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Sample records for western mediterranean populations

  1. Seasonal population dynamics of Zeuxapta seriolae (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) parasitising Seriola dumerili (Carangidae) in the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Repulles-Albelda, A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Raga, J. A.; Montero, F. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 193, 1-3 (2013), s. 163-171 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zeuxapta seriolae * Seriola dumerili * Monogenea * Population dynamics * Western Mediterranean Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  2. Genetic sub-structure in western Mediterranean populations revealed by 12 Y-chromosome STR loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, V; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sánchez, J J

    2008-01-01

    Haplotype and allele frequencies of 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 a/b, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) included in the Powerplex(R) Y System were determined in seven western Mediterranean populations from Valencia, Ma...

  3. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

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    Annamaria Marra

    Full Text Available Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be

  4. Population dynamics and fishery of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western Mediterranean

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    Jordi Lleonart

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus fishery based on the island of Majorca (western Mediterranean and the population dynamics of the species were studied between 1995 and 1996. Fishing effort, landings and length composition of the catches during the sampling period, as well as the historic catch data series and fleet were analysed. Virtual Population Analysis (VPA, taking as the time unit the week in 1995 and the fortnight in 1996, were also carried out. Dolphinfish is fished from August to December, with main catches in September-October, using anchored fish aggregation devices (FADs and surrounding net. The mooring areas, placed from 70 to 1200 m depth, are distributed among the boats registered for the year´s fishery. A total of 46 boats took part in this fishery in 1995 and 37 in 1996, with a catch of 128 and 52 metric tons respectively. These wide fluctuations are also shown in the annual catches of the 16year series, which ranged from 2 to more than 120 metric tons, showing a slightly increasing trend (4 tons per year. The comparison of different measures of effort (FADs, days and hours showed similar values of CPUE, although the number of FADs showed the lowest variation, with normal variances and average values not significantly different between harbours. The length composition of the catches ranged from 20 to 64 cm fork length, which corresponds to juveniles between 2 and 6 months of age. The main results of the VPA, which must be regarded in relative rather than absolute values, showed that the available population and the recruitment in 1995 are greater (around one order of magnitude than in 1996. For both years, the number of individuals declined in the course of the fishing season, while biomass increased during the first 5 weeks. The fact that the exploited fraction of the dolphinfish population is composed of 0-age class suggests that catch fluctuations might be related to environmental parameters and to the migratory

  5. Recruiting at the Edge: Kinetic Energy Inhibits Anchovy Populations in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier; Macías, Diego; Rincón, Margarita M.; Pascual, Ananda; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Navarro, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar replenishes the Mediterranean with Atlantic waters through an intense eastward current known as the Atlantic Jet (AJ). The AJ fertilizes the southwestern Mediterranean and is considered to be the ultimate factor responsible for the comparatively high fish production of this region. Here, we perform an analysis of the available historical catches and catch per unit effort (CPUE), together with a long series of surface currents, kinetic energy and chlorophyll concentration. We show that the high kinetic energy of the AJ increases primary production but also negatively impacts the recruitment of anchovy. We contend that anchovy recruitment in the region is inhibited by the advection and dispersion of larvae and post-larvae during periods of strong advection by the AJ. The inhibitory impact of kinetic energy on anchovy landings is not a transient but rather a persistent state of the system. An exceptional combination of events creates an outbreak of this species in the Alboran Sea. These events depend on the Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange of water masses and, therefore, are highly sensitive to climate changes that are projected, though not always negatively, for fish landings. PMID:23451027

  6. Population Structure and Growth of the Threatened Pen Shell, Pinna rudis (Linnaeus, 1758 in a Western Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

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    E. NEBOT COLOMER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are being extensively degraded by human activities. Benthic, slow-growing and long-lived species are highly vulnerable to these impacts. Marine protected areas might avoid biodiversity losses through habitat protection. The pen shell Pinna rudis is a protected species, but scarce data are available on its ecology and biology. The present study is a comprehensive ecological study encompassing several unknown aspects of the growth and inner record in relation to habitat types, density and size distribution. A total of 418 strip transects were conducted by scuba diving in the Marine Protected Area of Cabrera National Park (39.14° N, 2.96° E, during the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Sampling was conducted across different habitats and depths exploring 152,146.35 m2 in total. Densities varied spatially within the park (from 0 to 6.89 ind./100 m2 corresponding to a wide range of sizes and ages. Most pen shells were patchily distributed and mainly concentrated in caves. Two hotspots with high densities represent the highest densities ever recorded worldwide, showing a possible link to high larval accumulation and settlement. The population size structure showed a unimodal distribution with shell width ranging from 6.2 to 25.0 cm, with an average shell width of 16.0 ± 3.4 cm. The absolute growth was asymptotic, with a maximum age and length of 28-31 years and 45 cm, respectively. This study on the biology and ecology of a well-established population of Pinna rudis in the Western Mediterranean could set a baseline for the conservation of this species in other areas.

  7. First record and evidence of an established population of the North American mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Brachyura: Heterotremata: Panopeidae in the western Mediterranean

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    Christoph D. Schubart

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The panopeid crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Smith, 1869 is reported here from the Ebro Delta (Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Originally endemic to the Atlantic coast of North America, D. sayiz was involuntarily introduced into Britain, France and the Netherlands, and into the Adriatic and Black Sea within the last thirty years. Here we provide the first record of this species from the western Mediterranean Sea. Occurrences of ovigerous females at different localities of the delta and in different years provide evidence that the population is well established. Mitochondrial DNA confirms the identity of the species and indicates that the introduced population consists of at least three female lineages. The first zoeal stage of D. sayi was obtained in the laboratory from an ovigerous female captured in August 2010 with embryos in an advanced stage of development. The morphology of the zoea I is described here in detail and is similar to the one previously reported for native populations.

  8. Ozone climatology over western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibiri, G.; Randaccio, P.; Serra, A.; Sollai, A.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary climatology of atmospheric ozone over Western Mediterranean Sea is given by analysis of the upper observations of O 3 carried out at Cagliari-Elmas station from 1968 to 1976. Some peculiarities are here illustrated and discussed

  9. Genetic differentiation among Parastichopus regalis populations from Western Mediterranean Sea: potential effects of its fishery and current connectivity.

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    C. MAGGI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parastichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817 is the most expensive seafood product on the catalonian market (NE Spain, with prices around 130 €/Kg (fresh weight. Despite its ecological and economic importance, biological and genetic information on this sea cucumber species is scarce. We provided the first insight on the genetic structure of P. regalis using sequences of cytochrome oxidase I (COI and 16S genes, as well as a morphological description of its populations. Individuals were collected in six locations along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including an area under fishery pressure (Catalonia. We found high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity for both genes, with higher levels of genetic diversity observed on COI gene. Population pairwise fixation index (FST, AMOVA and correspondence analysis (CA based on COI, revealed significant genetic differentiation among some locations. However, further analysis using nuclear markers (e.g. microsatellites would be necessary to corroborate these results. Moreover, the genetic and morphological data may indicate fishery effects on the Catalonian population with decrease of the size and weight average and lower genetic diversity compared to locations without fishery pressure. For an appropriate management of this species, we suggest: 1 an accurate assessment of the stocks status along the Spanish coasts; 2 the study of the reproductive cycle of this target species and the establishment of a closed fishery season according to it; 3 the founding of protected areas (i.e. not take zones to conserve healthy populations and favour the recruitment on the nearby areas.

  10. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  11. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  12. Short spatio-temporal variations in the population dynamics and biology of the deep-water rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Decapoda: Crustacea in the western Mediterranean

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    Beatriz Guijarro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The deep-water rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris is a demersal decapod crustacean that is commercially exploited by trawl fleets. The present work compares its population dynamics, biology and condition in two locations (southern and north-western Mallorca in the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean, separated by a distance of 120 km with different environmental conditions and explores the relationships between the species and certain environmental factors. Six multidisciplinary bimonthly surveys were carried out during 2003 and 2004 in these two locations (between 150 and 750 m depth in order to collect data on the demersal species with bottom trawl, the hydrography (temperature and salinity with CTD casts, and trophic resources (zooplankton in the water column and suprabenthos with Bongo net and Macer-GIROQ sledge respectively and sediments with a Shipeck dredge. The trawl fleets from both locations were monitored by monthly on board sampling and daily landings obtained from sales bills. Additional data was obtained from other trawl surveys. Temporal differences were detected both annually, with a decreasing trend over the last years in species abundance, and seasonally, in the biological indexes analysed. Bathymetric differences were also found in abundance, mean length, sex-ratio and condition of females. There were clear differences between the two locations studied, with higher abundance, condition and mean length and a lower length at first maturity for females in the north-western location. Trophic conditions could act as a link between geo-physical and biological changes. These short spatio-temporal differences could be due to the higher productivity found at this location, with higher density of preferred prey for the studied species together with adequate seafloor topography, sediment composition and hydrographical characteristics.

  13. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

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    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  14. Geochemistry of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean

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    Pey, J.; Pérez, N.; Castillo, S.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Pandolfi, M.; López-Sebastián, J. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2009-11-01

    The chemical composition of regional background aerosols, and the time variability and sources in the Western Mediterranean are interpreted in this study. To this end 2002-2007 PM speciation data from an European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, MSY, located 40 km NNE of Barcelona in NE Spain) were evaluated, with these data being considered representative of regional background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean Basin. The mean PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 levels at MSY during 2002-2007 were 16, 14 and 11 µg/m 3, respectively. After compiling data on regional background PM speciation from Europe to compare our data, it is evidenced that the Western Mediterranean aerosol is characterised by higher concentrations of crustal material but lower levels of OM + EC and ammonium nitrate than at central European sites. Relatively high PM 2.5 concentrations due to the transport of anthropogenic aerosols (mostly carbonaceous and sulphate) from populated coastal areas were recorded, especially during winter anticyclonic episodes and summer midday PM highs (the latter associated with the transport of the breeze and the expansion of the mixing layer). Source apportionment analyses indicated that the major contributors to PM 2.5 and PM 10 were secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate and crustal material, whereas the higher load of the anthropogenic component in PM 2.5 reflects the influence of regional (traffic and industrial) emissions. Levels of mineral, sulphate, sea spray and carbonaceous aerosols were higher in summer, whereas nitrate levels and Cl/Na were higher in winter. A considerably high OC/EC ratio (14 in summer, 10 in winter) was detected, which could be due to a combination of high biogenic emissions of secondary organic aerosol, SOA precursors, ozone levels and insolation, and intensive recirculation of aged air masses. Compared with more locally derived crustal geological dusts, African dust intrusions introduce relatively quartz-poor but clay

  15. Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Albères coast (France, North-western Mediterranean).

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    Thibaut, Thierry; Pinedo, Susana; Torras, Xavier; Ballesteros, Enric

    2005-12-01

    Only five of fourteen species of Fucales reported at the end of the XIXth century are currently present in the Albères Coast (France, NW Mediterranean). According to historical data there has been a steady decrease of all the populations since the 1940s. Seven taxa now extinct (Cystoseira crinita, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa, Cystoseira spinosa, Cystoseira spinosa var. compressa, Sargassum hornschuchii and Sargassum vulgare) were considered frequent and some of them were the dominant and engineering species in several phytobenthic assemblages. Moreover, only one of the five species left, shows no signs of regression (Cystoseira compressa), two are considered as rare (Cystoseira caespitosa, Cystoseira zosteroides), and one is very rare (Cystoseira elegans). Cystoseira mediterranea, a species that was reported to make a continuous belt along the shores of the Albères coast, has almost disappeared from some areas. Overgrazing by sea urchins, outcompetition by mussels, habitat destruction, scientific research sampling and, probably, human trampling and chemical pollution are to be blamed for the decline of populations thriving in shallow waters. Deep-water species have been affected by an increase in water turbidity and, probably, chemical pollution and direct plant destruction attributed to net fishing. If degradation of the environmental conditions continues, the remaining Cystoseira species will face a most unwelcome prospect. Even after the removal of the causes that led to its die-off, natural restoration of extinct species seems not to be possible because the decline has also affected populations from nearby areas and zygotes are unable to disperse over long distances. Urgent management actions have to be designed in order to improve the current situation of the populations of Fucales in the Albères coast.

  16. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  17. Elasmobranch spatial segregation in the western Mediterranean

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    Adam Gouraguine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. This study focuses on the depth related trends and the geographic patterns that shape the community of the elasmobranch species in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea using data collected from 2001 to 2009. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS ordination was used to detect zonation patterns in the community. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs were applied to analyse spatial and temporal variation in elasmobranch community descriptors (abundance, biomass, mean fish weight, number of species and diversity, as well as the abundance and mean length of the four individual species (S. canicula, G. melastomus, R. clavata, R. miraletus. Depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, and the MDS analysis identified four main groups with 60% of the similarity found to correspond to the continental shelf, shelf break, upper slope and middle slope of the surveyed area. GAM analysis identified spatial patterns that were independent of the bathymetric distribution preference. Although depth was a strong predictor for all the analyses performed, the geographic variation in the elasmobranch abundance was also important. The results also show a reduction in the mean length of the elasmobranch species in the areas with high fishing intensity. Our study evidences a clear spatial segregation of the main species throughout the ontogeny because the geographic and bathymetric effects were highly size dependent, with clear differences between the bathymetric distributions of juveniles and adults but no clear spatial overlapping. This study sheds new light on the spatial distribution of the elasmobranch species off the Balearic Islands, which is essential information for protecting marine organisms along with their habitats and promoting ecosystem based management.

  18. Risk and resilience in the late glacial: A case study from the western Mediterranean

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    Barton, C. Michael; Aura Tortosa, J. Emili; Garcia-Puchol, Oreto; Riel-Salvatore, Julien G.; Gauthier, Nicolas; Vadillo Conesa, Margarita; Pothier Bouchard, Geneviève

    2018-03-01

    The period spanning the Last Glacial Maximum through early Holocene encompasses dramatic and rapid environmental changes that offered both increased risk and new opportunities to human populations of the Mediterranean zone. The regional effects of global climate change varied spatially with latitude, topography, and distance from a shifting coastline; and human adaptations to these changes played out at these regional scales. To better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of climate change and human social-ecological-technological systems (or SETS) during the transition from full glacial to interglacial, we carried out a meta-analysis of archaeological and paleoenvironmental datasets across the western Mediterranean region. We compiled information on prehistoric technology, land-use, and hunting strategies from 291 archaeological assemblages, recovered from 122 sites extending from southern Spain, through Mediterranean France, to northern and peninsular Italy, as well as 2,386 radiocarbon dates from across this region. We combine these data on human ecological dynamics with paleoenvironmental information derived from global climate models, proxy data, and estimates of coastlines modeled from sea level estimates and digital terrain. The LGM represents an ecologically predictable period for over much of the western Mediterranean, while the remainder of the Pleistocene was increasingly unpredictable, making it a period of increased ecological risk for hunter-gatherers. In response to increasing spatial and temporal uncertainty, hunter-gatherers reorganized different constituents of their SETS, allowing regional populations to adapt to these conditions up to a point. Beyond this threshold, rapid environmental change resulted in significant demographic change in Mediterranean hunter-gatherer populations.

  19. Pattern of seismic deformation in the Western Mediterranean

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    S. Pondrelli

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic deformation of the Western Mediterranean was studied with the aim of defining the strain pattern that characterizes the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary in this area. Within different sections along the boundary the cumulative moment tensor was computed over 90 years of seismological data. The results were compared with NUVELlA plate motion model and geodetic data. A stable agreement was found along Northern Africa to Sicily, where only Africa and Eurasia plates are involved. In this zone it is evident that changes in the strike of the boundary correspond to variations in the prevailing geometry of deformation, tectonic features and in the percentage of seismic with respect to total expected deformation. The geometry of deformation of periadriatic sections (Central to Southern Apennines, Eastern Alps and the Eastern Adriatic area agrees well with VLBI measurements and with regional geological features. Seismicity seems to account for low rates, from 3% to 31%, of total expected deformation. Only in the Sicily Strait, characterized by extensional to strike slip deformation, does the ratio reach a higher value (79%. If the amount of deformation deduced from seismicity seems low, because 90 years are probably not representative of the recurrence seismic cycle of the Western Mediterranean, the strain pattern we obtain from cumulative moment tensors is more representative of the kinematics of this area than global plate motion models and better identifies lower scale geodynamic features.

  20. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

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    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but als...

  1. Spatially Explicit Modeling Reveals Cephalopod Distributions Match Contrasting Trophic Pathways in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

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    Patricia Puerta

    Full Text Available Populations of the same species can experience different responses to the environment throughout their distributional range as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in habitat conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the processes governing species distribution at local scales. However, research on species distribution often averages environmental covariates across large geographic areas, missing variability in population-environment interactions within geographically distinct regions. We used spatially explicit models to identify interactions between species and environmental, including chlorophyll a (Chla and sea surface temperature (SST, and trophic (prey density conditions, along with processes governing the distribution of two cephalopods with contrasting life-histories (octopus and squid across the western Mediterranean Sea. This approach is relevant for cephalopods, since their population dynamics are especially sensitive to variations in habitat conditions and rarely stable in abundance and location. The regional distributions of the two cephalopod species matched two different trophic pathways present in the western Mediterranean Sea, associated with the Gulf of Lion upwelling and the Ebro river discharges respectively. The effects of the studied environmental and trophic conditions were spatially variant in both species, with usually stronger effects along their distributional boundaries. We identify areas where prey availability limited the abundance of cephalopod populations as well as contrasting effects of temperature in the warmest regions. Despite distributional patterns matching productive areas, a general negative effect of Chla on cephalopod densities suggests that competition pressure is common in the study area. Additionally, results highlight the importance of trophic interactions, beyond other common environmental factors, in shaping the distribution of cephalopod populations. Our study presents

  2. Deep and intermediate mediterranean water in the western Alboran Sea

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    Parrilla, Gregorio; Kinder, Thomas H.; Preller, Ruth H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrographic and current meter data, obtained during June to October 1982, and numerical model experiments are used to study the distribution and flow of Mediterranean waters in the western Alboran Sea. The Intermediate Water is more pronounced in the northern three-fourths of the sea, but its distribution is patchy as manifested by variability of the temperature and salinity maxima at scales ≤10 km. Current meters in the lower Intermediate Water showed mean flow toward the Strait at 2 cm s -1. A reversal of this flow lasted about 2 weeks. A rough estimate of the mean westward Intermediate Water transport was 0.4 × 10 6 m 3 s -1, about one-third of the total outflow, so that the best estimates of the contributions of traditionally defined Intermediate Water and Deep Water account for only about one-half of the total outflow. The Deep Water was uplifted against the southern continental slope from Alboran Island (3°W) to the Strait. There was also a similar but much weaker banking against the Spanish slope, but a deep current record showed that the eastward recirculation implied by this banking is probably intermittent. Two-layer numerical model experiments simulated the Intermediate Water flow with a flat bottom and the Deep Water with realistic bottom topography. Both experiments replicated the major circulation features, and the Intermediate Water flow was concentrated in the north because of rotation and the Deep Water flow in the south because of topographic control.

  3. Tsunami deposits in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and implications for hazard assessment.

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    Paris, Raphael; Wassmer, Patrick; Roger, Jean; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Significant earthquakes occur along the north Algerian and Carboneras faults (e.g. Djijelli 1865, Zemmouri 2003) and they may generate tsunamis in the western Mediterranean Basin and Alboran Sea, where tsunami hazard are poorly documented. The coast of southern Spain and Balearic Islands are densely populated, with touristic areas and important harbors. The 2003 event generated a small tsunami in the Balearic Islands (ships were moved by oscillations during more than 2 hours in some harbors). Reicherter et al. (2009) found evidences of two past tsunamis in lagoon of the Cabo de Gata (near Almeria), which they ascribed to the 1522 earthquake and an earlier event (islands revealed few evidences of past tsunamis. Thin sandy layers with marine bioclasts, possibly deposited by tsunamis, were found in three areas at altitudes always lower than 2m. Boulder clusters were found along the southern coast of Mallorca, but they could have been deposited by storms as well. These investigations are realized in the framework of the MAREMOTI project, funded by the French ANR and leaded by the CEA - DASE. Reicherter, K., Becker-Heidmann, P., 2009. Tsunami deposits in the western Mediterranean: remains of the 1522 Almeria earthquake? Geological Society Special Publications, London, 316, 217-235.

  4. Tritium in the western Mediterranean Sea during 1981 Phycemed cruise

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    Andrie, Chantal; Merlivat, Liliane

    1988-02-01

    We report on simultaneous hydrological and tritium data taken in the western Mediterranean Sea during April 1981 and which implement our knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of the convection process occurring in the Northern Basin (Gulf of Lion, Ligurian Sea). The renewal time of the deep waters in the Medoc area is calculated to be 11 ± 2 years using a box-model assymption. An important local phenomenon of "cascading" off the Ebro River near the Spanish coast is, noticeable by the use of tritium data. In the Sardinia Straits area tritium data indicate very active mixing between 100 and 500 m depth. The tritium subsurface maxima in Sardinia Straits suggests the influence of not only the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) but also an important shallower component. In waters deeper than 500m, an active mixing occurs between the deep water and the LIW via an intermediate water mass from the Tyrrhenian Sea by "salt-fingering". Assuming a two end-member mixing. We determine the deep tritium content in the Sardinia Channel to be 1.8 TU. For comparison, the deep tritium content of the Northern Basin is equal to 1.3 TU. Tritium data relative to the Alboran Sea show that a layer of high tritium content persists all along its path from Sardifia to Gibraltar on a density surface shallower than the intermediate water. The homogeneity of the deep tritium concentrations between 1200 m depth and the bottom corroborate the upward "pumping" and westward circulation of deep waters along the continental slope of the North African Shelf. From the data measured in the Sardinia Straits and in the Alboran Sea, and upper limit of the deep advection rate of the order of 0.5 cm s-1 is estimated.

  5. Variability of Mediterranean aerosols properties at three regional background sites in the western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël.; Totems, Julien; Barragan, Rubén.; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Augustin, Patrick; Chazette, Patrick; Léon, Jean-François; Olmo-Reyes, Francisco José; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2014-10-01

    In the framework of the project ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the variability of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is examined in three regional background sites on a southwest - northeast (SW-NE) straight line in the middle of the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The three sites are on the northward transport pathway of African dust: - Ersa, Corsica Island, France (43.00ºN, 9.36ºW, 80 m a.s.l), - Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca Island, Spain (39.55ºN, 2.62ºE, 10 m a.s.l) and - Alborán, Alboran Island, Spain (35.94ºN, 3.04ºW, 15 m a.s.l). AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun-photometer products are mainly used. A preliminary analysis shows that at Ersa and Palma sites the annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) has a similar trend with a peak around 0.2 in July. The winter/spring AOD is lower in Palma than in Ersa, while it is reverse in summer/autumn. The aerosol particle size distribution (and the coarse mode fraction) shows clearly the SW-NE gradient with a decreasing coarse mode peak (and a decreasing coarse mode fraction from 0.5 - 0.35 - 0.2 in July) along the axis Alborán - Palma de Mallorca - Ersa. In addition to the seasonal and annual variability analysis, the analysis of AERONET products is completed with a large variety of ground-based and sounding balloons remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. The second part of the presentation will focus on the comparison of the observations at Palma de Mallorca and Ersa of the same long-range transported airmasses. The observations include lidar vertical profiles, balloon borne OPC (Optical Particle Counter) and MSG/SEVIRI AOD, among others.

  6. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet by the Greek and Cypriot population: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Alexis; Evans, Josie M M; Economides, Nicholas; Kyriacou, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet is defined as the dietary pattern in the countries of the Mediterranean basin between the 1950s and 1960s, and it is now widely accepted that has a beneficial effect on health. A debate exists from empirical and research data if the traditional Mediterranean diet remains the main dietary pattern of the region or if it has changed overtime. This systematic review addresses whether the people of Cyprus and Greece still follow the traditional Mediterranean diet or whether the diet has become more 'Westernised'. The MEDLINE database was searched using relevant free terms and independently reviewed by two authors. In addition, all reference lists of identified studies were hand-searched to identify additional, relevant studies. The review resulted in 18 research papers that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and represented 15 independent studies. The main outcome was consistent between studies and indicated moderate adherence of the Greek, and (probably) of the Cypriot, population to the Mediterranean diet. The majority of studies found no statistically significant differences by gender. There was an observed inter-study lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet by the younger population. Few studies addressed intra-study variations by age. This review shows that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is moderate in Greece (and probably also in Cyprus).This suggests a continuing transition from dietary patterns in the 50 s-60 s towards a more Westernized diet. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Living on the edge: demography of the slender-billed gull in the Western Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Small and peripheral populations are typically vulnerable to local extinction processes but important for the metapopulation dynamics of species. The Slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei is a long-lived species breeding in unstable ephemeral coastal habitats. Their Western Mediterranean populations are relatively small and represent the edge of their global geographical distribution. At a local scale, using long-term data (14 years on annual breeding success and capture-resights of marked individuals, we estimated and compared the vital rates and evaluated the connectivity of two Spanish populations (Ebro Delta and Doñana varying in their local environmental conditions. At a metapopulation scale, we analyzed 22 years of data on breeding numbers to predict their future prospects by means of population demographic models. Local survival and breeding success of gulls from the Ebro Delta was lower than those from Doñana, which is likely the result of higher permanent emigration and/or winter mortality in the former. Gulls from the Ebro Delta wintered mostly in Mediterranean areas whereas those from Doñana did so in Atlantic coasts, where food availability is higher. Whereas adult local survival was constant, juvenile local survival showed temporal parallel variations between colonies, probably related to natal dispersal to other breeding colonies. Our results suggested that dispersal was higher at the Ebro Delta and gulls emigrating from their natal colonies settled preferentially in close patches. We found large fluctuations in breeding numbers among local populations probably related to the fact that the Slender-billed gull is a species adapted to unstable and unpredictable habitats with high abilities to disperse between suitable patches depending on environmental stochastic conditions during breeding.

  8. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the Eastern and Western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    U. Dayan; K. M. Nissen; U. Ulbrich

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes producing heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the Western and Eastern Mediterranean in order to point at specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the ad...

  9. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative comparison of the distribution of macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic, based on our own data from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean and available data from literature. The macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic bottoms from both regions could be distinguished by the presence of a high number of regional exclusive non-carbonated species, and the presence of a high number of maërl-forming species in the Mediterranean. Further, regional differences in the distribution of some exclusive species allowed the distinction of three zones in the Northeastern Atlantic (United Kingdom, French Brittany and Galicia, while no differences were found within the Western Mediterranean. However, the algal communities considered in the selected literature could not be qualitatively distinguished, and all the samples should be considered as maërl beds. Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatolithon calcareum were the most widespread maërl forming species in the two regions, while in the Western Mediterranean Spongites fruticulosus was also very frequent. According to the differences in the species composition of the basal and erect strata of these beds, and also in their species richness, five different morphologies of macroalgal-dominated detritic bottoms could be distinguished. Their main characteristic species and their biogeographical distribution are detailed.

  11. Variability of aerosol optical properties in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol light scattering, absorption and particulate matter (PM concentrations were measured at Montseny, a regional background site in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB which is part of the European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (EUSAAR. Off line analyses of 24 h PM filters collected with Hi-Vol instruments were performed for the determination of the main chemical components of PM. Mean scattering and hemispheric backscattering coefficients (@ 635 nm were 26.6±23.2 Mm−1 and 4.3±2.7 Mm−1, respectively and the mean aerosol absorption coefficient (@ 637 nm was 2.8±2.2 Mm−1. Mean values of Single Scattering Albedo (SSA and Ångström exponent (å (calculated from 450 nm to 635 nm at MSY were 0.90±0.05 and 1.3±0.5 respectively. A clear relationship was observed between the PM1/PM10 and PM2.5/PM10 ratios as a function of the calculated Ångström exponents. Mass scattering cross sections (MSC for fine mass and sulfate at 635 nm were 2.8±0.5 m2 g−1 and 11.8±2.2 m2 g−1, respectively, while the mean aerosol absorption cross section (MAC was 10.4±2.0 m2 g−1. The variability in aerosol optical properties in the WMB were largely explained by the origin and ageing of air masses over the measurement site. The MAC values appear dependent of particles aging: similar to the expected absorption cross-section for fresh emissions under Atlantic Advection episodes and higher under aerosol pollution episodes. The analysis of the Ångström exponent as a function of the origin the air masses revealed that polluted winter anticyclonic conditions and summer recirculation scenarios typical of the WMB led to an increase of fine particles in the atmosphere (å = 1.5±0.1 while the aerosol optical properties under Atlantic Advection episodes and Saharan dust outbreaks were clearly

  12. AMPHIBLESTRUM (AVICULAMPHIBLESTRUM RUGGEROI SP. N., SUBGEN. N. (BRYOZOA FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA ROSSO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species and a new subgenus Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum ruggeroi sp.n. are described from deep circalittoral-epibathyal bottoms from the Sicily Strait and the north-western Mediterranean. The new subgenus is created to distinguish, within Amphiblestrum, species with both gymnocystal adventitious and large interzooidal avicularia, both originating from basal pore chambers. 

  13. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  14. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto-Moreno, V.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Giralt, S.; Jimenéz-Espejo, F.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.; de Lange, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic basin, near the Alboran basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to

  15. DIETARY HABITS OF A MEDITERRANEAN POPULATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    The nutrient intake of the studied population is not in line with that ... habitual cooking methods, to estimate the usual diet of individuals during the previous year. ... However, the mean intakes were below the RDA for dietary calcium, ... As shown in table 6, the population was also stratified by education level, and the intakes.

  16. Historical biogeography of the land snail Cornu aspersum: a new scenario inferred from haplotype distribution in the Western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madec Luc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its key location between the rest of the continent and Europe, research on the phylogeography of north African species remains very limited compared to European and North American taxa. The Mediterranean land mollusc Cornu aspersum (= Helix aspersa is part of the few species widely sampled in north Africa for biogeographical analysis. It then provides an excellent biological model to understand phylogeographical patterns across the Mediterranean basin, and to evaluate hypotheses of population differentiation. We investigated here the phylogeography of this land snail to reassess the evolutionary scenario we previously considered for explaining its scattered distribution in the western Mediterranean, and to help to resolve the question of the direction of its range expansion (from north Africa to Europe or vice versa. By analysing simultaneously individuals from 73 sites sampled in its putative native range, the present work provides the first broad-scale screening of mitochondrial variation (cyt b and 16S rRNA genes of C. aspersum. Results Phylogeographical structure mirrored previous patterns inferred from anatomy and nuclear data, since all haplotypes could be ascribed to a B (West or a C (East lineage. Alternative migration models tested confirmed that C. aspersum most likely spread from north Africa to Europe. In addition to Kabylia in Algeria, which would have been successively a centre of dispersal and a zone of secondary contacts, we identified an area in Galicia where genetically distinct west and east type populations would have regained contact. Conclusions Vicariant and dispersal processes are reviewed and discussed in the light of signatures left in the geographical distribution of the genetic variation. In referring to Mediterranean taxa which show similar phylogeographical patterns, we proposed a parsimonious scenario to account for the "east-west" genetic splitting and the northward expansion of the

  17. The role of vicariance vs. dispersal in shaping genetic patterns in ocellated lizard species in the western Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulo, O. S.; Pinheiro, J.; Miraldo, A.

    2008-01-01

    in the western Mediterranean as exemplified by the distribution of species and subspecies and genetic variation within the ocellated lizard group. To reassess the role of the MSC, partial sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes (cytochrome b, 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and two nuclear genes (beta......-fibrinogen and C-mos) from species of the ocellated lizard group were analysed. Three alternative hypotheses were tested: that divergence was initiated (i) by post-MSC vicariance as the basin filled, (ii) when separate populations established either side of the strait by pre-MSC overseas dispersal, and (iii...

  18. Sea floor morphology of the Ebro Shelf in the region of the Columbretes Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, A.; Lastras, G.; Ballesteros, M.; Canals, M.; Acosta, J.; Uchupi, E.

    2005-12-01

    Widespread volcanism off eastern Spain in the western Mediterranean is associated with Cenozoic crustal attenuation and sinistral motion along the Trans-Moroccan-Western Mediterranean-European mega shear, extending from northern Morocco to the North Sea via the Alboran Basin, eastern Iberia, the Valencian and Lyons basins, France and Germany. The Quaternary Columbretes Islands volcanic field is the most prominent example of this volcanism associated with this mega shear. The islands are located in the Ebro continental shelf on top of a structural horst probably made of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks. Surrounding the emerged islands are volcanic structures and associated flows partially mantled by a sediment drift whose morphology is controlled by the southwestward flowing Catalan Current. This association is rather unique and appears to have never been described from a continental shelf in the Mediterranean Sea or outside the sea. The morphology of both kinds of structures, obtained by means of swath bathymetry data and very-high resolution seismic profiles, is presented in this study. They provide striking images of this previously unstudied part of the western Mediterranean seafloor. These images suggest that the volcanic structures are intruded into the surficial Holocene sediments indicating that volcanism in the Columbretes has extended into Holocene.

  19. Meso- and small-scale vertical motions in the deep Western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haren, Hans van, E-mail: hans.van.haren@nioz.n [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    Acoustic reflections on particles larger than a few mm are compared with optical background data of bioluminescence at the ANTARES neutrino telescope site in the deep North-western Mediterranean Sea. Periodic increases of these data are associated with increases in horizontal and downward vertical currents. The observations provide unique knowledge of some oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean. Several periodicities are distinguished: seasonal, with large increase during spring, 20-day, which is associated with a meandering continental boundary current, 1-17.6 h, evidencing deep internal waves.

  20. An evaluation of surface micro- and mesoplastic pollution in pelagic ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Florian; Saini, Camille; Potter, Gaël; Galgani, François; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Hagmann, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the distribution, abundance and characteristics of surface micro- and mesoplastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea. 41 samples were collected in 2011 (summer) and 2012 (summer). Results, firstly, revealed that micro- (micro- and mesoplastic concentrations was identified. Secondly, a classification based on the shape and appearance of microplastics indicated the predominant presence of fragments (73%) followed by thin films (14%). Thirdly, the average mass ratio of microplastic to dry organic matter has been measured at 0.5, revealing a significant presence of microplastics in comparison to plankton. Finally, a correction method was applied in order to correct wind mixing effect on microplastics' vertical distribution. This data allows for a comprehensive view, for the first time, of the spatial distribution and nature of plastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Ichtyofauna associated with drifting floating objects in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Riera

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, size range and some behavioral notes about drifting flotsam associated fish of the Balearic Islands are presented, and more detailed observations on Seriola dumerili, Naucrates ductor, Coryphaena hippurus and Scomberesox saurus are also given. 25 fish species belonging to 18 families were identified, 12 of these species and the individuals of the family Mugilidae were recorded for the first time associated with floating objects in the western Mediterranean. Most of the specimens collected were juveniles, which suggests the importance of floating objects as a nursery, and thus in the recruitment and redistribution of fishes. Analisis of two drift floating material samples show that objects of anthropogenic origin were most abundant (83.5% and 63.5% and suggests that at present, human refuse may have taken over the role of the floating remains of marine plants for fishes in the western Mediterranean pelagic environment.

  2. Cold Outbreaks at the Mesoscale in the Western Mediterranean Basin: From Raincells to Rainbands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mazon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cold outbreaks that form offshore density currents within the whole mesoscale over the Western Mediterranean basin. Reflectivity radar and satellite images are used to detect clouds and precipitation that are associated with these density currents in the meso-α, meso-β, and meso-γ over the Western Mediterranean basin (WMB. Version 3.3 of the WRF-ARW model is used to describe the formation and evolution of these density currents and to estimate their lifetime as well as horizontal and vertical scales. Based on the observations and simulations, this paper suggests that a new perspective could effectively be adopted regarding the WMB region delineated by the Balearic Islands, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, and the Gulf of Lion, where inland cold outbreaks develop into density currents that move offshore and can produce precipitation ranging from raincells to rainbands at the whole mesoscale.

  3. Modelling for anchovy recruitment studies in the Gulf of Lions (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Amandine; Garreau, Pierre; Liorzou, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) is an important commercial species and one of the most abundant pelagic fish in the Gulf of Lions and the Catalan Sea. The factors influencing its recruitment are crucial to fisheries and ecological research. Among those factors transport of larvae by hydrodynamics (currents) is important because it determines whether the organisms can reach areas favourable to recruitment or are dispersed. Therefore, the first step in anchovy recruitment modelling is to simulate North-western Mediterranean Sea circulation. Several years (2001-2008) of hydrodynamics were simulated with the MARS-3D code. The resulting simulated currents and salinity are used by Lagrangian tool, Ichthyop, to transport anchovy eggs and larvae to the Western Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study is to understand the main hydrodynamic processes that control anchovy transport and the effects of diel vertical migration on the transport and final distribution of anchovy.

  4. Population genetics of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourti, A.; Loukas, M.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The genetic structure of 15 wild populations of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), sampled from different geographical areas and different host fruit tree species, has been studied. Each population was analysed for 25 enzyme systems detected electrophoretically. All the Mediterranean populations proved to be highly monomorphic (H-bar=0.053) whereas those from South Africa and Reunion were highly heteromorphic (H-bar=0.234 and 0.153 respectively). As the urea denaturation method was used, no hidden genetic variability caused by the usual electrophoretic conditions was detected. The most probable explanation of the low genetic variability observed in the introduced populations of the medfly seems to be the historical reasons, namely the time elapsed since colonization and the number of individuals of the founder population. Experiments in the field and in the laboratory failed to detect any pattern of preference for oviposition sites in the medfly populations. More specifically, the differences in allele frequencies for the polymorphic loci among these populations do not seem to be correlated either with the taxonomic status of the host fruit or with the size of the fruit. It is concluded that the medfly as a fine grained species may utilize many alternative food resources without an apparent action of selection (or at least one that is detectable by the methods used). By estimating the genetic distances between the populations and/or by using the allozymes as genetic markers the route(s) of dispersion of the fly from its geographic centre of origin, which is placed in Africa, could be roughly traced. Finally, no systematic changes in allele frequencies were observed in populations reared on artificial substrate. (author). 43 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  5. Speleothem records of western Mediterranean. Hydrological variability along the Last Interglacial Period and marine linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Judit; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Belmonte, Anchel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Frigola, Jaime; Martrat, Belen; Fornós, Joan; Arnau Fernández, Pedro; Hellstrom, John; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to identify and characterize regional hydrological variability in the western Mediterranean region in base to different geochemical parameters (δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios). Speleothems have been recovered from several caves located in southern central Pyrenees one and the others form the Balearic Islands. Their chronologies have been constructed in base on U/Th absolute dating and indicate that the speleothem sequences cover the end of the last interglacial and the glacial inception. One of the most remarkable features of the records is the intense and abrupt shift toward more arid conditions that marks the end of the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Furthermore, our speleothem records also show relatively humid but highly variable hydrological conditions during the interstadial periods from MIS 5c to 5a. These speleothem records have been compared with new generated western Mediterranean marine records from the Balearic Sea (MD99-2343) and Alboran Sea (OPD-977). Marine records include (1) proxies of sea surface temperature and changes in evaporation-precipitation rates based on pair analysis of δ18O and the Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides; (2) proxies of deep-water currents associated with the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) based on grain size analyses. The results reveal that arid conditions on land were coeval with cold sea surface sub-stages (MIS 5b and 5d), and also with increases in the intensity of the WMDW-related currents. By contrast, humid and hydrological unstable atmosphere conditions were synchronous with sea surface warm sub-stages, and lower WMDW-related currents intensities (MIS 5a, c and e). Consequently, our results highly evidence a strong atmospheric-oceanic coupling, involving parallel changes in both surface but also deep western Mediterranean Sea conditions during the last interglacial period and the glacial inception.

