanish has been hypothesized as a factor driving this merger (Jurado Noriega 2011. On the other hand, complex sibilant systems like the traditional Basque one tend to be neutralized independently of language contact (Bukmaier et al. 2014. In order to add to this debate and shed new light on the merger, this study explored Biscayan Basque, a variety at an advanced state of the merger (Hualde 2010. More precisely, the study tested how the degree of bilingualism affects the production of the sibilants under study and the resulting neutralization by performing an acoustic analysis of the data. The results show that Basque- and Spanish-dominant speakers behave differently with regard to the sibilant merger, and that they have different places of articulation for their sibilants. Only Basque-dominant speakers maintain a significant distinction in the place of articulation of and overall, whereas Spanish-dominant speakers do not make a distinction among sibilants. Furthermore, the resulting merged sibilant is less fronted for Spanish-dominant speakers than the sibilants of Basque-dominant speakers.

  8. THE INTERNET: A SUPPORT FOR PRESERVING AND FOSTERING THE QUALITY OF THE BASQUE LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa Larrea-Muxika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show some indications of how Basque society is facing the challenge of the Internet and how it is using this new resource in order to preserve not only the presence of Basque but also the quality of the language itself. It is divided into 4 sections: 1 some general information about the situation of Basque; 2 how Basque society is reacting to the Internet;3 some issues about the quality of the Basque language (kinds of services that can be provided via the Internet and potential users of them; 4 some resources offered by three of civil service institutions intended to help professionals use the Basque language more correctly and appropriately. In the end we conclude that the Internet in fact supplies useful tools and resources to preserve and foster the Basque language and, specifically, its linguistic quality; on the other hand, the society is being quite aware of the importance of the new tool and it is, consequently, reacting positively to the challenge of this new technology.

  9. Blood-feeding patterns of horse flies in the French Pyrenees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldacchino, F; Gardès, L; De Stordeur, E; Jay-Robert, P; Garros, C

    2014-01-01

    .... To improve understanding of the role of horse flies as mechanical vectors, this study investigated their blood-feeding ecology in the eastern French Pyrenees, in two high-altitude summer pastures...

  10. Shifting agriculture: the main cause of landscape degradation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, Teodoro; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Errea, Paz

    2017-04-01

    Cereal agriculture occupied large areas in the Spanish Pyrenees to feed the population in a socio-economic system of limited exchanges with the outside. In the Western valleys, shifting agriculture constitutes the dominant field pattern, representing almost three-quarters of the traditional agricultural space (Lasanta et al., in press). These were cultivated at times of heavy population growth, necessitating steep and stony hillsides with poor soil to be tilled, or the ones that were far away from the village. The fields were created by clearing the vegetation from a slope, then burning it to use the ash as a fertilizer. Cereal was grown for 3-4 years, after which they were abandoned for 20-30 years to recover fertility, and the cycle was repeated. Almost all the fields (99%) using shifting agriculture had been abandoned by the 1950s. This study analyzes the role of the shifting agriculture in soil erosion and landscape degradation. For this purpose, (i) experimental plots, which reproduce the traditional agriculture in the Pyrenees and the abandonment processes, and (ii) the cartography made from the SIOSE (2009), which shows the present land cover 50 years after cropland abandonment, were used. The results show that shifting agriculture caused higher soil losses than other agricultural uses (1.36 kg m-2 yr-1): fallow land (0.87 kg m-2 yr-1), chemically fertilized cereal (0.86 kg m-2 yr-1) and meadow (0.14 kg m-2 yr-1). Also, after land abandonment, soil losses are higher in shifting agriculture (0.78 kg m-2 yr-1) than cereal lands (0.73 kg m-2 yr-1). The burning of the shrub cover and the use of ashes as fertilizer did not contribute to improve the soil quality, which explains both the higher soil losses during the cultivated period and after the abandonment, since slower plant succession occurs. The results obtained from the SIOSE confirm that the change from meadows to shrubland is relatively fast, as a consequence of the low relationship with livestock

  11. On the Upper Ordovician unconformity in the Pyrenees: New evidence from the La Cerdanya area

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Tuset, Josep Maria; Fernández, Óscar

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, contradictory reports about whether or not an unconformity exists at the base of the Upper Ordovician succession of the Pyrenees have been made. In the Cerdanya area (Central Pyrenees), good outcrop evidence for this unconformity is displayed at the base of the Rabassa conglomerates. In this area, the Upper Ordovician rocks overlie a tilted Cambro-Ordovician sequence, displaying an angular unconformity and indicating a break in the stratigraphic series. Moreover, the existenc...

  12. On the Upper Ordovician unconformity in the Pyrenees : new evidence from the La Cerdanya area

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Tuset, Josep Maria

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, contradictory reports about whether or not an unconformity exists at the base of the Upper Ordovician succession of the Pyrenees have been made. In the Cerdanya area (Central Pyrenees), good outcrop evidence for this unconformity is displayed at the base of the Rabassa conglomerates. In this area, the Upper Ordovician rocks overlie a tilted Cambro-Ordovician sequence, displaying an angular unconformity and indicating a break in the stratigraphic series. Moreover, the existenc...

  13. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-12-24

    subcategories (common uses). The informants recognise and use a total of 184 species from 49 families. During interviews, 5658 individual use-reports were collected relating to three use-categories - as medicines, food and health-food. The two main groups with almost the same number of species each are health-food (75 species) and (locally gathered) food only (73), with medicinal uses only (36) being the smallest group. This highlights the important overlap between food and medicines. Overall, three core families were identified (based on the number of use reports and in the number of species): Asteraceae (25 species), Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (24 each). The most frequently reported species are Jasonia glutinosa, Chamaemelum nobile, Prunus spinosa and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota. The most important general use-subcategories are as raw vegetables (27.43% of the use-reports and including 81 species), infusions (14.74%/42) and gastrointestinal (12.53%/42). Conceptually foods and medicines are clearly distinguished but the intermediate group of health foods is more ambiguous. Food and medicinal uses of plants are culturally closely linked. A wide range of plants are known and many still used. The analysis shows that the Basques use a wide range of species which are typical for Western European cultures. In comparison to other studies in the Mediterranean countries there are many similarities in the uses of different families, species of plants and their use and preparations. Some of these plants are key Mediterranean species, often used for a multitude of uses as food and medicine. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    three categories were divided in 27 subcategories (common uses). Results and discussion The informants recognise and use a total of 184 species from 49 families. During interviews, 5658 individual use-reports were collected relating to three use-categories – as medicines, food and health-food. The two main groups with almost the same number of species each are health-food (75 species) and (locally gathered) food only (73), with medicinal uses only (36) being the smallest group. This highlights the important overlap between food and medicines. Overall, three core families were identified (based on the number of use reports and in the number of species): Asteraceae (25 species), Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (24 each). The most frequently reported species are Jasonia glutinosa, Chamaemelum nobile, Prunus spinosa and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota. The most important general use-subcategories are as raw vegetables (27.43% of the use-reports and including 81 species), infusions (14.74%/42) and gastrointestinal (12.53%/42). Conceptually foods and medicines are clearly distinguished but the intermediate group of health foods is more ambiguous. Conclusion Food and medicinal uses of plants are culturally closely linked. A wide range of plants are known and many still used. The analysis shows that the Basques use a wide range of species which are typical for Western European cultures. In comparison to other studies in the Mediterranean countries there are many similarities in the uses of different families, species of plants and their use and preparations. Some of these plants are key Mediterranean species, often used for a multitude of uses as food and medicine. PMID:26481607

  15. Co-operative Production and Technical Education in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Carlos

    1982-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of the technical school within the overall framework of Basque cooperatives. The school organization, curriculum, and its integration with the co-op's productive activites are described. (AM)

  16. Equality and gender amongst young Basque people: A crossroads of continuities, conflicts and ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Luz Esteban Galarza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research we present in this article is to offer a general overview of the situation in the Basque Country concerning gender equality/inequality among young people. This paper is based on qualitative research conducted with young Basque people (15-30 years old. In the first part, a portrait of the young Basque population is presented with regard to formal equality and changes occurring in Spanish and Basque society over the last three decades, as well as a brief review of youth studies focusing on gender analysis. In the second part, the main results of this research are outlined, following three main lines of enquiry in relation to the maintenance or transformation of asymmetrical gender models: continuities, conflicts and ruptures.

  17. The governance of cooperative societies under the Basque Act of 24-6.1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gadea Soler

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly presents the general guidelines of governance of cooperatives. Because of the numerous existing laws in Spain, one looks at the provisions of the State Law and Law in Basque Contry.

  18. Hybrid Approach for Language Identification Oriented to Multilingual Speech Recognition in the Basque Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, N.; de Ipiña, K. López; Ezeiza, A.; Barroso, O.; Susperregi, U.

    The development of Multilingual Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition systems involves issues as: Language Identification, Acoustic-Phonetic Decoding, Language Modelling or the development of appropriated Language Resources. The interest on Multilingual Systems arouses because there are three official languages in the Basque Country (Basque, Spanish, and French), and there is much linguistic interaction among them, even if Basque has very different roots than the other two languages. This paper describes the development of a Language Identification (LID) system oriented to robust Multilingual Speech Recognition for the Basque context. The work presents hybrid strategies for LID, based on the selection of system elements by Support Vector Machines and Multilayer Perceptron classifiers and stochastic methods for speech recognition tasks (Hidden Markov Models and n-grams).

  19. On lexical borrowings from the Catalan, Galician and Basque languages in Spanish political speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А О Уржумцева

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores and classifies Spanish borrowings (such as certain toponyms, anthroponyms, and precedent text fragments from official provincial languages of Spain (Catalan, Galician, Basque in political speech of this country.

  20. The 3000-4000 cal. BP anthropogenic shift in fire regime in the French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, D.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Richard, H.

    2009-04-01

    Fire is a key disturbing agent in a wide range of ecosystems: boreal biome (Pitkanen, 2000), Mediterranean area (Colombaroli et al., 2008) as well as temperate European mountain zones (Tinner et al., 1999). During the Holocene, climate may control fire regime by both ignition and fire spread-favouring conditions (i.e. composition, structure and moisture of biomass) whereas man may change charcoal accumulation patterns through type and intensity of agro-pastoral activities. In western and Mediterranean Europe, single sites charcoal analysis recorded the anthropogenic forcing over fire regime broadly between the mid and the late-Holocene. Turner et al (2008) showed that climate and fire had been disconnected since 1700 cal. BP in Turkey. In central Swiss, Mean Fire Interval decreased by two times 2000 years ago due to increasing human impact (Stahli et al., 2006). In Italy, climate and man have had a combined influence on fire-hazard since ca 4000 cal. BP (Vannière et al., 2008). In the Pyrenees Mountains, the linkage between agro-pastoral practices and fire could be dated back to ca 4000-3000 cal. BP with a clear succession of a clearance phase (high fire frequency) followed by a quite linear trend throughout Middle Ages and Modern times corresponding to a change in fire use (Vanniere et al., 2001; Galop et al., 2002, Rius et al., in press). The quantification of fire regimes parameters such as frequency with robust methodological tools (Inferred Fire Frequency, Mean Fire Interval) is needed to understand and characterise such shifts. Here we present two sequences from the Lourdes basin (col d'Ech peat bog) and from the occidental Pyrenees (Gabarn peat bog), which cover the last 9000 years with high temporal resolution. The main goals of this study were to (1) assess control factors of fire regime throughout the lateglacial and Holocene (climate and/or man) on the local scale, (2) evidence the local/regional significance of these control factors , (3) discuss the

  1. Strain partitioning evolution and segmentation in hyperextended rift systems: insights from the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nick J.

    2014-05-01

    The understanding of the formation of hyper-extended domains has greatly benefited from combined studies at present-day and fossil rift systems preserved in collisional orogens. However, even though domains of extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning have been increasingly recognized, the spatial and temporal evolution of their tectonic processes remains poorly constrained. The Bay of Biscay and Pyrenees correspond to a Late Jurassic to Mid Cretaceous rift system including both oceanic and hyper-extended rift domains. The transition from preserved oceanic and rift domains to the West to their complete inversion in the East provide simultaneous access to seismically imaged and exposed parts of a hyper-extended rift system. We combine seismic interpretations and gravity inversion results with field mapping to identify and map former rift domains from the Bay of Biscay margins to their fossil analogues preserved in the Pyrenean orogen. This onshore/offshore map of the rift systems enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution and the strain distribution related to the formation of a strongly segmented rift system preserved at the transition between the European and Iberian plate boundary. The restoration of the hyper-extended domains reveals the occurrence of spatially disconnected rift systems separated by weakly thinned continental ribbons (e.g. Landes High, Ebro block). While the offshore Bay of Biscay represent a former mature oceanic domain, the fossil remnants of hyper-extended domains preserved onshore in the Pyrenean-Cantabrian orogen record distributed extensional deformation partitioned between strongly segmented rift basins (e.g. Basque-Cantabrian, Arzacq-Mauléon basins). Rift system segmentation controls lateral variations of architecture and may be partly inherited from the pre-rift structuration. The relative timing of hyper-extensional processes is diachronous between the different rift systems recording the polyphased evolution of the

  2. Prensa y conflicto vasco (1975-2016): Recopilatorio de actitudes y vicisitudes/Press coverage of Basque conflict (1975-2016): Compilation of attitudes and vicissitudes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Txema Ramírez de la Piscina Martínez; Imanol Murua Uria; Petxo Idoiaga Arrospide

    2016-01-01

      This work carries out a wide analysis of the attitudes and vicissitudes which have surrounded the Basque and Spanish press coverage of the Basque conflict over the last four decades (19752016). Methodology...

  3. Recent sedimentary study of the shelf of the Basque country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.; Champilou, N.; Cirac, P.; Muxika, I.; Borja, A.; Pascual, A.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, J.; Donard, O.

    2008-07-01

    The Northern Iberian margin of the Spanish Basque country (provinces of Gipuzkoa and Viscaia) is characterized by a narrow continental platform, which receives inputs of riverine particulate matter from the numerous riverine systems located within the Basque country. This particulate matter is subsequently deposited within the Bay of Biscay, and Gouf de Capbreton [Frouin, R., Fiuza, A.F.G., Ambar, I., Boyd, T.J., 1990. Observations of a poleward surface current off the coasts of Portugal and Spain during winter. Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (C1), 679-691]. The main goal of this study is to establish a map of the surface sediment distribution of the Basque continental shelf and more specifically to map the muddy patch located at the eastern side of that continental shelf. Three oceanographic cruises were conducted in 2003 and 2004. From these campaigns 340 surface samples, 12 short cores and 3 gravity cores have been collected over the mid and outer shelf from depths ranging between 50 m and 150 m deep. 3 seismic profiles were obtained across the shelf mud patch using a Sparker device. Sediment grain-size analyses were performed by the classical physical method of sieving and use of settling columns. The POC (Particular Organic Carbon) amounts in sediment and water samples were determined using the Strickland and Parsons' method [Strickland, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R., 1972. Determination of particulate carbon. In : A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Fisheries ResearchBoard of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 207-211] as adapted by Etcheber [Etcheber, H., 1981. Comparaison des diverses méthodes d'évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain. Journal de Recherche Océanographique VI (2), 37-42]. Radioisotopic measurements ( 210Pb exc) were made using a semi-planar germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Radiographical analysis was performed with an X-ray equipment

  4. Debris flow characteristics and relationships in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconfined debris flows (i.e. not in incised channels are one of the most active geomorphic processes in mountainous areas. Since they can threaten settlements and infrastructure, statistical and physically based procedures have been developed to assess the potential for landslide erosion. In this study, information on debris flow characteristics was obtained in the field to define the debris flow runout distance and to establish relationships between debris flow parameters. Such relationships are needed for building models which allow us to improve the spatial prediction of debris flow hazards. In general, unconfined debris flows triggered in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees are of the same order of magnitude as others reported in the literature. The deposition of sediment started at 17.8°, and the runout distance represented 60% of the difference in height between the head of the landslide and the point at which deposition started. The runout distance was relatively well correlated with the volume of sediment.

  5. Adaptation and Validation of the Basque Version of the Emotional Creativity Inventory in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroa, Goretti; Aritzeta, Aitor; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa

    2016-06-03

    Emotional creativity is defined as the ability to feel and express emotions in a new, effective and authentic way. There are currently no Basque-language self-report instruments to provide valid and reliable measures of this construct. Thus, this paper describes the process of adapting and validating the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI) for the Basque-speaking population. The sample was comprised of 594 higher education students (388 women and 206 men) aged between 18 and 32 years old (Mage = 20.47; SD = 2.48). The Basque version of the ECI was administered along with the TMMS-23, NEO PI-R, and PANAS. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the Basque ECI corroborated the original scale's three-factor structure (preparedness, novelty, and effectiveness/authenticity). Those dimensions showed acceptable indexes of internal consistency (α = .80, .83, and .83) and temporal stability (r = .70, .69, and .74). The study also provided some evidence of external validity (p emotional creativity and emotional intelligence, personality, affect, and sex. The Basque ECI can be regarded as a useful tool to evaluate perceived emotional creativity during the preparation and verification phases of the creative process.

  6. ELECTORAL POLITICS AND CONFRONTING THE CHALLENGE OF BASQUE AND MORO NATIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the similarities and differences concerning the extent to which electoral politics addresses the concerns of Basque and Moro nationalism. These demands mainly focus on the factors that have brought about their political, cultural and, for the Moros, also economic marginalization. In terms of similarities, electoral politics in the form of plebiscites and referendums are used to gauge the sentiments of the Basques and the Moros with regards to approving a national constitution with provisions affecting them as well as the establishment of an autonomous region for the Moros and the strengthening of a federal form of government in the case of the Basques. Elections are also used to choose their leaders at the local, provincial, regional and national levels. As for the differences, among the major ones are the following: One is that electoral politics in the Basque region mirrors the class divide in society and reflects the interests of the constituencies. This is not the case in Muslim Mindanao whereby patronage politics rules and electoral results are generally dictated by the Muslim elites who have close ties with the national elites. And secondly, the ideological bias of the elected leader and his political power in Spain has a direct impact on Basque nationalism. In the case of the Philippines, it is the personality of the elected leader that determines whether peace negotiations will be pursued or not. But this does not impact on national or local electoral politics as in the case of Spain.

  7. Ancient mitochondrial lineages support the prehistoric maternal root of Basques in Northern Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Cardoso, Sergio; Keyser, Christine; López-Quintana, Juan Carlos; Guenaga-Lizasu, Amagoia; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2017-05-01

    The Basque population inhabits the Franco-Cantabrian region in southwest Europe where Palaeolithic human groups took refuge during the Last Glacial Maximum. Basques have been an isolated population, largely considered as one of the most ancient European populations and it is possible that they maintained some pre-Neolithic genetic characteristics. This work shows the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis of seven ancient human remains from the Cave of Santimamiñe in the Basque Country dated from Mesolithic to the Late Roman period. In addition, we compared these data with those obtained from a modern sample of Basque population, 158 individuals that nowadays inhabits next to the cave. The results support the hypothesis that Iberians might have been less affected by the Neolithic mitochondrial lineages carried from the Near East than populations of Central Europe and revealed the unexpected presence of prehistoric maternal lineages such as U5a2a and U3a in the Basque region. Comparison between ancient and current population samples upholds the hypothesis of continuity of the maternal lineages in the area of the Franco-Cantabrian region.

  8. In the Name of Language: School-Based Language Revitalization, Strategic Solidarities, and State Power in the French Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Kai A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the mobilization dynamics of a school-based minority language revitalization initiative in the French Basque Country, known as the Ikastola Movement. Bringing the study of language revitalization into dialogue with social movement theory, I discuss how the solidarity of Basque language activists was influenced by state-level…

  9. Pacifist demonstrations in the Basque Contry: The beginnings of Gesto por la paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Moreno Bibiloni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is part of researches into the recent history of the Basque country, has as fundamental objective realize an approach to the beginnings of the Coordinadora Gesto por la Paz de Euskal Herria, pioneer in the demonstrations against the political violence in the Basque country. The research conducted mainly from newspaper sources allows us to approach the precedents and the early stages of this organization which in the 90s reached nearly 175 groups and was benchmark in social mobilization against terrorism. It is not a history of Gesto por la Paz, but is the history of how was conceived. To conclude, the importance of the social mobilizations that have had in the process towards peace in the Basque country, and the significance of these groups attempting to transmit a message of peace and connivance to transform the violent or uncivil social attitudes are highlighted herein.

  10. Analisys of oceano-meteorological conditions during Klaus episode on Basque Country area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egaña, J.; Gaztelumendi, S.; Gelpi., I. R.; Otxoa de Alda, K.

    2010-09-01

    The pass of the extratropical cyclone Klaus over the Cantabric Sea produces an exceptional worsening on Basque Country maritime area conditions. During this episode some damages are produced all over Basque coastal area. Significant height surpasses 8 meters in the early January 24th 2009, reaching punctually the 13 meters in the coast (Pasaia harbor). In deep waters, 8 miles far from coast, maximum heights above 20 meters are registered. In this work we present some aspects related with this severe weather episode, focusing on maritime conditions and analysis of waves patterns, including features from waves modelization, oceanometeorological structures and buoy data collected in the area.

  11. From Militant Voices to Militant Irony: Examining Identity, Memory and Conflict in the Basque Country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Collective memory and identity so often go hand in hand with conflicts. Alongside the use of violence, conflicts unfold against the backdrop of different narratives about the past through which groups constantly remind themselves of the supposed origin of the conflict, and consequently, what......, this paper compares different versions of the 2016 truce period in the Basque Country stemming from three subjects identified, to varying degrees, with the main political actors involved in that conflict. These three cases have been selected from a total of 16 participants who were asked to define the Basque...

  12. Innovation and Cooperation in the Basque Country’s Regional Innovation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Otero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the relation between innovation in industrial SMEs and cooperation with key players in the field of innovation in the context of an innovation system set up in the Basque Country. The empirical information used in the study is from samples of microdata taken from the Company Innovation Survey 2008 regarding 650 industrial SMEs in the Basque Country, and from 12 interviews conducted with important operators in the Regional Innovation System. The study demonstrates a positive relation between government policies on technology, the innovation carried out by companies, cooperation between the different participants and the subsidies that they receive

  13. GHG Fluxes in semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouk, Haifa; Altimir, Nuria; Ribas, Angela; Ibañez, Mercedes; Sebastià, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Mountain areas are identified by the IPCC report (2013) as particularly sensitive to climate change. The need to understand mountain grasslands is crucial since these ecosystems can act as both sinks and sources of CO2. Investigating CH4 and N2O fluxes is important because they can offset potential CO2 sequestration. While most studies have been focusing on CO2, the knowledge on the temporal and spatial variability of CH4 and N2O, particularly in semi-natural mountain grasslands, is scarce. This study describes the magnitude and range of variability of the fluxes of CO2, N2O, and CH4 from four semi-natural pastures in the Pyrenees across an altitudinal gradient (1026 to 2436 m a.s.l.) during the growth period in 2012 and 2013. We measured GHG fluxes of the grassland during both light and dark conditions in the study sites using a photoacoustic field gas-monitor (INNOVA 1412, LumaSense Technologies). After completing the GHG measurements, we collected vegetation samples for the estimation of above-ground and below-ground biomass and separated them into functional groups and species. We present here the analysis of the relationship between GHG fluxes and above-ground biomass including the contribution of the relative abundance of plant functional types. Our preliminary results showed a clear seasonal pattern of GHG fluxes. We observed a negative impact of the summer period on the GHG fluxes, which was mostly pronounced in the CO2. We will further elaborate in-depth the effect of the temporal and spatial variability on the fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4. Also, we will present the relationship between the GHG fluxes and the contribution of the vegetation in terms of the relative abundance of different plant functional types.

  14. BEGIRA: Basque Educational Gate for Interactive and Remote Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.

    2015-05-01

    The BEGIRA project consists in making available the 1.23 m Calar Alto (CAHA) telescope to students of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). The project is designed in such a way that undergraduate and graduate students of the Máster oficial en ciencia y tecnología espacial of the UPV/EHU can control remotely the 1.23 m CAHA telescope. The instrument used is the DLR camera, which based on its large field of view and high sensitivity, allows observations ranging from nearby solar system bodies to remote gamma-ray bursts. The students are also responsible of reducing and analyzing the resultant DLR data. The observations are conducted from the Aula Espazio Gela located at the Faculty of Engineering at Bilbao. The students can control remotely i) the 1.23 m telescope, ii) the DLR camera and iii) the autoguider. They have also continuous access to the observatory weather station, webcams, astrometric tools and the CAHA archive, so they can actually see in real-time what they are doing. The operations can be visualized by two light cannons which display the telescope and camera controls for the audience. In case of any emergency the students are backed up by the CAHA staff. The BEGIRA project shows the potential that remote control of professional telescopes has for educational purposes. As proven by the several discoveries carried out under BEGIRA, the educational activities can be complemented with cutting-edge research activities carried out by Master Students. In the coming years we plan to continue with the BEGIRA project. More information can be found at http://www.ehu.es/aula-espazio/begira/.

  15. Changes in land cover and shallow landslide activity: a case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pyrenees, like many other mountain areas in Europe, have experienced depopulation and land abandonment during the 20th Century. This has encouraged vegetation recovery in formerly occupied areas, including reforestation to promote woodland. The objective of this study is to analyse the

  16. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan

  17. Temporal and spatial interactions of slope and catchment processes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J.M.; Lana-Renault, N.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Lasanta, T.; Arnáez, J.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Regüés, D.; Martí-Bono, C.

    2004-01-01

    Historical and present day changes in land uses and plant cover explain the complex interactions assessed in the Central Spanish Pyrenees between geomorphic processes in hillslopes and channels. More intense erosion periods caused an enlargement of sediment sources areas and an increase of

  18. Description of certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts of the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Kerst Th.

    1973-01-01

    Certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts are described from the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Of the Polygnathus foveolatus group, defined here, P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson, P. lenzi Klapper, P. pireneae n. sp., P. cf. P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson and P. cf. P. lenzi Klapper are described. P.

  19. Geomorphic and hydrological effects of traditional shifting agriculture in a Mediterranean mountain, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasanta, T.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting agriculture occupied large areas of middle latitude mountains during periods of strong demographic pressure. On average, this practice accounted for about 22.8% of the total cultivated area in the Central Spanish Pyrenees at the beginning of the 20th century. The use of experimental

  20. Arabis soyeri Reuter ex Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae en el Pirineo aragonés [Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae, in the Aragonese Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente FERRÁNDEZ PALACIO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En esta nota confirmamos la presencia de Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri en el Pirineo aragonés (provincia de Huesca. Esta cita oscense se sitúa en el límite SW de su área de distribución endémica. Además, comentamos algunos aspectos sobre su autoecología y conservación.SUMMARY: Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri is confirmed for the flora of the Aragonese Pyrenees (Huesca province, Spain. Moreower, this new station is located on the south-western border of its endemic range. Some aspects on its autecology and conservation are discussed as well.

  1. Reading Development in Agglutinative Languages: Evidence from Beginning, Intermediate, and Adult Basque Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Perea, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Do typological properties of language, such as agglutination (i.e., the morphological process of adding affixes to the lexeme of a word), have an impact on the development of visual word recognition? To answer this question, we carried out an experiment in which beginning, intermediate, and adult Basque readers (n = 32 each, average age = 7, 11,…

  2. BUSINESS INTERNATIONALISATION IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY, DOES PUBLIC FINANCING INFLUENCE IN THE RESULTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enara Zarrabeitia Bilbao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, almost all the territories consider the internationalisation of their enterprises as a key enabler to realize their competitiveness, welfare and regional development. However, so far, very few studies have been conducted that analyze the relationship between the internationalisation aids and the degree of internationalisation achieved by a territory. Thus, the objective of this research paper is to analyze the relationships between the internationalisation indicators and the budget expenditure devoted to internationalisation by Basque government. This requires definition of the indicators for assessing the internationalisation, which have been obtained from the Plan for Business Competitiveness 2010-2013 and the Plan for Business Internationalisation 2014-2016 elaborated by Basque Government. Moreover, in order to carry out the research study, the necessary data has been obtained from different Basque and Spanish institutions. After obtaining the data, the estimation method used has been a bivariate correlation analysis that has helped to achieve the target set in the investigation. Results shows that there is a positive relationship between the expenditure on business internationalisation and the main indicators studied, but the same is not true, however, for the degree of openness of the economy and the investment relations with foreign countries. The article provides new information on how the government of a small region, such as the Basque Country, perform in relation to the internationalisation policies.

  3. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Adaptation to Basque Population and Sexism as a Risk Factor of Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun; Arnoso, Ainara; Elgorriaga, Edurne

    2016-11-15

    There is currently a consensus that sexism is one of the most important causes of intimate partner violence, but this has yet to be empirically demonstrated conclusively. The key objective of the study was to adapt Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and to validate it to the Basque language. It also aims to analyze the prevalence of violence in dating relationships and verify if ambivalent sexism in young men and women is a valid predictor of perpetration and/or victimization in their dating relationships. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and Dating Relationship Questionnaire were administered to 1378 undergraduate students (66% women and 45% Basque), aged between 17 and 30. The psychometric properties of the Basque and Spanish versions of the ASI are deemed to be acceptable. Sufficient guarantees are provided to be used as an instrument for measuring ambivalent sexism in adult Basque speakers. Ambivalent sexism among young men and women are both positively associated with the perpetration of violence and victimization in their dating relationships. However, ambivalent sexism or two sub-types of sexism (hostile and benevolent) are not relevant risk factors to be perpetrator or victim of violence in dating relationships, due to accounting for 3% or less of variance in dating violence.

  4. Antimodernity in the Basque Country: Social Practices and Discourse (1765-1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoni ARTOLA RENEDO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the arrival and spread of new trends of thought among the Basque elites in the 18th century, reticent attitudes, sometimes bordering on hostile, developed towards them. The institutionalization of the enlightenment in the Basque country took place with the creation of the «Basque Royal Society for Friends of the country». The analysis of the dominant trends of thought in this Society serves as an observatory of a larger process, to wit the formation of anti-modern thought in the Basque country. this article presents an attempt to analyse this process based on the experiences of the social actors involved, taking into account both the exogenous and the endogenous factors that led to this phenomenon. An attempt is thus made to reconcile the study of its relational networks, the historical context in which they developed and the discourses that emerged from them. The Jesuit element appears repeatedly, although in different forms and registers, as a reference of the products of these discourses.

  5. Semantic Similarity Measures for the Generation of Science Tests in Basque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, Itziar; Maritxalar, Montse

    2014-01-01

    The work we present in this paper aims to help teachers create multiple-choice science tests. We focus on a scientific vocabulary-learning scenario taking place in a Basque-language educational environment. In this particular scenario, we explore the option of automatically generating Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ) by means of Natural Language…

  6. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  7. Territorial Identity and Grassroots Economic Activism: The Politicization of Farmers’ Mobilizations in the French Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Itçaina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The French Basque Country (FBC represents an emblematic case of the politicization of local development through grassroots economic activism. These mobilizations are particularly obvious in the agricultural sector. Based on a qualitative research on small farmers’ organizations and short food circuits, this article shows that Basque farmers’ mobilizations constitute a case of a dual politicization of small-scale farming and territorial identity. This process has gone through two phases: the first period (1970-2000 was characterized by the politicization of local productive systems. Throughout the decade 2000-2010, a new mode of grassroots economic activism emerged, signalled by new alliances between producers and consumers, and by an increasing ideological pluralism. Two case studies illustrate these developments. The first relates to a case of explicit politicization with the controversy around the foundation in 2005 of an alternative Basque Chamber of Agriculture. The second case study is devoted to the development of short food circuits in the FBC, considered here as a case of implicit politicization of the encounter between productive and consumption circuits. Both cases illustrate the politicization of new economic social movements, and the constant overlapping of sectoral and territorial claims in the Basque territory.

  8. A relict bank vole lineage highlights the biogeographic history of the Pyrenean region in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffontaine, Valérie; Ledevin, Ronan; Fontaine, Michaël C; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Renaud, Sabrina; Libois, Roland; Michaux, Johan R

    2009-06-01

    The Pyrenean region exhibits high levels of endemism suggesting a major contribution to the phylogeography of European species. But, to date, the role of the Pyrenees and surrounding areas as a glacial refugium for temperate species remains poorly explored. In the current study, we investigated the biogeographic role of the Pyrenean region through the analyses of genetic polymorphism and morphology of a typical forest-dwelling small mammal, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the third upper molar (M(3)) show a complex phylogeographic structure in the Pyrenean region with at least three distinct lineages: the Western European, Spanish and Basque lineages. The Basque lineage in the northwestern (NW) Pyrenees was identified as a new clearly differentiated and geographically localized bank vole lineage in Europe. The average M(3) shape of Basque bank voles suggests morphological differentiation but also restricted genetic exchanges with other populations. Our genetic and morphological results as well as palaeo-environmental and fossils records support the hypothesis of a new glacial refugium in Europe situated in the NW Pyrenees. The permissive microclimatic conditions that prevailed for a long time in this region may have allowed the survival of temperate species, including humans. Moreover, local differentiation around the Pyrenees is favoured by the opportunity for populations to track the shift of the vegetation belt in altitude rather than in latitude. The finding of the Basque lineage is in agreement with the high level of endemic taxa reported in the NW Pyrenees.

  9. Unravelling the long-term cooling history of the northern Pyrenees from rifting-to-orogenic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacherat, Arnaud; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Gautheron, Cécile; Bernet, Matthias; Tibari, Bouchaib; Pinna, Rosella; Daudet, Maxime; Radal, Julien

    2015-04-01

    -related architecture is well preserved in the northern part of the Ariège area. We propose this results from the inversion of a moderately thinnned part of the European domain. This contrasts with the highly deformed south Ariège région (Aulus basin) and with the Mauléon basin in western Pyrenees, interpeted as developed on an extremely thinned part of the European domain. This study brings major constraints to a tectonic model in which shortening and exhumational patterns in orogens are largely controlled by the inherited pre-orogenic structure of the inverted domain.

  10. [Immigration and health: Social inequalities between native and immigrant populations in the Basque Country (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Álvarez, Elena; González-Rábago, Yolanda; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Martín, Unai; Lanborena Elordui, Nerea

    2014-01-01

    To analyze health inequalities between native and immigrant populations in the Basque Country (Spain) and the role of several mediating determinants in explaining these differences. A cross-sectional study was performed in the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Basque Country. We used data from the Basque Health Survey 2007 (n=4,270) and the Basque Health Survey for Immigrants 2009 (n=745). We calculated differences in health inequalities in poor perceived health between the native population and immigrant populations from distinct regions (China, Latin America, the Maghreb and Senegal). To measure the association between poor perceived health and place of origin, and to adjust this association by several mediating variables, odds ratios (OR) were calculated through logistic regression models. Immigrants had poorer perceived health than natives in the Basque Country, regardless of age. These differences could be explained by the lower educational level, worse employment status, lower social support, and perceived discrimination among immigrants, both in men and women. After adjustment was performed for all the variables, health status was better among men from China (OR: 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 0.04-0.91) and Maghreb (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08-0.91) and among Latin American women (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.14-0.92) than in the native population. These results show the need to continue to monitor social and health inequalities between the native and immigrant populations, as well as to support the policies that improve the socioeconomic conditions of immigrants. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Multilingual education for European minority languages: The Basque Country and Friesland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk; Cenoz, Jasone

    2011-12-01

    Over the last three decades, regional minority languages in Europe have regained increased recognition and support. Their revitalisation is partly due to their being taught in schools. Multilingualism has special characteristics for speakers of minority languages and it poses unique challenges for learning minority languages. This article looks at the cases of Basque and Frisian, comparing and contrasting their similarities and differences. The educational system in the Basque Autonomous Community underwent an important transformation, starting in 1979 from a situation where less than 5 per cent of all teachers were capable of teaching through Basque. Today this figure has changed to more than 80 per cent. An innovative approach was chosen for teaching the minority language, Basque, alongside the dominant language, Spanish, and the international language, English. The outcome is a substantial increase in the proficiency in the minority language among the younger age groups. The decline of the minority language has thus been successfully reversed and one of the major challenges now is to uphold a sustainable educational system. By contrast, the Frisian language has fared less well in the Netherlands, where developments over the last 30 years have been much slower and the results more modest. Here policy-making for education and for language is caught in a continuous debate between a weak provincial level and a powerful central state level. Overall, multilingualism as a resource for individuals is valued for "bigger" languages such as English, French and German, but not for a "small" language such as Frisian. Nevertheless, a few trilingual experiments have been carried out in some schools in Friesland in teaching Frisian, Dutch and English. These experiments may also be instructive for other cases of minority languages of a "moderate strength". In the cases of both Basque and Frisian multilingualism is generally perceived as an important resource.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Changes of Carbonate Rocks Exposed to SC CO2 (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Berrezueta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the qualitative and quantitative determination of porosity, mineralogical and textural changes in carbonate rock samples after injection of (i supercritical CO2-rich brine and (ii dry supercritical CO2, under similar experimental conditions (P ≈ 75 bar, T ≈ 35 °C, 970 h exposure time and no CO2 flow. The studied rocks were sampled in the western Basque-Cantabrian Basin, North Spain, and consist of vuggy carbonates (“Carniolas” of the Puerto de la Palombera formation (Hettangian. Mineralogical and pore space characterization is completed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical image analysis. In addition, X-ray fluorescence analyses are performed to refine the mineralogical information and to obtain whole rock geochemical data and the brine composition is analysed before and after the experiment. Mineralogical and chemical results indicate that the carbonate rocks exposed to supercritical CO2 in dry conditions do not suffer significant changes. However, the injection of supercritical CO2-rich brine induces chemical and physical changes in the rock due to the high reactivity of calcite at the low pH conditions produced by the acidified brine. Numerical modelling validates the experimental observations. These results can be used to characterize the behaviour of carbonate rocks under conditions similar to the vicinity of a CO2 injection well. The results should be considered only at the scale of the studied samples and not at reservoir scale.

  13. Annual report of the Basque-Leon colliery company. Sociedad Anonima Hullera Vasco-Leonesa. Memoria 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Annual report on the activities of the Basque-Leon Colliery Company for 1987 including: production trends and economic parameters, employment and safety, new mines, reserves, investments, financial status, economic assessment. 24 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. HT-LP thermometamorphism modelling : Agly massif, French Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournaire Guille, Baptiste; Pascal, Marie-Lola; Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Annen, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the strongly anomalous thermal gradients implied, HT-LP metamorphism is a worldwide type of processes in which magma emplacement and solidification at relatively high levels in the crust must be considered as a potentially major heat source. Thermal modelling (e.g. Annen et al. 2005) is an appropriate tool for constraining the part played by such processes in practical cases of thermometamorphism. We study the Agly massif, an exhumed part of middle crust from the Variscan belt in the French Pyrenees. This massif is a classical example of HT-LP metamorphism (Vielzeuf 1996), composed of a metasedimentary cover, mainly micaschists aged from upper Cambrian to Devonian, unconformably overlying an older basement of para- and orthogneisses. The Variscan metamorphic facies extend from greenschists, in the upper part of the cover, to granulites in the basement (Fonteilles 1976). The apparent geotherm of about 110°/km in the metasedimentary cover (amphibolite and greenschist facies) has given way to contrasting interpretations. Magmatic activity partly synchronous with and probably related to the Variscan thermometamorphism is observed at the outcropping level as at least 4 magmatic bodies of mantle origin (Touil 1994), of Stephanian age, including granodiorites and subordinate diorites and gabbros. Recent U/Pb datations on zircons (Tournaire-Guille et al., in prep) also reveal the presence of lower Cambrian magmatism in the gneisses, therefore confirming their interpretation as a pre-Variscan basement. The location (depth), volume (thickness), temperature (composition) and timing of magma emplacement are the parameters controlling the thermal effect to be modelled with a Matlab® code (Annen et al. 2005). In order to constrain these parameters, we have updated the lithostratigraphy and the PT conditions of the Variscan metamorphism in the Agly area. Mineralogic and petrologic data exploited in thermobarometric analyses compared with thermodynamic PerpleX modelling

  15. RESEARCH: Managing Mountainous Degraded Landscapes After Farmland Abandonment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinillo; Lasanta; Garcia-Ruiz

    1997-07-01

    / Plant succession and pasture resources have been studied in abandoned fields of the central Spanish Pyrenees, in an environment severely affected by strong demographic pressure in the past. Several hydromorphological features (runoff and sediment yield) were also analyzed for different environments of the abandoned fields, in order to forecast the effects of their reclamation and transformation into areas for livestock use. The availability and accessibility of pastures as well as soil and water conservation is related to the process of colonization of Genista scorpius. Under a dense shrub cover both runoff and sediment yield are strongly controlled. As the shrub cover becomes open, sediment yield and runoff increase greatly. A dense herbaceous cover yields high runoff coefficients but moderate soil losses. From the results obtained, the possibility of abandoned field reclamation by means of selective clearing of scrub is discussed.KEY WORDS: Abandoned fields; Plant succession; Degraded environments; Soil erosion; Runoff; Spanish Pyrenees

  16. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Castroviejo, Ricardo

    1990-01-01

    The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees). Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in di...

  17. Changes in land cover and shallow landslide activity: a case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    S. Beguería

    2006-01-01

    The Pyrenees, like many other mountain areas in Europe, have experienced depopulation and land abandonment during the 20th century. This has encouraged vegetation recovery in formerly occupied areas, including reforestation to promote woodland. The objective of this study is to analyse the effects of these changes on shallow landsliding, a process responsible for erosion and land degradation in many mountain areas. A sequence of aerial images reveals a slight decrease in the landslide occurre...

  18. Measurement of cloud condensation nuclei in the industrial region of Lacq, Pyrenees-Atlantiques (France))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrieu, C. (Meteorologie Nationale, Le Bourget-Aeroport (France)); Dessens, J.; Serpolay, R. (Observatoire du Puy de Dome et Laboratoire Associe de Meteorologie Physique, Universite de Clermont-Ferrand II (France))

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei have been made with a thermal diffusion chamber from December 1980 to April 1981 near Lacq, Pyrenees-Atlantiques (gas refinery and chemical manufacturing) in order to study the possible influence of these industrial activities on the physical of clouds and fogs. The results are classified according to the synoptic situation, and they are compared with those obtained with a similar device on a less polluted site. Pollutants measured include sulfur dioxide, gaseous wastes, and other industrial wastes.

  19. Basque Museum of the History of Medicine: conservation of heritage, teaching and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkoreka, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The Basque Museum of the History of Medicine was founded in 1982 to preserve the historic memory of medicine in the Basque Country and conserve its scientific heritage. Its permanent exposition comprises approx. 6,000 medical objects of the 19th and 20th centuries arranged, thematically in 24 rooms devoted to different medical specialities: folk medicine, unconventional medicine, pharmacy, weights and measures, asepsis and antisepsis, microscopes, laboratory material, X-rays, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, anesthesia, endoscope, odontology, cardiology, ophthalmology, electrotherapy, pathological anatomy and natural sciences. Temporary exhibitions are also held. The Museum is located on the university campus (UPV/EHU) and is important in the training of students in the Faculty of Medicine and the students coming from other faculties. Teaching and research constitute two of the pillars of the Museum that are complemented with publications and the organization of conferences, lectures and other activities.

  20. Relationships between meteorological situations and acid rain in Spanish Basque country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, A.; Casado, H.; Lacaux, J. P.; Garcia, C.

    With an automatic sequential precipitation collector, 52 rainy events were sampled at Vitoria (Spanish Basque country) in 1986. The chemical composition of each rainy event was studied and classified, using statistical techniques of multivariate data analysis (linear correlation + principal component analysis) and an automatic classification (length χ2) of the rainy events. These techniques enabled us to show, taking into account the influence of the meteorological conditions in which the precipitations formed, the presence, in Spanish Basque country, of acid rain episodes with an anthropogenic origin. These episodes are certainly reinforced by the trans-border transport from Southern France. Moreover, rainy episodes were shown to have a basic character due to a local source of terrigenous particles.

  1. Gordailu and pedagogic renovation in the Basque Country. Politics and education during the late francoism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander DELGADO CENDAGORTAGALARZA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the educative and pedagogical renovation proposals situated in their social and economic context. Thus, it intends to obtain a wider vision of the problems or helps these proposals may have when it comes to their application in schools. It will be of major consideration to differentiate within these proposals the aspects related with classroom management from other approaches related with the goals to transform the society through a reformed education, that sometimes appear inside them, to understand better their social reception. This article is centred on the research of proposals based on the ideas Paulo Freire tried to introduce in the ikastola or Basque schools in the seventies of the last Century in the Basque Country and the problems they found when their application was intended.

  2. Productivity's development in the Basque Economy during the period 1985-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Oguiza Tobar, Ainhoa

    1998-01-01

    [EN] The aim of this paper is to analyse the development of Basque Country's economy's productivity in the period 1985-1994 and, identify which are the factors that decide that evolution. We specify a Cobb-Douglas production function and with the availabe dataset, we use a panel to estimate it considering the fixed-effects model. The results obtained show a labor's productivity increase along the whole period in addition to the downturn in employment. Finally, labor's qualification has a posi...

  3. Collaboration Patterns and Product Innovation in the Basque Country. Does a Firm’s Nationality Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henar Alcalde Heras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more, the ability to innovate can be considered as an explanatory factor in determining the long-term potential of firms to be competitive. Therefore, it is of increasing importance to understand the critical success factors behind notably radical product innovations. The present paper explores the yields and results in terms of a series of competitiveness indicators that domestic and foreign firms in the Basque Country obtain from technological collaboration practices. In particular, the study seeks to assess differences in the way these two groups of firms organize their technological partnerships (in terms of the geographical spread of partners with whom they cooperate and the purposes for which they deploy collaboration: for commercial or science/knowledge generation, and the comparative differences that stem from their respective practices. The study uses firm level data from the Euskadi Innovation Survey 2011, for firms located in the Basque Country. The paper finds that (a technological collaborations comprising different types of partners have the greatest positive impact on innovation novelty, and (b when looking at the firm’s nationality, collaboration strategies developed by foreign firms have a higher impact on achieving novel innovation. We posit that the higher degree of product innovation we observe among foreign firms – as opposed to domestic firms in the Basque Country – relies on their ability to benefit from both inter-regional partnerships and commercial-based networks for the sake of innovation purposes.

  4. Dementia drug consumption in the Basque Country between 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, G; López de Argumedo, M; Elizondo, I

    We evaluated the consumption of specific medications for treating cognitive symptoms associated with AD and other types of dementia in individuals over 60 years of age between 2006 and 2011 in the Basque Country. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The pharmacy division of the Basque Government Department of Health provided the prescribing data for the following drugs: donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine. The number of defined daily doses (DDDs) and the number of DDDs per 1000 inhabitants/day (DHD) were calculated. Consumption increased by 49.72% between 2006 and 2011. There were marked differences between drugs (13.02% donepezil; 93.18% rivastigmine; 37.79% galantamine; 70.40% memantine) and Basque provinces (16.34% in Áraba; 50.49% in Bizkaia; 57.37% in Gipuzkoa). Likewise, expenditure increased from €11.5 million in 2006 to € 18.1 million in 2011. This study shows increased consumption of these drugs, although there are also marked differences by province which may be due to differences in prescribing habits. Spending for these drugs rose parallel to this increase in consumption; drug prices remained stable throughout the study period. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [How do immigrant women access health services in the Basque Country? Perceptions of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Urdiales, Iratxe; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-09-12

    To determine the perception of health professionals working in alternative health centres on the barriers and facilitators in the access by immigrant women to general public health services and sexual and reproductive health in the Basque Country. Basque Country. Analysis of qualitative content based on 11 individual interviews. Health professionals working in alternative health centres of Primary Care and sexual and reproductive health. Data collection was performed between September and December 2015 in four alternative health centres. After transcription, the units of meaning, codes and categories were identified. Four categories emerged from the analysis, which represented how the characteristics of immigrant women (Tell me how you are and I will tell you how to access), the attitude of the administrative and health staff ("When they are already taken care of"), the functioning of the health system (Inflexible, passive and needs-responsive health system), and health policies ("If you do not meet the requirements, you do not go in. The law is the law") influence access to health services of immigrant women. This study shows that there are a considerable number of barriers and few facilitators to the access by immigrant women to public health and sexual and reproductive health services in the Basque Country. The alternative health centres were presented as favouring the improvement of the health of the immigrant population and in their access. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Healthcare costs of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Basque Country (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Alonso-Morán, Edurne; Arteagoitia Axpe, Jose M; Ezkurra Loiola, Patxi; Orueta, Juan F; Gaztambide, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the direct costs of healthcare provided to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Basque Country and to compare them with those of the population with chronic diseases. A retrospective, cross-sectional, population-based study. Direct healthcare costs for patients aged over 35 years diagnosed with T2DM in the Basque Country (n=126,894) were calculated, stratified by age, sex and deprivation index, and compared to the costs for the population diagnosed with a chronic disease other than T2DM (n=1,347,043). The annual average healthcare cost of a person with T2DM was €3,432. Cost gradually increased with age to €4,313 in patients aged 80 to 84 years. Cost in males were €161 higher as compared to costs in females (P2.78% of total public health expenditure in the region. Direct mean healthcare costs in the Basque Country for patients with T2DM were higher in males, in the most underprivileged areas, in patients with comorbidities, and in older age groups, and represented €3,432 per person per year. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Women and education. The case of the Vedrunas in the Basque Country, Nineteenth and Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Berdote Alonso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The social representation of a woman as a wife and mother in the nineteenth century determined her lack of instruction and, therefore, high rates of illiteracy among women. Despite clear legislative support, scarcity of state economic sources to support the education of girls in the nineteenth century made their access to schools difficult. This reality, coupled with other circumstances, laid the foundation for new religious teaching congregations dedicated to women’s education. This paper analyses the model of education for women provided by the Carmelite Sisters of Charity from the time of their arrival to the Basque Country (1870 until the beginning of the Second Republic (1931. The analysis focuses on three elements: the process of the new foundations, pedagogical and curricular organization of the schools, and incorporation of the Basque language into the educational process. In order to analyse the model, the researcher has consulted as a primary source the Statutes of each school, which belonged to the provincial archive of the Congregation. The research carried out suggests that the Carmelite Sisters of Charity demonstrated a high degree of adaptability to the local village communities by offering the Basque lessons in certain schools while also maintaining their core mission of Christianising and educating girls.

  8. Description and analysis of major debris flows occurred during 2008 in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, G.; Postilla, M.; Hürlimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the Eastern Pyrenees, debris flows are not as frequent as in other mountainous areas such as the Alps. Nevertheless, several important events have occurred in 2008 provoking damages to essential infrastructures and causing large economic loss. A rainstorm at the beginning of June 2008 generated various surficial slides and debris flows in the area of Berga, located in the Pre-Pyrenees. A major flow obstructed the tunnel entrance of a national road during several days. Another rainstorm on August 1 caused several debris flows and debris floods in the Southern sector of Andorra, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. The most important event occurred in the Riu Runer torrent and destroyed the main building at the Andorran border. Finally, a large debris flow was triggered by a thunderstorm on September 11 near Rialp, Axial Pyrenees. Some installations of Port-Ainé's ski-resort were damaged and its access road was destroyed at several points. Preliminary results of these three events are presented focussing on the initiation, flow behaviour and deposition processes. Moreover, the influence of human activity on the initiation was analysed. Field surveys and interpretation of aerial photographs are carried out in order to obtain geomorphologic information as well as data on the hydraulic characteristics. Additionally, rainfall as triggering is studied using records from nearby observation stations and data from weather radars. Finally, the dynamic behaviour is simulated at one site applying numerical modelling. Volume estimates of the two events occurred in the Axial Pyrenees range from 5000 up to 10000 m3. These are rather large magnitudes compared to historic debris flows in the same area. The initiation process of both events can be defined as in-channel formation. Field observations indicated important erosion rates of up to 10 m3/m characteristic of the high flow velocities estimated along the flow trajectory. In contrast, the Berga event was caused by a surficial

  9. Soil removed by voles of the genus Pitymys in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi, C. E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosiogenic activity of Pyrenean mountain voles is studied following the measures taken in an experimental plot in the Western Pyrenees. An easy model for estimating the volume and weight of soil carried to the surface by voles is presented and used to quantify this amount in natural conditions. Fossorial Pyrenean rodents seem to dislodge well over 6Tm/ha.yr of soil on the colonized areas above the timberline. The four stages (new, recent, old, and vegetated of the evolution of soil heaps are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the rate of horizontal sediment transport due to the direct action of voles, with a maximum result of 17 cm3/cm.yr, quite comparable to pure geoclimatic rates.