  6. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents ( N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania ( N = 1863) and Serbia ( N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  7. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Meseguer, María José; Burriel, Faustino Cervera; García, Cruz Vico; Serrano-Urrea, Ramón

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012-2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24 hour recalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70 mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low-intermediate score in both (51.2 ± 12.8 and 4.0 ± 1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored "poor" or "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of early Middle Miocene sediments from DSDP Leg 42A, Site 372 (Western Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Aziz, H.; di Stefano, A.; Foresi, L. M.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Iaccarino, S. M.; Kuiper, K. F.; Lirer, F.; Salvatorini, G.; Turco, E.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated magneto-biostratigraphic framework is presented for Middle Miocene sediments of DSDP Site 372 located in the Western Mediterranean. Detailed biostratigraphic analysis shows a nearly complete sequence of early Middle Miocene calcareous plankton bioevents in the Mediterranean, including

  9. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  10. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; González, M.; Otero, L.

    2011-01-01

    Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  11. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  12. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-11-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but also from distant upwind sources. Transport from remote sources is usually in the mid-tropospheric layers and associated with specific features and patterns of the larger-scale circulations. The synoptic systems (tropical and extratropical) that account for most of the major extreme precipitation events and the coupling of circulation and extreme rainfall patterns are presented. Heavy rainfall over the Mediterranean Basin is caused at times in concert by several atmospheric processes working at different atmospheric scales, such as local convection, upper synoptic-scale-level troughs, and mesoscale convective systems. Under tropical air-mass intrusions, convection generated by static instability seems to play a more important role than synoptic-scale vertical motions. Locally, the occurrence of torrential rains and their intensity is dependent on factors such as temperature profiles and implied instability, atmospheric moisture, and lower-level convergence.

  13. Multiparametric analysis and validation in the western Mediterranean of three global OGCM hindcasts

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    Enrique Vidal-Vijande

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyse a hierarchy of three 1/4° global numerical simulations (ORCA-025.G70 (G70, ORCA-025.G85 (G85 and GLORYS1V1 (GLORYS by assessing their performance against observational data in the western Mediterranean. When compared with the EN3_v2a temperature and salinity database, the simulations are capable of reproducing surface layer temperature interannual variability but G70 is inaccurate with intermediate and deep-layer trends. This aspect is improved by the increased vertical resolution of G85 and by data assimilation in GLORYS. Salinity is the most problematic parameter because of the imbalance of the freshwater budget derived from inaccuracies in the atmospheric forcing parameters. Surface salinity restoring is needed in order to avoid salinity drift and inaccurate sea-level trends. G70, with a stronger relaxation, has a lower trend closer to altimetric measurements than G85. Mean surface circulation is well reproduced for relatively large-scale signals. We further show that G85 and GLORYS provide evidence of the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 deep convection events in the Gulf of Lion. Finally, transports through the main straits of the western Mediterranean are correct in order of magnitude, direction and seasonal cycle when compared with observations. This study contributes to the improvement of the ORCA hierarchy of simulations and points out the strengths and weaknesses of these simulations in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region

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    Julio Peñas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  15. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  16. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanpera, Carolina; Moreno, Roci'o; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis

    2007-01-01

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed

  17. A new species of Bathymedon Sars, 1892 (Amphipoda: Oedicerotidae from the western Mediterranean bathyal floor

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    Damiá Jaume

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathymedon longirostris sp. nov. (Amphipoda: Oedicerotidae from the western Mediterranean bathyal suprabenthos is described. It is characterised by the well-developed rostrum; the discrete lateral lobe of head; the elongation of the peduncle segment 3 of the first antenna; the very slender propodus of the second gnathopod, which attains maximum width not at the palm angle, but at about midway along the palm margin; and by the relative length of the carpus of the foregoing limb, sub-equal to propodus. The discovery of a tiny remnant of the 2nd peduncle segment of the first antenna in the new species is commented with regard to the homologation of the peduncle segments in other members of the Family. The new taxon was captured below 593 m over muddy bottoms with pteropod shells and remains of planktonic foraminiferans. It was one of the most common amphipods in the lower slope (below ~ 1000 m, whereas in the depth range comprised between 1250 and 1859 m it was the second dominant species, representing 11.4 % of the total gammarideans captured. The area studied harbours three additional congeneric species, although their populations are mainly concentrated in the upper and middle slope. Over the bottom, adult males of the new species apparently tend to occupy higher levels beyond the water-sediment interface than the rest of demographic categories. The gut content of three individuals revealed a bulk of calcified foraminiferans, a diet in consonance with their massive mandibles. Juvenile individuals were more abundant in winter, whereas adult individuals were clearly dominant in summer, thus suggesting the biological cycle of the species follows some type of periodicity.

  18. Using coastal lagoons to better constrain the isostatic signal in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, M.; Rovere, A.; Melis, R. T.; Ghilardi, M.; Marriner, N.; Giaime, M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal lagoons represent a very common feature of the microtidal Mediterranean coastlines. They are inland waterbodies, usually developing parallel to the coast, typically separated from the open sea by a sandy barrier. One or more restricted inlets ensure their continuous or intermittent connection to the open sea. The water depth is generally less than 1 m and seldom exceeds a few meters. They represent a very useful proxy for the reconstruction of Mediterranean Relative Sea Level (RSL). However, caution should be used in the definition of a correct indicative meaning that can be obtained only with a multiproxy analysis of both sedimentary features and faunal assemblages of the cores extracted in marshy to lagoonal environment. We report here the results of a wide coring campaign we carried out in in the last 2 years in a number of Mediterranean lagoons located close to important archaeological settlements in Corsica (France) Sardinia (Italy) and Mallorca Island (Spain). The multiproxy analysis of the cores allowed defining the depositional environments and their relationship (or non relationship) with the former mean sea level. These data were chronologically supported by a significant dataset of more than 100 new 14C dating performed on organic sediments, wood, plant remains and marine/lagoonal shells. We then produced alarge amount of new data to constrain the RSL evolution in the center of Western Mediterranean where the available geophysical models predict the largest glacio-hydro isostatic (GIA) influence at basin scale. However, such models where tested only on a limited dataset mainly composed of archaeological RSL indicators (i.e. last 2 ka BP). Our new record, expanding the last 10 ka BP, significantly improves the ability to define the general anatomy of Mediterranean Holocene RSL changes and to constrain the maximal GIA magnitude in the basin.

  19. Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P from the western to eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    M. Pujo-Pay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an extensive vertical and longitudinal description of the biogeochemistry along an East-West transect of 3000 km across the Mediterranean Sea during summer 2008 (BOUM cruise. During this period of strong stratification, the distribution of nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and phosphorus (DOP were examined to produce a detailed spatial and vertically extended description of the elemental stoichiometry of the Mediterranean Sea. Surface waters were depleted in nutrients and the thickness of this depleted layer increased towards the East from about 10 m in the Gulf of Lion to more than 100 m in the Levantine basin, with the phosphacline deepening to a greater extent than that for corresponding nitracline and thermocline depths. We used the minimum oxygen concentration through the water column in combination with 2 fixed concentrations of dissolved oxygen to distinguish an intermediate layer (Mineralization Layer; ML from surface (Biogenic Layer; BL, and deep layers (DL. Whilst each layer was represented by different water masses, this approach allowed us to propose a schematic box-plot representation of the biogeochemical functioning of the two Mediterranean basins. Despite the increasing oligotrophic nature and the degree of P-depletion along the West to East gradient strong similarities were encountered between eastern and western ecosystems. Within the BL, the C:N:P ratios in all pools largely exceeded the Redfield ratios, but surprisingly, the nitrate vs. phosphate ratios in the ML and DL tended towards the canonical Redfield values in both basins. A change in particulate matter composition has been identified by a C increase relative to N and P along the whole water column in the western basin and between BL and ML in the eastern one. Our data showed a noticeable stability of the DOC:DON ratio (12–13 throughout the Mediterranean Sea. This is in good agreement with a P-limitation of

  20. Population Dynamics of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Montenegro

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    Sanja Radonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the Mediterranean fruit fly was studied along Montenegro seacoast. Tephri traps baited with 3 component female-biased attractants were used in 11 different localities to monitor the fruit fly population in commercial citrus orchards, mixed-fruit orchards, and in backyards. From 2008–2010, the earliest captures were recorded no earlier than July. In 2011, the first adult fly was detected in mid-June. Low captures rates were recorded in July and August (below 0.5 flies per trap per day; FTD and peaked from mid-September to the end of October of each year. Our results indicate fluctuation of fly per trap per day depending on dates of inspection and locality, with significant differences in the adult population density. A maximum population was always reached in the area of Budva-Herceg Novi with an FTD of 66.5, 89.5, 71.63, and 24.64 (from 2008–2011 respectively. Fly activity lasts from mid-June/early-July to end December, with distinct seasonal variation in the population.

  1. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  2. Aerosol properties over the western Mediterranean basin: temporal and spatial variability

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lyamani; A. Valenzuela; D. Perez-Ramirez; C. Toledano; M. J. Granados-Muñoz; F. J. Olmo; L. Alados-Arboledas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of AERONET aerosol data obtained over Alborán Island (35.95° N, 3.01° W, 15 m a.s.l.) in the western Mediterranean from July 2011 to January 2012. Additional aerosol data from three nearest AERONET stations and the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) were also analyzed in order to investigate the aerosol temporal and spatial variations over this scarcely explored region. Aerosol load over Alborán was significantly larger than that reported for o...

  3. Local validation of MODIS sensor sea surface temperature on western Mediterranean shallow waters

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    E. Durá

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface temperature (SST estimated from MODIS Aqua products (daytime and nighttime 11 μm and night 4 μm has been correlated with field data taken at three depths (15, 50, 100 cm in a Western Mediterranean coastal area. The comparison has allowed us to analyze the uncertainty in the estimation of this parameter in coastal waters using low spatial resolution satellite images. The results show that the daytime SST_11 μm product obtains fittest statistical values: RMSE (root mean square error and r2 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 1°C and 0.96, respectively, for 50 cm depth.

  4. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

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    Stefania Sarno

    Full Text Available Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic

  5. Key role of European rabbits in the conservation of the Western Mediterranean basin hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Delibes, Miguel; Ferreras, Pablo; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2008-10-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a global hotspot of biodiversity. Hotspots are said to be experiencing a major loss of habitat, but an added risk could be the decline of some species having a special role in ecological relationships of the system. We reviewed the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a keystone species in the Iberian Peninsula portion of the Mediterranean hotspot. Rabbits conspicuously alter plant species composition and vegetation structure through grazing and seed dispersal, which creates open areas and preserves plant species diversity. Moreover, rabbit latrines have a demonstrable effect on soil fertility and plant growth and provide new feeding resources for many invertebrate species. Rabbit burrows provide nest sites and shelter for vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition, rabbits serve as prey for a number of predators, including the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Thus, the Mediterranean ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula should be termed "the rabbit's ecosystem." To our knowledge, this is the first empirical support for existence of a multifunctional keystone species in a global hotspot of biodiversity. Rabbit populations have declined drastically on the Iberian Peninsula, with potential cascading effects and serious ecological and economic consequences. From this perspective, rabbit recovery is one of the biggest challenges for conservation of the Mediterranean Basin hotspot.

  6. Energy security in western Mediterranean: new factors, new policies. A Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane-Estrada, Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    After having noticed that there are two typical approaches and models to address energy security, policies acting on the supply side and policies based on a market-and-institutions approach (like stated by the European Union), the author outlines the effects of this second approach for countries of the western Mediterranean Sea, and then analyses the evolutions of energetic relationships between Algeria (where the energy sector is the most open, which is the best equipped in terms of gas infrastructures, and which attracts foreign investors) and European countries of the region (France, Italy, Spain and Portugal). Thus, she analyses present exchanges in the region, the dependency of these European countries on Mediterranean producers, and the relationships between involved companies of the region. She discusses the issue of energy security policy for the region from the perspective of the governments of producing countries and of consuming countries, and of companies. She discusses whether the project of Union for the Mediterranean complies with these objectives of energy security

  7. Revealing polychaetes invasion patterns: Identification, reproduction and potential risks of the Korean ragworm, Perinereis linea (Treadwell), in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Richter, Alexandra; Anadón, Nuria; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    An established population of the polychaetous annelid Perinereis linea (Treadwell) is reported for the first time outside its native distribution range (NW Pacific). This exotic worm has reached the Western Mediterranean (Mar Menor lagoon) via importing live fishing-bait as it is commonly used by anglers in Mar Menor lagoon, an area largely used for recreational fishing. To avoid confusion with other related species, and because the scientific name has been in synonymy for many years, P. linea is redescribed and illustrated. We focus on the reproductive biology and ecology of P. linea to help to understand its introduction, naturalization and spread along this coastal lagoon. Comparison between the Mediterranean population with a native population from South Korea revealed that the species exhibits a great reproductive plasticity and adaptability, which depends on the environmental conditions. Perinereis linea can reproduce after acquiring the epitokous form or prior to complete epitokal modification. In the Mar Menor lagoon population females release eggs asynchronically without completing epitokal modifications. However, under particular laboratory conditions females produce eggs synchronically and release them after complete epitokal transformations. Fertilization can occur internally in the female coelom, and females release zygotes and larvae through openings in their body walls; they are then incubated in gelatinous masses attached to the female parapodia. The sperm morphology is of the ent-aquasperm type. The eggs and larvae are attacked by symbiotic ciliate protozoa that feed on their yolk reserves. These foreign ciliates may act as carriers of disease in native beachworms and constitute an important risk for the ecosystem health. Finally, we provide recommendations on the prevention of the adverse effects that this exotic ragworm can cause in receiving ecosystems.

  8. Mediterranean Left-Wing Populism: The Case of SYRIZA

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    Mavrozacharakis, Emmanouil

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the increasing impact of the right-wing populist parties in Europe was quite impressing. Several of these parties gained significant electoral power but expediently they collapsed while others were consecrated electorally. With SYRIZA’s electoral victory in Greece, the emergence of PODEMOS in Spain and of the Five Star Movement in Italy - which includes several aspects of a left-wing populism - and the coalition between social-democrats and radical left in Portugal, the creation of a peculiar left populism has been evolved, especially in the Mediterranean part of Europe. High electoral percentages and consequently, their involvement in government through partisan organization professionalism and charismatic leadership, are main characteristics of these parties. Another crucial factor, regardless of their ideological roots, is the anti-European rhetoric, even if it existed only for some period in the past. For instance, SYRIZA in Greece, intensely criticized the present European structure but at the same time promised that Greece will remain to the EU and the Eurozone. Furthermore, it appeared as a political entity that promised, with a demagogic way, to overcome the obvious principle of state continuation, by denying to implement the agreement that the previous governments have signed with Greece’s partners. Eventually, this promise was converted into a trap as left-wing SYRIZA in government, was finally succumbed to the strong demand for adherence and implementation of all the previous agreements. Thus, SYRIZA failed both ideologically and practically. Apart from the diverse ideological and political illusions that characterize this type of populism, another characteristic is the deficit in specific policy substance. This deficit has been transformed into a large gap in terms of strategic program priorities and options. Thus, it turns out that SYRIZA’s rise to power was based on versatility and on a high degree of classless

  9. Mitochondrial DNA structure of an isolated Tunisian Berber population and its relationship with Mediterranean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halim, Nizar; Hsouna, Sana; Lasram, Khaled; Chargui, Mariem; Khemira, Laaroussi; Saidane, Rachid; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2018-02-01

    Douiret is an isolated Berber population from South-Eastern Tunisia. The strong geographic and cultural isolation characterising this population might have contributed to remarkable endogamy and consanguinity, which were practiced for several centuries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic structure of Douiret and to compare it to other Mediterranean populations with a special focus on major haplogroup T. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 58 unrelated individuals collected from the different patrilineal lineages of the population. The hypervariable region 1 of the mtDNA was amplified and sequenced. For comparative analyses, additional HVS1 sequences (n = 4857) were compiled from previous studies. The maternal background of the studied sample from Douiret was mainly of Eurasian origin (74%) followed by Sub-Saharan (17%) and North African (3%) lineages. Douiret harbours the highest frequency of haplogroup T in the Mediterranean region, assigned to the unique subclade T1a (38%). Phylogenetic analysis showed an outlier position of Douiret at the Mediterranean level. The genetic structure of Douiret highlights the presence of founders, most likely of Near/Middle Eastern origin, who conquered this area during the Middle/Late Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic dispersals.

  10. Assessment and intercomparison of numerical simulations in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, www.socib.es) is developing high resolution numerical simulations (hindcasts and forecasts) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) with a high spatial resolution of 1/50º (1.5-2km). Thus, theses simulations are able to reproduce mesoscale and in some cases sub-mesoscale features that are key in the Mediterranean Sea since they interact and modify the basin and sub-basin circulation. These simulations are initialized from and nested in either the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS, 1/16º) or Mercator-Océan simulations (MERCATOR, 1/12º). A repeated glider section in the Ibiza Channel, operated by SOCIB, has revealed significant differences between two WMOP simulations using either MFS or MERCATOR (hereafter WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC). In this study, MFS, MERCATOR, WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC are compared and evaluated using available multi-platform observations such as satellite products (Sea Level Anomaly, Sea Surface Temperature) and in situ measurements (temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats, CTD, XBT, fixed moorings and gliders; velocity fields from HF radar and currentmeters). A quantitative comparison is necessary to evaluate the capacity of the simulations to reproduce observed ocean features, and to quantify the possible simulations biases. This will in turn allow to improve the simulations, so as to produce better ocean forecast systems, to study and better understand ocean processes and to address climate studies. Therefore, various statistical diagnostics have been developed to assess and intercompare the simulations at various spatial and temporal scales, in different sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Western and Eastern Algerian sub-basins, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion), in different dynamical zones (coastal areas, shelves and "open" sea), along key sections (Ibiza and

  11. Investigating SWOT's capabilities to detect meso and submesoscale eddies in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Navarro, Laura; Pascual, Ananda; Fablet, Ronan; Mason, Evan

    2017-04-01

    The primary oceanographic objective of the future Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) altimetric satellite is to characterize the mesoscale and submesoscale ocean circulation. The aim of this study is to assess the capabilities of SWOT to resolve the meso and submesoscale in the western Mediterranean. With ROMS model data as inputs for the SWOT simulator, pseudo-SWOT data were generated. These data were compared with the original ROMS model data and ADT data from present day altimetric satellites to assess the temporal and spatial resolution of SWOT in the western Mediterranean. We then addressed the removal of the satellite's noise in the pseudo-SWOT data using a Laplacian diffusion. We investigated different parameters of the filter by looking at their impact on the spatial spectra and RMSEs calculated from the simulator outputs. To further assess the satellites capabilities, we derived absolute geostrophic velocities and relative vorticity. Our numerical experiments show that the noise patterns affect the spectral content of the pseudo-SWOT fields below 30 km. The Laplacian diffusion improves the recovery of the spectral signature of the altimetric field, especially down to 20 km. With the help of this filter, we manage to observe small scale oceanic features in pseudo-SWOT data, and in its derived variables.

  12. A reconstructed database of historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué M. Polanco-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data paper presents a reconstruction of a compilation of a small but consistent database of historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Italy. The compilation come from diverse historical and documentary sources and span the time interval from 1525 to 1936 covering a period of 412 years. There is a total of 3074 datum, which reach up to 67.83% of the total implying a 32.17% of missing data. However, we have only reconstructed the captures for the time interval 1700–1936 and we provide these reconstructions only for this time interval and for 9 out of 11 series due to the scarcity and inhomogeneity of the two oldest capture time series. This reconstructed database provides an invaluable opportunity for fisheries and marine research as well as for multidisciplinary research in climate change. Keywords: Data reconstructions, DINEOF, Missing data, Historic Bluefin tuna captures, Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

  13. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Risk zones of human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean basin: correlations between vector sand flies, bioclimatology and phytosociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispail, Philippe; Dereure, Jacques; Jarry, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical distribution of these diseases in the Western Mediterranean basin and contributes to the determination, in a rational manner, of the high risk zones.

  15. Risk Zones of Human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean Basin: Correlations between Vector Sand Flies, Bioclimatology and Phytosociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Rispail

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical distribution of these diseases in the Western Mediterranean basin and contributes to the determination, in a rational manner, of the high risk zones.

  16. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

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    C. Denjean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June–July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, time of transport (1–5 days and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried a higher concentration of pollution particles below 3 km above sea level (a.s.l. than above 3 km a.s.l., resulting in a scattering Ångström exponent up to 2.2 below 3 km a.s.l. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate absorption of light by the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assumed similar to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations, modelling

  17. Biodiversity of deep-sea demersal megafauna in western and central Mediterranean basins

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    Samuele Tecchio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance, biomass and diversity patterns of bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean megafauna (fishes and invertebrates were analyzed in the western Balearic Sea, the western Ionian Sea and the eastern Ionian Sea. Sampling was conducted with a Otter-trawl Maireta System (OTMS at depths ranging from 600 to 4000 m. A series of ecological indicators were computed: total abundance and biomass, Margalef species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou’s index of evenness. A multidimensional scaling was applied, indicating that the megafauna communities were grouped by depth, while geographic area had a less defined influence. Margalef richness declined with depth in all three areas, but more steeply in the western Ionian Sea. Pielou’s evenness behaved differently in the three zones, showing a V-shaped curve in the eastern Ionian while showing a decreasing pattern in the other two areas. At lower slope depths, massive presence of the fishes Alepocephalus rostratus in the western basin and Bathypterois mediterraneus in the central basin caused a sharp reduction in evenness.

  18. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

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    Savo Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy. Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories. In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody, or habitat (e.g., riverine, etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42% and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research

  19. Finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the western Mediterranean: Mapping its lithospheric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Liu, K.; Villasenor, A.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a 3-D shear wave velocity model for the crust and upper mantle of the western Mediterranean from Rayleigh wave tomography. We analyzed the fundamental mode in the 20-167 s period band (6.0-50.0 mHz) from earthquakes recorded by a number of temporary and permanent seismograph arrays. Using the two-plane wave method, we obtained phase velocity dispersion curves that were inverted for an isotropic Vs model that extends from the southern Iberian Massif, across the Gibraltar Arc and the Atlas mountains to the Saharan Craton. The area of the western Mediterranean that we have studied has been the site of complex subduction, slab rollback, and simultaneous compression and extension during African-European convergence since the Oligocene. The shear velocity model shows high velocities beneath the Rif from 65 km depth and beneath the Granada Basin from ˜70 km depth that extend beneath the Alboran Domain to more than 250 km depth, which we interpret as a near-vertical slab dangling from beneath the western Alboran Sea. The slab appears to be attached to the crust beneath the Rif and possibly beneath the Granada Basin and Sierra Nevada where low shear velocities (3.8 km/s) are mapped to >55 km depth. The attached slab is pulling down the Gibraltar Arc crust, thickening it, and removing the continental margin lithospheric mantle beneath both Iberia and Morocco as it descends into the deeper mantle. Thin lithosphere is indicated by very low upper mantle velocities beneath the Alboran Sea, above and east of the dangling slab and beneath the Cenozoic volcanics.

  20. Atmospheric conditions associated with extreme fire activity in the Western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário G; DaCamara, Carlos C; Calado, Teresa J

    2015-08-15

    Active fire information provided by TERRA and AQUA instruments on-board sun-synchronous polar MODIS platform is used to describe fire activity in the Western Mediterranean and to identify and characterize the synoptic patterns of several meteorological fields associated with the occurrence of extreme fire activity episodes (EEs). The spatial distribution of the fire pixels during the period of 2003-2012 leads to the identification of two most affected sub-regions, namely the Northern and Western parts of the Iberian Peninsula (NWIP) and Northern Africa (NAFR). The temporal distribution of the fire pixels in these two sub-regions is characterized by: (i) high and non-concurrent inter- and intra-annual variability with maximum values during the summer of 2003 and 2005 in NWIP and 2007 and 2012 in NAFR; and, (ii) high intra-annual variability dominated by a prominent annual cycle with a main peak centred in August in both sub-regions and a less pronounced secondary peak in March only evident in NWIP region. The 34 EEs identified were grouped according to the location, period of occurrence and spatial configuration of the associated synoptic patterns into 3 clusters (NWIP-summer, NWIP-winter and NAFR-summer). Results from the composite analysis reveal similar fire weather conditions (statistically significant positive anomalies of air temperature and negative anomalies of air relative humidity) but associated with different circulation patterns at lower and mid-levels of the atmosphere associated with the occurrence of EEs in each cluster of the Western Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitjà, Cèlia; Maldonado, Manuel

    2014-01-31

    The sponge fauna from the deep shelf (70 to 200 m) of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) was investigated using a combination of ROV surveys and collecting devices in the frame of the EC LIFE+ INDEMARES Grant aimed to designate marine areas of the Nature 2000 Network within Spanish territorial waters. From ROV surveys and 351 examined specimens, a total of 87 sponge species were identified, most belonging in the Class Demospongiae, and one belonging in the Class Hexactinellida. Twenty six (29%) species can be regarded as either taxonomically or faunistically relevant. Three of them were new to science (Axinella alborana nov. sp.; Axinella spatula nov. sp.; Endectyon filiformis nov. sp.) and 4 others were Atlantic species recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea (Jaspis eudermis Lévi & Vacelet, 1958; Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928; Axinella vellerea Topsent, 1904; Gelliodes fayalensis Topsent, 1892). Another outstanding finding was a complete specimen of Rhabdobaris implicata Pulitzer-Finali, 1983, a species only known from its holotype, which had entirely been dissolved for its description. Our second record of the species has allowed a neotype designation and a restitution of the recently abolished genus Rhabdobaris Pulitzer-Finally, 1983, also forcing a slight modification of the diagnosis of the family Bubaridae. Additionally, 12 species were recorded for the first time from the shelf of the Alboran Island, including a few individuals of the large hexactinellid Asconema setubalense Kent, 1877 that provided the second Mediterranean record of this "North Atlantic" hexactinellid. ROV explorations also revealed that sponges are an important component of the deep-shelf benthos, particularly on rocky bottoms, where they make peculiar sponge gardens characterized by a wide diversity of small, erect species forming a dense "undergrowth" among a scatter of large sponges and gorgonians. The great abundance and the taxonomic

  2. Updating temperature and salinity mean values and trends in the Western Mediterranean: The RADMED project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Yáñez, M.; García-Martínez, M. C.; Moya, F.; Balbín, R.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Serra, M.; Zunino, P.; Pascual, J.; Salat, J.

    2017-09-01

    The RADMED project is devoted to the implementation and maintenance of a multidisciplinary monitoring system around the Spanish Mediterranean waters. This observing system is based on periodic multidisciplinary cruises covering the coastal waters, continental shelf and slope waters and some deep stations (>2000 m) from the Westernmost Alboran Sea to Barcelona in the Catalan Sea, including the Balearic Islands. This project was launched in 2007 unifying and extending some previous monitoring projects which had a more reduced geographical coverage. Some of the time series currently available extend from 1992, while the more recent ones were initiated in 2007. The present work updates the available time series up to 2015 (included) and shows the capability of these time series for two main purposes: the calculation of mean values for the properties of main water masses around the Spanish Mediterranean, and the study of the interannual and decadal variability of such properties. The data set provided by the RADMED project has been merged with historical data from the MEDAR/MEDATLAS data base for the calculation of temperature and salinity trends from 1900 to 2015. The analysis of these time series shows that the intermediate and deep layers of the Western Mediterranean have increased their temperature and salinity with an acceleration of the warming and salting trends from 1943. Trends for the heat absorbed by the water column for the 1943-2015 period, range between 0.2 and 0.6 W/m2 depending on the used methodology. The temperature and salinity trends for the same period and for the intermediate layer are 0.002 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1 respectively. Deep layers warmed and increased their salinity at a rate of 0.004 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1.

  3. Dynamism Patterns of Western Mediterranean Cruise Ports and the Coopetition Relationships Between Major Cruise Ports

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    Esteve-Perez Jeronimo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea has seen an increase of ports hosting cruise ships during the first fifteen years of the 21st century. The increase in cruise ship presence in Mediterranean ports is associated with the dynamism of cruise traffic in recent years, with an average annual growth of 7.45% for cruise passengers worldwide during the period of 1990-2015. Cruise traffic is a maritime business that is primarily composed of two elements, maritime affairs and tourism. This article focuses on the maritime component. With the growth of the cruise industry, cruise lines have been forced to seek new ports to meet demand in an attempt to create differentiated products based on the ports that compose the itinerary. The itinerary system of cruise traffic makes the cruise ports depend on one another to design an itinerary. This feature results in both complex geographic relationships in the design of a cruise itinerary and complex competitive/cooperative relationships between ports. The aim of this article is to present the hierarchic picture of a sample of 29 cruise ports in the Western Mediterranean region during the period of 2000-2015. To achieve this goal, a port size classification is proposed and a shift-share analysis at the inter- and intra-group size level is applied. Moreover, concentration measures are used to determine the changes in the levels of market concentration. Furthermore, a dynamic model is proposed to determine the competitive or cooperative relationships between cruise ports. The proposed model is applied to the largest ports with data from the 2001-2015 period.

  4. Sea surface temperature variations in the western Mediterranean Sea over the last 20 kyr: A dual-organic proxy (U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Rampen, S.W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction of the western Mediterranean was accomplished using two independent, algae-based molecular organic proxies, i.e., the U-37(K) index based on long-chain unsaturated ketones and the novel long-chain diol index (LDI) based on the relative

  5. Tritium clouds environmental impact in air into the Western Mediterranean Basin evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Velarde, M.; Ardao, J.; Perlado, J.M.; Sedano, L.

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers short-term releases of tritium (mainly but not only tritium hydride (HT)) to the atmosphere from a potential ITER-like fusion reactor located in the Mediterranean Basin and explores if the short range legal exposure limits are exceeded (both locally and downwind). For this, a coupled Lagrangian ECMWF/FLEXPART model has been used to follow real time releases of tritium. This tool was analyzed for nominal tritium operational conditions under selected incidental conditions to determine resultant local and Western Mediterranean effects, together with hourly observations of wind, to provide a short-range approximation of tritium cloud behavior. Since our results cannot be compared with radiological station measurements of tritium in air, we use the NORMTRI Gaussian model. We demonstrate an overestimation of the sequence of tritium concentrations in the atmosphere, close to the reactor, estimated with this model when compared with ECMWF/FLEXPART results. A Gaussian “mesoscale” qualification tool has been used to validate the ECMWF/FLEXPART for winter 2010/spring 2011 with a database of the HT plumes. It is considered that NORMTRI allows evaluation of tritium-in-air-plume patterns and its contribution to doses.

  6. Deformation patterns in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Ridge (South Matapan Trench, Western Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikidis, Nikolaos; Kokinou, Eleni; Vafidis, Antonios; Kamberis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data and bathymetry analyses, together with geological information, are combined in the present work to identify seabed structural deformation and crustal structure in the Western Mediterranean Ridge (the backstop and the South Matapan Trench). As a first step, we apply bathymetric data and state of art methods of pattern recognition to automatically detect seabed lineaments, which are possibly related to the presence of tectonic structures (faults). The resulting pattern is tied to seismic reflection data, further assisting in the construction of a stratigraphic and structural model for this part of the Mediterranean Ridge. Structural elements and stratigraphic units in the final model are estimated based on: (a) the detected lineaments on the seabed, (b) the distribution of the interval velocities and the presence of velocity inversions, (c) the continuity and the amplitudes of the seismic reflections, the seismic structure of the units and (d) well and stratigraphic data as well as the main tectonic structures from the nearest onshore areas. Seabed morphology in the study area is probably related with the past and recent tectonics movements that result from African and European plates' convergence. Backthrusts and reverse faults, flower structures and deep normal faults are among the most important extensional/compressional structures interpreted in the study area.

  7. Feeding habits of Cataetyx alleni (Pisces: Bythitidae in the deep western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Carrassón

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feeding habits of Cataetyx alleni, the fifth most abundant species below 1000 m depth on the deep slope of the Catalan sea (western Mediterranean, between 1000 and 1800 m depth. Cataetyx alleni is a euryphagic predator, feeding on small epibenthic and endobenthic crustaceans and polychaetes. Predominate prey are small isopods and gammaridean amphipods and, in some cases, endobenthic and epibenthic decapods. Cataetyx alleni has bathymetric changes in diet marked by the capture of different prey-items and also by the reduction in the size of the prey with increasing depth. Seasonal fluctuations in the feeding pattern are clearly seen among the individuals of the same depths.

  8. NEOLITHIC PLANT USE IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE AGRIWESTMED PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Peña-Chocarro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the preliminary results of the AGRIWESTMED project which focuses on the archaeobotanical analyses of early Neolithic sites in the western Mediterranean region (both in Iberia and in northern Morocco. A large number of sites has been studied producing an interesting dataset of plant remains which places the earliest examples of domesticated plants in the second half of the 6th millennium cal BC. Plant diversity is high as it is shown by the large number of species represented: hulled and naked wheats, barley, peas, fava beans, vetches, lentils and grass peas. To more crops, poppy and flax, are also part of the first agricultural crops of the area. Although agriculture seems to occupy a first place in the production of food, gathering is well represented in the Moroccan sites where a large number of species has been identified. 

  9. Field calibration of optical sensors for measuring suspended sediment concentration in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guillén

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The water turbidity measured with optical methods (transmittance and backscattering is usually expressed as beam attenuation coefficient (BAC or formazin turbidity units (FTU. The transformation of these units to volumetric suspended sediment concentration (SSC units is not straightforward, and accurate calibrations are required in order to obtain valuable information on suspended sediment distributions and fluxes. In this paper, data from field calibrations between BAC, FTU and SSC are presented and best-fit calibration curves are shown. These calibrations represent an average from different marine environments of the western Mediterranean (from estuary to continental slope. However, the general curves can only be applied for descriptive or semi-quantitative purposes. Comparison of turbidity measurements using the same sensor with different calibration ranges shows the advantage of simultaneously combining two instruments calibrated in different ranges when significant changes in suspended sediment concentrations are expected.

  10. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    The central-western Mediterranean area is a key region for understanding the complex interaction between igneous activity and tectonics. In this review, the specific geochemical character of several 'subduction-related' Cenozoic igneous provinces are described with a view to identifying the processes responsible for the modifications of their sources. Different petrogenetic models are reviewed in the light of competing geological and geodynamic scenarios proposed in the literature. Plutonic rocks occur almost exclusively in the Eocene-Oligocene Periadriatic Province of the Alps while relatively minor plutonic bodies (mostly Miocene in age) crop out in N Morocco, S Spain and N Algeria. Igneous activity is otherwise confined to lava flows and dykes accompanied by relatively greater volumes of pyroclastic (often ignimbritic) products. Overall, the igneous activity spanned a wide temporal range, from middle Eocene (such as the Periadriatic Province) to the present (as in the Neapolitan of southern Italy). The magmatic products are mostly SiO 2-oversaturated, showing calcalkaline to high-K calcalcaline affinity, except in some areas (as in peninsular Italy) where potassic to ultrapotassic compositions prevail. The ultrapotassic magmas (which include leucitites to leucite-phonolites) are dominantly SiO 2-undersaturated, although rare, SiO 2-saturated (i.e., leucite-free lamproites) appear over much of this region, examples being in the Betics (southeast Spain), the northwest Alps, northeast Corsica (France), Tuscany (northwest Italy), southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Cornacya Seamount) and possibly in the Tell region (northeast Algeria). Excepted for the Alpine case, subduction-related igneous activity is strictly linked to the formation of the Mediterranean Sea. This Sea, at least in its central and western sectors, is made up of several young (fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the

  11. Non-linear modelling of monthly mean vorticity time changes: an application to the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Finizio

    Full Text Available Starting from a number of observables in the form of time-series of meteorological elements in various areas of the northern hemisphere, a model capable of fitting past records and predicting monthly vorticity time changes in the western Mediterranean is implemented. A new powerful statistical methodology is introduced (MARS in order to capture the non-linear dynamics of time-series representing the available 40-year history of the hemispheric circulation. The developed model is tested on a suitable independent data set. An ensemble forecast exercise is also carried out to check model stability in reference to the uncertainty of input quantities.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · General circulation ocean-atmosphere interactions · Synoptic-scale meteorology

  12. Nanoplankton protists from the western Mediterranean Sea. II. Cryptomonads (Cryptophyceae = Crptomonadea

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    Gianfranco Novarino

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an electron microscopical account of cryptomonad flagellates (Cryptophyceae = Cryptomonadea in the plankton of the western Mediterranean Sea. Bottle samples collected during the spring-summer of 1998 in the Sea of Alboran and Barcelona coastal waters contained a total of eleven photosynthetic species: Chroomonas (sensu auctorum sp., Cryptochloris sp., 3 species of Hemiselmis, 3 species of Plagioselmis including Plagioselmis nordica stat. nov/sp. nov., Rhinomonas reticulata (Lucas Novarino, Teleaulax acuta (Butcher Hill, and Teleaulax amphioxeia (Conrad Hill. Identification was based largely on cell surface features, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cells were either dispersed in the water-column or associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM. Plagioselmis prolonga was the most common species both in the water-column and in association with SPM, suggesting that it might be a key primary producer of carbon. Taxonomic keys are given based on SEM.

  13. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

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    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  14. Submarine canyons along the upper Sardinian slope (Central Western Mediterranean) as repositories for derelict fishing gears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Alessandro; Alvito, Andrea; Moccia, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Pusceddu, Antonio; Rita, Cannas; Angiolillo, Michela; Follesa, Maria C

    2017-10-15

    By means of ROV surveys, we assessed the quantity, composition and bathymetric distribution of marine litter in 17 sites along the Sardinian continental margin (Central Western Mediterranean) at depths ranging from 100 to 480m. None of the investigated sites was litter free, but the mean density of litter (0.0175±0.0022itemsm -2 ) was lower than that reported from other Tyrrhenian regions. The difference in the total litter density among sites was negligible, but the density of derelict fishing gear (DFG) items (most of which ascribable to small scale fishery) in submarine canyons was higher in submarine canyons than in other habitats. Our result suggest that submarine canyons (known to be highly vulnerable ecosystems) act as major repositories of DFGs, and, therefore, we anticipate the need of specific measures aimed at minimizing the loss and abandonment of DFGs in submarine canyons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prospective association of the Mediterranean diet with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality and its population impact in a non-Mediterranean population: the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tammy Y N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Imamura, Fumiaki; Forouhi, Nita G

    2016-09-29

    Despite convincing evidence in the Mediterranean region, the cardiovascular benefit of the Mediterranean diet is not well established in non-Mediterranean countries and the optimal criteria for defining adherence are unclear. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of adherence to this diet is also unknown. In the UK-based EPIC-Norfolk prospective cohort, we evaluated habitual diets assessed at baseline (1993-1997) and during follow-up (1998-2000) using food-frequency questionnaires (n = 23,902). We estimated a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) using cut-points projected from the Mediterranean dietary pyramid, and also three other pre-existing MDSs. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with repeated measures of MDS and covariates, we examined prospective associations between each MDS with incident cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by 2009 and mortality by 2013, and estimated PAF for each outcome attributable to low MDS. We observed 7606 incident CVD events (2818/100,000 person-years) and 1714 CVD deaths (448/100,000). The MDS based on the Mediterranean dietary pyramid was significantly associated with lower incidence of the cardiovascular outcomes, with hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 0.95 (0.92-0.97) per one standard deviation for incident CVD and 0.91 (0.87-0.96) for CVD mortality. Associations were similar for composite incident ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. Other pre-existing MDSs showed similar, but more modest associations. PAF due to low dietary pyramid based MDS (Mediterranean diet was associated with lower CVD incidence and mortality in the UK. This diet has an important population health impact for the prevention of CVD.

  16. The Alboran volcanic arc archipelago isolated the Mediterranean during the Messinian salinity crisis forming the land bridge for biota dispersal across the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccation during isolation from the world oceans created the well-known Messinian salinity crisis but also landbridges that permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The hypotheses for the cause chocking the Mediterranean have typically sought to explain geological features, particularly the giant salt deposits, but the implications of the faunal changes occurring around that time remain inadequately integrated by current geological models. We present wide-angle seismic data that constrain for the first time the 16-18 km thick crust structure of a volcanic arc formed mostly between 10 to 6 Ma across the eastern region of the Alboran basin. The crustal structure supports that the arc created an archipelago forming a land bridge across the basin that largely isolated the Mediterranean. After the cessation of volcanic activity, the archipelago progressively submerged by thermal subsidence and accompanying sediment loading, having emerged islands that persisted into the Pleistocene time and shallow straits forming sills during the early Pliocene. The presence of an archipelago in the eastern region of the basin may explain a number of puzzling observations previously inexplicable by the proposed barriers closing the Gibraltar arc west of Alboran. The progressive volcanic build up of the archipelago together with the closure of the Betic and Rifean marine corridors would explain the initial isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma and the exchange of terrestrial biota since 6.2 Ma, i.e. before desiccation, which diversified radiating from SE Iberia and the opposite segment of the eastern Rif. In addition, an eastern barrier agrees with the continuous Messinian-age open marine sediments drilled at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, which may have been the refuge of typical Mediterranean taxa that rapidly repopulated the Mediterranean in the

  17. Modified Mediterranean Diet Score and Cardiovascular Risk in a North American Working Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is linked to lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in studies of Mediterranean cohorts, older subjects, and/or those with existing health conditions. No studies have examined the effects of this dietary pattern in younger working populations in the United States. We investigated the effects of Mediterranean diet adherence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, metabolic syndrome and body composition in an occupationally active, non-Mediterranean cohort. Methods A cross-sectional study in a cohort of 780 career male firefighters, ages 18 years or older, from the United States Midwest. No dietary intervention was performed. A modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) was developed for assessment of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern from a previously administered life-style questionnaire that examined pre-existing dietary habits. Clinical data from fire department medical examinations were extracted and analyzed. Results Obese subjects had significantly lower mMDS, and they reported greater fast/take-out food consumption (pMediterranean-style dietary pattern had significant inverse associations with metabolic syndrome, LDL-cholesterol and reported weight gain, and was significantly and independently associated with higher HDL-cholesterol. Our results support the potential effectiveness of this diet in young, non-Mediterranean working cohorts, and justify future intervention studies. PMID:24503596

  18. Sedimentary Markers : a window into deep geodynamic processes Examples from the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Leroux, Estelle; Pellen, Romain; Gorini, Christian; Moulin, Maryline; Droz, Laurence; Bache, Francois; Molliex, Stephane; Silenzario, Carmine; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    Deep Earth dynamics impact so strongly on surface geological processes that we can use sediment palaeo-markers as a window into the deeper Earth. Derived from climatic and tectonic erosive actions on the continents, and related to eustasy, subsidence and isostasy, the sediment in a deep basin is the main recorder of these processes. Nevertheless, defining and quantifying the relative roles of parameters that interact to give the final sedimentary architecture is not a simple task. Using a 3D-grid of seismic and wide-angle data, boreholes and numerical stratigraphic modelling, we propose here a quantification of post-rift vertical movements in the Provençal Basin (Western Mediterranean) involving three domains of subsidence: seaward tilting on the platform and the slope and purely vertical subsidence in the deep basin (Rabineau et al., 2014 ; Leroux et al., 2015). These domains fit the deeper crustal domains highlighted by previous geophysical data (Moulin et al., 2015 ; Afilhado et al., 2015). Post-break-up sedimentary markers may therefore be used to identify the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase, to quantify sedimentation rates and isostatic rebound (Rabineau et al., 2014) and redefine the subsidence laws. Similar work and results are obtained in the Valencia Basin (Pellen et al., 2016). This Western Mediterranean Sea is a natural laboratory with very high total subsidence rates that enable high sedimentation rates along the margin with sediments provided by the Rhône and Ebro rivers flowing from the Alps, the Pyrennees and Catalan chains, which in turn archives the detailed record of climate/tectonic evolution during the Neogene. The Western Mediterranean Sea could therefore further probe deep-earth and surface connections using deep drillings of this land-locked ocean basin transformed into a giant saline basin (Rabineau et al., 2015). Leroux, E., Aslanian, D., Rabineau, M., M. Moulin, D. Granjeon, C. Gorini, L. Droz, 2015. Sedimentary markers: a

  19. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiometabolic Diseases in Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Mattei, Josiemer

    2018-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been recommended to the general population by many scientific organizations as a healthy dietary pattern, based on strong evidence of association with improved cardiometabolic health, including lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, most studies have been conducted in Mediterranean or European countries or among white populations in the United States (US), while few exist for non-Mediterranean countries or racial/ethnic minority populations in the US. Because most existing studies evaluating adherence to the MedDiet use population-specific definitions or scores, the reported associations may not necessarily apply to other racial/ethnic populations that may have different distributions of intake. Moreover, racial/ethnic groups may have diets that do not comprise the typical Mediterranean foods captured by these scores. Thus, there is a need to determine if similar positive effects from following a MedDiet are observed in diverse populations, as well as to identify culturally-relevant foods reflected within Mediterranean-like patterns, that can facilitate implementation and promotion of such among broader racial/ethnic groups. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the evidence from observational and intervention studies on the MedDiet and cardiometabolic diseases in racial/ethnic minority populations in the US, and offer recommendations to enhance research on MedDiet for such populations. PMID:29538339

  20. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiometabolic Diseases in Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Sotos-Prieto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet has been recommended to the general population by many scientific organizations as a healthy dietary pattern, based on strong evidence of association with improved cardiometabolic health, including lower risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, most studies have been conducted in Mediterranean or European countries or among white populations in the United States (US, while few exist for non-Mediterranean countries or racial/ethnic minority populations in the US. Because most existing studies evaluating adherence to the MedDiet use population-specific definitions or scores, the reported associations may not necessarily apply to other racial/ethnic populations that may have different distributions of intake. Moreover, racial/ethnic groups may have diets that do not comprise the typical Mediterranean foods captured by these scores. Thus, there is a need to determine if similar positive effects from following a MedDiet are observed in diverse populations, as well as to identify culturally-relevant foods reflected within Mediterranean-like patterns, that can facilitate implementation and promotion of such among broader racial/ethnic groups. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the evidence from observational and intervention studies on the MedDiet and cardiometabolic diseases in racial/ethnic minority populations in the US, and offer recommendations to enhance research on MedDiet for such populations.

  1. Nile damming as plausible cause of extinction and drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp in the western Mediterranean over broad spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.

    2011-11-01

    Greatly increased retention of flow in Nile River reservoirs was initiated in 1964, after completion of the Aswan High Dam, which induced important oceanographic changes in the Mediterranean Sea, including deep waters (below a depth of 150 m). Based on an analysis of data series starting in the 1940s/1950s, the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea has become locally extinct off of the Catalonian coasts (and elsewhere in the northwestern Mediterranean) at depths of 400-900 m, with a simultaneous and significant drop in the catches of red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, in the second half of the 1960s. The extinction and sharp decline of deep-shrimp populations off Catalonian coast (at ca. 3200 km westwards from Nile Delta) followed the 1964 drop in Nile discharge with a delay of ca. 3-5 yrs (breakpoint analysis applied to data series). The breakpoints detected in the second half of 1960s both in Nile runoff and shrimps’ abundance were independent of climatic events in the study area (e.g. changes in NAO) and occurred before the increase in fishing effort off Catalonian coasts (breakpoint in 1973-1974). The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), inhabited by A. foliacea in the western Basin, had significant temperature (T) and salinity (S) increases in the 1950-1970 period, and Nile damming has contributed about 45% of the total S increase of Western Mediterranean deep-water masses from the 1960s to the late 1990s (Skliris and Lascaratos, 2004). This had to increase, for instance, LIW salinity at its formation site in the eastern Mediterranean. Nile damming was probably a triggering factor for the extinction/drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp off Catalonian coasts.

  2. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masqué, Pere; Mitchell, Peter I; Vintró, L León; Schell, William R; Cross, Lluïsa; Calbet, Albert

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher 239,240 Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both 239,240 Pu and 241Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors showed, on

  3. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  4. PIXE characterization of Western Mediterranean and Anatolian obsidians and Neolithic provenance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourdonnec, F.-X.; Delerue, S.; Dubernet, S.; Moretto, Ph.; Calligaro, Th.; Dran, J.-C.; Poupeau, G.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of non-destructive elemental analysis makes PIXE a very attractive technique in archaeological provenance studies. This technique has been fruitfully implemented on two different facilities to address the issue of obsidian provenance in the Mediterranean and in surrounding regions. At C2RMF, we took advantage of the possibility to analyze large archaeological pieces with the external micro-beam set-up. At CENBG, we used the nuclear microprobe providing a 5 μm beam diameter in large scans (700 x 700 μm 2 ) to control the homogeneity of elemental distribution. In both cases we dosed the same set of 13 elements: Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr and Zr. While at C2RMF, two Si(Li) detectors were used simultaneously to measure all elements at once with 3 MeV protons, at CENBG where only one detector was available, the light elements Na to Fe were determined with a 1.5 MeV beam, and the heavy ones, including Fe, with a beam energy of 2.7 MeV. In Western Mediterranean, it is possible with PIXE to differentiate all obsidian sources of archaeological significance. Examples are given of obsidian provenances from Neolithic sites of France and from the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. In the Near East, we can differentiate the Cappadocian and Eastern Anatolian obsidian sources used during the early Neolithic. This is illustrated by examples taken from Neolithic sites of the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria)

  5. Multi-platform operational validation of the Western Mediterranean SOCIB forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The development of science-based ocean forecasting systems at global, regional, and local scales can support a better management of the marine environment (maritime security, environmental and resources protection, maritime and commercial operations, tourism, ...). In this context, SOCIB (the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System, www.socib.es) has developed an operational ocean forecasting system in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) nested in the larger scale Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) with a spatial resolution of 1.5-2km. WMOP aims at reproducing both the basin-scale ocean circulation and the mesoscale variability which is known to play a crucial role due to its strong interaction with the large scale circulation in this region. An operational validation system has been developed to systematically assess the model outputs at daily, monthly and seasonal time scales. Multi-platform observations are used for this validation, including satellite products (Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level Anomaly), in situ measurements (from gliders, Argo floats, drifters and fixed moorings) and High-Frequency radar data. The validation procedures allow to monitor and certify the general realism of the daily production of the ocean forecasting system before its distribution to users. Additionally, different indicators (Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity, Eddy Kinetic Energy, Mixed Layer Depth, Heat Content, transports in key sections) are computed every day both at the basin-scale and in several sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion). The daily forecasts, validation diagnostics and indicators from the operational model over the last months are available at www.socib.es.

  6. Contaminants of emerging concern in the open sea waters of the Western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Bečanová, Jitka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas. 3 pesticides, 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products and 2 artificial sweeteners were detected at sub-ng to ng/L levels. Among them, the herbicide terbuthylazine, the pharmaceuticals caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen and paracetamol, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, the antibacterial triclocarban and the two artificial sweeteners acesulfame and saccharin were detected in all samples. The compound detected at the highest concentration was saccharin (up to 5.23 ng/L). Generally small spatial differences among individual sampling areas point to a diffuse character of sources which are likely dominated by WWTP effluents and runoffs from agricultural areas or even, at least for pharmaceuticals and artificial food additives, from offshore sources such as ferries and cruising ships. The implications of the ubiquitous presence in the open sea of chemicals that are bio-active or toxic at low doses on photosynthetic organisms and/or bacteria (i.e., terbuthylazine, sulfamethoxazole or triclocarban) deserve scientific attention, especially concerning possible subtle impacts from chronic exposure of pelagic microorganisms. - Highlights: • First report on several classes of emerging contaminants in the open Mediterranean Sea. • 3 pesticides, 11 PPCPs and 2 artificial sweeteners detected in the surface marine water. • Saccharin, naproxen and DEET detected at the highest concentrations. • Spatial distribution independent of distance

  7. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  8. Low adherence to the western and high adherence to the mediterranean dietary patterns could prevent colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Amiano, Pilar; Fernández de Larrea, Nerea; Martín, Vicente; Alonso, Maria Henar; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Guevara, Marcela; Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristobal; Huerta, Jose María; Capelo, Rocío; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Urtiaga, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús; Jiménez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Moreno, Víctor; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Kogevinas, Manolis; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina

    2018-03-26

    To assess if the associations found between three previously identified dietary patterns with breast, prostate and gastric cancer are also observed for colorectal cancer (CRC). MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that collected information of 1629 incident cases of CRC and 3509 population-based controls from 11 Spanish provinces. Western, Prudent and Mediterranean data-driven dietary patterns-derived in another Spanish case-control study-were reconstructed in MCC-Spain. Their association with CRC was assessed using mixed multivariable logistic regression models considering a possible interaction with sex. Risk by tumor site (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) was evaluated using multinomial regression models. While no effect of the Prudent pattern on CRC risk was observed, a high adherence to the Western dietary pattern was associated with increased CRC risk for both males [OR fourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 1.45 (1.11;1.91)] and females [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.50 (1.07;2.09)] but seem to be confined to distal colon [OR fourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 2.02 (1.44;2.84)] and rectal [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.46 (1.05;2.01)] tumors. The protective effect of the Mediterranean dietary pattern against CRC was observed for both sexes [males: OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.71 (0.55;0.92); females: OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.56 (0.40;0.77)] and for all cancer sites: proximal colon [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.70 (0.51;0.97)], distal colon [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.65 (0.48;0.89)], and rectum (OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.60 (0.45;0.81)]. Our results are consistent with most of the associations previously found between these patterns and breast, prostate and gastric cancer risk and indicate that consuming whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, and fish and avoiding red and processed meat, refined grains, sweets, caloric drinks, juices, convenience food, and sauces might reduce CRC risk.

  9. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derstroff, Bettina; Hüser, Imke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Crowley, John N.; Fischer, Horst; Gromov, Sergey; Harder, Hartwig; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Mallik, Chinmay; Martinez, Monica; Novelli, Anna; Parchatka, Uwe; Phillips, Gavin J.; Sander, Rolf; Sauvage, Carina; Schuladen, Jan; Stönner, Christof; Tomsche, Laura; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014) in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57' N/32° 23' E). Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy) and eastern (Turkey, Greece) Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80-100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5-3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1-8 ppbv) than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days) of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were ˜ 20 and ˜ 30-60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART calculated transport time, the contribution of photochemical

  10. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Derstroff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014 in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57′ N/32° 23′ E. Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy and eastern (Turkey, Greece Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80–100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5–3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1–8 ppbv than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were  ∼  20 and  ∼  30–60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART

  11. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  12. Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean Sea, application to an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel

    2015-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean Sea is a highly heterogeneous and variable area, as is reflected on the wind field, the current field, and the waves, mainly in the first kilometers offshore. As a result of this variability, the wave forecast in these regions is quite complicated to perform, usually with some accuracy problems during energetic storm events. Moreover, is in these areas where most of the economic activities take part, including fisheries, sailing, tourism, coastal management and offshore renewal energy platforms. In order to introduce an indicator of the probability of occurrence of the different sea states and give more detailed information of the forecast to the end users, an ensemble wave forecast system is considered. The ensemble prediction systems have already been used in the last decades for the meteorological forecast; to deal with the uncertainties of the initial conditions and the different parametrizations used in the models, which may introduce some errors in the forecast, a bunch of different perturbed meteorological simulations are considered as possible future scenarios and compared with the deterministic forecast. In the present work, the SWAN wave model (v41.01) has been implemented for the Western Mediterranean sea, forced with wind fields produced by the deterministic Global Forecast System (GFS) and Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS). The wind fields includes a deterministic forecast (also named control), between 11 and 21 ensemble members, and some intelligent member obtained from the ensemble, as the mean of all the members. Four buoys located in the study area, moored in coastal waters, have been used to validate the results. The outputs include all the time series, with a forecast horizon of 8 days and represented in spaghetti diagrams, the spread of the system and the probability at different thresholds. The main goal of this exercise is to be able to determine the degree of the uncertainty of the wave forecast, meaningful

  13. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Révillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Guégan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

    2012-09-01

    An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion). Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG), within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG) and Halobacteria) within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age

  14. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  15. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence

  16. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  17. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the north Western mediterranean sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the north west mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, 106 Ru and from atmospheric fall out, 137 Cs and sup(239+240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 -5 ) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26 [fr

  18. Population and development scenarios for EU neighbor countries in the South and East Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents four population and development scenarios for 11 South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) for the period 2010-2050. Focus of analysis of scenario results is on working age population prospects, economic consequences, migration pressure in four migrant-sending SEMCs (Algeria,

  19. Risk Zones of Human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean Basin: Correlations between Vector Sand Flies, Bioclimatology and Phytosociology

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Rispail; Jacques Dereure; Daniel Jarry

    2002-01-01

    Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical dist...

  20. First record of the Alboran dragonet, Protogrammus alboranensis (Actinopterygii: Callionymiformes: Callionymidae), from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, R. (Ronald); Ordines, F. (Francesc)

    2017-01-01

    The Alboran dragonet, Protogrammus alboranensis Fricke, Ordines, Farias et García-Ruiz, 2016, was originally described based on four specimens from Alboran Island, Spain, south-western Mediterranean, collected in 2014 and 2015. This species was previously considered to be endemic to Alboran Island. A surprising new record of this rare species from the Balearic Islands is reported here Versión del editor

  1. Molecular and morphological identification of larval opecoelids (Digenea: Opecoelidae) parasitising prosobranch snails in a Western Mediterranean lagoon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Born-Torrijos, A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Raga, J. A.; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 450-460 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ITS rDNA * 28S rDNA * morphology * Life-cycle * Opecoelidae * Cainocreadium labracis * Macvicaria obovata * Gibbula adansonii * Western Mediterranean Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2012

  2. Trophic interactions among grouper (Epinephelus marginatus), octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and red lobster (Palinurus elephas) in the Western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Quetglas, A. (Antoni); Reñones, O. (Olga); Goñi, R. (Raquel)

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper a first evaluation of the trophic interactions between grouper, octopus and spiny red lobster in the western Mediterranean is presented. The efficiency of octopus preying on lobsters is also estimated from trap catches. Grouper and octopus base their diet on the same major taxonomic groups and this is reflected in the values of diet overlap. Trophic diversity of grouper and octopus is also very similar. The estimation of the octopus efficiency preying on lobsters shows th...

  3. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  4. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps. Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south–north gradient, with values from 7.4 g m−2 year−1 in Lampedusa (35°31′ N, 12°37′ E to 1 g m−2 year−1 in Le Casset (44°59′ N, 6°28′ E. The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m−2 wk−1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1 g m−2 wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m−2 wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m−2 year−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14 g m−2 year−1. From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more

  5. Plate tectonic model for the oligo-miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Curtis R.

    1980-10-01

    This paper outlines a plate tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean which incorporates recent data from several tectonic domains (Corsica, Sardinia, the Kabylies, Balearic promontory, Iberia, Algero-Provençal Basin and Tunisian Atlas). Following late Mesozoic anticlockwise rotation of the Iberian peninsula (including the Balearic promontory and Sardinia), late Eocene collision occurred between the Kabylies and Balearic promontory forming a NE-trending suture with NW-tectonic polarity. As a result of continued convergence between the African and European plates, a polarity flip occurred and a southward-facing trench formed south of the Kabylie—Balearic promontory suture. During late Oligocene time an E-W-trending arc and marginal basin developed behind the southward-facing trench in the area of the present-day Gulf of Lion. Opening of this basin moved the Corsica—Sardinia—Calabria—Petit Kabylie—Menorca plate southward, relative to the African plate. Early Miocene back-arc spreading in the area between the Balearic promontory and Grand Kabylie emplaced the latter in northern Algeria and formed the South Balearic Basin. Coeval with early Miocene back-arc basin development, the N-S-extension in the Gulf of Lion marginal basin changed to a more NW-SE direction causing short-lived extension in the area of the present-day Valencia trough and a 30° anticlockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia-Calabria—Petit Kabylie plate away from the European plate. Early—middle Miocene deformation along the western Italian and northeastern African continental margins resulted from this rotation. During the early late Miocene (Tortonian), spreading within a sphenochasm to the southwest of Sardinia resulted in the emplacement of Petit Kabylie in northeastern Algeria.

  6. New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land

  7. Late Glacial and Holocene gravity deposits in the Gulf of Lions deep basin, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennielou, B.; Bonnel, C.; Sultan, N.; Voisset, M.; Berné, S.; Beaudouin, C.; Guichard, F.; Melki, T.; Méar, Y.; Droz, L.

    2003-04-01

    Recent investigations in the Gulf of Lions have shown that complex gravity processes and deposits occurred in the deep basin since the last Glacial period. Besides the largest western Mediterranean turbiditic system, Petit-Rhône deep-sea fan (PRDSF), whose built-up started at the end of Pliocene, several sedimentary bodies can be distinguished: (1) The turbiditic Pyreneo-Languedocian ridge (PLR), at the outlet of the Sète canyon network, whose activity is strongly connected to the sea level and the connection of the canyons with the rivers. It surface shows long wave-length sediment waves, probably in relation with the turbiditic overspill. (2) An acoustically chaotic unit, filling the topographic low between the PRDSF and the PLR, the Lower Interlobe Unit. Possible source areas are the Sète canyon and/or the Marti Canyon. (3) An acoustically transparent unit, below the neofan, filling the same topographic low, the Western Transparent Unit, interpreted as a debris-flow. Recent sediment cores have shown that this sedimentary is composed of folded, laminated mud, both in its northern and southern fringes. (4) The Petit-Rhône neofan, a channelized turbiditic lobe resulting from the last avulsion of the Petit-Rhône turbiditic channel and composed of two units. The lower, acoustically chaotic facies unit, corresponding to an initial stage of the avulsion, similar to the HARP facies found on the Amazon fan. The upper, transparent, slightly bedded, channel-levee shaped unit, corresponding to the channelized stage of the avulsion. (5) Up to ten, Deglacial to Holocene, thin, fine sand layers, probably originating from shelf-break sand accumulations, through the Sète canyon network. (6) Giant scours, in the southern, distal part of the neofan, possibly linked to turbiditic overflow from the neo-channel, probably corresponding to channel-lobe transition zone features (Wynn et al. 2002). Recent investigations have shown no evidence of bottom current features.

  8. Morphodynamic implications for shoreline management of the western-Mediterranean sector of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihy, Omran E.

    2009-09-01

    Although the western-Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Sallum and Alexandria, ~550 km long, has maintained a considerable equilibrium throughout history, developers have built traditional protective structures in an effort to form sheltered recreational beaches without taking into consideration its geomorphologic characteristics, coastal processes and their harmful impact on the coastal environment and human safety. The improper practices in this environmentally valuable region have induced us to undertake an initiative to carry out a morphodynamic analysis to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between coastal morphology and the prevailing dynamic forces. Based on the degree of natural protection or wave sheltering, the study shoreline can be categorized into four distinct morphotypical stretches: (1) high-energy wave-exposed shores and the outer margins of the rocky headlands, (2) moderate to high wave-energy beaches along semi-exposed embayments and bays mostly downdrift of the rocky headlands, (3) low-wave energy at semi-exposed headland lee-sided and pocket beaches, and (4) calm wave-sheltered enclosing water basins for safe anchorages, moorings and recreation beaches. The results deducted will have practical applications for shoreline management initiatives regarding sustained sites suitable for future beachfront development such as safe swimming conditions, sport facilities, water intakes and sheltered areas for vessels. In addition, benefits realized by the understanding of the morphodynamic processes would enhance our awareness of the significance of the role of western coast morphodynamics in supporting sustainable development via shoreline management. As far as sustainability is concerned, the selection of appropriate sites would help avoiding or minimizing the formation of the hard structures needed for creating safe recreation beaches. On a national scale, results reached could provide reliable database for information that can be

  9. Nutritive value of the Range Plants in the Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Din, A.S.; El-Kady, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    The present study assesses the nutritive value of the range plants in the Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt to evaluate their usage as forage for domestic animals (mainly sheep and goats). Analysis of plant organs which represent the diet selected by the herbivores indicated that their mean protein content is about 1.1%. This is lower than the proper level, but it is ranked as acceptable protein content. The average digestible protein intake was about 46.4g 100kg live weight-1 day-1, which is inadequate for the protein needs of grazing animals. The amount of total digestible nutrient (TDN) was also lower than the normal requirements of the sheep. The shortfall in the forage nutrition may be attributed to the high stocking rate. If the stocking rate is about seven times lower than the present value, most of the requirements of energy and protein could be fulfilled in the range. The ratio of Ca: P was higher than the optimum, which may lead to lower utilization of both Ca and P by animals. (author)

  10. The effect of interpolation methods in temperature and salinity trends in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VARGAS-YANEZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and salinity data in the historical record are scarce and unevenly distributed in space and time and the estimation of linear trends is sensitive to different factors. In the case of the Western Mediterranean, previous works have studied the sensitivity of these trends to the use of bathythermograph data, the averaging methods or the way in which gaps in time series are dealt with. In this work, a new factor is analysed: the effect of data interpolation. Temperature and salinity time series are generated averaging existing data over certain geographical areas and also by means of interpolation. Linear trends from both types of time series are compared. There are some differences between both estimations for some layers and geographical areas, while in other cases the results are consistent. Those results which do not depend on the use of interpolated or non-interpolated data, neither are influenced by data analysis methods can be considered as robust ones. Those results influenced by the interpolation process or the factors analysed in previous sensitivity tests are not considered as robust results.

  11. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the results obtained by applying the Arnason Schwartz multistate mark-recapture model to eight years of data collected in and around a small no-fishing marine protected area (MPA; 4 km2 in the central western Mediterranean. From 1997 to 2004, a total of 4044 specimens of Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1787 were tagged and 317 recaptured. The most parsimonious model which best explained the data variability was that of a temporally constant rate of apparent survival and movement in each of the two strata. The absence of any temporal influence in the apparent survival rate inside the no-take area suggested that spillover and mortality are constant for each period of the study. The lower apparent survival rate in surrounding zones than inside the MPA (0.26 ± 0.04 (SE vs 0.94 ± 0.03 (SE is presumed to be a function of fishing effort. A continuous movement of P. elephas across the boundary of the small MPA was also tested. This information on retention of lobsters in the MPA contributes to our understanding of the effect of introducing MPAs into a managed commercial fishery system.

  12. Contaminants of emerging concern in the open sea waters of the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Bečanová, Jitka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2017-10-01

    Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas. 3 pesticides, 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products and 2 artificial sweeteners were detected at sub-ng to ng/L levels. Among them, the herbicide terbuthylazine, the pharmaceuticals caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen and paracetamol, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, the antibacterial triclocarban and the two artificial sweeteners acesulfame and saccharin were detected in all samples. The compound detected at the highest concentration was saccharin (up to 5.23 ng/L). Generally small spatial differences among individual sampling areas point to a diffuse character of sources which are likely dominated by WWTP effluents and runoffs from agricultural areas or even, at least for pharmaceuticals and artificial food additives, from offshore sources such as ferries and cruising ships. The implications of the ubiquitous presence in the open sea of chemicals that are bio-active or toxic at low doses on photosynthetic organisms and/or bacteria (i.e., terbuthylazine, sulfamethoxazole or triclocarban) deserve scientific attention, especially concerning possible subtle impacts from chronic exposure of pelagic microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Within-plate Cenozoic Volcanism and Mantle Sources Within The Western-central Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Bonadiman, C.; Coltorti, M.; Siena, F.

    An integrated study of anorogenic basic magmas and entrained mantle xenoliths rep- resents a promising approach for a comprehension of the magmatogenic events occur- ring within the lithospheric mantle in the western-central Mediterranean area. In this contribution we review the geochemical characteristics of mafic lavas and associated peridotite xenoliths from three anorogenic volcanic districts: Pliocene-Quaternary vol- canism of Sardinia; Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism of the Iblean area (eastern Sicily); Paleocene-Oligocene Veneto Volcanic Province. Investigations have been focused on 1) petrological features of parental magmas, which may contribute to infer the com- positional characteristics of mantle sources and to constrain the modes of partial melt- ing; 2) modelling the depletion events and metasomatic enrichments in mantle xeno- liths of the three volcanic districts, as well as the nature of their causative agents. Petrological features and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data, both of lava and xenoliths, indicate that DM+HIMU components distinguish the lithospheric mantle sections of Iblean and Veneto Volcanic Provinces. On the other hand, lavas and xenoliths from Sardinia display a significant different isotopic signature characterised by DM+EM1. Similar geochemical fingerprints, i.e. the significant presence of EM components are gener- ally recorded by mafic lavas and mantle xenoliths from the European Plate, whereas they are not observed in the stable African lithospheric domain.

  14. Microbial communities in a coastal cave: Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Busquets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As a part of an ongoing project on the role of microbes in the biogeochemistry of Majorcan caves, the species diversity of microbial communities present in cave pools of anchialine waters in the Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Mallorca, western Mediterranean is investigated by a culture-dependent method. Two-hundred and forty-eight strains isolated from this characteristic cave environment of the littoral karst are identified by whole-cell-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and phylogeneticaly by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Total cell counts and species diversity of the bacterial communities decreas with the distance to the entrance of the cave and to the sea. Strains are mainly identified as members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Around 20% of the isolates are able to precipitate carbonates. Calcite is the predominant phase, growing in all the precipitates, although struvite is also found in one Pseudomonas and in one Aspergillus cultures. Differences in crystal characteristics of external shape (habit and growth are observed according to the bacterial species promoting the precipitates. Bacteria associated with multicolored ferromanganese deposits, present in several parts of the cave, are also studied and are identified as Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Nocardioides luteus. The preponderance of Pseudomonas species and the possible contribution of bacteria in calcite deposition are discussed.

  15. High-resolution observations in the western Mediterranean Sea: the REP14-MED experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Reiner; Fiekas, Heinz-Volker; Beguery, Laurent; Borrione, Ines; Funk, Andreas; Hemming, Michael; Hernandez-Lasheras, Jaime; Heywood, Karen J.; Kaiser, Jan; Knoll, Michaela; Mourre, Baptiste; Oddo, Paolo; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Queste, Bastien Y.; Russo, Aniello; Shitashima, Kiminori; Siderius, Martin; Thorp Küsel, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    The observational part of the REP14-MED experiment was conducted in June 2014 in the Sardo-Balearic Basin west of Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Two research vessels collected high-resolution oceanographic data by means of hydrographic casts, towed systems, and underway measurements. In addition, a vast amount of data was provided by a fleet of 11 ocean gliders, time series were available from moored instruments, and information on Lagrangian flow patterns was obtained from surface drifters and one profiling float. The spatial resolution of the observations encompasses a spectrum over 4 orders of magnitude from 𝒪(101 m) to 𝒪(105 m), and the time series from the moored instruments cover a spectral range of 5 orders from 𝒪(101 s) to 𝒪(106 s). The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the huge data set which has been utilised by various studies, focusing on (i) water masses and circulation, (ii) operational forecasting, (iii) data assimilation, (iv) variability of the ocean, and (v) new payloads for gliders.

  16. Population models of burrowing mayfly recolonization in Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schloesser, D.W.; Krieger, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies, Hexagenia spp. (H. limbata and H. rigida), began recolonizing western Lake Erie during the 1990s. Survey data for mayfly nymph densities indicated that the population experienced exponential growth between 1991 and 1997. To predict the time to full recovery of the mayfly population, we fitted logistic models, ranging in carrying capacity from 600 to 2000 nymphs/m2, to these survey data. Based on the fitted logistic curves, we forecast that the mayfly population in western Lake Erie would achieve full recovery between years 1998 and 2000, depending on the carrying capacity of the western basin. Additionally, we estimated the mortality rate of nymphs in western Lake Erie during 1994 and then applied an age-based matrix model to the mayfly population. The results of the matrix population modeling corroborated the exponential growth model application in that both methods yielded an estimate of the population growth rate, r, in excess of 0.8 yr-1. This was the first evidence that mayfly populations are capable of recolonizing large aquatic ecosystems at rates comparable with those observed in much smaller lentic ecosystems. Our model predictions should prove valuable to managers of power plant facilities along the western basin in planning for mayfly emergences and to managers of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) fishery in western Lake Erie.

  17. Plutonium distribution and remobilization in sediments of the Rhone River mouth (North-Western Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansard, B.

    2004-06-01

    % of the Pu discharged over the 40 past years by the Marcoule reprocessing plant, are currently trapped in the sediments off the Rhone River mouth. Plutonium remobilization is potentially an important process but dispersion of contaminated sediments appeared to be limited in space. These results suggest a low exportation of particulate matter introduced by the Rhone River towards the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions and the North-Western Mediterranean basin. (author)

  18. Climate-driven changes in life-history traits of the bastard grunt (Pomadasys incisus in the north-western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. VILLEGAS-HERNÁNDEZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of sea water temperature on the life-history traits of the thermophilic bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus in the Catalan coast. We compared two key traits of this species, condition and reproduction, from populations in two separate areas with different thermal regimes: the Gulf of Roses (cold area and the Ebre Delta (warm area. Specimens were collected monthly from each area between 2010 and 2012. The results were also compared with those given in the literature from sites where the species is more common, i.e. the southern Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic. Our findings indicate that, compared to the populations in warmer environments, the population inhabiting the colder waters appears to be in significantly poorer condition and there is some deviance in their life-history traits: egg size and quality being traded-off for higher egg numbers; lower lengths at maturity and alterations to spawning phenology. A certain degree of plasticity in life-history traits may favour the process of expansion and establishment of this thermophilic species into newly available but colder habitats of the north-western Mediterranean under a scenario of climate change.

  19. Simulation of fine organic aerosols in the western Mediterranean area during the ChArMEx 2013 summer campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholakian, Arineh; Beekmann, Matthias; Colette, Augustin; Coll, Isabelle; Siour, Guillaume; Sciare, Jean; Marchand, Nicolas; Couvidat, Florian; Pey, Jorge; Gros, Valerie; Sauvage, Stéphane; Michoud, Vincent; Sellegri, Karine; Colomb, Aurélie; Sartelet, Karine; Langley DeWitt, Helen; Elser, Miriam; Prévot, André S. H.; Szidat, Sonke; Dulac, François

    2018-05-01

    The simulation of fine organic aerosols with CTMs (chemistry-transport models) in the western Mediterranean basin has not been studied until recently. The ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) SOP 1b (Special Observation Period 1b) intensive field campaign in summer of 2013 gathered a large and comprehensive data set of observations, allowing the study of different aspects of the Mediterranean atmosphere including the formation of organic aerosols (OAs) in 3-D models. In this study, we used the CHIMERE CTM to perform simulations for the duration of the SAFMED (Secondary Aerosol Formation in the MEDiterranean) period (July to August 2013) of this campaign. In particular, we evaluated four schemes for the simulation of OA, including the CHIMERE standard scheme, the VBS (volatility basis set) standard scheme with two parameterizations including aging of biogenic secondary OA, and a modified version of the VBS scheme which includes fragmentation and formation of nonvolatile OA. The results from these four schemes are compared to observations at two stations in the western Mediterranean basin, located on Ersa, Cap Corse (Corsica, France), and at Cap Es Pinar (Mallorca, Spain). These observations include OA mass concentration, PMF (positive matrix factorization) results of different OA fractions, and 14C observations showing the fossil or nonfossil origins of carbonaceous particles. Because of the complex orography of the Ersa site, an original method for calculating an orographic representativeness error (ORE) has been developed. It is concluded that the modified VBS scheme is close to observations in all three aspects mentioned above; the standard VBS scheme without BSOA (biogenic secondary organic aerosol) aging also has a satisfactory performance in simulating the mass concentration of OA, but not for the source origin analysis comparisons. In addition, the OA sources over the western Mediterranean basin are explored. OA shows a major biogenic

  20. Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Temunović

    Full Text Available Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM. We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations.

  1. Fueling Plankton Production by a Meandering Frontal Jet: A Case Study for the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Garcia-Lafuente, Jesus; Pascual, Ananda; Tintore, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    A three dimensional biophysical model was employed to illustrate the biological impacts of a meandering frontal jet, in terms of efficiency and persistency of the autotrophic frontal production, in marginal and semi-enclosed seas. We used the Alboran Sea of the Western Mediterranean as a case study. Here, a frontal jet with a width of 15–20 km, characterized by the relatively low density Atlantic water mass, flows eastward within the upper 100 m as a marked meandering current around the western and the eastern anticyclonic gyres prior to its attachment to the North African shelf/slope topography of the Algerian basin. Its inherent nonlinearity leads to the development of a strong ageostrophic cross-frontal circulation that supplies nutrients into the nutrient-starved euphotic layer and stimulates phytoplankton growth along the jet. Biological production is larger in the western part of the basin and decreases eastwards with the gradual weakening of the jet. The higher production at the subsurface levels suggests that the Alboran Sea is likely more productive than predicted by the satellite chlorophyll data. The Mediterranean water mass away from the jet and the interiors of the western and eastern anticyclonic gyres remain unproductive. PMID:25372789

  2. Understanding north-western Mediterranean climate variability: a multi-proxy and multi-sequence approach based on wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent; Jalali, Bassem; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Sabatier, Pierre; Dezileau, Laurent; Peyron, Odile; Frigola, Jaime; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Forcings and physical mechanisms underlying Holocene climate variability still remain poorly understood. Comparison of different paleoclimatic reconstructions using spectral analysis allows to investigate their common periodicities and helps to understand the causes of past climate changes. Wavelet analysis applied on several proxy time series from the Atlantic domain already revealed the first key-issues on the origin of Holocene climate variability. However the differences in duration, resolution and variance between the time-series are important issues for comparing paleoclimatic sequences in the frequency domain. This work compiles 7 paleoclimatic proxy records from 4 time-series from the north-western Mediterranean all ranging from 7000 to 1000 yrs cal BP: -pollen and clay mineral contents from the lagoonal sediment core PB06 recovered in southern France, -Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) derived from alkenones, concentration of terrestrial alkanes and their average chain length (ACL) from core KSGC-31_GolHo-1B recovered in the Gulf of Lion inner-shelf, - δ18O record from speleothems recovered in the Asiul Cave in north-western Spain, -grain size record from the deep basin sediment drift core MD99-2343 north of Minorca island. A comparison of their frequency content is proposed using wavelet analysis and cluster analysis of wavelet power spectra. Common cyclicities are assessed using cross-wavelet analysis. In addition, a new algorithm is used in order to propagate the age model errors within wavelet power spectra. Results are consistents with a non-stationnary Holocene climate variability. The Halstatt cycles (2000-2500 years) depicted in many proxies (ACL, errestrial alkanes and SSTs) demonstrate solar activity influence in the north-western Mediterranean climate. Cluster analysis shows that pollen and ACL proxies, both indicating changes in aridity, are clearly distinct from other proxies and share significant common periodicities around 1000 and 600 years

  3. Sea surface temperature variability in the North Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion) during the Common Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jalali, Bassem; Martrat, Belen; Schmidt, Sabine; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Kallel, Nejib

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the multidecadal-scale variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the convection region of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) over the full past 2000 yr (Common Era) using alkenone biomarkers. Our data show colder SSTs by 1.7 °C over most of the first millennium (200-800 AD) and by 1.3 °C during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1400-1850 AD) than the 20th century mean (17.9 °C). Although on average warmer, those of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (1000-1200 AD) were lower by 1 °C. We found a mean SST warming of 2 °C/100 yr over the last century in close agreement with the 0.22 and 0.26 °C/decade values calculated for the western Mediterranean Sea from in situ and satellite data, respectively. Our results also reveal strongly fluctuating SSTs characterized by cold extremes followed by abrupt warming during the LIA. We suggest that the coldest decades of the LIA were likely caused by prevailing negative EA states and associated anticyclone blocking over the North Atlantic resulting in cold continental northeasterly winds to blow over Western Europe and the Mediterranean region.