    [es] Se estudia la actividad de movimiento del suelo de los roedores pirenaicos del género Pitymys, a partir de los datos obtenidos en una parcela experimental situada en los Pirineos Occidentales. Se presenta un modelo sencillo para estimar la cantidad de tierra removida a partir de medidas que pueden tomarse fácilmente en el campo, y se emplea dicho modelo para evaluar esta magnitud en condiciones naturales. Al parecer, los roedores subterráneos pueden sacar al exterior más de 6 Tm de tierra por hectárea y año en las zonas epiforestales que colonizan. También se discute la evolución del suelo removido y sus condiciones para la erosión por escorrentía. Finalmente se intenta evaluar la tasa de transporte horizontal del sedimento debida a los animales, que resulta ser de hasta 17 cm3 por cm y año, un valor claramente comparable con los debidos a agentes geoclimáticos.
    [fr] On a étudié l'activité fouisseuse des campagnols pyrénéens du genre Pitymys, d'après les données recueillies dans une enclosure expérimentale située dans les Pyrénées de l'Ouest. On présente un modèle simple permettant d'estimer la quantité de sol mue par les campagnols a partir de mésurements qu

  10. Current distribution of the coypu (Myocastor coypus in the Basque Autonomous Community, northern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egoitz Salsamendi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The distribution of the coypu (Myocastor coypus in the Iberian Peninsula is restricted to the Atlantic region, even though recent data suggest an expansion into the western part of the Basque Autonomous Community (northern Iberian Peninsula. With the aim of providing new data on coypu distribution in this region, 76 transects (mean length = 1369 m; range = 900-1800 m along riverbanks and marsh shorelines were surveyed, to record the presence of coypus by means of their signs: footprints, burrows, and droppings. Transects were distributed in 14 river basins, corresponding to 45 UTM 10x10 km squares. Between January and September 2004, we detected 105 activity signs in 4 river basins, verifying the presence of the species in 10 UTM squares. Our results confirm that the coypu is expanding into new areas in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.
    Riassunto Distribuzione della nutria (Myocastor coypus nella Regione Autonoma Basca, penisola iberica settentrionale. Nella penisola iberica, la presenza della nutria (Myocastor coypus è limitata alla regione atlantica, anche se dati recenti suggeriscono una sua espansione nella Regione Autonoma Basca (penisola iberica settentrionale. Con lo scopo di raccogliere nuovi dati sulla distribuzione della nutria in questa regione, i segni di presenza della specie (impronte, tane, feci sono stati ricercati lungo 76 transetti (lunghezza media = 1369 m; min-max = 900-1800 m, corrispondenti a tratti di corsi d’acqua e sponde di acquitrini. I transetti comprendevano 14 bacini idrografici, corrispondenti a 45 quadrati di 10 km di lato del sistema UTM. Tra gennaio e settembre 2004 sono stati trovati 105 segni di presenza in 4 diversi bacini, accertando la presenza della nutria in 10 quadrati UTM. I risultati confermano la colonizzazione di nuove aree della penisola iberica settentrionale.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20

  11. Mapa Sociolinguistico. Analisis demolinguistico de la Comunidad Autonoma Vasca derivado del padron de 1986 (Sociolinguistic Map. Demolinguistic analysis of the Autonomous Basque Community derived from the 1986 Census).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basque Autonomous Community, Vitoria (Spain). General Secretariat of Linguistic Policy.

    Sociolinguistic data are presented in the form of sophisticated maps and tables in this pioneering study on the status of the Basque language. Based on information collected from the 1986 census, the major demographic characteristics of Basque are examined in order to ascertain the factors and processes that have contributed to its current status.…

  12. The climate change in the Basque Country. A Plan Against Climate Change; el cambio climatico en la comunidad autonoma del Pais Vasco. Un Plan de Lucha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basurko Perez de Arenaza, I.

    2008-07-01

    This feature shows the reality of Climate Change from a global to a regional point of view in the Basque Country. Therefore describes the measures developed by Basque Government to get a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and avoid the effects of this environmental problem. (Author)

  13. Serological survey of Coxiella burnetii at the wildlife-livestock interface in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Cabezón, Óscar; Colom-Cadena, Andreu; Lavín, Santiago; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2016-04-27

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that infects a wide range of animal species and causes the disease Q fever. Both wild and domestic ruminants may be relevant in the epidemiology of C. burnetii infection. In order to investigate the significance of the ruminant host community in the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees, Northeastern Spain, in the epidemiology of Q fever, a serological survey was performed on samples from 599 wild and 353 sympatric domestic ruminants. Specific antibodies against C. burnetii were detected with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Domestic sheep showed the highest prevalence (12.7 %, CI 95 % 8.6-16.9), followed by European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) with a 6.8 % prevalence (CI 95 % 1.6-12.1), red deer (Cervus elaphus) with 2.4 % (CI 95 % 0-5.6), and cattle with a prevalence of 1.1 % (CI 95 % 0-3.2). No positive domestic goats, fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) were detected. Sheep flock prevalence was 75 % (nine of the 12 sheep flocks sampled were positive, within-flock prevalence ranging from 11.1 to 25.0 %), whereas cattle herd prevalence was 11.1 % (one out of the nine cattle herds sampled was positive, within-herd prevalence of 10.0 %. Both domestic and wild ruminants from the alpine and subalpine ecosystems of the Eastern Pyrenees were exposed to C. burnetii. The higher seroprevalence in sheep and its relative abundance suggest that this species may have a major contribution to the ecology of C. burnetii. Conversely, wild ruminants do not seem to represent a relevant host community for C. burnetii maintenance in the Eastern Pyrenees.

  14. Contradictory indications from terrestrial archives for the asynchronous LGM glaciation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Studies from several Mediterranean sites suggest a nonuniform glaciation during the last glacial cycle. For the Pyrenees an asynchronous maximum ice extent compared to the global last glacial maximum (LGM) is controversially discussed. Our study sites are located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, namely the Aragon and Gallego Valley. Both valleys are type locations for the Pleistocene glaciations and the early maximum ice extent for the Pyrenees was dated amongst other sites in the Gallego Valley to about 36 ka. Due to the potential time span since the earlier deglaciation compared to LGM sites from Central Europe we used a pedological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct the Late Quaternary landscape development. Our results indicate a considerable reshaping of the LGM landscape prior to the onset of the Holocene. The LGM tills are covered by a deposit with high content of fine sand and coarse silt. On the slopes the clasts in these fine-grained sediments are aligned parallel to the slope direction, whereas in the underlaying tills the clasts are aligned rectangular to the slope direction and therefore representing the direction of the Pleistocene glacier movement. We attribute the alignment of the clasts in the sediment covering the tills to solifluction induced by periglacial conditions. The high contents of coarse silt and fine sand are also characteristic for the eolian component in periglacial slope deposits. OSL datings suggest an age of about 14 ka for these sediments. Soil micromorphology shows that the periglacial deposits were not subject to intensive pedogenic processes prior to the sedimentation but that profiles are strongly affected by lessivation after deposition. Soil erosion is only evident during the Holocene and we associate these phases of soil erosion with the human impact. We found no indications for geomorphologic and pedogenic processes between the reported deposition of the LGM till around 36 ka and the periglacial conditions dated

  15. Representation of paleomagnetic data in virtual globes: A case study from the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochales, Tania; Blenkinsop, Thomas G.

    2014-09-01

    Virtual globes allow geo-referencing and visualization of diverse geologic datasets. A vertical axis paleomagnetic rotation study in the Southern Pyrenees, Spain, is used to illustrate the potential of virtual globes for representing paleomagnetic data. A macro-enabled workbook that we call P2K, allows KML files to be generated from conventional paleomagnetic datasets. Cones and arch models are used to represent the paleomagnetic vector, and the rotation with regard to the local reference direction, respectively. This visualization provides simultaneous representation of local magnetic declination, inclination and precise confidence cones, shown in their geographic position from diverse perspectives and scales.

  16. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  17. [Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation history in the mountain range of central Pyrenees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Sandrine; Belet, Jean-Marc; Bouchette, Anne; Otto, Thierry; Dedoubat, Jean-Jacques; Fontugne, Michel; Jalut, Guy

    2004-04-01

    We present the pollen analysis of a new sedimentary sequence taken at La Pouretère ( 1720 m), in the mountain vegetation zone of the Marcadau valley (central Pyrenees). The Lateglacial and Holocene chronology is supported by six 14C-dating results. The complementary analysis of some vegetal macroremains, stomata, pollen-clusters and the use of pollen influx allows us to elucidate the dynamic of mountain species such as Pinus and specially Abies but also to infer the unusual part played by Betula at the beginning of the Postglacial period.

  18. Holocene history of fire, vegetation and land use from the central Pyrenees (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Rius, Damien; Vannière, Boris; Galop, Didier

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Located on a mountain pass in the west-central Pyrenees, the Col d'Ech peat bog provides a Holocene fire and vegetation record based upon nine 14C (AMS) dates. We aim to compare climate-driven versus human-driven fire regimes in terms of frequency, fire episodes distribution, and impact on vegetation. Our results show the mid-Holocene (8500-5500 cal yr BP) to be characterized by high fire frequency linked with drier and warmer conditions.However, fire occurrences appea...

  19. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.-F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sanchez, R.

    2015-05-01

    The seasonal snow in the Pyrenees is critical for hydropower production, crop irrigation and tourism in France, Spain and Andorra. Complementary to in situ observations, satellite remote sensing is useful to monitor the effect of climate on the snow dynamics. The MODIS daily snow products (Terra/MOD10A1 and Aqua/MYD10A1) are widely used to generate snow cover climatologies, yet it is preferable to assess their accuracies prior to their use. Here, we use both in situ snow observations and remote sensing data to evaluate the MODIS snow products in the Pyrenees. First, we compare the MODIS products to in situ snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) measurements. We estimate the values of the SWE and SD best detection thresholds to 40 mm water equivalent (w.e.) and 150 mm, respectively, for both MOD10A1 and MYD10A1. κ coefficients are within 0.74 and 0.92 depending on the product and the variable for these thresholds. However, we also find a seasonal trend in the optimal SWE and SD thresholds, reflecting the hysteresis in the relationship between the depth of the snowpack (or SWE) and its extent within a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85) for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81) for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67). We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the

  20. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software.

  1. Stratigraphic and structural reconstruction of an Upper Ordovician super-eruption (Catalan Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Joan; Casas, Josep Maria; Muñoz, Josep A.

    2017-04-01

    Pre-Variscan basement of the Pyrenees includes evidence of many magmatic episodes represented by different types of granitoids and volcanic rocks, which indicates the complex geodynamic history of this peri-Gondwana terrane during Palaeozoic. One of the most significative magmatic episodes is that of Upper Ordovician (Caradocian) age, which is represented by several granitic and granodioritic bodies and volcanic rocks mostly of pyroclastic nature. In the Catalan Pyrenees this magmatism is well represented in the Ribes de Freser and Nuria area, where the orthogneisses from the Nuria massif and the Ribes granophyre, both with a similar age of 457 Ma, seem to form a calc-alkaline plutonic suite covering terms from deeper to shallower levels. The presence of numerous pyroclastic deposits and lavas interbedded with Caradocian sediments and intruded by and immediately above the Ribes granophyre, suggests that this intrusive episode also generated significant volcanism. The area also hosts an important volume of rhyolitic ignimbrites and andesitic lavas strongly affected by Alpine tectonics and commonly showing tectonised contacts at the base and top of the sequences. These volcanic rocks were previously attributed to the Upper Carboniferous late-Variscan volcanism, extensively represented in the Pyrenees. However, new laser ablation U-Pb zircon geochronology from these rocks has revealed an Upper Ordovician age ( 455 Ma), similar to that of the plutonic rocks of the same area, thus suggesting a probable genetic relation between all them. The palinspatic reconstruction of the Alpine and Variscan tectonic units that affect this area has permitted to infer the geometry, facies distribution, original position, and thickness of these volcanic rocks previously attributed to the late-Variscan volcanism, and reveals how they are spatially (and stratigraphically) associated with the previously identified Late Ordovician volcanic rocks. In particular, the volcanic rocks cropping

  2. Collaborators at domestic jurisdiction: the case of the Basque Government in the setting up of the new Judicial Office in the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Iriarte Irureta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Administration of Justice in Spain is going through a deep modernisation process aiming both at procedural and organisational reforms. The setting up of the new Judicial Office is precisely the major change of the organisation of the Administration of Justice in the last century. In this context, there is a shift in the role played by the regional governments with responsibilities in the field of Justice, as far as these regional governments are not only collaborators of the Judiciary at domestic jurisdiction, but they also become “actors” as they have decision making powers to create, to design and to organise the common procedural services of the Judicial Office and, hence, to set up the Judicial Office in each judicial district in their territory.This text presents the context and the reasons behind the setting up of the Judicial Office as a new way of organisation of the Spanish Administration of Justice; the Judiciary in Spain and the responsibilities of the regional governments in the Administration of Justice; the meaning of the Judicial Office and its guiding principles; the role of the Basque Government in setting up the Judicial Office in the Basque Country, paying special attention to its activity in the field of standardization of processes, the quality system, and of information, communication and coordination; the results of the first Judicial Offices. Finally the paper questions whether the regional or national governments are just “collaborators” or real “actors” of the Administration of Justice at domestic jurisdiction.

  3. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gascoin

    2015-05-01

    a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85 for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81 for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67. We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the time above 1600 m between December and April. We finally analyze the snow patterns for the atypical winter 2011–2012. Snow cover duration anomalies reveal a deficient snowpack on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees, which seems to have caused a drop in the national hydropower production.

  4. Hydrological effects of the increasing vegetation in the headwaters of the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. I.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Beguería, S.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mediterranean mountains are key areas for providing water to their semiarid surrounding lowlands. Land abandonment and intense reforestation activities have caused a marked increase of vegetation in the headwaters of the Pyrenees during the 20th century. This research shows evidences on how this increase of vegetation has caused a severe reduction in the runoff generation that may not simply be explained by the recent climatic evolution. The reduction in water yield is already severely affecting to water resources availability and water management in the region. Scenarios for the future suggest that afforestation may continue or even be accelerated in the Pyrenees affecting mostly to the subalpine belt. Increasing vegetation around the current tree line is expected to continue enhancing evapotranspiration rates, but also to alter the accumulation and melting of the snowpack by increasing interception and producing an earlier melting onset. Such changes are likely to interact with the projected temperature warming for this region. Implications of the climate and land cover scenarios on water availability for the next decades are examined and discussed in depth.

  5. Climate signals in Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.; Cantalejo, B.; Scotchman, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, occupies a crucial position between the non-marine, marginal-marine and shallow-marine environments that acted as the sediment-supply and staging areas for sediment transfer processes into the deep-marine environments of the Ainsa Basin, and the more distal Jaca and Pamplona basins. Studies of source-to-sink systems make the Eocene stratigraphy of the Pyrenees and adjoining areas one of the best natural laboratories worldwide for understanding a complete sedimentary system. The hydrocarbon industry requires good predictive models for the distribution of reservoir and non-reservoir deposits. Using a wide range of proxy physical and geochemical data, we show with a high degree of confidence that Milankovitch forcing at a range of astronomical scales controlled deposition of the thin-bedded, fine-grained sandy turbidites and hemipelagites throughout the basin (~ 70% of the stratigraphy). The driver on sandy channelised submarine-fan deposition (the principal sandbodies) cannot be simply related to Milankovitch frequencies and is likely to be due to a combination of climatic, tectonic and/or autocyclic processes.

  6. Subalpine Pyrenees received higher nitrogen deposition than predicted by EMEP and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Marion; Lamaze, Thierry; Couvidat, Florian; Pornon, André

    2015-08-01

    Deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere is expected to be the third greatest driver of biodiversity loss by the year 2100. Chemistry-transport models are essential tools to estimate spatially explicit N deposition but the reliability of their predictions remained to be validated in mountains. We measured N deposition and air concentration over the subalpine Pyrenees. N deposition was found to range from 797 to 1,463 mg N m-2 year-1. These values were higher than expected from model predictions, especially for nitrate, which exceeded the estimations of EMEP by a factor of 2.6 and CHIMERE by 3.6. Our observations also displayed a reversed reduced-to-oxidized ratio in N deposition compared with model predictions. The results highlight that the subalpine Pyrenees are exposed to higher levels of N deposition than expected according to standard predictions and that these levels exceed currently recognized critical loads for most high-elevation habitats. Our study reveals a need to improve the evaluation of N deposition in mountains which are home to a substantial and original part of the world’s biodiversity.

  7. Cadomian volcanosedimentary complexes across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition of the Eastern Pyrenees, southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padel, Maxime; Álvaro, J. Javier; Casas, Josep Maria; Clausen, Sébastien; Poujol, Marc; Sánchez-García, Teresa

    2017-11-01

    The volcanism hosted by the Ediacaran-Terreneuvian Canaveilles Group of the Eastern Pyrenees displays two distinct geochemical affinities: (1) metabasites of the Nyer and Olette formations reflect the emplacement of a tholeiitic magmatism linked to extensional conditions, whereas (2) subsequent felsic and calc-alkaline magmatic rocks marking the top of the Olette Formation and forming the overlying Fabert and Finestrelles members represent Cadomian magmatic events. Based on U-Pb zircon dating constraints, palaeotopographic relationships linked to onlap geometries and distance from vent sources, three volcanosedimentary edifices can be distinguished, the so-called Tregurà (ca. 565-552 Ma), Cap de Creus (ca. 558 Ma) and Coll d'Ares (ca. 542-532 Ma) edifices. The top of their palaeoreliefs recorded locally the nucleation of centres of microbial carbonate productivity (Puig Sec Member) linked to synsedimentary tilting and karstification. Throughout West Gondwana, the presence of carbonate production across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition is exclusively located in back-arc settings (Central-Iberian Zone) and areas far from the Cadomian subduction trench and devoid of significant terrigenous input, such as those reported in the Eastern Pyrenees and the neighbouring Montagne Noire.

  8. Sedimentology, paleoclimatology, and diagenesis of Post-Hercynian continental deposits in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, Peter J.C.

    1969-01-01

    The first chapter of the post-Hercynian geologic history of the South-Central Pyrenees is recorded in a sequence of fluvial and volcanic deposits which reach a total of added maximum thicknesses of more than 2300 m and date from the Westphalian D up to and including the Lower Triassic. The present

  9. Spatial pattern and temporal variability of runoff processes in Mediterranean Mountain environments - a case study of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzen, V.; Seeger, K.M.; Casper, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain environments like the Central Spanish Pyrenees show a highly variable rainfall-runoff response, mainly explained by the intense intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitation yield. This leads to a highly differentiated moisture status and therefore it is assumed to lead

  10. From Militant Voices to Militant Irony: Examining Identity, Memory and Conflict in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescó de Luna, Ignacio

    2017-08-01

    Collective memory and identity so often go hand in hand with conflicts. Alongside the use of violence, conflicts unfold against the backdrop of different narratives about the past through which groups constantly remind themselves of the supposed origin of the conflict, and consequently, what position individuals are expected to take as members of the group. Narratives - as symbolic tools for interpreting the past and the present, as well as happenings that have yet to occur - simultaneously underpin, and are underpinned by, the position held by each warring faction. Drawing on previous works, this paper compares different versions of the 2016 truce period in the Basque Country stemming from three subjects identified, to varying degrees, with the main political actors involved in that conflict. These three cases have been selected from a total of 16 participants who were asked to define the Basque conflict and to provide an account of the 2006 truce period by using 23 documents taken from different Spanish newspapers. On the one hand, the results show two narratives reproducing the versions of two of the main political actors involved in the conflict, and on the other hand, a narrative characterized by a more personal and ironic appropriation of those versions. Results are discussed vis-à-vis the use of irony in history teaching in increasingly plural societies.

  11. Physical activity and physical self-concept in a sample of middle-age Basque adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaola, Igor; Zulaika, Luis

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the relation of physical activity and physical self-concept in a sample of midlife adults from the Basque Country, 248 participants (152 women and 96 men) whose ages ranged from 31 to 49 years. Measurements were made on the Autokontzeptu Fisikoaren Itaunketa, a measure of physical self-concept in Basque language, and questions about physical activity. The Student t test was used to examine differences between Active and Non-active people; and to analyse differences by frequency of activity, analysis of variance was used. Analysis indicated those women who identified themselves as more active had more positive self-perceptions with regard to physical ability, physical condition, strength, and physical self-concept than inactive people while men's scores were more positive for physical ability, physical condition, and physical self-concept. Likewise, both men and women who reported engaging in physical activity more than three times a week also had significantly more positive self-perceptions with regard to physical ability, physical condition, and physical self-concept than those who exercised less frequently.

  12. [Development and implementation of the Chronicity Strategy for the Basque Country (Spain): lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    Public healthcare in the Basque Country (Spain) faces high rates of ageing and chronicity, which stress the sustainability of the system. In response to this situation, the Basque Chronicity Strategy was launched in 2010. This large-scale and far-reaching transformation initiative focused on changing the healthcare provision model towards integrated care of chronicity. Developed in the context of economic and financial crisis, strong political opposition and resistance or passivity of many relevant stakeholders, the design and implementation of the Strategy introduced some noteworthy elements, such as: a narrative of change different to the austerity discourse, which was the dominant narrative at that time; a strategic approach supported by an evidence base and solid theoretical references; and an implementation strategy that favoured local innovation and the "bottom up" approach. In spite of this, it was not possible to overcome the political barriers or bureaucratic immobility, which limited the implementation and scope of the changes, especially those related to the scalability of successful local innovations. However, some changes in the healthcare integration culture at clinical and managerial level have been introduced as a result of the Strategy, as well as organisational progression towards a chronicity-targeted healthcare model. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in the immigrant population of the Basque Country, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Elena; González-Rábago, Yolanda; Borrell, Luisa N; Lanborena, Nerea

    To examine the effect of perceived discrimination and self-rated health among the immigrant population in the Basque Country, Spain, and determine whether this effect varies according to region of origin, age, sex and education. Descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population included immigrants aged 18 and older residing in the Basque Country. Data from the 2014 Foreign Immigrant Population Survey (n=3,456) were used. Log-binomial regression was used to quantify the association between perceived discrimination and self-rated health before and after checking for the selected characteristics. Almost 1 in 10 immigrant adults reports perceiving discrimination. In adjusted analyses, the immigrants perceiving discrimination were almost were 1.92 more likely to rate their health as poor (prevalence ratio: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.44-2.56) than those who did not report discrimination. This association did not vary according to region of origin, age, sex or educational level. Perceived discrimination shows a consistent relationship with perceived health. Moreover, this association did not depend on the region of origin, age, sex or educational level of immigrants. These results show the need for implementing inclusive policies to eliminate individual and institutional discrimination and reduce health inequalities between the immigrant and native populations. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Wind farms and mires in the Basque Country and north-west Navarra, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Heras

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mires occur in the Basque Country and north-west Navarra (northern Spain due to the Atlantic influence on climate. They are most frequent in the north and become rarer to the south. True peatland is found at only six locations, but there are also some para-peaty habitats associated with springs and flushes which have very thin discontinuous peat layers. Although small, this mire territory straddles the boundary between two separate autonomous communities where different regulations and management guidelines apply. Both communities have developed extensive plans to exploit wind energy, and the summit ridges of many of the mountain ranges now carry long strings of turbines. Consequences for the Basque and Navarran mire ecosystems are reviewed. Because little is known about these habitats, they went largely unnoticed during the process of wind farm planning and were thus exposed to enormous risk. Nonetheless, the impacts of development so far have been limited by careful practice combined with the fact that the locations of most of the mires do not coincide exactly with the favoured locations for wind turbines. The only blanket bog is situated in the Zalama area, where plans to build a wind farm have been abandoned for a combination of reasons. Paradoxically, the wind farm planning process was instrumental in raising social and political awareness of this important peatland, leading to a very promising level of interest in its conservation and restoration amongst local institutions.

  15. Regionalization of housing policies? An exploratory study of Andalusia, Catalonia and the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dol, Kees; Mazo, Estrella Cruz; Llop, Núria Lambea; Hoekstra, Joris; Fuentes, Gala Cano; Etxarri, Aitziber Etxezarreta

    2017-01-01

    The Spanish home ownership sector has been hit hard by the economic crisis. Repossessions stand at around half a million in the period from 2008 to 2014. This article investigates how the authorities, both at the level of the Spanish state and of the autonomous communities (regions), have responded to this problem. We investigated whether they assist troubled home owners and aim to design a less risky housing system, with more (social) rental housing. Our research in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia shows that Autonomous Communities are playing an increasingly important role in this matter. This finding fits well with theories on the formation of regional varieties of welfare, which indicate that flaws of the central governments in providing social welfare, are increasingly addressed by regions. The Basque Country seems to be on the way of designing the most comprehensive system of housing policies of the three regions, including a strong Right to Housing. All three regions regard the mobilisation of the large vacant dwelling stock as an important means to provide more affordable rental housing. However, the owners are often unwilling and the three regions have proposed drastic measures, such as fines and even temporary expropriations. The central government resists such measures, because they might interfere with the proper working of the country's financial system. It shows that certain policy competences can never be totally isolated from other policy fields and multi-level distribution of competences makes it all the more complex.

  16. An overview of the circular economy among SMEs in the Basque country: A multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ormazabal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research analyzes the maturity of environmental management as well as the degree of to which the Circular Economy has been implemented in Basque SMEs. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 17 case studies were carried out in industrial SMEs companies in the Basque Country. Findings: The main results show that companies are limited to complying with the law and in many cases are worried about the image of the company, although they are not committed to environmental issues. There is still a lot to do in SMEs, as they are the companies that face the biggest challenges due to a lack of resources. Originality/value: Circular Economy aims to change a linear economy into promoting sustainability of the economy while also engaging in sustainable environmental protection. This research has focused on small and medium enterprises as they represent a 99% of companies in Europe and they are the ones that have the most difficulty reaching a stage of environmental excellence due to their limited resources.

  17. From ‘Seeing’ to ‘Seizing’ Opportunity: Critical Events, Turning Points and Ethnolinguistic Mobilization in the Basque Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemann, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how social movement actors carry out the transition from ‘seeing’ to ‘seizing’ critical events as empowering structures of political opportunity. Drawing on qualitative data, the discussion looks at how Basque language activists affiliated with the ikastola schooling movement

  18. Effective and Inclusive Schools? Attention to Diversity in Highly Effective Schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intxausti, Nahia; Etxeberria, Feli; Bartau, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This paper forms part of a research project that aims to characterise best practices in highly effective schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country (ARBC). The aim is for the best practices identified to serve as points of reference when designing improvement plans to be implemented in all schools in the ARBC, with the advice and…

  19. The View From Below: Exploring the Interface between Basque Language Activism and European Language Politics in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemann, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how Basque language activists in France have evaluated and engaged with European-level minority language policies in relative terms of “opportunity.” Focusing upon the social construction of political opportunity from below, I consider how actors affiliated with a

  20. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  1. Educational Leadership as Best Practice in Highly Effective Schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque County (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intxausti, Nahia; Joaristi, Luis; Lizasoain, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This study presents part of a research project currently underway which aims to characterise the best practices of highly effective schools in the Autonomous Region of the Basque Country (Spain). Multilevel statistical modelling and hierarchical linear models were used to select 32 highly effective schools, with highly effective being taken to…

  2. Conversations about Code-Switching: Contrasting Ideologies of Purity and Authenticity in Basque Bilinguals' Reactions to Bilingual Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantto, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the manifestations of purity and authenticity in 47 Basque bilinguals' reactions to code-switching. The respondents listened to two speech extracts with code-switching, filled in a short questionnaire and talked about the extracts in small groups. These conversations were then recorded. The respondents' beliefs can be…

  3. Evaluation of health benefits and harms of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country using discrete event simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arrospide (Arantzazu); M. Rue (Montserrat); N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); M. Comas (Merce); N. Larrañaga (Nerea); G. Sarriugarte (Garbiñe); J. Mar (Javier)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country (BCSPBC) was started in 1996, more than 400,000 women aged 50 to 69 years have been invited to participate. Based on epidemiological observations and simulation techniques it is possible to extend observed

  4. Pollen and non-pollen palynomorph indicators of vegetation and highland grazing activities obtained from modern surface and dung datasets in the eastern Pyrenees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ejarque, Ana; Miras, Yannick; Riera Mora, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    .... in the south-eastern Pyrenees. This research aimed to analyse highland pollen and NPP in relation to vegetation and grazing, and to evaluate the local and regional significance of modern pollen deposition...

  5. Salt structures and vertical axis rotations; a case study in the Barbastro-Balaguer anticline, Southern Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Emilio L.; Oliván, Carlota; Soto, Ruth; Rodríguez-Pintó, Adriana; Santolaria, Pablo; Luzón, Aránzazu; Casas, Antonio M.; Ayala, Conxi

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis rotations are common in all deformation settings. At larger scales, for example in fold and thrust belts, they are usually related to differential shortening along strike and this may be caused by a number of reasons (interplay of plate boundaries, sedimentary wedges, detachment level distribution, etc.). At smaller scales, local stress fields, interference of non-coaxial deformation phases, development of non-cylindrical structures, etc. may play an important role to accommodate significant magnitudes of rotation. Apart from their implication in the truly 4D understanding of geological structures, the occurrence of vertical axis rotation usually precludes the application of most 3D restoration techniques and thus, increases the uncertainty in any 3D reconstruction. Salt structures may form in different geological settings, but focusing on compressive regimes, very little is known about the relation between their geometry and kinematics and their ability to accommodate vertical axis rotations (i.e. local or regional lateral gradients of shortening). The Barbastro-Balaguer anticline (BBA) is the southernmost structure of the Central Pyrenees. It is a large detachment fold spreading more than 150 km along the front. In contrast to most frontal Pyrenean structures, the BBA is detached in Priabonian evaporites and was folded during Oligocene times as witnessed by well exposed growth strata. Along strike changes in the fold axis trend may reach 50°, an overall the anticline displays a convex shape towards the foreland (south). A residual Bouguer anomaly map based on a densely sampled gravimetric surveying (10.000 stations) has helped delineating a heterogeneous distribution of the Eocene detachment level in the subsurface. In this contribution we explore the interplay between vertical axis rotations, detachment level distribution and the fold geometry (structural trend and style based on hundreds of data). Seventy paleomagnetic sites evenly and densely

  6. Direct U-series analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus reveals a Middle Pleistocene age for human remains in the Basque Country (northern Iberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Rúa, Concepción; Altuna, Jesús; Hervella, Monserrat; Kinsley, Leslie; Grün, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    In 1964, a human humerus was found in a sedimentary deposit in Lezetxiki Cave (Basque Country, northern Iberia). The first studies on the stratigraphy, associated mammal faunal remains and lithic implements placed the deposits containing the humerus into the Riss glacial stage. Direct chronometric evidence has so far been missing, and the previous chronostratigraphic framework and faunal dating gave inconsistent results. Here we report laser ablation U-series analyses on the humerus yielding a minimum age of 164 ± 9 ka, corresponding to MIS 6. This is the only direct dating analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus and confirms a Middle Pleistocene age for this hominin fossil. Morphometric analyses suggest that the Lezetxiki humerus has close affinities to other Middle Pleistocene archaic hominins, such as those from La Sima de los Huesos at Atapuerca. This emphasizes the significance of the Lezetxiki fossil within the populations that predate the Neanderthals in south-western Europe. It is thus an important key fossil for the understanding of human evolution in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, a time period when a great morphological diversity is observed but whose phylogenetic meaning is not yet fully understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Description and analysis of the debris flows occurred during 2008 in the Eastern Pyrenees

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    M. Portilla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-triggered landslides taking place in the Spanish Eastern Pyrenees have usually been analysed on a regional scale. Most research focussed either on terrain susceptibility or on the characteristics of the critical rainfall, neglecting a detailed analysis of individual events. In contrast to other mountainous regions, research on debris flow has only been performed marginally and associated hazard has mostly been neglected.

    In this study, five debris flows, which occurred in 2008, are selected; and site specific descriptions and analysis regarding geology, morphology, rainfall data and runout were performed. The results are compared with worldwide data and some conclusions on hazard assessment are presented.

    The five events can be divided into two in-channel debris flows and three landslide-triggered debris flows. The in-channel generated debris flows exceeded 10 000 m3, which are unusually large mass movements compared to historic events which occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees. In contrast, the other events mobilised total volumes less than 2000 m3. The geomorphologic analysis showed that the studied events emphasize similar patterns when compared to published data focussing on slope angle in the initiation zone or catchment area.

    Rainfall data revealed that all debris flows were triggered by high intensity-short duration rainstorms during the summer season. Unfortunately, existing rainfall thresholds in the Eastern Pyrenees consider long-lasting rainfall, usually occurring in autumn/winter. Therefore, new thresholds should be established taking into account the rainfall peak intensity in mm/h, which seems to be a much more relevant factor for summer than the event's total precipitation.

    The runout analysis of the 2008 debris flows confirms the trend that larger volumes generally induce higher mobility. The numerical simulation of the Riu Runer event shows that its dynamic behaviour

  8. Influence of spring snowpack melting on thunderstorm activity in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, R.; Callado, A.; Terradelles, E.; Téllez, B.

    2009-09-01

    Catalan Pyrenees, the eastern half of the Pyrenees range, is a very popular area for tourism, hiking and climbing. This sector of the range is 200 km long and, on average, 80 km wide. Its highest peaks reach 3000 m ASL and there are many summits above 2500 m ASL. Two of the main climatic characteristics of the region are the very frequent summer convective storms and the late autumn, winter and spring snow-cover. Both characteristics have normally been studied from different points of view, and weather forecasts in late spring have not normally considered the plausible relationship between them. The snowpack melting from April to June, especially rapid in May, leads to important changes on the surface energy balance since the evolution from snow-covered ground to bare soil or canopy, significantly alters the surface albedo and the turbulent, latent and sensible, heat fluxes. These modifications have a noticeable influence in developing or inhibiting thermally-induced mesoscale circulations such as upslope winds, valley breezes or plane-mountain breezes, and could condition the triggering of convection, showers and storm activity. In order to gain insight into the relationship between the spring snowpack melting and the location of thunderstorm activity, a comparison between seasonal snow-cover and thunderstorm frequency evolution (using lightning network data) for a period of 5 years has been carried out, showing a progressive transition from a non-convective to a convective precipitation regime in areas where the snowpack has melted recently Furthermore, a meso-beta scale non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model at a 2.5-km horizontal resolution is used to study the sensitivity of snowpack extension on the thunderstorms development over the complex orography of the Catalan Pyrenees. A spring case with thunderstorm activity restricted to snow-free areas has been selected and accurately simulated. A number of sensitivity runs with different initial snow

  9. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

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    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  10. Terrorism and Politics Predominate on the Front Pages of the Basque Press. Content and Area Analysis of the Front Pages of the Regional Newspapers

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    Dr. Jesús A. Pérez Dasilva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the results of research project 08/20 of the University of the Basque Country on the news published on the front pages of the Basque press during the years 1996, 2001 and 2006.The researchers analyse the front pages of the Basque press to determine if their content matches the demand and interests of their readers. The study shows what are the most relevant topics for these newspapers. The research involved a detailed analysis of 2,448 front pages of the five main Basque newspapers, with a total of 19,156 news items. A specific methodology was developed for this work, enabling both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the news stories to be made. The data shown in this paper are a summary of the more detailed results that emerged in the different fields of the research.

  11. Projections of meteorological and snow conditions in the Pyrenees using adjusted EURO-CORDEX climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Current and future availability of seasonal snow is a recurring topic in mountain regions such as the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenues in France, Spain and Andorra. Associated changes in river discharges, their consequences on water storage management, the future vulnerability of Pyrenean ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as debris flows and avalanches are also under consideration. However, to generate projections of snow conditions, a traditional dynamical downscaling approach featuring spatial resolutions typically between 10 and 50 km is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. Indeed, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Moreover, simulations from general circulation models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) suffer from biases compared to local observations, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted before they can be used to drive specific models such as land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. Meteorological observations used for the quantile mapping consist of the regional scale reanalysis SAFRAN, which operates at the scale of homogeneous areas on the order of 1000 km2 within which meteorological conditions vary only with elevation. SAFRAN combines large-scale NWP reanalysis (ERA40, ARPEGE) with in-situ meteorological observations. The SAFRAN reanalysis is available

  12. Detecting human mobility in the Pyrenees through the analysis of chert tools during the Upper Palaeolithic

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    Marta Sánchez de la Torre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary results of PhD research focused on hunter-gatherer groups that occupied the Central and Eastern Pyrenees during the Magdalenian period. This research aims to improve the knowledge we have about those Magdalenian groups, specifically concerning their lithic procurement strategies. The core of the study is based on the lithic tools collected from two archaeological sites - Alonsé Cave and Forcas I Shelter, both in Huesca, Spain-, and in particular those made from chert, because they are both a spatial and a cultural marker at the same time. These cherts have been studied using petroarchaeological methods, and as a result, it has been possible to detect the type of procurement strategies carried out and to guess the relation existing between those human groups and their environment, especially in what refers to mobility strategies.

  13. Home Garden Ecosystem Services Valuation through a Gender Lens: A Case Study in the Catalan Pyrenees

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    Laura Calvet-Mir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services have become a critical issue in the environmental literature, however knowledge on whether women and men similarly value ecosystem services is still nascent. We aim at advancing the understanding of the relation between gender and environmental perceptions through the analysis of values assigned by women and men to ecosystem services supplied by home gardens in Vall Fosca (Catalan Pyrenees, north-eastern Spain. We found that women give a higher value than men to all ecosystem services. Overall, women’s valuation of the full range of ecosystem services provided by home gardens was 7.55% higher than men’s valuation. Gender socialization influences the way people interact with and value the environment, including highly managed environments such as home gardens. We argue that considering gendered differences in ecosystem services valuation may lead to policies more effective in enhancing ecosystem services provision.

  14. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.

  15. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) from 2011 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Rico, Ibai; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i) continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS), (ii) detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology) for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season) and (iii) time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA). The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface), and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277) is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological

  16. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  17. Recycling an uplifted early foreland basin fill: An example from the Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roigé, M.; Gómez-Gras, D.; Remacha, E.; Boya, S.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Teixell, A.

    2017-10-01

    In the northern Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees), the replacement of deep-marine by terrestrial environments during the Eocene records a main drainage reorganization in the active Pyrenean pro-wedge, which leads to recycling of earlier foreland basin sediments. The onset of late Eocene-Oligocene terrestrial sedimentation is represented by four main alluvial fans: Santa Orosia, Canciás, Peña Oroel and San Juan de la Peña, which appear diachronously from east to west. These alluvial fans are the youngest preserved sediments deposited in the basin. We provide new data on sediment composition and sources for the late Eocene-Oligocene alluvial fans and precursor deltas of the Jaca basin. Sandstone petrography allows identification of the interplay of axially-fed sediments from the east with transversely-fed sediments from the north. Compositional data for the alluvial fans reflects a dominating proportion of recycled rock fragments derived from the erosion of a lower to middle Eocene flysch depocentre (the Hecho Group), located immediately to the north. In addition, pebble composition allows identification of a source in the North Pyrenean Zone that provided lithologies from the Cretaceous carbonate flysch, Jurassic dolostones and Triassic dolerites. Thus we infer this zone as part of the source area, located in the headwaters, which would have been unroofed from turbidite deposits during the late Eocene-Oligocene. These conclusions provide new insights on the response of drainage networks to uplift and topographic growth of the Pyrenees, where the water divide migrated southwards to its present day location.

  18. Spatial variations of b-value and crustal stress in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, A.; Souriau, A.; Sylvander, M.

    2017-10-01

    The seismicity in the Pyrenees is continuous and well surveyed since more than 20 years. We use the catalogue of seismicity between 1997 and 2013 to explore the spatial variations of the b-value, which corresponds to the slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution of the earthquakes. Especially, variations of the b-value characterise the state of stress of the crust, possibly highlighting a deficit of large earthquake occurrence. We estimate the differential crustal stress from the b-value using a relationship published by Scholz (Geophys Res Lett 42:1399-1402, 2015). We also estimate the stress drop variations by determining a power law which links the magnitude to the seismic source radius in the Pyrenees. We focus on the depth variations and we analyse vertical profiles of b-value, differential stress and stress drop, first in the whole Pyrenean belt, then in 10 subregions. The b-values are generally smaller than 1, except in the uppermost 3-5 km where the obtained high values could be linked to the presence of fluids. Downward, the b-values decrease slowly or remain constant until a depth of increase, which could correspond to the brittle-ductile limit of the crust. We propose that this depth and the regional and vertical variations of the b-values are related to the regional tectonic context and possibly to the density heterogeneities. We also suggest that stress drop and differential stress are linearly correlated and that the stress drop is at least 1.8‰ of the differential stress.

  19. Q fever: prevalence of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in the Basque country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzo, J M; Garcia-Calabuig, M A; Audicana, A; Dehesa, V

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in the Basque population. To this end a stratified sampling was carried out taking as a criterion the size of the population in a given area of residence. Residents in sparsely populated areas were found to have a prevalence of 38.5%, significantly greater than in highly populated areas (odds ratio [OR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.27 and OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09-2.30). The prevalence was significantly higher in males (36.3%) than in females (29%), and was found to increase significantly with age. Current or previous participation in activities relating to agriculture and/or livestock farming or even having contact with cattle, goats or sheep were also found to be risk factors for the infection. A fuller study of the determinants of chronic Q fever should be initiated.

  20. Check-list of the Basque coast benthic algae (North of Spain

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    Gorostiaga, José M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated check-list of the marine benthic flora of the Spanish Basque coast, based on literature records and original data, is presented. According to the present taxonomy, the known list of algae totals 372 taxa (354 species and 18 infraspecific taxa, distributed as follows: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta and 54 Chlorophyta. In addition, 16 taxa are considered as taxa inquirenda and 8 as taxa excludenda. For each taxon the vertical distribution, abundance estimation, and two first published records are given. Remarks on the most noteworthy features of the flora of the study area are included. The floristic character of Spanish Basque coast flora was compared with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+ Chlorophyta/Phaeophyta, or (R+C/P]. The resulting high value (4,09 indicates its warm-water character, which was already noted at the end of the XIX century. From a physionomical point of view, Basque benthic vegetation resembles more closely that of southern regions (S Portugal, Morocco. The warming process of waters off the Basque coast during summer up to 22 ºC is responsible for the absence or very rare occurrence of cold temperate species like large fucoids and kelps, which are common in Galicia and Brittany, and explains the abundance of numerous warm-temperate species as ceramiaceous algae.Se presenta un catálogo de la flora bentónica marina de la costa vasco-española basado en citas bibliográficas y algunos datos originales. De acuerdo con la taxonomía actual, la lista de algas conocidas asciende a 372 táxones (354 especies y 18 táxones infraespecíficos, que se distribuyen como sigue: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta y 54 Chlorophyta. Además, 16 táxones se consideran como taxa inquirenda y 8 como taxa excludenda. Para cada taxon se ofrece información sobre su distribución vertical, una estima de su abundancia y las dos primeras citas publicadas. Se incluyen

  1. Le site de Meatse (Itxassou, Pays Basque : prémiers résultats anthracologiques.

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    Christine Heinz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis antracológico del sitio de Meatse (alt.716 m., Itxassou, Pays Basque está basado en el estudio de dos muestras inferiores a 150 fragmentos, datadas de 2960 +50 BP (Gif 9573. La lista taxonómica está compuesta solamente de 4 taxones : Fagus sylvatica, Quercus (de hoja caduca, Corylus avellana y Fraxinus excelsior. Dado los argumentos metodológicos desarrollados interiormente sería delicado aventurar una interpretación paleocológica cuantitativa. Los cuatro taxones identificados son representativos de 3 diferentes biotopos forestales : el robledal Quercus (de hoja caduca, el bosque de haya (Fagus sylvatica en altitudes supeiores y las formaciones riberenas. Aun cuando no existe la presencia de marcadores netos de la antropización, es frecuente en la región atlántica, que el bosque de haya explotado sea sustituido por un robleda (Quercus pedunculata

  2. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites in child and adult populations in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtiaga, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Azpiri, Mikel; Alonso, Ana; Dorronsoro, Miren

    2013-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additive in food. The aim of this study was to assess dietary sulphite intake in adults aged 35-65 years and in children aged 4-18 years living in the Basque Country, northern Spain. We determined sulphite concentrations in 909 samples covering 16 food types. The maximum permitted levels were exceeded in 17% of samples. Making recommended assumptions for non-quantifiable results, estimates of mean lower and upper bounds were calculated for sulphite concentrations in each food type. These sulphite data were combined with consumption data derived from 8417 adults from the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Gipuzkoa, recruited in 1992-1995 using a diet history method, and 1055 children from the Basque Country Nutrition Children Survey, conducted in 2004-2005 using two 24-h recall questionnaires to assess diet. The results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The mean dietary exposure to sulphites was 0.08 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, only 11% of the ADI in the overall group of children (4-18 years old), but the acceptable intake was exceeded by 4% of 4-6 year olds. For the adults (35-65 years old), the mean dietary exposure was 0.31 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, 45% of the ADI, but the acceptable intake was exceeded in 14.6% of cases. The major contributing foods were minced meat and other meat products for children and wine for adults.

  3. Inbreeding levels and consanguinity structure in the Basque province of Guipúzcoa (1862-1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Aresti, Unai; Peña, José A; Calderón, Rosario

    2005-06-01

    This work analyzes the spatial heterogeneity of consanguinity in the Basque province of Guipúzcoa (Spain), using data provided by Catholic dispensations (1862-1980). Secular trends in consanguinity rates (%M(C)) and mean inbreeding coefficient (F) were similar in the seven Guipúzcoan regions considered, with peaks between 1881-1920 and subsequently a gradual decline. Substantial differences in consanguinity characteristics emerged when the regions were classified according to level of urbanization. Principal component analysis (accounting for more than 85% of the total variance in consanguinity variables) clearly discriminated between urbanized and less urbanized regions. The latter stand out for their high consanguinity rates (3.57-6.73%), mean inbreeding coefficient (0.00112-0.00240), and M22/M33 ratio (M22, first cousins; M33, second cousins), which ranged between 0.89-1.48. Moreover, in less urbanized regions, marital consanguinity was eminently local, and mainly conditioned by regional endogamy (71.4-85.0%). By contrast, urban subpopulations showed the lowest consanguinity rates (1.60-1.96%) and mean inbreeding coefficient (around 0.0007). In these regions, the M22/M33 ratio also exhibited high values (1.07-1.56), but this time at the expense of the contribution of the immigrant group. Discussion of the factors that could have modeled this spatial variation in consanguinity centers on: 1) demographic aspects related to the chronology and intensity of industrialization, 2) the geography of the territory and the geography of peopling, and 3) linguistic differences, expressed in the uneven distribution of Basque-speakers among the different territories considered. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Religious practices and activities in the private schools in the Basque Country during the Twentieth Century

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    Pauli Davila Balsera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of schools ruled by religious orders and congregations in the Basque Country throughout the twentieth century is a known phenomenon. What is less known are the kinds of activities religious practices carried out in these schools. The objective of this collaboration is to analyse this situation, with a focus on two aspects: 1 the religious activities and, 2 the extracurricular religious activities. The first of these were carried out within the schools (liturgical acts, masses, rosaries, etc.. They were the rituals bywhich the student body could live spiritually through the religious teaching linked to catechism, religious education, the gospel or sacred history. The extracurricular activities were related to religious associations which were used for carrying out certain apostolic actions. Many of these activities served to recruit religious vocations or to involve the youth in Catholic Action. In the 1970s, these activities diminished and evolved. As an example of this process, which was extended to the majority of the schools, we have focused on the De La Salle schools in the Basque Country. A historical methodology has been applied to the diverse sources that have been analysed (photographs, archival documentation, etc.. The documentary corpus comes from the files and museums of De La Salle Brothers. We can conclude that during Franco’s regime, under which the teaching of the Catholic religion played an important role, the practice of these activities increased.

  5. Length of Utterance, in Morphemes or in Words?: MLU3-w, a Reliable Measure of Language Development in Early Basque

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    Maria-José Ezeizabarrena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean length of utterace (MLU, which was proposed by Brown (1973 as a better index for language development in children than age, has been regularly reported in case studies as well as in cross-sectional studies on early spontaneous language production. Despite the reliability of MLU as a measure of (morpho-syntactic development having been called into question, its extensive use in language acquisition studies highlights its utility not only for intra- and inter-individual comparison in monolingual language acquisition, but also for cross-linguistic assessment and comparison of bilinguals' early language development (Müller, 1993; Yip and Matthews, 2006; Meisel, 2011. An additional issue concerns whether MLU should be measured in words (MLU-w or morphemes (MLU-m, the latter option being the most difficult to gauge, since new challenges have arisen regarding how to count zero morphemes, suppletive and fused morphemes. The different criteria have consequences, especially when comparing development in languages with diverging morphological complexity. A variant of MLU, the MLU3, which is calculated out of the three longest sentences produced (MLU3-w and MLU3-m, is included among the subscales of expressive language development in CDI parental reports (Fenson et al., 1993, 2007. The aim of the study is to investigate the consistency and utility of MLU3-w and MLU3-m as a measure for (morpho-syntactic development in Basque, an agglutinative language. To that end, cross-sectional data were obtained using either the Basque CDI-2 instrument (16- to 30-month-olds or the Basque CDI-3 (30- to 50-month-olds. The results of analyzing reports on over 1,200 children show three main findings. First, MLU3-w and MLU3-m can report equally well on very young children's development. Second, the strong correlations found between MLU3 and expressive vocabulary in the Basque CDI-2 and CDI-3 instruments, as well as between MLU3 and both nominal and verbal morphology

  6. Integrated multi-stratigraphic study of the Coll de Terrers late Permian-Early Triassic continental succession from the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula): A geologic reference record for equatorial Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujal, Eudald; Fortuny, Josep; Pérez-Cano, Jordi; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Ibáñez-Insa, Jordi; Oms, Oriol; Vila, Isabel; Bolet, Arnau; Anadón, Pere

    2017-12-01

    The most severe biotic crisis on Earth history occurred during the Permian-Triassic (PT) transition around 252 Ma. Whereas in the marine realm such extinction event is well-constrained, in terrestrial settings it is still poorly known, mainly due to the lack of suitable complete sections. This is utterly the case along the Western Tethys region, located at Pangaea's equator, where terrestrial successions are typically build-up of red beds often characterised by a significant erosive gap at the base of the Triassic strata. Henceforth, documenting potentially complete terrestrial successions along the PT transition becomes fundamental. Here, we document the exceptional Coll de Terrers area from the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula), for which a multidisciplinary research is conducted along the PT transition. The red-bed succession, located in a long E-W extended narrow rift system known as Pyrenean Basin, resulted from a continuous sedimentary deposition evolving from meandering (lower Upper Red Unit) to playa-lake/ephemeral lacustrine (upper Upper Red Unit) and again to meandering settings (Buntsandstein facies). Sedimentary continuity is suggested by preliminary cyclostratigraphic analysis that warrants further analysis. Our combined sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical data infer a humid-semiarid-humid climatic trend across the studied succession. The uppermost Permian strata, deposited under an orbitally controlled monsoonal regime, yields a relatively diverse ichnoassemblage mainly composed of tetrapod footprints and arthropod trace fossils. Such fossils indicate appropriate life conditions and water presence in levels that also display desiccation structures. These levels alternate with barren intervals formed under dry conditions, being thus indicative of strong seasonality. All these features are correlated with those reported elsewhere in Gondwana and Laurasia, and suggest that the Permian-Triassic boundary might be recorded somewhere around

  7. Biodiversity and Greenhouse Gases in Grasslands: A Flux Network along Climate and Management Gradients in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastia, M. T.; Debouk, H.; Ibañez, M.; Llurba, R.; Ribas, A.; Altimir, N.