  4. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jovanna; Sciare, Jean; Mallet, Marc; Roberts, Greg C.; Marchand, Nicolas; Sartelet, Karine; Sellegri, Karine; Dulac, François; Healy, Robert M.; Wenger, John C.

    2017-06-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon), K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon), V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass). Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5) accounted for 70-90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich) and biomass burning (K-rich) particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC) and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA). This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which then

  5. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  6. Relative importance of methylotrophic methanogenesis in sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Guang-Chao; Heuer, Verena B.; Lazar, Cassandre S.; Goldhammer, Tobias; Wendt, Jenny; Samarkin, Vladimir A.; Elvert, Marcus; Teske, Andreas P.; Joye, Samantha B.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2018-03-01

    Microbial production of methane is an important terminal metabolic process during organic matter degradation in marine sediments. It is generally acknowledged that hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis constitute the dominant pathways of methane production; the importance of methanogenesis from methylated compounds remains poorly understood. We conducted various biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses to characterize substrate availability, rates of methanogenesis, and methanogen community composition, and further evaluated the contribution of different substrates and pathways for methane production in deltaic surface and subsurface sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Major substrates representing three methanogenic pathways, including H2, acetate, and methanol, trimethylamine (TMA), and dimethylsulfide (DMS), were detected in the pore waters and sediments, and exhibited variability over depth and between sites. In accompanying incubation experiments, methanogenesis rates from various 14C labeled substrates varied as well, suggesting that environmental factors, such as sulfate concentration and organic matter quality, could significantly influence the relative importance of individual pathway. In particular, methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis contributed to the presence of micromolar methane concentrations in the sulfate reduction zone, with methanogenesis from methanol accounting for up to 98% of the total methane production in the topmost surface sediment. In the sulfate-depleted zone, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant methanogenic pathway (67-98%), and enhanced methane production from acetate was observed in organic-rich sediment (up to 31%). Methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA) analysis revealed that the composition of methanogenic communities was generally consistent with the distribution of methanogenic activity from different substrates. This study provides the first quantitative assessment of

  7. Aerosol optical properties of Western Mediterranean basin from multi-year AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhalifa, Jamel; Léon, Jean François; Chaabane, Mabrouk

    2017-11-01

    Aerosol optical properties including the total and coarse mode aerosol extinction optical depth (AODt and AODc respectively), Angstrom exponent (AE), size distribution, single scattering albedo (SSA) were examined using long-term ground-based radiometric measurements at 9 sites in the Western Mediterranean: Oujda, Malaga, Barcelona, Carpentras, Rome Tor Vergata, Ersa, Ispra, Venice and Evora, during the 4-year study period (2010-2013). The South-North gradient in the fraction of AODc represents the signature of the increasing influence of coarse particles on the optical properties at southern stations. This fraction has a daily mean ranging from 48 ± 18% at the southern site Oujda and to 8 ± 8% at Ispra. The low average AE444-870 value (<0.7) at Oujda confirms the major influence of large dust particles. Conversely, the AOD at urban stations are dominated by fine mode particles. The Angstrom Exponent (AE444-870) above 1.5 in Ispra and Venice indicates an atmospheric situation corresponding to the urban pollution controlled by small particles. We have analyzed the intrinsic dust optical properties by selecting the dusty days corresponding to a total optical depth above 0.3 and a fraction of the coarse mode optical depth above 30%. For these cases, the mean AODt during dusty days was shown to be close to 0.4. During dusty days, the coarse mode fraction represents 88% of the total volume at Oudja and above 83% for all other sites. There is a weak variability in the mean coarse mode volume median radius, showing an average of 1.98 ± 0.1. A maximum in the AODc was observed in the summer of 2012, with particular high events on June 27. The forward trajectory starting at Evora on June 27 clearly indicates that all the sites were affected by such dust events in the following days.

  8. Spatio-temporal patterns in the north-western Mediterranean from MERIS derived chlorophyll a concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gordoa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the major surface signatures of chlorophyll a in the Catalan Sea within the context of the dynamics of the north-western Mediterranean basin. Monthly composites from MERIS measurements and CHL products for Case 1 waters were analysed from June 2002 to June 2005. Composite images of variability were used to identify surface dynamics. The results showed that coastal and open sea waters were separated by a belt of low variability, a permanent oligotrophic belt that is noticeable with respect to the bloom conditions of the surrounding areas. The width of this Catalan Oligotrophic Belt (COB located along the continental slope, varied between 17 and 30 km and became blurred in the southernmost area. The chlorophyll a temporal pattern over the shelf showed an almost steady increase from September to March. A similar behaviour but with lower concentrations was observed in oceanic waters. Both temporal patterns showed a disruption during January and/or February that coincided with the well known deep water formation event in the Gulf of Lions. In 2004, the convection was weaker and the offshore temporal trend was not disrupted; however, the opposite was observed in 2005. The spatial chlorophyll a distribution of oceanic waters presented a clear north-south decreasing trend, while the coastal distribution did not show any latitudinal patterns but rather peaks in the areas enriched by river runoff. The observed seasonality was similar to the one published from SeaWiFS data and slightly different from the seasonality shown by CZCS data. Nevertheless, we did not discard the possibility that some of the observed seasonal differences could be a true temporal shift in chlorophyll a production.

  9. Impact of Western and Mediterranean Diets and Vitamin D on Muscle Fibers of Sedentary Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrello, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is associated with sarcopenia. Decreased serum levels of Vitamin D (VitD) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and their mutual relationship were also reported. We aimed to evaluate whether different dietary profiles, containing or not VitD, may exert different effects on muscle molecular morphology. Methods: Twenty-eight male rats were fed for 10 weeks in order to detect early defects induced by different dietary regimens: regular diet (R); regular diet with vitamin D supplementation (R-DS) and regular diet with vitamin D restriction (R-DR); high-fat butter-based diets (HFB-DS and HFB-DR) with 41% energy from fat; high-fat extra-virgin olive oil-based diets (HFEVO-DS and HFEVO-DR) with 41% energy from fat. IL-1β, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and VitD-receptor (VDR) expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Muscle fiber perimeter was measured by histology and morphometric analysis. Results: The muscle fibers of the HEVO-DS rats were hypertrophic, comparable to those of the R-DS rats. An inverse correlation existed between the dietary fat content and the perimeter of the muscle fibers (p < 0.01). In the HFB-DR rats, the muscle fibers appeared hypotrophic with an increase of IL-1β and a dramatic decrease of IGF-1 expression. Conclusions: High-fat western diet could impair muscle metabolism and lay the ground for subsequent muscle damage. VitD associated with a Mediterranean diet showed trophic action on the muscle fibers. PMID:29462978

  10. Coupled study of radionuclides and stable lead isotopes in Western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralles, J.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this work is to identified an environmental deposit able to have stored the atmospheric signal over large time-scale leaning our investigations on lead stable isotopes ( 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb) and radionuclide ( 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 239 Pu, 240 Pu) analysis. Owing to prior studies on anthropogenic lead sources, emission intensity and sedimentary accumulation, we choose to investigate the marine sediments of the Western Mediterranean. In the Gulf of Lions, the sedimentary accumulation is 110 ± 7 μg.cm -2 high in good agreement with the atmospheric inventory estimate we made from salt marshes of Camargue (99 μg.cm -2 ). The reconstructed lead accumulation through a modelling step coupling 210 Pb and stable isotopes corroborates the regional anthropogenic emissions (Ferrand, 1996). Briefly, in this context of the marine sediments are a relevant proxy to study past lead atmospheric concentration over the last hundred years. In the Alboran Sea, the study area is less constrained and more complex in terms of climatic, meteorological and hydrological conditions. The sedimentary inventory is of 153 ± 47 μg.cm -2 , 1,5 higher than in the margin sediments of the Gulf of Lions. The analysis of aerosols, sediments and settling particles evidences a continuity between the atmospheric signal and the sedimentary record. In spite of this encouraging results, the knowledge of the Alboran system is still too restricted in order to unambiguously conclude on accuracy of deep marine sediments of this area to study past atmospheric fallouts. (author)

  11. Western and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity and Fitness among Spanish Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Julibert, Alicia; Argelich, Emma; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Pons, Antoni; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2017-07-06

    Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample ( n = 380; 54% female) aged 55-80 years (men) and 60-80 years (women) with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Body weight, body fat and waist circumference were assessed. Physical activity performed was measured using the Minnesota Leisure-time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA). Physical fitness was assessed using a validated physical fitness test battery. Food consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: "Western" (WDP) and "Mediterranean" (MDP) dietary patterns. Results: Participants in MDP's fourth quartile were classified in the second (men) and third (men and women) tertile of LTPA. After adjusting for age, body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and METs, in both sexes, a negative significant association was found between 30-s Chair stand and 6-min walking test, a positive significant association was found between 30-m Gait speed and 8-foot Time Up-and-Go (except in men) tests with WDP. The 30-m Gait speed test was negatively associated with MDP in men. Conclusions: MDP is associated with more time spent on LTPA, and this association was independent of body composition and a fast gait speed in men. WDP is associated with slower gait speed and lower body strength, agility and aerobic endurance. MDP has protective effect on healthy physical fitness, and WDP may be a contributor to frailty.

  12. Population Genetic Status of the Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Population genetics offers a useful technique for studying the population structure of marine organisms and has relevance to both systematics and the conservation of biodiversity. The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is faced with increasing evidence of degradation and effective management initiatives are needed to ...

  13. Population size, center-periphery, and seed dispersers' effects on the genetic diversity and population structure of the Mediterranean relict shrub Cneorum tricoccon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Nogal, Ana; Matesanz, Silvia; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Traveset, Anna; Valladares, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    The effect of population size on population genetic diversity and structure has rarely been studied jointly with other factors such as the position of a population within the species' distribution range or the presence of mutualistic partners influencing dispersal. Understanding these determining factors for genetic variation is critical for conservation of relict plants that are generally suffering from genetic deterioration. Working with 16 populations of the vulnerable relict shrub Cneorum tricoccon throughout the majority of its western Mediterranean distribution range, and using nine polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined the effects of periphery (peripheral vs. central), population size (large vs. small), and seed disperser (introduced carnivores vs. endemic lizards) on the genetic diversity and population structure of the species. Contrasting genetic variation ( H E : 0.04-0.476) was found across populations. Peripheral populations showed lower genetic diversity, but this was dependent on population size. Large peripheral populations showed high levels of genetic diversity, whereas small central populations were less diverse. Significant isolation by distance was detected, indicating that the effect of long-distance gene flow is limited relative to that of genetic drift, probably due to high selfing rates ( F IS  = 0.155-0.887), restricted pollen flow, and ineffective seed dispersal. Bayesian clustering also supported the strong population differentiation and highly fragmented structure. Contrary to expectations, the type of disperser showed no significant effect on either population genetic diversity or structure. Our results challenge the idea of an effect of periphery per se that can be mainly explained by population size, drawing attention to the need of integrative approaches considering different determinants of genetic variation. Furthermore, the very low genetic diversity observed in several small populations and the strong among-population

  14. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpera, Carolina [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu; Moreno, Roci' o [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed.

  15. Grandidierella bonnieroides Stephensen, 1948 (Amphipoda, Aoridae)-first record of an established population in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Iaciofano, Davide; Lubinevsky, Hadas; Galil, Bella S

    2016-03-17

    The first record in the Mediterranean Sea of the invasive aorid amphipod crustacean Grandidierella bonnieroides is presented. A widespread circumtropical species, recorded off the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, it may have been introduced into the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. This tube-builder species of soft bottoms recently established a population in the polluted Haifa Bay, Israel. Further, this is the first Mediterranean record of the genus.

  16. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouar, Pascaline J; Vallet, Dominique; David, Laetitia; Bermejo, Magdalena; Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Petit, Eric J; Ménard, Nelly

    2009-12-18

    Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed. We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected). Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population. Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  17. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline J Le Gouar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed.We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected. Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population.Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  18. Molecular barcoding and phylogeography of sexual and asexual freshwater planarians of the genus Dugesia in the Western Mediterranean (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lázaro, E.M.; Sluys, R.; Pala, M.; Stocchino, G.A.; Baguñà, J.; Riutort, M.

    2009-01-01

    Planarians of the genus Dugesia have a worldwide distribution with high species diversity in the Mediterranean area. In this area, populations with a triploid karyotype that reproduce by fissiparity are exceptionally frequent, outnumbering the sexual populations. This situation poses interesting

  19. Erosion of continental margins in the Western Mediterranean due to sea-level stagnancy during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Janna; Hübscher, Christian; Betzler, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas; Reicherter, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    High-resolution multi-channel seismic data from continental slopes with minor sediment input off southwest Mallorca Island, the Bay of Oran (Algeria) and the Alboran Ridge reveal evidence that the Messinian erosional surface is terraced at an almost constant depth interval between 320 and 380 m below present-day sea level. It is proposed that these several hundred- to 2,000-m-wide terraces were eroded contemporaneously and essentially at the same depth. Present-day differences in these depths result from subsidence or uplift in the individual realms. The terraces are thought to have evolved during one or multiple periods of sea-level stagnancy in the Western Mediterranean Basin. According to several published scenarios, a single or multiple periods of relative sea-level stillstand occurred during the Messinian desiccation event, generally known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Some authors suggest that the stagnancy started during the refilling phase of the Mediterranean basins. When the rising sea level reached the height of the Sicily Sill, the water spilled over this swell into the eastern basin. The stagnancy persisted until sea level in the eastern basin caught up with the western Mediterranean water level. Other authors assigned periods of sea-level stagnancy to drawdown phases, when inflowing waters from the Atlantic kept the western sea level constant at the depth of the Sicily Sill. Our findings corroborate all those Messinian sea-level reconstructions, forwarding that a single or multiple sea-level stagnancies at the depth of the Sicily Sill lasted long enough to significantly erode the upper slope. Our data also have implications for the ongoing debate of the palaeo-depth of the Sicily Sill. Since the Mallorcan plateau experienced the least vertical movement, the observed terrace depth of 380 m there is inferred to be close to the Messinian depth of this swell.

  20. Population Structure and Dispersal Patterns within and between Atlantic and Mediterranean Populations of a Large-Range Pelagic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovart, Meritxell; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Igual, José Manuel; Bauzà-Ribot, Maria del Mar; Rabouam, Corinne; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal is critically linked to the demographic and evolutionary trajectories of populations, but in most seabird species it may be difficult to estimate. Using molecular tools, we explored population structure and the spatial dispersal pattern of a highly pelagic but philopatric seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Microsatellite fragments were analysed from samples collected across almost the entire breeding range of the species. To help disentangle the taxonomic status of the two subspecies described, the Atlantic form C. d. borealis and the Mediterranean form C. d. diomedea, we analysed genetic divergence between subspecies and quantified both historical and recent migration rates between the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. We also searched for evidence of isolation by distance (IBD) and addressed spatial patterns of gene flow. We found a low genetic structure in the Mediterranean basin. Conversely, strong genetic differentiation appeared in the Atlantic basin. Even if the species was mostly philopatric (97%), results suggest recent dispersal between basins, especially from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (aprox. 10% of migrants/generation across the last two generations). Long-term gene flow analyses also suggested an historical exchange between basins (about 70 breeders/generation). Spatial analysis of genetic variation indicates that distance is not the main factor in shaping genetic structure in this species. Given our results we recommend gathering more data before concluded whether these taxa should be treated as two species or subspecies. PMID:23950986

  1. New morphological and molecular evidence confirm the presence of the Norwegian skate Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm, 1881) in the Mediterranean Sea and extend its distribution to the western basin

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÍREZ-AMARO, S.; ORDINES, F.; ÁNGEL PUERTO, M.; GARCÍA, C.; RAMON, C.; TERRASA, B.; MASSUTÍ, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present study confirms the presence of the Norwegian skate Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm, 1881) in the Mediterranean Sea, by means of morphological traits and molecular markers providing the first record of this species in the Alboran Sea. Cannas et al. (2010) reported D. nidarosiensis for the first time in the Mediterranean from specimens captured in the central western basin, but Ebert & Stehmann (2013) and Stehmann et al. (2015) considered these records "likely refer to the smaller mor...

  2. Diamond vs. square mesh codend in a multi-species trawl fishery of the western Mediterranean: effects on catch composition, yield, size selectivity and discards

    OpenAIRE

    Ordines, F. (Francesc); Massutí, E. (Enric); Guijarro, B. (Beatriz); Mas, R. (Ramon)

    2006-01-01

    Selectivity studies usually describe the effects on target species, whereas information on by-catch and discards is scarce. Nevertheless, large quantities of undersized individuals and invertebrates are discarded in the Mediterranean multi-species bottom trawl fishery. The present work analyses the data from two surveys carried out on the shallow and deep continental shelf (50–78 m, and 147–189 m, respectively) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). In these surveys, the traditiona...

  3. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: a multiproxy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nieto-Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic Basin, near the Alboran Basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to fluvial-eolian oscillations, changes in redox conditions and paleocurrent intensity. Multivariate analyses allowed us to characterize three main groups of geochemical and mineralogical proxies determining the sedimentary record of this region. These three statistical groups were applied to reconstruct paleoclimate conditions at high resolution during the Late Holocene. An increase in riverine input (fluvial-derived elements – Rb/Al, Ba/Al, REE/Al, Si/Al, Ti/Al, Mg/Al and K/Al ratios, and a decrease in Saharan eolian input (Zr/Al ratio depict the Roman Humid Period and the Little Ice Age, while drier environmental conditions are recognized during the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, faster bottom currents and more energetic hydrodynamic conditions for the former periods are evidenced by enhanced sortable silt (10-63 μm and quartz content, and by better oxygenated bottom waters – as reflected by decreasing redox-sensitive elements (V/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and Zn/Al ratios. In contrast, opposite paleoceanographic conditions are distinguished during the latter periods, i.e. the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Although no Ba excess was registered, other paleoproductivity indicators (total organic carbon content, Br/Al ratio, and organometallic ligands such as U and Cu display the highest values during the Roman Humid Period, and together with increasing preservation of organic matter, this period exhibits by far the most intense productivity of the last 4000 yr. Fluctuations in detrital input into the basin as the main process managing deposition, reflected by the

  4. The Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A Relict Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem, D; Goffman, O; Elasar, M; Hadar, N; Scheinin, A; Lewis, T

    Only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the Mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. Preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an Atlantic origin, yet the Mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the Atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the Sicilian Channel and most within the bounds of the Levantine Basin. These dolphins are apparently a small, relict population, probably the remnant of a larger one, contiguous with that in the Atlantic and nowadays entrapped in the easternmost and warmest province. Abundance data are lacking for the species in the Mediterranean. Configuring acoustic detection software to recognise the apparently idiosyncratic vocalisations of rough-toothed dolphins in past and future acoustic recordings may prove useful for potential acoustic monitoring. Evidence accumulated so far, though scant, points to seasonal occupation of shallow coastal waters. Vulnerability to entanglement in gill-nets, contaminants in the region, and the occurrence of mass strandings (possibly in response to anthropogenic noise), are major conservation concerns for the population in the Mediterranean Sea. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 6-kyr record of flood frequency and intensity in the western Mediterranean Alps - Interplay of solar and temperature forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Moiroux, Fanny; Poulenard, Jérôme; Develle, Anne-Lise; Bichet, Adeline; Chen, Wentao; Pignol, Cécile; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Gielly, Ludovic; Bajard, Manon; Perrette, Yves; Malet, Emmanuel; Taberlet, Pierre; Arnaud, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    The high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis of a sediment sequence from Lake Savine (Western Mediterranean Alps, France) led to the identification of 220 event layers for the last 6000 years. 200 were triggered by flood events and 20 by underwater mass movements possibly related to earthquakes that occurred in 5 clusters of increase seismicity. Because human activity could influence the flood chronicle, the presence of pastures was reconstructed through ancient DNA, which suggested that the flood chronicle was mainly driven by hydroclimate variability. Weather reanalysis of historical floods allow to identify that mesoscale precipitation events called "East Return" events were the main triggers of floods recorded in Lake Savine. The first part of this palaeoflood record (6-4 kyr BP) was characterized by increases in flood frequency and intensity in phase with Northern Alpine palaeoflood records. By contrast, the second part of the record (i.e., since 4 kyr BP) was phased with Southern Alpine palaeoflood records. These results suggest a palaeohydrological transition at approximately 4 kyr BP, as has been previously described for the Mediterranean region. This may have resulted in a change of flood-prone hydro-meteorological processes, i.e., in the balance between occurrence and intensity of local convective climatic phenomena and their influence on Mediterranean mesoscale precipitation events in this part of the Alps. At a centennial timescale, increases in flood frequency and intensity corresponded to periods of solar minima, affecting climate through atmospheric changes in the Euro-Atlantic sector.

  6. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part I: The North-Western Mediterranean, including the Pelagos sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Sophie; Pettex, Emeline; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; David, Léa; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary, the largest Marine Protected Area (MPA) designed for marine mammals in the Mediterranean. A total of 8 distinct species of cetaceans were identified, and their occurrence within the sanctuary was investigated. Abundance estimates were obtained for three groups of species: the small delphinids (striped dolphins mainly), the bottlenose dolphin and the fin whale. There was a seasonal variation in striped dolphin abundance between winter (57,300 individuals, 95% CI: 34,500-102,000) and summer (130,000, 95% CI: 76,800-222,100). In contrast, bottlenose dolphin winter abundance was thrice that of summer. It was also the only species to exhibit any preference for the Pelagos sanctuary. Fin whale abundance had the reverse pattern with winter abundance (1000 individuals, 95% CI: 500-2500) and summer (2500 individuals, 95% CI: 1500-4300), without any preference for the sanctuary. Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales did not exhibit strong seasonal pattern in their abundance. These results provide baseline estimates which can be used to inform conservation policies and instruments such as the Habitats Directive or the recent European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  7. Genetic structure and diversity of the selfing model grass Brachypodium stacei (Poaceae in Western Mediterranean: out of the Iberian Peninsula and into the islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriia Shiposha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual Mediterranean species of the genus Brachypodium are promising model plants for energy crops since their selfing nature and short-life cycles are an advantage in breeding programs. The false brome, B. distachyon, has already been sequenced and new genomic initiatives have triggered the de-novo genome sequencing of its close relatives such as B. stacei, a species that was until recently mistaken for B. distachyon. However, the success of these initiatives hinges on detailed knowledge about the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations for the effective use of germplasm in a breeding program. Understanding population genetic diversity and genetic structure is also an important prerequisite for designing effective experimental populations for genomic wide studies. However, population genetic data are still limited in B. stacei. We therefore selected and amplified 10 nuclear microsatellite markers to depict patterns of population structure and genetic variation among 181 individuals from 19 populations of B. stacei occurring in its predominant range, the western Mediterranean area: mainland Iberian Peninsula, continental Balearic Islands and oceanic Canary Islands. Our genetic results support the occurrence of a predominant selfing system with extremely high levels of homozygosity across the analyzed populations. Despite the low level of genetic variation found, two different genetic clusters were retrieved, one clustering all SE Iberian mainland populations and the island of Minorca and another one grouping all S Iberian mainland populations, the Canary Islands and all Majorcan populations except one that clustered with the former group. These results, together with a high sharing of alleles (89% suggest different colonization routes from the mainland Iberian Peninsula into the islands. A recent colonization scenario could explain the relatively low levels of genetic diversity and low number of alleles found in the Canary

  8. Genetic structure and diversity of the selfing model grass Brachypodium stacei (Poaceae) in Western Mediterranean: out of the Iberian Peninsula and into the islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiposha, Valeriia; Catalán, Pilar; Olonova, Marina; Marques, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Annual Mediterranean species of the genus Brachypodium are promising model plants for energy crops since their selfing nature and short-life cycles are an advantage in breeding programs. The false brome, B. distachyon, has already been sequenced and new genomic initiatives have triggered the de-novo genome sequencing of its close relatives such as B. stacei, a species that was until recently mistaken for B. distachyon. However, the success of these initiatives hinges on detailed knowledge about the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations for the effective use of germplasm in a breeding program. Understanding population genetic diversity and genetic structure is also an important prerequisite for designing effective experimental populations for genomic wide studies. However, population genetic data are still limited in B. stacei. We therefore selected and amplified 10 nuclear microsatellite markers to depict patterns of population structure and genetic variation among 181 individuals from 19 populations of B. stacei occurring in its predominant range, the western Mediterranean area: mainland Iberian Peninsula, continental Balearic Islands and oceanic Canary Islands. Our genetic results support the occurrence of a predominant selfing system with extremely high levels of homozygosity across the analyzed populations. Despite the low level of genetic variation found, two different genetic clusters were retrieved, one clustering all SE Iberian mainland populations and the island of Minorca and another one grouping all S Iberian mainland populations, the Canary Islands and all Majorcan populations except one that clustered with the former group. These results, together with a high sharing of alleles (89%) suggest different colonization routes from the mainland Iberian Peninsula into the islands. A recent colonization scenario could explain the relatively low levels of genetic diversity and low number of alleles found in the Canary Islands

  9. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive...... potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011...... to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits...

  10. Appraising timing response of paleoenvironmental proxies to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean over the last 20 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Ortega-Huertas, Miguel

    2018-04-01

    The timing of climate responses to the Bond cycle is investigated in the western Mediterranean. Periodicities had been previously reported in a marine sediment record from this region spanning the last 20 kyr, and registered by diverse paleoenvironmental proxies, in particular those associated with terrigenous input, redox conditions, productivity, sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. Further cross-spectral analyses on these time series reveal leads-lags in the 1400 year climate cycle. Considering as reference a terrigenous input proxy (the K/Al ratio), all the paleoenvironmental proxies displayed time shifts varying from ca. 700 year to ca. 350 year. SST and salinity variations show a first leaded response with the inflow of cold and less salty Atlantic waters. Followed by a time lead of 525 year, progresively arid conditions with an increase of eolian dust transport to the area, given by the Zr/Al signal, are observed. The intensification of dust transport could have triggered a latest biological response, lead by 350 year, with an increase of productivity, as suggested by the Ba/Al ratio. Lastly changes in the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation, indicated by a selected redox proxy (the U/Th ratio), are observed. These results support that the oceanic response triggered the atmospheric response to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean. Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation mode and in the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations with variations in the monsoon activity or Saharan winds system, are considered as main forcing mechanisms, with a complex relationship of the involved phenomena.

  11. Ongoing lithospheric removal in the western Mediterranean: Evidence from Ps receiver functions and thermobarometry of Neogene basalts (PICASSO project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Sally; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan; Carbonell, Ramon; Lee, Cin-Ty

    2014-04-01

    The western Mediterranean tectonic system consists of the Betic Mountains in southern Spain and the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco curved around the back-arc extensional Alboran basin. Multiple tectonic models have been developed to explain the coeval compressional and extensional tectonic processes that have affected the western Mediterranean since the Oligocene. In order to provide constraints on these evolutionary models, we use Ps teleseismic receiver functions (RF), thermobarometric analyses of post-Oligocene basalts, and previous teleseismic tomography images to investigate the lithospheric structure of the region. Ps RFs were calculated using seismic data from 239 broadband seismic stations in southern Iberia and northern Morocco and thermobarometric analysis was performed on 19 volcanic samples distributed throughout the region. The RF images reveal a highly variable Moho depth (˜25 to ˜55 km), as well as a strong positive, sub-Moho horizon between ˜45 and ˜80 km depth beneath the central Betic and Rif Mountains, which we interpret to be the top of the previously imaged Alboran Sea slab. Thermobarometric constraints from magmas in the eastern Betics and Rif indicate mantle melting depths between 40 and 60 km, typical of melting depths beneath mid-oceanic ridges where little to no lithosphere exists. Together, the RF and thermobarometric data suggest ongoing and recent slab detachment resulting from delamination of the continental lithosphere.

  12. Technological Language as a Common Language for Euro-Mediterranean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sebastio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and social networks provide new forms of public spaces, virtual continents populated by people of different races, languages, and religions that communicate with a single language, in one unique mode and with one unique tool. In the era of extreme social participation, it is impossible not to consider the role of future policies of education. We cannot ignore the basic language in which the Euro-Mediterranean people recognize themselves, allowing them to interact on all sides of the Mediterranean basin. Technology provides a dialogue bridge, as well as mutual recognition and accreditation for the people who share the Mediterranean Sea and the world. The Internet is the true centre of the Union membership and provides a common good, which generates shared recognition and willingness to communicate; furthermore, it results in the renunciation of personal data protection, as well as the management of its powers to private entities. The aim of this paper is to envisage the effects of the electronic society on the Mediterranean Policies.

  13. Eocene rotation of Sardinia, and the paleogeography of the western Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Advokaat, Eldert; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Maffione, M.; Langereis, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073584223; Vissers, R.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068789203; Cherchi, A.; Schroeder, R.; Madani, H.; Columbu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Key to understanding the complex Mediterranean subduction history is the kinematic reconstruction of its paleogeography after Jurassic extension between Iberia, Eurasia, and Africa. While post-Eocene Liguro-Provençal back-arc extension, and associated Miocene ~50° counterclockwise (ccw) rotation of

  14. Very large dune formation along the Ebro outer continental shelf (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Claudio; Guillén, Jorge; Puig, Pere; Ribó, Marta; Ballesteros, Maria; Palanques, Albert; Farrán, Marcelli; Acosta, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Large and very large subaqueous dunes have been observed in a number of outer shelf regions around the world, tipically developing on fossil sand bodies and ridges. Dunes observed on outer shelves usually display large dimensions with maximum wavelength reaching up to 500 m and heights up to 20 m. Forcing mechanisms able to induce their formation have been described as strong bottom currents related to tidal variations and water masses flowing under geostrophic conditions, generally controlled and enhanced by local geomorphologic configurations. In this study, such bed features have been recognized, mapped and measured around the Columbretes Islands (Ebro continental shelf - Western Mediterranean) with the aim to reconstruct which are the potential forcing processes that could generate them in relation to the local settings of the area. Swath-bathymetry around the Columbretes Islands was collected using 30 kHz and 180 kHz Multi Beam echo-sounders for a 50-400 m water depth range. Bathymetric data revealed the presence of three main relict sand bodies along the outer shelf, for a 80-116 m depth range, above which asymmetrical, slightly asymmetrical and symmetrical large and very large 2D and 3D subaqueous dunes were observed. Dunes range from 150 to 760 m in wavelength and from tens of cm to 6 m in height. These bedforms are composed of sandy sediments, presumably coming from the degraded relict sand bodies on which they developed, mixed to the fine fractions coming from the recent draping holocenic sediments. The orientation of the dunes is SSW and progressively turns to W directions moving towards the southernmost sector of the area, following the trend of the shelf-edge. Observed dunes display a strong asymmetric profile for those occurring along the shelf-edge (Symmetry Index (SI): 2.6) and lose progressively their asymmetry towards the inner portion of the shelf (SI: 0.5), being 0.6 the minimum SI value to classify the dunes as asymmetric. The subaqueous dunes

  15. The Contribution of the Topo-Iberia Project to the Knowledge of the Western Mediterranean Geodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Cusi, J.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale research program Topo-Iberia aims to unravel the complex structure and mantle processes in the area of interaction between the African and European continental plates in the western Mediterranean. The project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, started in 2007 and will be active till Fall 2013. Topo-Iberia has gathered expertise of different fields of the Earth Sciences. One of the key assets of the project involves the deploying of a technological observatory platform, IberArray, with unprecedented resolution and coverage. This platform is currently building up a comprehensive, multidisciplinary data set, stored by the SIGEOF database, which includes seismological, GPS and magnetotelluric data. Using also other analytical methodologies included in the Topo-Iberia program (potential fields, quantitative analysis of the topography, dating methods) the final scope of the project is to study the relationship between superficial and deep-rooted processes. Topo-Iberia has also benefited from the interaction with other projects investigating the same area, as the American program PICASSO, the French Pyrope or the Portuguese WILAS. This interaction includes sharing the available data to better assess the key geological questions. This contribution will present the current state of the most significant scientific results which are arising from the data acquired using the Iberarray platform. -. SKS splitting analysis has provided a spectacular image of the anisotropic pattern over the area, including a clear rotation of the fast velocity direction along the Gibraltar Arc. -. Receiver functions have revealed the crustal thickness variations beneath the Rif and southern Iberia, including a crustal root beneath the Rif not clearly documented previously. The 410-km and 660-km upper mantle discontinuities have been investigated using novel cross-correlation/stacking techniques. -. Surface wave tomography using both earthquakes and ambient

  16. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  17. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective.

  18. Biomarkers of physiological responses of Octopus vulgaris to different coastal environments in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillero-Ríos, J; Sureda, A; Capó, X; Oliver-Codorniú, M; Arechavala-Lopez, P

    2018-03-01

    The increase of pollutants in coastal seawater could produce several harmful biological effects on marine organisms related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing cellular and tissue damages through oxidative stress mechanisms. Common octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) inhabiting coastal areas under high anthropogenic activity of Mallorca (W-Mediterranean Sea) have the ability to control oxidative damage by triggering antioxidant enzyme responses. Analyzing the digestive glands, octopuses from human-altered coastal areas showed higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared to octopuses from non-influenced coastal waters (i.e. marine reserve area). Higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations and lack of malondialdehyde (MDA) variations also reflect adaptations of O. vulgaris to polluted areas. This is the first study assessing the levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers on O. vulgaris in the Mediterranean Sea, revealing their usefulness to assess diverse environmental pollution effects on this relevant ecological and commercial species.

  19. Otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA markers distinguish three sand smelt species in the Atherina boyeri species complex in western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinar, A. S.; Chaoui, L.; Quignard, J. P.; Aurelle, D.; Kara, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atherina boyeri is a common euryhaline teleost fish in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas, which inhabits coastal and estuarine waters, including coastal lagoons and more rarely inland waters. Several recent studies have pointed the possible existence of three distinct groups or species, one lagoon/freshwater group and two 'punctuated and unpunctuated on the flanks' marine groups, within an A. boyeri species complex. This study is a combined approach using otolith shape and molecular markers to better define the structure of the species in the western Mediterranean. Genetic differentiation and species delimitation among nine Atherina boyeri populations from several marine and lagoon/brakish habitat sites in Algeria, Tunisia and France were investigated using three mitochondrial (control region, Cyt b and 16S) and one nuclear markers (2nd intron of S7). For further phylogenetic and phylogeographic study, we added sequences from Genbank covering more areas (Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic). Five groups were found. Two of them perfectly corresponded to two species already recognized Atherina presbyter and Atherina hepsetus, both living in marine waters; and three additional, including Atherina boyeri (brackish and freshwater environments) and two independent groups of marine punctated and unpunctated individuals. Those findings are corroborated by the study of the otolith contour shape of 362 individuals of seven populations from different habitats using Fourier analysis. Individuals could be discriminated into five groups based on the first two functions (Wilk's lambda = 0.07, p < 0.001). Samples from Ziama inlet, marine punctuated individuals and unpunctuated marine specimens from Annaba's Gulf formed three well separated groups. Specimens from Mellah and Mauguio lagoons formed another group. The last one includes individuals from Bizerte and Thau lagoons. The divergences between them strongly support the potential species within the

  20. Improving SMOS Sea Surface Salinity in the Western Mediterranean Sea through Multivariate and Multifractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Olmedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology using a combination of debiased non-Bayesian retrieval, DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions and multifractal fusion has been used to obtain Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS fields over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The debiased non-Bayesian retrieval mitigates the systematic errors produced by the contamination of the land over the sea. In addition, this retrieval improves the coverage by means of multiyear statistical filtering criteria. This methodology allows obtaining SMOS SSS fields in the Mediterranean Sea. However, the resulting SSS suffers from a seasonal (and other time-dependent bias. This time-dependent bias has been characterized by means of specific Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs. Finally, high resolution Sea Surface Temperature (OSTIA SST maps have been used for improving the spatial and temporal resolution of the SMOS SSS maps. The presented methodology practically reduces the error of the SMOS SSS in the Mediterranean Sea by half. As a result, the SSS dynamics described by the new SMOS maps in the Algerian Basin and the Balearic Front agrees with the one described by in situ SSS, and the mesoscale structures described by SMOS in the Alboran Sea and in the Gulf of Lion coincide with the ones described by the high resolution remotely-sensed SST images (AVHRR.

  1. Parasite communities in two sparid fishes from the western Mediterranean: A comparative analysis based on samples from three localities off the Algerian coast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benhamou, F.; Marzoug, D.; Boutiba, Z.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2017), s. 26-35 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Algeria * Boops boops * parasite communities * Spicara maena * western Mediterranean Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2016

  2. Atmospheric mercury species measurements across the Western Mediterranean region: Behaviour and variability during a 2015 research cruise campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Jessica; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Esposito, Giulio; Pirrone, Nicola; Sprovieri, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the ongoing MEDOCEANOR measurements program, an oceanographic cruise campaign was carried out during summer 2015 in the Western sector of Mediterranean Sea basin, on-board the research vessel ;Minerva Uno; of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The overall goal was to investigate the dynamic patterns of mercury in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the main factors affecting mercury behaviour at both coastal and offshore locations. The mean concentrations of the recorded Hg species were 1.6 ± 0.5 ngm-3 , 11.8 ± 15.0 pgm-3 , and 2.4 ± 1.1 pgm-3 , respectively for GEM, GOM, and PBM. Moreover, during the measurement period typical fair-weather conditions of the Mediterranean summer were encountered with high levels of solar radiation and temperature that favoured photochemical reactions. Atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides and other meteorological parameters were in addition recorded and jointly discussed with selected mercury events in terms of their spatio-temporal variations. Changes in air pollutant concentrations were also argued in the light of their likely influencing sources, among which, anthropogenic activities, such as the mercury cell chlor-alkali complex in Tuscany, Italy, and natural influence, like volcanic ashes, detected around the Aeolian area and the in-situ production of reactive gaseous mercury within the Marine Boundary Layer.

  3. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3 were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB and the other in the historical city centre (CC. Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m−3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m−3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv. This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm, gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42− daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4

  4. Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Otjes, R. P.; Blom, M. J.; Querol, X.

    2012-08-01

    Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC). Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m-3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv) compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m-3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv). This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm), gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases) during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42- daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4+)) revealed that the gas-to-particle phase partitioning (volatilization or ammonium salts formation) also played an important role in the evolution of NH3 concentration in summer in Barcelona.

  5. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern, cognitive status and depressive symptoms in an elderly non-institutionalized population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Galiot, Ana; Goñi, Isabel

    2017-03-30

    Scientific evidence indicates that adherence to the Mediterranean diet protects against the deterioration of cognitive status and depressive symptoms during aging. However, few studies have been conducted in elderly non-institutionalized subjects. This study evaluated the relation between the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and cognitive status and depressive symptoms in an elderly population over 75 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Mediterranean city (Garrucha, Spain) in 79 elderly people over 75 (36 men and 41 women). Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was determined using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Cognitive function was determined by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Most of population showed a very high adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern and optimal cognitive and affective status. They consumed olive oil as their main source of fat, high levels of fish and fruit, low levels of foods with added sugars, and a low consumption of red meat. A significant relation between the MEDAS and MMSE scores was found. However, no relationship was observed between the MEDAS and GDS. The Mediterranean diet pattern was positively related with the cognitive function, although the infl uence of a healthy dietary pattern on the symptomatology of depression was unclear. However, an effective strategy against cognitive function and depression would be to improve physical activity rates, establish lifelong healthy eating habits, and consume a nutritionally-rich diet in order to enhance quality of life of the elderly.

  6. A comparison of two seabird communities on opposite coasts of the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Paracuellos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the seabird communities at two sites of the southern and northern shores of the Alborán Sea in the Western Mediterranean (Melilla and Adra respectively during a whole year. Similarities and differences in environmental characteristics of the two study sites were caused by a set of geographical, physical and socio-economic human factors. Sampling was performed weekly during two-hour periods by counting seabirds crossing a given point of the coast. We found similarities in the composition and seasonality of the species between Melilla and Adra. However, there were differences between the two sites in the number of species and individuals, which were usually higher on the southern shore. In this area, seabirds depending on marine trophic resources were more abundant, whereas on the northern shore the most abundant seabird species were those whose feeding habits were not so dependent on sea resources.

  7. Evolution of Western Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature between 1985 and 2005: a complementary study in situ, satellite and modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, C.; Lenartz, F.; Sirjacobs, D.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Barth, A.; Ouberdous, M.; Beckers, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    In order to evaluate the variability of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Western Mediterranean Sea between 1985 and 2005, an integrated approach combining geostatistical tools and modelling techniques has been set up. The objectives are: underline the capability of each tool to capture characteristic phenomena, compare and assess the quality of their outputs, infer an interannual trend from the results. Diva (Data Interpolating Variationnal Analysis, Brasseur et al. (1996) Deep-Sea Res.) was applied on a collection of in situ data gathered from various sources (World Ocean Database 2005, Hydrobase2, Coriolis and MedAtlas2), from which duplicates and suspect values were removed. This provided monthly gridded fields in the region of interest. Heterogeneous time data coverage was taken into account by computing and removing the annual trend, provided by Diva detrending tool. Heterogeneous correlation length was applied through an advection constraint. Statistical technique DINEOF (Data Interpolation with Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Alvera-Azc

  8. Protogrammus alboranensis n. sp. (Teleostei: Callionymidae, a new species of dragonet from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Farias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Protogrammus alboranensis n. sp. is described on the basis of four specimens from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea. It is characterized within the genus Protogrammus by a total of nine unbranched rays on the second dorsal fin, eight unbranched rays on the anal fin, a very small preopercular spine with an upcurved main tip and one point on the dorsal margin, which is lacking an antrorse spine at the base, the first and second spines of the first dorsal fin filamentous and much longer than the first ray of the second dorsal fin in males, the tip of the last ray of the second dorsal fin reaching beyond the caudal fin base in males, and the anal fin distally black in the males (translucent in females. A key to the species of Protogrammus is presented; the zoogeography of the species is discussed.

  9. A long Saharan dust event over the western Mediterranean: Lidar, Sun photometer observations, and regional dust modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    PéRez, C.; Nickovic, S.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sicard, M.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Cachorro, V. E.

    2006-08-01

    A long Saharan dust event affected the western Mediterranean in the period 12-28 June 2002. Dust was present mainly between 1- and 5-km height affecting most parts of the Iberian Peninsula and reaching western/central Europe. Intensive backscatter lidar observations over Barcelona (Spain) and Sun photometer data from two stations (El Arenosillo, Spain, and Avignon, France) are used to evaluate different configurations the Dust Regional Atmospheric Modeling (DREAM) system. DREAM currently operates dust forecasts over the Mediterranean region (http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/DREAM/) considering four particle size bins while only the first two are relevant for long-range transport analysis since their life time is larger than 12 hours. A more detailed bin method is implemented, and two different dust distributions at sources are compared to the operational version. Evaluations are performed at two wavelengths (532 and 1064 nm). The dust horizontal and vertical structure simulated by DREAM shows very good qualitative agreement when compared to SeaWIFS satellite images and lidar height-time displays over Barcelona. When evaluating the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) against Sun photometer data, significant improvements are achieved with the use of the new detailed bin method. In general, the model underpredicts the AOD for increasing Ångström exponents because of the influence of anthropogenic pollution in the boundary layer. In fact, the modeled AOD is highly anticorrelated with the observed Ångström exponents. Avignon shows higher influence of small anthropogenic aerosols which explains the better results of the model at the wavelength of 1064 nm over this location. The uncertainties of backscatter lidar inversions (20-30%) are in the same order of magnitude as the differences between the model experiments. Better model results are obtained when comparing to lidar because most of the anthropogenic effect is removed.

  10. Genetic variability of central-western European pine marten (Martes martes) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Elschot, Kelly; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; van de Zande, Louis; Zalewski, Andrzej; Munoz, Joaquin; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Loeschcke, Volker; de Groot, Arjen; Bijlsma, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies highlighted the potential role of cryptic glacial refugia for temperate taxa in Europe beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas. To further investigate phylogeographic features of the European pine marten (Martes martes) in previously identified cryptic refugia located in central-western

  11. The role of lantern fish (Myctophidae) in the life-cycle of cetacean parasites from western Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Paula; Nardi, Valentina; Fraija-Fernández, Natalia; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Gil de Sola, Luis; Raga, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Myctophids (lantern fish) and cephalopods play a key role in trophic webs from the continental slope and oceanic waters linking the zooplankton to top predators. Many cetaceans feed on both lantern fish and cephalopods, and such prey would thus be expected to bridge the trophic gap in the life-cycles of helminths infecting cetaceans. However, information on the life-cycles of most of these helminths is extremely scanty. We examined the parasite fauna of myctophids and cephalopods in two areas from the western Mediterranean where at least 21 helminth taxa from cetaceans have been reported and both cetacean diversity and abundance is high. A total of 1012 individuals of 8 lantern fish species, namely, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Notoscopelus elongatus, Benthosema glaciale, Myctophum punctatum, Lobianchia dofleini, Diaphus holti and Hygophum benoiti, and 792 individuals of 2 cephalopod species, Alloteuthis media and Sepietta oweniana, were collected from the Gulf of Valencia and Alboran Sea (Spanish Mediterranean) during 2010-2012 and examined for larval helminths. All these species have been reported as prey for at least some cetacean species in the area. Only five helminth taxa were found. The nematodes Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis physeteris were detected in N. elongatus and C. maderensis (overall prevalence for Anisakis: 8.1% and 0.5%, respectively). Their prevalence in N. elongatus was significantly higher than that from the other three myctophid species with n>50 individuals. A single individual of Hysterothylacium sp. was found in N. elongatus (prevalence: 0.5%) and Raphidascarididae gen. spp. in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 20.3% and 0.7%, respectively). Juvenile didymozoid digeneans (Torticaecum type) were detected in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 18.5% and 4.3%, respectively). Two unidentified cestode plerocercoids were collected from N. elongatus. Our study suggests, for the first time, that myctophids

  12. Diversification of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae) in the Western Mediterranean and Macaronesia--phylogenetic relationships, reticulate evolution and biogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunert, Agnes; Heubl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    The flora of the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia is characterized by high levels of species diversity and endemism. We examined phylogenetic relationships of Scrophularia within one of its secondary centers of diversity located in the Iberian Peninsula and adjacent Macaronesia. In total, 65 ingroup accessions from 45 species, representing an almost complete sampling of the region, were analyzed using sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the plastid trnQ-rps16 intergenic spacer. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and statistical parsimony networking. Incongruence between datasets was assessed with statistical tests and displayed by split networks. Biogeographic inferences incorporating information from both markers (despite low resolution in some parts of the trees) and all incongruent taxa were accomplished with a novel combination of methods, using trees generated with the taxon duplication approach as input for Bayesian binary MCMC (BBM) analysis as implemented in RASP. Nuclear and chloroplast markers support a clade which comprises the majority of Iberian and Macaronesian species and consists of three subclades. Analyses of the substantial incongruence observed among markers indicate reticulate evolution and suggest that Scrophularia species diversity in this region is largely attributable to hybridization; a combination of both polyploidy and dysploidy in the karyotypic evolution of Western Mediterranean Scrophularia taxa is proposed. Our results provide support for an ancient hybridization event between two widespread lineages, which resulted in an allopolyploid ancestor of the Iberian - Macaronesian group with 2n=58 chromosomes. The ancestor then diverged into the three main lineages present in the Iberian Peninsula, Northern Africa and Macaronesia today. Subsequent interspecific hybridizations at different ploidy levels additionally generated new species. Presumably

  13. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  14. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  15. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  16. What can otolith shape analysis tell us about population structure of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, from Atlantic and Mediterranean waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaa, Sharif; Bacha, Mahmoud; Khalaf, Gaby; Dessailly, David; Rabhi, Khalef; Amara, Rachid

    2015-02-01

    The European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, exhibits a complex population structure, which has produced conflicting results in previous genetic studies. Despite its importance in the fisheries industry, stock delineation for management and conservation purposes is still a matter of debate throughout the distribution range of the species. This study examines whether otolith shapes are more efficient than genetic markers to detect population structure in pelagic species with large population sizes. Sardines were analyzed from 15 sampling localities in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea covering almost the whole distribution range of the species. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 77%. Group A: northern Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Gabès; group B: Atlantic Morocco-south Alboran-Algero-provençal coasts; and group C: European Atlantic coast. The Almeria-Oran front and the Gibraltar strait are not an efficient barrier for sardine population separation as there seems to be exchanges between populations of the south-western Mediterranean Sea and those of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean coast or Gulf of Cadiz. The results are discussed in relation to environmental conditions, oceanographic features, and physical barriers to dispersal in the study area, and compared with those obtained by previous genetic, morphometric, and meristic data. For pelagic species with high gene flow, present results highlighted the need to take into account the identification of phenotypic stocks to ensure sustainable fishery benefits and efficient conservation as they may have unique demographic properties and responses to exploitation.

  17. Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Syracuse Bay (Western Ionian Sea, Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Fernando; Belmonte, Manuela; Caroppo, Carmela; Giacobbe, Mariagrazia

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts were investigated for the first time at an Ionian locality along the south-eastern coast of Sicily, subject to spring-summer harmful algal events. Thirty-four cyst morphotypes were recognized belonging to 24 taxa identified at least at the genus level. Cyst abundance in surface sediments ranged from 43 to 828 cysts g -1 dry weight, with the highest numbers recorded at the most restricted station. Germination experiments allowed confirmation of species identification determined by cyst analysis and provided clonal cultures of Alexandrium minutum and Gymnodinium nolleri, two of the bloom-forming species in the area. This represents the first record of G. nolleri for the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. From Tethyan Oceans to the Western Mediterranean I - Plate reconstructions from the Present back to the Early Mesozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan; Handy, Mark; Bousquet, Romain; Kissling, Eduard; Bernoulli, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    A new reconstruction of the branches of Alpine Tethys combines available plate kinematic models of Africa-Europe motion with a wealth of new geological and geophysical data (seismic tomography and paleomagnetics) to shed light the evolution of the Western Mediterranean-Alps system, from sea-floor spreading through subduction to collision. Unlike previous models which relate the fate of Alpine Tethys solely to relative motions of the African plate with respect to Europe during opening of the Atlantic, our reconstruction invokes motions and rotations of four additional and temporarily independent microplates: Adria, Iberia, Alcapia and Alkapecia. Translations and rotations of these microplates with respect to Europe are constrained in the following way: (1) The retro-translations of Adria back to 94 Ma are obtained from shortening estimates in the Alps along geological-geophysical transects of the Alpine orogen and from geobarometric estimates of subduction depth in tectonic units that underwent high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. Rotations are based on paleomagnetic data of Márton et al. (in press); (2) Iberia follows the motion paths of Savostin et al. (1986), based on magnetic anomalies in the Central and Northern Atlantic; the Corsica-Sardinia block later rifted from Iberia leading to Burdigalian opening of the Liguria-Provençal basin (Serranne 1999). (3) The Alcapia microplate, whose name is derived from the acronym ALCAPA (Alps-Carpathians-Pannonian Basin), separated from Adria in Cretaceous times. Its movement with respect to Adria was absorbed by Cretaceous orogeny in the Eastern Alps, constrained by the Adria-Europe displacement and rotation path; later, during Cenozoic orogeny in the Alps, associated with the closing of the Alpine Tethys, it became part of the Adria microplate again. (4) The introduction of an independent Alkapekia continental fragment and independent microplate during the Late Cenozoic only (Alboran

  19. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEsteves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species can induce infections in humans. Therefore understanding the structure and dynamics of non-pandemic environmental populations in temperate regions, such as Mediterranean coastal systems, is important if we are to evaluate the risks of infection to humans.Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n=109 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=89 sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA. V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity conditions for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  20. Enhanced aridity and atmospheric high-pressure stability over the western Mediterranean during the North Atlantic cold events of the past 50 k.y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu Nebout, N.; Turon, J. L.; Zahn, R.; Capotondi, L.; Londeix, L.; Pahnke, K.

    2002-10-01

    Multiproxy paleoenvironmental records (pollen and planktonic isotope) from Ocean Drilling Program Site 976 (Alboran Sea) document rapid ocean and climate variations during the last glacial that follow the Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations seen in the Greenland ice core records, thus suggesting a close link of the Mediterranean climate swings with North Atlantic climates. Continental conditions rapidly oscillated through cold-arid and warm-wet conditions in the course of stadial-interstadial climate jumps. At the time of Heinrich events, i.e., maximum meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, western Mediterranean marine microflora and microfauna show rapid cooling correlated with increasing continental dryness. Enhanced aridity conceivably points to prolonged wintertime stability of atmospheric high-pressure systems over the southwestern Mediterranean in conjunction with cooling of the North Atlantic.

  1. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  2. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  3. Near field earthquake sources scenarios and related tsunamis on the French-Italian Riviera (Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Christophe; Ioualalen, Mansour; Scotti, Oona

    2014-05-01

    The large system of thrust faults recently evidenced at the foot of the northern Ligurian margin accommodates the inversion of this ancient passive margin since at least 5 Ma (Messinian times). At depth, these faults are certainly connected to a major northward dipping thrust that accounts for the major part of the seismicity in the northern Ligurian Sea. The deformations of the Quaternary sediments along the faults attest to a compressive tectonic regime consistent with the focal mechanisms of earthquakes. The major event in the area (the Ligurian earthquake, 1887/02/23, Mw 6.7-6.9 and the related tsunami) could result from the activation of part of the Ligurian thrust. Starting from the Ligurian earthquake source characteristics (strike: N55°E, dip: 16°N, length: 35 km, width: 17 km, co-seismic slip: 1.5 m, focal depth: 15 km, Mw 6.9), we have built an exhaustive set of earthquake scenarios involving the 80 km long Ligurian thrust. (1) Two of these earthquake scenarios ruptured respectively the eastern (offshore Imperia) and western (offshore Nice) part of the Ligurian thrust. (2) As these scenarios must scan the range of potential events in accordance with the geology, a second group of scenarios tests an 80 km long rupture of the entire Ligurian thrust with different strikes (N55°E and N70°E) and different widths of the faulting surface (17 km and 27 km) and then co-seismic slips of 2 m and 3.3 m, respectively. As the Ligurian coast is a densely populated and industrial area, the vulnerability is high. We want to stress here that we are more concerned with tsunamis triggered by local earthquakes. This is because, considering their arrival times (a few minutes), the risk prevention cannot be handled by existing tsunami warning system. For all scenarios we evaluate the tsunami coastal impact. The spatial distribution of the maximum wave height (MWH) is provided with a tentative identification of the processes that are responsible for it. The predictions

  4. Harvest Strategies for an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management in Western Mediterranean Demersal Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Quetglas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The serious overfishing of most Mediterranean stocks demands urgent reforms of the management measures aiming to guarantee the sustainability of resources, notably when compared with the improvement observed in other European areas. The new EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP constitutes an excellent opportunity to introduce the changes needed for such a reform. According to this CFP, all European fish stocks should be brought to a state where they can produce at MSY by 2020 at the latest. The CFP also establishes that the objective of sustainable exploitation should be achieved through multiannual plans (MAPs adopted in consultation with relevant stakeholders having fisheries management interests such as fishermen, non-governmental organizations, and policy makers. Together with the MSY and MAP approaches, the new CFP contains several other measures, directed to guarantee the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of fisheries by means of the implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM. With this new perspective, the CFP wants to avoid past failures of fisheries management based on monospecific approaches. This study is a first step toward the application of the EAFM in the Balearic Islands by means of the development of a harvest strategy with defined objectives, targets, limits, and clear management control rules aimed at optimizing socioeconomic and ecological objectives in the framework of the new CFP. Different management scenarios designed to achieve that goal were modeled for the main demersal commercial fisheries from the study area, the bottom trawl, and small-scale fisheries. The work begins with a general description of those fisheries, their main fishing grounds, and assessments of the exploitation status of the main target stocks in order to establish the current situation. Secondly, alternative management scenarios to maximize catch and profits while considering societal objectives were evaluated by

  5. Pricing appraisal of anti-cancer drugs in the South East Asian, Western Pacific and East Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Neoh, Chin Fen; Elrggal, Mahmoud E; Babar, Zaheer-Ud- Din; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-12-28

    Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. High treatment cost, partly owing to higher prices of anti-cancer drugs, presents a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to survey and compare retail prices of anti-cancer drugs between high, middle and low income countries in the South-East Asia, Western Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions. Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present study. Pricing data from ten counties including one from South-East Asia, two from Western Pacific and seven from Eastern Mediterranean regions were used in this study. Purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted mean unit prices for 26 anti-cancer drug presentations (similar pharmaceutical form, strength, and pack size) were used to compare prices of anti-cancer drugs across three regions. A structured form was used to extract relevant data. Data were entered and analysed using Microsoft Excel®. Overall, Taiwan had the lowest mean unit prices while Oman had the highest prices. Six (23.1%) and nine (34.6%) drug presentations had a mean unit price below US$100 and between US$100 and US$500 respectively. Eight drug presentations (30.7%) had a mean unit price of more than US$1000 including cabazitaxel with a mean unit price of $17,304.9/vial. There was a direct relationship between income category of the countries and their mean unit price; low-income countries had lower mean unit prices. The average PPP-adjusted unit prices for countries based on their income level were as follows: low middle-income countries (LMICs): US$814.07; high middle income countries (HMICs): US$1150.63; and high income countries (HICs): US$1148.19. There is a great variation in pricing of anticancer drugs in selected countires and within their respective regions. These findings will allow policy makers to compare prices of anti-cancer agents with neighbouring countries and develop policies to ensure accessibility and affordability of

  6. Late Pleistocene dune-sourced alluvial fans in coastal settings: Sedimentary facies and related processes (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, F.; del Valle, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Gómez-Pujol, L.

    2018-05-01

    Aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interaction results in the formation of deposits characterized by typical alluvial sedimentary structures, but is composed of conspicuous amounts of aeolian sediments. The literature on this topic is limited and most works relate more with continental aeolian dunes or fluvial dune interference with fan bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of examples of aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interference in coastal settings. In the western Mediterranean, there are many Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits built up partly by sediment originating from coastal dunes dismantled by alluvial streams. Very often, these deposits show a continuous sedimentary sequence through which we can derive the contribution and predominance of coastal, alluvial-colluvial and aeolian processes and their controls on landscape formation. This is an outstanding feature within coastal systems since it shows marine sediments reworked and integrated within coastal dune fields by aeolian transport, and the latter built up into alluvial fan bodies. In this sense, aeolian-alluvial interaction is the geomorphic-sedimentary expression of the coexistence and overlapping of alluvial and aeolian environments resulting in deposits sharing sedimentary features from both environments. The aim of this paper is to unravel the contribution of coastal dunes in the construction of alluvial fans bodies and identify the main sedimentary facies that constitute these deposits, as well as their climatic controls. For this reason, Es Caló fan (northern Mallorca) has been selected due to its well-exposed deposits exhibiting the alternation of aeolian, alluvial and colluvial deposits. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses based on 33 logs and complementary analyses demonstrate that most of the facies constituting the fan body are made up completely of marine bioclastic sands. These deposits record an alluvial fan sedimentary environment characterized by sediments inputs that do not proceed

  7. Characterization of the lipid fraction of wild sea urchin from the Sardinian Sea (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Addis, Pierantonio

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of Spatangus purpureus, Echinus melo, Sphaerechinus granularis, and Paracentrotus lividus, sea urchins, has been studied. Sea urchins were collected at different depth along Sardinia coast in the Mediterranean sea, and their gonad was measured, separated, and analyzed for FA composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 53 FAs were detected, 16 saturated (SFA), 10 monounsaturated (MUFA), 9 polyunsaturated (PUFA), and 13 highly unsaturated (HUFA). Moreover, 5 furan FAs (FFAs) were revealed for the first time in sea urchin. The HUFA and PUFA classes were the most represented accounting for almost 80% of total FAs. Among these compounds, C20:4 n6 (19.64, 20.52, 23.37, and 8.48 mg/g, respectively) and C22:6 n3 (19.68, 20.05, 3.83, and 1.78 mg/g, respectively) were the most abundant. The results of principal component analysis indicated that the sea urchin samples could be clearly discriminated with respect to their FAs composition. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Factors affecting dispersion of radionuclides in north western coast of Mediterranean Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the principal factors affecting the interaction of 137Cs, 60Co and 89Sr with coastal sediments and their importance for migration of these ions in surface water. The second goal is to assess the acceptability of radiological consequences of proposed routine discharges of nuclear installations for radioactive materials into surface water as well as to confirm the suitability of the site to select and to establish limits for radioactive discharge into water. Uptake of the investigated ions by Mediterranean Sea bottom sediment samples have been studied as a function of liquid to solid ratio (V/m and contact time using batch technique. The suspended sediment concentration, different discharge rates of radionuclides and the distance between the source point in the sea and the beach were investigated. The obtained results show that Kd of Cs+, Co2+ and Sr2+is 20, 32 and 10 l/g, respectively. The lowest effective dose is for 89Sr, while the highest effective dose is for 137Cs, at the same distances. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated isotopes in surface water was constructed to predict the concentration of these ions for both different distances and time periods.

  9. [A lower adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a poorer self-rated health in university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Vicedo, Ricardo; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; García de la Hera, Manuela; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Checa-Sevilla, José Francisco; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-09-15

    A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is considered as a protective factor against the large number of deaths attributable to the main chronic degenerative diseases in developed countries. Self-rated health is established as a good indicator of population health status and as a predictor of mortality. Studies exploring the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and self-rated health are scarce, especially, in young adults. Our aim was to explore the factors related, specially the adherence to a priori-defined Mediterranean diet with self-rated health in a cohort of Spanish university students. We analyzed data from 1110 participants of Spanish DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría en universitarios de la Universidad Miguel Hernández) study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to Mediterranean diet was calculated using the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) according to the consumption of 9 dietary components. Self-rated health was gathered from the question: "In general, how do you consider your health to be? (Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor). Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was also collected. Multinomial logistic regression (using relative risk ratio, RRR) was used to analyze the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (low rMED: 0-6 points; medium: 7-10 points; high: 11-18 points) and self-rated health (Excellent (reference), good and fair/ poor/very poor). A low, medium or high adherence to Mediterranean diet conformed to 26.8%, 58.7% and 14.4% of participants, which of them reported an excellent (23.1%), good (65.1%) and fair/poor or very poor health, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet was significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Indicators of the Supply of Marine and Terrigenous Organic Matter to a Pleistocene Organic-Matter–Rich Layer in the Alboran Basin (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Rinna, J.; Hauschildt, M.; Rullkötter, J.

    1999-01-01

    The organic matter in sediment series across two organic-matter–rich layers from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 977A drilled in the Alboran Basin of the Western Mediterranean Sea has been characterized by organic geochemical methods. Organic carbon contents reached more than 2% in the organic-matter–rich layer and was ~1% in the background sediment under and overlying it. Molecular compositions of the extractable bitumens in the organic-matter–rich layer for a wide range of compound ...

  11. Parasite communities in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus L., respond to small-scale variation in the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carreras-Aubets, M.; Montero, F. E.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2012), s. 1853-1860 ISSN 0025-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mullus barbatus * Parasite communities * Abundance * Similarity * Western Mediterranean * Polychlorinated biphenyls Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1200269X#

  12. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Amores, Ángel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2013-01-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (. Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assum...

  13. Pockets, conduits, channels, and plumes: links to volcanism and orogeny in the rollback dominated western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; O'Driscoll, Leland; Becker, Thorsten W.; Holt, Adam; Diaz, Jordi; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Detailed mantle and lithospheric structure from the Canary Islands to Iberia have been imaged with data from recent temporary deployments and select permanent stations from over 300 broadband seismometers. The stations extended across Morocco and Spain as part of the PICASSO, IberArray, and Morocco-Münster experiments. We present results from S receiver functions (SRF), shear wave splitting, waveform modeling, and geodynamic models that help constrain the tectonic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean, including orogenesis of the Atlas Mountains and occurrence of localized alkaline volcanism. Our receiver function images, in agreement with previous geophysical modeling, show that the lithosphere is thin (~65 km) beneath the Atlas, but thickens (~100 km) over a very short length scale at the flanks of the mountains. We find that these dramatic changes in lithospheric thickness also correspond to dramatic decreases in delay times inferred from S and SKS splitting observations of seismic anisotropy. Pockets and conduits of low seismic velocity material below the lithosphere extend along much of the Atlas to Southern Spain and correlate with the locations of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism. Waveform analysis from the USC linear seismic array across the Atlas Mountains constrains the position, shape, and physical characteristics of one localized, low velocity conduit that extends from the uppermost mantle (~200 km depth) up to the volcanoes in the Middle Atlas. The shape, position and temperature of these seismically imaged low velocity anomalies, topography of the base of the lithosphere, morphology of the subducted slab beneath the Alboran Sea, position of the West African Craton and correlation with mantle flow inferred from shear wave splitting suggest that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains and isolated recent volcanics are due to active mantle support that may be from material channeled from the Canary Island plume.

  14. Beach impacts of shore-parallel breakwaters backing offshore submerged ridges, Western Mediterranean Coast of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Moheb M; Frihy, Omran E; El Ansary, Ahmed E; El Mooty, Mohamed M Abd; Nagy, Hossam M

    2007-12-01

    Seven breakwaters were constructed behind offshore submerged ridges to create a safe area for swimming and recreational activities west of Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Morphodynamic evaluation was based on the modified Perlin and Dean numerical model (ImSedTran-2D) combined with successive shoreline and beach profile surveys conducted periodically between April 2001 and May 2005. Results reveal insignificant morphologic changes behind the detached breakwaters with slight coastline changes at the down and up-drift beaches of the examined breakwaters (+/-10 m). These changes are associated with salient accretion (20-7 0m) in the low-energy leeside of such structures. Concurrent with this sand accretion is the accumulation of a large amount of benthic algae (Sargassum) in the coastal water of the shadow area of these structures, which in turn have adverse effects on swimmers. Practical measures proposed in this study have successfully helped in mitigating such accumulation of algae in the recreation leeside of the breakwaters. The accumulation of Sargassum, together with the virtual insignificant changes in the up-drift and down-drifts of these structures, is a direct response to both coastal processes and the submerged carbonate ridges. Coastal processes encompass reversal of the directions of long-shore sand transport versus shoreline orientation, the small littoral drift rate and sand deficiency of the littoral zone. The beach response to the breakwaters together with the submerged ridges has also been confirmed by applying the ImSedTran-2D model. Results indicate that submerged ridges play a principal role in the evolution of beach morphology along the west coast of Alexandria. Although the study area is exposed to more than 70% wave exposures, the morphodynamic behavior of the beaches indicates that the submerged ridges act in a similar way as an additional natural barrier together with the artificial detached structures.

  15. Sexual development, maturity and reproduction of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western and central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potoschi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on the sexual development, maturity and reproduction of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus L. 1758 in the Mediterranean area, with special reference to the Balearic islands and Sicily. Professional fishing, carried out from August to December 1996, uses FADs (Fish Attracting Devices and surrounding nets. 2087 juvenile specimens of dolphinfish from the Ionian and southern Tyrrhenian seas, the Strait of Sicily and the Balearic islands were sampled. A small number of adult fish (39, which are not usually caught in surrounding nets, was sampled in the swordfish long-line by-catch. The gonads of the young fish were analysed monthly to establish the stage of development of the ovaries or testes, during the first few months of life. The gonads of the adult fish, sampled in the months of June-September only, were all mature. The specimens caught between October and December presented maturity stage V in the case of the females and I in the case of the males, indicating the end of the reproductive period. The gonado-somatic index (GSI and condition factor (CF were calculated for both genders. The trend of the GSI confirms the presence of immature specimens as regards the juvenile fish; the low value of GSI was obtained for the adults, probably associated with the post-reproduction conditions found in the October-December period. Most of the gonads sampled during the months between August and December belonged to young specimens born in early summer. This is confirmed by the juvenile stages (FL 2.5 to 4.3 cm caught with plankton nets in the Strait of Messina area in July.

  16. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  17. Paleoparasitological analysis of the extinct Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba Nunes, Victor Hugo; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Cruz, Paula Borba; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; de Araújo, Adauto José Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca. The samples were subjected to microscopic examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for E. histolytica/E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This study provides new paleoparasitological data from an extinct animal species of the Holocene period. The microscopy revealed one sample containing uninucleated-cyst of Entamoeba sp., whereas ELISA detected nine positive samples for Cryptosporidium sp. The finding of these protozoans can help in the discussion of its extinction cause and demonstrates the antiquity and the evolutionary history of host-parasite relationships between protozoa and caprines since the Messinian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A constrained African craton source for the Cenozoic Numidian Flysch: Implications for the palaeogeography of the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. F. H.; Bodin, S.; Redfern, J.; Irving, D. H. B.

    2010-07-01

    The provenance of the Numidian Flysch in the western Mediterranean remains a controversial subject which hinders understanding of this regionally widespread depositional system. The Numidian Flysch is a deep marine formation dated as Oligocene to Miocene which outcrops throughout the Maghreb and into Italy. Evidence that is widely used for provenance analysis has not previously been reviewed within the context of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin as a whole. The structural location within the Alpine belt indicates deposition proximal to the African margin, while the uniformity of the Numidian Flysch petrofacies suggests a single cratonic source, in stark contrast to heterolithic and immature flysch formations from the north of the basin. Detrital zircon ages constrain a source region with Pan-African and Eburnian age rocks, unaffected by either Hercynian or Alpine tectonic events, which precludes the European basement blocks to the north of the basin. Palaeocurrent trends which suggest a northern source are unreliable given foreland basin analogues and observed structural complications. An African craton source remains the only viable option once these data are reviewed in their entirety, and the Numidian Flysch therefore represents a major Cenozoic drainage system on the North African margin. Deposition is concurrent with regional Atlas uplift phases, and coincidental with globally cooling climates and high sea levels. The Numidian Flysch is therefore interpreted to represent a highstand passive margin deposit, with timing of deposition controlled primarily by hinterland uplift and climatic fluctuations.

  19. Molecular survey and microscopic examination of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in lacertid lizards from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P M C; Perera, Ana; Harris, D James

    2012-12-01

    The genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) is composed of intracellular haemogregarine parasites that are widely distributed among all tetrapod groups. The present study combines microscopic and molecular data on haemogregarine parasites from lizards in the western Mediterranean. We screened tissue samples and examined blood smears for the presence of species of Hepatozoon from four lizards, namely Algyroides marchi Valverde, endemic to Southeast Spain, Podarcis bocagei Seoane from Spain and Portugal, P hispanica Steindachner from Spain, and P lilfordi Günther from Cabrera, Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon parasites vary between and within lizard species from different regions. Algyroides marchi and P bocagei from Spain had the lowest values, whereas P hispanica had the highest. Phylogeny based on 18S rRNA gene sequences indicates that most of the new Hepatozoon sequences are part of a clade exclusive from North African and Iberian lizards, except for a single P bocagei isolate that is found related to another clade including isolates from other reptile host species and rodents. Interestingly, isolates from Algyroides form a distinct monophyletic subgroup, which could be a signal of strict host-specificity within this host genus.

  20. The role of basement inheritance faults in the recent fracture system of the inner shelf around Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro-González, A.; Bárcenas, P.; Vázquez, J. T.; Díaz-Del-Río, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fractures associated with volcanic rock outcrops on the inner shelf of Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean, were mapped on the basis of a side-scan sonar mosaic. Absolute maximum fracture orientation frequency is NW SE to NNW SSE, with several sub-maxima oriented NNE SSW, NE SW and ENE WSW. The origin of the main fracture systems in Neogene and Quaternary rocks of the Alboran Basin (south Spain) appears to be controlled by older structures, namely NE SW and WNW ESE to NW SE faults which cross-cut the basement. These faults, pre-Tortonian in origin, have been reactivated since the early Neogene in the form of strike-slip and extensional movements linked to the recent stress field in this area. Fracture analysis of volcanic outcrops on the inner continental shelf of Alboran Island suggests that the shelf has been deformed into a narrow shear zone limited by two NE SW-trending, sub-parallel high-angle faults, the main orientation and density of which have been influenced by previous WNW ESE to NW SE basement fractures.

  1. Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean

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    Joaquín Ginés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

  2. Stable isotope evidence for the environmental impact of a land-based fish farm in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Isotopic examination (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of organic matter sources and consumers was used to assess the impact and trace the dispersal of wastewater from a land-based fish farm in western Mediterranean. The results provide evidence of the non-negligible effect of aquaculture facilities on the natural stable isotopic composition of organisms. Aquaculture waste entered the food web, altering the natural isotopic composition of organic matter sources at the base and the upper trophic levels. Nitrogen-rich fish waste mainly affected δ 15 N values, while δ 13 C showed less alteration. Waste seemed to disperse widely enough to affect the isotopic composition at the study site about 500 m from the outfall, while sites at 1 and 2 km from the outfall showed values that were similar to each other and different from those of the impacted site. The impact was detected at different ecosystem levels, although primary producers were more affected by fish farm waste taking up aquaculture-derived nutrients

  3. Comparison of Ocean Dynamics with a Regional Circulation Model and Improved Altimetry in the North-Western Mediterranean

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    Jérôme Bouffard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal resolution of satellite altimetry is usually sufficient for monitoring the changes of sea surface topography in the open ocean. However, coastal ocean dynamics are much more complex, being characterized by smaller spatial and temporal scales of variability. The quality and availability of satellite-derived products along the coasts have to be improved, with a strategy optimized for coastal targets. Therefore a coastal multi-satellite altimetry dataset (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1; Envisat; GFO at a 10 - 20 Hz sampling rate has been derived from routine geophysical data products using a new processing software dedicated to coastal zone applications. Improved along-track sea level variations with fine space scales are available in the North-western Mediterranean Sea from 2001 to 2003, and are compared with high-resolution numerical model elevations from the eddy-resolving model SYMPHONIE. This preparatory work emphasizes the potential of improved multi-satellite altimetry for validating coastal hydro-dynamical models and could contribute in the future to a better tuning of the boundary conditions of the simulations.

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of ichthyophagous bird assemblage around western Mediterranean open-sea cage fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Giménez, Felipe; Eguía-Martínez, Sergio; Cerezo-Valverde, Jesús; García-García, Benjamín

    2018-06-14

    Ichthyophagous birds aggregate at cage fish farms attracted by caged and associated wild fish. Spatio-temporal variability of such birds was studied for a year through seasonal visual counts at eight farms in the western Mediterranean. Correlation with farm and location descriptors was assessed. Considerable spatio-temporal variability in fish-eating bird density and assemblage structure was observed among farms and seasons. Bird density increased from autumn to winter, with the great cormorant being the most abundant species, also accounting largely for differences among farms. Grey heron and little egret were also numerous at certain farms during the coldest seasons. Cattle egret was only observed at one farm. No shags were observed during winter. During spring and summer, bird density decreased markedly and only shags and little egrets were observed at only a few farms. Season and distance from farms to bird breeding/wintering grounds helped to explain some of the spatio-temporal variability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategy to design the sea-level monitoring networks for small tsunamigenic oceanic basins: the Western Mediterranean case

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    F. Schindelé

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami triggered a number of international and national initiatives aimed at establishing modern, reliable and robust tsunami warning systems. In addition to the seismic network for initial warning, the main component of the monitoring system is the sea level network. Networks of coastal tide gages and tsunameters are implemented to detect the tsunami after the occurrence of a large earthquake, to confirm or refute the tsunami occurrence. Large oceans tsunami monitoring currently in place in the Pacific and in implementation in the Indian Ocean will be able to detect tsunamis in 1 h. But due to the very short time of waves propagation, in general less than 1 h, a tsunami monitoring system in a smaller basin requires a denser network located close to the seismic zones. A methodology is proposed based on the modeling of tsunami travel time and waveform, and on the estimation of the delay of transmission to design the location and the spacing of the stations. In the case of Western Mediterranean, we demonstrate that a network of around 17 coastal tide gages and 13 tsunameters located at 50 km along the shore is required to detect and measure nearly all tsunamis generated on the Northern coasts of Africa.

  6. Relationship of the Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Its Main Components with CRP Levels in the Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Carlos; Castillo, Elisa; Mostaza, Jose M; de Dios, Olaya; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A; González-Alegre, Teresa; García-Iglesias, Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Laguna, Fernando; Sanchez, Vanesa; Sabín, Concesa; López, Silvia; Cornejo, Victor; de Burgos, Carmen; Garcés, Carmen

    2018-03-20

    Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet seems to be inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) has been developed to assess dietary compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether each of the MEDAS questions as well as their final score were associated with the levels of CRP in general Spanish population. Cross-sectional analysis of 1411 subjects (mean age 61 years, 43.0% males) randomly selected from the general population. CRP levels were determined by a commercial ELISA kit. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the 14-point MEDAS. Results: There was an inverse correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the CRP concentration, even after adjusting by age, gender, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, statin treatment and hypertension treatment ( p = 0.041). Subjects who consume ≥2 servings of vegetables per day ( p = 0.003), ≥3 pieces of fruit per day ( p = 0.003), ≥1 serving of butter, margarine, or cream per day ( p = 0.041) or ≥3 servings of fish/seafood per week ( p = 0.058) had significantly lower levels of CRP. Conclusions : Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet measured by a simple questionnaire is associated with lower CRP concentration. However, this association seems to be particularly related to a higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and fish.

  7. First record of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in the western Mediterranean

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    A.P. TORRES

    2012-10-01

    found among them. Taking into account the duration of the successive developmental stages, and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the study area, these larvae were most probably spawned by adult populations not yet documented. The larvae were found in marine waters despite the fact that adults usually inhabit brackish waters. Our study is a good example of how plankton studies can help to detect larval stages of invasive species before the adult populations are detected.

  8. Concentrations and fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds above a Mediterranean macchia ecosystem in western Italy

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    B. Davison

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Emission rates and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs were measured at a Mediterranean coastal site at Castelporziano, approximately 25 km south-west of Rome, between 7 May and 3 June 2007, as part of the ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Concentrations and emission rates were measured using the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC method utilizing three different proton transfer reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS so allowing a comparison between the instruments. The high resolution data from the PTR-MS instruments considerably enhances the original BEMA measurements of the mid 1990s.