    2016-12-01

    Grassland in the Pyrenees is critically threatened by climate and land use changes. Ecologically, these ecosystems contain a rich biodiversity and contribute many ecosystem services, including feed production, soil carbon storage and water regulation. Socioeconomically, grasslands fuel the rural economy in the Pyrenees, including organic stockbreeding, outdoor activities and recreation. Three eddy covariance stations were established in the Eastern Pyrenees between 2009 and 2011 along altitudinal and climatic gradients by the FLUXPYR project (EU INTERREG IV-A-POCTEFA). The network of flux towers on climatically diverse grasslands is included in the European Fluxes Database Cluster. The three locations are representative of the typical managements in the region: Pla de Riart (ES-PRt, 1000 m a.s.l.), intensively managed sown grassland grazed in the fall; La Bertolina (ES-LBr, 1300 m a.s.l.), montane grassland grazed from spring to fall; and Castellar de n'Hug (ES-Cst, 2000 m a.s.l.), subalpine grassland grazed in summer. The flux studies are completed by chamber measurements of CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes by photoacoustic. The focus of study is the relationship biodiversity-ecosystem function in response to climate, management and other environmental changes. Results show how sown and spontaneous plant diversity regulates grassland functioning including greenhouse gas fluxes. Polycultures in particular have a tendency to increase NEE and Reco compared to monocultures, enhancing CO2 uptake. Grasses are less efficient photosynthetically per biomass unit than other plant functional types, but this is not reflected at the ecosystem scale, where they are dominant. N2O is a greenhouse gas particularly dependent on plant functional diversity and climatic conditions. Soil function responds to changes in plant functional type distribution within the grassland. In conclusion, biodiversity regulates greenhouse gas fluxes in many ways in grasslands in the Pyrenees, through multiple

  8. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085

  9. The Song of the Shepherd Does not Scare the Sheep: Memory and Nostalgia in the Improvised Verses of Basque Emigrants

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    Pío Pérez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to reflect on the nostalgia suffered by Basque shepherds who emigrated to America, by analysing their production of improvised verses. These improvised verses addressed their homesickness, desires, opinions and concerns in a declarative and emotional way. While other narrative genres tend to represent these feelings in a more rationalized way, these verses tend to be evocative and emotional, with a testimonial function that is perceived more directly. In that respect, they become complex and multifaceted texts that influence the representation of identity and the migratory project. Nowadays, the consensus is that literature and cinema are cultural products with an enormous social relevance, and that they elaborate and represent social and historical discourses. Similarly, the verses of emigrants to America constitute social and historical discourses that let us reflect on the construction of the social reality of Basque emigration.

  10. Prevalence and costs of multimorbidity by deprivation levels in the basque country: a population based study using health administrative databases.

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    Juan F Orueta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is a major challenge for healthcare systems. However, currently, its magnitude and impact in healthcare expenditures is still mostly unknown. OBJECTIVE: To present an overview of the prevalence and costs of multimorbidity by socioeconomic levels in the whole Basque population. METHODS: We develop a cross-sectional analysis that includes all the inhabitants of the Basque Country (N=2,262,698. We utilize data from primary health care electronic medical records, hospital admissions, and outpatient care databases, corresponding to a 4 year period. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases out of a list of 52 of the most important and common chronic conditions given in the literature. We also use socioeconomic and demographic variables such as age, sex, individual healthcare cost, and deprivation level. Predicted adjusted costs were obtained by log-gamma regression models. RESULTS: Multimorbidity of chronic diseases was found among 23.61% of the total Basque population and among 66.13% of those older than 65 years. Multimorbid patients account for 63.55% of total healthcare expenditures. Prevalence of multimorbidity is higher in the most deprived areas for all age and sex groups. The annual cost of healthcare per patient generated for any chronic disease depends on the number of coexisting comorbidities, and varies from 637 € for the first pathology in average to 1,657 € for the ninth one. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity is very common for the Basque population and its prevalence rises in age, and unfavourable socioeconomic environment. The costs of care for chronic patients with several conditions cannot be described as the sum of their individual pathologies in average. They usually increase dramatically according to the number of comorbidities. Given the ageing population, multimorbidity and its consequences should be taken into account in healthcare policy, the organization of care and

  11. Faster and Further Morphosyntactic Development of CLIL vs. EFL Basque-Spanish Bilinguals Learning English in High-School

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Lázaro

    2012-01-01

    A general advantage in proficiency has been repeatedly reported for learners receiving Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) when compared to learners who only receive English lessons. However, fine-grained studies addressing the aspects which make up this general advantage are still scarce. Within this context, this paper concentrates on the morphosyntactic development of two groups of (Basque-Spanish) adolescents learning English in high-school over a two-year period. One group (n...

  12. [Relationship between migrant status and social support and quality of life in Moroccans in the Basque Country (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Alvarez, Elena; Lanborena Elordui, Nerea; Errami, Mohamed; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Alba; Pereda Riguera, Celina; Vallejo de la Hoz, Gorka; Moreno Marquez, Gorka

    2009-12-01

    To analyze the effect of birth place, migrant status and the modulatory role of social support on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms. We performed a cross-sectional study of three samples composed of 2,776 persons: 1,239 Moroccans in Morocco, 149 Moroccans in the Basque Country (Spain) and 1,388 autochthonous individuals. HRQoL and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms were evaluated using the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5). Social support was evaluated with the Duke scale. Multivariate analyses were performed with dichotomic logistic regression (SPSS 16). Immigrant status, compared with living in Morocco, was a protective factor in practically all SF-36 dimensions but was also a risk factor for the development of anxiety/depression symptoms. Differences in HRQoL between Moroccans and the autochthonous population in the Basque Country were attenuated when variables of social support were included in the multivariate models. Low social support and dissatisfaction with social life increased the risk of low HRQoL scores and the presence of anxiety/depression symptoms among Moroccans in the Basque Country. Some health indicators are more favorable in Moroccans in the Basque Country than in those living in Morocco, but the frequency of anxiety/depression is higher in Moroccan immigrants. The key factor to understanding social inequalities in health among Moroccan immigrants is social support. Strategies to maintain optimal health in these immigrant collectives should include public policies of social inclusion.

  13. Genetic polymorphism of human alpha 2 HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) in the resident population of the Basque Country (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O; Alonso, A

    1992-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of human alpha 2 HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) was studied in a sample of 466 healthy unrelated individuals resident in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) by isoelectric focusing on micro-ultrathin polyacrylamide gels followed by immunoblotting. The allele frequencies obtained were AHSG*1 = 0.7253, AHSG*2 = 0.2683 and AHSG*3 = 0.0064. These allele frequencies were compared with those reported in other European populations.

  14. Economic evaluation of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country: retrospective cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrospide, Arantzazu; Rue, Montserrat; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Comas, Merce; Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Sarriugarte, Garbiñe; Mar, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer screening in the Basque Country has shown 20 % reduction of the number of BC deaths and an acceptable overdiagnosis level (4 % of screen detected BC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the breast cancer early detection programme in the Basque Country in terms of retrospective cost-effectiveness and budget impact from 1996 to 2011. A discrete event simulation model was built to reproduce the natural history of breast cancer (BC). We estimated for lifetime follow-up the total cost of BC (screening, diagnosis and treatment), as well as quality-adjusted life years (QALY), for women invited to participate in the evaluated programme during the 15-year period in the actual screening scenario and in a hypothetical unscreened scenario. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated with the use of aggregated costs. Besides, annual costs were considered for budget impact analysis. Both population level and single-cohort analysis were performed. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was applied to assess the impact of parameters uncertainty. The actual screening programme involved a cost of 1,127 million euros and provided 6.7 million QALYs over the lifetime of the target population, resulting in a gain of 8,666 QALYs for an additional cost of 36.4 million euros, compared with the unscreened scenario. Thus, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 4,214€/QALY. All the model runs in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio lower than 10,000€/QALY. The screening programme involved an increase of the annual budget of the Basque Health Service by 5.2 million euros from year 2000 onwards. The BC screening programme in the Basque Country proved to be cost-effective during the evaluated period and determined an affordable budget impact. These results confirm the epidemiological benefits related to the centralised screening system and support the continuation of the programme.

  15. [Occupational health in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. OSALAN-Instituto Vasco de Seguridad y Salud Laborales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Castillo, A; Achutegui Basagoiti, G

    1996-01-01

    O.S.A.L.A.N.-Instituto Vasco de Seguridad y Salud Laborales is an autonomous administrative body depending on the Basque Government, ascribed to the Dept. of Justice, Economy, Work and Social Security, which is in charge of managing the general occupational health policies in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Its objectives are: To promote an ongoing improvement in safety and occupational health for all the workers in the Basque Autonomous Region, through the management of programmes in matters affecting safety, hygiene, the environment and occupational health. To co-ordinate and concentrate the different activities related to occupational health, unifying and giving coherence to the functions which were previously the jurisdiction of different departments. Making companies aware of national and E.U. regulations, taking the measures that are set out by the European Directives and the Prevention of Occupational Hazards Act and the rest of the employment regulations, establishing the training and information channels required for promoting and applying these in the companies. It acts: from an overall perspective as regards the prevention of occupational hazards, thanks to co-ordination with all the disciplines involved, applying a multi-disciplinary treatment to the study of each and every one of the occupational hazard factors, which is aimed at the prevention of risks at their source. Providing companies with the ideal means for managing the safety and health of their workers. Promoting the implementation of systems which guarantee an ongoing improvement in occupational safety and health in the companies of the Basque Autonomous Region. Providing the technical and research support that makes it possible to tackle prevention efficiently. The provision established in the Creation Act (O.S.A.L.A.N.) should also be mentioned, as regards its application in public administration and the field of social economy, which was later endorsed and ratified through

  16. [Knowledge and attitudes of citizens in the Basque Country (Spain) towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automatic external defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Peña, S; Fernández-Aedo, I; Pérez-Urdiales, I; García-Azpiazu, Z; Unanue-Arza, S

    2016-03-01

    To explore the training, ability and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of automatic defibrillators among the population of the Basque Country (Spain). A face-to-face survey. Capital cities of the Basque Country. A total of 605 people between 15-64 years of age were randomly selected. Information about the knowledge, perceptions and self-perceived ability to identify and assist cardiopulmonary arrest was requested. A total of 56.4% of the responders were women, 61.8% were occupationally active, and 48.3% had higher education. Thirty-seven percent of the responders claimed to be trained in resuscitation techniques, but only 20.2% considered themselves able to apply such techniques. Public servants were almost 4 times more likely of being trained in defibrillation compared to the rest of workers (OR 3.7; Pdefibrillator. Citizens of the Basque Country consider the early identification and treatment of cardiorespiratory arrest victims to be important, though their knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation is limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. [Epidemiology of accidents in a cohort of adults over 64 years old in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Visitación; Mokoroa, Olatz; Artieda, Juncal; Muniozguren, Nerea; Etxebarriarteun, Larraitz; Alvarez, Lorea; Garcia Calabuig, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Accidents represent a significant health problem for elderly people. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of accidents in over-64-year-olds in the Basque Country population, and to describe the clinical-epidemiological features leading to them. This was a prospective cohort study of 15,192 non-institutionalised individuals over 64 years of age, conducted under the auspices of the Basque Sentinel Practice Network (Red Vigía) over one year. A questionnaire was completed for each accident. The rates and risks of accidents were calculated by sex and age group of the individuals who had the accidents. The rates of accidents were 46.52 and 81.87 per 1000 men and women, respectively. The most common type of accident was a fall (92%), and the most severe injuries were fractures (17%), with the risk of an accident being significantly higher in women and in the over-75-year-olds. These data reflect the scale of accidents in over-64-year-olds in the Basque Country. The most frequent accident was the fall, which represents a dramatic event among the elderly, being one of the main causes of injury, disability and institutionalisation among this population group. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. [Peer training for patients with diabetes mellitus 2. A quantitative and qualitative evaluation in the Basque Country and Andalusia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet, Alina; Prieto Rodríguez, María Ángeles; Gamboa Moreno, Estibaliz; Ochoa de Retana Garcia, Lourdes; March Cerdà, Joan Carles

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate a peer training strategy for patients with type2 diabetes mellitus, developed in two training programmes in the Basque Country and Andalusia. Quantitative pre- and post-intervention and qualitative evaluation, developed between 2012 and 2014. The Basque Country and Andalusia. A total of 409 patients and trainer-patients, participating in self-management peer training programmes. Intentional sample of 44 patients for the qualitative study. Bivariate analysis and net gains for common variables used in questionnaires in the Basque Country and Andalusia: self-reported health, daily activities, physical activity, use of health services, and self-management. Content analysis of 8 focus groups with patients and trainer-patients, including: coding, categorisation, and triangulation of results. Peer training has a positive impact on physical activity, the use of health services, and self-management, with some gender differences. The peer-training strategy is considered positive, as it strengthens the patient-health provider relationship, generates group support and self-confidence, and improves the emotional management. Patients identify two areas of potential improvement: access and continuity of training strategies, and more support and recognition from health providers and institutions. The positive impact on health and quality of life that this patient peer-training provides, requires the collaboration of health professionals and institutions, which should improve the access, continuity and adaptation to patient needs and expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The Basque Issue and the Spanish Rule of Law: Report on the UPV/EHU “Ultima Ratio” Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Ezeizabarrena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper resumes the seminar organised by the International Institute for the Sociology of Law, the University of the Basque Country and the Basque Studies Society too in San Sebastian Campus and Oñati during the 2nd and 3rd of February 2012, with the presence of certain relevant experts from academia and practitioners. The ultima ratio principle was analysed from different perspectives and, in particular, within the complex context of implementation of the Rule of Law within the Basque Country. Este artículo resume el seminario organizado por el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica, la Universidad del País Vasco y Eusko Ikaskuntza - Sociedad de Estudios Vascos en el Campus de la Universidad del País Vasco de San Sebastián y en Oñati durante el 2 y 3 de febrero del 2012, en el que se contó con la presencia de relevantes expertos de la comunidad científica y profesionales. Se analizó el principio de ultima ratio desde diferentes perspectivas, y, en particular, dentro del complejo contexto del desarrollo del estado de derecho en el País Vasco. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200887

  20. Large landslides in the Pyrenees: preliminary tasks carried out for a harmonized cross-border risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José; Grandjean, Gilles; Copons, Ramon; Vaunat, Jean; Buxó, Pere; Colas, Bastien; Darrozes, José; Gasc, Muriel; Guinau, Marta; Gutiérrez, Francisco; García, Juan Carlos; Virely, Didier; Crosetto, Michele; Mas, Raül

    2017-04-01

    Large landslides are recognised as one of the main erosional agents in mountain ranges, having a significant influence on landscape evolution. However, few efforts have been carried out to assess their geomorphological impact from a regional perspective. Regional-scale investigations are also necessary for the reliable evaluation of the associated risks (i.e. for land-use planning). Large landslides are common in the Pyrenees but: 1) their geographic distribution on a regional scale is not well known; 2) their geological and geomorphological controlling factors have been only studied preliminarily; and 3) their state of activity and stability conditions are unknown for most of the cases. Regional analyses of large landslides, as those carried out by Crosta et al. (2013) in the Alps, are rare worldwide. Jarman et al. (2014) conducted a very preliminary analysis in a sector of the Pyrenees. The construction of a cartographic inventory constitutes the basics for such type of studies, which are typically hindered by the lack of cross-border landslide data bases and methodologies. The aim of this contribution is to present the preliminary works carried out for constructing a harmonized inventory of large landslides in the Pyrenees, involving for the first time both sides of the cordillera and the main groups working in landslide risk in France, Spain and Andorra. Methods used for landslide hazard and risk analysis have been compiled and compared, showing a significant divergence, even as regards the terminology. A preliminary cross-border inventory sheet on risk of large landslides has been prepared. It includes specific fields for the assessment of landslide activity (by using complimentary methods such as morpho-stratigraphy, morphometric analysis and remote techniques) and indirect potential costs (that typically overcome direct ones), which usually are neglected in the existing data bases. Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. and Agliardi, F., 2013. Deep seated gravitational

  1. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Suchet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province. This article analyses the governance of this international sports competition. More specifically, this case study will enable us to find out more about the conditions of organisation of a cross-border project in the early 1990s. What were the various political, social and cultural exchanges between the valleys in terms of sports and tourism in the Pyrenees? The results show that the French organisation and the Spanish organisation functioned side by side instead of working together on the field. This division in working enabled them to bypass the language problem. The cross-border dimension of these adventure Olympics in 1993 stemmed from pressure from the French regional planning agency, DATAR right from the beginning of the project, i.e. in October 1989, to be exact. This dimension made the 1993 Pyrenees Adventure Games a testimony to the new political Europe that was being built after 1989. This period was marked by the proactiveness of institutions, which far exceeded the motivations of the populations of the Union.Organisés au printemps 1993 sur la frontière entre la France et l’Espagne, les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure, ou los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, réunirent plus de 1 000 athlètes venus de 26 pays du monde sous les yeux de 21 000 visiteurs. Olympiade des sports d’aventure et de nature patronnée par le CIO, les épreuves se déroulèrent dans la vallée d’Aure en France (département des Hautes-Pyrénées et le Sobrarbe en Espagne (province de

  2. Spatial distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides at the catchment scale (South Central Pyrenees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, A., E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.e [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, Department of Soil and Water, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Apartado 13034, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, L. [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, Department of Soil and Water, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Apartado 13034, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez-Vicente, M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E, B-3001 Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium); Machin, J. [Estacion Experimental de Aula Dei, Department of Soil and Water, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, CSIC, Apartado 13034, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs) were measured in the soils of a small catchment in the Central Pyrenees, Spain. The study was carried out in a mountainous area that was representative of the Tertiary Flysch landscapes in the Southern Pyrenees. Bulk soil cores (n = 77) were collected at the intersections of a 200 x 200-m grid established in the Arnas River Catchment. Mean radioisotope activities (Bq kg{sup -1}) were 40 ({sup 238}U), 27 ({sup 226}Ra), 35 ({sup 232}Th), 74 ({sup 210}Pb), 48 ({sup 210}Pb{sub ex}), 590 ({sup 40}K), and 31 ({sup 137}Cs). The {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs exhibited the greatest variability, whereas {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K showed the least spatial variation. The relationships between basic soil properties and radionuclide activities indicate that only the radionuclides, {sup 210}Pb{sub ex} and {sup 137}Cs, that are fixed to the fine fraction of the soil are directly correlated with the organic matter content, whereas the natural radionuclides are inversely correlated with the carbonate content. GIS and geospatial interpolations revealed patterns in the spatial concentrations of radionuclides and indicated important differences in their distributions showing the different behaviour of natural and fallout-derived radionuclides. The radionuclide spatial patterns were strongly correlated with physiographic features such as gradient, orientation, and vegetation cover of the slopes. Within the catchment, the least vegetated and steepest slopes had the lowest radionuclide activities, which suggest that physical processes such as erosion are primary factors in the mobilization of radionuclides in association with soil particles. The results provide insights into the main factors that have affected the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the soils of the catchment, which improves our knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment

  3. Increasing interannual and altitudinal ozone mixing ratios in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Peñuelas, Josep; Ribas, Àngela

    2009-12-01

    Interannual, seasonal, daily and altitudinal patterns of tropospheric ozone mixing ratios, as well as ozone phytotoxicity and the relationship with NO x precursors and meteorological variables were monitored in the Central Catalan Pyrenees (Meranges valley and Forest of Guils) over a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Biweekly measurements using Radiello passive samplers were taken along two altitudinal transects comprised of thirteen stations ranging from 1040 to 2300 m a.s.l. Visual symptoms of ozone damage in Bel-W3 tobacco cultivars were evaluated biweekly for the first three years (2004-2006). High ozone mixing ratios, always above forest and vegetation protection AOT40 thresholds, were monitored every year. In the last 14 years, the AOT40 (Apr-Sept.) has increased significantly by 1047 μg m -3 h per year. Annual means of ozone mixing ratios ranged between 38 and 67 ppb v (38 and 74 ppb v during the warm period) at the highest site (2300 m) and increased at a rate of 5.1 ppb v year -1. The ozone mixing ratios were also on average 35-38% greater during the warm period and had a characteristic daily pattern with minimum values in the early morning, a rise during the morning and a decline overnight, that was less marked the higher the altitude. Whereas ozone mixing ratios increased significantly with altitude from 35 ppb v at 1040 m-56 ppb v at 2300 m (on average for 2004-2007 period), NO 2 mixing ratios decreased with altitude from 5.5 ppb v at 1040 m-1 ppb v at 2300 m. The analysis of meteorological variables and NO x values suggests that the ozone mainly originated from urban areas and was transported to high-mountain sites, remaining aloft in absence of NO. Ozone damage rates increased with altitude in response to increasing O 3 mixing ratios and a possible increase in O 3 uptake due to more favorable microclimatic conditions found at higher altitude, which confirms Bel-W3 as a suitable biomonitor for ozone concentrations during summer time. Compared to the

  4. Inventory and Spatial distribution of rock glaciers in the Eastern Pyrenees: paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Pérez-Sánchez, Jordi; Salvà-Catarineu, Montserrat; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    In this communication we present a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution and morphometric characteristics of all the rock glaciers identified in the massifs located in the easternmost fringe of the Eastern Pyrenees. From west to east, this area encompasses the massifs of Puigmal (2910 m)-Bastiments (2881 m)-Costabona (2465 m) and Canigó (2784 m). The presence of rock glaciers in these mountains shows evidence of the cold-climate geomorphological processes that occurred during the Late Pleistocene in the Pyrenees. Moreover, they constitute a paleoclimate indicator of the conditions that occurred during their development. Up to 122 rock glaciers have been identified, either formed by individualized or by complex landforms formed by coalescence units. For each of these units several variables have been determined: a) location: topographic and geomorphological setting, valley and flow aspect, maximum and minimum elevation, slope, maximum and mean slope; b) lithology and morphology: underlying/prevailing lithology, general morphology, surface morphological features, grain size characterization, vegetation cover, degree of preservation, maximum elevation of the surrounding area; and c) morphometry: maximum length of the landform in the flow direction, width, perimeter and total surface. The Puigmal-Bastiments-Costabona massifs, most extensive and higher, concentrate 89% of the landforms, while the Canigó massif encompasses the remaining 11%. Most of them are located on the north slopes (69%), with a significant percentage south exposed (31%). In total, they extend over an area of 985 Ha. The distribution of rock glaciers in the study area presents significant irregularities, with a remarkable asymmetry between slopes in some sections. Consequently, we have also analyzed the dual presence/absence of rock glaciers based on the identification and morphometry of all headwaters that due to their altitude and/or morphotopography could be susceptible to house them

  5. 3D architecture of a complex transcurrent rift system: The example of the Bay of Biscay-Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Suzon; Tiberi, Christel; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2010-06-01

    The Parentis and Arzacq-Mauléon basins located in front of the V-shaped oceanic propagator in the Bay of Biscay present evidence for extreme crustal thinning. In this paper we investigate the 3D structure of these rift basins, based on field observations and the interpretation of seismic data. We compare these results with those obtained from two different and independent inversion methods: first a 3D gravity inversion and second the standard Euler deconvolution. For the Mauléon Basin our results show that the positive gravimetric anomaly identified above its southern margin is the consequence of two shallower high density bodies that are separated by the Pamplona fault and a deeper high density body. The high density bodies can be explained by the presence of mid-crustal and mantle rocks that were exhumed or uplifted at shallower depth during Early Cretaceous rifting before they were reworked and integrated to the Pyrenean chain during compression phase. Also, during this reactivation phase, some slices of the exhumed mid-crustal and mantle rocks were sheared off and were integrated in the present-day thrust belt in the Mauléon basin. For the Parentis Basin we can demonstrate, based on seismic data and gravimetric inversion methods, a decrease in extension from west to east, which is compatible with the V-shape geometry of the overall basin. Along strike, a change in the fault geometry from downward concave top-basement detachment faults to upward concave high-angle faults can be observed eastwards, i.e. towards the termination of the basin. A key structure, controlling the evolution of the Parentis Basin, is the east-west trending Ibis fault. We interpret this fault to have initially formed as a strike slip fault before it was reactivated during later crustal thinning. At present, it forms the limit between an upper plate sag basin to the north and a lower plate sag basin, floored at least locally by a top-basement detachment faults to the south. The strong asymmetry of the basin is supported by the shape of the basin and the results of standard Euler deconvolution.

  6. Colluvial legacies of millennial landscape change on individual hillsides, place-based investigation in the western Pyrenees Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Leigh; T.L. Gragson; M.R. Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    We detect transition to agropastoral land use in a mountain landscape by radiocarbon dating physical signatures (sedimentation rates, charcoal concentrations, magnetic susceptibility) of conversion from native forest to pasture contained within colluvial stratigraphic sections. Focus is on two study sites located on toeslopes directly beneath zero-order hollows...

  7. Regional scenarios of mean and extreme precipitation regimes in the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncho, Roberto; Chust, Guillem; Caselles, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    According to different regional projections of climate change for the 21st century, changes in the mean and extreme precipitation regimes are expected in most of Europe (Christensen et al., 2007). Precipitation extreme events, in particular, can generate important natural hazards and associated social impacts. such as increasing the probability of flooding events. The objective of this paper is to calibrate the regional models for mean and extreme precipitation regimes through a reference time series (1961-2000) in the Basque Country. The reference time series have been obtained previously from a spatially reconstruction with a Digital Terrain Model and a multiple regression model. In this study, we have used four regional climate models of ENSEMBLE project: METNO-HIRHAM, UCLM-PROMES, KNMI-RAKMO2 and CNRM-RM4.5, under A1B scenario and the ERA40 climate reanalysis. The analysis of extreme precipitation has been based on a relationship between the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves and the Main-Average-Intensity (MAI) curves (Moncho et al., 2009). The regional climate models showed no significant change in mean annual precipitation in the Basque Country for the period 1961-2000 (0 ± 3% decade-1). This result is consistent with the trend of the reference series, which was not significant (-1 ± 3% decade-1, p-value = 0.51). For the period of 2001 to 2050, the calibration of the model ensemble showed no significant change in trend (-1 ± 3% decade-1, p-value = 0.35). However, some models showed a significant change in mean precipitation from 1961-2000 to 2001-2050 (METNO-HIRHAM, -10 ± 5%, p-value = 0.019) and from 2051-2100 (KNMI-RAKMO2, -8 ± 3%, p-value = 0.007). The model that best fits the reference period 1961-2000 for extreme precipitation was the METNO-HIRHAM model, followed by the UCLM-PROMES and KNMI-RAKMO2 models, therefore, these models would best describe the possible changes in future regimes. After calibrating the projections of the heavy

  8. The importance of cultural factors in the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge: a case study in four Basque regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tardío, Javier; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2015-02-23

    Previous research suggests that the use of medicinal plants by a given group is mainly driven by biological variables such as the chemical composition or the ecological distribution of plants. However, other studies highlight the importance of cultural aspects such as the curative meaning given to a plant, beliefs, religion or the historical context. Such aspects could play an important role in the use, diffusion or even in the effectiveness of a plant remedy. Fieldwork consisted of 233 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 178 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted in four historically and geographycally delimited regions of Alava and Biscay with similar environmental conditions but different sociolinguistic backgrounds: two regions were Basque- and two Spanish-speaking. Data were structured in use-reports. A Between Class Analysis was conducted to assess the intercultural and intracultural variability of medicinal plants knowledge. The results show the existence of four clearly different medicinal ethnofloras. While the four ethnofloras share remedies widely distributed through the territory, each of them also includes remedies that are only shared among closely related communities. The ecological availability and chemical composition of the plants may explain why there are widely used plant remedies. On the contrary, the distribution of the locally shared remedies matches up with the cultural heterogeneity of the territory, so cultural factors, such as, language, social networks or the meaning response of the plants seem to explain the use of many traditional plant remedies. In Addition, we also found that Basque speaking territories show higher knowledge levels than Spanish speaking territories. In this sense, the development and reinforcement of Basque identity by Basque nationalism seems to have contributed to maintain the traditional knowledge in the Basque speaking regions. Despite the fact that pharmacological

  9. Magnetic fabrics in overthrusted terrains: example from the Buntsandstein Facies in the southern edge of the Axial Zone (Nogueres unit, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo Llavall, E.; Casas Sainz, A.; Oliva Urcia, B.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic fabrics in deformed domains are a source of information of the strain rate and the tectonic evolution of the rocks. The present study shows the results derived from the application of this methodological approach to the Permian-Triassic red beds in the western sector of the Nogueres unit and eastern sector of the Gavarnie thrust sheet (Central Pyrenees). From the structural point of view, the sampled domain constitutes a key area since it is located in the transition between the antiformal stack of the Axial Zone to the West, including non-overturned basement thrust sheets, and the têtes plongeantes domain of the Nogueres unit to the East. The latter comprises three folded thrust sheets, involving Stephanian, Permian and Triassic rocks, whose fronts define several synformal anticlines. Alpine cleavage is generally absent within the têtes plongantes domain but Triassic outcrops located North and West are affected by WNW-ESE-striking, North-dipping cleavage planes. Samples for the study of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility were collected from 31 sites, distributed throughout the different structural domains (in the têtes plongeantes domain and in the red beds unconformably overlying the Paleozoic, North and West of the Nogueres unit). Measurements of the magnetic fabric were made at room and low temperature (~77°K) with a KLY-3S susceptibility meter (AGICO, Czech Republic) that combined with a CS-3 apparatus was also used to perform thermomagnetic runs. Mean magnetic susceptibility (Km) in the sampled sites ranges between 35 and 221·10-6 S.I. It is lower in the sandstones (

  10. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, P.; Sanjuán-López, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW) and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213). Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22%) to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%). Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP), while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP. (Author)

  11. New species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Europe: Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Malicky, Hans

    2015-01-20

    New species are described from the genera Consorophylax and Anisogamus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Stenophylacini). Additionally the larva of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, the male of A. waringeri sp. nov. has more-slender superior appendages; a more-rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of species in the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on abdominal segment I, a unique feature among Eurasian Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The discovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess an incompletely described biodiversity under threat of extinction. 

  12. Effects of reclamation measures on plant colonization on lignite waste in the eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninot, J.M.; Herrero, P.; Ferre, A.; Guardia, R. [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Plant Biology

    2001-07-01

    This paper deals with vegetation establishment on waste dumps in the montane and submontane belts of the eastern Pyrenees, where submediterranean Quercus humilis forests, Pinus sylvestris forests and mesoxerophilous pastures make up most of the landscape; these are considered as target communities for reclamation. The waste consists of marl and lime regolith, very poor in nutrients and structure. The dumps were terraced in 1985-1986; some were left for spontaneous re-colonization and others were reclaimed in various ways. In 1992 the authors took 36 vegetation samples on the dumps, based on the point quadrat procedure, to evaluate the colonization status and the differences between reclamation techniques. The samples were analysed on the basis of their species composition (ecological groups and multivariate analysis) and structural aspects (coverage, diversity, etc.). Reclamation treatment results varied widely, most of the dumps showing a low degree of naturalness. Colonizing vegetation ranged from a mixture of opportunist and stress-resistant taxa, forming poorly covered surfaces on the dumps where colonization has been poor, to dense grasslands dominated by one (or a few) introduced competitive grass species, where reclamation procedures had been intensive. Sowing treatments, where pasture species were sown onto dumps, produced intermediate results, as resulting vegetation cover was similar to control plots and naturalness was low, but in a few cases they yielded more interesting swards, fairly dense and diverse, and including high numbers of spontaneous species. Choice of sown species and proximity to undisturbed vegetation accelerate succession.

  13. A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, M.; Pérez-Sanz, A.; Corella, J. P.; Büntgen, U.; Catalán, J.; González-Sampériz, P.; González-Trueba, J. J.; López-Sáez, J. A.; Moreno, A.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Saz-Sánchez, M. Á.; Scussolini, P.; Serrano, E.; Steinhilber, F.; Stefanova, V.; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T.; Valero-Garcés, B.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews multi-proxy paleoclimatic reconstructions with robust age-control derived from lacustrine, dendrochronological and geomorphological records and characterizes the main environmental changes that occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ca. 900-1300 AD), with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes). The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300-1800 AD) was generally colder and moister, with an expansion of deciduous taxa and cold-adapted montane conifers. Two major phases occurred within this period: (i) a transition MCA-LIA, characterized by fluctuating, moist conditions and relatively cold temperatures (ca. 1300 and 1600 AD); and (ii) a second period, characterized by the coldest and most humid conditions, coinciding with maximum (recent) glacier advances (ca. 1600-1800 AD). Glaciers retreated after the LIA when warmer and more arid conditions dominated, interrupted by a short-living cooling episode during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. Some records suggest a response to solar activity with colder and slightly moister conditions during solar minima. Centennial-scale hydrological fluctuations are in phase with reconstructions of NAO variability, which appears to be one of the main climate mechanisms influencing rainfall variations in the region during the last millennium.

  14. A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morellón

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews multi-proxy paleoclimatic reconstructions with robust age-control derived from lacustrine, dendrochronological and geomorphological records and characterizes the main environmental changes that occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, ca. 900–1300 AD, with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes. The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300–1800 AD was generally colder and moister, with an expansion of deciduous taxa and cold-adapted montane conifers. Two major phases occurred within this period: (i a transition MCA–LIA, characterized by fluctuating, moist conditions and relatively cold temperatures (ca. 1300 and 1600 AD; and (ii a second period, characterized by the coldest and most humid conditions, coinciding with maximum (recent glacier advances (ca. 1600–1800 AD. Glaciers retreated after the LIA when warmer and more arid conditions dominated, interrupted by a short-living cooling episode during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. Some records suggest a response to solar activity with colder and slightly moister conditions during solar minima. Centennial-scale hydrological fluctuations are in phase with reconstructions of NAO variability, which appears to be one of the main climate mechanisms influencing rainfall variations in the region during the last millennium.

  15. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI technique, (SPN, has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain. The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  16. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, G.; Davalillo, J. C.; Mulas, J.; Cooksley, G.; Monserrat, O.; Pancioli, V.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) technique, (SPN), has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain). The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs) in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  17. Holocene history of fire, vegetation and land use from the central Pyrenees (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Damien; Vannière, Boris; Galop, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Located on a mountain pass in the west-central Pyrenees, the Col d'Ech peat bog provides a Holocene fire and vegetation record based upon nine 14C (AMS) dates. We aim to compare climate-driven versus human-driven fire regimes in terms of frequency, fire episodes distribution, and impact on vegetation. Our results show the mid-Holocene (8500-5500 cal yr BP) to be characterized by high fire frequency linked with drier and warmer conditions. However, fire occurrences appear to have been rather stochastic as underlined by a scattered chronological distribution. Wetter and colder conditions at the mid-to-late Holocene transition (4000-3000 cal yr BP) led to a decrease in fire frequency, probably driven by both climate and a subsequent reduction in human land use. On the contrary, from 3000 cal yr BP, fire frequency seems to be driven by agro-pastoral activities with a very regular distribution of events. During this period fire was used as a prominent agent of landscape management.

  18. Deglaciation in the central Pyrenees during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: Timing and geomorphological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, David; García-Ruiz, José M.; Andrés, Nuria; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Campos, Néstor; Léanni, Laëtitia; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier L.; Keddadouche, Karim

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we document deglaciation in a sector of the southern-central Pyrenees (the Panticosa massif and the upper Gállego and Ossau valleys) using cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) dating methods, which were applied to samples from high altitude polished rock steps and rock glacier boulders. The obtained CRE dates show a coherent spatial distribution and confirm results previously obtained in this study area, thus demonstrating the reliability and robustness of the method. The results of analyses based on two distinct isotopes (10Be and 36Cl) are consistent, although the error is higher for results based on the 36Cl isotope. The study provides evidence for ice extent in the High Gállego Valley during the Oldest Dryas, with glacial advance until the bottom of the valleys, although the main glacier tongues remained disconnected from each other. During this period, the extent of glacier advance was directly related to the elevation of the associated summits. The Younger Dryas glaciers were constrained to cirques or very short ice tongues, and dating of the polished rock steps indicates that the ice masses were present until the first millennium of the Holocene. The Brazato rock glacier developed at the beginning of the Holocene and remained active until the Holocene Thermal Optimum, because of the protective effect of large masses of blocks and boulders.

  19. Snowpack modelling in the Pyrenees driven by kilometric-resolution meteorological forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéno, Louis; Vionnet, Vincent; Dombrowski-Etchevers, Ingrid; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Dumont, Marie; Karbou, Fatima

    2016-07-01

    Distributed snowpack simulations in the French and Spanish Pyrenees are carried out using the detailed snowpack model Crocus driven by the numerical weather prediction system AROME at 2.5 km grid spacing, during four consecutive winters from 2010 to 2014. The aim of this study is to assess the benefits of a kilometric-resolution atmospheric forcing to a snowpack model for describing the spatial variability of the seasonal snow cover over a mountain range. The evaluation is performed by comparisons to ground-based measurements of the snow depth, the snow water equivalent and precipitations, to satellite snow cover images and to snowpack simulations driven by the SAFRAN analysis system. Snow depths simulated by AROME-Crocus exhibit an overall positive bias, particularly marked over the first summits near the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation of mesoscale orographic effects by AROME gives a realistic regional snowpack variability, unlike SAFRAN-Crocus. The categorical study of daily snow depth variations gives a differentiated perspective of accumulation and ablation processes. Both models underestimate strong snow accumulations and strong snow depth decreases, which is mainly due to the non-simulated wind-induced erosion, the underestimation of strong melting and an insufficient settling after snowfalls. The problematic assimilation of precipitation gauge measurements is also emphasized, which raises the issue of a need for a dedicated analysis to complement the benefits of AROME kilometric resolution and dynamical behaviour in mountainous terrain.

  20. Rift-to-collision transition recorded by tectonothermal evolution of the northern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacherat, Arnaud; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël.; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Gautheron, Cécile; Bernet, Matthias; Daudet, Maxime; Balansa, Jocelyn; Tibari, Bouchaib; Pinna Jamme, Rosella; Radal, Julien

    2016-04-01

    The impact of rift-related processes on tectonic and thermal evolution of collisional orogens is poorly documented. Here, we study the northern Pyrenees, a region that has preserved a geological record of the transition from rifting to collision. Using modeling of new low-temperature thermochronological data, including fission track and (U-Th)/He on apatite and zircon, we propose a temporal reconstruction of the inversion of the European rifted margin. Our data confirm that rifting and related cooling started in the Late Paleozoic-Triassic. Throughout the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous the European margin recorded slow heating during postrift subdsidence. Modeling of thermochronological data allows distinguishing subsidence and denudation controlled by south dipping normal faults in granitic massifs that reflect a second episode of crustal thinning at 130-110 Ma. Following onset of convergence at 83 Ma, shortening accumulated into the weak and hot Albian-Cenomanian rift basins floored by both hyperextended continental crust and exhumed subcontinental mantle. The lack of cooling during this initial stage of convergence is explained by the persistence of a high geothermal gradient. The onset of exhumation-related cooling is recognized in the whole Pyrenean region at 50-35 Ma. This timing reveals that the main phase of mountain building started when hyperextended rift basins closed and collision between proximal domains of the rifted margin occurred.

  1. CHANGES IN THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF A VALLEY IN THE PYRENEES (CATALONIA, SPAIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Pámpanas, Leyre; García, David; Pettener, Davide; González-Martin, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In some situations the use of isonymy is the best strategy for studying the genetic structure of a population and its biological history. In this study different population parameters were calculated for one of the most isolated valleys in the Pyrenees - the region of the Alta Ribagorça in Catalonia, Spain. Surnames from marriage records covering the continuous period from 1638 to 1988 were used. From 1950 onwards this region underwent important social, economic and biological changes related to the introduction of hydroelectric and mining industries, and the change from livestock farming to a society based on services. Two periods were analysed (1638-1950 and 1951-1988) allowing population changes that occurred in the region to be determined. The study focused on calculating the number of surnames by gender, diversity index (H), population sub-structure (RP-RPr)/RPr and inbreeding coefficient (F t) and detection of possible genetic barriers. The results demonstrate the importance that geography initially had in shaping the genetic structure of the population and how this was gradually replaced by other parameters such as roads or the social and economic importance of towns. An interesting phenomenon is that inbreeding has traditionally been associated with rural life, isolation and endogamy. However, for the Alta Ribagorça it was observed that in the second period, 1951-1988, inbreeding mainly depended on the composition of migrant groups and the reaction of the native population to the arrival of migrants from outside the region.

  2. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  3. A Tylosaurine Mosasauridae (Squamata from the Late Cretaceous of the Basque-Cantabrian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corral, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An isolated mosasaurid tooth from the Campanian of Alava (Basque Country, previously referred to as cf. Mosasaurus sp., is here reattributed to a tylosaurine. It may belong to Tylosaurus, a nearly cosmopolitan genus known from the Santonian-Maastrichtian. This is the first occurrence of a tylosaurine mosasaurid in the Iberian Peninsula. Moreover, it corresponds to the southernmost occurrence of this clade in the northern margin of the Mediterranean Tethys. ylosaurinae fossils are known from North America, Europe, New Zealand, Antarctica, Africa and Asia, but remain unknown from the southern Mediterranean Tethyan margin and from tropical palaeolatitudes.Un diente aislado de mosasaurio procedente del Campaniense de Álava (País Vasco, previamente asignado a cf. Mosasaurus sp., se atribuye en este trabajo a un tilosaurino. Podría pertenecer a Tylosaurus, un género cuasi cosmopolita del Santoniense-Maastrichtiense. Es la primera cita de un mosasáurido tilosaurino en la Península Ibérica. Además, se trata del registro más meridional de este clado en el margen norte del Tetis mediterráneo. Los Tylosaurinae están representados por fósiles en Norteamérica, Europa, Nueva Zelanda, Antártida, África y Asia, pero carecen de registro en el margen sur del Tetis mediterráneo y en paleolatitudes tropicales.

  4. [Main results of the colorectal cancer screening program in the Basque Country (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Isabel; Idígoras, Isabel; Ojembarrena, Enrique; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Zubero, Miren Begoña; Pijoán, José Ignacio; López Urrutia, Antonio; Marqués, María Luz

    2013-01-01

    To describe the procedures of the colorectal cancer screening program in the Basque Country (Spain), and the main results of the first rounds in 2009-2011. We carried out a retrospective study of invitations to attend screening between 2009 and 2011. Participation rates and the number of positive results of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) were analyzed by sex and age group. There were 235.371 valid invitations (sent to the correct addresses), with an average participation rate of 64.3% (95%CI: 64.1-64.5%). Significant differences were found (p<0,001) between women (67.1%; 95%CI: 66.9-67.4) and men (61.4%; 95%CI: 61.1-61.7). The rate of positive FOBT results was higher (p<0,001) among men (9.1%; 95%CI: 8.9-9.2) than among women (4.8%; 95%CI: 4.7-4.9). Participation rates were adequate compared with those in the reviewed literature. These rates were probably affected by the invitation strategy and by cultural and social factors. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic constraints on transverse fault kinematics during basin inversion: The Pamplona Fault (Pyrenees, north Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LarrasoañA, Juan Cruz; ParéS, Josep MaríA.; MilláN, HéCtor; Del Valle, JoaquíN.; Pueyo, Emilio Luis

    2003-12-01

    The Pamplona Fault in the Pyrenees is a major transverse structure that has been classically interpreted as a strike-slip fault. However, lack of consensus concerning the sense of movement casts doubt on its actual kinematics and, as a consequence, its role in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pyrenees remains controversial. In order to assess its kinematics, we have conducted a paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic study focused on the Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks that outcrop around the southern segment of the fault. Restoration of balanced cross sections allows us to examine the present-day spatial relationship of the sedimentary sequences on both sides of the fault and to reconstruct the geometry of the extensional basins formed during Mesozoic rifting episodes in the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenean domains. Paleomagnetic results indicate that no significant tectonic rotations occurred around the fault during Tertiary inversion of the Pyrenees. The lack of tectonic rotations and revaluation of previous hypotheses argues against a strike-slip movement of the fault. We propose a new model in which the Pamplona Fault is treated as a large-scale "hanging wall drop" fault whose kinematics was determined by variations in the geometry and thickness of Mesozoic sequences on both sides of the fault. These variations influenced the geometry of the thrust sheet developed during Tertiary compression. We are unaware of any other transverse fault that has been interpreted in this fashion; thus the Pamplona Fault serves as a case study for the evolution of transverse faults involved in basin inversion processes.

  6. Literature, Society and Law: a Three-sided Mirror. The Basque Case. How Contemporary Literature Reflects Identity, Conflict And Memory In The “Spanish” Basque Country: A Tridimensional Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ortuoste Ibarzabal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this thesis is to show how the Basque-culture identity struggles are reflected within the Basque literature and how their actions, behaviour, traditions, culture, memory, language, etcetera, define them as a community or minority. In order to show the reflection of the law in five chosen novels written in Basque, firstly I will try to explain the link between law and literature, and afterwards, a double analytical construction will take place: on the first hand, a descriptive and historical explanation to provide the audience with the meaning of the three basic concepts which constitute the Basque culture -identity, conflict and memory-, and with a socio-historical context; on the second hand, this analysis will be based on the content analysis of the five novels that have been chosen, and contextualized or in relation to the period that goes from the Civil War (1936-1939 to the post-war and nowadays, with special insistences in the decade of the 1980s and 1990s.El objetivo de esta tesis es mostrar cómo los conflictos identitarios de la cultura vasca se reflejan en la literatura, y cómo sus acciones, comportamiento, tradiciones, cultura, memoria, lengua, etc., lo definen como comunidad o minoría. Para mostrar la manera en que se refleja lo jurídico en cinco novelas seleccionadas escritas en lengua vasca, primero intentaré explicar la relación entre derecho y literatura, y después, llevaré a cabo una doble construcción analítica: de un lado, una explicación descriptiva e histórica, para proporcionar tanto un significado de los tres conceptos básicos que constituyen la cultura vasca -identidad, conflicto y memoria- como un contexto sociohistórico; y, por otro lado, este análisis se basa en el análisis de contenido de las cinco novelas seleccionadas y contextualizadas en, o en relación con el período entre la Guerra civil (1936-1939 y posguerra, y la actualidad, con especial insistencia en la década de los 80 y los 90

  7. Testing the reliability of detrital cave sediments as recorders of paleomagnetic secular variations, Seso Cave System (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno Caballud, Ana; Gil-Romera, Graciela; Sancho Marcén, Carlos; Muñoz, Arsenio; Osácar, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study has been carried out on a waterlaid detrital sedimentary sequence of ~240cm thick within the Seso Cave System (West-Central Pyrenees). In these sediments, seven charcoal samples were dated using 14C AMS ranging from 2080 to 650calyrBP (130BC-1300AD). Two levels of human occupation of the cave have been recognized by ceramics associated to the Iberian Period and to the Roman Period, respectively. The detrital sedimentary sequence is made of autochthonous (piping detached ...

  8. Evaluation of health benefits and harms of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country using discrete event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrospide, Arantzazu; Rue, Montserrat; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Comas, Merce; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sarriugarte, Garbiñe; Mar, Javier

    2015-10-12

    Since the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country (BCSPBC) was started in 1996, more than 400,000 women aged 50 to 69 years have been invited to participate. Based on epidemiological observations and simulation techniques it is possible to extend observed short term data into anticipated long term results. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the programme through 2011 by quantifying the outcomes in breast cancer mortality, life-years gained, false positive results, and overdiagnosis. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to reproduce the natural history of breast cancer (disease-free, pre-clinical, symptomatic, and disease-specific death) and the actual observed characteristics of the screening programme during the evaluated period in the Basque women population. Goodness-of-fit statistics were applied for model validation. The screening effects were measured as differences in benefits and harms between the screened and unscreened populations. Breast cancer mortality reduction and life-years gained were considered as screening benefits, whereas, overdiagnosis and false positive results were assessed as harms. Results for a single cohort were also obtained. The screening programme yielded a 16 % reduction in breast cancer mortality and a 10 % increase in the incidence of breast cancer through 2011. Almost 2 % of all the women in the programme had a false positive result during the evaluation period. When a single cohort was analysed, the number of deaths decreased by 13 %, and 4 % of screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. Each woman with BC detected by the screening programme gained 2.5 life years due to early detection corrected by lead time. Fifteen years after the screening programme started, this study supports an important decrease in breast cancer mortality due to the screening programme, with reasonable risk of overdiagnosis and false positive results, and sustains the continuation of the breast cancer

  9. Validity Study of Catalan, Galician and Basque Language Versions of the COPD Assessment Test and Equivalence With the Spanish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Alvar; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Capelastegui, Alberto; García-Losa, Manuel; Velasco, Beatriz; Sánchez, Guadalupe

    2017-06-01

    To assess the linguistic equivalence of the COPD Assessment Test versions in Catalan (CAT-C), Galician (CAT-G) and Basque (CAT-V) with the validated Spanish version (CAT) in COPD patients able to use both official languages. Study performed in primary care centers in Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country. Half of the patients completed the questionnaire in their local language followed by the CAT in Spanish, while the other half did so in reverse order. 151 COPD patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 69.0 (SD: 9.7) years. Most (79.5%) were men, 11.3% were educated up touniversity level, and 31.8% were current smokers. Mean FEV1 was 61.4% (SD: 16.8) predicted and 83.9% of patients were GOLD grade i or ii. Concordance between CAT-C, CAT-G and CAT-V and CAT was high, with differences between scores from 0.4 to-0.5. Reliability (Cronbach's alpha) ranged from0.72 to0.86. Convergent validity, when correlated with the Medical Research Council Dyspnea scale (P=.003) and Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (ICC, r=0.74) scores, was significant. CAT-C, CAT-G and CAT-V scores were similar to CAT scores, with high correlation and concordance. These results show the equivalence between the validated Spanish CAT and the versionin other languages, so CAT-C, CAT-G and CAT-V can be used in individuals whose main language is Catalan, Galician or Basque. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Immediate changes in topsoil chemical properties after controlled shrubland burning in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre-Galarza, Raquel; Fernández Campos, Marta; Badía-Villas, David; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Girona-García, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed fire has recently been adopted as an encroachment-fighting strategy in the Central Pyrenees. Despite relatively large information on wildfire impacts on soil, there is little information on prescribed fire effects, especially in mountain ecosystems (Shakesby et al, 2015). Fire effects are noticeable in the topsoil, particularly in relation to soil organic matter and nutrient contents and quality (Alexis et al, 2012). These components change with time after fire and at the scale of the upper few centimetres of mineral soil (Badía et al, 2014). The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effects of prescribed shrubland burning on soil's nutrients and organic matter content to detect changes at cm-scale, trying to differentiate the heat shock from the subsequent incorporation of ash and charcoal. The study area, densely covered with spiny broom (Echinospartum horridum), is located in Tella (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) at 1900 meters above sea level. Three sites were sampled before burning and immediately after burning just in its adjacent side. The soils belong to the WRB unit Leptic Eutric Cambisol, Soil samples were collected separating carefully the organic layers (litter in unburned soils and ashes and fire-altered organic residues in burned soils) and the mineral horizon at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved to 2 mm. Soil organic C (by the wet oxidation method), total N (Kjeldahl method), water-soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4=, NO3- and NH4+), exchangeable ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+ and Mn2+), total and available P, pH (1:5) and the electrical conductivity (in a 1:10 soil-to-water ratio) were measured. Immediately after the controlled fire, soil organic carbon content on burned topsoil decreases significantly within 0-3 cm of soil depth studied while total N decrease was not significant. Moreover, only a slight increase of the electrical conductivity, water-soluble ions and exchangeable ions was

  11. CYP2C9 polymorphism in five autochthonous population of the same geographic area (Spanish Pyrenees).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borobia, Alberto M; López-Parra, Ana María; Tabarés, Beatriz; Ramirez, Elena; Baeza, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Carcas, Antonio J

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the frequency of CYP2C9 polymorphisms in a cohort of Caucasians (Spanish Pyrenees), previously classified in autochthonous populations. Blood samples from 154 anonymous volunteer donors were collected. All the individuals were autochthonous to their respective populations (four grandparents born in the region): 23 from Valle de Arán (Lérida), 29 from Alto Urgel (Lérida), 32 from La Cerdaña (Gerona), 30 from Jacetania (Huesca) and 40 from Cinco Villas (Navarra). The analyses for allelic mutation, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, were identified with Taqman Allelic Discrimination kits. No statistical differences were found when allelic frequencies in the five autochthonous populations were compared. Frequency distribution of genotypic classes (wt/wt, wt/mut and mut/mut) in Alto Urgel was different from that in La Cerdaña, Cinco Villas and Jacetania samples. Comparison of Pyrenean and other European populations through exact test revealed significant differences in the distribution of genotypic classes: Alto Urgel, Barcelona, and Croatia yielded the highest significant differences. According to the exact test these populations were pooled in four groups. This classification produced a statistically significant percentage of variation explained by differences among groups (1.94%, P= 0.036), but not by differences among populations within groups (P=0.914), although most of the percentage of variance is explained by differences within populations (97.46%, P<0.001). This study increases the evidence of intra-population genotypic variability and highlights the significant genotypic heterogeneity when different autochthonous populations are considered, despite no clear differences in allelic frequencies do exist.