    Depending on the measurement period, the volume mixing ratios were in the range 1.6–3.5 ppbv for methanol, 0.44–1.3 ppbv for acetaldehyde, 0.96–2.1 ppbv for acetone, 0.10–0.14 ppbv for isoprene, and 0.13–0.30 ppbv for monoterpenes. A diurnal cycle in mixing ratios was apparent with daytime maxima for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, and isoprene. The fluxes ranged from 370–440 μg m−2 h−1 for methanol, 180–360 μg m−2 h−1 for acetaldehyde, 180–450 μg m−2 h−1 for acetone, 71–290 μg m−2 h−1 for isoprene, and 240–860 μg m−2 h−1 for monoterpenes. From the measured flux data (7 May–3 June an average basal emission rate for the Macchia vegetation was calculated of 430 μg m−2 h−1 for isoprene and 1100 μg m−2 h−1 for monoterpenes.

  9. Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, M. Z.; Shbar, A. K.; Naher, F. H.; Jabo, N. F.; Abdulhamza, B. H.; Abod, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o 5 2) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)

  10. Spatial structure of helminth communities in the golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae), from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Pardo-Carranza, Trinidad V; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Ecological investigations regarding the parasite fauna of grey mullets are scarce. The present study provides a detailed description of the helminth communities of Liza aurata in the Spanish western Mediterranean and analyzes the role of spatial, temporal, and host variables in shaping the infracommunities. In total, 204 fish were collected in 2 localities, situated ca. 290 km apart, in spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to visualize an ordination of the infracommunities according to their relative similarities in parasite abundances. The relationship between infracommunity composition and explanatory variables (host size, locality, year, and season of harvest) was examined by permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) applied to species abundances. Permutational tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersion were used to test the null hypothesis of no differences in dispersion among groups formed by the factors whose effects were significant in PERMANOVA. A total of 33,241 helminth parasites, belonging to 18 species, was collected, i.e., 12 species of adult digeneans (23% of the parasite specimens), 3 digeneans as metacercariae (68%), 1 acanthocephalan (2.1%), and 2 monogeneans (6.5%). An important part of this helminth fauna is specialized to grey mullets, with a sizable portion of the component community restricted to the Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic. The NMDS ordination indicated high heterogeneity among infrapopulations. However, most differences at both the component and infracommunity level were related to geographic locality. In fact, the PERMANOVA showed that, among the explanatory variables considered, sampling locality accounted for the largest share of variation. The geographical differences observed may be related to local environmental characteristics or to the limited spatial dispersal of the species forming the component community. The latter was supported by the significant portion

  11. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  12. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  13. Breast density in screening mammography in Indian population - Is it different from western population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tulika; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singla, Veenu; Kumar, Dileep; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Gurpreet; Bal, Amanjit

    2018-05-01

    Mammography is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of breast cancer. However, higher breast density was strongly associated with lower mammographic sensitivity. Breast density is also identified as independent and strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Studies have shown women with high breast density have four to six times increased risk of breast cancer as compare to women with fatty breast. It varies between different age group it generally decreases with increasing age in postmenopausal women and it can be different in different ethnic groups and people from different geographical areas. This study evaluates the breast density in Indian population and its relationship with the age. We reviewed of all screening mammography examinations performed from May 2012 to January 2015 at our institute PGIMER, Chandigarh, INDIA. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the association between age and breast density. A total of 6132 screening mammograms were performed. Each subgroup categorized by decade of age. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and breast density (P density in Indian and Western population with more Indians having ACR Grade 1 and 2 and Western population having 2 and 3. We found an inverse relationship between patient age and mammographic breast density. However, there were a large proportion of young women who had lower grades of mammographic density which could potentially benefit from the use of routine screening mammography in this subgroup of patients. Moreover, the breast density of Indian population is less when compared to the Western population. This might suggest that mammography is a good modality of choice for screening Indian population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

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    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  15. Reproductive allocation strategies in desert and Mediterranean populations of annual plants grown with and without water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J; Kigel, J; Shmida, A

    1993-03-01

    Reproductive effort (relative allocation of biomass to diaspore production) was compared in matched pairs of Mediterranean and desert populations of three unrelated annual species, Erucaria hispanica (L.) Druce, Bromus fasciculatus C. Presl. and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv., grown under high and low levels of water availability in a common-environment experiment. Desert populations in all three species showed higher reproductive effort than corresponding Mediterranean populations, as expressed by both a reproductive index (RI= reproductive biomass/vegetative biomass), and a reproductive efficiency index (REI=number of diaspores/total plant biomass). Moreover, in E. hispanica and Brachypodium distachyon, inter-populational differences in reproductive effort were greater under water stress, the main limiting factor for plant growth in the desert. These results indicate that variability in reproductive effort in response to drought is a critical and dynamic component of life history strategies in annual species in heterogeneous, unpredictable xeric environments. When subjected to water stress the Mediterranean populations of E. hispanica and B. distachyon showed greater plasticity (e.g. had a greater reduction) in reproductive effort than the desert populations, while in Bromus fasciculatus both populations showed similar amounts of plasticity.

  16. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. LiDAR-guided Archaeological Survey of a Mediterranean Landscape: Lessons from the Ancient Greek Polis of Kolophon (Ionia, Western Anatolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Benedikt; Draganits, Erich; Gretscher, Martin; Muss, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, an airborne laser scan survey was conducted in the territory of the Ionian city of Kolophon near the western coast of modern Turkey as part of an archaeological survey project carried out by the Mimar Sinan University of Istanbul (Turkey) and the University of Vienna (Austria). Several light detection and ranging (LiDAR) studies have been carried out in the temperate climate zones of Europe, but only a few in Mediterranean landscapes. Our study is based on the first LiDAR survey carried out for an archaeological purpose in Turkey and one of the first in the Mediterranean that have been planned, measured and filtered especially for archaeological research questions. The interpretation of LiDAR data combined with ground-observations proved extremely useful for the detection and documentation of archaeological remains below Mediterranean evergreen vegetation and dense maquis. This article deals with the methodological aspects of interpreting LiDAR data, using the Kolophon data as a case study. We offer a discussion of the strengths and limitations of LiDAR as an archaeological remote sensing method and suggest a best practice model for interpreting LiDAR data in a Mediterranean context. © 2017 The Authors. Archaeological Prospection published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Psychiatric Status across Body Mass Index in a Mediterranean Spanish Population.

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    Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar

    Full Text Available Mental and body weight disorders are among the major global health challenges, and their comorbidity may play an important role in treatment and prevention of both pathologies. A growing number of studies have examined the relationship between psychiatric status and body weight, but our knowledge is still limited.The present study aims to investigate the cross-sectional relationships of psychiatric status and body mass index (BMI in Málaga, a Mediterranean city in the South of Spain.A total of 563 participants were recruited from those who came to his primary care physician, using a systematic random sampling, non-proportional stratified by BMI categories. Structured clinical interviews were used to assess current Axes-I and II mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR. BMI was calculated as weight (Kg divided by square of height in meters (m2. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between BMI and the presence of any mental disorder. BMI was introduced in the models using restricted cubic splines.We found that high BMI values were directly associated with mood and adjustment disorders, and low BMI values were directly associated with avoidant and dependent personality disorders (PDs. We observed an inverse relationship between low BMI values and cluster A PDs. There were not significant relationships between anxiety or substance-related disorders and BMI.Psychiatric status and BMI are related in a Mediterranean Spanish population. A multidisciplinary approach to both pathologies becomes increasingly more necessary.

  19. Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background

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    Michael Cusack

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non

  20. Depth-related trends in morphological and functional diversity of demersal fish assemblages in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marc; Tuset, Víctor M.; Cartes, Joan E.; Massutí, Enric; Lombarte, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The morphological and functional traits of fishes are key factors defining the ecological and biological habits of species within ecosystems. However, little is known about how the depth gradient affects these factors. In the present study, several demersal fish assemblages from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea) along a wide depth range (40-2200 m) were morphologically, functionally and ecologically described. The morphological characterization of communities was performed using geometric morphometric methods, while the functional structures were obtained by the functional categorization of species and the application of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). The results revealed that morphospaces presented less richness of body forms as depth increases, although they showed a progressive spreading of species toward the periphery, with a proliferation of more extreme body traits, demonstrating lower morphological redundancy. In addition, a trend toward the elongation of body shape was also observed with depth. Moreover, functional diversity increased with bathymetry up to 1400 m, where it sharply decreased downwards. This decrease was parallel to a progressive fall of H‧ (ecological diversity) up to 2200 m. Functional redundancy progressively decreased until the deepest assemblage (more constantly in the deeper levels), which was almost exclusively dominated by benthopelagic wandering species feeding on suprabenthos. Redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that both morphological and functional spaces showed high variation along the bathymetric range. Mantel test indicated that the majority of species presented similar spatial distribution within the morphospace and functional space, although in the functional space the more abundant species were always located at the periphery. These results demonstrate that the assessment of the morpho-functional variation between marine communities helps to understand the processes that affect the structure and

  1. Factors affecting the fishing impact on cartilaginous fishes in southeastern Spain (western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mendoza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a global index of impact based on the relative vulnerability of the local population of every species and the further application of regression trees globally optimized with evolutionary algorithms to study the fishing impact on the cartilaginous fish in southeastern Spain. The fishing impact is much higher in areas of less than 40 m depth within 11 km of the Cape Palos marine reserve. The impact also depends on the state of the sea and the kind of habitat. Deep-sea habitats associated with hard substrata and sandy beds show the highest impact, and sublittoral muds and habitats associated with circa littoral rocks with moderate energy show the lowest impact. The fishing impact changes throughout the moon cycle, showing different day-scale patterns associated with different habitats and different species compositions. Finally, we show that the global optimization of the regression trees can be essential to find some important patterns and that these trees are a useful tool for determining which areas are considered to be more important in terms of protection, taking into account specifically the vulnerability of the local populations.

  2. Trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna on coastal muddy bottoms of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Badalamenti, F.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-02-01

    The trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna were analyzed in the Gulf of Castellammare (North-western Sicily, Italy) at depths ranging between 40 and 80 m. Variations in species abundance and biomass together with changes in nitrogen and carbon stable isotope composition were explored at a seasonal scale, from November 2004 to June 2005. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass and abundance from late winter to summer, while minimum values were found in autumn. The highest abundances of mysids and copepods occurred in March, 1 month after the peak of primary production. Amphipod abundance was higher in summer, likely due to a relative increase in organic matter in the sediments. Statistical analysis provided evidence for separation of sample abundances as a function of season. The best match between suprabenthos abundance and environmental variables was found with Chlorophyll a recorded 3 months before the sampling. Stable isotope analyses suggest a relatively complex food web in the Gulf of Castellammare with several potential food sources. Some suprabenthic species (i.e. mysids and copepods) exhibited depleted values of δ13C, indicating a planktonic source of nutrition. Cumaceans and amphipods displayed more enriched δ13C values, pointing to more detritivorous behaviour. A third group with intermediate δ13C values comprised species with a mixed diet (e.g. Ampelisca spp., Apherusa vexatrix and Harpinia spp.). Assuming a 15N-enrichment of ca. 2.54‰ between consumers and their diet, at least two trophic levels can be distinctly identified: (1) filter feeders/grazers (mysids, copepods), suspension/deposit feeders ( Ampelisca spp., A. vexatrix, small Goneplax rhomboides) and omnivores, alternatively feeding on detritus and small invertebrates such as meiobenthos (the cumacean Leucon mediterraneus or the amphipod Westwoodilla rectirostris); (2) carnivores on small crustaceans and zooplankton (the amphipod Harpinia spp., the gobiid fish Lesuerigobius suerii and the decapod

  3. X-chromosome SNP analyses in 11 human Mediterranean populations show a high overall genetic homogeneity except in North-west Africans (Moroccans)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its history, with a high number of migration events, the Mediterranean basin represents a challenging area for population genetic studies. A large number of genetic studies have been carried out in the Mediterranean area using different markers but no consensus has been reached...

  4. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  5. Miocene magmatism and tectonics within the Peri-Alboran orogen (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azzouzi, M.; Bellon, H.; Coutelle, A.; Réhault, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper concerns Miocene igneous activity in the Alboran Sea and Peri-Alboran area (northern Morocco, western Algeria and Betic Cordilleras in Spain), considering its age and its location with regard to major tectonics structures. We have compiled previous K-Ar isotopic ages of lavas and plutonic boulders and intrusives with an error of ±1σ and completed this set by a new K-Ar isotopic age for andesitic tuffites from Alboran Island. Geochemistry of most of these samples has been considered after previous analyses completed with new data for Spain magmatism. These two sets of data allow us to place the magmatic activity within the regional stratigraphy and tectonics and their chronological framework of the three major tectonic phases of the Maghrebian orogen, at 17 Ma (Burdigalian), 15 Ma (Langhian) and 9 Ma (Tortonian). Petro-geochemical characteristics are compared through time and geographical locations. A major goal of this coupled approach is to help the elaboration of possible geodynamical processes. As an application, we present the case study of the Dellys, Djinet and Thenia region (east of Algiers) where the successive magmatic events between 19.4 ± 1 and 11.6 ± 0.5 Ma are closely related to the local tectonics and sedimentation. The Peri-Alboran igneous activity is placed in a multidisciplinary framework. Timing of activity is defined according to the ages of the neighbouring sedimentary units and the K-Ar ages of igneous rocks. In Spain, the Cabo de Gata-Carboneras magmatic province displays late Oligocene and early Miocene leucogranitic dikes, dated from 24.8 ± 1.3 to 18.1 ± 1.2 Ma; three following andesitic to rhyolitic events took place around 15.1 ± 0.8 to 14.0 ± 0.7 Ma, 11.8 ± 0.6 to 9.4 ± 0.4 Ma, 8.8 ± 0.4 to 7.9 ± 0.4 Ma; this last event displays also granitic rocks. Lamproitic magmas dated between 8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.76 ± 0.04 Ma were emplaced after the Tortonian phase. In Morocco, after the complex building of the Ras Tarf

  6. REV-ERB-ALPHA circadian gene variant associates with obesity in two independent populations: Mediterranean and North American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Smith, Caren E; Gomez-Abellán, Purificación; Ordovás-Montañés, María; Lee, Yu-Chi; Parnell, Laurence D; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovás, José M

    2014-04-01

    Despite the solid connection between REV-ERB and obesity, the information about whether genetic variations at this locus may be associated with obesity traits is scarce. Therefore our objective was to study the association between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 and obesity in two independent populations. Participants were 2214 subjects from Spanish Mediterranean (n = 1404) and North American (n = 810) populations. Anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, and genotype analyses were performed. We found novel associations between the REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 genotype and obesity in two independent populations: in Spanish Mediterranean and North American groups, the frequency of the minor-allele-carriers (AA+ AG) was significantly lower in the "abdominally obese" group than in those of the "nonabdominally obese" group (p obesity than noncarriers, and the effect was of similar magnitude for both populations (OR ≈ 1.50). There were consistent associations between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 genotype and obesity-related traits (p obesity was also detected in the Mediterranean population. This new discovery highlights the importance of REV-ERB-ALPHA1 in obesity and provides evidence for the connection between our biological clock and obesity-related traits. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with the gut microbiota pattern and gastrointestinal characteristics in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsou, Evdokia K; Kakali, Aimilia; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kyriacou, Adamantini

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential associations of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with gut microbiota characteristics and gastrointestinal symptomatology in an adult population. Other long-term dietary habits (e.g. consumption of snacks and junk food or stimulant intake) were also evaluated in terms of the gut microbiota profile. Participants (n 120) underwent anthropometric, dietary, physical activity and lifestyle evaluation. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a Mediterranean diet score, the MedDietScore, and subjects were classified into three tertiles according to individual adherence scoring. Gut microbiota composition was determined using quantitative PCR and plate-count techniques, and faecal SCFA were analysed using GC. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. Participants with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet had lower Escherichia coli counts (P=0·022), a higher bifidobacteria:E. coli ratio (P=0·025), increased levels and prevalence of Candida albicans (P=0·039 and P=0·050, respectively), greater molar ratio of acetate (P=0·009), higher defaecation frequency (P=0·028) and a more pronounced gastrointestinal symptomatology compared with those reporting low adherence. A lower molar ratio of valerate was also observed in the case of high adherence to the Mediterranean diet compared with the other two tertiles (P for trend=0·005). Positive correlations of MedDietScore with gastrointestinal symptoms, faecal moisture, total bacteria, bifidobacteria:E. coli ratio, relative share of Bacteroides, C. albicans and total SCFA, as well as negative associations with cultivable E. coli levels and valerate were indicated. Fast food consumption was characterised by suppressed representation of lactobacilli and butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, our findings support a link between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and gut microbiota characteristics.

  8. Settlement and juvenile habitat of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Settlement characteristics, like timing, depth, microhabitat and density of European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas are described for the very first time. Regular SCUBA-diving surveys were conducted from July 1998 to January 2000 on rocky bottoms of three different geologic origins to assess substratum-dependent differences in recruitment density. Settlement of pueruli took place in June-July, a few weeks after sea surface temperature started to rise. The highest density of juveniles was found at 10-15 m depth. Most spiny lobsters settled in limestone rocks, into empty holes of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga, which provided daytime refuge. As they grew, individuals were increasingly found in larger holes and crevices of the rock surface. Sizes were estimated from photographs taken at night when the animals were actively foraging. The smallest observed individuals measured 7.5-8 mm carapace length (CL, but they reached 15-18 mm CL at the end of October. The consequences of our results for the management of the spiny lobster populations in the northwestern Mediterranean are summarily discussed.

  9. Population structures of Astragalus filipes collections from western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Shaun Bushman; Kishor Bhattarai; Douglas A. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    The majority of species used for revegetation in semi-arid western rangelands of North America are grasses, with few forbs and nearly no legumes. Astragalus filipes (Torr. Ex A. Gray) is a western North American legume and a promising candidate for use in rangeland revegetation, but assessments of plant species diversity and structure are necessary to determine which...

  10. Cross-Shore Environmental Gradients in the Western Mediterranean Coast and Their Influence on Nearshore Phytoplankton Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzon Basterretxea

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During summer, when oligotrophic conditions prevail offshore in the Mediterranean Sea, enhanced phytoplankton stripes are often observed in nearshore waters. In this study, we examine the cross-shore hydrographic variability and the associated microbial plankton communities in this zone. Detailed cross-shore underway sampling at 47 coastal sites spread along the Balearic and Catalan coasts revealed the widespread existence of narrow bands of warm and decreased salinity water beholding high phytoplankton biomass (up to 50-fold vs. offshore chlorophyll. Most intense physical and biological anomalies along these transects were generally constrained to the first hundred meters from the shoreline (i.e., a transition zone starting at ~400 m. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA and k-means cluster analysis to categorize temperature, salinity and chlorophyll (T, S and Chl in three main types of cross-shore trends. Prevalence of exponential-shaped Chl trends was observed particularly in areas with shoreward directed winds (B1-type. The other two trends (B2 and B3 presented variations off the coast produced by alongshore structures like river plumes, city outfalls and other features. Exponential-shaped cross-shore chlorophyll distribution (B1-type accumulated 90% of the total transect Chl variation in the first 367 ± 190 m from the shoreline, whereas this distance was variable in the other profile types. Repeated daily sampling at one site with this transect typology revealed that wind forcing variations produced fast response on cross-shore T and S properties. Chl was less sensitive to changes at this time-scale. Phytoplankton communities exhibited site-dependent responses to the nearshore environment. Pico- and nanoplankton assemblages, typically dominating coastal assemblages during summer in the Mediterranean Sea, showed lower cross-shore variation. Conversely, larger response to nearshore conditions was observed in microplankton populations

  11. Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge.

  12. Record of an established population of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in the Mediterranean Sea: confirming a prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. CUESTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The capture of larvae of Palaemon macrodactylus off Mallorca (Balearic Islands has been recently reported as evidence of a potential presence of a population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos of this species, taken during dives in the Sacca di Goro (northern Adriatic were published in the same year, but no specimen could be collected at that time. Herein we report the capture in 2013 of numerous individuals of the oriental shrimp, including ovigerous females, both in the Sacca di Goro and in the Lagoon of Marano and Grado (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, confirming the existence of a well-established population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Stochastic population dynamics in populations of western terrestrial garter snakes with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A; Clark, William R; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2011-08-01

    Comparative evaluations of population dynamics in species with temporal and spatial variation in life-history traits are rare because they require long-term demographic time series from multiple populations. We present such an analysis using demographic data collected during the interval 1978-1996 for six populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) from two evolutionarily divergent ecotypes. Three replicate populations from a slow-living ecotype, found in mountain meadows of northeastern California, were characterized by individuals that develop slowly, mature late, reproduce infrequently with small reproductive effort, and live longer than individuals of three populations of a fast-living ecotype found at lakeshore locales. We constructed matrix population models for each of the populations based on 8-13 years of data per population and analyzed both deterministic dynamics based on mean annual vital rates and stochastic dynamics incorporating annual variation in vital rates. (1) Contributions of highly variable vital rates to fitness (lambda(s)) were buffered against the negative effects of stochastic variation, and this relationship was consistent with differences between the meadow (M-slow) and lakeshore (L-fast) ecotypes. (2) Annual variation in the proportion of gravid females had the greatest negative effect among all vital rates on lambda(s). The magnitude of variation in the proportion of gravid females and its effect on lambda(s) was greater in M-slow than L-fast populations. (3) Variation in the proportion of gravid females, in turn, depended on annual variation in prey availability, and its effect on lambda(s) was 4 23 times greater in M-slow than L-fast populations. In addition to differences in stochastic dynamics between ecotypes, we also found higher mean mortality rates across all age classes in the L-fast populations. Our results suggest that both deterministic and stochastic selective forces have affected the evolution of

  14. Population genetic structure in Sabatieria (Nematoda) reveals intermediary gene flow and admixture between distant cold seeps from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Annelies; Hauquier, Freija; Vanreusel, Ann; Derycke, Sofie

    2017-07-01

    There is a general lack of information on the dispersal and genetic structuring for populations of small-sized deep-water taxa, including free-living nematodes which inhabit and dominate the seafloor sediments. This is also true for unique and scattered deep-sea habitats such as cold seeps. Given the limited dispersal capacity of marine nematodes, genetic differentiation between such geographically isolated habitat patches is expected to be high. Against this background, we examined genetic variation in both mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (18S and 28S ribosomal) DNA markers of 333 individuals of the genus Sabatieria, abundantly present in reduced cold-seep sediments. Samples originated from four Eastern Mediterranean cold seeps, separated by hundreds of kilometers, and one seep in the Southeast Atlantic. Individuals from the Mediterranean and Atlantic were divided into two separate but closely-related species clades. Within the Eastern Mediterranean, all specimens belonged to a single species, but with a strong population genetic structure (Φ ST  = 0.149). The haplotype network of COI contained 19 haplotypes with the most abundant haplotype (52% of the specimens) shared between all four seeps. The number of private haplotypes was high (15), but the number of mutations between haplotypes was low (1-8). These results indicate intermediary gene flow among the Mediterranean Sabatieria populations with no evidence of long-term barriers to gene flow. The presence of shared haplotypes and multiple admixture events indicate that Sabatieria populations from disjunct cold seeps are not completely isolated, with gene flow most likely facilitated through water current transportation of individuals and/or eggs. Genetic structure and molecular diversity indices are comparable to those of epiphytic shallow-water marine nematodes, while no evidence of sympatric cryptic species was found for the cold-seep Sabatieria.

  15. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  16. Nut Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Mediterranean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajka Relja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are often considered beneficial for health, yet few studies have examined determinants of their intake and the associations between nut consumption and various cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with nut intake in a Mediterranean population, in Croatia, and to investigate the association of nut intake and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Subjects from the Island of Vis, Island of Korčula and the City of Split were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 4416 in total; 4011 without known cardiovascular disease. Survey responses, medical records and clinically relevant measurements were utilized. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regression models were used in the analysis, adjusting for known confounding factors. Results: As low as 5% of all subjects reported daily, and 11% reported weekly, nut consumption. The characteristics associated with more frequent nut intake were female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.19–1.62, highest level of education (1.42; 1.15–1.76 and material status (1.58; 1.29–1.93, smoking abstinence (1.21; 1.04–1.42 in never-smokers and 1.22; 1.02–1.46 in ex-smokers, Mediterranean diet adherence (1.87; 1.62–2.15, and absence of central obesity (1.29; 1.09–1.53, absence of diabetes (1.30; 1.02–1.66 and metabolic syndrome (1.17; 1.01–1.36. Subjects who consumed nuts had more favorable waist-to-height (overall p = 0.036 and waist-to-hip ratios (0.033, lesser odds of elevated fibrinogen (p < 0.001 in both weekly and monthly nut consumers and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.026, compared to non-consumers. Conclusions: It appears that frequent nut consumption is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle and better socioeconomic status. A beneficial association of nut intake with cardiovascular risk factors was confirmed in this study.

  17. Electrophoretic multilocus analysis for the study of natural populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasperi, G.; Malacrida, A.R.; Milani, R.; Guglielmino, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Data concerning spatial and/or temporal variation among 29 samples of four populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were obtained by computation of gene frequency values at 25 biochemical loci. The four populations came from Africa (Kenya and Reunion) and from the Mediterranean basin (Sardinia and Procida Island). Statistical parameters of genetic variation included average heterozygosity per locus, proportion of polymorphic loci and average number of alleles per locus. The data were analysed using Principal Component Analysis and Wright's fixation index. Significant differences in genetic heterogeneity were observed on a regional scale in relation to the dispersion of the fly from its supposed area of origin (East Africa) towards the periphery (Mediterranean region). The samples from Procida, collected at different seasons for four consecutive years (1983-1986), provided consistent indications of temporal changes in the genetic structure of this population, and permitted evaluation of the efficiency of a sterilized male strain (T-101) released during a sterile insect technique programme on Procida in 1986. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. A Mediterranean diet and risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidis, Thanasis G; Åkesson, Agneta; Gigante, Bruna; Wolk, Alicja; Larsson, Susanna C

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean diet, which is palatable and easily achievable, has been associated with lower all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Data on heart failure (HF) and stroke types are lacking. The aim was to examine a Mediterranean diet in relation to incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), HF and stroke types in a Swedish prospective cohort. In a population-based cohort of 32,921 women, diet was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. The modified Mediterranean diet (mMED) score was created based on high consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grains, fermented dairy products, fish and monounsaturated fat, moderate intakes of alcohol and low consumption of red meat, on a 0-8 scale. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 10 y of follow-up (1998-2008), 1109 MIs, 1648 HFs, 1270 ischemic strokes and 262 total hemorrhagic strokes were ascertained. A high adherence to the mMED score (6-8), compared to low, was associated with a lower risk of MI (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61-0.90, p = 0.003), HF (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93, p = 0.004) and ischemic stroke (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.93, p = 0.007), but not hemorrhagic stroke (RR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.61-1.29, p = 0.53). Better adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of MI, HF and ischemic stroke. The Mediterranean diet is most likely to be beneficial in primary prevention of all major types of atherosclerosis-related CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Di Somma, Carolina; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-02-17

    The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA) is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern). In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively ( p Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity.

  20. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  1. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. COPPA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  2. Seismic evidence for the preservation of several stacked Pleistocene coastal barrier/lagoon systems on the Gulf of Valencia continental shelf (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Barranco, Andrés; Sánchez García, María José; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of coastal sand barriers and associated coastal lagoons on the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean), based on two W-E seismic profiles recorded seaward of the Albufera de Valencia coastal lagoon. Seismic facies identified include a number of coastal sand barriers with landward lagoons draped by contemporary continental shelf deposits. The barrier systems have been grouped into two sedimentary systems tracts, the older one corresponding to a prograding/aggrading highstand systems tract involving at least four paleo-coastal sand barrier/lagoon systems, followed landward by a transgressive systems tract comprising three such systems. All the systems have been allocated a Tyrrhenian age, the formation of individual barrier systems having been associated with successive sea-level stillstands, and their present-day position being explained by the very high regional subsidence rate. In summary, this study demonstrates that the Quaternary stratigraphic record of the Gulf of Valencia inner continental shelf is composed of littoral sand facies, in particular coastal sand barrier and lagoon deposits. These findings are in agreement with corresponding observations on other continental shelves of the western Mediterranean, showing that the formation of coastal sand barriers was a characteristic feature of this region during the Quaternary.

  3. Implementing a Mediterranean-Style Diet Outside the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Parletta, Natalie

    2018-05-04

    Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity. The PREDIMED study confirmed reductions in CVD-related mortality with a MedDiet; a meta-analysis in over 4.7 million people showed reduced mortality, CVD-related mortality, and reduced risk of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Continually emerging research supports the MedDiet's benefits for chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, cancers, liver disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, and anxiety. We summarize components of studies outside the Mediterranean that achieved high compliance to a Med-style diet: dietitian led, dietary education, goal setting, mindfulness; recipe books, meal plans, and food checklists; food hampers; regular contact between volunteers and staff through regular cooking classes; clinic visits; and recipes that are simple, palatable, and affordable. The next step is testing the MedDiet's feasibility in the community. Potential obstacles include access to dietetic/health care professionals, high meat intake, pervasive processed foods, and fast food outlets. For Western countries to promote a Med-style diet, collective support from government, key stakeholders and policy makers, food industry, retailers, and health professionals is needed to ensure the healthiest choice is the easiest choice.

  4. The tropical African hermit crab Pagurus mbizi (Crustacea, Decapoda, Paguridae in the Western Mediterranean Sea: a new alien species or filling gaps in the knowledge of the distribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. GARCIA RASO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the first occurrence in the European Mediterranean Sea of a tropical Atlantic hermit crab, Pagurus mbizi (Forest, 1955, based on the capture of twenty specimens (all sizes and ovigerous females collected along the northern shores of the Alboran Sea, which proof the existence of a well-established population of this species, and the importance of this geographic area as a transitional and settlement zone for Atlantic species, which makes the Alboran Sea one of the richest marine biodiversity areas in the Mediterranean Sea. Some morphological comparative data with the closely related hermit crab Pagurus pubescentulus are given. In addition, data on its habitat and geographical distribution, as well as the probable pathways of introduction, are commented.

  5. Effects of fishing on parasitism in a sparid fish: Contrasts between two areas of the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marzoug, D.; Boutiba, Z.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 414-420 ISSN 1383-5769 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Parasite communities * Fishing * Boops boops * Mediterranean * Santa Pola Bay * Gulf of Oran * Richness * Abundance Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2012

  6. Two new species of Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Dendrobrachiidae from the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean

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    Pablo J. López-González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of recent benthic material collected during several cruises in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic and the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean has allowed the taxonomic reassessment of some previously identified specimens belonging to the monogeneric gorgonian family Dendrobrachiidae Brook, 1889. Dendrobrachia fallax Brook, 1889 is the type species of the single genus in this family, and was originally described from Ascension Island (South Atlantic. Subsequently, other authors reported the presence of this species in Cape Verde Islands (north-eastern Atlantic and some Mediterranean localities (Alboran Sea and the Strait of Sicily. The study of the specimen from the Prince of Monaco collections in Cape Verde Islands, and recently collected material from the Gulf of Cadiz (north-eastern Atlantic and in the south of Malta (Mediterranean, materials previously considered as D. fallax, allow us to recognize two undescribed species in this genus. All previous records of D. fallax from the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean should be considered incorrect. Opresko and Bayer (1991 added two additional species of Dendrobrachia. Two new species are described here and compared with their congeners.

  7. Impact of aerosol particle sources on optical properties in urban, regional and remote areas in the north-western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealo, Marina; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemí; Ripoll, Anna; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Further research is needed to reduce the existing uncertainties on the effect that specific aerosol particle sources have on light extinction and consequently on climate. This study presents a new approach that aims to quantify the mass scattering and absorption efficiencies (MSEs and MAEs) of different aerosol sources at urban (Barcelona - BCN), regional (Montseny - MSY) and remote (Montsec - MSA) background sites in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean. An analysis of source apportionment to the measured multi-wavelength light scattering (σsp) and absorption (σap) coefficients was performed by means of a multilinear regression (MLR) model for the periods 2009-2014, 2010-2014 and 2011-2014 at BCN, MSY and MSA respectively. The source contributions to PM10 mass concentration, identified by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, were used as dependent variables in the MLR model. With this approach we addressed both the effect that aerosol sources have on air quality and their potential effect on light extinction through the determination of their MSEs and MAEs. An advantage of the presented approach is that the calculated MSEs and MAEs take into account the internal mixing of atmospheric particles. Seven aerosol sources were identified at MSA and MSY, and eight sources at BCN. Mineral, aged marine, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate and V-Ni bearing sources were common at the three sites. Traffic, industrial/metallurgy and road dust resuspension sources were isolated at BCN, whereas mixed industrial/traffic and aged organics sources were identified at MSY and MSA. The highest MSEs were observed for secondary sulfate (4.5 and 10.7 m2 g-1, at MSY and MSA), secondary nitrate (8.8 and 7.8 m2 g-1) and V-Ni bearing source (8 and 3.5 m2 g-1). These sources dominated the scattering throughout the year with marked seasonal trends. The V-Ni bearing source, originating mainly from shipping in the area under study, simultaneously contributed to both

  8. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  9. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study

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    Luigi Barrea

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern. In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively (p < 0.001. A novel association was reported between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity.

  10. The association of Mediterranean diet and exercise modifications with anthropometric parameters in a psychiatric community population: A pilot study

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    Rosaria Di Lorenzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain and related metabolic syndrome (MS are major current issues in public health. MS consists of abdominal fat, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state, and accounts for both cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus risk factors. Patients affected by psychiatric illness present a prevalence of 35–40% of MS. Many studies have shown that Mediterranean diet is associated with the reduction of mortality due to cardiovascular and malignant diseases, potentially preventing both obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. Our pilot study explores the effects of a 12-month healthy lifestyle program (Mediterranean diet and mild physical activity on metabolic and anthropometric parameters of patients affected by chronic psychiatric disorders who live in a psychiatric community facility. A Mediterranean diet was provided by a senior nutritional clinician and adapted by two dieticians, according to the needs and preferences of the community population. Concomitantly, a program of moderate physical activity, consisting in 30-min walks on level ground 4days a week, and psycho-educational group sessions with educational and therapeutic purposes were implemented. The metabolic and anthropometric parameters of our patients improved after both 6 (T6 and 12 (T12 months. Body Max Index was statistically significantly reduced at T6 and T12, with patients perceiving good quality of life. These positive outcomes suggest that a low-cost healthy lifestyle program can produce good adherence and feasibility even among patients with chronic psychiatric diseases, reducing their risk for MS, cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Keywords: Weight gain and metabolic syndrome, Antipsychotic drugs, Chronic psychiatric disorders, Rehabilitative community, Mediterranean diet and mild physical activity

  11. Observations on the distribution, population structure and biology of Bathypterois mediterraneus Bauchot, 1962 in three areas of the Mediterranean Sea

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    Gianfranco d'Onghia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During the DESEAS cruise Bathypterois mediterraneus specimens were sampled in the Balearic Sea between 1000 and 2800 m as well as in the western and eastern Ionian Sea from 800 to 3300 m and from 800 to 2600 m respectively. The species was found to be more abundant at depths of 1500-2000 m. The size-range was 26-190 mm and the most abundant size class was around 100-120 mm standard length. No significant size-depth trends were shown for either length or weight. Negative allometry was shown in the growth of fishes and otoliths and in the relationship between fish length and otolith size in the samples from the western and eastern Ionian Sea. In these two areas the absolute growth was estimated by adopting the Von Bertalanffy function (western Ionian: SL∞ = 194.3 ± 38.51 mm, k = 0.146 ± 0.061/year, t0 = - 0.921 ± 0.699, ø' = 3.74; eastern Ionian: SL∞ = 180.23 ± 63.36 mm, k = 0.150 ± 0.112/year, t0 = - 0.968 ± 0.868, ø' = 3.70. Although most of the specimens were immature, some ripe gonads were recorded in individuals greater than 104 mm in standard length, confirming the simultaneous hermaphroditism in this fish. The results are discussed in relation to previous observations on the life strategy of B.mediterraneus in the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire focused on the Mediterranean diet for the Quebec population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantin, J; Latour, E; Ferland-Verry, R; Morales Salgado, S; Lambert, J; Faraj, M; Nigam, A

    2016-02-01

    Validated dietary assessment methods specific to population and food habits are needed to conduct randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the Mediterranean diet in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the reproducibility and the relative validity of a French language semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) focused on the Mediterranean diet within the population of Quebec. Fifty-three participants aged 19-86 years with and without coronary heart disease were recruited, and randomized in 3 groups in a crossover design where the sequence of administration of two FFQs and a dietary record (DR) differed in each group. The FFQ includes 157 food items and was designed to measure food intake over one month. It was administered twice 3-5 weeks apart to assess reproducibility and was compared to a 12-day DR to assess validity. For reproducibility (n = 47), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for energy and 33 nutrients ranged from 0.38 to 0.91 (mean 0.63). For validity, the Pearson's correlation coefficients between the DR and the FFQ pre-DR ranged from 0.26 to 0.84 (mean 0.55) and ICCs ranged from 0.25 to 0.84 (mean 0.54). As for the DR and the FFQ post-DR, the Pearson's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.36 to 0.83 (mean 0.55) and the ICCs ranged from 0.36 to 0.83 (mean 0.53). This FFQ demonstrates good reproducibility and validity for most key nutrients of the Mediterranean diet for the Quebec population. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic-rich shales from internal Betic basins (SE Spain): potential source rocks analogs for the pre-Messinian Salt play in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A.; Jorge, R.; Baudino, R.; Gilbert, L.

    2016-07-01

    Southeastern Spain has a large number of Late Neogene basins with substantial evaporitic deposits that developed under an overall NNW-SSE compressional regime related to the African-European tectonic plates collision. Located in the Betic Cordillera, they can be considered as marginal Mediterranean basins that became gradually isolated during the Tortonian and Early Messinian due to tectonic uplift. Different evaporitic units accumulated in these basins during isolation and, in several cases, evaporitic conditions were associated to episodes of important organic matter accumulation. Results obtained from Late Tortonian to Early Messinian shales collected from boreholes, mines and outcrops in the internal Betic basins of Las Minas de Hellín, Cenajo and Socovos are presented. The organic matter was studied under fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the main geochemical characteristics defined. They show a relation between organic-rich intervals with high potential of hydrocarbon generation, native sulfur, bio-induced dolomite and evaporitic deposits. These organicrich shales can be found before, during and after the evaporitic episodes. Results from the present study are compared with those previously obtained in the pre-evaporitic deposits of the Lorca Basin that showed high oil generation potential, a restricted-marine origin of the organic matter and a low degree of maturity. The occurrence of such potential source rocks in several basins points to a broad regional distribution. At a larger scale, in the Mediterranean Basin, organic-rich sediments were deposited before and during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The studied examples could represent analogs for potential source rocks of the pre-Messinian salt play in the Western Mediterranean. (Author)

  14. Biogeographic Differences in the Microbiome and Pathobiome of the Coral Cladocora caespitosa in the Western Mediterranean Sea

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    Esther Rubio-Portillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Mediterranean zooxanthellate scleractinian reef-builder Cladocora caespitosa is among the organisms most affected by warming-related mass mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea. Corals are known to contain a diverse microbiota that plays a key role in their physiology and health. Here we report the first study that examines the microbiome and pathobiome associated with C. caespitosa in three different Mediterranean locations (i.e., Genova, Columbretes Islands, and Tabarca Island. The microbial communities associated with this species showed biogeographical differences, but shared a common core microbiome that probably plays a key role in the coral holobiont. The putatively pathogenic microbial assemblage (i.e., pathobiome of C. caespitosa also seemed to depend on geographic location and the human footprint. In locations near the coast and with higher human influence, the pathobiome was entirely constituted by Vibrio species, including the well-known coral pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and V. mediterranei. However, in the Columbretes Islands, located off the coast and the most pristine of the analyzed locations, no changes among microbial communities associated to healthy and necrosed samples were detected. Hence, our results provide new insights into the microbiome of the temperate corals and its role in coral health status, highlighting its dependence on the local environmental conditions and the human footprint.

  15. Population differentiation in a Mediterranean relict shrub: the potential role of local adaptation for coping with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Nogal, Ana; Matesanz, Silvia; Hallik, Lea; Krasnova, Alisa; Traveset, Anna; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Plants can respond to climate change by either migrating, adapting to the new conditions or going extinct. Relict plant species of limited distribution can be especially vulnerable as they are usually composed of small and isolated populations, which may reduce their ability to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the vulnerability of Cneorum tricoccon L. (Cneoraceae), a Mediterranean relict shrub of limited distribution, to a future drier climate. We evaluated population differentiation in functional traits related to drought tolerance across seven representative populations of the species' range. We measured morphological and physiological traits in both the field and the greenhouse under three water availability levels. Large phenotypic differences among populations were found under field conditions. All populations responded plastically to simulated drought, but they differed in mean trait values as well as in the slope of the phenotypic response. Particularly, dry-edge populations exhibited multiple functional traits that favored drought tolerance, such as more sclerophyllous leaves, strong stomatal control but high photosynthetic rates, which increases water use efficiency (iWUE), and an enhanced ability to accumulate sugars as osmolytes. Although drought decreased RGR in all populations, this reduction was smaller for populations from the dry edge. Our results suggest that dry-edge populations of this relict species are well adapted to drought, which could potentially mitigate the species' extinction risk under drier scenarios. Dry-edge populations not only have a great conservation value but can also change expectations from current species' distribution models.

  16. Population genetics of commercial and feral honey bees in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Nadine C; Lim, Julianne; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2008-04-01

    Due to the introduction of exotic honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) diseases in the eastern states, the borders of the state of Western Australia were closed to the import of bees for breeding and other purposes > 25 yr ago. To provide genetically improved stock for the industry, a closed population breeding program was established that now provides stock for the majority of Western Australian beekeepers. Given concerns that inbreeding may have resulted from the closed population breeding structure, we assessed the genetic diversity within and between the breeding lines by using microsatellite and mitochondrial markers. We found that the breeding population still maintains considerable genetic diversity, despite 25 yr of selective breeding. We also investigated the genetic distance of the closed population breeding program to that of beekeepers outside of the program, and the feral Western Australian honey bee population. The feral population is genetically distinct from the closed population, but not from the genetic stock maintained by beekeepers outside of the program. The honey bees of Western Australia show three mitotypes, originating from two subspecies: Apis mellifera ligustica (mitotypes C1 and M7b) and Apis mellifera iberica (mitotype M6). Only mitotypes C1 and M6 are present in the commercial populations. The feral population contains all three mitotypes.

  17. Influences of natural emission sources (wildfires and Saharan dust) on the urban organic aerosol in Barcelona (Western Mediterranean Basis) during a PM event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend L; Lopez, Jordi F; Grimalt, Joan O

    2012-11-01

    The urban air quality in Barcelona in the Western Mediterranean Basin is characterized by overall high particulate matter (PM) concentrations, due to intensive local anthropogenic emissions and specific meteorological conditions. Moreover, on several days, especially in summer, natural PM sources, such as long-range transported Saharan dust from Northern Africa or wildfires on the Iberian Peninsula and around the Mediterranean Basin, may influence the levels and composition of the organic aerosol. In the second half of July 2009, daily collected PM(10) filter samples in an urban background site in Barcelona were analyzed on organic tracer compounds representing several emission sources. During this period, an important PM peak event was observed. Individual organic compound concentrations increased two to five times during this event. Although highest increase was observed for the organic tracer of biomass burning, the contribution to the organic aerosol was estimated to be around 6 %. Organic tracers that could be related to Saharan dust showed no correlation with the PM and OC levels, while this was the case for those related to fossil fuel combustion from traffic emissions. Moreover, a change in the meteorological conditions gave way to an overall increase of the urban background contamination. Long-range atmospheric transport of organic compounds from primary emissions sources (i.e., wildfires and Saharan dust) has a relatively moderate impact on the organic aerosol in an urban area where the local emissions are dominating.

  18. Parasitism of dolfinfhishes, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carbonell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 648 dolphinfishes were examined for internal and external parasites in western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands waters in order to make a comparative study between the two areas. The specimens studied from the Mediterranean Sea was Coryphaena hippurus, with 62 large individuals captured from May to September and 497 juveniles captured from August to December. The specimens studied from the central-eastern Atlantic were 39 adult C. hippurus and 49 adult Coryphaena equiselis. Parasites were found in 70% of the fish examined, and represented a total of nine endoparasitic taxa: six digeneans (Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea; Dinurus tornatus, Dinurus breviductus, Dinurus longisinus, Lecithocladium excisum, Bathycotyle branchialis and Hirudinella sp., two nematodes (Class Nematoda, Order Spirurida; Philometroides sp. and Metabronema magna and one acanthocephalan (Phyllum Acanthocephala; Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Seven crustacean copepod ectoparasites were identified: Caligus quadratus, Caligus productus, Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae (Family Caligidae and Euryphorus nymphae (Family Euriphoridae were found in gill mucus masses or on the inner surface of the operculum, the lernaeopodid Neobrachiella coryphaenae (Family Lernaeopodidae was attached to gill filaments and the pennellid Pennella filosa (Family Pennellidae was anchored to fins and rays or, deeply, to muscular tissue and abdominal cavity. The relationships between feeding habits, parasite recruitment and parasite transmission were analysed, some ecological aspects of all the parasitic species are discussed, and some comments are made on parasite-host relationships.

  19. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  20. Performance of some biotic indices in the real variable world: A case study at different spatial scales in North-Western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataranni, Mariella; Lardicci, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the variability of four different benthic biotic indices (AMBI, BENTIX, H', M-AMBI) in two marine coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. In each coastal area, 36 replicates were randomly selected according to a hierarchical sampling design, which allowed estimating the variance components of the indices associated with four different spatial scales (ranging from metres to kilometres). All the analyses were performed at two different sampling periods in order to evaluate if the observed trends were consistent over the time. The variance components of the four indices revealed complex trends and different patterns in the two sampling periods. These results highlighted that independently from the employed index, a rigorous and appropriate sampling design taking into account different scales should always be used in order to avoid erroneous classifications and to develop effective monitoring programs. - How heterogeneous distribution of macrobenthos can affect the performance of some biotic indices.

  1. Cat Taming in the Western Mediterranean. Issues, Problematics and Unpredictability in the Light of Bio-archaeological Approaches to a Museum Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miccichè

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The vast wealth of cultural artifacts and ancient biological samples can today be investigated using a great variety of methods and technologies. The result is a growing diffusion of studies on DNA, isotopes and morphometrics, and the exponential growth of publications and bio-archaeological discoveries of inestimable value for different areas of interpretation, such as phylogeny, history and archaeology. This paper describes the morphological and molecular study of a rare specimen of Felis from an Early Bronze Age horizon. The report offers the opportunity for a brief discussion on cat taming, on the origin of this practice and on the archaeological importance of this specimen for the reconstruction of taming practices in the Western Mediterranean Basin.

  2. Contribution to the study of deep coastal detritic bottoms: the algal communities of the continental shelf off the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three main algal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the continental shelf off Mallorca and Menorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean are described herein: maërl beds dominated by Spongites fruticulosus and forests of Laminaria rodriguezii located in the Menorca channel, and Peyssonnelia inamoena beds found along the Southern coast of Menorca. There seems to be a gradient of disturbance from the highly disturbed Peyssonnelia beds to the almost undisturbed L. rodriguezii forests. Whether this gradient is the result of current and past anthropogenic pressure (e.g. trawling intensity or is driven by natural environmental factors needs further assessment. Finally, the location of the target communities by means of ROV dives combined with the use of a Box-Corer dredge and beam trawl proved to be a good methodology in the study of the composition and structure of these deep water detritic communities.

  3. Population growth, urban expansion, and private forestry in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    Private forestlands in the United States face increasing pressures from growing populations, resulting in greater numbers of people living in closer proximity to forests. What often is called the "wildland/urban interface" is characterized by expansion of residential and other developed land uses onto forested landscapes in a manner that threatens forestlands...

  4. Ecological significance of microsatellite variation in western North American populations of Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisa P. Ramakrishnan; Susan Meyer; Daniel J. Fairbanks; Craig E. Coleman

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass or downy brome) is an exotic annual weed that is abundant in western USA. We examined variation in six microsatellite loci for 17 populations representing a range of habitats in Utah, Idaho, Nevada and Colorado (USA) and then intensively sampled four representative populations, for a total sample size of approximately 1000 individuals. All...

  5. Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and

  6. Large-scale Mass Transport Deposits in the Valencia Basin (Western Mediterranean): slope instability induced by rapid sea-level drawdown?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Urgeles, Roger; Llopart, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) strongly affected the physiography of the Mediterranean margins at the end of the Miocene. The sharp sea-level fall gave a new configuration to the Mediterranean basin and created dramatic morphological and sedimentological changes: margins have been largely eroded whereas the deep basins accumulated thick evaporitic and detrital units. Amongst these detrital units, there are evidences on seismic reflection data for major large-scale slope failure of the Mediterranean continental margins. About 2700 km of seismic reflection profiles in the southwestern part of the Valencia Basin (Western Mediterranean) have enabled us the detailed mapping of distinctive Messinian erosional surfaces, evaporites and deep detrital deposits. The detrital deposits occur in a distinct unit that is made of chaotic, roughly-bedded or transparent seismic bodies, which have been mainly mapped in the basin domain. Locally, the seismic unit shows discontinuous high-amplitude reflections and/or an imbricate internal structure. This unit is interpreted to be formed by a series of Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs). Rapid drawdown has long been recognized as one of the most severe loadings conditions that a slope can be subjected to. Several large historical slope failures have been documented to occur due to rapid drawdown in dams, riverbanks and slopes. During drawdown, the stabilizing effect of the water on the upstream face is lost, but the pore-water pressures within the slope may remain high. The dissipation of these pore pressures in the slope is controlled by the permeability and the storage characteristics of the slope sediments. We hypothesize that the MTDs observed in our data formed under similar conditions and represent a large-scale equivalent of this phenomenon. Therefore, these MTDs can be used to put some constraints on the duration of the drawdown phase of the MSC. We have performed a series of slope stability analysis under rapid Messinian sea

  7. Species composition and structure of a photophilic algal community dominated by Halopteris scoparia (L. Sauvageau from the North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros, Enric

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A photophilic agal community dominated by Halopteris scoparia and other brown algae is described from sheltered environments from the North-Western Mediterranean rocky bottoms. This community is included in the Padino-Cladostephetum hirsutae previously described by FELDMANN(1937 for the same geographical area. This plant association is characterized by the lack of an upper erect stratum of Fucales and by the low degree of presence of thermophilic species which typify other similar communities described from other Mediterranean areas. Algal biomass ranges from 1100 to 2500 g dw m-2 and coverage percentage ranges from 250 to 450 %. The great miniaturization and the extraordinary diversity and species richness of Mediterranean photophilic algal communities is assessed. Although there is not a clear seasonal change in biomass of the dominant species in the community, two structural stages can be discerned along an annual cycle: a developed community (summer and a diversified community (winter. Finally, the community structure and the environmental factors that impinge upon it are compared with those found in other Mediterranean phytobenthic communities.

    Se describe una comunidad de algas fotófilas mediterráneas de modo calmado dominada por Hatopteris scoparia y otros feófitos de porte mediano, la cual se adscribe a la asociación Padino-Clodostephetum hirsutae J. Feldmann 1937. Dicha asociación se caracteriza por la ausencia de un estrato elevado de Fucales y el escaso grado de presencia de especies termófilas propia de comunidades similares descritas de otras zonas del Mediterráneo. La biomasa algal oscila entre 1100 y 2500 g ps m-2 mientras que el porcentaje de recubrimiento varía entre el 250 y el 450%. Se pone de manifiesto la gran miniaturización de las comunidades de algas fotólitas mediterráneas y su extraordinaria diversidad y riqueza especificas. Pese a no existir un claro

  8. Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales.

  9. Dispersion and transport of tropospheric aerosol and pollutants in the Western Mediterranean: the role of the Po Valley under different transport regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Silvia; Fierli, Federico; Ravetta, François; Raut, Jean Christophe; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Decesari, Stefano; Diliberto, Luca; Größ, Johannes; Pap, Ines; Weinhold, Kay; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cairo, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work reports a characterization of the vertical variability of tropospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutants, over the western Mediterranean, during the 2012 summer season. In particular, we investigate the role of the Po Valley region as a receptor and emissive region of both natural and anthropogenic aerosol. The observational analysis, based on a comprehensive database of meteorological, aerosol and chemical measurements, is integrated with a model analysis using the Lagrangian transport system FLEXPART combined with emission databases, and WRF-Chem, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry. Observations have been performed in the framework of the Supersito project by Regional Agency of Prevention and Environment of the Emilia Romagna region (ARPA-ER, Ital), the TRAQA campaign (TRAnsport et Qualité de l'Air au dessus du bassin Méditerranéen) performed in the ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project, and the european project PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas-AeroSOl-climate interaction Study). An alternation between different transport regimes characterized the 2012 summer, resulting in a large variability of aerosol and pollution at different time and spatial scales. Particles of different nature have been discriminated basing on optical properties retrieved from lidar data and supported by in-situ observations and transport analysis. Results show that, during the analysed season, aerosol in the Po Valley was mainly confined below 2000 m and dominated (50% of detections) by spherical particles. Two events of dust advection from northern Africa were identified (19th-21th June and 29th June-2nd July), with intrusion and mixing with local pollution in the PBL and a non-negligible occurrence (~7%) of dust at the ground. Frequent events (22% of occurrence) of non-spherical particles resuspension, likely due to uplift of mineral soil particles, were observed from the ground to 2000 m during afternoon and evening. In the

  10. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  11. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000–2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  12. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  13. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa) in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Antonio; Fuentes, Verónica; Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Acevedo, Melissa; Toledo-Guedes, Kilian; Ortiz, Antonio; Durá, Elia; Bordehore, César; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae) along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain) in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models) to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current) affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates) were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary) production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  14. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Canepa

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  15. Epidemiological study of the prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera in a rural population in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J; Blanca, M; Soriano, V; Sanchez, J; Juarez, C

    1999-08-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to Hymenoptera venom occur in a percentage that varies from 0.4 to 3.3%. Epidemiological studies indicate that from 15 to 25% of the general population can be sensitized to different Hymenoptera venom as well as the fact that the degree of exposure may be related to the prevalence found in those studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of insect sting allergy and the venom sensitization in a rural population to three Hymenoptera previously found in the area: Polistes dominulus (Pd), Vespula germanica (Vg) and honey bee (Hb). A rural community located in the south-east of Spain, close to the Mediterranean Sea, was selected since the stinging Hymenoptera having been previously identified. A random sample of 310 subjects from the village census was studied. A questionnaire and a serum sample were obtained from every patient. The evaluation was conducted by a family doctor, who focused on the reactions to Hymenoptera sting, age, sex, occupation, atopia, previous Hymenoptera sting, stinging insect, interval to last sting and average stings per year. RAST to Hymenoptera venoms were also determined. The prevalence of systemic reactions was 2.3% (57.6% of them had a positive RAST). Large local reactions were found in 26.4% (only 28.5% of them had a positive RAST). Asymptomatic sensitization (positive RAST) was observed in 16.4% of subjects without reaction. Only a weak correlation between subjects with less than 3 years' interval to last sting exposure and positive RAST results was noted, whether they presented with a clinical reaction or not (P < 0.05). The prevalence of systemic sting reactions in our rural community is higher than other general populations in the same Mediterranean area, and similar to other rural populations studied. The degree of exposure influences not only the prevalence found but also the detection of specific serum IgE.

  16. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  17. Population of goats related to climate in western India: an ecological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeya, S. C.; Solanki, G. S.

    1991-12-01

    Western India experiences arid to dry subhumid ecoclimate. Aridity increases from east to west to the Great Indian Desert or Thar Desert. The desert economy is animal based and goats are the most common livestock; density of goats increases with increase in aridity. There are large morphological variations in goats warranting the recognition of population differences throughout the region. The present investigations were therefore undertaken to see whether there are population differences and, if so, to establish the populations on a sound ecological basis. Eleven physical measurements of the animals were made in the fields of western India in a total of 518 animals (255 adults). Five populations were initially segregated by means of a scatter diagram. Population differences were confirmed by mathematical treatments using analysis of variance (one-way and two-way) and Students-Newman-Keuls test, which yields a critical comparison among means. Discriminant analysis was used to determine whether the goat populations differed significantly between the five climo-edaphic-vegetational zones. Each population was designated according to the locality having the greatest density as: POP1Ku, POP2Sa, POP3Jh, POP4Ga, POP5Pa. The five populations occurring in distinct climo-edaphic-vegetational zones or ecological niches in western India may be referred to as ecotypes.

  18. Behavior of pyrophite shrubs in mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems (i): Population and reproductive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usó-Doménech, Josep-Lluis; Nescolarde-Selva, Josué-Antonio; Lloret-Climent, Miguel; González-Franco, Lucía

    2018-03-01

    The mathematical submodel ULEX is used to study the dynamic behavior of the green, floral and woody biomass of the main pyrophite shrub species, the gorse (Ulex parviflorus Pourret), and its relationship with other shrub species, typical of a Mediterranean ecosystem. The focus are the ecological conditions of post-fire stage growth, and its efficacy as a protective cover against erosion processes in the short, medium and long term, both in normal conditions and at the limits of desertification conditions. The model sets a target to observe the behavior and to anticipate and consequently intervene with adequate protection, restoration and management measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The plutonium as transfer tracer and particulates contribution accumulating from the Rhone to the north-western Mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    To follow the alluvial deposits from the Rhone in Mediterranean Sea, since the principle hydroelectric constructions (1960), it was necessary to find an adequate tracer. The plutonium isotopes have satisfied to the different characteristics. The specificity of the Rhone contribution is bound to the existence of the irradiated spent fuels reprocessing plant of Marcoule; the releases of this plant are characterized by the predominance of Plutonium 238. The results of this study show that the percentage of sediments coming from the Rhone in the recent contribution, is low beyond the pro delta: less than 5% of the sediment of the continental shelf concern the Rhone contribution. However, there are two zones for which the contribution is important and could play a role in the particulate transfer towards the high sea. (N.C.). 157 refs., 60 figs., 50 tabs

  20. Suppression of Mediterranean fruit fly populations over mountainous areas through aerial phloxine B - protein bait sprays: Regional Medfly programme in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Peck, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    spray. A second spray cycle was begun in December 1997, targeted to start before the annual Mediterranean fruit fly population increase. The sprays were continued until early February 1998, after which a weekly release of sterile Mediterranean fruit flies was started and was planned to continue through mid-June, 1998. Here, we describe the 1997-1998 large area phloxine B protein bait spray programme in southwestern Guatemala. We present the catch results of traps monitored throughout the weekly spray programme, as well as trap catch results from the initial ten weeks of sterile fly release which followed the spray programme. Additionally, we discuss issues which may affect the success of large area suppression programmes which target Mediterranean fruit fly or other tephritid fruit fly species using xanthene dye protein bait sprays

  1. Genetic monitoring of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations on a microgeographic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkosic, S A; Gorman, J; Lemic, D; Mikac, K M

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA genetic monitoring of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was undertaken in Croatia and Serbia from 1996 to 2011 and in the United States in 2011. The seven U.S. populations displayed the greatest allelic diversity. In Europe, the highest number of alleles was found in Rugvica, Croatia, and Surčin, Serbia, the two sites closest to international airports. The highest number of mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes was recorded from Croatia in 1996. From 2009 to 2011, haplotype diversity declined, and Croatia and Serbia had a single fixed haplotype. U.S. continuous maize locations had one haplotype, while three haplotypes were found at crop-rotated locations. Minimal temporal genetic differentiation was found within and between populations in Europe and the United States. Bayesian cluster analysis identified two genetic clusters that grouped western corn rootworm from Croatia and Serbia separately from U.S. populations; however, these clusters were not neat, and numerous U.S. individuals had both European and U.S. ancestry, suggesting bidirectional gene flow. Bottlenecks were identified within most Croatian populations sampled in 1996, only two populations in 2009, and in all populations in 2011. Bottlenecks were not identified from Serbia from 1996 to 2011 or from the United States in 2011. As suspected Serbia was identified as the geographic source of western corn rootworm in Croatia. The temporal genetic monitoring undertaken allowed a deeper understanding of the population genetics of western corn rootworm in Croatia, neighboring Serbia, and its geographic source in the United States. The data obtained can be used to inform western corn rootworm pest management strategies in Croatia and Europe.

  2. Plasticity in reproduction and growth among 52 range-wide populations of a Mediterranean conifer: adaptive responses to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Del-Blanco, L; Bonser, S P; Valladares, F; Chambel, M R; Climent, J

    2013-09-01

    A plastic response towards enhanced reproduction is expected in stressful environments, but it is assumed to trade off against vegetative growth and efficiency in the use of available resources deployed in reproduction [reproductive efficiency (RE)]. Evidence supporting this expectation is scarce for plants, particularly for long-lived species. Forest trees such as Mediterranean pines provide ideal models to study the adaptive value of allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth given their among-population differentiation for adaptive traits and their remarkable capacity to cope with dry and low-fertility environments. We studied 52 range-wide Pinus halepensis populations planted into two environmentally contrasting sites during their initial reproductive stage. We investigated the effect of site, population and their interaction on vegetative growth, threshold size for female reproduction, reproductive-vegetative size relationships and RE. We quantified correlations among traits and environmental variables to identify allocation trade-offs and ecotypic trends. Genetic variation for plasticity was high for vegetative growth, whereas it was nonsignificant for reproduction. Size-corrected reproduction was enhanced in the more stressful site supporting the expectation for adverse conditions to elicit plastic responses in reproductive allometry. However, RE was unrelated with early reproductive investment. Our results followed theoretical predictions and support that phenotypic plasticity for reproduction is adaptive under stressful environments. Considering expectations of increased drought in the Mediterranean, we hypothesize that phenotypic plasticity together with natural selection on reproductive traits will play a relevant role in the future adaptation of forest tree species. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Estimating trends of population decline in long-lived marine species in the Mediterranean Sea based on fishers' perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Maynou

    Full Text Available We conducted interviews of a representative sample of 106 retired fishers in Italy, Spain and Greece, asking specific questions about the trends they perceived in dolphin and shark abundances between 1940 and 1999 (in three 20 year periods compared to the present abundance. The large marine fauna studied were not target species of the commercial fleet segment interviewed (trawl fishery. The fishers were asked to rank the perceived abundance in each period into qualitative ordinal classes based on two indicators: frequency of sightings and frequency of catches (incidental or intentional of each taxonomic group. The statistical analysis of the survey results showed that both incidental catches and the sighting frequency of dolphins have decreased significantly over the 60+ years of the study period (except for in Greece due to the recent population increase. This shows that fishers' perceptions are in agreement with the declining population trends detected by scientists. Shark catches were also perceived to have diminished since the early 1940s for all species. Other long-lived Mediterranean marine fauna (monk seals, whales were at very low levels in the second half of the 20(th century and no quantitative data could be obtained. Our study supports the results obtained in the Mediterranean and other seas that show the rapid disappearance (over a few decades of marine fauna. We show that appropriately designed questionnaires help provide a picture of animal abundance in the past through the valuable perceptions of fishers. This information can be used to complement scientific sources or in some cases be taken as the only information source for establishing population trends in the abundance of sensitive species.

  4. Common Mediterranean Fever (MEFV Gene Mutations Associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Turkish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbulent Yigit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease. Mediterranean fever (MEFV gene, which has already been identified as being responsible for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, is also a suspicious gene for AS because of the clinical association of these two diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and clinical significance of MEFV gene mutations (M694V, M680I, V726A, E148Q and P369S in a cohort of Turkish patients with AS. Genomic DNAs of 103 AS patients and 120 controls were isolated and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods. There was a statistically significant difference of the MEFV gene mutation carrier rates between AS patients and healthy controls (p = 0.004, OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.32–4.76. This association was also observed in allele frequencies (p = 0.005, OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.27–4.2. A relatively higher frequency was observed for M694V mutation in AS patients than controls (10.7% versus 4.2% , p = 0.060. There were no significant differences between MEFV mutation carriers and non-carriers with respect to the clinical and demographic characteristics. The results of this study suggest that MEFV gene mutations are positively associated with a predisposition to develop AS.

  5. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  7. Climate changes in south western Iberia and Mediterranean Outflow variations during two contrasting cycles of the last 1 Myrs: MIS 31-MIS 30 and MIS 12-MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Goñi, M. F.; Llave, E.; Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Desprat, S.; Ducassou, E.; Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Grain size analysis and physical properties of Sites U1388, U1389 and U1390 collected in the Contourite Depositional System of the Gulf of Cádiz during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 "Mediterranean Outflow" reveal relative changes in bottom current strength, a tracer of the dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), before and after the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT). The comparison of MOW behavior with climate changes identified by the pollen analysis and δ18O benthic foraminifera measurements of Site U1385, the Shackleton Site, collected in the south western Iberian margin shows that the interval MIS 31-MIS 30, ~ 1.1-1.05 million years ago (Ma), before the MPT, was marked by wetter climate and weaker bottom current than the interval MIS 12-MIS 11 (0.47-0.39 Ma), after the MPT. Similarly, the increase in fine particles from these glacials to interglacials and in coarse fraction from interglacials to glacials was coeval with forest and semi-desert expansions, respectively, indicating the lowering/enhancement of MOW strength during periods of regional increase/decrease of moisture. While these findings may not necessarily apply to all glacial/interglacial cycles, they nonetheless serve as excellent supporting examples of the hypothesis that aridification can serve as a good tracer for MOW intensity. The strongest regional aridity during MIS 12 coincides with a remarkable increase of coarse grain size deposition and distribution that we interpret as a maximum in MOW strength. This MOW intensification may have pre-conditioned the North Atlantic by increasing salinity, thereby triggering the strong resumption of the Meridional Overturning Circulation that could contribute to the great warmth that characterizes the MIS 11c super-interglacial.

  8. A diagnostic Study of a High Impact Weather Episode in the Western Mediterranean Region: IOP8 a HyMeX case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayar, Samiro; Kalthoff, Norbert; Raff, Fritz

    2013-04-01

    Fall season heavy rainfall in the western Mediterranean region is one of the most threatening phenomena in the area. Devastating flash floods occur every year somewhere in eastern Spain resulting in a large amount of property losses, destruction of infrastructures, enormous agricultural losses and human fatalities. The forecast of the underlying HIW is a subject of special concern for local meteorologist because of its catastrophic nature. Within the framework of HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) a HIW (High Impact Weather) event took place on the south and eastern part of the Spanish coast, particularly in Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia and less pronouncedly in the Balearic Islands, moving afterwards towards France southern coast. During this event casualties and important economic damage were registered. The amounts of precipitation locally overpassed 200 mm in 24 hours and a tornado occurred in Gandia (Valencia). The main objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive description of the physical atmospheric processes giving rise to the intense precipitation in this event and its movement along the Spanish coast. High-resolution COSMO-CLM model simulations supported by the analysis of observational data sets will be presented. The model simulations and observational data sets, such as a dense network of global positioning systems (GPS), raingauges, surface measurements and radiosoundings are analyzed to document in detail the evolution of the warm and wet air masses which fed the high precipitation event (HPE) systems, as well as the low-level convergence to which the main convective systems were associated.

  9. The associations of diastolic blood pressure with the risk of stroke in Western and Eastern populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence from two overviews of prospective, observational studies of the association of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with the risk of stroke in populations from the US and Europe and populations from China and Japan. The Western overview included seven studies involving a total of 405,511 individuals. During a mean follow-up period of 11 years, 843 strokes were observed. The Eastern overview included 18 cohorts involving a total of 124,774 participants. During a mean follow-up duration of 9 years, 1,798 strokes were observed. The shape of the association between usual DBP and the risk of stroke was similar in Western and Eastern populations, but in Eastern populations the size of the association was about 50% steeper than that in Western populations. This may be due, at least in part, to cerebral haemorrhage comprising a greater proportion of total stroke in Eastern populations. This finding, together with the high stroke rates in many Eastern Asian populations, suggests that the potential benefits of blood pressure lowering may be greater in Eastern Asia.

  10. In-situ, sunphotometer and Raman lidar observations of aerosol transport events in the western Mediterranean during the June 2013 ChArMEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totems, Julien; Sicard, Michael; Bertolin, Santi; Boytard, Mai-Lan; Chazette, Patrick; Comeron, Adolfo; Dulac, Francois; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Lange, Diego; Marnas, Fabien; Munoz, Constantino; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2014-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of aerosol observations performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean at two stations set up in Barcelona and Menorca (Spain) in the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project. The Barcelona station was equipped with the following fixed instruments belonging to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC): an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun-photometer, an MPL (Micro Pulse Lidar) lidar and the UPC multi-wavelength lidar. The MPL lidar works at 532 nm and has a depolarization channel, while the UPC lidar works at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and also includes two N2- (at 387 and 607 nm) and one H2O-Raman (at 407 nm) channels. The MPL system works continuously 24 hour/day. The UPC system was operated on alert in coordination with the research aircrafts plans involved in the campaign. In Cap d'en Font, Menorca, the mobile laboratory of the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement hosted an automated (AERONET) and a manual (Microtops) 5-lambda sunphotometer, a 3-lambda nephelometer, a 7-lambda aethalometer, as well as the LSCE Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI). This mini Raman lidar, first developed and validated for the HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) campaign in 2012, works at 355 nm for eye safety and is designed with a short overlap distance (the lower troposphere. It includes depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels. H2O observations have been calibrated on-site by different methods and show good agreement with balloon measurements. Observations at Cap d'en Font were quasi-continuous from June 10th to July 3rd, 2013. The lidar data at both stations helped direct the research aircrafts and balloon launches to interesting plumes of particles in real time for in-situ measurements. Among some light pollution background from the European continent, a typical Saharan dust event and an unusual American dust/biomass burning event are highlighted in our

  11. Summer Distribution, Relative Abundance and Encounter Rates of Cetaceans in the Mediterranean Waters off Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea and Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SANTORO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 and summer 2011, weekly cetacean surveys were undertaken in “passing mode”, using ferries as platform of opportunity, along the “fixed line transect” between Catania and Civitavecchia (Southern Italy. Of the 20 species of cetaceans confirmed for the Mediterranean sea, 8 were sighted within the survey period: 7 species represented by Mediterranean subpopulations (Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus and Ziphius cavirostris and one considered visitor (Steno bredanensis. We had a total of 220 sightings during the 2010 and a total of 240 sightings in the 2011. The most frequent species was S. coeruleoalba. By the comparison of the data from the two sampling seasons, a significant increase of D. delphis sightings and a decrease of sightings of B. physalus and P. macrocephalus was observed from 2010 to 2011. While all the other species were observed in both sampling seasons, Z. cavirostris and Steno bredanensis were observed only during 2011. The presence of mixed groups of odontocetes was documented too: we sighted groups composed by S. coeruleoalba and D. delphis, by S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus, and by S. coeruleoalba and G. griseus. The results of this research add useful information on cetacean species in a very poorly known area and highlight the need to standardize large scale and long term monitoring programs in order to detect variation in presence, abundance and distribution of cetaceans populations and understand the effect of anthropogenic factors.

  12. The environment of the last hunters-gatherers and first agro-pastoralists in the western Mediterranean region, between the Rhone and the Northern Apennines (7th - 6th millennium cal. BCE): Attractiveness of the landscape units and settlement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battentier, Janet; Binder, Didier; Guillon, Sebastien; Maggi, Roberto; Negrino, Fabio; Sénépart, Ingrid; Tozzi, Carlo; Théry-Parisot, Isabelle; Delhon, Claire

    2018-03-01

    In the north western Mediterranean, in the area between the Rhone River and the Northern Apennines, the last Mesolithic societies (Castelnovian) and the first Neolithic societies (Impressed Ware or Impressa) coexisted during the first half of the 6th millennium cal. BCE (Before Common Era). Linking the two settlement distribution patterns (mainly high lands and low lands for the Castelnovian versus Mediterranean coastal areas for the Impressa) to their specific environmental backgrounds during that period of coexistence enables us to document the attractiveness of the various available landscape units as a function of the subsistence practices (hunting, fishing and gathering versus agro-pastoralism). Pollen and charcoal data from 41 archaeological sites along with contemporaneous natural (off archaeological sites) sequences (hereafter referred to as "off-site sequences") from three windows (Provence/Western Liguria, the middle Rhone valley/Prealps and Southern Alps, Eastern Liguria/Northern Apennines) were examined in order to reconstruct the vegetal landscape in the surroundings of the Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements between 6500 and 5400 cal. BCE. The importance of environmental versus cultural factors in the settlement preferences of both groups is discussed in order to document our reflection concerning non-consensual issues, such as the existence of interaction or avoidance behaviours or the sharing (or not) of parts or all of the territory and of its natural resources. The results notably highlight the expansion of fir forests that, based on ecological and accessibility criteria, could be considered as rather inauspicious for settlement and hunting as well as for pastoral activities. This expansion may have influenced the settlement patterns of both cultural complexes, leading populations to locate their settlements principally within landscape units that remained clear of extensive fir forests. It appears that, despite being motivated by the prevailing

  13. Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andrew Martín

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chinese Muslims. The article argues that migration to Tibet from other regions in China has been concentrated in urban areas and has been counterbalanced by more rapid rates of natural increase in the...

  14. Population Genetic Status of the Western Indian Ocean: What do we ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is faced with increasing evidence of degradation and effective management initiatives are needed to curtail the environmental decline. The management of the WIO region can therefore benefit from the information that population genetics can provide. Extensive literature searches revealed ...

  15. Demography and population status of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Regher, Eric V; Servanty, Sabrina; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the demography and population status of the Western Hudson Bay (WH) polar bear subpopulation for the period 1984-2011, using live-recapture data from research studies and management actions, and dead-recovery data from polar bears harvested for subsistence purposes or removed during human-bear conflicts.

  16. Flank Attacks : Populism and Left-Right Radicalism in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.; Akkerman, T.

    2017-01-01

    How is populism distributed over the political spectrum? Are right-wing parties more populist than left-wing parties? Based on the analysis of 32 parties in five Western European countries between 1989 and 2008, we show that radical parties on both the left and the right are inclined to employ a

  17. Flank attacks : Populism and left-right radicalism in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, Matthijs; Akkerman, Tjitske

    2017-01-01

    How is populism distributed over the political spectrum? Are right-wing parties more populist than left-wing parties? Based on the analysis of 32 parties in five Western European countries between 1989 and 2008, we show that radical parties on both the left and the right are inclined to employ a

  18. Planktonic copepod community in the neritic area south western part of Tunis bay influenced by Meliane river supplies (south western Mediterranean sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lamine, Y.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Tunis bay is located in the North Estern coast of Tunisia and receives in its Western part flows from Meliane River. Our study aims to describe the composition and the spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic copepods in the bay in order to identify the effect of the Meliane River supplies on the community. A grid of 19 stations was investigated monthly from July 2004 to December 2004 using a 160 μm mesh size plankton net, towed obliquely from the bottom to the surface. The planktonic co...

  19. Volatile organic compounds in the western Mediterranean basin: urban and rural winter measurements during the DAURE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs have key environmental and biological roles, but little is known about the daily VOC mixing ratios in Mediterranean urban and natural environments. We measured VOC mixing ratios concurrently at an urban and a rural site during the winter DAURE campaign in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, by means of PTR-MS at both locations: a PTR-Quad-MS at the urban site and a PTR-ToF-MS at the rural site. All VOC mixing ratios measured were higher at the urban site (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 1.68, 0.31, 0.58 and 2.71 ppbv, respectively, with the exception of some short-chain oxygenated VOCs such as acetone (with similar averages of 0.7–1.6 ppbv at both sites. The average diurnal pattern also differed between the sites. Most of the VOCs at the urban location showed their highest mixing ratios in the morning and evening. These peaks coincided with traffic during rush hour, the main origin of most of the VOCs analyzed. Between these two peaks, the sea breeze transported the urban air inland, thus helping to lower the VOC loading at the urban site. At the rural site, most of the measured VOCs were advected by the midday sea breeze, yielding the highest daily VOC mixing ratios (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 0.65, 0.07, 0.19, and 0.41 ppbv, respectively. Only biogenic monoterpenes showed a clear local origin at this site. In addition, the concentrations of fine particulate matter observed at both sites, together with the synoptic meteorological conditions and radio-sounding data, allowed the identification of different atmospheric scenarios that had a clear influence on the measured VOC mixing ratios. These results highlight the differences and relationships in VOC mixing ratios between nearby urban and rural areas in Mediterranean regions. Further research in other urban-rural areas is warranted to better understand the urban

  20. Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean through a multiproxy analysis from Padul peat bog (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Román, María J.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Camuera, Jon; García-Alix, Antonio; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula, located in the Mediterranean area, is an interesting location for paleoclimate studies due to its geographic situation between arid and humid climates. Sediments from peat bogs and lakes from Sierra Nevada, in southeastern Iberian Peninsula, have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by Holocene climate change. These studies are essential if we want to understand the past climate change in the area, which is the key to identify the possible environmental response of the Sierra Nevada ecosystems to future climate scenarios. Padul basin, located in the southwest of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, contains a ca. 100 m-thick peat bog sedimentary sequence that was deposited during the past 1 Ma making this area interesting for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. A new 43 m-long sedimentary record has recently been retrieved from the Padul peat bog. In this study we have developed a multiproxy analysis of the Holocene part of the Padul-15-05 core including pollen analysis, XRF-core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry, supported by an age control based on AMS radiocarbon dates, providing with information about vegetation and climate variability during the past 9.9 cal ka BP. This multiproxy reconstruction of the Padul-15-05 evidences the Mediterranean as a sensitive area with respect to global-scale climate system, showing relevant climate episodes such as the ca. 8, 7.5, 6.5 and 5.5 cal ka BP events during the early and middle Holocene. The trend to aridification to the late Holocene is interrupted by more arid and humid periods as the Iberian Roman Humid Period (from ca. 3 to 1.6 cal ka BP), the Dark Ages (from ca. 1.5 to 1.1 cal ka BP), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (from ca. 1.1 to 1.3 cal ka BP) and the Little Ice Age period (from ca. 500 to 100 cal yr BP).

  1. Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Biagio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between  ∼  160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84–0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70–0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84–0.70 between 370 and 950 nm are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41–1.77 and 0.002–0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE, i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (−160/−235 W m−2 τ−1 at 60° solar zenith angle and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (−137/−92

  2. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vizcaíno-Palomar

    Full Text Available Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton, an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  3. Low larval densities in northern populations reinforce range expansion by a Mediterranean damselfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therry, Lieven; Swaegers, Janne; Dinh, Khuong Van

    2016-01-01

    indicated higher food availability at low conspecific densities. Interestingly, the initial density treatment had stronger effect than densities experienced at the time of quantification on survival during the pre-freezing winter period and body condition estimates at the end of the experiment, indicating...... also delayed effects of the initial density treatment. Survival throughout a freezing period indicated extreme winter conditions are not likely a limiting factor in the range expansion of this Mediterranean species. 4. The increased survival and individual growth rates (through causing shifts......1. Contemporary climate change triggers a poleward range shift in many species. A growing number of studies document evolutionary changes in traits accelerating range expansion (such as growth rate and dispersal-related traits). In contrast, the direct impact of decreasing conspecific densities...