  12. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Cleavage development within a foreland fold and thrust belt, southern Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, James E.; Anastasio, David J.

    1995-03-01

    In the southern Pyrenees lithologically distinct cleavage fronts are each parallel to bedding and dip ˜20° towards the foreland. Pressure solution was the dominant mechanism of cleavage development. The mudstone cleavage front is coincident with the ˜195°C paleoisotherm and is associated with a pressure solution strain of ˜5%, a mechanical twin strain of ˜4%, and a deviatoric stress magnitude of ˜65 MPa. Illite crystallinity measurements define a geothermal gradient of 15°C km -1 and indicate that the paleoisotherms are bedding-parallel. Deviatoric stress magnitudes, from calcite twins, were regionally constant at ˜65 MPa and principal stress axes were perpendicular to cleavage. Temperature was the primary control on deformation micromechanisms and the position and orientation of the cleavage front within the foreland thrust wedge. Deformation below the cleavage front occurs predominantly by pressure solution, which in conjunction with mechanical twinning and microfracturing produces a quasi-plastic rheology. Stress magnitudes determined from mechanical twinning of carbonate grains and long-term (10 6-10 76 y) strain rates determined for regional folds and faults suggest an apparent macroscopic viscosity of 9.8 × 10 18 to 7.2 × 10 19 Pa s for the lower thrust wedge. Above the cleavage front temperature, pressure solution strain, total strain, and mesoscale deformation diminish. The region of the thrust wedge above the ˜100°C paleoisotherm is characterized by large brittle faults with cataclastic fault zones and negligible grain-scale deformation indicating an elastico-frictional rheology.

  14. Human-Related Forest Fires in the Subalpine Belt of the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán, Yasmina; María García-Ruiz, José; Beguería, Santiago; Serrano-Muela, María Pilar; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Arnáez, José

    2014-05-01

    The subalpine belt of the Central Pyrenees ranges approximately between 1700 and 2200 m a.s.l. This area should be covered with dense forests of Pinus sylvestris and P. uncinata, with increasingly open formations towards the upper forest limit. At present, most of the subalpine belt is occupied with grasslands due to human-induced deforestation for enlarging the area occupied by summer pastures. Two are the most important scientific problems related to deforestation of the subalpine belt: (i) the timing of deforestation, and (ii) the geomorphic consequences of a sudden substitution of forests by grasslands. Up to now, intense deforestation is clearly recorded in regional palaeoenvironmental sequences since the Middle Ages and, traditionally, this practice was usually attributed to large fires with the purpose of balance the winter and summer pasture resources. Nevertheless, the presence of abundant remnants of prehistoric monuments (dolmens, cromlechs, tumulus) in the subalpine belt induced to think in a previous seasonal presence of human populations, most probably practicing some primitive type of transhumance. This would only be possible if part of the subalpine forests would be burnt to allow a limited expansion of grasslands, despite the consequences in the landscape of this kind of practices were not permanent in time. We present here new dates of fire occurrence from charcoal obtained from soils in the hillslopes and from lacustrine sediments. Two periods of human-induced fires have been identified: (i) between 2500 and 2000 cal. yr BP, and (ii) between 1100 and 900 cal yr BP. The consequences of deforestation can be easily observed in the landscape, particularly shallow landslide activity, gelifluction, solifluction and the rapid development of parallel incisions in the steepest slopes.

  15. Hydro-morphological dynamics of traditional shifting agriculture in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; Serrano, Pili

    2014-05-01

    Shifting agriculture is still a traditional practice in many countries worldwide. In Mediterranean mountains, shifting agriculture was used for cereal crops until the middle of the 20th century, in times of high population pressure. Very steep slopes far from the villages and with poor soils were plowed. In the Central Spanish Pyrenees, shifting agriculture accounted on average 22.8% of the total cultivated area, representing about 4% of the territory. In order to know the hydro-morphological consequences and the effects in the landscape, cereal crops were reproduced in experimental plots during 20 years (1992-2011). Specifically, 4 plots were selected: (i) fertilized cereal (barley), (ii) shifting cereal (barley), (iii) abandoned field after shifting cereal and (iv) dense scrub. Results show that shifting agriculture produces the highest runoff coefficients (mean value of 19.5%), while runoff coefficient in the fertilized cereal is 13.5% and in the dense scrub cover the mean value is 4.6%. Soil losses are also higher in the shifting agriculture (1356 kg/ha/year) than in the fertilized cereal (858 kg/ha/year) and in the dense scrub cover (166 kg/ha/year). Abandonment after shifting agriculture involves a fast herbaceous growing (100% after 6 years) and a slow scrub growing (40% after 16 years). The increase in vegetation cover represents a slow decrease in runoff coefficient and a more pronounced decrease in soil erosion rates. However, in old shifting system cultivated slopes, severe erosion processes can be observed after decades of abandonment, which explains the landscape degradation and the occurrence of shallow landslides, and the frequent presence of stone pavement.

  16. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees) since the end of the Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, R.; Gascoin, S.; Houet, T.; Ribière, O.; Laffly, D.; Condom, T.; Monnier, S.; Schmutz, M.; Camerlynck, C.; Tihay, J. P.; Soubeyroux, J. M.; René, P.

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the fluctuations of the Pyrenean glaciers. In this study, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2), which is located in the central Pyrenees, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) onwards. To do so, length, area, thickness, and mass changes in the glacier were generated from historical data sets, topographical surveys, glaciological measurements (2001-2013), a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey (2006), and stereoscopic satellite images (2013). The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60 % of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion were identified: 1850-1890, 1928-1950, and 1983-2013, as well as two short periods of stabilization: 1890-1894, 1905-1913, and a longer period of slight growth: 1950-1983; these agree with other Pyrenean glacier reconstructions (Maladeta, Coronas, Taillon glaciers). Pyrenean and Alpine glaciers exhibit similar multidecadal variations during the 20th century, with a stable period detected at the end of the 1970s and periods of ice depletion during the 1940s and since the 1980s. Ossoue Glacier fluctuations generally concur with climatic data (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation). Geodetic mass balance over 1983-2013 was -1.04 ± 0.06 w.e.a-1 (-31.3 ± 1.9 m w.e.), whereas glaciological mass balance was -1.45 ± 0.85 m w.e. a-1 (-17.3 ± 2.9 m w.e.) over 2001-2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate remains constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  17. Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees since the end of the Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the fluctuations of the Pyrenean glaciers. In this study, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2, which is located in the central Pyrenees, from the Little Ice Age (LIA onwards. To do so, length, area, thickness, and mass changes in the glacier were generated from historical data sets, topographical surveys, glaciological measurements (2001–2013, a ground penetrating radar (GPR survey (2006, and stereoscopic satellite images (2013. The glacier has receded considerably since the end of the LIA, losing 40 % of its length and 60 % of its area. Three periods of marked ice depletion were identified: 1850–1890, 1928–1950, and 1983–2013, as well as two short periods of stabilization: 1890–1894, 1905–1913, and a longer period of slight growth: 1950–1983; these agree with other Pyrenean glacier reconstructions (Maladeta, Coronas, Taillon glaciers. Pyrenean and Alpine glaciers exhibit similar multidecadal variations during the 20th century, with a stable period detected at the end of the 1970s and periods of ice depletion during the 1940s and since the 1980s. Ossoue Glacier fluctuations generally concur with climatic data (air temperature, precipitation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geodetic mass balance over 1983–2013 was −1.04 ± 0.06 w.e.a−1 (−31.3 ± 1.9 m w.e., whereas glaciological mass balance was −1.45 ± 0.85 m w.e. a−1 (−17.3 ± 2.9 m w.e. over 2001–2013, resulting in a doubling of the ablation rate in the last decade. In 2013 the maximum ice thickness was 59 ± 10.3 m. Assuming that the current ablation rate remains constant, Ossoue Glacier will disappear midway through the 21st century.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in snow accumulation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, I.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Water stored in winter snowpack represents a valuable resource in mountainous regions. The distribution of the snow determines the availability of water resources during snowmelt period, as well as the development of the economy based on winter sports. This work analyses the main factors that explain the variation in snow accumulation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Data about evolution of snowpack is provided by the measurement of 106 sticks installed in the study area from 1985. The snow depth is measured in two moments of the year, at the beginning of March and at the end of April or beginning of May. Snow depth, of both measurements moments, has been mapped using linear regression between snow depth and different topographic and geographic variables derived from the digital terrain model. In order to improve the estimation interpolated residuals values have been subtracted. The variability of the interannual snow distribution has been analysed with a factorial analysis in order to obtain different annual patterns of snowpack distribution. Relation between the dominant winter weather-type and the different patterns, provided by the factorial analysis, has been studied. The weather-type classification has been obtained using the Jenkinson and Collison system based on daily series of sea level atmospheric pressure measured around the Iberian Peninsula with a 5º x 10º scale. Thus, it is possible to know the influence of the prevailing winter synoptic situations in the snowpack distribution. The results show that topographic and geographic variables have a high capacity to explain the spatial distribution of the average snow cover during the study period. Nevertheless, the annual snow accumulation is the result of the arrival of frontal disturbances that come from different directions. By that, it is complex to relate the different snow distribution patterns to the main winter synoptic conditions of each year.

  19. Forecasting and modelling ice layer formation on the snowpack due to freezing precipitations in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéno, Louis; Vionnet, Vincent; Cabot, Frédéric; Vrécourt, Dominique; Dombrowski-Etchevers, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    In the Pyrenees, freezing precipitations in altitude occur at least once per winter, leading to the formation of a pure ice layer on the surface of the snowpack. It may lead to accidents and fatalities among mountaineers and skiers, with sometimes a higher human toll than avalanches. Such events are not predicted by the current operational systems for snow and avalanche hazard forecasting. A crowd-sourced database of surface ice layer occurrences is first built up, using reports from Internet mountaineering and ski-touring communities, to mitigate the lack of observations from conventional observation networks. A simple diagnostic of freezing precipitation is then developed, based on the cloud water content and screen temperature forecast by the Numerical Weather Prediction model AROME, operating at 2.5-km resolution. The performance of this diagnostic is assessed for the event of 5-6 January 2012, with a good representation of altitudinal and spatial distributions of the ice layer. An evaluation of the diagnostic for major events over five winters gives good skills of detection compared to the occurrences reported in the observation database. A new modelling of ice formation on the surface of the snowpack due to impinging supercooled water is added to the detailed snowpack model Crocus. It is combined to the atmospheric diagnostic of freezing precipitations and resulting snowpack simulations over a winter season capture well the formation of the main ice layers. Their influence on the snowpack stratigraphy is also realistically simulated. These simple methods enable to forecast the occurrence of surface ice layer formations with good confidence and to simulate their evolution within the snowpack, even if an accurate estimation of freezing precipitation amounts remains the main challenge.

  20. Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The SHETRAN model for simulating the sediment yield arising from shallow landslides at the scale of a river catchment was applied to the 45-km2 Ijuez catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees, to investigate the effect of loss of forest cover on landslide and debris flow incidence and on catchment sediment yield. The application demonstrated how such a model, with a large number of parameters to be evaluated, can be used even when directly measured data are not available: rainfall and discharge time series were generated by reference to other local records and data providing the basis for a soil map were obtained by a short field campaign. Uncertainty bounds for the outputs were determined as a function of the uncertainty in the values of key model parameters. For a four-year period and for the existing forested state of the catchment, a good ability to simulate the observed long term spatial distribution of debris flows (represented by a 45-year inventory and to determine catchment sediment yield within the range of regional observations was demonstrated. The lower uncertainty bound on simulated landslide occurrence approximated the observed annual rate of landsliding and suggests that landslides provide a relatively minor proportion of the total sediment yield, at least in drier years. A scenario simulation in which the forest cover was replaced by grassland indicated an increase in landsliding but a decrease in the number of landslides which evolve into debris flows and, at least for drier years, a reduction in sediment delivery to the channel network.

  1. The fluvial sediment budget of a dammed river (upper Muga, southern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, G.; Batalla, R. J.; López, R.; Sabater, S.

    2017-09-01

    Many rivers in the Mediterranean region are regulated for urban and agricultural purposes. Reservoir presence and operation results in flow alteration and sediment discontinuity, altering the longitudinal structure of the fluvial system. This study presents a 3-year sediment budget of a highly dammed Mediterranean river (the Muga, southern Pyrenees), which has experienced flow regulation since the 1969 owing to a 61-hm3 reservoir. Flow discharge and suspended sediment concentration were monitored immediately upstream and downstream from the reservoir, whereas bedload transport was estimated by means of bedload formulae and estimated from regional data. Results show how the dam modifies river flow, reducing the magnitude of floods and shortening its duration. At the same time, duration of low flows increases. The downstream flow regime follows reservoir releases that are mostly driven by the irrigation needs in the lowlands. Likewise, suspended sediment and bedload transport are shown to be notably affected by the dam. Sediment transport upstream was mainly associated with floods and was therefore concentrated in short periods of time (i.e., > 90% of the sediment load occurred in sediments were transported more constantly (i.e., 90% of the load was carried during 50% of the time). Total sediment load upstream from the dam equalled 23,074 t, while downstream it was sediment load was equally distributed between suspension and bedload (i.e., 10,278 and 12,796 t respectively), whereas suspension dominated sediment transport downstream. More than 95% of the sediments transported from the upstream basins were trapped in the reservoir, a fact that explains the sediment deficit and the river bed armouring observed downstream. Overall, the dam disrupted the natural water and sediment fluxes, generating a highly modified environment downstream. Below the dam, the whole ecosystem shifted to stable conditions owing to the reduction of water and sediment loads.

  2. BODY COMPOSITION AND SOMATOTYPE OF PROFESSIONAL AND U23 HAND BASQUE PELOTA PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Valtueña, Jara; Holway, Francis; Cordova, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    there is hardly any reference in scientific literature regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of hand Basque pelota players (pelotaris). the aim of this research was to analyze and compare the anthropometry features and body composition of professional pelotaris and under-23 (U23) pelotaris, to create an anthropometric profile of this sport. the participants were ten U23 pelotaris, and eight professional pelotaris. Anthropometric measurements were taken following the International Society of Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) protocol. Fat mass (FM) was calculated using the Yushasz equation modified by Carter and muscle mass (MM) using Lee equation. For the somatotype components, the Carter y Heath equation was applied. The hydration level (kg of body water) of the players was measured with a four-pole kind bioelectrical impedance (BIA) analyzer. Spss was used for the statistical analysis. professional pelotaris have significantly lower FM (p somatotype (p < 0.001) than U23 pelotaris. Professionals have a greater amount of body water (p = 0.001) and a larger bistyloid diameter (p = 0.014). Professional pelotaris have a morphotype characterized by a low FM 8.9 ± 1.1% and medium MM 47 ± 1.7%, height of 183.0 ± 7.1 cm and BM of 85.9 ± 7.6 kg. The main results of the present study show that non-modifiable anthropometric features by training (e.g. height, arm span and wrist breadth) are important to become a professional pelotaris. Moreover, training and diet related features have been showed to be better in professional pelotaris (low FM, higher MM and high body water amount) than U23 pelotaris. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. [Clinical consequences of alpha-thalassemia in the Basque Country, Spain. Impact of neonatal screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, A; Merino, S; Catediano, E; Sasieta, M; Aragües, P; Navajas, A

    2015-08-01

    Alpha-thalassemia is the most common hemoglobinopathy with a variable clinical manifestation depending on the number of allele mutations (asymptomatic/mild anemia if 1-2 allele mutations, severe disease if 3-4 allele mutations). A study was conducted from May 2011 on hemoglobinopathies found in the neonatal screening in the autonomous community of the Basque Country (CAPV). To analyze the impact of alpha-thalassemia in this area and the effectiveness of its neonatal screening. A review was made of patients with a positive gene study for alpha-thalassemia over a 2-year period (2012-2013) and an analysis was made of the age at diagnosis, ethnic group, analytical result, and treatment. The genetic study was performed on 107 patients, of which 61 had some mutation, with 62% having one allele mutations and 38% with two alleles. The mean age at diagnosis was 31 years, with 28% being younger than eighteen years old. Most of the patients were European with a significant number of Africans (26%) and Arabs (13%). All patients were asymptomatic, and 28% had mild anemia. Two patients were diagnosed by neonatal screening. Most of them did not need any treatment or only required iron therapy. The detection of one or two alpha gene mutations has no clinical impact, but allows genetic counseling. No patient was found with 3-4 mutations or severe symptoms in our region. Contrarily to the diagnosis of other diseases, our results does not support that routine neonatal screening for alpha-thalassemia has any clinical impact in our community. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic properties of cherts from the Basque-Cantabrian basin and surrounding regions: archeological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz Larrasoaña

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the first rock magnetic study of archeologically-relevant chert samples from the Basque-Cantabrian basin (BCB and surrounding regions, which was conducted in order to test the usefulness of non-destructive magnetic properties for assessing chert quality, distinguishing source areas, and identifying heated samples in the archeological record. Our results indicate that the studied BCB cherts are diamagnetic and have very low amounts of magnetic minerals. The only exception is the chert of Artxilondo, which has a mean positive magnetic susceptibility associated with larger concentrations of magnetic minerals. But even in this case, the magnetic susceptibility is within the lower range of other archeologically-relevant cherts elsewhere, which indicates that the studied BCB cherts can be considered as flint. The similar mean values for all magnetic properties, along with their associated large standard deviations, indicates that rock magnetic methods are of limited use for sourcing different types of flint except in some specific contexts involving the Artxilondo flint. With regards to the identification of chert heating in the archeological record, our results indicate only a minor magnetic enhancement of BCB natural flint samples upon heating, which we attribute to the low amount of non-silica impurities. In any case, the diamagnetic behavior of most BCB natural flints, along with the local use only of the Artxilondo type, suggests that any flint tool within the core of the BCB with positive magnetic susceptibility values is likely to have been subjected to heating for improving its knapping properties. Further studies are necessary to better identify the type, origin and grain size of magnetic minerals in BCB natural flints, and to apply non-destructive magnetic properties to flint tools in order to identify the use of heat treatment in the BCB archeological record.

  5. Regionalised spatiotemporal rainfall and temperature models for flood studies in the Basque Country, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cowpertwait

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal point process model of rainfall is fitted to data taken from three homogeneous regions in the Basque Country, Spain. The model is the superposition of two spatiotemporal Neyman–Scott processes, in which rain cells are modelled as discs with radii that follow exponential distributions. In addition, the model includes a parameter for the radius of storm discs, so that rain only occurs when both a cell and a storm disc overlap a point. The model is fitted to data for each month, taken from each of the three homogeneous regions, using a modified method of moments procedure that ensures a smooth seasonal variation in the parameter estimates.

    Daily temperature data from 23 sites are used to fit a stochastic temperature model. A principal component analysis of the maximum daily temperatures across the sites indicates that 92% of the variance is explained by the first component, implying that this component can be used to account for spatial variation. A harmonic equation with autoregressive error terms is fitted to the first principal component. The temperature model is obtained by regressing the maximum daily temperature on the first principal component, an indicator variable for the region, and altitude. This, together with scaling and a regression model of temperature range, enables hourly temperatures to be predicted. Rainfall is included as an explanatory variable but has only a marginal influence when predicting temperatures.

    A distributed model (TETIS; Francés et al., 2007 is calibrated for a selected catchment. Five hundred years of data are simulated using the rainfall and temperature models and used as input to the calibrated TETIS model to obtain simulated discharges to compare with observed discharges. Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests indicate that there is no significant difference in the distributions of observed and simulated maximum flows at the same sites, thus supporting the use of the spatiotemporal

  6. [The impact of patient identification on an integrated program of palliative care in Basque Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Igor; Millas, Jesús; Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Arrospide, Arantzazu; San Vicente, Ricardo; Irizar, Marisa; Lanzeta, Itziar; Mar, Javier

    2017-12-05

    Evaluate the process and the economic impact of an integrated palliative care program. Comparative cross-sectional study. Integrated Healthcare Organizations of Alto Deba and Goierri Alto-Urola, Basque Country. Patients dead due to oncologic and non-oncologic causes in 2012 (control group) and 2015 (intervention group) liable to need palliative care according to McNamara criteria. Identification as palliative patients in primary care, use of common clinical pathways in primary and secondary care and arrange training courses for health professionals. Change in the resource use profile of patients in their last 3 months. Propensity score by genetic matching method was used to avoid non-randomization bias. The groups were compared by univariate analysis and the relationships between variables were analysed by logistic regressions and generalized linear models. One thousand and twenty-three patients were identified in 2012 and 1,142 patients in 2015. In 2015 doubled the probability of being identify as palliative patient in deaths due to oncologic (19-33%) and non-oncologic causes (7-16%). Prescriptions of opiates rise (25-68%) and deaths in hospital remained stable. Contacts per patient with primary care and home hospitalization increased, while contacts with hospital admissions decreased. Cost per patient rise 26%. The integrated palliative care model increased the identification of the target population. Relationships between variables showed that the identification had a positive impact on prescription of opiates, death outside the hospital and extension to non-oncologic diseases. Although the identification decreased admissions in hospital, costs per patient had a slight increase due to home hospitalizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The Jewish Debt Owed by Spanish National-Catholicism and Basque Nativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzadi, Juan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available After identifying the social and political origins of Basque nationalism in his books El milenarismo vasco (1981 and El escudo de Arquíloco (2001, the author argues here that the ultimate historical and ideological source for the pure-blooded, “socio-religious” understanding of Spanish identity (which reached its most extreme and finished expression under Franco’s dictatorship is the same as that of Biscayan ethnicity from the 16th century onwards. This source must be found in the rabbinical thought about Jewish identity that emerged in the Babylonian exile after the destruction of the kingdom of Judea in the 6th century B. C. and is revealed by a significant part of the Old Testament.

    Tras apuntar a los orígenes sociales y políticos del nacionalismo vasco en sus libros El milenarismo vasco (1981 y El escudo de Arquíloco (2001, el autor plantea aquí que la raíz histórica e ideológica última de la definición castiza, “religioso-racial”, de la identidad española (la que alcanza su expresión más extrema y acabada con el franquismo es la misma que la de la etnicidad vizcaína a partir del siglo XVI. Esta raíz ha de buscarse en el pensamiento rabínico acerca de la identidad judía, surgido en el exilio babilónico tras la destrucción del reino de Judá en el siglo VI a. C., como revela una parte significativa del Antiguo Testamento.

  8. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in the Basque Country, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrausi-Subiza, Maialen; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alvarez, Vega; Ibabe, Jose Carlos; Barral, Marta

    2016-01-20

    Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northern Spain. The blood of wild boars (n = 505) was sampled between 2001 and 2012. Seroprevalence was determined in 490 serum samples with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-two of the animals were also examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils with real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the tonsils were analysed twice, directly and after cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1 % mannitol and 0.15 % bile salts. Antibodies directed against Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were detected in 52.5 % of the animals. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 33.3 % of the wild boars and Y. pseudotuberculosis in 25 %. Significant differences were observed according to the sampling year, and the highest prevalence was during winter and spring. The highest antibody levels and Y. enterocolitica prevalence were observed in mountainous areas at altitudes higher than 600 m, with very cold winters, and with the highest annual rainfall for each dominant climate. Areas with low and medium livestock populations were associated with the highest seroprevalence of Yersinia spp. in wild boars, whereas areas with high ovine populations had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica. This study shows that Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are highly prevalent among wild boars in the Basque country, with Y. enterocolitica most prevalent. The risk of infection among wild boars is influenced by the season and the area in which they live.

  9. Geology of the Ara-Cinca region, Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca : (with special reference to compartmentation of the Flysch basin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsen, , H.A. van

    1970-01-01

    Geological investigations have been carried out from 1955 to 1968 in the Spanish Pyrenees, Province of Huesca, directed by Prof. Dr. M.G. Rutten (Geological Institute of the State University of Utrecht). Locations are indicated on Fig.I. These investigations resulted in a number of theses and papers

  10. Geology of the Ara-Cinca region, Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca : (with special reference to compartmentation of the Flysch basin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsen, H.A. van

    1970-01-01

    Geological investigations have been carried out from 1955 to 1968 in the Spanish Pyrenees, Province of Huesca, directed by Prof. Dr. M.G. Rutten (Geological Institute of the State University of Utrecht). Locations are indicated on Fig.I. These investigations resulted in a number of theses and

  11. Seasonal differences in runoff between forested and non-forested catchments: a case study in the Spanish Pyrenees. Revisiting Experimental Catchment Studies in Forest Hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lana-Renault, N.; Latron, J.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Serrano, P.; Regües, D.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrological response of two neighbouring catchments in the central Spanish Pyrenees with similar lithology and topography but different land use was compared. One catchment (2.84 km2) was extensively cultivated in the past, and the other (0.92 km2) is covered by dense natural forest.

  12. Democratising education policy making or legitimising discourse? An analysis of the new Lifelong Learning Law in the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vargas Tamez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the orientation and purposes of a Lifelong Learning Law that was sanctioned in the Basque Country in 2013, and whose formation process entailed a year-long consultation with different local stakeholders. Although the consideration of diverse agents - other than political players - in policy making is a very valuable element for the democratisation of public policy, grounded on examination of the Basque experience, the paper poses serious questions as to the extent to which non-state actors may take part in the policy and decision making processes, and underscores the differences in the scope and influence of their actions, perspectives and proposals. From a social construction framework, it is argued that the incorporation of experts to policy making belongs to a certain way of crafting policy, one that is top-down, while the idea of democratic policy making requires an inverse design; a bottom-up method that may enable the practitioners who implement programmes and strategies, and those receiving the educational services, to be co-participants and to share responsibility in the ideation and effectuation of education policy.

  13. Were They Tortured or Did They Make that Up? Ethnographic Reflections on Torture Allegations in the Basque Country in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolijn Terwindt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic literature about torture has addressed a wide range of questions. An important facet, however, has not yet received sufficient attention. Given that torture tends to occur in secrecy, how does the lack of information that is perceived to be objective and authoritative affect the societal response to allegations of torture and the social consequences of such allegations?  In this article, the controversy about torture allegations in Spain is used to examine this issue and explore the insidious effects the uncertainty has on society.  The Spanish state is unable to provide a generally accepted account in response to the continuous torture allegations from Basque prisoners accused of terrorism or street violence.   Based on ethnographic research, this article describes how Spanish and Basque society can be divided in believers, non-believers and people who do not care about torture allegations.  Because of the centrality of such allegations in many criminal cases, this division also polarizes public perceptions of the entire criminal justice system.  DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1838392

  14. Variation in the reproductive strategies of Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758 populations in the province of Gipuzkoa (Basque Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UOTILA, E., CRESPO-DIAZ, A., SANZ-AZKUE, I., RUBIO, X.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire salamander [Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758] populations show variability in their reproductive strategies across the northern Iberian Peninsula. Females can give birth to aquatic larvae (ovoviviparous mode, to metamorphosed juveniles (viviparous mode or to both aquatic and metamorphosed juveniles (intermediate mode. The reproductive modes of the populations inhabiting the Basque Country are poorly studied. The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the reproductive strategies of four fire salamander populations, belonging to the subspecies S.s.fastuosa, in the province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country. The main focus was on an urban population inhabiting the park Mount Urgull in San Sebastián. The other three populations were located in forested mountain areas. Eighteen pregnant female salamanders were captured and kept in the laboratory until they gave birth. Females captured in the Urgull population gave birth, either to metamorphosed juveniles, or to metamorphosed juveniles and aquatic larvae. However, due to the lack of water bodies in Urgull, the fire salamanders are mostly viviparous. Two females from the other populations also gave birth to etamor-phosed juveniles and aquatic larvae, which suggests that the populations may have intermediate reproductive mode. The results of this study confirm that there can be intrapopulational variation in the reproductive modes of the S.s.fastuosa and that the intermediate (and maybe the viviparous mode might be more common than previously thought in Gipuzkoa.

  15. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  16. Spanish stop-rhotic sequences in Spanish-Basque bilinguals and second language learners: An acoustic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglass, Christine A.

    This dissertation investigates transfer and markedness in bilingual and L2 Spanish stop-rhotic sequences (e.g., the 'br' in brisa 'breeze'). It also examines the phonetics-phonology interface in Spanish. To this end, it explores the production of these sequences in two different experiments. Experiment 1 compares the production of these sequences by 6 Spanish monolinguals and 6 Spanish-Basque bilinguals. Experiment 2 does so for 25 L2 learners and 5 native Spanish speakers. Acoustic analysis of these sequences revealed that Spanish-Basque bilinguals produced trills 5% of the time whereas Spanish monolinguals did not have any trills. Additionally, fricative rhotics and coarticulation accounted for 35% of L2 realizations, but were not present in the native Spanish speaker dataset. These findings indicate a role for transfer in both bilingual and L2 phonological acquisition, although it is more prevalent in the L2 learner dataset. This is in line with the Speech Learning Model (Flege, 1995), which posits a stronger role for transfer amongst late learners (i.e., L2 learners) than early learners (i.e., Spanish-Basque bilinguals). In order to examine the role of markedness in bilingual and L2 phonological acquisition, this dissertation investigates the role of sonority in bilingual and L2 Spanish syllable structure. To do so, it proposes a sonority hierarchy for rhotic variants based on their specifications for voicing, intensity and continuancy. According to this hierarchy, approximant rhotics are the most sonorous, followed by taps, trills and fricative rhotics. Therefore, approximant rhotics were expected to be the most common realization followed by taps, trills and fricative rhotics. Although Spanish monolinguals adhered to this expectation, the other groups did not; taps were the most common realization for Spanish-Basque bilinguals, L2 learners, and native Spanish speakers and fricative rhotics were more common than trills for Spanish-Basque bilinguals and L2

  17. Geographical analysis of the sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease distribution in the autonomous community of the Basque Country for the period 1995-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamosa, Saioa; Tamayo, Ibon; Arteagoitia-Axpe, José M; Juste, Ramón A; Rodríguez-Martínez, Ana Belén; Zarranz-Imirizaldu, Juan J; Arriola, Larraitz

    2014-01-01

    The Basque Country, in Spain, shows one of the highest sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) incidence rates in Europe. The purpose is to analyse a possible focus of unidentified external or environmental factors which could trigger the high incidence rates of sCJD in the Basque Country. We estimated the relative risk and the posterior relative risk distribution of sCJD cases for each town of the Basque Country and for the period 1995-2008. 58 sCJD cases (44 definite and 14 probable) were selected for the geographic cluster analysis. In a first approach, referring to the relative risk, several municipalities in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country showed more sCJD cases than expected. However, the posterior relative risk distribution showed no excess risk areas. RESULTS from this survey indicate that a possible common source of development of the disease does not seem to be the reason of the high sCJD incidence. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The wind power: the planning in the Basque country; La energia eolica: plan de actuacion en la comunidad autonoma del pais vasco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, J. [Eolicas de euskadi, S.a. (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    One of the main golds of the Basque Government is the development of renewable energies (biomass, eolic energy, etc...). Euskadi Energetic Strategy for 2000, approved by Regional Parliament, will try, between other subjects, to control energy consumption without giving up a better way of life, reduce environmental impact, and consumption going on looking for new sources of energy.

  19. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  20. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, M.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover) vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N) is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio. We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW) and sediment pore water (SPW) from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰), with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes. In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (-9.4‰ to 7.4‰) than for nitrate (-11.4‰ to -3.4‰), as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water). For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion). Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil interaction; and another highly influenced by soil conditions. The snow-type flow path contributes low DIN

  1. Comparative analysis of three data treatment techniques for landslide susceptibility assessment in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, S.; Corominas, J.; Lantada, N.; Angulo, C.; Baeza, C.

    2009-04-01

    In this communication, the comparison of three data treatment methodologies for assessing landslide susceptibility is presented. The artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis, discriminant analysis (DA) and logistic regression (LR) have been performed in a test area of the Eastern Pyrenees (Spain), at a local scale (1:5.000). The main objective of our research is the comparison of the results obtained with the different techniques and to discuss the advantages and drawbacks of each of them. A database containing an inventory of 280 shallow landslides triggered during the intense rainy event of November of 1982 has been used. Additional information on significant conditioning factors such as vegetation cover and presence of superficial formation has been included as well as other input variables captured automatically from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ANN was performed with MATLAB while DA and LR with the statistical package SPSS. The input data and the results have been implemented on a GIS platform (ArcGIS). The test area has a size of about 40km2 and the susceptibility has been determined at each cell (15x15m). The input variables were selected from previous susceptibility assessment studies carried out in the area. The training and validation analyses have worked with two input cell classes (stable and unstable) and final maps with five susceptibility levels have been prepared. DA and LR classify dichotomous variables. The ANN analysis has been carried out with both classification and regression structures. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves obtained are similar in all the models. However, frequency histograms on stable and unstable populations show significant differences in the distance between the mean values of the populations and in the distribution of the overlapping area. The susceptibility maps prepared with ANN and LR minimize the potentially unstable area. The cumulative percentage curves (Duman et al. 2006) show that using

  2. The mountainous space as a commodity: the Pyrenees at the age of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Vaccaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In these pages we reflect on the process of transformation of the Catalan Pyrenees from a peripheral and economically decaying area to a first-rate tourism center. Real estate speculation has replaced depopulation. The economic and social value of the territory has dramatically shifted as it has gone from supporting low profitability ranching activities to become the space where resorts and parks are built. The paper analyzes the process of commodification and patrimonialization that have reintegrated the area into the national and international leisure markets paying special attention to the role of conservation practices, ski resorts and second residences in such a process. Finally, we attempt to identify the similarities and differences that characterize the two emergent tourism models: mass tourism versus small scale ecotourism.Au fil de ces pages, nous réfléchissons au processus de transformation des Pyrénées catalanes de zone périphérique et en déclin économique en centre touristique de qualité. La spéculation immobilière a remplacé le dépeuplement. La valeur économique et sociale du territoire a radicalement changé, la promotion des activités d’élevage peu rentables ayant cédé la place aux stations touristiques et aux parcs. Cet article analyse le processus de marchandisation et de patrimonialisation qui a réintégré la région sur les marchés de loisirs nationaux et internationaux en prêtant une attention particulière au rôle des pratiques de conservation, des stations de ski et des résidences secondaires. Enfin, nous tentons d’identifier les similitudes et les différences qui caractérisent les deux modèles touristiques émergents : le tourisme de masse contre l’écotourisme à l’échelle locale.

  3. Fluvial-system response to climate change: The Paleocene-Eocene Tremp Group, Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombera, Luca; Arévalo, Oscar J.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-10-01

    The Tremp Group of the Tremp-Graus Basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) is a succession of predominantly continental origin that records the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a transient episode of extreme global warming that occurred across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. For this succession, the stratigraphic position of the PETM is accurately determined, and histories of tectonic and sea-level controls are well constrained. Building upon previous studies, this work assesses changes in sedimentary architecture through the PETM in the Tremp Group, based on quantitative sedimentological analyses documented over a km-scale strike-oriented transect in the Arén area, with the scope to better understand the response of this alluvial system to the hyperthermal event. The analysed features represent a partial record of the geomorphic organization and processes of the system at the time of deposition, and are therefore interpretable in terms of geomorphic change in alluvial landscapes caused by the PETM. The record of the PETM, as previously recognized, begins at a time when erosional palaeotopographic relief was developed and deposition was confined in valleys. A shift between valley back-filling and widespread aggradation is observed at the onset of the PETM interval, which demonstrates uniquely the impact of the hyperthermal on both depositional loci and interfluves. Compared to underlying strata, the interval that embodies the onset and main phase of the PETM is characterized by: (i) higher proportion of channel deposits; (ii) channel complexes of greater average thickness and width; (iii) barforms and channel fills that are slightly thicker; (iv) increased thickness of sets of cross-stratified sandstones; (v) similar values of maximum extraclast size, by architectural element. An evident change in the facies organization of channel deposits is also seen through the stratigraphy, though this appears to predate the PETM. Increased channel-body density in the PETM

  4. 5 years of continuous seismic monitoring of a mountain river in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Sanchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Gallart, Josep

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of background seismic noise variations in the proximity of river channels has revealed as a useful tool to monitor river flow, even for modest discharges. Nevertheless, this monitoring is usually carried on using temporal deployments of seismic stations. The CANF seismic broad-band station, acquiring data continuously since 2010 and located inside an old railway tunnel in the Central Pyrenees, at about 400 m of the Aragón River channel, provides an excellent opportunity to enlarge this view and present a long term monitoring of a mountain river. Seismic signals in the 2-10 Hz band clearly related to river discharges have been identified in the seismic records. Discharge increases due to rainfall, large storms resulting in floods and snowmelt periods can be discriminated from the analysis of the seismic data. Up to now, two large rainfall events resulting in large discharge and damaging floods have been recorded, both sharing similar properties which can be used to implement automatic procedures to identify seismically potentially damaging floods. Another natural process that can be characterized using continuouly acquired seismic data is mountain snowmelt, as this process results in characteristic discharge patterns which can be identified in the seismic data. The time occurrence and intensity of the snowmelt stages for each season can be identified and the 5 seasons available so far compared to detect possible trends The so-called fluvial seismology can also provide important clues to evaluate the beadload transport in rivers, an important parameter to evaluate erosion rates in mountain environments. Analyzing both the amplitude and frequency variations of the seismic data and its hysteresis cycles, it seems possible to estimate the relative contribution of water flow and bedload transport to the seismic signal. The available results suggest that most of the river-generated seismic signal seems related to bed load transportation, while water

  5. Detailed correlation and astronomical forcing within the Upper Maastrichtian succession in the Basque Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinares-Turell, J.; Pujalte, V.; Stoykova, K.; Elorza, J.

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, integrated, cyclo-magneto stratigraphic analysis and study of the calcareous nanno fossils of the Upper Maastrichtian hemi pelagic succession in three sections of the Basque Basin (Zumaia, Sopelana and Hendaia). The sections were correlated at bed-by-bed scale through careful analysis of the lithological stacking pattern and significant sedimentary features. For spectral analysis we used an available high-resolution carbonate proxy record spanning 64 m of section below the K/Pg (Cretaceous/ Palaeogene) boundary at Zumaia containing 72 precession-related limestone-marl couplets. The continuous wavelet spectrum helped to determine and visualize the orbital forcing at both the short ({approx}100-ky) and long (405-ky) eccentricity band. We applied bandpass Gaussian filters to the carbonate record to extract the relevant periodicities and provide a cycle-numbering scheme starting at the K/Pg boundary. The full hierarchy of precession cycles and eccentricity-related bundles is then extended toward the base of the section in question, which contains a total of 33 short eccentricity-related bundles, thus spanning more than 3 Ma. The chron C31r/ C31n boundary (estimated to occur at {approx}3.08 Ma below the K/Pg boundary) in the lower part of the succession was determined unambiguously in all three sections studied although the C30n/C29r reversal could not be determined due to a pervasive reverse magnetization acting on the purplish lithologies in the upper part of the succession. Relevant calcareous plankton bio events could be accurately placed on the cyclo-magneto stratigraphic template. The cyclo stratigraphic framework also allowed us to estimate the duration of previously defined sea-level-related 3rd-order depositional sequences in the basin, which appear to be strongly paced by the long-term 1.2 My obliquity amplitude modulating cycle. This is an outstanding feature in the Maastrichtian greenhouse period, during which continental

  6. Eta y «la resistencia vasca» durante los últimos años del franquismo en la prensa clandestina del nacionalismo vasco moderado = Eta and the ‘Basque Resistence’ In The Last Years Of Franco’s Regime As Seen Through The Moderate Basque Nationalist Clandestin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Hernández Nieto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de Alderdi, OPE y Euzko Deya, periódicos editados durante el Franquismo en Francia por el PNV y el Gobierno Vasco en el exilio, pone de manifiesto que ETA gozaba de alguna consideración en el nacionalismo vasco moderado aunque oficialmente no se respaldara su actividad violenta. ETA era considerada un elemento importante en la lucha que la “resistencia vasca” libraba contra el régimen de Franco. Estos periódicos incluían también dentro de la “resistencia vasca” fuerzas políticas, sindicales, sociales etc., como el clero vasco, en parte afecto al nacionalismo, o partidos y sindicatos antifranquistas, no nacionalistas como el PCE o CC.OO. que promovían la contestación de los trabajadores vascos.The analysis of Alderdi and OPE-Eusko-Deya newspapers published during Franco’s time in France by the PNV and the Basque Government in the exile, reveals that ETA had high esteem among the moderate Basque nationalism although officially its violent activity was not backed. ETA was considered an important element in the struggle that the ‘Basque resistance’ fought against Franco’s Regime. These newspapers also included in the ‘Basque resistance’ political, union, social and cultural forces as the Basque clergy, nationalist, or political parties and unions against Francoism and no nationalistic as PCE or CC.OO. which lead the Basque worker protest.

  7. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism in the adult population of the Basque Country, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, A; Urrutia, I; González-Frutos, T; Martínez, R; Martínez-Indart, L; Castaño, L; Gaztambide, S

    2017-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose metabolism in the Basque Country and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. A population-based, cross-sectional, cluster sampling design study was carried out in an adult (≥18 years) Basque population. A total of 847 participants completed a questionnaire on personal and family medical history and lifestyle. Anthropometric variables and blood pressure were measured and biochemical analysis and an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) were also performed. The total prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% (95% CI 8.65-12.95). Among them 6.3% (95% CI 4.79-8.22) had previously been diagnosed and 4.3% (95% CI 3.04-5.92) were not aware that they had diabetes. Impaired glucose tolerance was present in 7.2% (95% CI 5.53-9.15) and impaired fasting glucose in 3.8% (95% CI 2.64-5.37) of the population. In total, 21.6% of the population had some type of glucose metabolism disturbance, with a higher rate among men (28.3 vs 16.3%; Pdiabetes were: male sex [odds ratio 4.58 (95% CI 2.34-8.97)]; abdominal obesity [odds ratio 2.80 (95% CI 1.47-5.36)]; high triglyceride levels [odds ratio 2.46 (95% CI 1.26-4.81)]; hypertension [odds ratio 2.40 (95% CI 1.16-4.96)]; family history of diabetes [odds ratio 2.30 (95% CI 1.25-4.24)]; high LDL cholesterol levels [odds ratio 1.83 (95% CI 1.01-3.31)] and older age [odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.10)]. The prevalence of diabetes in the Basque Country was lower than in Spain and was independently associated with family history of diabetes and with cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, high LDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, which were also observed in those with prediabetes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  8. Grita Libertad! El nacionalismo vasco y la lucha por la independencia de las naciones africanas/Cry Freedom! Basque nationalism and the struggle for the independence of African nations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santiago De Pablo

    2012-01-01

      Throughout the 20th century, the Basque nationalist movement imitated other movements that took place in other stateless nations around the World, in order to achieve their own cultural and political independence...

  9. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Basa de la Mora glacial lake (Central Pyrenees) during the Holocene: preliminary results from palynological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanz, Ana; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Morellón, Mario; Belmonte, Anchel; Sancho-Marcén, Carlos; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Moreno, Ana; Rico, María. Teresa; Corella, Juan Pablo

    2010-05-01

    La Basa de la Mora (42° 33'N, 0° 20'E, 1914 m a.s.l.) is a glacial lake located at the central zone of the southern Pyrenees (Spain). It is a shallow lake with only 2.5 m water depth and 6.3 ha floodplain. Its position halfway between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean lends to both mediterranean and oceanic climatic influences. Currently the zone has peri-mediterranean climate and is the limit of the atlantic fronts influence. Thus, the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Basa de la Mora record (BSM) could facilitate the understanding of the complex climate patterns and forcings that interplay in this transition area, particularly at the Early Holocene, when different and apparent opposite climatic patrons has been recorded in NE Spain. To achieve this goal, we are mainly reconstructing the Holocene palaeoenvironmental conditions, including vegetation dynamics, of different lacustrine records of the region across a complete E-W / N-S transect in the Pyrenees, including the BSM sequence. Four cores were taken from the sediments of the Basa de la Mora lake and peatbog using a Uwitec piston coring equipment with platform. Pollen analyses and chronological control is being carried out on the longest core (12m length) extracted from the deepest part of the lake. Preliminary chronology is based on six AMS 14C dates, four of them obtained from terrestrial plant macrofossil remains and the other two from charcoal. According to the age model obtained, the studied sequence spans the last ca 10000 years. The base of the sequence (between ca 10-9 ka cal BP) reveals relatively arid climate conditions, characterized with the predominance of Juniperus versus Betula, in comparison with those observed in other palynological sequences previously studied. Xeric conditions are confirmed by the presence of Helianthemum, with a single appearance on the whole sequence, what contrasts with the well established assumption that the Early Holocene is the most humid period

  10. Assessing The Hazard of Sediment Yield From Debris Flows. A Case Study In The Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Adrián; Beguería, Santiago; García-Ruiz, José M.

    A total of 961 debris flows have been identified and mapped in the Upper Aragon and Gallego Valleys, Central Spanish Pyrenees. Information on lithology, plant cover, land uses as well as different maps derived from the Digital Terrain Model has been implemented into a Geographic Information System in order to apply a Discriminant Analysis. A logistic regression was used to produce a debris flow susceptibility map focused in the Flysch Sect or, where most of debris flows occurred. Information on different debris flow parameters have been taken in the field in order to forecast the runout distance according to the characteristics of these parameters. This procedure allow us to produce a model that forecast the probabilities of each debris flow to arrive to a fluvial channel and to become a sediment source.

  11. Influence of the Yesa reservoir on floods of the Aragón River, central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. López-Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yesa reservoir, the largest Pyrenean reservoir, was constructed in 1959 to supply water to new irrigated areas in the Ebro Depression, NE Spain. It is filled from October to May-June and then releases large quantities of water in the summer via the Bardenas Canal. The results confirm that the frequency of floods downstream of the dam decreased. The reduction mainly depends on two factors: i the water storage level, and ii the season of the year. Floods are very well controlled when the reservoir level is lower than 50%. Between 50 and 70%, only the highest floods are controlled. Finally, the reservoir retains mainly autumn and spring floods; most winter floods are released downstream to ensure the safety of the dam. Keywords: reservoir, flood control, flood seasonality, flood frequency, river regime, Pyrenees

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of Tabanidae in the Pyrenees Mountains: the influence of altitude and landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, F; Porciani, A; Bernard, C; Jay-Robert, P

    2014-02-01

    In high-altitude summer pastures, horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance to livestock, as well as mechanical vectors of animal diseases such as besnoitiosis, an enzootic disease in the Pyrenees. However, the activity of horseflies in mountainous environments is poorly documented. To study the seasonality and distribution of tabanids in the Pyrenees Mountains, a sampling design was set up in two valleys on opposite sides of the mountain, one north-facing and one south-facing, along high-elevation gradients and at different distances from a water body between May and October 2011. The influence of the landscape on species richness and abundance was assessed by taking into account forested and unforested areas in 200 m radii around the trapping sites. Our findings indicated that: (1) The slope, the altitude and the size of unforested patches significantly influenced community composition of tabanids. (2) Altitude had a positive or a negative effect, depending on the species. (3) Species richness and abundance were negatively correlated with large open habitats and positively correlated with patch-shape complexity. (4) Seasonal succession of the most abundant species was observed in both valleys, with a maximum of catches at the beginning of August; however, tabanid activity ended earlier in the southern valley, which was more exposed to sunlight. (5) Philipomyia aprica, Tabanus bromius, Tabanus glaucopis and Hybomitra auripila were active from 9:00 to 19:00 h (GMT+1), with a peak of activity at midday. This paper also discusses the implications of these findings in relation to changes in horsefly distribution and their control in mountainous environments.

  13. The footprint of marginal agriculture in the Mediterranean mountain landscape: An analysis of the Central Spanish Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, T; Nadal-Romero, E; Errea, M P

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland. This article studies the role of traditional agriculture in the deterioration of the landscape. By using experimental plots in the Central Pyrenees to reproduce traditional agriculture and abandonment, maps of field types, and current uses and ground cover, it could be confirmed that shifting agriculture has caused very heavy soil loss, which explains the deterioration of the landscape on several slopes. Burning scrub and adding the ash to the soil as a fertilizer did not greatly help to improve soil quality, but caused high rates of erosion and a very slow process of regrowth. The average data obtained from the shifting experimental plots recorded losses of 1356kgha -1 years -1 , 1.6 times more than the plot of fertilized cereal, and 8.2 times more than the dense scrub plot. Following abandonment, losses in the shifting agriculture plot were almost three times higher than the abandoned sloping field plot. Traditional shifting agriculture in the Pyrenees is the main cause of the deterioration of the landscape 50-70years after agriculture ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution and space use of seed-dispersing rodents in central Pyrenees: implications for genetic diversity, conservation and plant recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgoiti, Jon; Muñoz, Alberto; Espelta, Josep Maria; Bonal, Raúl

    2018-01-09

    The function and conservation of many forest ecosystems depend on the distribution and diversity of the community of rodents that consume and disperse seeds. The habitat preferences and interactions are especially relevant in alpine systems where such granivorous rodents reach the southernmost limit of their distribution and are especially sensitive to global warming. We analysed the community of granivorous rodents in the Pyrenees, one of the southernmost mountain ranges of Europe. Rodent species were identified by DNA with particular attention to the Apodemus species, which are prominent seed-dispersing rodents in Europe. We confirmed for the first time the presence of the yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, in central Pyrenees, a typical Eurosiberian species that reaches its southernmost distribution limit in this area. We also found the wood mouse, A. sylvaticus, a related species more tolerant to Mediterranean environments. Both rodents were spatially segregated by altitude. A. sylvaticus was rare at high altitudes, which might cause the genetic differentiation between populations of the different valleys reported here. We also found other seed consumers like dormice, Elyomis quercinus, and voles, Myodes glareolus, with marked habitat preferences. We suggest that population isolation among valleys may increase the genetic diversity of rodents, like A. sylvaticus. We also highlight the potential threat that global warming may represent for species linked to high-altitude refuges at the southern edge of its distribution, like A. flavicollis. Finally, we discuss how this threat may have a dimension in the conservation of alpine forests dispersed by these rodent populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. High resolution imaging of lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees by full waveform inversion of shortperiod teleseismic P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Monteiller, Vadim; Durochat, Clément

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the deployment of permanent and temporary broadband arrays, coverage and data quality have dramatically improved in the last decade, especially for regional-scale studies. In addition, owing to the progress of high-performance resources and numerical simulation techniques, waveform inversion approaches nowadays become a viable alternative to classical asymptotic ray based tomographic approaches. Exploiting full waveforms in seismic tomography requires an efficient and precise method to solve the elastic wave equation in 3D inhomogeneous media. Since resolution of waveform inversion is limited by the seismic wavelength as well as the wavefield sampling density, it is crucial to exploit short-period teleseismic waves recorded by dense regional arrays. However, modeling the propagation of short-period body waves in heterogeneous media is still very challenging, even on the largest modern supercomputers. For this reason, we have developed a hybrid method that couples a global wave propagation method in a 1D Earth to a 3D spectral-element method in a regional domain. This hybrid method restricts the costly 3D computations to inside the regional domain, which dramatically decreases the computational cost, allows us to compute teleseismic wavefields down to 1s period, thus accounting for the complexities that affect the propagation of seismic waves in the regional domain. We present the first application of this new waveform inversion approach to broadband data coming from two dense transects deployed during the PYROPE experiment across the Pyrenees mountains. We obtain the first high-resolution lithospheric section of compressional and shear velocities across an orogenic belt. The tomographic model provides clear evidence for the under-thrusting of the thinned Iberian crust beneath the European plate and for the important role of rift-inherited mantle structures during the formation of the Pyrenees.

  16. Protection of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, Gmelin, 1790 population: the Gaztelugatxe Marine Reserve (Basque Country, northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Borja

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are expected to play a prominent role in the conservation of marine resources and fisheries management. In the Basque Country (northern Spain the small Marine Reserve of Gaztelugatxe (158 ha was established in 1998. One of the aspects taken into account in protecting this area was the overexploitation of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes. Now, after five years of protection, differences in density, biomass, size and weight of the goose barnacle are investigated inside the protected area (Aketze and Gaztelugatxe locations and outside of it, at the nearest locations (Izaro and Ogoño which have been continuously exploited. This contribution demonstrates that the reserve could be an efficient tool in preserving the goose barnacle populations in the area. Hence, density, biomass and allometric coefficients are higher in the protected areas. These locations are also associated with higher percentages of juveniles, together with a high number of large-sized individuals.

  17. Basque Country as Alternative Media laboratory. Compilation of the most interesting experiences for the last 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Txema Ramírez-de-la-Piscina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the general situation of Alternative Media in the Basque Country, concentrating on a specific communication project: the pirate radio Hala Bedi Irratia, a tolerated but not completely legal radio station, which in 2008 celebrated its 25th anniversary. The station has thousands of listeners daily and it broadcasts 24 hours a day. It survives thanks to the voluntary work of dozens of social communicators. They have never included a paid advertisement on their air waves, nor have they asked for a grant from the State. Nevertheless, the project is very much alive. The station is based on a very wide social network which supports it, and on a very intelligent use of new technologies.

  18. Group unconscious common orientation: exploratory study at the Basque Foundation for the investigation of mental health group training for therapists

    CERN Document Server

    Trojaola Zapirain, Begona; Carminati, Federico; Gonzalez Torres, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez de Mendivil, Ernesto; Fouassier, Claire; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Martin, Francois; Labarere, Jose; Demongeot, Jacques; Lorincz, Erika Nora

    2014-01-01

    Group phenomena have been used since antiquity in therapeutic, social, economic and political domains. According to Bion, the interactions between group members generate a ``group unconscious'' and its behavior is governed and oriented by Bion's ``basic assumptions.'' The present work has been conducted during group analysis training at the Basque Foundation for the Investigation of Mental Health (OMIE) at Bilbao, consisting of eleven sessions. The participants are presented with an ``absurd questionnaire'' proposing 50 pairs of images, in each of which one image has to be chosen. The results are used to search for evidence in favor of the influence of group dynamics on individual choices of the images proposed in the questionnaire. Our analysis finds some evidence for an effect of group dynamics both on the initial choice of the pictures and on the evolution of the number of changes (swaps) of picture choices across the eleven sessions. We interpret these effects in the light of Bion's view of group dynamics...

  19. Spatial distribution and morphometry of permafrost-related landforms in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesus; Palma, Pedro; Pereira, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    Present and past permafrost distribution in the Pyrenees is still under discussion. As in other mid-latitude mountain regions, rock glaciers and protalus lobes are the min indicators of permafrost conditions. In this study, we examine the distribution of these landforms in the Boí valley, a formerly glaciated U-shaped valley ranging from 850 to 3000 m a.s.l. The valley encompasses a surface of 247 km2, mainly composed of granite and shales. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers and protalus lobes and their chronostratigraphic position within the valley allow a better understanding of the climatic and environmental conditions necessary for their development. Geomorphological mapping of these landforms was built using high resolution imagery provided by the Institut Cartogràfic i Geologic de Catalunya, complemented with Basemap ESRI images and Google Earth Pro, and subsequently improved with field observations. The map was generated in a GIS environment following the RCP 77 mapping system of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Joly, 1997). Several parameters of each landform have been measured (Table 1): area (ha), altitude (maximum, minimum, mean), length (L), width (W), aspect and slope. This information provides accurate characterization of the morphometric properties of these landforms as well as a detailed identification of their spatial distribution. Up to 121 permafrost-related landforms were identified in the Boí valley, including 84 rock glaciers and 37 protalus lobes. Most of the landforms (93% for rock glaciers and 95% for protalus lobes) are located inside the glacial cirques, while the rest is distributed in the valley bottom or slopes of the formerly glaciated valleys. The lowest elevation of both forms is situated at 2100 m a.s.l. Therefore, this altitude may be indicative of the lowest level recording permafrost conditions during the period in which these landforms formed. The maximum elevation of the landforms usually

  20. Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López-Vicente

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events, soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content and current tillage practices in a set of agricultural fields in a mountainous area of the Central Pyrenees in NE Spain. To this purpose the rainfall and runoff erosivity (R, the soil erodibility (K and the cover-management (C factors of the empirical RUSLE soil loss model were used. The R, K and C factors were calculated at monthly scale. The first erosive period extends from July to October and presents the highest values of erosivity (87.8 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, maximum rainfall intensity (22.3 mm h−1 and monthly soil erosion (0.25 Mg ha−1 month−1 with the minimum values of duration of erosive storms, freeze-thaw cycles, soil moisture content and soil erodibility (0.007 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1. This period includes the harvesting and the plowing tillage practices. The second erosive period has a duration of two months, from May to June, and presents the lowest total and monthly soil losses (0.10 Mg ha−1 month−1 that correspond to the maximum protection of the soil by the crop-cover ($C$ factor = 0.05 due to the maximum stage of the growing season and intermediate values of rainfall and runoff erosivity, maximum rainfall intensity and soil erodibility. The third erosive period extends from November to April and has the minimum values of rainfall erosivity (17.5 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 and

  1. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Castroviejo, Ricardo

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees. Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in diameter, are up to six times more abundant, in percentage of total weight, in transports caused by heavy rainfalls than in the material collected after snowmelt flows. In its turn, bed load mobilized by snowmelt flows is mainly composed by medium and fine gravel, from 2 to 8 mm. These may amount up to 60 % of total weight of bed load. The reasons for these so different size distributions are discussed.

    [es] En una cuenca de alta montaña localizada en el alto valle del río Gallego (Pirineo central se comparan las distribuciones por tamaños de los acarreos movilizados por diferentes tipos de caudal. Tres tipos de eventos hidrológicos han podido ser caracterizados: los ocasionados por intensas lluvias de otoño, los originados por tormentas estivales aisladas y los producidos por la fusión de la nieve acumulada durante el invierno. Se concluye que cada uno de ellos lleva asociada una distribución por tamaños típica de la carga de fondo. Así, se ha comprobado que las fracciones más gruesas consideradas -superiores a los 30 mm de diámetro- son hasta seis veces más abundantes -en porcentaje sobre el peso total- en las exportaciones causadas por lluvias de gran intensidad que en las generadas por caudales de fusión. A su vez, las descargas ocasionadas por la fusión arrastran principalmente gravas de calibre medio y fino -entre 2y8 mm- que llegan a suponer el 60 % en peso del volumen movilizado. Este artículo discute las razones que provocan

  2. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows (;TRIG rainfalls;) were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows (;NonTRIG rainfalls;) were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot

  3. Soil properties relevant to land degradation in abandoned sloping fields in Aisa valley, Central Pyrenees (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardini, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-approach characterization of soil properties in abandoned fields in the Aisa valley, at mid mountain in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, demonstrated that the soil's own peculiar characteristics are concerned with conservation problems. Aggregate stability and shrinkage tests pointed to a relatively good soil performance due to the aggregating role of organic matter and calcium carbonates, although calcium ions, in some instances, may exert and additional antagonistic role for a sealed surface, increasing runoff. On the other hand, soil micromorphology suggests that the poor condition of the soils is in some contradiction to paedogenic activity. These findings, together with the presence of ashes, support the hypothesis that land degradation in these areas is mainly related to human activity thought unsuitable management after land abandonment.

    [es] La caracterización de diversas propiedades del suelo en campos abandonados del valle de Aisa, montaña media del Pirineo Central, ha mostrado que dichos suelos presentan algunos caracteres de interés desde el punto de vista de la conservación. La estabilidad de los agregados y los test de agrietamiento evidencian un comportamiento aceptable, gracias al papel agregante de la materia orgánica y carbonatos de calcio, a pesar que los iones calcio, en algunas ocasiones, pueden ejercer un papel antagonista adicional y favorecer el sellado de la superficie del suelo, aumentando la escorrentía superficial. Por otra parte, la micromorfología sugiere que el estado de degradación de los suelos contrasta con la actividad pedogénica. Estos resultados, juntamente con la presencia de cenizas, apoyan la hipótesis de que el estado de degradación en estas áreas es consecuencia principalmente de una utilización incorrecta después del abandono de los cultivos.
    [fr] Un étude des propriétés des sois dans une zone à cultures en pente abandonnées dans la vallée d'Aisa (Pyr

  4. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana; Gaspar, Leticia; Palazon, Leticia [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei (EEAD- CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Soil and Water; Valero-Garces, Blas [Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The sediments accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (Central Spanish Pyrenees) have greatly decreased its water storage capacity and are a major threat to the sustainability of water resources in the region. This study examines the contents of radionuclides and stable elements in the reservoir sediments and relates their variations with the sediment composition and local sedimentary dynamics, particularly flood frequency and intensity, which are responsible for changes in the main supply and distribution of radionuclides in the basin. Materials and methods: The sedimentary sequence accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (471 Hm{sup 3}), which supplies water to ca. 1,000,000 people and for irrigation, was examined in two 4-m long sediment cores (Y1, Y2) and one profile (Y3) retrieved at its central part. In the sediments, radionuclide activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were measured using a hyperpure Ge coaxial detector. The stable elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Li, K and Na were analysed by ICP-OES. Complementary analyses to characterize the sediments included: XRD in the profile, grain size distribution by laser equipment and the contents of organic matter, carbonates and the residual fraction by loss on ignition. Results and discussion: The variation in radionuclide activities is associated with grain size and sediment composition. The activity levels (becquerels per kilogram) ranged between 20 and 43 for{sup 238}U, 14 and 40 for {sup 226}Ra, 7 and 56 for {sup 210}Pb, 19 and 46 for Th{sup 232}, 1 and 48 for {sup 137}Cs and 185 and 610 for {sup 40}K. Enriched activity levels are associated with clayey and silty layers, and depleted levels with sandy layers. The levels of radionuclides and trace elements were significantly lower in the cores than in the profile because of its higher silicate content and the influence of inflow of spring mineral-rich waters. The correlations among

  5. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in high mountain lakes: variation with altitude in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bartrons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen deposition in remote areas has increased, but the effect on ecosystems is still poorly understood. For aquatic systems, knowledge of the main processes driving the observed variation is limited, as is knowledge of how changes in nitrogen supply affect lake biogeochemical and food web processes. Differences in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN between lakes cannot be understood without considering catchment characteristics. In mountains, catchment features (e.g., thermal conditions, land cover vary considerably with elevation. The isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ15N is increasingly used to study aquatic ecosystem dynamics. Here we explore the variability of δ15N in DIN in high mountain lakes and show that environmental conditions that change with altitude can affect the isotopic ratio.

    We measured ammonium and nitrate δ15N values in atmospheric deposition, epilimnetic water, deep chlorophyll maximum water (DCMW and sediment pore water (SPW from eight mountain lakes in the Pyrenees, both above and below the treeline. Lakes showed relatively uniform δ15N-NH4+ values in SPW (2.2±1.6‰, with no variation corresponding to catchment or lake characteristics. We suggest that organic matter diagenesis under similar sediment conditions is responsible for the low variation between the lakes.

    In the water column, the range of δ15N values was larger for ammonium (−9.4‰ to 7.4‰ than for nitrate (−11.4‰ to −3.4‰, as a result of higher variation both between and within lakes (epilimnetic vs. DCM water. For both compounds part of the difference correlated with altitude or catchment features (e.g., scree proportion. Based on concentration, chemical and isotopic tendencies, we suggest that patterns arise from the distinct relative contributions of two types of water flow paths to the lakes: one from snowpack melting, with little soil

  6. [Impact of collective violence on health status. Results of the ISAVIC study in the Basque Region (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larizgoitia, Itziar; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Iraurgi, Ioseba; Ballesteros, Javier; Forero, Carlos G; Markez, Iñaki; Alonso, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of violence and its possible impact on individual and collective health, the role and causal pathways of this phenomenon as a health determinant have not been widely studied. The present study was conducted between 2005 and 2008 in the Basque Region of Spain and aimed to estimate the health effects of collective violence on its primary victims. A purposive sample of 33 primary victims (direct victims of collective violence and the first degree relatives of murder victims) was matched (1:5 ratio) with a random selection of persons drawn from a representative sample of the population aged more than 16 years old living in the Basque Region. Matching criteria were age, sex, educational level and province of residence. All participants completed a questionnaire that included health status measures (WHO-DAS-II-12, GHQ-12, SF-12, loneliness and stigma scales) and other potentially mediating variables such as social support and emotional climate. The results were assessed by regression analysis conditional to exposure to collective violence. The odds of perceiving worse physical and emotional health were 4 to 7 times higher among primary victims than among the general population and were 8 times higher for experiencing functional disability. Primary victims also perceived more loneliness and stigma and negatively valued their social support and emotional climate. No significant impact was found among the general population with some experience of interpersonal violence. These results suggest that collective violence is associated with substantial impairment in health status. More specific studies to assess the health effects of collective violence in the general population are warranted. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Paleosol charcoal : Reconstructing vegetation history in relation to agro−pastoral activities since the Neolithic. A case study in the Eastern French Pyrenees.

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Marie; Rendu, Christine; Ruas, Marie-Pierre; Campmajo, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This article uses a method that combines pedoanthracological and pedo-archaeological approaches to terraces, complemented with archaeological pastoral data, in order to reconstruct the history of ancient agricultural terraces on a slope of the Enveitg Mountain in the French Pyrenees. Four excavations revealed two stages of terrace construction that have been linked with vegetation dynamics, which had been established by analyses of charcoal from the paleosols and soils...

  8. Detrital zircon (U-Th)/(He-Pb) double-dating constraints on provenance and foreland basin evolution of the Ainsa Basin, south-central Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kelly D.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Clark, Julian D.; Puigdefàbregas, Cai; Fildani, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    South central Pyrenean foreland basin fill preserves the eroded remnants of the early stages of fold-thrust belt evolution and topographic growth. Specifically, the Eocene Hecho Group in the Ainsa Basin contains a succession of turbiditic channels and levees deposited in the transition zone between the fluvial-deltaic and deep marine depozones. Detailed isotopic provenance analyses allow for the reconstruction of sediment sources of the ancient sediment routing systems. This study presents 2332 new detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb ages and 246 new DZ double-dated (U-Th)/(He-Pb) ages from 19 turbiditic and fluvio-deltatic sandstones in the Ainsa Basin. These data indicate a progressive provenance shift from Cadomian/Caledonian plutonic and metamorphic rocks of the eastern Pyrenees to Variscan plutonic rocks in the central Pyrenees. Minor sediment contributions from sources located to the S and SE of the basin are seen throughout the section. New DZ (U-Th)/He results identify four main cooling events: Pyrenean orogenesis ( 56 Ma), initial basin inversion ( 80 Ma), Cretaceous rifting ( 100 Ma), and pre-Mesozoic cooling ages related to earlier tectonic phases. This study imposes new constraints on the paleogeographic evolution of the Pyrenees and illustrates that high-frequency fluctuations in sediment delivery processes and sediment routing introduce superimposed noise upon the basin-scale long-term provenance evolution during orogenesis.

  9. Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa Moreno, Estibaliz; del Campo Pena, Emma; Ochoa de Retana Garcia, Lourdes; Arbonies Ortiz, Juan Carlos; Piñera Elorriaga, Koldo; Rua Portu, Mª Angeles; Urquiza Bengoa, Miren Nekane; Mendez Sampedro, Tomas; Oses Portu, Ana; Zenarutzabeitia Pikatza, Amaya; Gorostidi Fano, Lourdes; Aguirre Sorondo, Bakarne; Mateo-Abad, Maider; Rotaeche Del Campo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease with high prevalence and significant impact in terms of mortality and morbidity. The increased prevalence of the disease requires the implementation of new strategies to promote patient self-management. The Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) proved to be effective in other settings. The objective of this study is to assess its effectiveness in terms of care for DM2 patients in primary care settings within the Basque Healt...

  10. Brief communication "A multi-disciplinary approach to a side-flash lightning incident to human beings in the Basque Country"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On 31 August 2011 a lightning incident affecting two human beings was registered in the Basque Country (northern Spain. The two individuals were sightseeing in the Painted Forest of Oma (province of Biscay, Basque Country when an approaching thunderstorm forced them to look for shelter under the lowest branches of one of the trees. A lightning discharge in that exact place caused serious injuries to the couple, consisting of the loss of consciousness, superficial burns, a tympanic membrane perforation and a broken clavicle. The investigation presented in this paper was carried out in order to find out the causes by which the couple was hit by the lightning discharge and why the injuries were superficial and did not kill them. Using the data available by the lightning detection networks in the Basque Country and the information available by the weather radar, the exact place where the lightning discharge occurred could be found, the mechanism of lightning injury was classified and the episode was reconstructed.

  11. Wetland restoration and nitrate reduction: the example of the peri-urban wetland of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, North Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. García-Linares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land use and agricultural intensification caused wetlands on the quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country to disappear some years ago and nitrate concentration in groundwaters increased very quickly. The Basque Government recently declared the East Sector of this aquifer a Vulnerable Zone according to the 91/676/CEE European Directive. Recently, the wetlands have been restored through the closure of the main drainage ditches, the consequent elevation of the water table and the abondonment of agricultural practices near the wetlands. This is the case of the Zurbano wetland. Restoration has allowed the recovery of its biogeochemical function, which has reduced nitrate concentrations in waters. Nitrate concentrations which exceed 50 mg l–1 in groundwaters entering into the wetland are less than 10 mg l–1 at the outlet. Conditions in the wetland are conducive to the loss of nitrates: organic matter rich wetted soils, clay presence allowing a local semiconfined flow and very low hydraulic gradient. Water quality monitoring at several points around the wetland showed the processes involved in nitrate loss, although some aspects still remain unresolved. However, during storm events, the wetland effectively reduces the nitrate concentration entering the Alegria River, the most important river on the quaternary aquifer. Keywords: restored wetland functionality, nitrate losses, Basque Country

  12. Set-up of debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Preliminary results and first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Claudia; Moya, Jose; Chevalier, Guillaume; Raïmat, Carles; Luis-Fonseca, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Direct observations of debris flows in the field by monitoring stations are of great importance to improve understandings of triggering, flow behaviour and accumulation of debris flows. Upon the knowledge of the authors, in Europe debris-flow monitoring stations are only situated in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland), while no test site is located in a catchment affected by Mediterranean climate. In 2005, the first monitoring system was set up by GEOBRUGG IBERICA SA in the Erill catchment, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. A flexible ring net VX160-H4 with load-cells was installed together with a video camera and four geophones. In addition, a meteorological station completed the instrumentation. During 2009, the monitoring of two additional catchments has been set up; Senet in the Axial Pyrenees and Ensija in the Pre-Pyrenees. Four geophones and one ultrasonic device are installed along the torrent in order to determine the flow velocity and flow depth/discharge of the events. As in Erill, a meteorological station completes the devices and measures rainfall and temperature. The main objective of the three monitoring stations is to get some insights on how the Mediterranean climate influences the critical rainfall for debris-flow initiation. The flow behaviour of debris flows is another major goal, while the Erill test site focuses basically on the effectiveness of flexible ring nets. In addition, the Erill installation also acts as protection for the village located on the fan. The calibration, installation and analysis during the testing phase showed that a correct implementation of the different sensors is not an easy task and needs knowledge in geophysics, electronics, telecommunications etc. Especially geophones and ultrasonic devices need special attentions. Geophone outputs are strongly affected by the type of underground and the distance to the torrent, while the measures of the ultrasonic sensor clearly depend on the temperature. To simplify the data storage

  13. Post-orogenic evolution of mountain ranges and associated foreland basins: Initial investigation of the central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas; Sinclair, Hugh; Ford, Mary; Naylor, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Mountain topography, including surrounding foreland basins, results from the long-term competition between tectonic and surface processes linked to climate. Numerous studies on young active mountain ranges such as the Southern Alps, New Zealand and Taiwan, have investigated the interaction between tectonics, climate and erosion on the topographic landscape. However most of the mountain ranges in the world are in various stages of post-orogenic decay, such as the European Alps, Urals, Caledonides, Appalachians and Pyrenees. The landscape evolution of these decaying mountains, which involve relatively inactive tectonics, should appear simple with progressive and relatively uniform erosion resulting in a general lowering of both elevation and topographic relief. However, in a number of examples, post-orogenic systems suggest a complex dynamism and interactions with their associated foreland basins in term of spatio-temporal variations in erosion and sedimentary flux. The complexity and transition to post-orogenesis is a function of multiple processes. Underpinning the transition to a post-orogenic state is the competition between erosion and crustal thickening; the balance of these processes determines the timing and magnitude of isostatic rebound and hence subsidence versus uplift of the foreland basin. It is expected that any change in the parameters controlling the balance of erosion versus crustal thickening will impact the topographic evolution and sediment flux from the mountain range and foreland basin to the surrounding continental margin. This study will focus on the causes and origins of the processes that define post-orogenesis. This will involve analyses of low-temperature thermochronological and topographic data, geodynamical modelling and sedimentological analyses (grainsize distribution). The Pyrenees and its associated northern retro-foreland basin, the Aquitaine basin, will form the natural laboratory for the project as it is one of the best

  14. From plot to regional scales: Interactions of slope and catchment hydrological and geomorphic processes in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Beguería, Santiago; Lasanta, Teodoro; Regüés, David; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Serrano-Muela, Pilar; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Alvera, Bernardo; Martí-Bono, Carlos; Alatorre, Luis C.

    2010-08-01

    The hydrological and geomorphic effects of land use/land cover changes, particularly those associated with vegetation regrowth after farmland abandonment were investigated in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. The main focus was to assess the interactions among slope, catchment, basin, and fluvial channel processes over a range of spatial scales. In recent centuries most Mediterranean mountain areas have been subjected to significant human pressure through deforestation, cultivation of steep slopes, fires, and overgrazing. Depopulation commencing at the beginning of the 20th century, and particularly since the 1960s, has resulted in farmland abandonment and a reduction in livestock numbers, and this has led to an expansion of shrubs and forests. Studies in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, based on experimental plots and catchments, in large basins and fluvial channels, have confirmed that these land use changes have had hydrological and geomorphic consequences regardless of the spatial scale considered, and that processes occurring at any particular scale can be explained by such processes acting on other scales. Studies using experimental plots have demonstrated that during the period of greatest human pressure (mainly the 18th and 19th centuries), cultivation of steep slopes caused high runoff rates and extreme soil loss. Large parts of the small catchments behaved as runoff and sediment source areas, whereas the fluvial channels of large basins showed signs of high torrentiality (braided morphology, bare sedimentary bars, instability, and prevalence of bedload transport). Depopulation has concentrated most human pressure on the valley bottoms and specific locations such as resorts, whereas the remainder of the area has been affected by an almost generalized abandonment. Subsequent plant recolonization has resulted in a reduction of overland flow and declining soil erosion. At a catchment scale this has caused a reduction in sediment sources, and channel incision in the

  15. Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Ecological Study in the Basque Country, Spain (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Altzibar, Jone M; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Dorronsoro, Miren

    2016-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent condition in adults aged ≥40 years characterized by progressive airflow limitation associated with chronic inflammatory response to noxious particles in the airways and lungs. Smoking, genetics, air pollution, nutrition and other factors may influence COPD development. Most hospitalizations and deaths for COPD are caused by its acute exacerbations, which greatly affect the health and quality of life of COPD patients and pose a high burden on health services. The aims of this project were to identify trends, geographic patterns and risk factors for COPD exacerbations, as revealed by hospitalizations and deaths, in the Basque Country, Spain, over a period of 12 years (2000-2011). Hospitalization and mortality rates for COPD were 262 and 18 per 100,000 population, respectively, with clusters around the biggest cities. Hospital mortality was 7.4%. Most hospitalized patients were male (77.4%) and accounted for 72.1% of hospital mortality. Hospitalizations decreased during the study period, except for 50-64 year-old women, peaking significantly. Using a multivariate modeling approach it was shown that hospitalizations were positively correlated with increased atmospheric concentrations of NO 2 , CO, PM 10 , and SO 2 , and increased influenza incidence, but were negatively associated with increased temperatures and atmospheric O 3 concentration. COPD exacerbations decreased in the Basque Country during 2000-2011, but not among 50-64-year-old women, reflecting the high smoking prevalence among Spanish women during the 1970-1990s. The main metropolitan areas were those with the highest risk for COPD exacerbations, calling attention to the role of heavy car traffic. Influenza virus, cold temperatures, and increased atmospheric NO 2 , CO, PM 10 , and SO 2 (but decreased O 3 ) concentrations were identified as potential contributors to the burden of COPD exacerbations in the community. These findings are

  16. Impact of a home-based social welfare program on care for palliative patients in the Basque Country (SAIATU Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Emilio Herrera; Nuño-Solinis, Roberto; Idioaga, Gorka Espiau; Flores, Silvia Librada; Hasson, Naomi; Orueta Medía, Juan F

    2013-01-30

    SAIATU is a program of specially trained in-home social assistance and companionship which, since February 2011, has provided support to end-of-life patients, enabling the delivery of better clinical care by healthcare professionals in Osakidetza (Basque Health Service), in Guipúzcoa (Autonomous Community of the Basque Country).In January 2012, a retrospective observational study was carried out, with the aim of describing the characteristics of the service and determining if the new social service and the associated socio-health co-ordination had produced any effect on the use of healthcare resources by end-of-life patients.The results of a comparison of a cohort of cases and controls demonstrated evidence that the program could reduce the use of hospital resources and promote the continuation of living at home, increasing the home-based activity of primary care professionals.The objective of this study is to analyse whether a program of social intervention in palliative care (SAIATU) results in a reduction in the consumption of healthcare resources and cost by end-of-life patients and promotes a shift towards a more community-based model of care. Comparative prospective cohort study, with randomised selection of patients, which will systematically measure patient characteristics and their consumption of resources in the last 30 days of life, with and without the intervention of a social support team trained to provide in-home end-of-life care.For a sample of approximately 150 patients, data regarding the consumption of public healthcare resources, SAIATU activity, home hospitalisation teams, and palliative care will be recorded. Such data will also include information dealing with the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and attending carers, as well as particular characteristics of patient outcomes (Karnofsky Index), and of the outcomes of palliative care received (Palliative Outcome Scale).Ethical approval for the study was given by

  17. The Impact of a Legal Framework on National Film Industry: an Approach to Basque-Language Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Manias-Muñoz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After the incursion of the digitalisation and the Internet, new forms of cultural production, reception and consumption have come via the hands of technological convergence and the way society has adapted to that scenario. In the current context of globalisation traditional cultural conceptualisation has been modified by opening up an economic discourse based on knowledge, creativity and innovation. But how are cultural policies bringing this paradigm into their protection framework? As part of the cultural activity, cinema plays a core role contributing to the national economic competitiveness and social cohesion. However, small cinemas struggle and films made in minority languages face a lot more difficulties. This paper shows how a legal change has made a certain funding model possible for cinema in the Basque-language, suggesting that a legally binding space where a specific cultural subject is primarily recognised has become crucial for films in Basque. Tras la llegada de la digitalización e Internet, han surgido nuevas formas de producción, recepción y consumo de cultura, de la mano de la convergencia tecnológica y la forma en la que la sociedad se ha adaptado a ese escenario. En el contexto actual de la globalización, la conceptualización cultural tradicional se ha modificado por un nuevo discurso económico basado en el conocimiento, la creatividad y la innovación. Pero ¿cómo están integrando las políticas culturales este paradigma en su marco de protección? Como parte de la actividad cultural, el cine juega un papel fundamental, contribuyendo a la competitividad económica nacional y a la cohesión social. Sin embargo, las salas de cine pequeñas experimentan dificultades y las películas rodadas en lenguas minoritarias se enfrentan a numerosas dificultades. Este artículo muestra cómo un cambio legal ha hecho posible un modelo de financiación para el cine en lengua vasca, y se sugiere que es fundamental para las pel

  18. Impact of a home-based social welfare program on care for palliative patients in the Basque Country (SAIATU Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Emilio Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAIATU is a program of specially trained in-home social assistance and companionship which, since February 2011, has provided support to end-of-life patients, enabling the delivery of better clinical care by healthcare professionals in Osakidetza (Basque Health Service, in Guipúzcoa (Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. In January 2012, a retrospective observational study was carried out, with the aim of describing the characteristics of the service and determining if the new social service and the associated socio-health co-ordination had produced any effect on the use of healthcare resources by end-of-life patients. The results of a comparison of a cohort of cases and controls demonstrated evidence that the program could reduce the use of hospital resources and promote the continuation of living at home, increasing the home-based activity of primary care professionals. The objective of this study is to analyse whether a program of social intervention in palliative care (SAIATU results in a reduction in the consumption of healthcare resources and cost by end-of-life patients and promotes a shift towards a more community-based model of care. Method/design Comparative prospective cohort study, with randomised selection of patients, which will systematically measure patient characteristics and their consumption of resources in the last 30 days of life, with and without the intervention of a social support team trained to provide in-home end-of-life care. For a sample of approximately 150 patients, data regarding the consumption of public healthcare resources, SAIATU activity, home hospitalisation teams, and palliative care will be recorded. Such data will also include information dealing with the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and attending carers, as well as particular characteristics of patient outcomes (Karnofsky Index, and of the outcomes of palliative care received (Palliative

  19. Increasing Aridity is Enhancing Silver Fir (Abies Alba Mill). Water Stress in its South-Western Distribution Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Andreu, L.; Bosch, O.; Gutierrez, E. [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal, 645, Barcelona, 08028, Catalonia (Spain); Camarero, J.J. [Unidad de Recursos Forestales, Centro de Investigacion Agroalimentaria, Gobierno de Aragon, Apdo. 727, Zaragoza, 50080, Aragon (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Tree populations located at the geographical distribution limit of the species may provide valuable information about the response of tree growth to climate warming across climatic gradients. Dendroclimatic information was extracted from a network of 10 silver-fir (Abies alba) populations in the south-western distribution limit of the species (Pyrenees, NE Iberian Peninsula). Ring-width chronologies were built for five stands sampled in mesic sites from the Main Range in the Pyrenees, and for five forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges where summer drought is more pronounced. The radial growth of silver-fir in this region is constrained by water stress during the summer previous to growth, as suggested by the negative relationship with previous September temperature and, to a lesser degree, by a positive relationship with previous end of summer precipitation. Climatic data showed a warming trend since the 1970s across the Pyrenees, with more severe summer droughts. The recent warming changed the climate-growth relationships, causing higher growth synchrony among sites, and a higher year-to-year growth variation, especially in the southernmost forests. Moving-interval response functions suggested an increasing water-stress effect on radial growth during the last half of the 20th century. The growth period under water stress has extended from summer up to early autumn. Forests located in the southern Peripheral Ranges experienced a more intense water stress, as seen in a shift of their response to precipitation and temperature. The Main-Range sites mainly showed a response to warming. The intensification of water-stress during the late 20th century might affect the future growth performance of the highly-fragmented A. alba populations in the southwestern distribution limit of the species.

  20. The Late Neoproterozoic magmatism in the Ediacaran series of the Eastern Pyrenees: new ages and isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. M.; Navidad, M.; Castiñeiras, P.; Liesa, M.; Aguilar, C.; Carreras, J.; Hofmann, M.; Gärtner, A.; Linnemann, U.

    2015-06-01

    Geochronological U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS), geochemical and isotopic data from metavolcanic felsic rocks of the Canigó and Cap de Creus massifs in the Eastern Pyrenees provide evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic event lasting 30 Ma in NE Iberia. These data also constrain the age of the Late Neoproterozoic succession in the Cap de Creus massif, where depositional ages range from 577 to 558 Ma, and in the Canigó massif, where the data (575-568 Ma) represent minimum ages. The geochemistry of the felsic rocks indicates that they were formed in a back-arc environment and they record a fragment of a long-lived subduction-related magmatic arc (620-520 Ma) in the active northern Gondwana margin. The homogeneity shown by all these crustal fragments along this margin suggests that the individualization of the Pyrenean basement from the Iberian Massif started later, probably during its transition from an active to a passive margin in Cambro-Ordovician times.

  1. Analysis of spatial and temporal evolution of vegetation cover in the Spanish Central Pyrenees: role of human management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Lasanta, Teodoro; Romo, Alfredo

    2004-12-01

    A vegetation cover increase has been identified at global scales using satellite images and vegetation indices. This fact is usually explained by global climatic change processes such as CO(2) and temperature increases. Nevertheless, although these causes can be important, the role of socioeconomic transformations must be considered in some places, since in several areas of Northern Hemisphere an important change in management practices has been detected. Rural depopulation and land abandonment have reactivated the natural vegetation regeneration processes. This work analyses the vegetation evolution in the central Spanish Pyrenees from 1982 to 2000. The analysis has been done by using calibrated-NDVI temporal series from NOAA-AVHRR images. A positive and significant trend in NDVI data has been identified from 1982 to 2000 coinciding with a temperature increase in the study area. However, the spatial differences in magnitude and the sign of NDVI trends are significant. The role of land management changes in the 20th century is considered as a hypothesis to explain the spatial differences in NDVI trends. The role of land-cover and human land-uses on this process has been analyzed. The highest increment of NDVI is detected in lands affected by abandonment and human extensification. The importance of management changes in vegetation growth is discussed, and we indicate that although climate has great importance in vegetal evolution, land-management changes can not be neglected in our study area.

  2. Tree-ring based assessment of rockfall frequency on talus slopes at Solà d'Andorra, Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, J.; Corominas, J.; Pérez Arcas, J.; Baeza, C.

    2010-06-01

    The determination of the frequency of rockfall events continues to challenge quantitative hazard assessments in most mountain areas. Dendrogeomorphological analysis was used to assess rockfall frequency on talus slopes at Solà d'Andorra (Eastern Pyrenees, Andorra). Rockfall events were dated at two sites: one at the outlet of a chute, and the other below a rock wall. The impact wounds visible on the tree surface were analyzed with a seasonal temporal resolution. At each site, trees were sampled in three forest strips 15 to 30 m wide located at different heights on the talus. All the trees with visible injuries in the strips were sampled. Rockfall frequency cannot be assessed by a simple analysis of time series of tree damage. A satisfactory assessment requires a prior interpretation of the location of the damaged trees in relation to a number of rockfall events. At Solà d'Andorra, the rockfall chronology was reconstructed for the last 25 years by dating visible wounds. For older periods, the tree wound record of rockfalls is incomplete owing to progressive closure of wounds. Wounds exceeding 40 years in age had already disappeared from the tree surface in the study area. Our results show a clear reduction of the rockfall frequency down the talus, a noticeable lateral change in frequency, and an influence of source morphology (chute or wall) on rockfall activity on the talus.

  3. POLYGNATHUS ROSAE N. SP. (CONODONTA AND ITS BIOSTRATIGRAPHICAL CORRELATION POTENTIAL (LOWER EMSIAN, LOWER DEVONIANIN THE SPANISH CENTRAL PYRENEES

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    CARLOS MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems around the Pragian/Emsian (P/E boundary have been widely discussed by several authors, who have pointed out that the present Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP in the Zinzilban section (Kitab Reserve, Uzbekistan, is much older than the traditional German Siegenian-Emsian boundary, a fact that considerably reduces the duration of the traditional Pragian Stage. A comprehensive conodont study of two important sections (Isábena 1 and Baliera 6 demonstrates the presence of the conodont indexes for the P/E boundary in both senses (official and traditional in the Spanish Central Pyrenees (SCP. Within the important conodont faunas registered, the presence of a new early polygnathid species Polygnathus rosae n. sp. stands out. Its stratigraphic range in the two sections is restricted to a short interval around the traditional beginning of the Emsian Stage. This particular distribution permits direct relation between both indexes, a better characterization of the P/E boundary in the traditional German sense and increases the palaeontological knowledge of this stratigraphic interval. Conodont records in the SCP suggest that Po. rosae n. sp. could be a good local index, too. In addition, Po. rosae n. sp. represents the last known step of the lineage Po. pireneaePo. rosae n. sp., a new early polygnathid lineage that supports the early radiation of the genus around the P/E boundary. 

  4. On the reliability of AMS in ilmenite-type granites: an insight from the Marimanha pluton, central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Casas, A. M.; Ramón, M. J.; Leiss, B.; Mariani, E.; Román-Berdiel, T.

    2012-04-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) at room temperature has been used for decades to obtain the petrofabric orientation in granites as a kinematic marker to establish models explaining the emplacement of plutons. To assess the significance of AMS in terms of mineral orientation, we have performed a multidisciplinary study at five sites of an ilmenite-type pluton (Marimanha, central Pyrenees) with significant facies changes. To test the reliability of AMS measurements at room temperature, the following methods were applied: low temperature AMS; image analyses and X-ray texture goniometry (XTG) of biotites; and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to obtain c-axes directions of quartz. The total (para-, ferro- and dia-)magnetic fabric analysed by AMS is compared with the paramagnetic fabric (low-T AMS), mica orientation (with image analyses and XTG) and the diamagnetic fabric (EBSD). Results indicate that weakly oriented paramagnetic minerals can give well-defined magnetic fabrics (AMS at room and low temperatures). Furthermore, the AMS ellipsoid is the result of composite biotite fabrics resulting from both orientation and spatial distribution of crystals, as demonstrated by 2-D mathematical models presented in this study. AMS is the most effective technique for quickly measuring composite fabrics. In addition, the advantage of using AMS analyses is twofold: (1) it is a fast way of analysing standard samples that can give clues for subsequent image/mineral orientation analysis and (2) it is a volume-related method that gives a picture of the rock fabric as a whole.

  5. [Quality analysis of clinical practice guidelines on cardiovascular risks in the Basque country and a proposal for their evaluacion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casi Casanellas, A; Aizpuru Barandiarán, F; Ibáñez Pérez, F

    2000-11-30

    To find the implantation and quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) to manage the major cardiovascular risks: tobacco dependency, hypertension, hyperlipaemia and diabetes mellitus. To work out a model to evaluate the quality of the CPG in primary care. Cross-sectional descriptive study. The primary care centres of the Basque Country. 170 CPG used at present to manage the four mentioned cardiovascular risks. Information was requested on the use of CPG and copies of their guidelines were requested from those in charge of 103 ranked centres. 77 centres replied (76%), of which 66 said they used one of them. A total of 170 CPG were received. On the basis of non-specific prior proposals for primary care, 21 quality criteria for the CPG, grouped in 6 blocks, were drawn up. Top quality was found in the block for clarity of clinical procedure with 63% compliance with the CPG, followed by general description (54%), and evaluation and measurement of impact (30%). The blocks with worst compliance were identification of people involved in their design (23%), evidence of their recommendations (19%) and conditions of application (4%). A model was proposed to evaluate the quality of the CPG. Major deficiencies in quality were found. These were most marked in key aspects such as bibliographic support for their recommendations, envisaging of conditions for application and identification of authors and reviewers.

  6. [Body composition assessment and body image perception in a group of University females of the Basque Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, M; Ansotegui, L; Pereira, E; Lacerda, F; Valador, N; Serrano, L; Rocandio, A Ma

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] To assess the body image perception and to compare the results with the true measurements in a group of university students. Participants were 28 volunteer females recruited from the degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetic from the University of the Basque Country (Spain). All participants gave their informed consent. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 22.01 (2.12) years (20,23-28,25). Anthropometric measurement estimated directly and the derived indexes were compared with reference values. The assessment of body image perception was made using a somatomorphic software. The difference between the perceived measurements and the ideals were used as measure of body dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS vs 14.0. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.7%, and of under-weight was 70.1%. The body fat perception was well, while the perception of the muscle index was significantly different from the real measure (3.91+/-2.75 kg/m2; Pbeauty and for the overvaluation of the thinness. Additional research is needed to further know the relation between female body image and true measurements of body composition. Future research will allow to compare the results with other populations.

  7. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  8. Oral lichenoid lesions associated with amalgam restorations: A prospective pilot study addressing the adult population of the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Revilla, Begoña; Saiz-Garcia, Carolina; Eguizabal-Saracho, Sonia; Aguirre-Urizar, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) are linked to a heterogeneous group of pathologies involving the oral mucosa that cannot be distinguished from the oral lichen planus excepting the fact that direct causal factors such as silver amalgam restorations (SARs) can be allocated to them. Purpose: To analyze the prevalence of mucosal lesions associated with SAR in a group of SAR carrying patients in the Basque Country. Study Design: A clinical prospective study was carried out on 100 adult patients over 30 years of age at the UPV/EHU Clinical Odontology Service whose rear teeth had at least one SAR. Patients were identified and mucosal lesions and amalgam restorations were characterized. Patch tests were performed on patients with lesions and amalgams were replaced with composite material. A statistical and comparative analysis was performed with the resulting data. Results: OLLs were found in 7 patients whose predominant lesion was bilateral, asymmetrical and asymptomatic white papule-macule. Lesions were related to old and corroded SARs. Patch testing was positive in two cases. SAR substitution produced an improvement in 5 cases. Conclusions: The presence of lichenoid lesions associated with SARs is infrequent in our environment and is preferentially related to old and corroded restorations. Key words:Oral mucosa, lichenoid lesions, restoration, silver amalgam, patch test. PMID:22322507

  9. A Pilot Study to Assess the Feasibility of the Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program in the Basque Country

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    Estibaliz Gamboa Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP in the primary care setting of the Basque Health Service and offer initial estimations of the randomized controlled trial (RCT effects. Methods. Ten health centers (HCs participated in a single-arm pilot study with a 6-month follow-up period between February 2011 and June 2012. Recruitment was performed via invitation letters, health professionals, and the local media. Each intervention group consisted of 8–15 people. The ability of each HC in forming up to 2 groups, participants’ compliance with the course, and coordination and data collection issues were evaluated. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c was the main outcome variable. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular risk factors, drugs consumption, medical visits, quality of life, self-efficacy, physical exercise, and diet. Results. Two HCs did not organize a course. A total of 173 patients initiated the program, 2 dropped out without baseline data, and 90% completed it. No pre-post HbA1c differences existed. Certain improvements were observed in blood pressure control, self-efficacy, physical activity, and some dietary habits. Conclusion. The SDSMP is feasible in our setting. Our experience can be of interest when planning and conducting this program in similar health settings. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01642394.

  10. Survival of natural populations of Austropotamobius pallipes in rivers in Bizkaia, Basque Country (North of Iberian Peninsula

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    GARCÍA-ARBERAS L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some relict populations of the native crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes have been located in rivers in Bizkaia, (Basque Country, Spain, and its population numbers and dynamics, and habitat conditions have been studied for three years. The first descriptive results are given in this paper. The native crayfish populations must be considered residual because of the disrupted area distribution and highly fluctuating demography of the species. Up to now, the species has been located in more than thirty fluvial areas of relatively high slope and shallow and good quality water. Population characteristics (sex ratio, length and weight relations and length frequency classes are studied in nineteen cases. Maximal relative population numbers are about 100 captures per hour ; these values are correlated to variables of conductivity, hardness, and concentrations of nitrates, nitrites, magnesium, potassium and ammonium. The degree of mineralization must reach a minimum level and, within the values found in the studied rivers, its increase favours the population of crayfish. Management measures to conserve native crayfish must include the protection and improvement of their habitat, prevention of access to it and to the commencement of a genetic study to palliate the phenomenon of endemism. It would also be highly recommendable to begin experimental restocking of riverbeds now without crayfish fauna and with apparently optimum conditions for the establishment of populations of autochthonous crayfish.

  11. Frequencies of the precision ID ancestry panel markers in Basques using the Ion Torrent PGM(TM) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O; Ajuriagerra, J A; Alday, A; Alonso, S; Pérez, J A; Soto, A; Uriarte, I; Yurrebaso, I

    2017-09-12

    The Precision ID Ancestry Panel for the Ion Torrent PGM™ platform is able to genotype 165 autosomal SNPs by massively parallel sequencing (MPS). In the present study, we evaluated the depth of coverage, the locus strand balance and the heterozygote balance of the above panel. The SNPs rs1569175, rs2306040, rs9845457, rs1407434, and rs10007810 showed a low performance, due either to a low coverage, locus strand imbalance or heterozygote imbalance. To further to assess this panel, we analyzed 108 Basques. All loci proved to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and we did not detect any association between them with the exception of the pair rs3916235-rs4891825 in chromosome 18. The forensic parameters combined match probability and combined power of exclusion were estimated to be 3.13×10(-35) and 99.9972%, respectively. In conclusion, the Precision ID Ancestry panel along with this new MPS technology constitute a very promising tool for human identification and biogeographical ancestry inference in routine casework in the forensic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Middle-spotted Woodpecker Leiopicus medius in the Basque Country, Northern Spain: review of current ecological status

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    Fernández-García José María

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite previous inventories and atlas of the avifauna in the Basque Country, Northern Spain, the dense population of the Middle-spotted Woodpecker Leiopicus medius in the Izki forest was not discovered until the 1990’s. This population mainly occupies a 3,700 ha Quercus pyrenaica forest, showing an average density of 0.89 territories/10 ha. The occurrence and abundance of territories is positively associated to the density of large caducifolious Quercus trees (>35 cm diameter. While nesting trees are apparently easily available, large trees for foraging could be a more limiting resource, given the historical exploitation regime of the forest. There are several other massifs in the region with smaller populations, but the functional connectivity, demographic and dispersal dynamics relating the core Izki and the peripheral areas have not been investigated. The conservation relevance of the Izki population in the Spanish context is high and given the need to understand the effects of forest management, future research should include spatial ecology, breeding performance as well as population monitoring.

  13. Bluetongue virus serotype 1 outbreak in the Basque Country (Northern Spain 2007-2008. Data support a primary vector windborne transport.

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    Rodrigo García-Lastra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease of ruminants that has expanded its traditional global distribution in the last decade. Recently, BTV-1 emerged in Southern Spain and caused several outbreaks in livestock reaching the north of the country. The aim of this paper was to review the emergence of BTV-1 in the Basque Country (Northern Spain during 2007 and 2008 analyzing the possibility that infected Culicoides were introduced into Basque Country by winds from the infected areas of Southern Spain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use a complex HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model to draw wind roses and backward wind trajectories. The analysis of winds showed September 28 to October 2 as the only period for the introduction of infected midges in the Basque Country. These wind trajectories crossed through the areas affected by serotype 1 on those dates in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Additionally meteorological data, including wind speed and humidity, and altitude along the trajectories showed suitable conditions for Culicoides survival and dispersion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: An active infection in medium-long distance regions, wind with suitable speed, altitude and trajectory, and appropriate weather can lead to outbreaks of BTV-1 by transport of Culicoides imicola, not only over the sea (as reported previously but also over the land. This shows that an additional factor has to be taken into account for the control of the disease which is currently essentially based on the assumption that midges will only spread the virus in a series of short hops. Moreover, the epidemiological and serological data cannot rule out the involvement of other Culicoides species in the spread of the infection, especially at a local level.

  14. Répercussions de la chute du mur de Berlin sur des conflits nationalistes : Pays Basque et Irlande du Nord

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    Pascal Pragnère

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La chute du mur de Berlin et l’effondrement des régimes communistes eurent pour effet de discréditer et affaiblir de nombreux mouvements révolutionnaires, et de provoquer l’émergence ou la résurgence de mouvements nationalistes.En 1989-90, deux conflits violents faisaient rage au cœur de l’Europe occidentale démocratique, en Irlande du Nord et au Pays Basque.Dans ces deux territoires, des nationalistes, dont certains étaient des radicaux animés par des revendications nationalistes et révolutionnaires s’opposèrent à des états démocratiques par l’utilisation de la violence. Un processus de paix se développa à partir de 1998 en Irlande du Nord ; celui du Pays Basque est toujours dans l’impasse.Il semble au premier abord que ces conflits continuèrent sans bouleversement majeur dans la période qui suivit la chute du mur.Cet article examine les revendications des nationalistes en Irlande du Nord et au Pays Basque pour tenter de dévoiler dans quelle mesure ils furent affectés par ce choc historique.Une perspective comparative permet de comprendre que ces mouvements furent influencés différemment en fonction des contextes locaux. Certains acteurs politiques restèrent volontairement imperméables, alors que d’autres furent davantage affectés par le débat idéologique.

  15. Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 Outbreak in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) 2007–2008. Data Support a Primary Vector Windborne Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lastra, Rodrigo; Leginagoikoa, Iratxe; Plazaola, Jose M.; Ocabo, Blanca; Aduriz, Gorka; Nunes, Telmo; Juste, Ramón A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease of ruminants that has expanded its traditional global distribution in the last decade. Recently, BTV-1 emerged in Southern Spain and caused several outbreaks in livestock reaching the north of the country. The aim of this paper was to review the emergence of BTV-1 in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) during 2007 and 2008 analyzing the possibility that infected Culicoides were introduced into Basque Country by winds from the infected areas of Southern Spain. Methodology/Principal Findings We use a complex HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model to draw wind roses and backward wind trajectories. The analysis of winds showed September 28 to October 2 as the only period for the introduction of infected midges in the Basque Country. These wind trajectories crossed through the areas affected by serotype 1 on those dates in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. Additionally meteorological data, including wind speed and humidity, and altitude along the trajectories showed suitable conditions for Culicoides survival and dispersion. Conclusions/Significance An active infection in medium-long distance regions, wind with suitable speed, altitude and trajectory, and appropriate weather can lead to outbreaks of BTV-1 by transport of Culicoides imicola, not only over the sea (as reported previously) but also over the land. This shows that an additional factor has to be taken into account for the control of the disease which is currently essentially based on the assumption that midges will only spread the virus in a series of short hops. Moreover, the epidemiological and serological data cannot rule out the involvement of other Culicoides species in the spread of the infection, especially at a local level. PMID:22479628

  16. Long-term entrenchment and consequences in present flood hazard in Garona River (Val d'Aran, central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Flood risk is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in mountainous areas. Risk management and mitigation have to be based on exhaustive risk evaluation. Moreover, hazard analysis requires a multidisciplinary approach to achieve a complete understanding of the dynamics of the phenomena. The Val d'Aran valley is located in the axial part of the Pyrenees and is drained by the Garona River. Flooding events are relatively frequent there. The last extraordinary episode occurred in June 2013. Considering both the main effects of this flooding and the geomorphology, the long-term dynamics of the Garona River was studied in two different areas (Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les), which are representative of the whole length along the Val d'Aran. In fact, present short-term processes can be partly explained as a result of the long-term fluvial tendency. During the analysis of the 2013 flood effects, several entrenchment and incision indicators were found. Under the hypothesis that the fluvial network tends to incise, an entrenchment indicator analysis was carried out. Firstly, we considered the geomorphologic features, such as two generations of alluvial fans, two generations of alluvial terraces and, incisions on geomorphologic features and in Paleozoic bedrock. Secondly, we found out that erosion dominated over overflow and deposition during the 2013 flooding. Finally, great erosion was identified in engineering structures, for instance, in bridges, channelization dikes, gauging stations and dams. The geomorphologic analysis and the entrenchment indicators are essential to perform a post-glacial evolution interpretation. During the last Pleistocene glacial retreat, a fluvio-torrential network was developed at the bottom of the ancient glacial valley. An early post-glacial phase with a high sediment transport lead to the formation of first generation alluvial fans and alluvial terraces (nowadays located ≈15m above the channel). As sediment transport decreased

  17. Briser les murs de l’incompréhension par le rire ? Étude de la représentation du processus de paix au Pays basque dans la revue satirique El Jueves (2006-2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Thouverez, Ludivine

    2017-01-01

    Cet article porte sur la représentation graphique et textuelle du processus de paix au Pays basque dans la revue satirique espagnole El Jueves. L’analyse du discours éditorial et de 353 dessins humoristiques publiés entre 2006 et 2016 permet de mesurer l’évolution discursive du média par rapport aux principaux acteurs du conflit (l’ETA, le gouvernement espagnol et la gauche souverainiste basque) et souligne son engagement en faveur du dialogue et de la paix, en dépit d’un climat politico-médi...

  18. Middle-to-late Holocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from the A294 ice-cave record (Central Pyrenees, northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Belmonte, Ánchel; Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno, Ana; Leunda, María; López-Martínez, Jerónimo

    2018-02-01

    Perennial ice deposits in caves represent unique, but underexplored, terrestrial sequences that potentially contain outstanding palaeoclimatic records. Here, we present a pioneer palaeoenvironmental study of an ice deposit preserved in a small sag-type cave (A294) in the Central Pyrenees (northern Iberian Peninsula). The 9.25-m-thick sequence, which is dated from 6100 ± 107 to 1888 ± 64 cal BP, represents the oldest known firn ice record worldwide. The stratigraphy (detrital layers, unconformities, and cross stratification), plant macrofossils, and isotopic signature (similarity between the ice linear distribution, δ2H = 7.83δ18O + 8.4, and the Global Meteoric Water Line) of the ice point to the diagenesis of snow introduced to the cave by winter snowstorms. Four phases of rapid ice accumulation (6100-5515, 4945-4250, 3810-3155, and 2450-1890 cal BP) are related to wetter and colder winters. Comparison of the isotopic composition (δ18O and deuterium excess) of the ice with other paleoclimate records show that both source effects and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) mechanism exert a dominant influence on the ice cave record. The NAO signal may be a combination of source effects and rainfall amount. Three intervals with low ice accumulation occurred between the phases of rapid accumulation and were related to drier, and possibly warmer, winters. These centennial-scale episodes appear to be in-phase with regional arid events, as established from high altitude lacustrine records and can be correlated to global Rapid Climate Change events. The current warming trend has dramatically decreased the volume of the ice deposit in cave A294.

  19. Evolution of vegetation activity on well-vegetated and degraded areas in the central Spanish Pyrenees, using multitemporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre, Luis Carlos; Beguería, Santaigo; Lana-Renault, Noemí

    2010-05-01

    The temporal evolution of vegetation activity on various land cover classes in the Spanish Pyrenees was analyzed. The study area is located at 620-2,149 m altitude approximately 23 km north of the Barasona Reservoir, is an integrated badlands landscape orientated northwest-southeast and developed on Eocene marls. The objectives of this study were: i) to obtain time series of vegetation activity during two contrasting periods of the growth cycle (early spring and the end of summer) for various land cover classes, including both well-vegetated and degraded areas (badlands and erosion risk areas); ii) to determine the extent by which climate controls vegetation activity in the various land cover classes, and to define temporal trends; and, iii) to analyze the spatial distribution of trends in vegetation activity on erosion risk areas, as indicators of recovery and degradation, and to quantify the effects of various topographical factors on such trends. Two time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were used, corresponding to March (early spring) and August (the end of summer). The series were generated from Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images for the period 1984-2007. An increase in the NDVI in March was found for vegetated areas, and the opposite trend was found in both March and August for degraded areas (badlands and erosion risk areas). The rise in minimum temperature during the study period appears to be the most important factor explaining the increased NDVI in the vegetated areas. In degraded areas, no climatic or topographic variable was associated with the negative trend in the NDVI, which may be related to erosion processes taking place in these regions.

  20. The "bear" essentials: actualistic research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for paleontology and archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, Maite; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2014-01-01

    Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass's trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all) from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus]) and non-durophagus (modelled here by brown bears and

  1. Examining the concept of “mousterian variability” at Roca dels Bous (Southeast pre-pyrenees, Lleida

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    Mora, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the implications arising from changes in the movement of raw materials from levels N10 and N12 of Roca dels Bous (Southeastern Prepyrenees. Studies of the lithic assemblages reveal differences in stone tool technologies, especially knapping and retouching. These variations enable us to reflect on the function of the settlement within the context of Neanderthal mobility patterns in the area that connects the Ebro Valley with the Pyrenees. The characteristics of the artefacts suggest changes in the strategies employed in the acquisition, production, use and discard of stone tools. Importantly, these observations allow us to examine issues related to “variability”, a key concept in any discussion related to the cultural change in the Middle Palaeolithic.

    En este artículo se discute las implicaciones derivadas del cambio en la aportación de materias primas detectado en los niveles N10 y N12 de Roca dels Bous (Prepirineo suroriental. En estos contextos se recuperan conjuntos líticos con unos atributos en los métodos de talla y en el instrumental retocado que sugieren modificaciones en los comportamientos relacionados con la adquisición, elaboración, uso y abandono del instrumental. De estas observaciones se derivan varias implicaciones sobre la función del asentamiento dentro de los patrones de movilidad de los neandertales que habitan en la vertiente sur de los Pirineos. Paralelamente, permite abordar la noción de “variabilidad”, concepto clave al referir el significado cultural del Paleolítico Medio.

  2. The "bear" essentials: actualistic research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for paleontology and archaeology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Arilla

    Full Text Available Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass's trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus] and non-durophagus (modelled here by

  3. Streamflow response and sediment yield after farmland abandonment: results from a small experimental catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

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    Serrano-Muela, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A small catchment affected by agricultural practices in the past, then progressively abandoned and naturally re-vegetated was monitored in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The results obtained over a 9-year period revealed the complexity of its hydrological and geomorphological behaviour. Several runoff generation processes can occur at the same time and in different parts of the catchment, depending on the water reserves conditions and rainfall characteristics. Sediment response is mainly controlled by the spatial and temporal dynamics of water and sediment contributing areas within the catchment. The sediment output illustrates the complexity of the geomorphic response of mountain environments modified by past farmland activities.

    Se presenta una síntesis de la investigación realizada en una pequeña cuenca experimental afectada por una intensa actividad agraria en el pasado y sujeta a un proceso de revegetación natural en la actualidad en el Pirineo Central. Los principales resultados obtenidos demuestran su complejo comportamiento hidrogeomorfológico. El análisis de la información hidrológica sugiere que diferentes procesos dominantes de generación de escorrentía pueden ocurrir de manera simultánea en diferentes áreas de la cuenca, en función del estado de humedad de la misma y de las características de la precipitación. La respuesta sedimentológica está principalmente controlada por la dinámica espacio-temporal de las áreas fuente de escorrentía y de sedimento. La exportación de sedimento ilustra la complejidad de la respuesta geomorfológica en los ambientes de montaña afectados por actividades agrarias en el pasado.

  4. On the arsenic source mobilisation and its natural enrichment in the sediments of a high mountain cirque in the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos George; Hooda, Peter S; Fernandez, Javier; Soler, Antonio Palanca; Burghelea, Carmen Ionela

    2009-11-01

    Recently arsenic contamination and its environmental and human health problems have been raising concerns worldwide. The occurrence of natural high levels of arsenic contamination has generally been reported for low altitude environments. Here we report a study conducted to assess the extent of arsenic mobilisation/transportation from previously identified arsenic source areas in a high altitude cirque of the Pyrenees as well as the potential contribution of As by snow. The concentration of arsenic in sediments of several tributaries was enriched up to about ten folds due to mobilisation of arsenic from the source areas within the catchment. The highest arsenic enrichments were found in an area dominated by quartzite and slate formation in the southern side of the basin, and it generally diminished towards the major lake downstream, possible due to mixing with sediments from non-source areas. At these sites arsenic exceeded the hazard quotient (HQ) limits for the protection of aquatic life. The potential hazard of the As-enriched sediments may be further enhanced outside the catchment as samples collected downstream the cirque have also shown arsenic concentration exceeding HQ unity. The arsenic concentrations in the water collected at a number of sites exceeded its guide value for the protection of aquatic life. The potential As contribution by snow in the area was low and was largely of lithospheric origin. The PCA analysis showed strong association of arsenic in sediments with the sediment mineralogical composition (Fe2O3, TiO2 and Mn). Arsenic in water was positively correlated with its concentration in the sediments and could potentially increase if the environmental/climate conditions change.

  5. Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

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    Jesús Revuelto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.

  6. Co-evolution of soils and vegetation in the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Muela, Maria Pilar; Nadal Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; María García Ruiz, José

    2013-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. This study analyzes soil and vegetation characteristics under various plant covers, using information from the Aísa Valley Experimental Station (AVES), Spanish Pyrenees, from 1991 to 2010. The land uses considered were: dense shrub cover, grazing meadow, abandoned field, cereal (barley), abandoned shifting agriculture, active shifting agriculture, burnt1 and burnt2 plots, and in-fallow plot. All the plots were installed on a field abandoned 45 years ago. Some of the plots did not change in plant cover through the study period (e.g., the meadow, cereal and shifting agriculture plots), but others underwent changes in density and composition, such as: (i) The dense shrub cover plot represents the natural evolution of the abandoned field. When the AVES was equipped, this plot was completely dominated by Genista scorpius, with a few stands of Rosa gr. Canina. Twenty years later, Genista scorpius is affected of senescence and shows almost no regeneration capacity. (ii) The abandoned field had previously been cultivated with cereals until 1993. Once abandoned, the progression of plant colonization was very rapid. Firstly with grasses and, 10 years later, with Genista scorpius. At present, this latter occupies more than 50% of the plot. (iii) The evolution of plant colonization in the abandoned shifting agriculture plot was slower than that in the 'normal' abandoned field, mainly because of the differences in fertilization when they were cultivated. (iv) One of the burnt plots evolved from 0% to a coverage of almost 100% in a shot period, whereas the other plot remained with a shrub density of about 60% several years after the fire. Soil samples (superficial and depth) were analyzed to obtain physical and chemical properties: structure, texture, pH, CaCO3, Organic Matter and various anions and cations. The main purpose was to detect differences in the soil

  7. Lithology controls the regional distribution and morphological diversity of montane Mediterranean badlands in the upper Llobregat basin (eastern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc

    2016-11-01

    Badlands are pervasive in a wide range of environmental conditions across the Mediterranean region, including arid, semiarid, and humid environments. On montane (cold subhumid and humid) Mediterranean landscapes, harsh thermal conditions on north-facing hillslopes favour intense bedrock weathering by freezing and impose serious constraints on plant colonization. The above are the customary arguments to explain the high abundance of montane badlands on north-exposed shady aspects. We studied the distribution and morphological diversity of badlands in the upper Llobregat basin (Catalan Pyrenees, NE Spain), using remote sensing information (high-resolution orthophotos and complementary Landsat 8 imagery), digital elevation data, and regional information on lithology. Badlands extend over about 200 ha in the upper Llobregat basin and occur on two different parent materials, swelling (smectite-rich) continental Garumnian lutites of late Cretaceous age, and nonswelling (illitic) marine Eocene marls. Vegetation, assessed by remote-sensed vegetation greenness, is less developed on north-facing badland slopes. However, badland slope-aspect distribution varies considerably with lithology. While badlands on Eocene marls show preferential distribution on north-facing shady slopes, badland occurrence on Garumnian lutites does not reveal clear slope-aspect anisotropy patterns. Lithology also affects slope gradient, with badlands on Eocene marls showing rougher topography (30-40° average slope angle) than on Garumnian lutites (20-30°). Badland morphological differences induced by lithology are discussed in terms of the greater weathering susceptibility and slope instability of the swelling, smectite-rich Garumnian lutites than of the nonswelling Eocene marls. Elevation, which broadly controls annual precipitation and winter air temperature within the region, shows no clear influence on badland distribution. Overall, our results reveal lithology as the main factor controlling

  8. The personal and professional face of the Basque urologist José Julián Guimón Rezola (1898-1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C

    2017-07-15

    To understand certain outstanding aspects of the life of the Basque surgeon and urologist Julián Guimón Rezola. His personal and bibliographic documentary legacy helps reconstruct his works and personal character. We analysed the written works of Julián Guimón Rezola and a collection of documents, letters, photographs, illustrations and objects from his personal and professional life, accessed through his family. We analysed the content of the author's main publications and related the documents to historic facts. Julián Guimón Rezola was an upstanding individual, a father, a family man and a nationalist before the struggle, who was dedicated to his work and particularly to teaching and health management. He started his urological career under the direction of Francisco Pérez Andrés in the Santo Civil Hospital of Bilbao. He endured unjust repression for participating in the creation of the Basque University in 1936. Sentenced to life imprisonment, he stated a new life as a reclusive surgeon in the prison of Puerto de Santa María. He was pardoned three years later but was deprived of all his offices and disqualified from civil service. He founded his clinic and maintained his training in the United States. He presided over the Medical-Surgical Insurance Group of Bilbao (Igualatorio Médico-Quirúrgico) and, on 2 occasions, the Bilbao Academy of Medical Sciences. He was considerably active professionally and focused on social medicine and modern urology. He wrote 104 scientific articles, a number of which were of considerable quality and impact. We observed an evolution in the subject matter of these articles, all with exquisite professionalism and humanity. He corresponded with renowned practitioners and was admitted to the Spanish Royal National Academy of Medicine in 1970. He ended his career with an appointment as honorary professor at the University of the Basque Country 2 years before his death. Surgeon urologist Julián Guimón Rezola was a

  9. Performance of high technology industries. The Science Park of Basque Country; Comportamiento de empresas intensivas en tecnologia. El caso de los parques tecnologicos de la CAPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Valbuena, C.; Pena Legazkue, I.

    2007-07-01

    We examine the performance of high technology based SMEs located in the three Science Parks of the Basque Country. Our findings suggest that intangible assets representing the human capital and organizational learning capacity of firms are positively related to business growth. We found that about 80% of sample firms established a collaborative agreement with partner firms. Results show that the formation of a larger number of formal alliances with R and D firms (i.e., universities, innovation centers) was positively associated with firm growth. (Author) 21 refs.

  10. Repression and Criminalization of the Ecologist Movement in the Basque Country: the Case of the High Speed Train Project

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    Carlos Alonso Cidad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an analysis of the process of criminalization, which, in the authors’ opinion, the Basque Ecologist Movement (BEM has suffered in its fight against the High Speed Train (HST. The text is structured in five sections. The initial section highlights the main characteristics of the BEM from its origins to the present, indicating the importance in its development of the Basque national question and political violence on one side, and a combined discourse that is at once local and global on the other. The second section provides data referring to the HST project, indicating its political and socio-economic impacts, while the third section is dedicated to clarifying the main identity features and lines of action of the anti-HST movement. The fourth section shows both the repertory of collective action of the opponents of the HST and the policies of repression and criminalization exercised against them. The fifth and final section is situated in today’s new political cycle, which follows the end of ETA’s armed activity and sets out possible future scenarios. Rather than an academic article consisting of intellectual reflection, this article is intended as a political testimony of the long struggle of this social movement, involving 20 years of ecologist activism, a struggle that continues today, since the infrastructure project is still in force, although the conflict is little known at the international level. Este artículo ofrece un análisis del proceso de criminalización, que, en opinión de los autores, el Movimiento Ecologista Vasco ha sufrido en su lucha contra el Tren de Alta Velocidad (TAV. El texto se estructura en cinco partes. En la primera se destacan las principales características del Movimiento Ecologista Vasco, desde sus orígenes hasta la actualidad, subrayando la importancia en su desarrollo de la cuestión nacional vasca y la violencia política por un lado, y por otro, un discurso combinado local y

  11. Local television stations in the Basque Country in Internet/ Las televisiones locales del País Vasco en Internet

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    Dra. Teresa Santos Díez, mariateresa.santos@ehu.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is happening with all mass media, the future of local televisions inevitably depends on the Internet. Local media have found in the new technologies a way to defy their natural communication space. Thanks to Internet, territory disappears as a geographical limit; it allows local media to reach a wider audience, placing them alongside large media companies and increasing their competition chances. For this reason, in recent years many television stations have shown an interest in this area and have developed a website. In this investigation the authors analyze the presence of local television stations of the Basque Country in the Web and study whether they fully exploit the resources at their disposal in the cyberspace.El futuro de las televisiones locales, al igual que el de todo medio de comunicación, pasa necesariamente por estar presente en Internet. Estos pequeños medios locales encuentran en las nuevas tecnologías una manera de superar su espacio de comunicación original. No sólo el territorio, como límite geográfico, deja de ser una desventaja sino que las emisoras locales que saltan a la Red tienen acceso de esta forma a una audiencia potencial que no tiene nada que envidiar a la de las grandes empresas de comunicación, lo que les permite competir en mejores condiciones. De esta forma, en los últimos años muchas emisoras locales han mostrado su interés en el medio y han desarrollado un sitio web. Este artículo estudia la presencia de las televisiones locales del País Vasco en la Red y el grado de aprovechamiento que hacen de las posibilidades que les ofrece el medio digital.

  12. The Relevance of Local Participatory Scenario Planning for Ecosystem Management Policies in the Basque Country, Northern Spain

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    Igone Palacios-Agundez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in Biscay, Basque Country, we described scenarios for Biscay through 2050 in an integrated and participatory way by downscaling the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA global scenarios, analyzed how ecosystem services and human well-being might change in a range of plausible futures, identified management strategies for the territory through a backcasting process, and explored the relevance of scenarios to policy making. Our intention was to strengthen the link to policy making and to achieve a real implementation of our research results in ecosystem management policies. We also aimed to provide more insights on how large-scale scenario developments can be translated to the local level. In doing so, we emphasized specific local characteristics and used highly participatory methods focusing on novel elements, such as organizing back-to-back workshops, creating coherent scenarios across scales, using visual elements to present exploratory scenarios, and combining exploratory scenarios with normative backcasting using a World Café methodology. The outcome scenarios and management proposals are relevant for decision making and planning processes at local scale and at the same time, they are comparable to other assessment scenarios. This local participatory scenario process and tool for landscape planning is already having a policy impact thanks to the involvement of public administration technicians and policy makers. In the recently renewed strategic policy plan for sustainability of the county, this assessment is considered a high priority. Therefore, for the next steps of the assessment, detailed guidelines for ecosystem management policies are planned.

  13. Mesozoic vein-type Pb-Zn mineralization in the Pyrenees: Lead isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence from the Les Argentières and Lacore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marguerite; Baron, Sandrine; Boucher, Adrien; Béziat, Didier; Salvi, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The Axial Zone of the Pyrenees contains numerous sedimentary-exhalative Pb-Zn deposits formed during the Early Palaeozoic, which have been the subject of several studies. In addition to these, base-metal vein-type mineralizations are also exposed within the Axial Zone metasediments. These deposits, however, have not been investigated in depth and the timing and geodynamic context of their formation has not been specifically addressed. The vein-type Pb-Zn deposits of Les Argentières and Lacore are located in Devonian terranes of the eastern Pyrenees, south of the Mesozoic Aulus basin. They are interpreted as having been emplaced under an extensional setting. They are characterized by silver-rich tetrahedrite that occurs with Pb-Zn sulphides deposited by low-temperature NaCl-CaCl2 brines. Lead isotopic 208Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios acquired on galena show more radiogenic values compared to those from the Palaeozoic sedimentary-exhalative mineralization, thus indicating younger ages. According to the model ages, the formation of the two deposits may be narrowed down to middle Late Triassic and Late Jurassic periods, respectively, which allows us to argue in favour of the role of pre-Alpine rifting phases in hydrothermal fluids circulation and mineralization deposition in a vein system bounding the Mesozoic Aulus basin.

  14. Population dynamics and production of Streblospio benedicti (Polychaeta in a non-polluted estuary in the Basque coast (Gulf of Biscay

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    Loreto García-Arberas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics and production of a population of Streblospio benedicti from the Gernika estuary (Basque coast, Gulf of Biscay were studied monthly for one year, from May 1991 to May 1992. S. Benedicti was present in the muddy sand community of Gernika throughout the period of study except in March, when it all but disappeared. Continuous recruitment was observed throughout the year, even though it was stronger in autumn. Abundance fluctuations were principally due to the incorporation of recruits and so the highest density in Gernika was recorded in autumn, and the lowest in spring, with an annual mean of 6346 ± 4582 ind m-2. The same pattern of seasonal variation was shown in biomass: the annual mean biomass of S.benedicti in Gernika was estimated at 0.80 ± 0.54 g dry weight m-2. Secondary production was 3.57 g dry weight m-2 year, giving a P/B ratio of 4.46. S. benedicti in Gernika behaved similarly to those described for Mediterranean Streblospio populations as regards practically continuous recruitment, but the number of individuals and the annual average density were considerably lower on the Basque coast.

  15. Capturing invisible dimensions of terrorist victimisation through photography and video: Theoretical background for a research in progress in the Basque country

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    Varona Gema

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Memorialisation is experienced by victims of traumatic events as a form of justice. Victims‘ and society right to memory is mentioned in the Basque Law 4/2008 on recognition and protection of terrorism victims and the Spanish Law 29/2011 on recognition and integral protection of terrorism victims. Drawing from critical victimology and memory studies, this contribution aims at addressing current criticism by some victims‘ organizations with regard to memory public policies in this field. It particularly addresses ways of restoration through memory linked to the meaning of spaces of victimisation by examining the work of different photographers on making aspects of those victimisations visible for the contested purpose of remembering. First the conceptual framework on space, victimisation and memory is presented. Then it is related to the results of qualitative research by the Basque Institute of Criminology. At the end the micro, meso and macro aspects of local intervention proposals on restorative memory, including ethical remarks are commented.

  16. Wetland restoration and nitrate reduction: the example of the peri-urban wetland of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, North Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Linares, C.; Martínez-Santos, M.; Martínez-Bilbao, V.; Sánchez-Pérez, J. M.; Antiguedad, I.

    Changes in land use and agricultural intensification caused wetlands on the quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) to disappear some years ago and nitrate concentration in groundwaters increased very quickly. The Basque Government recently declared the East Sector of this aquifer a Vulnerable Zone according to the 91/676/CEE European Directive. Recently, the wetlands have been restored through the closure of the main drainage ditches, the consequent elevation of the water table and the abondonment of agricultural practices near the wetlands. This is the case of the Zurbano wetland. Restoration has allowed the recovery of its biogeochemical function, which has reduced nitrate concentrations in waters. Nitrate concentrations which exceed 50 mg l-1 in groundwaters entering into the wetland are less than 10 mg l-1 at the outlet. Conditions in the wetland are conducive to the loss of nitrates: organic matter rich wetted soils, clay presence allowing a local semiconfined flow and very low hydraulic gradient. Water quality monitoring at several points around the wetland showed the processes involved in nitrate loss, although some aspects still remain unresolved. However, during storm events, the wetland effectively reduces the nitrate concentration entering the Alegria River, the most important river on the quaternary aquifer.

  17. Feature selection for speech emotion recognition in Spanish and Basque: on the use of machine learning to improve human-computer interaction.

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    Andoni Arruti

    Full Text Available Study of emotions in human-computer interaction is a growing research area. This paper shows an attempt to select the most significant features for emotion recognition in spoken Basque and Spanish Languages using different methods for feature selection. RekEmozio database was used as the experimental data set. Several Machine Learning paradigms were used for the emotion classification task. Experiments were executed in three phases, using different sets of features as classification variables in each phase. Moreover, feature subset selection was applied at each phase in order to seek for the most relevant feature subset. The three phases approach was selected to check the validity of the proposed approach. Achieved results show that an instance-based learning algorithm using feature subset selection techniques based on evolutionary algorithms is the best Machine Learning paradigm in automatic emotion recognition, with all different feature sets, obtaining a mean of 80,05% emotion recognition rate in Basque and a 74,82% in Spanish. In order to check the goodness of the proposed process, a greedy searching approach (FSS-Forward has been applied and a comparison between them is provided. Based on achieved results, a set of most relevant non-speaker dependent features is proposed for both languages and new perspectives are suggested.

  18. Quantifying soil erosion with GIS-based RUSLE in La Baells Reservoir (Llobregat River Basin), SE Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catari, G.; Gallart, F.; Josa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Sediment yield in mountain areas is a matter of concern not only because of the loss of the fertile topsoil but also due to its off-site effects such as sediment deposition in reservoirs and damage to aquatic life. There are few soil erosion estimates at the river basin for non agricultural areas, and the uncertainty of estimates is scarcely assessed. This research was conducted in the Llobregat river basin at the headwaters of La Baells Reservoir which supplies water to Barcelona city. This basin (504km2) is located in the South Eastern Pyrenees, land cover is mainly coniferous forest and pastures with some intensely eroded areas (bad lands). Annual average soil erosion was quantitatively estimated with an integration of geographic information system (IDRISI) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Maps for each of the factors involved where obtained with a 20 m resolution. Rainfall dataset from eight weather stations and spanning 14 years, soil properties, land cover inventory, land management features and digital elevation model were used as resource datasets to generate each of the RUSLE factor maps. Annual average sediment yield was computed by applying a sediment delivery ratio to the results obtained by RUSLE, and this result was compared with existing bathymetric survey results for the same reservoir. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were undertaken for each of the RUSLE factors, in order to assess its magnitude and determine which of the factors influences the most the soil loss estimate. Results show that the annual average sediment yield was 2.9 Mg km-2y-1 and its confidence interval lied between 1.1 Mg km-2y-1 and 7.5 Mg km-2y-1 with 90% confidence. These results are in agreement with results from reservoir bathymetric survey (4.3 Mg km-2y-1). Additional comparisons of estimated sediment yield were done with empirical methods such as PSIAC, Factorial Scoring Model and Drainage Area; the results of these methods are within the

  19. Dinosaur eggshell isotope geochemistry as tools of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction for the upper Cretaceous from the Tremp Formation (Southern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, V.; Anadón, P.; Oms, O.; Estrada, R.; Maestro, E.

    2013-08-01

    The isotopic compositions (δ13C and δ18O) of dinosaur eggshells have been widely used in palaeoenvironmental studies, although the geochemical signatures of eggshells are not usually contrasted with other proxies. In this work, the isotopic signatures of eggshells from a large Maastrichtian succession from the Tremp Formation (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) are compared to those of carbonate pedogenic nodules occurring in the same levels. The isotopic signatures of eggshells vary according to the stratigraphic unit and geographical location. A group of samples from several localities corresponding to eggshells without significant diagenetic imprints has isotopic values differing from the associated nodules; The Late Cretaceous isotopic composition record from the Tremp Fm. is consistent that is, the eggshells have distinct primary signatures preserved. However, the eggshells from another locality, which exhibit neomorphed textures, display isotopic signatures similar to the associated pedogenic carbonate, which suggests a diagenetic isotopic signature and confirms alteration in the eggshells. Both microscopic and geochemical data suggest that an early meteoric diagenesis (pedogenesis) is responsible for the secondary signatures. The δ13C values in the carbonate pedogenic nodules indicate a carbon isotopic composition typical of C3 plants, although the slight difference in δ13C between the palaeosol carbonate of coeval successions may be due to slightly different palaeoenvironmental conditions. The small discrepancy in the δ13C calculated for C3 plants, from carbonate nodules and from eggshells may be because the palaeosol carbonate gives the isotopic composition of the vegetation grown at a local site whereas the δ13C from eggshells is a proxy for the ingested food in the area in which the dinosaurs lived. The oxygen isotopic compositions from palaeosol carbonate nodules have been used for calculation of the air temperature, and we may conclude that the mean air

  20. Holocene climate variability, vegetation dynamics and fire regime in the central Pyrenees: the Basa de la Mora sequence (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanz, A.; González-Sampériz, P.; Moreno, A.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Gil-Romera, G.; Rieradevall, M.; Tarrats, P.; Lasheras-Álvarez, L.; Morellón, M.; Belmonte, A.; Sancho, C.; Sevilla-Callejo, M.; Navas, A.

    2013-08-01

    High resolution multiproxy data (pollen, sedimentology, geochemistry, chironomids and charcoal) from the Basa de la Mora (BSM) lake sequence (42° 32' N, 0° 19' E, 1914 m a.s.l.) show marked climate variability in the central southern Pyrenees throughout the Holocene. A robust age model based on 15 AMS radiocarbon dates underpins the first precise reconstruction of rapid climate changes during the Holocene from this area. During the Early Holocene, increased winter snowpack and high snowmelt during summer, as a consequence of high seasonality, led to higher lake levels, a chironomid community dominated by non-lacustrine taxa (Orthocladiinae) related to higher inlet streams, and a forested landscape with intense run-off processes in the watershed. From 9.8 to 8.1 cal ka BP, climate instability is inferred from rapid and intense forest shifts and high fluctuation in surface run-off. Shifts among conifers and mesophytes reveal at least four short-lived dry events at 9.7, 9.3, 8.8 and 8.3 cal ka BP. Between 8.1 and 5.7 cal ka BP a stable climate with higher precipitation favoured highest lake levels and forest expansion, with spread of mesophytes, withdrawal of conifers and intensification of fires, coinciding with the Holocene Climate Optimum. At 5.7 cal ka BP a major change leading to drier conditions contributed to a regional decline in mesophytes, expansion of pines and junipers, and a significant lake level drop. Despite drier conditions, fire activity dropped as consequence of biomass reduction. Two arid intervals occurred between 2.9 and 2.4 cal ka BP and at 1.2-0.7 cal ka BP (800-1300 AD). The latter coincides with the Medieval Climate Anomaly and is one of the most arid phases of the Holocene in BSM sequence. Anthropogenic disturbances were small until 700 AD, when human pressure over landscape intensified, with Olea cultivation in the lowlands and significant deforestation in highlands. Colder and unfavourable weather conditions during the second part of the

  1. Potential of airborne LiDAR data analysis to detect subtle landforms of slope failure: Portainé, Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, María; Guinau, Marta; Calvet, Jaume; Furdada, Glòria; Bordonau, Jaume; Ruiz, Antonio; Camafort, Miquel

    2017-10-01

    Slope failures have been traditionally detected by field inspection and aerial-photo interpretation. These approaches are generally insufficient to identify subtle landforms, especially those generated during the early stages of failures, and particularly where the site is located in forested and remote terrains. We present the identification and characterization of several large and medium size slope failures previously undetected within the Orri massif, Central Pyrenees. Around 130 scarps were interpreted as being part of Rock Slope Failures (RSFs), while other smaller and more superficial failures were interpreted as complex movements combining colluvium slow flow/slope creep and RSFs. Except for one of them, these slope failures had not been previously detected, albeit they extend across a 15% of the studied region. The failures were identified through the analysis of a high-resolution (1 m) LIDAR-derived bare earth Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Most of the scarps are undetectable either by fieldwork, photo interpretation or 5 m resolution topography analysis owing to their small heights (0.5 to 2 m) and their location within forest areas. In many cases, these landforms are not evident in the field due to the presence of other minor irregularities in the slope and the lack of open views due to the forest. 2D and 3D visualization of hillshade maps with different sun azimuths provided an overall picture of the scarp assemblage and permitted a more complete analysis of the geometry of the scarps with respect to the slope and the structural fabric. The sharpness of some of the landforms suggests ongoing activity, which should be explored in future detailed studies in order to assess potential hazards affecting the Portainé ski resort. Our results reveal that close analysis of the 1 m LIDAR-derived DEM can significantly help to detect early-stage slope deformations in high mountain regions, and that expert judgment of the DEM is essential when dealing with subtle

  2. Calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner in the Montsec Area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi; Abellán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Magnitude-frequency relations are a key issue when evaluating the rockfall hazard. It is a common practice to calculate them using databases of past events. However, in some cases, they are not available or complete. Alternatively, the analysis of the scar volume distribution on the wall face provides useful information on the slope's rockfall activity. The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, is a limestone cliff from upper cretaceous. In some parts, clear evidences of rockfall activities are present: Large recent rockfall scars are distinguished by their orange colour in comparison with grey non active surfaces on the slope face. To identify the scars and analyse their volume distribution, a methodology has been carried out (Santana et al. 2011) which is based on the elaboration of data from a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). This methodology requires a point cloud of the slope and it includes the following steps: a) identification of discontinuity sets b) generation of discontinuity surfaces c) calculation of areas of the exposed discontinuity surfaces and rockfall scar heights, and d) calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution. Three discontinuity sets were identified on the point cloud. To generate the discontinuity surfaces, SEFL software was used. The input data for accepting that two neighbouring points of the point cloud belong to the same surface, was a minimum spacing of 0.4m. The resulting planes were visually checked. Assuming that the discontinuities of set 1 preserve the basal shape of the rockfall scars and the altitude is parallel to the discontinuities of set 2, the volume can be calculated as the product of the area of surfaces of set 1 with the length of the surfaces of set 2 using the afore mentioned SEFL software. Areas were found to follow a Lognormal distribution and lengths a Pearson6 one. The volume calculation was then made probabilistically by means

  3. Faster and Further Morphosyntactic Development of CLIL vs. EFL Basque-Spanish Bilinguals Learning English in High-School

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    Amparo Lázaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A general advantage in proficiency has been repeatedly reported for learners receiving Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL when compared to learners who only receive English lessons. However, fine-grained studies addressing the aspects which make up this general advantage are still scarce. Within this context, this paper concentrates on the morphosyntactic development of two groups of (Basque-Spanish adolescents learning English in high-school over a two-year period. One group (n= 15 received CLIL instruction and English classes while the other group (n=11 only received English classes. The results indicate a clear advantage for the CLIL group, which seems to be at a further developmental stage. Nonetheless, both groups improve over the two years and, unlike previous claims in schools, no signs of fossilization are found although inaccuracies in inflection still exist. In light of these results, the value of increasing exposure in the form of CLIL lessons in high-school is discussed.Repetidamente se ha demostrado que los alumnos en programas de Adquisición Integrada de Contenidos y Lengua Extranjera (AICLE son mejores que los alumnos que únicamente reciben clases de inglés. Sin embargo, pocos trabajos han especificado qué aspectos concretos de la lengua mejoran con estas metodologías. Este trabajo analiza, a lo largo de dos años, el desarrollo morfosintáctico de dos grupos de adolescentes bilingües (euskera-castellano que aprenden inglés en el colegio. Un grupo (n=11 solo recibe clases de inglés mientras que el otro (n=15 también recibe clases de AICLE. Los resultados muestran que los alumnos AICLE presentan un mayor desarrollo morfosintáctico. También se muestra que ambos grupos evolucionan a lo largo de los dos años y, frente a trabajos anteriores, no hay signos de fosilización aunque los problemas flexivos persisten. Con estos resultados, se discute la validez de aumentar la exposición al inglés mediante programas

  4. Relationships between cloud-to-ground lightning and surface rainfall during 1992-1996 in the Spanish Basque Country area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, A.; Areitio, J.; Herrero, I.

    The relationship between rainfall surface amounts and cloud-to-ground lightning stroke activity was studied during 1992-1996 in three locations in the Spanish Basque Country. In this area the surface distribution of ground strokes presents an average density of about 1 flash km -2 year -1 and the mean annual rain depth is about 10 3 mm. Most of the electrical storms analyzed (87%) were produced under two separate meteorological conditions: Oceanic and Continental. Continental events present the highest number of daily CG counts: counts that can reach values on the order of 5×10 3. Rainfall yield estimates during the periods researched were 23, 38, 21×10 4 m 3 per CG flash at the three locations used in this paper: Bilbao, San Sebastian and Vitoria, respectively. The rainfall yield was evaluated from the ratio between total precipitation collected at every station and total number of CG counts per unit of surface measured inside a pixel of 20×20 km 2 centred over the collecting points. It was observed that daily rainfall yield values present great disparity with standard deviation values of 122, 268 and 218×10 4 m 3 per CG flash for Bilbao, San Sebastian and Vitoria, respectively. Associated mean daily rainfall yield was 68, 136 and 120×10 4 m 3 per CG flash. These observations clearly indicate that daily rain depth and daily CG counts do not bear linear correlation. Rainfall yield in the Oceanic and Continental class present significant different mean values at the three locations and is always higher in Oceanic events. Likewise, rainfall yield in both situations—Oceanic and Continental—generally evolves during the year, reducing in value during the hot season, indicating that the environmental conditions of cloud formation could play a major role in the lightning-rainfall relationship. However; in two cases, Oceanic events in Bilbao during February and Continental events in Vitoria during July, rain depths and CG counts are correlated with r values of 0

  5. Snow cover dynamics in the Catalan Pyrenees range using remote sensing data from 2002 to 2008 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, C.; Cristóbal, J.; Pons, X.

    2009-04-01

    Snow cover dynamics in the Catalan Pyrenees range using remote sensing data from 2002 to 2008 period. C. Cea (1), J. Cristóbal (1), X. Pons (1, 2) (1) Department of Geography. Autonomous University of Barcelona. Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193. Cristina.Cea@uab.cat, (2) Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF) Cerdanyola del Vallès, 08193. Water resources and its management are essential in many alpine mountainous areas. Snow cover monitoring in the Mediterranean zone requires obtaining accurate snow cartography to estimate the volume of water derived from snow melting and species distribution modelling. Snow data is usually obtained by field campaigns, but to obtain a spatial and temporal cover of enough detail and quality it is necessary collect an important number of data. However, when a continuous surface is needed, Remote Sensing could provide better snow cover estimation due to its spatial and temporal resolution. The aim of this study is to map snow cover and analyse its spatial and temporal dynamics using medium and coarse remote sensing data at a regional scale over an heterogeneous area, the Catalan Pyrenees (NE of the Iberian Peninsula). The seasonal snow cover period is from October to June. In this period, regular snowfalls usually take place from December to April, although during the rest of the period, punctual but important episodes of snowfalls are frequent. To perform this analysis, a set of 96 Landsat images (36 Landsat-5 TM and 60 Landsat-7 ETM+) of path 197 and 198 and rows 31 and 32 from January 2002 to April 2007, and 90 Terra-MODIS images from October 2007 to July 2008, with a different percentage of cloudiness, have been chosen. The computation of the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ data used in snow cover mapping has been carried out by means of the following methodologies. Images have been geometrically corrected by means of techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of the relief

  6. Physico-chemical study of the ancient and recent accumulations of a braided system (Ara river. Central Pyrenees, Spain

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    Rubio, V.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and mineralogical study of the Ara river sediments, in the Central Pyrenees (Spain, allows to recognize the genesis and evolution of its basin. The minerals of the sand fraction, the ones corresponding to the clay fraction and the minority elements, reveal certain processes and associations that, in addition to the identification of the fluvial terraces, fans, glacis and even morainic deposits, contribute to explain the geological history of the Central Pyrenees, the main objective of this work. The application of a multivariate factorial analysis to the data with BMDP-4M program was very helpful for the interpretation of the results. The more resistant minerals are found in the thinner textural fractions, whereas the more alterable are located in the thicker fractions. The cones and glacis, composed by materials of the flysch, reveal an alteration of the carbonated materials which is shown by the formation of feldspars and anphybols. The formation of iron and manganese metal oxides, of different crystallinity degrees, associated with chrome, lead and nickel, is also observed. The morainic deposits, mainly composed by silicate materials, bring along the formation of illite associated with copper and zinc. Finally, the fluvial terraces have a combination of both alteration processes previously described.

    [es] El estudio físico-químico y mineralógico de los sedimentos del río Ara, en el Pirineo Central (España, permite reconocer la génesis y evolución de su cuenca. Los minerales de la fracción arena, los correspondientes a la fracción arcilla y los elementos minoritarios, delatan ciertos procesos y asociaciones que, junto con la identificación de terrazas fluviales, conos, glacis e incluso depósitos morrénicos, ayudan a explicar la historia geológica del Pirineo Central, principal objetivo de este trabajo. La aplicación al conjunto de datos de un análisis factorial multivariante mediante el programa BMDP

  7. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017

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    J. Revuelto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS, (ii detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season and (iii time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA. The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface, and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277 is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological or ecological perspective in which

  8. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future. PMID:27467269

  9. Un nuevo modelo asistencial penitenciario: la experiencia del País Vasco A new prison health care model: the experience of the Basque Country

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    D. Zulaika

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Un año después del traspaso de las funciones y servicios de la Administración del Estado a la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco en materia de sanidad penitenciaria, se describe el proceso que se ha seguido hasta la culminación de la transferencia, la situación actual de los servicios transferidos y los retos pendientes.A year after the transfer of prison health care functions and services from the State Administration to the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, the process up to completion of the transfer, the current status of the transferred services and remaining challenges are described.

  10. Lipdubs as a tool to conquer social influence. A study of four paradigmatic cases made in Quebec, USA, Catalonia and the Basque Country

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    Txema Ramírez-de-la-Piscina-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the principal conclusions of an investigation carried out by the author into lipdub as an instrument used in order to get more social influence. The analyzed lipdubs are the following: “I gotta feeling-UQAM”, performed by students of Communication in Quebec, (in early 2012, it was the most viewed lipdub on the Internet; “The Grand Rapids” (this lipdub holds the record for hits per day on the web; “Lipddub Indepèndencia” (it held the world record for the number of participants – 5,771 and, finally, “Lipdub Kukutza”, the most viewed lipdub in the Basque Country. This work claims that, at this time, a good lipdub can be a crucial tool for social movements in order to overcome the invisibility with which the mass-media often punishes any expression which challenges mainstream tendencies.

  11. Desenredando las identidades soberanistas vasca y catalana: un Análisis de Redes Sociales de las etiquetas de Twitter #BasquesDecide y #Up4Freedom

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    Jordi Morales i Gras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La intención de este artículo es identificar y comparar mediante técnicas de Análisis de Redes Sociales algunos de los agentes que contribuyen de manera relevante al proceso de configuración de identidades políticas soberanistas en el País Vasco y en Cataluña, así como atender a las relaciones establecidas entre los participantes de los debates bajo las etiquetas #BasquesDecide y #Up4Freedom. El artículo muestra que existen diferencias sustanciales entre las comunicaciones establecidas en Twitter bajo ambas etiquetas tanto por lo que respecta a la participación de sus usuarios como por el tipo de usuarios que gozan de mayor influencia o poder en las redes y las dinámicas que configuran sus comunidades.

  12. Benthic habitat mapping on the Basque continental shelf (SE Bay of Biscay) and its application to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galparsoro, Ibon; Rodríguez, José Germán; Menchaca, Iratxe; Quincoces, Iñaki; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Borja, Ángel

    2015-06-01

    Benthic habitats on the Basque continental shelf were mapped based on multibeam echosounder surveys, grab sampling, video surveys and oceanographic monitoring. A total area of 2302 km2 was classified according to the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) hierarchical classification. Almost 50% of the area corresponded to rock and other hard substrata and the other 50% corresponded to soft bottoms. The biotic composition of several areas was significantly different from the EUNIS habitat classes described previously; therefore, we propose a total of 13 new classes. The habitat mapping has contributed to improving the knowledge and application of several criteria and indicators used to assess environmental status in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive in relation to the biological diversity descriptors, such as non-indigenous species and seafloor integrity. It is also useful for other descriptors and for developing the sampling design.

  13. PUBLIC SERVANT TEACHERS' EVALUATION DURING THE INTERNSHIP PERIOD WITHIN THE AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY: TOWARDS THE EVALUATION OF THE TEACHING ROLE

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    Karmele Totoricagüena Barandica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this communication is to present the experience developed in the Basque Country regarding to the evaluation of the public servants in their internship period during the academic year 2015-16. The aim of this work is also to contribute the obtained conclusions to the teachers practice evaluation corpus. In that direction, and for the formalisation of the evaluation, new tools and specific materials had been prepared. The intervention carried out by the inspection had been done first informing and then interacting with the participants involved. From the developed experience can be determined that the classroom observation, the autoevaluation and the exchange/contrast of the observed practices done between the inspection and the evaluated participant should be the key elements to monitor the teaching role.

  14. Source characterization and spatio-temporal evolution of the metal pollution in the sediments of the Basque estuaries (Bay of Biscay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorburu, Irati; Rodríguez, José Germán; Borja, Angel; Menchaca, Iratxe; Solaun, Oihana; Valencia, Victoriano; Galparsoro, Ibon; Larreta, Joana

    2013-01-15

    According to Water Framework Directive requirements, Member States must identify and analyze effects derived from human pressures in aquatic systems. As different kind of pressures can impact water bodies at different scales, analyses of spatio-temporal evolution of water bodies becomes essential in order to understand ecosystem responses. In this investigation, an analysis of spatio-temporal evolution of sedimentary metal pollution (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in 12 Basque estuaries (Bay of Biscay) is presented. Data collected in extensive sampling surveys is the basis for the GIS-based statistical approach used. The implementation of pollution abatement measures is reflected in a long-term decontamination process, mostly evident in estuaries with highest historical sediment pollution levels. Spatial evolution is determined by either naturally occurring or human driven processes. Such spatial processes are more obviously being reflected in estuaries with lower historical sediment pollution levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Allele frequencies and other forensic parameters of the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel markers in Basques using the Ion Torrent PGM™ platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O; Soto, A; Yurrebaso, I

    2017-05-01

    The HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel amplifies 90 autosomal SNPs and 34 Y- SNPs with massively parallel sequencing (MPS) using the Ion Torrent PGM™ platform. In the present study, 105 Basques were analyzed to assess this panel. All loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no association between them was detected. Forensic parameters were calculated as 5.74×10(-36) for combined match probability and 99.99998% for combined power of exclusion. In conclusion, the HID Identity panel and the use of this new MPS technology are very promising tools for paternity testing and human identification in routine casework in the forensic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Work Integration Social Enterprises. Devices for the promotion of social inclusion and labour activation of the most vulnerable immigrants. The case of the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Aretxabala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the role played by Work Integration Social Enterprises as mechanisms which offer jobs to people with difficulties entering the ordinary labour market through social and employment programmes which promote the employability of beneficiaries, some of whom are international immigrants. Despite their quantity, which now amounts to more than 5.7 million in Spain – the 12.2% of its population-, they make up a group that is specially exposed to social risks and levels of poverty. Such entrepreneurial devices, as transition companies for the labour activation and the social inclusion of the most vulnerable immigrants, contribute to the attainment of a more inclusive and cohesive society. We shall define the work of the Work Integration Social Enterprises in the Basque Country where the international migration is rated in the 6,6% in 2011.

  17. The future of the indigenous freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius italicus in Basque Country streams: Is it possible to survive being an inconvenient species?

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    L. García-Arberas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed freshwater crayfish Austropotamobius italicus is listed as “vulnerable” in the Spanish Red List of threatened species, but local legislation varies among Spanish regions. Thus, while in some places the species is classified as “in risk of extinction” and various plans of conservation and restoration have been implemented, in the Basque Country and other regions the species is not listed. The distribution of the white-clawed crayfish in the province of Biscay (Basque Country was studied from 1993 to 2007 at more than 600 sampling locations. Results show that 108 streams were inhabited by the native crayfish species A. italicus while 137 streams were inhabited by non-native signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus or red-swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The spread of non-native crayfish is not the only threat to the native species whose survival is also closely dependent on how watersheds are managed. Most A. italicus populations inhabit headwaters, where forestry activities are very important. The presence of native crayfish in heavily forested areas results in a conflict of interests and makes its conservation particularly difficult. We employed a SWOT analysis – an assessment and decision tool commonly used in marketing and business – to evaluate the situation of the native white-clawed crayfish in Biscay, a province characterized by very high demographic pressure. SWOT analysis has proved to be a useful diagnostic tool and can help develop better and more accurate management strategies for the conservation of native crayfish threatened by multiple stressors.

  18. Evaluation of the colorectal cancer screening Programme in the Basque Country (Spain) and its effectiveness based on the Miscan-colon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idigoras, I; Arrospide, A; Portillo, I; Arana-Arri, E; Martínez-Indart, L; Mar, J; de Koning, H J; Lastra, R; Soto-Gordoa, M; van der Meulen, M; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, I

    2017-08-01

    The population-based Basque Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening Programme started in 2009 with a biennial immunochemical quantitative test (FIT) biennial and colonoscopy under sedation in positive cases. The population target of 586,700 residents was from 50 to 69 years old and the total coverage was reached at the beginning of 2014. The aim of our study was to determine possible scenarios in terms of incidence, mortality and reduction of Life-years-Lost (L-y-L) in the medium and long term of CRC. Invitations were sent out by the Programme from 2009 to 2014, with combined organizational strategies. Simulation was done by MISCAN-colon (Microsimulation Screening Analysis) over 30 years comparing the results of screening vs no-screening, taking the population-based Cancer Registry into account. Lifetime population and real data from the Programme were used from 2008 to 2012. The model was run differentially for men and women. 924,416 invitations were sent out from 2009 to 2014. The average participation rate was 68.4%, CRC detection rate was 3.4% and the Advanced Adenoma detection rate was 24.0‰, with differences observed in sex and age. Future scenarios showed a higher decrease of incidence (17.2% vs 14.7%), mortality (28.1% vs 22.4%) and L-y-L (22.6% vs 18.4%) in men than women in 2030. The Basque Country CRC Programme results are aligned to its strategy and comparable to other programmes. MISCAN model was found to be a useful tool to predict the benefits of the programme in the future. The effectiveness of the Programme has not been formally established as case control studies are required to determine long term benefits from the screening strategy.

  19. Evaluation of the colorectal cancer screening Programme in the Basque Country (Spain and its effectiveness based on the Miscan-colon model

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    I. Idigoras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The population-based Basque Colorectal Cancer (CRC Screening Programme started in 2009 with a biennial immunochemical quantitative test (FIT biennial and colonoscopy under sedation in positive cases. The population target of 586,700 residents was from 50 to 69 years old and the total coverage was reached at the beginning of 2014. The aim of our study was to determine possible scenarios in terms of incidence, mortality and reduction of Life-years-Lost (L-y-L in the medium and long term of CRC. Methods Invitations were sent out by the Programme from 2009 to 2014, with combined organizational strategies. Simulation was done by MISCAN-colon (Microsimulation Screening Analysis over 30 years comparing the results of screening vs no-screening, taking the population-based Cancer Registry into account. Lifetime population and real data from the Programme were used from 2008 to 2012. The model was run differentially for men and women. Results 924,416 invitations were sent out from 2009 to 2014. The average participation rate was 68.4%, CRC detection rate was 3.4% and the Advanced Adenoma detection rate was 24.0‰, with differences observed in sex and age. Future scenarios showed a higher decrease of incidence (17.2% vs 14.7%, mortality (28.1% vs 22.4% and L-y-L (22.6% vs 18.4% in men than women in 2030. Conclusions The Basque Country CRC Programme results are aligned to its strategy and comparable to other programmes. MISCAN model was found to be a useful tool to predict the benefits of the programme in the future. The effectiveness of the Programme has not been formally established as case control studies are required to determine long term benefits from the screening strategy.

  20. [Care costs and activity in the last three months of life of cancer patients who died in the Basque Country (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto; Herrera Molina, Emilio; Librada Flores, Silvia; Orueta Mendía, Juan F; Cabrera-León, Andrés

    To analyse the use of health resources and its budget in the last months of life of the population who died from malignant neoplasm in the Basque Autonomous Country (Spain). Retrospective observational study of a population with a diagnosis of malignancy deceased in the Basque Country (2010 and 2011). MDS and Mortality Register. gender, age, place of death, tumour location, clinical activity data and costs in the last three months of life. We performed a descriptive analysis of clinical activity and costs, and lineal multivariate regressions to obtain the adjusted mean costs by gender, age and place of death. 9,333 deaths from malignancy were identified in 2010 and 2011. 65.4% were men, 61.5% aged 70 or over, mean age 72.9 years, 71.1% died in hospital. People who died in the hospital had an average cost of about double that of the people who died at home (€14,794 and €7,491, respectively; p <0.001) and 31.3% higher than in the nursing home (€11,269; p <0.001). Greater interventions at the end of life at the community level are necessary, strengthening the care capacity of primary health care, both from training and support from expert teams in order to change the current care profile to a more outpatient care that allows a lower consumption of resources and greater care at home. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The geochemical and isotopic record of evaporite recycling in spas and salterns of the Basque Cantabrian basin, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribar, V., E-mail: vicente.iribar@ehu.es [Departamento de Geodinamica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Abalos, B. [Departamento de Geodinamica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Stable isotopes and hydrochemistry disclose two types of saline groundwater whose source is the dissolution of Triassic (Keuper) or Cretaceous (Wealden) evaporites, that are recycled from the older ones. Display Omitted Highlights: > Saline springs compositions are used to delineate extent of subsurface evaporites. > Origin of Wealden vs. Triassic evaporites constrained using {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4}, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO4} and Cl/Br ratio. > Geological structures and saline water circulation relation. - Abstract: Evaporite outcrops are rare in the Basque Cantabrian basin due to a rainy climate, but saline springs with total dissolved solids ranging from 0.8 to 260 g/L are common and have long been used to supply spas and salterns. New and existing hydrochemistry of saline springs are used to provide additional insight on the origin and underground extent of their poorly known source evaporites. Saline water hydrochemistry is related to dissolution of halite and gypsum from two evaporitic successions (Triassic 'Keuper' and Lower Cretaceous 'Wealden'), as supported by rock samples from outcrops and oil exploration drill cuttings. The {delta}{sup 34}S value of gypsum in the Keuper evaporites and sulfate in the springs is {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4} = 14.06 {+-} 1.07 per mille and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO4} = 13.41 {+-} 1.44 per mille, and the relationship between Cl/Br ratio of halite and water shows that waters have dissolved halite with Br content between 124 and 288 ppm. The {delta}{sup 34}S value of gypsum in the Wealden evaporites and sulfate in the springs is {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4} = 19.66 {+-} 1.76 per mille, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO4} = 14.93 {+-} 2.35 per mille, and the relationship between Cl/Br ratio of halite and water shows that waters have dissolved halite with Br content between 15 and 160 ppm. Wealden evaporites formed in a continental setting after the dissolution of Keuper salt. Gypsum {delta}{sup 34}S

  2. Annual and seasonal analysis of temperature and precipitation in Andorra (Pyrenees) from 1934 to 2008: quality check, homogenization and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Pere; Prohom, Marc; Aguilar, Enric; Mestre, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    ://www.meteo.cat) - Spagnoli B, Planton S, Mestre O, Déqué M, Moisselin, JM (2002). Detecting climate change at a regional scale: the case of France. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, n.10, pp. 91-94. - Maris M, Giraud G, Durand Y, Navarre JP, Mérindol L. 2009. Results of 50 years of climate reanalysis in the French Pyrenees (1958-2008) using SAFRAN and CROCUS models. International Snow Science Workshop, Davos 2009, Proceedings.

  3. "The Pyrenees are not hollow": the mountain as a boundary object "Os Pirineus não são ecos": a montanha como objeto de fronteira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Lamy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Toulouse, around 1850, a controversy about the structure of the Pyrenees pitted observatory director Frederic Petit against geology professor Alexandre Leymerie. The object of the debate was an assumption formulated by Petit: that the inside of the Pyrenees was practically hollow. This proposal was based on work that Petit initiated in order to determine the latitude of Toulouse. The debates, which took place within the Toulouse Academy of Science and also in local newspapers, illustrate the organization of disciplinary spaces in the nineteenth century. Petit defended his research method based on calculation; the geologist's perspective was from the field. The emergence of the less mathematical science of geology came up against nineteenth-century astronomical practices, centered on calculation. Dissected by calculation or by visual observation, the mountain was an object of controversy from the perspective of distinct scientific practices.Em Toulouse, por volta de 1850, uma controvérsia sobre a estrutura dos Pirineus colocou o diretor do Observatório, Frederic Petit, contra o professor de geologia Alexandre Leymerie. O motivo do debate foi a hipótese formulada por Petit: o interior dos Pirineus era praticamente oco. A proposição baseava-se no trabalho que Petit iniciara para determinar a latitude de Toulouse. Os debates, que tiveram lugar na Academia de Ciências de Toulouse e também em periódicos locais, ilustram a organização dos espaços disciplinares no século XIX. Petit defendia seu método de pesquisa baseado em cálculos; a perspectiva do geólogo provinha do campo. A emergência da ciência geológica, menos matemática, vinha de encontro às práticas da astronomia daquele século. Analisada por cálculos ou pela observação visual, a montanha foi um objeto de controvérsia entre diferentes práticas científicas.

  4. The unexpected co-occurrence of GRN and MAPT p.A152T in Basque families: Clinical and pathological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Moreno

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation and the p.A152T MAPT variant has been identified in 18 Basque families affected by frontotemporal dementia (FTD. We aimed to investigate the influence of the p.A152T MAPT variant on the clinical and neuropathological features of these Basque GRN families.We compared clinical characteristics of 14 patients who carried the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation (GRN+/A152T- with 21 patients who carried both the c.709-1G>A GRN mutation and the p.A152T MAPT variant (GRN+/A152T+. Neuropsychological data (n = 17 and plasma progranulin levels (n = 23 were compared between groups, and 7 subjects underwent neuropathological studies. We genotyped six short tandem repeat markers in the two largest families. By the analysis of linkage disequilibrium decay in the haplotype block we estimated the time when the first ancestor to carry both genetic variants emerged. GRN+/A152T+ and GRN+/A152T- patients shared similar clinical and neuropsychological features and plasma progranulin levels. All were diagnosed with an FTD disorder, including behavioral variant FTD or non fluent / agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia, and shared a similar pattern of neuropsychological deficits, predominantly in executive function, memory, and language. All seven participants with available brain autopsies (6 GRN+/A152T+, 1 GRN+/A152T- showed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (type A classification, which is characteristic of GRN carriers. Additionally, all seven showed mild to moderate tau inclusion burden: five cases lacked β-amyloid pathology and two cases had Alzheimer's pathology. The co-occurrence of both genes within one individual is recent, with the birth of the first GRN+/A152T+ individual estimated to be within the last 50 generations (95% probability.In our sample, the p.A152T MAPT variant does not appear to show a discernible influence on the clinical phenotype of GRN carriers. Whether p.A152T confers a

  5. Peintures murales en Irlande du Nord et au Pays basque : mobilisation populaire et création d’identité nationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Pragnère

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article explore les différentes fonctions des peintures murales en Irlande du Nord et au Pays basque. Il montre comment les peintures murales, particulièrement visibles, ont la capacité de diffuser un message en permanence. En ce sens, comme les avancées conceptuelles sur la question de l’identification nationale permettent de le définir, elles constituent un support des processus de définition et de redéfinition des références identificatoires, et elles permettent de maintenir les dynamiques de polarisation communautaire comme éléments dominants de la structuration de l’espace public. Il n’y a que peu voire pas d’espace pour d’autres représentations de la vie sociale. Les peintures murales sont un outil de légitimation de la lutte, ce qui peut provoquer adhésion, soutien, ou mobilisation. Elles actualisent et élargissent le champ des références disponibles pour les processus d’identification, et rendent ce corpus de références toujours accessible à la population. Ainsi, elles participent activement à la dynamique du conflit.This article explores the several functions of mural paintings in Northern Ireland and in the Basque Country. It shows how the murals (which are particularly visible have the capacity to broadcast a message on a permanent basis. Recent conceptual progress on the question of national identification allows defining them as a basis for processes of definitions and re-definitions of identity references; they are also a means of keeping community polarization dynamics as the dominant elements in structuring the public space. Little or no space is left for other representations of social life. Murals are a tool for legitimising the struggle, which can stimulate adhesion, support or mobilization. They update and widen the field of references available for the identification processes, and make this corpus of references ready for use at any time for the population. Thus, they play an active part

  6. Origin and consequences of western Mediterranean subduction, rollback, and slab segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Spakman, Wim

    2014-04-01

    The western Mediterranean recorded subduction rollback, slab segmentation and separation. Here we address the questions of what caused Oligocene rollback initiation, and how its subsequent evolution split up an originally coherent fore arc into circum-southwest Mediterranean segments. We kinematically reconstruct western Mediterranean geology from subduction initiation to present, using Atlantic plate reconstructions as boundary condition. We test possible reconstructions against remnants of subducted lithosphere imaged by seismic tomography. Transform motion between Africa and Iberia (including the Baleares) between 120 and 85 Ma was followed by up to 150 km convergence until 30 Ma. Subduction likely initiated along the transform fault that accommodated pre-85 Ma translation. By the 30 Ma inception of rollback, up to 150 km of convergence had formed a small slab below the Baleares. Iberia was disconnected from Sardinia/Calabria through the North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ). Subduction below Sardinia/Calabria was slightly faster than below the Baleares, the difference being accommodated in the Pyrenees. A moving triple junction at the trench-NBTZ intersection formed a subduction transform edge propagator fault between the Baleares and Calabria slab segments. Calabria rolled back eastward, whereas the Baleares slab underwent radial (SW-S-SE) rollback. After Kabylides-Africa collision, the western slab segment retreated toward Gibraltar, here reconstructed as the maximum rollback end-member model, and a Kabylides slab detached from Africa. Opening of a slab window below the NBTZ allowed asthenospheric rise to the base of the fore arc creating high-temperature metamorphism. Western Mediterranean rollback commenced only after sufficient slab-pull was created from 100 to 150 km of slow, forced subduction before 30 Ma.

  7. Analysis and Predictability of the Hydrological Response of Mountain Catchments to Heavy Rain on Snow Events: A Case Study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier G. Corripio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From 18 to 19 June 2013, the Ésera river in the Pyrenees, Northern Spain, caused widespread damage due to flooding as a result of torrential rains and sustained snowmelt. We estimate the contribution of snow melt to total discharge applying a snow energy balance to the catchment. Precipitation is derived from sparse local measurements and the WRF-ARW model over three nested domains, down to a grid cell size of 2 km. Temperature profiles, precipitation and precipitation gradient are well simulated, although with a possible displacement regarding the observations. Snowpack melting was correctly reproduced and verified in three instrumented sites, and according to satellite images. We found that the hydrological simulations agree well with measured discharge. Snowmelt represented 33% of total runoff during the main flood event and 23% at peak flow. The snow energy balance model indicates that most of the energy for snow melt during the day of maximum precipitation came from turbulent fluxes. This approach forecast correctly peak flow and discharge during normal conditions at least 24 h in advance and could give an early warning of the extreme event 2.5 days before.

  8. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  9. Fluid-rock interactions related to metamorphic reducing fluid flow in meta-sediments: example of the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust (Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincal, Vincent; Buatier, Martine; Charpentier, Delphine; Lacroix, Brice; Lanari, Pierre; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Vennemann, Torsten

    2017-09-01

    In orogens, shortening is mainly accommodated by thrusts, which constitute preferential zones for fluid-rock interactions. Fluid flow, mass transfer, and mineralogical reactions taking place along thrusts have been intensely investigated, especially in sedimentary basins for petroleum and uranium research. This study combines petrological investigations, mineralogical quantifications, and geochemical characterizations with a wide range of analytical tools with the aim of defining the fluid properties (nature, origin, temperature, and redox) and fluid-host rock interactions (mass transfers, recrystallization mechanisms, and newly formed synkinematic mineralization) in the Pic-de-Port-Vieux thrust fault zone (Pyrenees, Spain). We demonstrate that two geochemically contrasted rocks have been transformed by fluid flow under low-grade metamorphism conditions during thrusting. The hanging-wall Triassic red pelite was locally bleached, while the footwall Cretaceous dolomitic limestone was mylonitized. The results suggest that thrusting was accompanied by a dynamic calcite recrystallization in the dolomitic limestone as well as by leaching of iron via destabilization of iron oxides and phyllosilicate crystallization in the pelite. Geochemical and physical changes highlighted in this study have strong implications on the understanding of the thrust behavior (tectonic and hydraulic), and improve our knowledge of fluid-rock interactions in open fluid systems in the crust.

  10. Allodaposuchus palustris sp. nov. from the upper cretaceous of Fumanya (South-Eastern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula: systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the enigmatic allodaposuchian crocodylians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco

    Full Text Available The controversial European genus Allodaposuchus is currently composed of two species (A. precedens, A. subjuniperus and it has been traditionally considered a basal eusuchian clade of crocodylomorphs. In the present work, the new species A. palustris is erected on the base of cranial and postcranial remains from the lower Maastrichtian of the southern Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analyses here including both cranial and postcranial data support the hypothesis that Allodaposuchus is included within Crocodylia. The studied specimen suggests little change in postcranial skeleton along the evolutionary history of crocodylians, except for some bone elements such as the axis, the first caudal vertebra and the ilium. The specimen was found in an organic mudstone corresponding to a coastal wetland environment. Thus, A. palustris from Fumanya is the first Allodaposuchus reported in lacustrine-palustrine settings that expand the ecological range for this genus. The S-DIVA palaeobiogeographic reconstruction of ancestral area suggests that early members of Crocodylia rapidly widespread for the Northern Hemisphere landmasses no later than the Campanian, leading the apparition of endemic groups. In that way "Allodaposuchia" represents an endemic European clade probably originated in the Ibero-Armorican domain in the late Campanian and dispersed by the Southern European archipelago prior to the early Maastrichtian.

  11. Geology and taphonomy of the L'Espinau dinosaur bonebed, a singular lagoonal site from the Maastrichtian of South-Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevilla, V.; Vicente, A.; Battista, F.; Sellés, A. G.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Martín-Closas, C.; Anadón, P.; Vila, B.; Razzolini, N. L.; Galobart, À.; Oms, O.

    2017-06-01

    The L'Espinau site is a dinosaur bonebed from the Upper Cretaceous of the South-Central Pyrenees (north-eastern Spain) that have provided hundreds of bone remains attributed to hadrosauroids, together with a rich assemblage of herpetofauna, fish and microflora. Magnetostratigraphy calibrated the site with the early late Maastrichtian, and the combined sedimentology, stable isotope geochemistry and palaeoecology revealed that this fossil site formed in a lagoon, in which a mixed freshwater-brackish palaeoenvironment was developed. This setting displays a south-north charophyte zonation from freshwater (Clavator brachycerus-dominated assemblage) to brackish or eurihaline conditions (Feistiella malladae-dominated assemblage), revealing a palaeoenvironment change towards the coast. Sedimentology and taphonomy (bidirectional arrangement of long bones, abrasion and disarticulation) indicate that the L'Espinau site is the result of a cohesive mass flow event originated very close to the sea. This process entrained and mixed fauna from both the terrestrial and the brackish/marine environment of a lagoon. An increasing of the water runoff (e.g. by intense rainfall) reworking poorly consolidated sediments is considered here as the most probable triggering mechanism. Mass flow-hosted bonebeds are commonly linked to fluvial palaeoenvironments, so our study case is a rare example of bones accumulating near the sea. This study adds evidence that hadrosauroids inhabited littoral environments during the Maastrichtian in the southern Pyrenean area.

  12. U-Pb age and lead isotopic characterization of Au-bearing skarn related to the Andorra granite (central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, R. L.; Soler, A.

    1995-08-01

    Auriferous skarns are associated with post- and late-kinematic Hercynian granites that intruded into Cambro-Ordovician to Devonian sediments of the central Pyrenees. We determined the age of the Andorra granite and the associated skarn at 305 ± 3 Ma by U-Pb dating titanite from the endo-skarn. The sulfur isotopic composition from sulfides in the skarn (Cardellach et al. 1992) shows a significant variation with isotopically light sulfur (δ34S ≈ +3) in the barren skarns and heavy sulfur (δ34S ≈ +11) in the gold-bearing skarns. Outwards, it increasingly resembles sulfur from arsenopyrite disseminations in the Cambro-Ordovician sediments. The lead isotopic composition from sulfides of the skarns is very homogeneous (206Pb/204Pb = 18.410, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.699, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.574) in contrast to the one in gold-bearing arsenopyrite veins and in arsenopyrite disseminations in the sediments (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb varies from 18.54 to 30.36). Combined, sulfur and lead isotope data indicate that the lead in the skarn is dominantly derived from the granite, whereas the sulfur is derived at variable portions from both the granite and the sediments.

  13. Supercritical bedforms and sedimentary structures from field and core studies, Middle Eocene deep-marine base-of-slope environment, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornard, Pauline; Pickering, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, many researchers have focussed on supercritical- and subcritical-flow deposits using flume-tank experiments (e.g., Cartigny el al., 2011; Postma et al., 2014; Postma and Cartigny, 2014), or from direct observations on presently active deep-water systems (e.g., Hughes et al., 2012). Using outcrop and core examples from a base-of-slope environment in the Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, and with published experimental work, a range of deposits are interpreted as upper-flow regime sedimentary structures. This contribution focusses on the interpretation of several supercritical bedforms (antidunes and chutes-and-pools) observed on the field and upper-flow regime sedimentary structures recognized in cores. The spatial distribution of supercritical-flow deposits obtained from an analysis of field outcrops and core sedimentary logs are evaluated in relation to the depositional environment (channel axis, off-axis, margin and interfan). The frequency distributions of the bed thicknesses are also analysed in relation to supercritical versus subcritical bed-thickness distributions.

  14. Tungsten/wolfram: A little-known connection between the 18th century Basque Country and SOFT 2014 in Donostia/San Sebastián

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román, Pascual [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ascasíbar, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.ascasibar@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • SOFT 2014 has taken place in Donostia/San Sebastián. • Tungsten/wolfram (W) is a strategic material for the development of fusion. • W was isolated very close to Donostia in the late 18th century as a result of a combination of fortunate circumstances. • This fact is largely unknown even to the fusion materials experts working with W. • We describe this story with some detail. - Abstract: This paper is intended as a preface of the special issue that Fusion Engineering and Design will devote to the best papers presented in the Symposium on Fusion Technology, 2014 (SOFT 2014) that took place in Donostia/San Sebastián. It is a historical note dwelling on the largely unknown story of the isolation of tungsten/wolfram in Spain, more precisely, in the Basque Country, very close to Donostia/San Sebastián, in the late 18th century. Given the current strategic importance of tungsten in the development of fusion as a viable energy source we think it is timely to recall the protagonists and the circumstances involved in the isolation of this metal.

  15. Spatial distribution of metal accumulation areas on the continental shelf of the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay): A GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorburu, Irati; Galparsoro, Ibon; Larreta, Joana; Rodríguez, José Germán; Borja, Ángel

    2013-12-01

    Recent environmental legislation, worldwide, aims to restore and protect the quality of the marine environment. Within this context, in order to maintain the good functioning of marine ecosystems, sediment pollution monitoring is becoming increasingly important. Hence, for this contribution, the spatial distribution of Cd, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni and Pb accumulation areas were determined, for the sediments of the Basque continental shelf. Statistically-assisted Geographical Information System (GIS)-mapping techniques were used, in order to infer the processes responsible for such accumulations. Differences in contaminant entrance pathways were observed between sectors. However, hydrodynamic conditions favored the rapid dispersal of contaminants and their stable distribution. The methodology used resulted in a suitable approach for identifying contaminant distribution patterns, which could be used in environmental assessment processes. Nevertheless, an important knowledge gap on the distribution of contaminants in offshore sediments was identified. Extensions of actual monitoring programs are suggested, in order to improve the information available for identifying the behavior and process-drivers for contaminants in offshore systems. This would permit the achievement of a more complete approach, to understand the effects of land-derived contaminants, on offshore systems.

  16. Deciphering the magnetic and mineralogical record of the Deccan Traps at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary of the Zumaia section, Basque-Cantabric basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Eric; Adatte, Thierry; Andrade, Mariana; Keller, Gerta; Mbabi Bitchong, André; Carvallo, Claire; Ferreira, Joana; Diogo, Zenaida; Mirão, José

    2017-04-01

    The Deccan Traps Magmatic Province coincides with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KPg) boundary and probably contributed to the associated mass extinctions by inducing rapid and abrupt climate changes, including continental and superficial seawater acidification. However, how such environmental acidification is expressed in the marine sedimentary record is still poorly constrained. Recent environmental magnetic studies of the Bidart (France) and Gubbio (Italy) sections proposed new benchmarks to identify the Deccan Traps fingerprint in the marine sedimentary record, namely anomalous concentration in mercury, presence of akagenéite (a Cl-rich oxy-hydroxide forming in hyper-chlorinated and acid conditions) and the loss of detrital and biogenic magnetite by acid reductive dissolution. Here we test this scenario on the Zumaia section, Spain, a reference KPg section cropping out in the Basque-Cantabric basin. Our results confirm the presence of an iron-depleted interval located just below the KPg boundary, similarly to Bidart and Gubbio, and which contains significant amounts of akaganéite grains as well as high content in mercury. These results consolidate the use of the previously cited benchmarks to identify environmental and climate changes induced by the Deccan volcanism. It also suggests that the main eruptive Deccan phase began just before the KPg extinction, reinforcing its contribution in the KPg mass extinction. Publication supported by FCT- project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz

  17. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  18. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  19. Short-term effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil water repellency in the Central Pyrenees (NE-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Badía-Villas, David; Ortiz-Perpiñán, Oriol

    2016-04-01

    The decrease of livestock grazing during the last decades in the Central Pyrenees has led to a regression of grasslands in favour of shrublands, mainly composed by Echinospartum horridum. Prescribed burning might be a suitable tool for the control of this species that limits pastures development and therefore, the reclamation of grasslands; although, its effects on soil properties are still uncertain [1]. Controlled burnings are usually performed in spring or autumn, when soil moisture is high and temperature low, being easier to control and also reducing its effects on soil properties. However, burning during the wet seasons can increase the risk of soil erosion as the vegetation cover is partially destroyed. In this sense, soil water repellency (SWR) plays an important role reducing the infiltration rates and, thus, increasing runoff and soil erosion [2]. Then, it is of special interest to study parameters that influence SWR such as soil moisture, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil biological activity [3]. The aim of this work is, to analyse the effects of controlled burning on SWR as well as some of the influencing factors on this parameter. To achieve this, soil sampling was carried out in two prescribed fire events that took place in the Central Pyrenees: Tella (April, 2015) and Buisán (November, 2015). Temperature was simultaneously recorded during the fire via thermocouples placed at the surface level and at 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm depth. In each event, topsoil was scrapped and sampled from 0-1 cm, 1-2 cm and 2-3 cm depth in each sampling point (3 for Tella and 4 for Buisán) just before and immediately after burning. We analysed SWR persistence (Water Drop Penetration Time, WDPT) and intensity (Ethanol Percentage Test, EPT) as well as total C and N, microbial C, β-glucosidase activity, soil moisture and pH. Temperature measurements indicated a higher fire intensity in Tella than in Buisán burning. Surface unburned samples presented extreme SWR values

  20. Effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil organic matter and biological properties: A 1-year study case in the Central Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona-García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Ortiz-Perpiñá, Oriol; Mora, Juan Luis; Armas-Herrera, Cecilia M

    2017-11-06

    Prescribed burning has been readopted in the last decade in the Central Pyrenees to stop the regression of subalpine grasslands in favour of shrublands, dominated among others by Echinospartum horridum (Vahl) Rothm. Nevertheless, the effect of this practice on soil properties is uncertain. The aim of this work was to analyse the effects of these burnings on topsoil organic matter and biological properties. Soil sampling was carried out in an autumnal prescribed fire in Buisán (NE-Spain, November 2015). Topsoil was sampled at 0-1cm, 1-2cm and 2-3cm depth in triplicate just before (U), ~1h (B0), 6months (B6) and 12months (B12) after burning. We analysed soil total organic C (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass C (Cmic), soil respiration (SR) and β-D-glucosidase activity. A maximum temperature of 438°C was recorded at soil surface while at 1cm depth only 31°C were reached. Burning significantly decreased TOC (-52%), TN (-44%), Cmic (-57%), SR (-72%) and β-D-glucosidase (-66%) at 0-1cm depth while SR was also reduced (-45%) at 1-2cm depth. In B6 and B12, no significant changes in these properties were observed as compared to B0. It can be concluded that the impact of prescribed burning has been significant and sustained over time, although limited to the first two topsoil centimetres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The “Bear” Essentials: Actualistic Research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and Its Implications for Paleontology and Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, Maite; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2014-01-01

    Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass’s trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all) from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus]) and non-durophagus (modelled here by brown bears

  2. Impact of climate and land use change on water availability and reservoir management: scenarios in the Upper Aragón River, Spanish Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, J I; Zabalza, J; Vicente-Serrano, S M; Revuelto, J; Gilaberte, M; Azorin-Molina, C; Morán-Tejeda, E; García-Ruiz, J M; Tague, C

    2014-09-15

    Streamflows in a Mediterranean mountain basin in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflow series projected for 2021-2050 were used to simulate the management of the Yesa reservoir, which is critical to the downstream supply of irrigation and domestic water. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys). The results show that increased forest cover in the basin could decrease annual streamflow by 16%, mainly in early spring, summer and autumn. Regional climate models (RCMs) project a trend of warming and drying in the basin for the period 2021-2050, which will cause a 13.8% decrease in annual streamflow, mainly in late spring and summer. The combined effects of forest regeneration and climate change are expected to reduce annual streamflows by 29.6%, with marked decreases affecting all months with the exception of January and February, when the decline will be moderate. Under these streamflow reduction scenarios it is expected that it will be difficult for the Yesa reservoir to meet the current water demand, based on its current storage capacity (476 hm(3)). If the current project to enlarge the reservoir to a capacity of 1059 hm(3) is completed, the potential to apply multi-annual streamflow management, which will increase the feasibility of maintaining the current water supply. However, under future climate and land cover scenarios, reservoir storage will rarely exceed half of the expected capacity, and the river flows downstream of the reservoir is projected to be dramatically reduced. © 2013.

  3. Application and validation of different geomatic techniques for the quantification of mass-wasting processes in a torrential catchment in the Axial Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Buill, Felipe; Nuñez, Amparo; López-Moreno, Juan; Moya, Jose; Abancó, Clàudia; Chevalier, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Torrential processes like debris flows and debris floods significantly change the morphology of high-mountain catchments. In addition, other types of mass movements and superficial erosion affect the landscape. In the present study, the mass-wasting in the Rebaixader catchment located in the Axial Pyrenees was quantified for a time span of more than 50 years by four different geomatic techniques: 1) Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), 2) Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), 3) Digital Photogrammetry from Historic Aerial Photographs (DP-HAP), and 4) Digital Photogrammetry from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (DP-UAV). The Rebaixader catchment is characterized by a large open scarp with a very heterogeneous and irregular morphology. This scarp is situated in a side moraine and affected by many types of mass-wasting processes. The results of the geomatic techniques were compared and validated with the data gathered at the monitoring system, which was installed in 2009 in the channel reach below the scarp. In addition, a detailed dendrogeomorphological study on the fan's depositional units spanning more than 70 years of activity, was used to compare the results. The results obtained by the different geomatic techniques show that the rate of mass wasting in the catchment is about 15000 m3 per year. This value is supported by the monitoring data gathered by the sensors installed. The comparison with the dendrogeomorphological study leads to less coherency due to the limitations of the dendrogeomorphological method. Other outcomes of our investigation refer to the applicability and precision of the different geomatic techniques. The study shows that TLS technique is rather difficult to apply to the scarp, where the morphology is very irregular, the surface is partly humid, the scan distances are large and the vegetation may avoid a good visibility. In contrast, DP-HAP of aerial photographs of 1975 (and with less significance of 1956) provided a rather precise digital elevation model

  4. "A shepherd has to invent": Poetic analysis of social-ecological change in the cultural landscape of the central Spanish Pyrenees

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    Maria E. Fernández-Giménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-20th century, the Pyrenean pastoral social-ecological system (SES has undergone socioeconomic and demographic transformations leading to changes in grazing practices and a decline in the livestock industry. Land abandonment has contributed to an ecological transition from herbaceous vegetation cover to shrublands and forests, leading to a loss of ecosystem services, including biodiversity and forage. I interviewed 27 stockmen (ganaderos in two valleys of the central Pyrenees to document their traditional ecological knowledge and observations of environmental, social, economic, and cultural changes in the valleys. I used poetic analysis, a qualitative data analysis approach, to illustrate and analyze one ganadero's experience of social-ecological change. First, I created seven poems based on an interview transcript with this ganadero. Second, I analyzed the poetry I created, to see what new insights and understanding about system dynamics and the lived experience of SES change emerged from analysis of the transcript re-presented as poetry. Third, I compared key themes that emerged from this analysis with findings across the other 26 interviews. Fourth, I read the poems and presented the associated analysis to multiple audiences, to gauge their impact and effectiveness in communicating research findings. Finally, I synthesized across the themes raised in the seven poems. Poetic analysis revealed emotional and cultural dimensions of change, especially the importance of occupational and place identity, in the experience of the ganadero. The transcript re-presented as poetry portrayed the ganadero as an agent in creating and maintaining a cultural landscape and as both an adaptor and resister to SES change. Poetic analysis also uncovered telling contradictions, adaptive capacities, and barriers to adaptation in this SES that went unappreciated with conventional qualitative analysis approaches. This exploratory study illustrates the

  5. Case Study: Effect of Climatic Characterization on River Discharge in an Alpine-Prealpine Catchment of the Spanish Pyrenees Using the SWAT Model

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    Leticia Palazón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges in assessment of water resources demand new approaches and tools, such as the use of hydrologic models, which could serve to assist managers in the prediction, planning and management of catchment water supplies in view of increased demand of water for irrigation and climatic change. Good characterization of the spatial patterns of climate variables is of paramount importance in hydrological modelling. This is especially so when modelling mountain environments which are characterized by strong altitudinal climate gradients. However, very often there is a poor distribution of climatic stations in these areas, which in many cases, results in under representation of high altitude areas with respect to climatic data. This results in the poor performance of the models. In the present study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in order to assess the influence of different climatic characterizations in the monthly river discharges. Four simulations with different input data were assessed, using only the available climate data (A1; the former plus one synthetic dataset at a higher altitude (B1; and both plus the altitudinal climate gradient (A2 and B2. The model’s performance was evaluated against the river discharges for the representative periods of 2003–2005 and 1994–1996 by means of commonly used statistical measures. The best results were obtained using the altitudinal climate gradient alone (scenario A2. This study provided insight into the importance of taking into account the sources and the spatial distribution of weather data in modelling water resources in mountainous catchments.

  6. Large landslides associated with a diapiric fold in Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees): Detailed geological-geomorphological mapping, trenching and electrical resistivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Rosell, Joan; Gutiérrez, Mateo

    2015-07-01

    Detailed geomorphological-geological mapping in Canelles Reservoir, the Spanish Pyrenees, reveals the presence of several large landslides overlooked in previous cartographic works. One of the slope movements, designated as the Canelles landslide, corresponds to a 40 × 106 m3 translational landslide reactivated in 2006 by a severe decline in the reservoir water level. The geomorphic features mapped in the upper part of the Canelles landslide, including surface ruptures corroborated by electrical resistivity imaging and trenching, indicate multiple displacement episodes previous to the 2006 human-induced event. Consistently, the stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench record at least two displacement events older and larger in magnitude than the 2006 reactivation. The oldest recorded event occurred in the 6th to 7th Centuries and the second in 1262-1679 yr AD. This latter episode might be correlative to the 1373 Ribagorza earthquake (Mw 6.2), which caused the reactivation of a landslide and the consequent destruction of a village in the adjacent valley. The available data indicate that over more than one millennium the kinematics of the landslide has been characterised by discrete small-displacement episodes. These data, together with the available literature on rapid rockslides, do not concur with the acceleration predicted by modelling in a previous investigation, which foresees a speed of 16 m s- 1 despite the low average dip of the sliding surface (9-10°). This case study illustrates that the trenching technique may provide valuable practical information on the past behaviour of landslides, covering a much broader time span than instrumental and historical records.

  7. Towards a debris-flow warning system based on hydrological measurements of the triggering conditions. A study of El Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José

    2014-05-01

    Debris flows represent a risk to the society due to their high destructive power. Rainfall is the main debris-flow triggering factor. Rainfall thresholds are generally used for warning of debris flow occurrence in susceptible catchments. However, the efficiency of such thresholds for real time hazard assessment is often conditioned by many factors, such as: the location and number of the rain gauges used (both to define the thresholds, and for setting off warnings); the temporal and spatial evolution of rainfall's convective cells or the effect of snow cover melting. These factors affect the length of the warning time, which is of crucial importance for issuing alert messages or alarms to the people and infrastructures at risk. The Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees, Spain) is being monitored since 2009 by six stations recording information on initiation (4 stations) and flow detection and cinematic behaviour (2 stations). Until December 2013, 7 debris flows, 17 debris floods and 4 rockfalls have been recorded. The objectives of this work were: a) the definition of rainfall thresholds at two different rain gauges; b) the analysis of the infiltration patterns in order to define their potential use for warning systems and c) preliminary testing of rainfall thresholds' efficiency in terms of warning time, in this catchment. This last goal consisted in the comparison of the time elapsed between the rainfall threshold was exceeded and the event occurrence was detected by the stations at the channel area. The results suggest that the intensity-duration rainfall thresholds sometimes provide warning times which would be too short for an adequate reaction in the Rebaixader catchment (less than 10 minutes). The combination of such rainfall thresholds with infiltration measurements is useful to increase the warning time. This occurs especially in the events triggered in spring, when the snowmelt plays an important role in the event's triggering conditions. However, the

  8. Antimodernity in the Basque Country: Social Practices and Discourse (1765-1833 La antimodernidad en el País Vasco: prácticas sociales y discursos (1765-1833

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    Andoni ARTOLA RENEDO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the arrival and spread of new trends of thought among the Basque elites in the 18th century, reticent attitudes, sometimes bordering on hostile, developed towards them. The institutionalization of the enlightenment in the Basque country took place with the creation of the «Basque Royal Society for Friends of the country». The analysis of the dominant trends of thought in this Society serves as an observatory of a larger process, to wit the formation of anti-modern thought in the Basque country. this article presents an attempt to analyse this process based on the experiences of the social actors involved, taking into account both the exogenous and the endogenous factors that led to this phenomenon. An attempt is thus made to reconcile the study of its relational networks, the historical context in which they developed and the discourses that emerged from them. The Jesuit element appears repeatedly, although in different forms and registers, as a reference of the products of these discourses.En paralelo a la llegada y difusión de nuevas corrientes de pensamiento entre las élites vascongadas del siglo XVIII, se desarrollaron actitudes reticentes y, en ocasiones, abiertamente hostiles, hacia éstas. La institucionalización de la ilustración en el País Vasco se formalizó con la creación de la Real Sociedad Bascongada de los Amigos del País. El análisis de las líneas intelectuales dominantes en su seno sirve como observatorio de un proceso de mayores dimensiones, cual es el de la formación del pensamiento antimoderno en el País Vasco. En este artículo se pretende analizar dicho proceso partiendo de las experiencias de los actores sociales que lo protagonizaron, teniendo en cuenta tanto los factores endógenos como los exógenos que dieron lugar a que el fenómeno se produjera. Así, se intenta conciliar el estudio de sus redes relacionales, del contexto histórico en que éstas se desarrollan, y los discursos que de ellas

  9. Estado de la alfabetización audiovisual en la comunidad escolar vasca Report about the Media Literacy Situation in the Basque School Community

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    Txema Ramírez de la Piscina Martínez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo recoge los principales resultados de una investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa llevada a cabo durante el período 2007-10 por el equipo de investigación HGH (Medios de Difusión, Sociedad y Educación de la Universidad del País Vasco. El principal objetivo de la misma ha sido analizar el estado de la alfabetización audiovisual (Media Literacy en el entorno de la comunidad escolar del País Vasco. Una de las principales novedades del presente trabajo radica en que se ha analizado el conjunto de la comunidad escolar en un momento y entorno concreto; es decir, teniendo en cuenta la opinión tanto de alumnado, como de profesorado y padres. Los resultados de la investigación cuantitativa se han extraído de una encuesta realizada a 598 jóvenes vascos de entre 14 y 18 años escolarizados tanto en institutos de Secundaria y Bachillerato como en centros de Formación Profesional. La investigación cualitativa se ha fundamentado en la información recogida a través de diez grupos de discusión y seis entrevistas en profundidad. En los grupos han participado jóvenes de la misma edad (entre 14 y 18 años por una parte y padres y madres de entre 40 y 55 años por otro. En las entrevistas en profundidad, se ha testado la opinión de ocho profesores que imparten docencia en materias relacionadas con la educación en comunicación (educomunicación. A tenor de los resultados, el sistema educativo debería introducir la educomunicación entre sus prioridades.This article gathers together the results of a quantitative and qualitative piece of research conducted between 2007 and 2010 by the HGH «Hedabideak, Gizartea eta Hezkuntza» (Media, Society and Education research team at the University of the Basque Country. The main aim of the research was to examine the situation of Media Literacy in the Basque Country’s school community. One of the newest aspects of this research was the study of the school community as a whole, at a

  10. An archosauromorph dominated ichnoassemblage in fluvial settings from the late Early Triassic of the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujal, Eudald; Fortuny, Josep; Bolet, Arnau; Oms, Oriol; López, José Ángel

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction can be approached through the ichnological record, which is much more abundant than body fossils. The late Olenekian (Early Triassic) tetrapod ichnoassemblage of the Catalan Pyrenean Basin is the most complete and diverse of this age from Western Tethys. This extensional basin, composed of several depocenters, was formed in the latest phases of the Variscan orogeny (Pangea breakup) and was infilled by braided and meandering fluvial systems of the red-beds Buntsandstein facies. Abundant and diverse tetrapod ichnites are recorded in these facies, including Prorotodactylus mesaxonichnus isp. nov. (tracks possibly produced by euparkeriids), cf. Rotodactylus, at least two large chirotheriid morphotypes (archosauriform trackmakers), Rhynchosauroides cf. schochardti, two other undetermined Rhynchosauroides forms, an undetermined Morphotype A (archosauromorph trackmakers) and two types of Characichnos isp. (swimming traces, here associated to archosauromorph trackmakers). The Pyrenean ichnoassemblage suggests a relatively homogeneous ichnofaunal composition through the late Early Triassic of Central Pangea, characterized by the presence of Prorotodactylus and Rotodactylus. Small archosauromorph tracks dominate and present a wide distribution through the different fluviatile facies of the Triassic Pyrenean Basin, with large archosaurian footprints being present in a lesser degree. Archosauromorphs radiated and diversified through the Triassic vertebrate recovery, which ultimately lead to the archosaur and dinosaur dominance of the Mesozoic.

  11. Multimorbidity in people with type 2 diabetes in the Basque Country (Spain): Prevalence, comorbidity clusters and comparison with other chronic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Morán, Edurne; Orueta, Juan F; Esteban, Jose Ignacio Fraile; Axpe, José Ma Arteagoitia; González, Ma Luz Marqués; Polanco, Nuria Toro; Loiola, Patxi Ezkurra; Gaztambide, Sonia; Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Multimorbidity is a common problem in ageing societies and has a wide range of individual and social consequences. The objective of this study was to compare multimorbidity in a population with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with that in other chronic patients, and identify disease clusters in patients with T2DM. We included all citizens in the Basque Health Service aged ≥ 35 years, and identified the population with chronic conditions (from a list of 51 diseases) and those with T2DM. We performed a descriptive analysis of both populations, including their comorbidities. The average of chronic conditions unadjusted and adjusted by socioeconomic variables was obtained. Further, among patients with T2DM, we performed agglomerative hierarchical clustering to identify clinically relevant subgroups with the same concurrent conditions. In 2011, out of a population of 1,473,937, 15.2% had T2DM and 48% some other type of chronic condition. Overall, 87.6% men and 92% of women with T2DM had multimorbidity, while the figures were respectively 54.2% and 57% in chronic patients without T2DM. Patients with T2DM had a higher risk than the general chronic population of having 21 of the 51 chronic conditions considered. We identified 10 relevant disease clusters in patients with T2DM. There are notable differences between chronic patients with and without T2DM, the prevalence of multimorbidity being greater among the former. Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon and more research is required to establish the clinical implications of the disease clusters found, to guide the introduction of integrated care management programmes. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of a rock platform bioerosion by the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816): the Basque Coast case (Bay of Biscay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regard, Vincent; de Casamjor, Marie-Noëlle; Maillet, Grégoire M.; Prémaillon, Mélody; Caill-Milly, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The French Basque Coast is an actively eroding rocky coast. In the study area it is made of flysch with a circa 40 degrees-dip; it is exposed to an average significant wave height of 1.8 m and peak period of 9.6 s. It is mesotidal (spring tide of ˜4m). The current rocky shore platform is carved into the flysch layering. We focus on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus contribution to rock shore erosion. Indeed, this sea urchin has a burrowing behaviour. An ecological study has been conducted for stock assessment, from shore to 10 m-deep. It indicates that sea urchins are burying their own shelter and are not reusing former ones. Below the depth of 10 m, sea urchins densities are very low and burial behavior is considered insignificant. Estimates of sea urchin density, and biomass are provided, making possible to evaluate the average erosion rate along this coast due to burying. It is of the order of 0.17 mm/y between 0 and 3 m below sea level, ˜0.05 mm/y between 3 and 5 m-deep, ˜0.02 mm/y between 5 and 8 m below sea level, and finally drops to negligible under 8 meters below sea-level. Close to the 0 level, it is thus between 30 and 5% of the expected value (evaluated to be 0.5-3 mm/y after 5-10 cm/y cliff retreat rate and a 1-2 degrees platform dip). The overall sea urchin contribution to shore platform erosion is not negligible.

  13. Gender, active education, language and nation in the Basque Country. Julene Azpeitia (1888-1980, exponent of a budding Basque education Género, educación activa, lengua y nación en el País Vasco. Julene Azpeitia (1888-1980, exponente de una educación vasca en ciernes

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    Idoia FERNÁNDEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The biographical approach by J. J. de la Granja and G. Arrien (1988 is our main basis for further analysis about the articles of Julene Azpeitia, the Basque teacher and writer. So can we also interpret her thoughts about education, taking into account some variables such as gender, nation, language and new pedagogy. This work is intended to support the idea that the gender, educational and political ideology of the Basque nationalist women in the pre-war thirties, among whom Julene Azpeitia was a significant exponent, must be understood within the bourgeois ideology of European nation-states —and the contradictions that happened in a stateless nation. In order to demonstrate so we have analysed her journalistic and pedagogical writings, and approached them as a case study. This study has been completed with some videotaped in-depth interviews to significant nationalist women from the Republican period.El acercamiento biográfico realizado por J. J. de la Granja y G. Arrien (1988 en torno a la maestra y escritora Julene Azpeitia nos sirve de base para profundizar en el análisis de sus numerosos artículos e interpretar su pensamiento pedagógico atendiendo a variables como el género, la nación, la lengua y a la pedagogía nueva. El trabajo pretende sustentar la tesis de que la ideología política, genérica y educativa de las mujeres nacionalistas vascas de preguerra, de quien Julene Azpeitia fue un significativo exponente, son partícipes de la ideología burguesa de los Estados-nación europeos con la diferencia de que en su caso esta ideología debía atemperarse con las contradicciones de una nación sin Estado. Para ello hemos analizado sus escritos periodísticos y pedagógicos, tratados como estudio de caso en un marco de investigación basado en entrevistas en profundidad grabadas en vídeo a significadas mujeres nacionalistas vascas del periodo republicano.

  14. Genetic diversity and phylogeography in two diploid ferns, Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, in the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, H V; Ansell, S W; Russell, S J; Schneider, H; Vogel, J C

    2009-12-01

    Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens are diploid rock ferns of limestone outcrops of the western Mediterranean region. Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum occurs from Valencia through northeastern Spain to the Alpes-Maritimes and Swiss Jura. Asplenium petrarchae subsp. bivalens occurs only on Majorca, in Valencia and possibly in southern Spain. We analysed allozyme and chloroplast genetic marker diversity in 75 populations of A. fontanum subsp. fontanum and 12 populations of A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens sampled from across their respective ranges. The two species show similar levels of species and population genetic diversity to one another and to other diploid European Asplenium taxa. Both are predominantly outbreeding, as indicated by F(IS) = 0.108 and 0.167 respectively. Substantial between-population differentiation results largely from differentiation between regions. Isolation by distance operates over limited geographic ranges, up to 50 km. In A. fontanum subsp. fontanum, the major geographical differentiation between Valencia and the rest of the taxon range probably represents an ancient range fragmentation. A less pronounced differentiation divides populations in the SW from those in the NE of the range, with evidence for a biogeographic link between the eastern Pyrenees and southeastern France. High diversity in the Pyrenees may either represent ancient population differentiation, or a suture zone. In A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, populations on Majorca exhibit a subset of the genetic diversity present in Valencia, although the two regions are strongly differentiated by differing allele frequencies. Dispersal from the mainland may have founded Majorcan populations, although a role for in situ island survival cannot be excluded.

  15. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  16. Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...

  17. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  18. Cierco Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits: Isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence for formation during the mesozoic extension in the pyrenees of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.A.; Cardellach, E.; Tritlla, J.; Hanan, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Cierco Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits, located in the central Pyrenees of Spain, crosscut Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks and are in close proximity to Hercynian granodiorite dikes and plutons. Galena and sphalerite in the deposits have average ??34S values of -4.3 and -0.8 per mil (CDT), respectively. Coexisting mineral pairs give an isotopic equilibration temperature range of 89?? to 163??C which overlaps with the 112?? to 198??C range obtained from primary fluid inclusions. Coexisting quartz has a ??18O value of 19 ?? 1 per mil (VSMOW). The fluid which deposited these minerals is inferred to have had ??18OH2o and ??34SH2s values of 5 ?? 1 and -1 ?? 1 per mil, respectively. Chemical and microthermometric analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz and sphalerite indicate salinities of 3 to 29 wt percent NaCl equiv with Na+ and Ca2+ as the dominant cations in solution. The Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios differ from those characteristic of magmatic waters and pristine seawater, but show some similarity to those observed in deep ground waters in crystalline terranes, basinal brines, and evaporated seawater, Barite, which postdates the sulfides, spans isotopic ranges of 13 to 21 per mil, 10 to 15 per mil, and 0.7109 to 0.7123 for ??34S, ??18O, and 87Sr/86Sr, respectively. The three parameters are correlated providing strong evidence that the barites are products of fluid mixing. We propose that the Cierco deposits formed along an extensional fault system at the margin of a marine basin during the breakup of Pangea at some time between the Early Triassic and Early Cretaceous. Sulfide deposition corresponded to an upwelling of hydrothermal fluid from the Paleozoic basement and was limited by the amount of metals carried by the fluid. Barite deposition corresponded to the waning of upward flow and the collapse of sulfate-rich surface waters onto the retreating hydrothermal plume. Calcite precipitated late in the paragenesis as meteoric or marine waters descended into the fault system

  19. Cirques have growth spurts during deglacial and interglacial periods: Evidence from 10Be and 26Al nuclide inventories in the central and eastern Pyrenees

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    Crest, Y.; Delmas, M.; Braucher, R.; Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.

    2017-02-01

    Cirques are emblematic landforms of alpine landscapes. The statistical distribution of cirque-floor elevations is used to infer glacial equilibrium-line altitude, and the age of their frontal moraines for reconstructing glacial chronologies. Very few studies, however, have sought to measure cirque-floor and supraglacial ridgetop bedrock downwearing rates in order to confront these denudation estimates with theoretical models of Quaternary mountain landscape evolution. Here we use 10Be nuclide samples (n = 36) from moraines, bedrock steps, and supraglacial ridgetops among a population of cirques in the east-central Pyrenees in order to quantify denudation in the landscape and detect whether the mountain topography bears any relevance to the glacial buzzsaw hypothesis. Minimum exposure ages (MEAs) obtained for a succession of moraines spanning the Oldest Dryas to the Holocene produced a deglaciation chronology for three different Pyrenean ranges: Maladeta, Bassiès, and Carlit. Based on a series of corrections, calibrations, and chronostratigraphic tuning procedures, MEAs on ice-polished bedrock exposures were further used to model denudation depths at nested timescales during the Würm, the Younger Dryas, and the Holocene. Results show that subglacial cirque-floor denudation was lower during glacial periods (Würm: 10 mm/ka) than during deglacial and interglacial periods (tens to hundreds of mm/ka). The relative inefficiency of glacial denudation in the cirque zone during the Würm would have resulted from (i) cold-based and/or (ii) low-gradient glaciers situated in the upper reaches of the icefield; and/or from (iii) glacier-load starvation because of arrested clast supply from supraglacial rockslopes situated in the permafrost zone. Denudation peaked during the Younger Dryas and Holocene glacial advances, a time when cirque glaciers became steeper, warmer-based, and when frost cracking weakened supraglacial ridgetops, thus enhancing subglacial erosion by providing

  20. Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch millennial-scale cyclicity in Middle Eocene deep-marine laminated sediments, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchman, J. I.; Pickering, K. T.; Robinson, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate variability on the scale of millennia is conspicuous within Quaternary records but has, until recently, been less well documented in records from deeper geological time. Here we utilise multi-element x-ray fluorescence (XRF) data obtained from a Middle Eocene (Lutetian) sediment core (Ainsa basin, Spanish Pyrenees) to identify both Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch millennial-scale cyclicity. Elemental data were collected from a 28 m interval of core, which consists of deep-marine fine-grained siliciclastic sediments (very thin-bedded/laminated turbiditic and hemi-pelagic deposits). These sediments accumulated during a time interval when coarse clastic supply to the submarine fans was switched off. Analysis of the stratigraphic time series, using the REDFIT program (Schulz and Mudelsee, 2002), reveals the presence of oscillations with wavelengths of 6.84 m and 0.61 m exceeding the 99% confidence level. Within similar surface sediments from the Ainsa basin, such oscillations are manifest as decimetre-scale colour and/or lithological variations. To determine their temporal duration, an age model was calculated from the identification of the three main Milankovitch orbital periods within both the subsurface and laterally adjacent and age-equivalent outcropping strata. These data provide a robust sediment accumulation rate (SAR) of 27.5 cm/kyr. Application of this SAR to the 6.84 m and 0.61 m oscillations yields temporal durations of ~23 kyr and ~2 kyr. The former corresponds to the average precession period, which is believed to have controlled local sediment supply, through changing terrestrial run-off, likely linked to changing precipitation (storminess). The ~2 kyr cyclicity is related to millennial-scale climate variability of unknown origin, but, nonetheless, adds to the growing evidence for the persistence of millennial-scale environmental change in deep geologic time. Schulz, M., and Mudelsee, M., 2002, REDFIT: estimating red-noise spectra directly from

  1. Plants with topical uses in the Ripollès district (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): ethnobotanical survey and pharmacological validation in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan; D'Ambrosio, Ugo; Gras, Airy; Iglésias, Jaume; Garnatje, Teresa

    2015-04-22

    The skin is the main structure that protects the human body from environmental factors and has, in addition, a relevant relationship to people׳s appearance and beauty. Official medicine and cosmetics have shown interest on elaborating products to protect the dermal system, yet the role of folk medicine is highly unknown in this field. Taking this into account, we performed an ethnobotanical study in a Catalan district of the eastern Pyrenees (northeast Iberian Peninsula), with the purpose of assessing popular plant knowledge and use. In this paper, we present exclusively the results on topically-used plants. Additionally, we have performed a thorough literature search in order to validate the uses of plants recorded in well-established pharmacological works. A number of 163 informants (57.7% women and 42.3% men, born between 1915 and 1988, with an average age of 71.6 years) were interviewed by means of 104 semi-structured interviews. Voucher specimens were collected, prepared and deposited in the BCN herbarium. We collected information on the popular uses implying topical application of 115 plant taxa (three determined at generic level and 112 at specific level), belonging to 92 genera and 51 families. Taxa with use reports higher than 5% included Arnica montana subsp. montana, Hypericum perforatum, Thymus vulgaris, Lilium candidum and Tussilago farfara. The degree of reliability of the results is very high, as indicated by a big number of report uses (1676) and a very high informant consensus factor (0.93 of a maximum of 1). Topical uses of 21 plant taxa with more than 1% of use reports have been validated consulting pharmacological literature. Data indicate a high degree of plant knowledge in the studied region regarding dermal conditions, cosmetics and additional affections (such as snake bite). The present study constitutes a good basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological research, which could be of interest in the design of new drugs. Furthermore

  2. Western USA groundwater drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  3. The influence of nitrate leaching through unsaturated soil on groundwater pollution in an agricultural area of the Basque country: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José Miguel Sánchez; Antiguedad, Iñaki; Arrate, Iñaki; García-Linares, Cristina; Morell, Ignacio

    2003-12-30

    The average nitrate concentration in the groundwater of the Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) quaternary aquifer rose from 50 mg NO3-/l during 1986 to over 200 mg/l in 1995, which represents an increase of some 20 mg NO3-/l per year. From 1995 to 2002, the nitrate concentration of the groundwater slightly decreased. Nitrate groundwater pollution during the period 1986-1993 was the result of the abusive use of fertilizers and of the modification in the recharge patterns of the aquifer from surface water sources. From 1993 onwards, apart from a possible rationalization in fertilizer use, the change in the origin of water for irrigation and wetland restoration (water is taken now from artificial pools outside the quaternary aquifer) must be explained in order to account for the observed decrease in nitrate concentration in the groundwater. The water of the aquifer and of the unsaturated zone were studied in two experimental plots (one of them cultivated and the other uncultivated) for 18 months (January 1993-June 1994), during the period of maximum contamination, to evaluate the effect of fertilizers on soil water and on the water in the saturated zone. The soil water was sampled using soil lysimeters at various depths. The volumetric water content of the soil was measured at the same depths using time domain reflectrometry (TDR) probes. Samples of groundwater were taken from a network of wells on the aquifer scale, two located close to the two experimental plots. The temporal evolution of nitrate concentrations in soil solutions depends on the addition of fertilizers and on soil nitrate leaching by rain. During episodes of intense rain (>50 mm in a day), the groundwater deposits are recharged with water coming from the leaching of interstitial soil solutions, causing an increase in the groundwater nitrate concentrations. The mass of nitrate leached from the cultivated zone is five times higher than that of the nitrate leached from the uncultivated zone (1147 kg NO3

  4. Characterisation of the input signal to aquifers in the French Basque Country: Emphasis on parameters influencing the chemical and isotopic composition of recharge waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunat, J.; Celle-Jeanton, H.; Huneau, F.; Dupuy, A.; Le Coustumer, P.

    2013-07-01

    A hydrochemical and isotopic survey of rainwater and groundwater has been carried out during almost two years on the Ursuya Mount in the northern Basque Country (southwestern France) with the aim of enhancing the understanding of the behaviour of this aquifer and more peculiarly the recharge mode of groundwater. The input signal of this aquifer is defined thanks to 112 rainwater samples. The computed meteoric water line (δD = 7.3 δ18O + 5.1; r = 0.96) is consistent with that defined in the European IAEA/WMO network stations. The weighted mean deuterium excess about 9.7‰ is really close to the value obtained for Atlantic precipitations and clearly demonstrates an oceanic major origin. The computations conducted on the chemical dataset show that the rainwater composition is controlled by four major factors: (1) a mixed source of anthropogenic pollution and crustal material; (2) a marine source; (3) an urban source; (4) an acid source. Further, the quantification of neutralizing potentials clearly revealed below cloud processes in which crustal and anthropogenic components are responsible for the neutralization of anions. Besides the major Atlantic origin of the recharge water, the chemical and isotopic content of the samples coupled with the corresponding air mass back trajectories revealed four major geographical origins of the components: (1) northwestern part of Atlantic Ocean and (2) Southwestern part of Atlantic Ocean. The oceanic influence in airmasses from these origins is highlighted by the stable isotopic content (weighted mean close to the Atlantic Ocean signature) and by the chemical concentrations dominated by sea salt elements. (3) Northern Europe with a continental influence shown by a light depletion on isotopic signal besides purely oceanic origin and a higher concentration of crustal and anthropogenic components. 4) Southeastern area (Southeastern Europe, Northern Africa and Mediterranean Sea) with an isotopic signature consistent with the

  5. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    that industrial Western military culture negatively influenced the ability to wage .... revolution occurred when Western troops started to pay attention to local support for ... The fourth principle is the priority of the fight against the insurgents'.

  6. Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  7. Creating and maintaining social networks: women’s participation in Basque pilota. [Creación y mantenimiento de redes sociales: participación de mujeres en pelota vasca].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uxue Fernandez-Lasa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basque pilota is a traditional sport played mainly by men. A project emerged in 2005 to promote female participation: Emakumea Pilotari (Woman pelota player. In this article we present the main points that emerged from an ethnographic study of the social relationships that playing Basque pilota can provide. The study was carried out in 2011-2012 season with a purposive sample of 28 adult women Basque pilota players (pilotaris (between 22 and 60 years old. 26 participants were pilotaris in recreational groups and the other two were their trainers. The results suggest that a sense of community, team membership, the development of a general reciprocity and group security are the most important aspects for players. A sense of community is the fundamental reason why they practise this sport. The group as a whole is the top priority. Female pilotaris share the desire to relate to each other as women, build relationships, create bonds and help each other. Resumen La pelota vasca es un deporte tradicional practicado mayoritariamente por hombres. En 2005 se puso en marcha un proyecto para promover la participación de las mujeres: Emakumea Pilotari (Mujer Pelotari. En este artículo se presentan los hallazgos de un estudio etnográfico llevado a cabo durante una temporada en torno a las relaciones sociales que genera jugar a pelota vasca. La investigación se realizó con una muestra intencionada de 28 mujeres pelotaris adultas (entre 22 y 60 años, de las cuales 26 eran participantes de un programa recreativo y dos entrenadoras. Los resultados indican que los aspectos más importantes para las participantes son el sentimiento de comunidad, ser miembro de un grupo, el desarrollo de la reciprocidad general y la seguridad que da el grupo. La comunidad es la razón fundamental para practicar este deporte, ya que el grupo es la mayor prioridad. Las mujeres pelotaris comparten el deseo de relacionarse entre ellas como mujeres, construir relaciones, crear

  8. Geochemical signal in drip waters and carbonates from three year monitoring of Drac Cave in Mallorca (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Isabel; Cisneros, Mercé; Torner, Judit; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Bladé, Ileana; Fornos, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In order to establish the potential connection between climatic conditions over Mallorca and the chemistry of speleothem growths, a still ongoing monitoring exercise is in development in Drac Cave in Mallorca (Spain) starting from April 2013. This location in the Western Mediterranean was selected to represent Mediterranean semi-arid climatic conditions within a wider monitoring plan covering a transect across the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, from the Catabric realm, across the Pyrenees and Iberian ranges until the Mediterranean, within the framework of the OPERA research project. Drip waters have been recovered at weakly resolution and carbonate precipitates represent seasonal periods. This monitoring is complemented with drip water and carbonate collection at seasonal scale in another cave close to Drac Cave. This second cave was selected in order to represent comparable climatic conditions but far of any human land-intervention since the Drac cave is partially located under an urban developed area, although drip water and carbonate collection is performed in a location bellow autochthonous forest. First results show that drip flow has a rather constant rate along the year even though the large contrast on rain availability. In contrast, chemical signal of the drip waters shows a rapid response (few days) to changes in rain patterns but of relatively small magnitude. Isotopes in the carbonate precipitates present a seasonal signal and trend that reflect changes in the drip water composition. This data set, although preliminary, will be discussed in the context of the changing meteorological conditions of the last three years.

  9. Rates and drivers of erosion in the Southern Pyrenees: a 10Be-supported model for the Valle de la Fueva catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Kurt Martin; Midtkandal, Ivar; Petter Nystuen, Johan; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew Sean; Spiegel, Cornelia; Kuss, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Intramontane basins are typical features of every mountain chain. These topographic depressions function as sediment traps during the syn- and postorogenic evolution of a range. Hence, studying their sedimentary archives and morphogenetic development may deliver important insights into the dynamics and magnitudes of erosion-sedimentation processes in mountain catchments and their susceptibility towards changing environmental conditions. Aiming at quantifying Quaternary catchment erosion rates in the Southern Pyrenees and determining the timing and driving parameters of basin excavation stages, this research project focusses on a number of adjacent watersheds in the Valle de la Fueva in Aragon, Spain. Besides providing a comprehensive OSL and 10Be-supported catchment erosion model, potential relationships of intense late stage erosion phases with watershed capture, base level changes and climatic controls are addressed. The Valle de la Fueva comprises a number of sub-catchments of the Ainsa depression - an Eocene sedimentary basin situated in the southern Pyrenean fold and thrust belt (SPFZ) which is recognized as a prime analogue for reservoir geometries and turbidite systems. The Valle de la Fueva is a highly erodible catchment, typical for the SPFZ with its shallow and deep marine strata, conglomerates and synorogenic debris. Preliminary observations revealed systems of "cut-in-fill" alluvial terraces and residual erosion surfaces - i.e. pediments and glacis that are strongly dissected by gullies and barrancos. Basin outlet canyons are deeply entrenched into the Los Molinos thrust front and represent dramatic landscape features that are relevant to the base level and opening history of the Valle de la Fueva catchments. Combining digital terrain analysis with field surveys and exposure/burial dating, first results revealed differences in stream profile gradation and incision magnitudes among several sub-catchments. Since they share a common base level, the main

  10. Accumulation of antimony and other potentially toxic elements in plants around a former antimony mine located in the Ribes Valley (Eastern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Corrales, Isabel; Duran, Paola; Roca, Núria; Tume, Pedro; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Soil contamination by antimony is of increasing environmental concern due to the use of this amphoterous p-block element in many industrial applications such as flame retardant, electronics, alloys, rubber and textile industries. However, little is still known about the response of plants to antimony. Here we report on the accumulation of antimony and other potentially toxic elements (mainly As, Pb and Cu) in plants growing around a former antimony mine in the ribes Valley located in the Eastern Pyrenees (424078E, 4686100N alt. 1145 m.a.s.l) that was operating approximately between the years 1870 to 1960. The ore mineral veins are included in quartz gangue. The main ores were: Sulphides: Stibnite (Sb2S3), Pyrite (FeS2), Sphalerite (ZnS), Arsenopyrite (FeAs), Galenite (PbS), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), Tetrahydrite (Cu5Sb2S3). Sulphosals: Boulangerite (5PbS•2Sb2S3), Jamesonite (4PbS•FeS•3Sb2S3), Zinckenite (6PbS•7Sb2S3), Plagionite (5PbS•4Sb2S3), Bournonite PbCu (Sb,As)S3, Pyrargirite (Ag3SbS3). Soil and plant samples were taken at five locations with different levels of Sb, As, and polymetallic contamination. Both pseudototal (aqua regia soluble) and extractable (EDTA) concentrations of metals from sites with low (sites 1 and 2), moderate (site 3 and 4) and high (sites 5 and 6) pollutant burdens were studied. The range of agua regia and EDTA values in mgkg-1 is as follows: Sb 8-2904 and 0.88-44; As: 33-16186 and 3.2-167; Pb: 79-4794 and 49-397; Cu: 66-712 and 48-56 mg•kg-1, respectively). While sites 1 to 4 had alkaline soil pH (7.4-8.7), sites 5 and 6 were acidic with values of 6 and 4.6, respectively. Different herbaceous plant species (Poa annua, Echium vulgare, Sonchus asper, Barbera verna among others) at the low and moderately polluted sites were able to efficiently restrict Sb and As transport to shoots showing average concentration ranges between 5.5 and 23 mg/kg As and 1.21 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg Sb. However, at the highly polluted acidic sites (5 and

  11. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  12. Satisfacción de los usuarios de 4 hospitales del Servicio Vasco de Salud Patient satisfaction in four hospitals of the Basque Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea González

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Comparar la satisfacción de los usuarios de 4 hospitales de agudos. Métodos: La población estuvo formada por sujetos que habían sido hospitalizados durante enero y febrero de 2002 en 4 hospitales del Servicio Vasco de Salud-Osakidetza. Se seleccionaron 650 pacientes de cada centro, a quienes se envió un cuestionario de satisfacción compuesto por 34 ítems que se resumen en 6 factores. Se crearon puntuaciones independientes para cada factor. Se compararon las variables sociodemográficas y del episodio, algunas preguntas globales y las puntuaciones medias de los factores en los 4 hospitales. Resultados: Se hallaron diferencias entre los hospitales respecto a la edad, el número de ingresos anteriores, el tipo de servicio, los días de estancia y las preguntas que evaluaban el tiempo de espera desde que el usuario llegó al hospital hasta que fue ingresado. Aunque el grado de satisfacción en general fue alto, se pudieron detectar diferencias en función del hospital y el área evaluados. Así, los usuarios ingresados en el hospital 3 mostraron mayor grado de satisfacción en los factores «información», «trato» y «bienestar», y el grado de satisfacción más bajo en estos factores se detectó en el hospital 1. Los resultados observados en el análisis univariante apenas variaron en el multivariante. Conclusiones: La disponibilidad de un cuestionario de estas características ha permitido obtener resultados comparables entre los hospitales participantes en el estudio, convirtiéndose así en un instrumento que permite detectar áreas de excelencia y de mejora.Objectives: To compare patient satisfaction in 4 acute hospitals. Methods: The sample was composed of individuals admitted to 4 hospitals in the Basque Health Service (Osakidetza, Spain in January and February 2002. Six hundred and fifty patients were selected from each hospital and were sent a satisfaction questionnaire composed of 34 items summarized in 6 factors

  13. Coarse cross-bedded grainstones in a mid- to outer carbonate ramp, Bartonian of the Urbasa-Andia plateau (W Pyrenees, N Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baceta, José I.; Pomar, Luis; Mateu-Vicens, Guillem

    2017-04-01

    the cross-bedded belt indicates carbonate production to have occurred near the lower limit of the light penetration, and hydraulic turbulence to rework the coarser sediments and winnow-away de fines at the transition between middle- and outer ramp. Bedform migration indicates two main flow directions: oblique upslope traction currents (run-up) and downslope backwash return flow. This indicates turbulence to be detached from the surface storm waves and suggests internal waves breaking obliquely to the slopping ramp. This example documents the potential role of internal waves in shaping and redistributing sediments across ancient carbonate ramp systems, producing porous bodies close to basinal facies. These grainstone bodies may become good targets but acquire special relevance when prediction of good drains is needed in both exploration and production of unconventional. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding from Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Project CGL2014-52096-P is acknowledged. This is also a contribution to the Research Group of the Basque University System IT-930-16.

  14. Archeomagnetism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data

  15. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  16. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  17. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  18. Western Forests and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    United States Environmental Protection Agency

    1992-01-01

    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.

  19. BENCHMARKING WESTERN BALKAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stošić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relative positions of Western Balkan countries and to determine the differences or similarities in the results based on survey data (of international institutions: EBRD, World Bank, World Economic Forum, Heritage Foundation, and on based on selected key statistical indicators. Using the sample of countries in same region and by applying the method of “multi-country” statistical analysis, it was attempted to establish relation between results obtained in studies of international institutions, and some actual achieved key economic performances by the first measure of correlation (so-called Spearman's coefficient of correlation. The obtained results differ to a smaller or greater extent according to the experiential test we used in the case of this region. Therefore, our findings reveal that overall economic position of selected country cannot be perceived only by relying on one methodology or type of data. Consequently, we point out that multi-criteria are a must and each methodology can be useful, because it emphasizes different aspects of the economic performances and country position.

  20. Moon - Western Near Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  1. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  2. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.

  3. Western Civ After the Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott

    1973-01-01

    Author considered Western Civilization in the light of present realities and stated his reasons for believing that the course is not suited to the needs of the greatest number of those students who take it. (Author/RK)

  4. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  5. Comparison of δ(13)C and δ(18)O from cellulose, whole wood, and resin-free whole wood from an old high elevation Pinus uncinata in the Spanish central Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Maus, Michael; Dindorf, Willi; Konter, Oliver; Schöne, Bernd R; Esper, Jan

    2016-12-01

    δ(13)C and δ(18)O values from sapwood of a single Pinus uncinata tree, from a high elevation site in the Spanish Pyrenees, were determined to evaluate the differences between whole wood and resin-free whole wood. This issue is addressed for the first time with P. uncinata over a 38-year long period. Results are also compared with published isotope values of α-cellulose samples from the same tree. The differences in δ(13)C and δ(18)O between whole wood and resin-free whole wood vary within the analytical uncertainty of 0.3 and 0.5 ‰, respectively, indicating that resin extraction is not necessary for sapwood of P. uncinata. Mean differences between cellulose and whole wood are 0.9 ‰ (δ(13)C) and 5.0 ‰ (δ(18)O), respectively. However, further analyses of different species and other sites are needed to evaluate whether the findings reported here are coherent more generally.

  6. Range-wide phylogeography of Juniperus thurifera L., a presumptive keystone species of western Mediterranean vegetation during cold stages of the Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrab, Anass; Schönswetter, Peter; Talavera, Salvador; Vela, Errol; Stuessy, Tod F

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the range-wide population structure and phylogeography of thuriferous juniper (Juniperus thurifera L.), a species with a highly disjunct distribution in the western Mediterranean. We genotyped a total of 327 individuals from 20 populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Different analyses such as principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA), nonmetric multidimensional scaling of F(ST) distances among populations, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), and Bayesian clustering revealed that the Strait of Gibraltar acted as an efficient barrier against gene flow between the Moroccan and European populations for a very long time, and consequently support that the Moroccan populations should be recognised as a distinct subspecies (J. thurifera L. subsp. africana (Maire) Romo and Boratyńsky). The Algerian population was genetically more closely related to the European than to the Moroccan ones, probably due to dispersal events from Europe to Algeria. With respect to the mainland European populations, our data are not conclusive to reject any of the two following hypotheses: (1) the Iberian Peninsula was subdivided into different gene pools, and was the source for the colonisation of the Pyrenees and the Alps; and (2) the pattern we see today is partly the result of immigration into the Iberian Peninsula, e.g. from the Alps. Finally, the Corsican population was closely related genetically to two northern Iberian populations most probably due to relatively recent long-distance dispersal.

  7. Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  9. Use of the Moodle Platform to Promote an Ongoing Learning When Lecturing General Physics in the Physics, Mathematics and Electronic Engineering Programmes at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gabriel A.; Sáenz, Jon; Leonardo, Aritz; Gurtubay, Idoia G.

    2016-08-01

    The Moodle platform has been used to put into practice an ongoing evaluation of the students' Physics learning process. The evaluation has been done on the frame of the course General Physics, which is lectured during the first year of the Physics, Mathematics and Electronic Engineering Programmes at the Faculty of Science and Technology of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). A test bank with more than 1000 multiple-choice questions, including conceptual and numerical problems, has been prepared. Throughout the course, the students have to answer a 10-question multiple-choice test for every one of the blocks the course is divided in and which were previously treated and worked in the theoretical lectures and problem-solving sessions. The tests are automatically corrected by Moodle, and under certain criteria, the corresponding mark is taken into account for the final mark of the course. According to the results obtained from a statistical study of the data on the student performances during the last four academic years, it has been observed that there exists an actual correlation between the marks obtained in the Moodle tests and the final mark of the course. In addition, it could be deduced that students who have passed the Moodle tests increase their possibilities of passing the course by an odds ratio close to 3.

  10. Is Western Marxism Western? The Cases of Gramsci and Tosaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Chino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that two eminent Marxists in the 1930s, the Italian Antonio Gramsci and the Japanese Tosaka Jun, shared three important characteristics of so-called Western Marxism: the methodological development of Marxism, the focus on the superstructure, and the pessimism about the impossibility of immediate revolution. Showing that Gramsci and Tosaka shared these characteristics enables us to revisit the framework of “Western Marxism,” which confusingly consists of both theoretical characteristics and geographical criteria. Looking at Gramsci and Tosaka on the same plane allows us to revisit Marxist thought different from the orthodox Marxism in Soviet Russia, and not strictly as a Western, but as a part of potentially global movement of thought.

  11. The application of land morphology and lithology information optimizes remote sensing badland mapping using Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 imagery in a heterogeneous regional setting, the upper Llobregat basin (Catalan Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno de las Heras, Mariano; Gallart, Francesc

    2017-04-01

    Badlands are highly erosive landforms carved in soft bedrock (e.g. mudstones, marls and shales) with little or no vegetation. Despite representing, in general, minor catchment fractions, badlands can contribute much of the total sediment transported within the river networks, largely affecting channel and floodplain dynamics, as well as freshwater ecosystems. Basin management in areas affected by these erosion hotspots requires accurate badland identification and mapping on the broad regional scale. Supervised classification of land features using remotely sensed imagery can provide satisfactory results for screening and quantitative analysis of barely covered, eroded areas. However, badland detection applying remote-sensing classification can be affected by the low separability of their spectral signatures in heterogeneous landscapes. We tested the accuracy of badland identification using remote sensing spectral information (from Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 instruments) and complimentary land morphology and bedrock lithology data over the upper Llobregat basin (Catalan Pyrenees, NE Spain), a 500 km2 mountain region spotted by (less than 1% of the terrain) mudstone and marly badlands. Maximum likelihood (supervised) classification of badlands using Sentinel 2 spectral information (10 bands, 10-20 m resolution) improved the results obtained by applying Landsat 8 OLI imagery (7 bands, 15-30 m resolution). The use of spectral information alone, however, resulted in poor results due to the low signature separation for badlands and other barely covered areas. The use of complimentary information on landscape morphology (i.e. slope gradient and surface roughness maps derived from a 2-m LiDAR digital elevation model) increased the separability of badlands, riverbeds and degraded areas without badland morphology, while the use of lithology masks derived from digital information of the regional geological setting optimized the discrimination of badlands and hard rock

  12. Application of MAGIC to Lake Redó (Central Pyrenees: an assessment of the effects of possible climate driven changes in atmospheric precipitation, base cation deposition, and weathering rates on lake water chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc VENTURA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The process-oriented catchment-scale model MAGIC was used to simulate water chemistry at Lake Redó, a high mountain lake in the Central Pyrenees, Spain. Data on lakewater and atmospheric deposition chemistry for the period 1984-1998 were used to calibrate the model, which was then used to reconstruct past and to provide forecasts for three hypothetical future scenarios of deposition. Forecast scenarios considered several combinations of changes in S and N deposition due to abatement strategies, and in base cation deposition due to climate-induced changes in air-mass trajectories from northern Africa. Scenario 1 assumed constant deposition of base cations at the present level plus the expected decrease in S and N deposition resulting from reduced emissions; scenario 2 (best case assumed an increase in base cation deposition plus the same decrease in S and N deposition as in scenario 1; scenario 3 (worst case assumed a decrease in base cation deposition plus no decrease in S and N deposition. The hindcast indicated that during the past 140-year period changes in lake water chemistry have been significant for a remote mountain catchment, although no substantial acidification has occurred. In this regard Lake Redó can be described as a "non-sensitive lake" maintaining a reference condition. The forecasts indicated changes that do not affect this status, but the trends, even if slight, were different between scenarios. A slight decline in the surface water ANC is predicted by Scenario 3. The N budget indicates an unusually low retention in the catchment, which may result in enhanced sensitivity to further increased N deposition. Some of the discrepancy between modelled and measured Ca2+ in lake water during 1984-98 could be explained by changes in rainfall amounts and by increased weathering rates due to increases in air temperature.

  13. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  14. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  15. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  16. The Western Sahara conflict I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politica; Analyst. Munich. The history of the Western Sahara has seen many developments familiar to Africa: • the drawing of artificial boundaries in foreign European capitals at the tum of the century,. • clandestine agreements between colonial and regional powers without proper consultation with the territory's population,.

  17. Social mix in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, it appears to have become ‘fashionable’ for politicians who are engaged in urban issues to argue for more social mix of the population at the neighbourhood level. It is assumed that a concentration of poverty reproduces a lack of social opportunities. Therefore, a more balanced

  18. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...

  19. Impacto de la violencia colectiva en la salud: Resultados del estudio ISAVIC en el País Vasco Impact of collective violence on health status: Results of the ISAVIC study in the Basque Region (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Larizgoitia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A pesar de la ubicuidad de la violencia y de su posible importancia para la salud de las personas y las colectividades, su papel y mecanismos de acción en este sentido no están apenas analizados. Este estudio, realizado en los años 2005-2008 en el País Vasco, trata de estimar la asociación de la violencia colectiva con la salud de sus víctimas primarias. Métodos: Se emparejó una muestra intencional de 33 víctimas primarias (receptores directos de la violencia o familiares en primer grado de personas asesinadas, en función de su edad, sexo, nivel de estudios y provincia de residencia, con sujetos (en una proporción 1:5 procedentes de una muestra representativa de la población mayor de 16 años residente en el País Vasco. Todos completaron un cuestionario que incluía medidas de salud (WHO-DAS-II-12, GHQ-12, SF-12, escalas de soledad y estigma y variables potencialmente mediadoras (apoyo y clima social, y otras. Se compararon mediante regresiones condicionales a la experiencia de violencia colectiva. Resultados: Las víctimas primarias presentan entre cuatro y siete veces un mayor riesgo de padecer peor salud física y emocional, y ocho veces más de sufrir alteraciones funcionales. También perciben una mayor soledad y estigma, y valoran negativamente el apoyo y el clima social. No se observó asociación en los sujetos que declararon exposición a una violencia interpersonal leve. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la violencia colectiva se asocia a una pérdida considerable de salud en las víctimas primarias. Su asociación en la población general requiere una investigación más específica.Objectives: Despite the ubiquity of violence and its possible impact on individual and collective health, the role and causal pathways of this phenomenon as a health determinant have not been widely studied. The present study was conducted between 2005 and 2008 in the Basque Region of Spain and aimed to estimate the health

  20. Characterisation and quantification of trace metal elements in atmospheric deposition and particularities in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees): implementation of road traffic air quality indicators; Caracterisation et quantification des elements traces metalliques dans les depots et les particules atmospheriques de la vallee d'Aspe (Pyrenees): Mise en place d'indicateurs de la qualite de l'air lies au trafic routier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veschambre, S

    2006-04-15

    This study of inputs of trace metal elements (TME) in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees Atlantiques) has two objectives: (1) to define a reference state of metallic contaminants for the monitoring of road traffic emissions since the opening of the Somport tunnel and, (2) to evaluate sources and climatic conditions which contribute to TME inputs in the Aspe valley. To establish air quality indicators, TME (Al, Na, Mg, K, V, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Rb, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Ce, Pb and U) and lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) were determined in the atmospheric receptors (fresh snow, wet deposition, atmospheric particulates and lichen). Sampling and analyses with ultra clean procedures were employed for TME quantification. Variability of atmospheric receptors studied, allows integration on a daily and pluri-annual temporal scale and a spatial scale in the North-South axis of the valley and as a function of the altitude from the road. The Aspe valley presents a level of contamination characteristic of remote European areas and the metallic contaminants identified are Cd, Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb and Sn. In the low valley, air quality indicators indicate contaminant contributions (i) from local emissions of domestic heat sources, from agricultural burning practices and road traffic, and (ii) from regional anthropogenic sources of waste incinerators, metallurgic industries and urban centres. In altitude, the valley is significantly influenced by wind erosion and long range transport of TME in the Northern Hemisphere. Characterisation of TME and the isotopic ratios of Pb in the Somport tunnel indicate (i) a significant emission of Cu, Sb, Zn and Ba and (ii) an isotopic composition from a slightly radiogenic source even though Pb concentrations indicate low emissions from road traffic emissions. Nevertheless, the low traffic volume in the Aspe valley prevents conclusive evidence of significant contamination from road traffic. (author)

  1. Solar forcing, climate dynamics and human activities in Mediterranean Mountains during the last millennium: the Lake Estanya record (Southern Pyrenees, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellon, Mario; Corella, Pablo; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Engstrom, Daniel R.; González-Sampériz, Penélope; López-Vicente, Manuel; Mata, Pilar; Moreno, Ana; Navas, Ana; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Rico, Mayte; Rieradevall, Maria; Romero, Óscar; Rubio, Esther; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    responsible for wet LIA conditions in western Mediterranean regions. In Lake Estanya, periods of rapidly decreasing water level or generally lower water table lie within phases of maximum solar activity: (1) the MCA, (2) 1340-1380 AD; (3) the 1470-1490 AD, (4) ca. 1770 AD, (5) post ca. 1850 AD. Periods of higher lake levels or evidence of increased water balance in the basin occurred during the solar minima of Wolf (1282-1342 AD), (onset of the LIA), Spörer (1460-1550 AD), Maunder (1645-1715 AD) and Dalton (1790-1830 AD). The main environmental stages recorded in Lake Estanya are consistent with results obtained in the nearby Lake Montcortès, the main phases of advance and retreat of Pyrenean mountain glaciers and with dendroclimatic reconstructions carried out in the area. These results are also in phase with most Western Mediterranean continental records, and show similarities with both Central and NE Iberian reconstructions, reflecting a strong common climatic control of both the hydrological and anthropogenic changes (i.e., farming activities) during the last 800 years.

  2. Gendering Citizenship in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona

    The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee p...... policy studies, looking at migration and multiculturalism, the care of young children, and home-based childcare and transnational dynamics.......The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee...

  3. The Shape of a Western

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    The article is written for an issue on the Western genre. By means of a comparative analysis of Winchester '73 (Anthony Mann, 1950) and The Man from Laramie (Anthony Mann, 1955) the article accounts for stylistic, narrative, generic and theoretical implications of the transition from Academy rati...... (1.37: 1) to CinemaScope (2.66, 2.55 og 2.35: 1)....

  4. Devonian tetrapod from western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, G.; Ahlberg, P.E.; Blieck, A.; Blom, H.; Clack, J.A.; Poty, E.; Thorez, J.; Janvier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Several discoveries of Late Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) have been made during the past two decades but each has been confined to one locality. Here we describe a tetrapod jaw of about 365 million years (Myr) old from the Famennian of Belgium, which is the first from western continental Europe. The jaw closely resembles that of Ichthyostega, a Famennian tetrapod hitherto known only from Greenland. The environment of this fossil provides information about the conditions that prevail...

  5. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  6. Women and Islam in the Western Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vintges, K.; Ennaji, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on recent debates on women and Islam as framed in the Western media. The first section discusses the way these debates are organized through the presentations and self-presentations of Muslim women in the Western media. The second section (titled “The Restyling of Western

  7. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1957-01-01

    Severity of 1957 fire weather west of the Cascade Range summit in Oregon and Washington was near the average of the previous 10 years. The season (April 1 through October 31) was slightly more severe than 1956 in western Oregon and about the same as 1956 in western Washington. Spring fire weather was near average severity in both western Washington and western Oregon....

  8. The occupational status of immigrants in Western and non-Western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spörlein, Christoph; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This study examines existing hypotheses on cross-national differences in immigrants' labor market integration. Unlike previous research, which focused on Western countries, we study the occupational status of immigrants in both Western and non-Western countries. We use census data for 45 Western and

  9. Innovation et patrimoine alimentaire en Midi-Pyrénées. Innovation in food heritage in the department of the Midi-Pyrenees: types of innovation and links with territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Tibère

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and cultures are constantly evolving – changing in response to new innovations that are driven by agribusiness players large and small. As the ‘actors of innovation’ these people reinvent their relationship with tradition. This article is based on a study of three rural areas in the department of the Midi-Pyrenees: Southern Aveyron, Pays du Haut Rouergue (North Aveyron and Pays d’Armagnac in the Gers. It highlights three main profiles of innovators in the field of food heritage, each one corresponding to a form of organization that in turn flows from a particular relationship with the territory and its local players. It also highlights the importance of local perceptions and attitudes towards these innovators, demonstrating the pivotal role of local companies in the appropriation of innovative process.Les cultures alimentaires sont évolutives et font l’objet de différentes formes d’innovation. Qu’ils soient artisans, industriels ou institutionnels, reconnus ou plus marginaux, les différents acteurs de la filière agro-alimentaire portent ces mouvements d’innovation, renouvellant ou inversant ainsi leur rapport à la « tradition ». Cette dernière se trouve alors remaniée dans le projet de valorisation. L’étude fait ressortir trois principaux profils d’innovateurs dans le champ de la patrimonialisation alimentaire. Chacun de ces profils correspond à une forme d’organisation, elle-même inscrite dans un rapport particulier au territoire et au système d’acteurs local. Cette typologie souligne par ailleurs l’importance du regard de la population locale sur ces innovateurs ; elle montre le rôle central des sociétés locales dans l’appropriation des processus d’innovation, participant ou non à leur légitimation. Si le processus d’innovation a longtemps été porté par des groupes d’acteurs structurés, reconnus par la société locale, il est également, le fait de petits groupes ou

  10. The Late-Glacial and Holocene Marboré Lake sequence (2612 m a.s.l., Central Pyrenees, Spain): Testing high altitude sites sensitivity to millennial scale vegetation and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunda, Maria; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Gil-Romera, Graciela; Aranbarri, Josu; Moreno, Ana; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the environmental, climate and vegetation changes reconstructed for the last 14.6 kyr cal BP from the Marboré Lake sedimentary sequence, the highest altitude record (2612 m a.s.l.) in the Pyrenees studied up to date. We investigate the sensitivity of this high altitude site to vegetational and climate dynamics and altitudinal shifts during the Holocene by comparing palynological spectra of the fossil sequence and pollen rain content from current moss pollsters. We hypothesize that the input of sediments in lakes at such altitude is strongly controlled by ice phenology (ice-free summer months) and that during cold periods Pollen Accumulation Rate (PAR) and Pollen Concentration (PC) reflect changes in ice-cover and thus is linked to temperature changes. Low sedimentation rates and low PC and PAR occurred during colder periods as the Younger Dryas (GS-1) and the Holocene onset (12.6-10.2 kyr cal BP), suggesting that the lake-surface remained ice-covered for most of the year during these periods. Warmer conditions are not evident until 10.2 kyr cal BP, when an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate, PC and PAR occur, pointing to a delayed onset of the Holocene temperature increase at high altitude. Well-developed pinewoods and deciduous forest dominated the mid montane belt since 9.3 kyr cal BP until mid-Holocene (5.2 kyr cal BP). A downwards shift in the deciduous forest occurred after 5.2 kyr cal BP, in agreement with the aridity trend observed at a regional and Mediterranean context. The increase of herbaceous taxa during the late-Holocene (3.5 kyr cal BP-present) reflects a general trend to reduced montane forest, as anthropogenic disturbances were not evident until 1.3 kyr cal BP when Olea proportions from lowland areas and other anthropogenic indicators clearly expand. Our study demonstrates the need to perform local experimental approaches to check the effect of ice phenology on high altitude lakes sensitivity to vegetation changes to obtain

  11. To what extent can regional grain-size trends be decoded to gain information about tectonic subsidence rates and sediment flux? Case studies from the Eocene Pobla Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duller, R. A.; Whittaker, A. C.; Springett, J.; Smithells, R.; Fedele, J. J.; Whitchurch, A. L.; Allen, P. A.

    2009-04-01

    Regional grain-size trends preserved in sedimentary deposits theoretically embed important information on the dynamics of sediment routing systems and their sensitivity to external forcing mechanisms. In simple terms, downstream sediment fining is driven primarily by selective deposition of sediment, and mediated by abrasion of the clasts during transport. However, the relative efficiency of this process is determined by (1) the physical characteristics of the input sediment supply; (2) the spatial distribution of subsidence rate, which generates the accommodation necessary for sediment preservation; (3) the detailed mechanics of sediment transport and deposition. A key challenge is therefore to determine how these first two factors control the calibre and spatial distribution of deposits over timescales of 104-106 years without incorporating the details of hydraulics and sediment transport which are largely unknowable for time-averaged stratigraphy in the geological past. One method to solve this problem is to assume self similarity between the long-term, longitudinal grain-size distribution of the substrate and the dimensionless relative mobility function for gravel, using only the local mean and standard deviation of grain-sizes in transport as scaling parameters1. In principle, this approach offers a simple means to explore the controls on downstream fining in fluvial deposits, but until now there have been few attempts to test this methodology using fluvial sedimentary successions where we have clear and independently derived constraints on the rates and volumes of sediment deposition through time. We address this challenge using detailed grain-size data from the Eocene Pobla Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, where the timing of sediment deposition is known from palaeomagnetic and palaeontological dating, the system is closed so mass is conserved, and where good exposure enables time-lines within stratigraphy to be picked out unambiguously. For successive stratigraphic

  12. Introduction: Coping With Western Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Drought adaptation is not just a matter of hydrology and technology. It is at least as much about the way we govern.  As John Wesley Powell and others explored and surveyed the territory west of the 100th meridian, they observed that it was distinctive in its aridity and topography. From a water perspective, it might have been better had western state boundaries conformed more closely to the contours of rivers and groundwater basins. Perhaps then the West could have avoided such bitter inters...

  13. Programa de cribado de VIH/sida en las oficinas de farmacia en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco HIV/AIDS screening program in community pharmacies in the Basque Country (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Gorostiza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los resultados de un programa piloto de cribado rápido del VIH en farmacias del País Vasco, las características sociodemográficas y el grado de aceptación. Métodos: Encuesta a usuarios del test rápido de detección del VIH en 20 farmacias durante el primer año. Muestra aleatoria simple de 3514 pruebas (n = 820. Análisis mediante métodos exactos. Resultados: 806 encuestas válidas, el test resultó positivo en siete ocasiones (0,85%; intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,34 a 1,75; cinco hombres. Edad media de 36,2 años (desviación estándar = 11,0, intervalo de 16 a 82 años, 70,7% hombres. Las prácticas de riesgo más frecuentes fueron heterosexuales y el 58,6% era la primera vez que se sometía a una prueba del VIH. La rapidez, la comodidad y la accesibilidad se valoran por la mitad de los usuarios como un motivo importante para realizarse el test en una farmacia. Conclusión: El cribado con la prueba rápida del VIH en las farmacias podría ser un complemento eficaz al resto de los sistemas de detección de VIH/sida implantados.Objectives: To describe the outcomes of the pilot program of a rapid HIV antibody screening test offered at Basque pharmacies, the socio-demographic characteristics of users and their acceptance of the test. Methods: Users of a rapid HIV antibody screening test (20 pharmacies were surveyed. A random sample of 3514 tests (N = 806 performed in 1 year was taken. Statistical analyses included exact tests. Results: There were 806 valid questionnaires. Seven tests were positive (0.85%; 95% confidence interval: 0.34-1.75; five of the users with positive tests were men. The mean age was 36.2 years (standard deviation = 11.0; range: 16-82 years; 70.7% men. Users´ risk behavior was predominantly heterosexual and half of the users (58.6% had no previous HIV tests. The main reasons for choosing this test were its speed, and the convenience and accessibility of community pharmacies. Conclusions: This

  14. Uso estratégico del espacio en categorías de formación de pelota vasca. [Strategic use of space in basque pelota training categories].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oidui Usabiaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La pelota vasca es un deporte de pelota compuesto por varias especialidades. La pelota a mano es una de las más practicadas y se juega tanto en duelos individuales como por equipos. El presente estudio pretende analizar y comparar algunos indicadores de juego del uso estratégico del espacio por parte de jugadores benjamines (8-10 años y alevines (10-12 años que participan en un programa de deporte escolar. La muestra estuvo compuesta por doce partidos, seis de benjamines (30 participantes y seis de alevines (30 participantes. El registro se llevó a cabo mediante un instrumento observacional ad hoc diseñado para analizar el uso estratégico del espacio por parte de los participantes, tanto cuando golpean la pelota como cuando están en situación de espera. Los resultados muestran que los participantes de las dos categorías usan el espacio de la misma forma respecto a las zonas de golpe, la ubicación espacial en situación de espera durante los duelos por parejas y los tipos de saque. Los alevines, en comparación a los benjamines, se posicionan más a la derecha del jugador que golpea durante los duelos individuales, dirigen la pelota a distancias medias y cometen menos faltas tanto en el resto del saque como en el juego de intercambio, dando mayor continuidad al juego (p Abstract The basque pelota is a ball sport composed of various specialties. The hand pelota is one of the most popular and is played in both individual and team matchups. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare some indicators of the strategic use of space by young players, 8-10- and 10-12-year-old students, participating in a school sport program. The sample consisted of twelve games, six for each level (30 participants for each level. Data were recorded with an ad hoc observational instrument designed to analyze the strategic use of space by the participants, both when they hit the ball and when they are on standby. The results show that the participants of

  15. Going under the radar in Western Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alice

    2016-01-01

    At the level of formal attempts at conflict resolution, the Western Sahara conflict has been locked in a political stalemate for years. One consequence is that the people of Western Sahara are often overlooked in their own conflict – despite the fact that the very case for decolonization in Western Sahara hinges upon the right of the people of the territory to self-determination. This essay examines how, despite the ongoing formal stalemate, under the radar of formal politics in recent years ...

  16. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... and range on the basis of the present material, due to too few and incomparable surveys. Only the Brünnich's guillemot is adequately studied to make conclusions on population trends (Kampp et al. 1994). However, our impressions of trends are given in Tab. 5. Species with decreasing populations are common...... eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...

  17. Chinese Managerial Culture Versus Western Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Renand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As China is believed to be the market of the twenty-first century, entering China is not an option but a strategic requirement for many organizations. However, numerous Western managers who are well equipped with technical background know almost nothing about the pioneers who are reshaping the world's second largest economy. Consequently, this cross-sectional analysis explores the managerial implication of the Chinese dialectic logic vs. Western formal logic, particularistic Chinese culture vs. universalistic Western culture. Then it investigates the Chinese socialization vs. Western technical expertise and completes the analysis on the Chinese vs. American pattern of management development including a comparison of their respective MBA.

  18. Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles (Actinemys marmorata) in Western Oregon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel K. Rosenberg; Roberta Swift

    2013-01-01

    .... We investigated post-emergence movements and habitat associations of western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) at two study sites in western Oregon using micro-transmitters and harmonic radar methods...

  19. Forest fire weather and computed fire occurrence in western Oregon and western Washington in 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1960-01-01

    Fire season severity in 1960 was about average in western Washington but was very high in western Oregon. Severity of the entire season in both States was slightly greater than in 1959. Although spring was less severe, both summer and fall were slightly more severe than comparable parts of the previous fire season. Spring fire danger in western Washington was as low as...

  20. Integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Compared to a regular treatment with western medicine alone, the therapeutic approach that utilizes integration of Chinese with western medicine can effectively improve the clinical efficacy and serum hormone levels in patients with menopausal syndrome. However, the evidence was not very strong due to the ...

  1. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  2. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  3. Crossing the western pines at Placerville, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; S. L. Krugman

    1967-01-01

    The results of hybridizing the western pine species by the Institute of Forest Genetics are described and discussed. It has been found that the hard, (yellow) pines can generally be crossed successfully only with similar species native to the same part of the world. In contrast, the soft (white) pines of the Western Hemisphere have been crossed successfully with soft...

  4. Management strategies for sustainable western water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyler; Sudeep Chandra; Gordon Grant

    2017-01-01

    With the effects of the dramatic western US drought still reverberating through the landscape, researchers gathered in advance of the 20th annual Lake Tahoe Summit to discuss western US water issues in the 21st century. This two-day workshop brought together ~40 researchers from universities and agencies (federal and state) to discuss the prospects that...

  5. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) provides an avenue for the wide dissemination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, ...

  6. 108 WESTERN INFLUENCE ON CHINESE AND NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    American style skyscrapers with western modern architecture which signifies that they have followed the trend of modernity. Today, many cities in China could boast of city skyline with modern designs for comfort. b) Chinese Weddings: Many Chinese have adopted the western form of white wedding ceremony. They see the.

  7. Basic Western Lviv Region Conversational Ukrainian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the first complete Guide for studying the Western-Ukrainian Dialect and its scientific description of Phonology. Methodology: descriptive, contrastive and analytical methods of defining the peculiarities of the Dialect. Results: the regularities and the laws have been defined as to the specifics of the Western-Ukrainian Dialect…

  8. Ancient Israel in Western Civ Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Jack

    2001-01-01

    The author frequently teaches introductory courses in what was once generally called "Western Civilization" and has often been called upon to referee all or parts of the manuscripts of new editions of "Western Civ" textbooks. Through his own reading, he has become aware that much current scholarship on ancient Israel and Judah…

  9. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  10. Aproximación a la Violencia Política en el País Vasco y Perspectivas de una Justicia Restaurativa para Euskadi (Approaching Political Violence in the Basque Country and Perspective of a Restorative Justice in Euskadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Bullain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work has two objectives. One is to offer an explanation on the political violence that the Basque Country has suffer and experienced during almost 50 years through the study of the so-called Basque National Liberation Movement. The other aim is to reflect on the difficulties to develop Restorative Justice after the end of ETA. This article is in big debt with a former work of the author: “Revolucionarismo Patriótico” (Tecnos 2011 where the origin, ideology, strategy and organization of the BNLM are analyzed. A group based on the ideology of revolutionary patriotism, which has evolved a politico-military strategy and organized itself through dozens of different associations into a national liberation movement. This article adds an extensive bibliography on political violence. Este trabajo tiene un doble objetivo. De un lado ofrecer una explicación a la violencia política que el País Vasco ha padecido durante cerca de 50 años a través del estudio del denominado Movimiento de Liberación Nacional Vasco. Por otra parte, reflexionar sobre las dificultades para desarrollar una justicia restaurativa tras el final de ETA. El artículo es deudor de una obra anterior del autor: “Revolucionarismo Patriótico” (Tecnos 2011 donde se analiza el origen, ideología, estrategia y organización del MLNV. Un grupo de ideología patriótico-revolucionaria que ha desarrollado una estrategia político-militar y se ha organizado a través de decenas de grupos en forma de movimiento de liberación nacional. Este artículo incorpora una extensa bibliografía sobre violencia política.

  11. The transfer of nationalist contents in the family context (Basque Country, 1940-1970 La transmisión de contenidos nacionalistas en el contexto familiar (País Vasco, 1940-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, and through the use of life-histories, we come across the role played by nationalist women from the Association of Basque Patriots (EAB in the conservation and reproduction of nationalist and gender discourses up to the Civil War, as well as their practices in public or family spaces during the postwar period. Even though the work is still being carried out, we can already put forward that, despite the situation of clandestinity in the postwar period, we notice: a A retreat of all nationalist socializing activity towards domestic spaces within the Peninsula whereas in the diaspora more articulated and public activities are maintained, b The role of women as socializing agents expands to other feminine agents (mothers, aunts, grandmothers... due to the situation of exile or repression, c Informal spaces proliferate (stories, tales, songs, dances... so shifting from the domestic ambit to non-formal practices or to formal ones within the frame of the community (folklore or cultural gropus, home schools... d These practices are neither homogeneous nor articulated or highly valued, but they are intentional enough as to provide a context to the appearance of nationalist ideologies and practices in the 60s.En este trabajo recogemos, a través de historias de vida, el papel jugado por mujeres nacionalistas de la Asociación de Patriotas Vascas (EAB en la conservación y reproducción de los discursos nacionalistas y de género hasta la Guerra Civil, así como sus prácticas en espacios públicos o familiares durante la postguerra. Aunque el trabajo está en fase de realización, ya podemos adelantar que, a pesar de la situación de clandestinidad de postguerra, observamos: a Un repliegue de toda actividad socializadora nacionalista hacia espacios domésticos en el ámbito peninsular, manteniéndose en la diaspora actividades más articuladas y públicas, b El rol de la mujer, como agente socializado^ se extiende a otros agentes femeninos

  12. Talipes equinovarus in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mary; Bower, Caroline; Mylvaganam, Arul; Rouse, Ian

    2003-04-01

    In Western Australia (WA), talipes equinovarus is a notifiable birth defect and, since 1980, has been ascertained by the population-based Birth Defects Registry (BDR). Talipes equinovarus deformities were classified as two distinct and distinguishable types, viz. isolated talipes equinovarus (no other birth defects present) and associated talipes equinovarus (other birth defects present). The birth prevalence of associated talipes in WA between 1980 and 1994 was 0.90 per 1000 births, and of isolated talipes was 1.25 per 1000 births. The rate of the isolated deformity was higher in Aboriginal infants (3.49 per 1000 births) than in Caucasian infants (1.11 per 1000 births) and non-Aboriginal non-Caucasian infants (0.73 per 1000 births). The sex differential in the rate of the isolated deformity was greatest among Aboriginal infants, with the rate in males being almost four times that in females. The birth prevalence of both types of the deformity remained stable over the 15-year study period. The rate of caesarean and breech deliveries and the proportion of bilaterally affected feet was greater among infants with associated talipes equinovarus deformity. An accurate and complete identification of cases of isolated talipes equinovarus in the 1980-94 WA birth cohort provides a basis for furthering the understanding of the epidemiology and hence the aetiology of the deformity.

  13. Western water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-01-01

    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northernmost West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent.

  14. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  15. Schistosoma bovis in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J R; Lockyer, A E; Kabatereine, N B; Tukahebwa, E M; Kazibwe, F; Rollinson, D; Fenwick, A

    2004-09-01

    During routine parasitological surveillance and monitoring activities within a National Control Programme for control of human schistosomiasis in Uganda, it was noted that cattle grazing in a water meadow immediately adjacent to Tonya primary school, where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in children was in excess of 90%, were unusually emaciated. To test the hypothesis that there may have been an anthropozoonotic focus of Schistosoma mansoni within the local herd, a young female heifer, clearly emaciated and c. 8 months old, was slaughtered from which schistosome worms were later recovered by dissection. As female worms inspected by microscopy were not gravid, morphological identification proved inconclusive but analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences from these worms identified them as Schistosoma bovis Sonsino, 1876. This is the first substantiated report of S. bovis from Lake Albert, western Uganda. Further epidemiological surveys are needed to clarify the extent of bovine schistosomiasis within this region, particularly so since this lakeside plain has been earmarked as a future game reserve.

  16. Discourse Measures for Basque Summary Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipitria, I.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of Learning Technologies, the need to be able to assess the learning and domain comprehension in open-ended learner responses has been present in artificial intelligence and education since its beginnings. The advantage of using summaries is that they allow teachers to diagnose comprehension and the amount of information remembered…

  17. The geology of the Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The present memoir is the final report of a geological mapping project which has been executed by staff and students of the Department of Structural Geology of the Geological Institute of Leiden University. The project was initiated by professor Dr. L.U. de Sitter, to whom this memoir is dedicated.

  18. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  19. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We......-CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......, making it a valuable tool for clinical epidemiological research....

  20. Western blot: technique, theory, and trouble shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tahrin; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-01

    Western blotting is an important technique used in cell and molecular biology. By using a western blot, researchers are able to identify specific proteins from a complex mixture of proteins extracted from cells. The technique uses three elements to accomplish this task: (1) separation by size, (2) transfer to a solid support, and (3) marking target protein using a proper primary and secondary antibody to visualize. This paper will attempt to explain the technique and theory behind western blot, and offer some ways to troubleshoot.

  1. Western water and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northern-most West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent. In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that climate change may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than climate-change-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how climate-change-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits due to warming air temperatures, rising irrigation demands, and warming waters in a basin already hobbled by tensions between endangered fisheries

  2. Western Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...

  3. Western Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biolog