  4. Estimating the biogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from the North Western Mediterranean vegetation of Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, R.; Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain), in addition to their superficial and temporal distribution, is presented for policy and scientific (photochemical modelling) purposes. It was developed for the year 2000, for different time resolutions (hourly, daily, monthly and annual) and using a high-resolution land-use map (1-km 2 squared cells). Several meteorological surface stations provided air temperature and solar radiation data. An adjusted mathematical emission model taking account of Catalonia's conditions was built into a geographic information system (GIS) software. This estimation uses the latest information, mainly relating to: (1) emission factors; (2) better knowledge of the composition of Catalonia's forest cover; and (3) better knowledge of the particular emission behaviour of some Mediterranean vegetal species. Results depict an annual cycle with increasing values in the March-April period with the highest emissions in July-August, followed by a decrease in October-November. Annual biogenic NMVOCs emissions reach 46.9 kt, with monoterpenes the most abundant species (24.7 kt), followed by other biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g. alcohols, aldehydes and acetone) (16.3 kt), and isoprene (5.9 kt). These compounds signify 52%, 35% and 13%, respectively, of total emission estimates. Peak hourly total emission for a winter day could be less than 10% of the corresponding value for a summer day

  5. Reproduction, gonad histology and fecundity of Aidablennius sphynx (Pisces: Blenniidae of the Catalan Sea (North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Carrassón

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the Mediterranean blenny fish Aidablennius sphinx was studied on the basis of microscopic and macroscopic analysis. A. sphynx is a resident species of the shallow waters of this region, lays demersal eggs and provides parental care to the developing embryos. Mature male gonads occur between March and July, whereas mature females appear between April and August. Male gonads are composed of the testis and the testicular gland. Spermatids are released into the testicular gland. The testicular gland is relatively more prominent than the testis after the reproductive season. Six stages of oocyte development (included atretic ones are considered. Seasonal variations of gonads of both males and females are illustrated. Low fecundity was recorded, as the ovaries may contain 432 to 1682 oocytes according to female size. Equations describing the relationship between gonad weight and length and weight of males and females are presented. Equations describing the relationship between absolute individual fecundity and length and weight of females are also presented.

  6. Genetic support for the morphological identification of larvae of Myctophidae, Gonostomatidae, Sternoptychidae and Phosichthyidae (Pisces from the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Bernal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesopelagic fishes experience an extreme body transformation from larvae to adults. The identification of the larval stages of fishes from the two orders Myctophiformes and Stomiiformes is currently based on the comparison of morphological, pigmentary and meristic characteristics of different developmental stages. However, no molecular evidence to confirm the identity of the larvae of these mesopelagic species is available so far. Since DNA barcoding emerged as an accurate procedure for species discrimination and larval identification, we have used the cytochrome c oxidase 1 or the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA regions to identify larvae and adults of the most frequent and abundant species of myctophiforms (family Myctophidae and stomiiforms (families Gonostomatidae, Sternoptychidae and Phosichthyidae from the Mediterranean Sea. The comparisons of sequences from larval and adult stages corroborated the value of the morphological characters that were used for taxonomic classification. The combination of the sequences obtained in this study and those of related species from GenBank was used to discuss the consistency of monophyletic clades for different genera. Pairwise nucleotide distances were notably higher inter- than intraspecifically, and were useful to discern between congeners such as Cyclothone braueri and C. pygmaea, Hygophum benoiti and H. hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus and L. pusillus, and Notoscopelus bolini and N. elongatus.

  7. Megabenthic assemblages in the continental shelf edge and upper slope of the Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyó, Jordi; Gori, Andrea; Greenacre, Michael; Requena, Susana; Canepa, Antonio; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Ambroso, Stefano; Purroy, Ariadna; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-03-01

    Highly diverse megabenthic assemblages dominated by passive and active suspension feeders have been recently reported in shelf edge environments of the Mediterranean Sea. Due to their frequent association with species of commercial interest, these assemblages have been heavily impacted by fishing. The vulnerability and low resilience of these assemblages, composed mainly by long-living and slow-growing species, have motivated the implementation of management measures such as the restriction of bottom trawling, and the establishment of large protected areas embracing these environments. The Menorca Channel is one of such areas recently included in the European Union Natura 2000 network. Quantitative analysis of video transects recorded at 95-360 m depth by manned submersible and remotely operated vehicles were used to characterize megabenthic assemblages and to assess their geographical and bathymetric distribution. Six different assemblages were identified, mainly segregated by substrate type and depth. Hard substrates hosted coral gardens and sponge grounds, whereas soft sediments were mainly characterized by large extensions of the crinoid Leptometra phalangium and the brachiopod Gryphus vitreus. The good preservation of most of the observed assemblages is probably related to a low bottom trawling pressure, which mainly concentrates deeper on the adjacent continental slope. Because of their biological and ecological value, management and conservation measures need to be established to preserve these benthic assemblages.

  8. Simulated bat populations erode when exposed to climate change projections for western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that temperature and precipitation conditions correlate with successful reproduction in some insectivorous bat species that live in arid and semiarid regions, and that hot and dry conditions correlate with reduced lactation and reproductive output by females of some species. However, the potential long-term impacts of climate-induced reproductive declines on bat populations in western North America are not well understood. We combined results from long-term field monitoring and experiments in our study area with information on vital rates to develop stochastic age-structured population dynamics models and analyzed how simulated fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes populations changed under projected future climate conditions in our study area near Boulder, Colorado (Boulder Models and throughout western North America (General Models. Each simulation consisted of an initial population of 2,000 females and an approximately stable age distribution at the beginning of the simulation. We allowed each population to be influenced by the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation for our study area and a generalized range-wide model projected through year 2086, for each of four carbon emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5. Each population simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Of the 8 Boulder Model simulations, 1 increased (+29.10%, 3 stayed approximately stable (+2.45%, +0.05%, -0.03%, and 4 simulations decreased substantially (-44.10%, -44.70%, -44.95%, -78.85%. All General Model simulations for western North America decreased by >90% (-93.75%, -96.70%, -96.70%, -98.75%. These results suggest that a changing climate in western North America has the potential to quickly erode some forest bat populations including species of conservation concern, such as fringed myotis.

  9. Tournament ABC analysis of the western Palaearctic population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Graham N; White, Sarah C; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Mutun, Serap; Pénzes, Zsolt; Sadeghi, S Ebrahim; Schönrogge, Karsten; Tavakoli, Majid; Nicholls, James A

    2017-12-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful and widely used approach in inference of population history. However, the computational effort required to discriminate among alternative historical scenarios often limits the set that is compared to those considered more likely a priori. While often justifiable, this approach will fail to consider unexpected but well-supported population histories. We used a hierarchical tournament approach, in which subsets of scenarios are compared in a first round of ABC analyses and the winners are compared in a second analysis, to reconstruct the population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) across the Western Palaearctic. We used 4,233 bp of sequence data across seven loci to explore the relationships between four putative Pleistocene refuge populations in Iberia, Italy, the Balkans and Western Asia. We compared support for 148 alternative scenarios in eight pools, each pool comprising all possible rearrangements of four populations over a given topology of relationships, with or without founding of one population by admixture and with or without an unsampled "ghost" population. We found very little support for the directional "out of the east" scenario previously inferred for other gall wasp community members. Instead, the best-supported models identified Iberia as the first-regional population to diverge from the others in the late Pleistocene, followed by divergence between the Balkans and Western Asia, and founding of the Italian population through late Pleistocene admixture from Iberia and the Balkans. We compare these results with what is known for other members of the oak gall community, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of using a tournament approach to explore phylogeographic model space. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Neural network model for the prediction of PM10 daily concentrations in two sites in the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Trizio, Livia; Di Gilio, Alessia; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Cusack, Michael; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2013-10-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed and tested to forecast PM10 daily concentration in two contrasted environments in NE Spain, a regional background site (Montseny), and an urban background site (Barcelona-CSIC), which was highly influenced by vehicular emissions. In order to predict 24-h average PM10 concentrations, the artificial neural network previously developed by Caselli et al. (2009) was improved by using hourly PM concentrations and deterministic factors such as a Saharan dust alert. In particular, the model input data for prediction were the hourly PM10 concentrations 1-day in advance, local meteorological data and information about air masses origin. The forecasted performance indexes for both sites were calculated and they showed better results for the regional background site in Montseny (R(2)=0.86, SI=0.75) than for urban site in Barcelona (R(2)=0.73, SI=0.58), influenced by local and sometimes unexpected sources. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis conducted to understand the importance of the different variables included among the input data, showed that local meteorology and air masses origin are key factors in the model forecasts. This result explains the reason for the improvement of ANN's forecasting performance at the Montseny site with respect to the Barcelona site. Moreover, the artificial neural network developed in this work could prove useful to predict PM10 concentrations, especially, at regional background sites such as those on the Mediterranean Basin which are primarily affected by long-range transports. Hence, the artificial neural network presented here could be a powerful tool for obtaining real time information on air quality status and could aid stakeholders in their development of cost-effective control strategies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable water isotope patterns in a climate change hotspot: the isotope hydrology framework of Corsica (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Taubald, Heinrich; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-06-01

    The Mediterranean is regarded as a region of intense climate change. To better understand future climate change, this area has been the target of several palaeoclimate studies which also studied stable isotope proxies that are directly linked to the stable isotope composition of water, such as tree rings, tooth enamel or speleothems. For such work, it is also essential to establish an isotope hydrology framework of the region of interest. Surface waters from streams and lakes as well as groundwater from springs on the island of Corsica were sampled between 2003 and 2009 for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. Isotope values from lake waters were enriched in heavier isotopes and define a local evaporation line (LEL). On the other hand, stream and spring waters reflect the isotope composition of local precipitation in the catchment. The intersection of the LEL and the linear fit of the spring and stream waters reflect the mean isotope composition of the annual precipitation (δP) with values of-8.6(± 0.2) ‰ for δ(18)O and-58(± 2) ‰ for δ(2)H. This value is also a good indicator of the average isotope composition of the local groundwater in the island. Surface water samples reflect the altitude isotope effect with a value of-0.17(± 0.02) ‰ per 100 m elevation for oxygen isotopes. At Vizzavona Pass in central Corsica, water samples from two catchments within a lateral distance of only a few hundred metres showed unexpected but systematic differences in their stable isotope composition. At this specific location, the direction of exposure seems to be an important factor. The differences were likely caused by isotopic enrichment during recharge in warm weather conditions in south-exposed valley flanks compared to the opposite, north-exposed valley flanks.

  12. Estimation of North American population doses resulting from radon-222 release in western United States: methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Travis, C.C.; Watson, A.P.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.

    1979-12-01

    The report represents a compilation of computer codes used to estimate potential human exposures and inhalation doses due to unit releases of 222 Rn from uranium milling sites in western United States. The populations considered for potential exposure to risk from 222 Rn and associated daughters are the inhabitants of North America between 20 0 and 60 0 North latitude. The primary function of these codes is to integrate spatially atmospheric radionuclide concentrations with current population data for the geographic area under consideration. It is expected that these codes will be of assistance to anyone interested in assessing nuclear or nonnuclear population exposures over large geographic areas

  13. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Neo Christopher; Szyda, Joanna; Frąszczak, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources...... and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Importantly, we relaxed a strong assumption of discrete or admixed population, by adapting latent variable models...... harboring largest genetic differentiation suggest positive selection underlying population structure. We carried out gene set analysis using SNP annotations to identify enriched functional categories such as energy-related processes and multiple development stages. Our population structure analysis of bull...

  14. Multi-parameter observations in the Ibero-Moghrebian region: the Western Mediterranean seismic network (WM) and ROA GPS geodynamic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Gárate Pasquín, Jorge; Catalán Morollón, Manuel; Hanka, Winfried; Udías, Agustín.; Benzzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2010-05-01

    The plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa plates crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from the San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern Morocco and Algeria. In this area, the convergence, with a low rate, is accommodated over a wide and diffuse deformation zone, characterized by a significant and widespread moderate seismic activity [Buforn et al., 1995], and the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation zone. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net) is deployed, in collaboration with other institutions, around the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran sea, with stations in the South of Iberia and in North Africa (at Spanish places and Morocco), together with the seismic stations a permanent geodetic GPS net is co-installed at the same sites. Also, other geophysical instruments have been installed: a Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station at San Fernando Observatory Headquarter, a Geomagnetic Observatory in Cádiz bay area and some meteorological stations. These networks have been recently improved with the deployment of a new submarine and on-land geophysical observatory in the Alboran island (ALBO Observatory), where a permanent GPS, a meteorological station were installed on land and a permanent submarine observatory in 50 meters depth was also deploy in last October (with a broad band seismic sensor, a 3 C accelerometer and a DPG). This work shows the present status and the future plans of these networks and some results.

  15. Including pork in the Mediterranean diet for an Australian population: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing cardiovascular risk and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-12-22

    The Mediterranean diet is characterised by the high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts; moderate consumption of fish, poultry, eggs and dairy; and low consumption of red meat and sweets. Cross sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies indicate that a Mediterranean diet may be effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, previous research suggests that an Australian population may find red meat restrictions difficult, which could affect long term sustainability of the diet. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that will assess the cardiovascular and cognitive benefits of a Mediterranean diet modified to include 2-3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. A 24-week cross-over design trial will compare a modified Mediterranean diet with a low-fat control diet in at-risk men and women. Participants will follow each of the two diets for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. Home measured systolic blood pressure will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes will include body mass index, body composition, fasting blood lipids, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, erythrocyte fatty acids, cognitive function, psychological health and well-being, and dementia risk. To our knowledge this research is the first to investigate whether an alternate source of protein can be included in the Mediterranean diet to increase sustainability and feasibility for a non-Mediterranean population. Findings will be significant for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and age-related decline, and may inform individuals, clinicians and public health policy. ACTRN12616001046493 . Registered 5 August 2016.

  16. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  17. Epidemiological and molecular data on heterophyid trematode metacercariae found in the muscle of grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Simonetta; Piras, Maria Cristina; Sanna, Daria; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    This study is a contribution to the molecular taxonomy and epidemiology of heterophyid (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) metacercariae found in the muscle of Mugilidae (Osteichthyes) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Sixty specimens of mugilids (13 Chelon labrosus, 18 Liza aurata, 6 Liza ramada, 8 Liza saliens, 15 Mugil cephalus) were examined and 17,899 metacercariae isolated in 95 % of the hosts. Four types of metacercariae were identified: Heterophyes sp. (n = 14,113), Heterophyes sp. -small (1225), Stictodora sp. (1606), and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. (955). The experimental infection of a hamster with Heterophyes sp. metacercariae produced six adults identified as Heterophyes heterophyes and two as Heterophyes cf. nocens. The morphology of Heterophyes sp. -small metacercariae matched with that of Heterophyes dispar. The sequence analysis of the ITS2 and 28S portions of rDNA confirmed the morphological identification of metacercariae, showing four clusters. All adults grouped together with the Heterophyes sp. metacercariae, whereas adults of Heterophyes nocens from Korea clustered separately, showing that this species is distinguished from H. heterophyes, and suggesting caution in the exclusive use of the number of rodlets of the genital sucker to separate the two species. The presence of metacercariae was high in all hosts; the highest prevalence is of Heterophyes sp. (prevalence ≥78 %; mean intensity ≥135 metacercariae/100 g muscle), and the most heavily infected host is M. cephalus (prevalence = 100 %; mean intensity = 841 metacercariae/100 g muscle).

  18. Millennial-scale climate variations in western Mediterranean during late Pleistocene-early Holocene: multi-proxy analyses from Padul peatbog (southern Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuera, Jon; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; José Ramos-Román, María; García-Alix, Antonio; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco; Toney, Jaime L.; Anderson, R. Scott; Kaufman, Darrell; Bright, Jordon; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Padul peatbog, located in southern Iberian Peninsula (western Mediterranean region) is a unique area for palaeoenvironmental studies due to its location, between arid and temperate climates. Previous studies showed that the Padul peatbog contains a continuous record of the last ca. 0.8-1 Ma, so it is an extraordinary site to identify glacial-interglacial phases as well as Heinrich and D-O events, linked to orbital- and suborbital-scale variations. In 2015, a new 42 m long core was taken from this area, providing an excellent sediment record probably for the last ca. 300,000 years. This study is focused on the paleoenvironmental and climatic reconstruction of the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene (ca. from 50,000 to 9,500 cal. yrs BP), using AMS 14C and AAR dating, high-resolution pollen analysis, lithology, continuous XRF-scanning, X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry. These different proxies provide information not only about the regional environment change but also about local changes in the conditions of the Padul lake/peatbog due to variations in water temperature, pH or nutrients.

  19. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of the demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, A.; Rueda, L.; Monserrat, S.; Guijarro, B.; Pasqual, C.; Massutí, E.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean mean surface vorticity from gridded multi-mission satellite altimetry data was explored in the Western Mediterranean basin for the period 2000-2010, with the aim of comparing its variability with several species of the deep water fishery in the area. Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed off northern Mallorca Island displayed a good correlation with surface vorticity. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspensions, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity by moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accesibility to fishing exploitation. This relationship between vorticity and catches also holds for other species , considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticy episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species. The way the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is also investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom currentmeter and a sediment trap sited in the fishing grounds.

  20. Incorporation of habitat information in the development of indices of larval bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (2001-2005 and 2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G. Walter; Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Reglero, Patricia; Balbín, Rosa; García, Alberto; Alemany, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Fishery independent indices of bluefin tuna larvae in the Western Mediterranean Sea are presented utilizing ichthyoplankton survey data collected from 2001 through 2005 and 2012 through 2013. Indices were developed using larval catch rates collected using two different types of bongo sampling, by first standardizing catch rates by gear/fishing-style and then employing a delta-lognormal modeling approach. The delta-lognormal models were developed three ways: 1) a basic larval index including the following covariates: time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; 2) a standard environmental larval index including the following covariates: mean water temperature over the mixed layer depth, mean salinity over the mixed layer depth, geostrophic velocity, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; and 3) a habitat-adjusted larval index including the following covariates: a potential habitat variable, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year. Results indicated that all three model-types had similar precision in index values. However, the habitat-adjusted larval index demonstrated a high correlation with estimates of spawning stock biomass from the previous stock assessment model, and, therefore, is recommended as a tuning index in future stock assessment models.

  1. What do Pneumocystis organisms tell us about the phylogeography of their hosts? The case of the woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in continental Europe and western Mediterranean islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Demanche

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87% and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals.

  2. Determination of the Factors Affecting The Use of the Support Program of the Enterprises Benefiting from the Rural Development Investments Program in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Taşcıoğlu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With industrialization, change has taken place in the world and development efforts have concentrated in urban areas. This has affected the rural area negatively and the increase in rural development studies has increased with the emergence of interregional economic imbalances. With the planned period, rural development studies in Turkey have increased and strategies, projects and programs have begun to be developed. One of these activities is the Rural Development Investment Support Program (RDISP, which entered into force in 2006. The aim of the program is to increase the level of rural area income, to ensure integration of agricultural production and agricultural industry, to strengthen food safety, to create alternative income sources in the rural area. In this study, it was aimed to determine the attitudes and behaviors of program beneficiaries in the Western Mediterranean Region within the framework of the RDISP applied in Turkey, and the factors affecting their utilization from the program. In the study, a total of 96 enterprises provided interviews based on face to face interviews. In this study, Factor Analysis was applied to determine the factors that affect the preferences of the enterprises and to determine the factors affecting the investments of the enterprises. In the study, 12 variables that were effective in factor analysis in the utilization of this support were combined into 3 factors. These factors have been found to be “support for local support and information about support”, “employment support for support” and “environmental sensitivity for support”.

  3. Application of allozyme markers for screening of turbot populations along Western Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENELIN NIKOLOV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data for electrophoretic pattern of 26 loci, resolved for the 8 protein systems (7- enzyme and 1-non-enzyme assayed were used to investigate population structure of turbot along the Bulgarian and Romanian Black Sea coasts using genetic diversity measures. Seventeen loci were polymorphic in all populations and a total of 34 alleles were identified. Four types of tissue: muscle, retina, plasma and haemoglobin were analyzed. The percentage of polymorphic loci was high (65.38% within populations. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected, based on the Shannon’s information index (0.446-0.448 and the coefficient of genetic differentiation between populations (FST =0.014. The overall mean of within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS was (-0.209 and demonstrated low level of inbreeding. The genetic distance (DNei between the populations was low and vary between 0.003 and 0.014. Genetic distances among turbot populations were positively correlated with geographic distances (r = 0.474, but the association was not significant according to the Mantel test (p=0.651 and showed a lack of correlation between genetic distance and the geographic location of populations. Results identified one genetic stock with sufficient gene flow between all the three sites to prevent genetic differentiation from occurring. Only 1.4% of the genetic variation was observed among populations. Results revealed that adopting a single stock model and regional shared management could probably be appropriate for sustainable long-term use of turbot along western Black Sea coast. Determination of the contemporary state of the population distribution will be the prerequisite for determination of adequate measures for exploitation and protection of the existing turbot populations along western Black Sea coast.

  4. Alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer in a Mediterranean population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, Niki; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Soupos, Nick; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Linos, Athena; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2012-06-01

    Alcohol is considered to be a cocarcinogen or a tumor promoter, and various studies have shown a linear dose-dependent association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer. However, a few studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may have a protective effect, similar to that in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of colorectal cancer to quantity and type of alcohol consumed. This was case-control study. The study was conducted in the area of Attica, Greece. A total of 250 consecutive patients with a first diagnosis of colorectal cancer were matched for age group and sex with 250 controls recruited from the community. The mean age was 63 (SD, 12) years for the patient group (147 men, 59%; 103 women, 41%) and 55 (SD, 13) years for the control group (112 men; 44.8%; 138 women, 55.2%). Questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers to assess sociodemographic, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics, in addition to dietary habits and quantity and type of alcoholic beverages usually consumed during the preceding year. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated with the MedDietScore (theoretical range, 0-55). With intake of less than 12 g of alcohol per day as the reference, moderate alcohol intake (12-35 g/day) was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of colorectal cancer in men (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.16-0.74) and in women (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.91). High alcohol intake (more than 48 g/day) was associated with an increased likelihood, which was significant in men (OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.35-8.83) but not in women (OR, 3.40; 95% CI, 0.50-22.92). Drinking red wine was associated with reduced odds of colorectal cancer, significant in men (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.96) but not in women (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.23-1.30). None of the associations between other beverage types and colorectal cancer were significant. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was independently associated with lower odds

  5. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  6. Life-history traits of the long-nosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus, from the central western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Mulas

    2015-11-01

    sensitive to fishing pressure, in the Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients in sublittoral fine sands in a north-western Mediterranean coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sospedra, J.; Falco, S.; Morata, T.; Gadea, I.; Rodilla, M.

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, benthic metabolism in sublittoral permeable sands have not been widely studied, although these sands can have a direct and transcendental impact in coastal ecosystems. This study aims to determine oxygen and nutrient fluxes at the sediment-water interface and the study of possible interactions among environmental variables and the benthic metabolism in well-sorted fine sands. Eight sampling campaigns were carried out over the annual cycle in the eastern coast of Spain (NW Mediterranean) at 9 m depth station with permeable bottoms. Water column and sediment samples were collected in order to determine physico-chemical and biological variables. Moreover, in situ incubations were performed to estimate the exchange of dissolved solutes in the sediment-water interface using dark and light benthic chambers. Biochemical compounds at the sediment surface ranged between 160 and 744 μg g-1 for proteins, 296 and 702 μg g-1 for carbohydrates, and between 327 and 1224 μg C g-1 for biopolymeric carbon. Chloroplastic pigment equivalents in sediments were mainly composed by chlorophyll a (1.81-2.89 μg g-1). These sedimentary organic descriptors indicated oligotrophic conditions according to the biochemical approach used. In this sense, the most abundant species in the macrobenthic community were sensitive to organic enrichment. In dark conditions, benthic fluxes behaved as a sink of oxygen and a source of nutrients. Oxygen fluxes (between -26,610 and -10,635 μmol m-2 d-1) were related with labile organic fraction (r=-0.86, p<0.01 with biopolymeric carbon; r=-0.91, p<0.01 with chloroplastic pigment equivalents). Daily fluxes of dissolved oxygen, that were obtained by adding light and dark fluxes, were only positive in spring campaigns (6966 μmol m-2 d-1) owing to the highest incident irradiance levels (r=0.98, p<0.01) that stimulate microphytobenthic primary production. Microphytobenthos played an important role on benthic metabolism and was the main primary

  8. Fisheries in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a description of the Mediterranean fisheries, and its level of exploitation and to address the main questions dealing with its management. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed marine area with generally narrow continental shelves. The primary production of the Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (26-50g C m-2 y-1. The Mediterranean fisheries can be broken down into three main categories: small scale fisheries, trawling and seining fisheries, which operated on demersal, small pelagic and large pelagic resources. After a general description of the state of the resources in the different areas of the Mediterranean it is concluded that (a the overall pictures from the western to the eastern Mediterranean are not considerably different, (b the total landings in the Mediterranean have been increased the last decades, and (c from the perspective of stock assessment, the very few available time series data show stable yield levels. In general fisheries management in the Mediterranean is at a rela- tively early stage of development, judging by the criteria of North Atlantic fisheries. Quota systems are generally not applied, mesh-size regulations usually are set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and effort limitation is not usually applied or, if it is, is not always based on a formal resource assessment. The conservation/management measures applied by the Mediterranean countries can be broadly separated into two major categories: those aiming to keep the fishing effort under control and those aiming to make the exploitation pattern more rational. The most acute problems in the management of the Mediterranean resources are the multispecificity of the catches and the lack of reliable official statistics.

  9. Improvement of functional constipation with kiwifruit intake in a Mediterranean patient population: An open, non-randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Cunillera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kiwifruit consumption has shown to improve functional constipation in healthy elderly population, according to studies in New Zealand and China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kiwifruit intake on functional constipation in a Mediterranean patient population characterized by its distinctive nutritional habits.Material and Methods: An open, non-controlled and non-randomized longitudinal study was conducted in 46 patients with constipation (Rome III criteria. Patients monitored for five weeks: weeks 1 and 2 no kiwifruit and weeks 3-5 three kiwifruit per day (Green kiwifruit, Actinidia deliciosa var Hayward. Bristol Scale, volume of stools, and ease of defecation was self- reported daily. The evolution of the categorical variables was tested using the Bhapkar test; functional data methodology was used for continuous variables, and Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models were adjusted.Results: The percentage of patients with ≥3 stools per week increased from 82.61% (95% CI: 69–91.2 at week 1 to 97.78% (95% CI: 87.4–99.9 at week 2 of kiwifruit intake, with 76.09% (95% CI: 61.9–86.2 responding during the first week. The reporting of stable ideal stools increased from 17.39% (95% CI: 8.8–31 at week 2 to 33.33% (95% CI: 21.3–48 at week 5. According to GEE models, the number of depositions increased significantly (p-values<0.001 in 0.398 daily units at week 1 the first week of intake, up to 0.593 daily units at week 5; significant improvements on facility in evacuation and volume of evacuation were found from the firstweek of intake (all p-values<0.001.Conclusions: The intake of three kiwifruits per day significantly improves the quality of evacuation (number of depositions, volume, consistency and ease in a Mediterranean patient population suffering from functional constipation.

  10. Predictability of prototype flash flood events in the Western Mediterranean under uncertainties of the precursor upper-level disturbance: the HYDROPTIMET case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Romero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The HYDROPTIMET case studies (9–10 June 2000 Catalogne, 8–9 September 2002 Cévennes and 24–26 November 2002 Piémont appear to encompass a sort of prototype flash-flood situations in the western Mediterranean attending to the relevant synoptic and mesoscale signatures identified on the meteorological charts. In Catalogne, the convective event was driven by a low-pressure system of relatively small dimensions developed over the mediterranean coast of Spain that moved into southern France. For Cévennes, the main circulation pattern was a synoptic-scale Atlantic low which induced a persistent southerly low-level jet (LLJ over the western Mediterranean, strengthened by the Alps along its western flank, which guaranteed continuous moisture supply towards southern France where the long-lived, quasistationary convective system developed. The long Piémont episode, very representative of the most severe alpine flash flood events, shares some similarities with the Cévennes situation during its first stage in that it was controlled by a southerly moist LLJ associated with a large-scale disturbance located to the west. However, these circulation features were transient aspects and during the second half of the episode the situation was dominated by a cyclogenesis process over the Mediterranean which gave place to a mesoscale-size depression at surface that acted to force new heavy rain over the slopes of the Alps and maritime areas. That is, the Piémont episode can be catalogued as of mixed type with regard to the responsible surface disturbance, evolving from a large-scale pattern with remote action (like Cévennes to a mesoscale pattern with local action (like Catalogne. A prominent mid-tropospheric trough or cut-off low can be identified in all events prior and during the period of heavy rain, which clearly served as the precursor agent for the onset of the flash-flood conditions and the cyclogenesis at low-levels. Being aware of the

  11. Population Genetic Structure and Species Status of Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans) in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guannan; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the population genetic structure of Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) from the mountains of western China to determine their species status, using genotypic data of ten microsatellite DNA loci and DNA sequences from one mitochondrial gene. A total of 197 samples from eight sites were examined, which cover a large range of elevations (559-3457 m), as well as all three traditionally defined species (or subspecies). AMOVA did not reveal any particularly large among-groups structure, whether the sites were grouped by drainage, elevation, region, or species (subspecies). Individual assignment tests placed all samples into two genetic clusters, which largely corresponded to their geographic locations. An isolation-by-distance pattern was also detected when an outlier population (site 3) was excluded. Furthermore, a mitochondrial gene tree revealed deep divergence among haplotypes, sometimes within the same site. The clade patterns were partially associated with geographic distribution but had no resemblance to the traditional 2- or 3-species classification. Overall, these toad populations harbor a large amount of genetic diversity and have very high population differentiation, but taken together the evidence suggests that all populations belong to a single species. Our results are consistent with most previous molecular studies, and we recommend using Bufo gargarizans to represent all Asiatic toad populations from western China without subspecies division.

  12. Historical and contemporary population genetics of the invasive western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemic, D; Mikac, K M; Bažok, R

    2013-08-01

    Classical population genetic analyses were used to investigate populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in Croatia in 1996 and 2009. The number of alleles was low in both 1996 and 2009; however, more alleles were found in the putative populations surveyed in 2009. Croatia had only 51% of the alleles recorded from the United States and 69% from Europe. However, 10 private (unique) alleles were found in Croatia, which were not found previously in Europe. Most populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, although no linkage disequilibrium was found. Low to no genetic differentiation was found between population pairwise comparisons in 1996, with a greater level of differentiation found between populations sampled in 2009. Using the program STRUCTURE, a single genetic cluster was found for populations sampled in 1996 and 2009. However, two genetic clusters were detected when the 1996 and 2009 data were combined, indicating significant temporal differentiation. Isolation by distance pattern of gene flow characterized populations sampled in 2009 only when the most distant population of Ogulin (the head of the expansion front) was included in the analysis. When Ogluin was excluded from the 2009 analysis no isolation by distance pattern was found. The possible impact that control practices have had on the population genetics of D. v. virgifera in Croatia from 1996 to 2009 are discussed in light of the temporal genetics differences found.

  13. Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of Lesser Snow Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Rainy I.; Scribner, Kim T.; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Samuel, Michael D.; Libants, Scot V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced.

  14. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  15. Does the diet of the Balearic population, a Mediterranean-type diet, ensure compliance with nutritional objectives for the Spanish population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Josep A; Romaguera, Dora; Pons, Antoni

    2005-05-01

    To assess the dietary habits of Balearic Islands' consumers who are successful in meeting current nutritional recommendations, to find clues for the development of future food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) that would be relevant to this population. Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands between 1999 and 2000. Dietary habits were assessed by means of 24-hour recall (two non-consecutive days: warm and cold season) and a food-frequency questionnaire in a random sample (n=1200, aged 16-65 years) living in private households. Differences in percentage of compliers with the intermediate nutritional objectives for the Spanish population and differences in food consumption patterns between genders and between high (above the upper quartile of intake) and low (below the lower quartile of intake) consumers of fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), fibre, and fruit and vegetables were analysed. Gender differences were observed in nutrient and energy intakes, as well as in attainment of the recommendations. Less than 25% of the population reached the intermediate nutritional recommendations for iodine, fruit, carbohydrates, SFA, fibre and vegetables. Low fat/SFA and high fruit and vegetables/fibre consumers kept a diet in line with the traditional Balearic diet and prevailing dietary pyramids, which ensured better compliance with the nutritional goals. The intermediate nutritional objectives for the Spanish population could be achieved through maintenance of the traditional Balearic diet, a Mediterranean-type diet in the Balearic population. Therefore, this dietary model could be used to develop FBDG relevant to this population.

  16. Behaviours associated with weight loss maintenance and regaining in a Mediterranean population sample. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfopoulou, E; Mouliou, K; Koutras, Y; Yannakoulia, M

    2013-10-01

    In the US, the National Weight Control Registry revealed lifestyle behaviours shared by weight loss maintainers. In the US and the UK, qualitative studies compared the experiences of weight loss maintainers and regainers. High rates of physical activity, a low-energy/low-fat diet, weight self-monitoring, breakfast consumption and flexible control of eating are well-established maintenance behaviours. The Mediterranean lifestyle has not been studied relative to weight loss maintenance. This study focused on a sample of Greek maintainers and regainers. Maintainers emphasized home-cooked meals; their diet does not appear to be low-fat, as home-cooked Greek meals are rich in olive oil. Having a small dinner is a common strategy among maintainers. Health motives were not mentioned by maintainers. Maintainers, but not regainers, appeared to compensate for emotional eating. Weight loss maintenance is imperative to successful obesity treatment. We qualitatively explored lifestyle behaviours associated with weight regulation, in a sample of Greek volunteers who had lost weight and either maintained or regained it. A 10% intentional loss maintained for at least one year was considered successful maintenance. Volunteers (n = 44, 41% men) formed eight focus groups, four of maintainers and four of regainers. Questions regarded weight loss, weight maintenance or regaining, and beliefs on weight maintenance and regaining. All discussions were tape recorded. Maintainers lost weight on their own, whereas regainers sought professional help. Maintainers exercised during both the loss and maintenance phases, whereas regainers showed inconsistent physical activity levels. Health motives for weight loss were mentioned only by regainers. Emotional eating was a common barrier, but only maintainers compensated for it. Maintainers continuously applied specific strategies to maintain their weight: emphasizing home-cooked meals, high eating frequency, a small dinner, portion size

  17. Physical and Biogeochemical Controls of the Phytoplankton Blooms in North Western Mediterranean Sea: A Multiplatform Approach Over a Complete Annual Cycle (2012-2013 DEWEX Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, Nicolas; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Prieur, Louis; de Fommervault, Orens Pasqueron; Claustre, Hervé; Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Conan, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The North Western Mediterranean Sea exhibits recurrent and significant autumnal and spring phytoplankton blooms. The existence of these two blooms coincides with typical temperate dynamics. To determine the potential control of physical and biogeochemical factors on these phytoplankton blooms, data from a multiplatform approach (combining ships, Argo and BGC-Argo floats, and bio-optical gliders) were analyzed in association with satellite observations in 2012-2013. The satellite framework allowed a simultaneous analysis over the whole annual cycle of in situ observations of mixed layer depth, photosynthetical available radiation, particle backscattering, nutrients (nitrate and silicate), and chlorophyll-a concentrations. During the year 2012-2013, satellite ocean color observations, confirmed by in situ data, have revealed the existence of two areas (or bioregions) with comparable autumnal blooms but contrasting spring blooms. In both bioregions, the ratio of the euphotic zone (defined as the isolume 0.415 mol photons m-2 d-1, Z0.415) and the MLD identified the initiation of the autumnal bloom, as well as the maximal annual increase in [Chl-a] in spring. In fact, the autumnal phytoplankton bloom might be initiated by mixing of the summer shallowing deep chlorophyll maximum, while the spring restratification (when Z0.415/MLD ratio became >1) might induce surface phytoplankton production that largely overcomes the losses. Finally, winter deep convection events that took place in one of the bioregions induced higher net accumulation rate of phytoplankton in spring associated with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton community principally. We suggest that very deep winter MLD lead to an increase in surface silicates availability, which favored the development of diatoms.

  18. Groundwater nitrate pollution and climate change: learnings from a water balance-based analysis of several aquifers in a western Mediterranean region (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Menció, Anna

    2018-04-11

    Climate change will affect the dynamics of the hydrogeological systems and their water resources quality; in particular nitrate, which is herein taken as a paradigmatic pollutant to illustrate the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. Based on climatic predictions of temperature and precipitation for the horizon of 2021 and 2050, as well as on land use distribution, water balances are recalculated for the hydrological basins of distinct aquifer systems in a western Mediterranean region as Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to determine the reduction of available water resources. Besides the fact that climate change will represent a decrease of water availability, we qualitatively discuss the modifications that will result from the future climatic scenarios and their impact on nitrate pollution according to the geological setting of the selected aquifers. Climate effects in groundwater quality are described according to hydrological, environmental, socio-economic, and political concerns. Water reduction stands as a major issue that will control stream-aquifer interactions and subsurface recharge, leading to a general modification of nitrate in groundwater as dilution varies. A nitrate mass balance model provides a gross estimation of potential nitrate evolution in these aquifers, and it points out that the control of the fertilizer load will be crucial to achieve adequate nitrate content in groundwater. Reclaimed wastewater stands as local reliable resource, yet its amount will only satisfy a fraction of the loss of available resources due to climate change. Finally, an integrated management perspective is necessary to avoid unplanned actions from private initiatives that will jeopardize the achievement of sustainable water resources exploitation under distinct hydrological scenarios.

  19. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

  20. Carbonate metasomatism and CO2 lithosphere-asthenosphere degassing beneath the western Mediterranean: An integrated model arising from petrological and geophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frezzotti, Maria Luce; Peccerillo, Angelo; Panza, Giuliano

    2009-03-01

    We present an integrated petrological, geochemical, and geophysical model that offers an explanation for the present-day anomalously high non-volcanic deep (mantle derived) CO 2 emission in the Tyrrhenian region. We investigate how decarbonation or melting of carbonate-rich lithologies from a subducted lithosphere may affect the efficiency of carbon release in the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. We propose that melting of sediments and/or continental crust of the subducted Adriatic-Ionian (African) lithosphere at pressure greater than 4 GPa (130 km) may represent an efficient mean for carbon cycling into the upper mantle and into the exosphere in the Western Mediterranean area. Melting of carbonated lithologies, induced by the progressive rise of mantle temperatures behind the eastward retreating Adriatic-Ionian subducting plate, generates low fractions of carbonate-rich (hydrous-silicate) melts. Due to their low density and viscosity, such melts can migrate upward through the mantle, forming a carbonated partially molten CO 2 -rich mantle recorded by tomographic images in the depth range from 130 to 60 km. Upwelling in the mantle of carbonate-rich melts to depths less than 60 - 70 km, induces massive outgassing of CO 2 . Buoyancy forces, probably favored by fluid overpressures, are able to allow migration of CO 2 from the mantle to the surface, through deep lithospheric faults, and its accumulation beneath the Moho and within the lower crust. The present model may also explain CO 2 enrichment of the Etna active volcano. Deep CO 2 cycling is tentatively quantified in terms of conservative carbon mantle flux in the investigated area. (author)

  1. Coupled study of radionuclides and stable lead isotopes in Western Mediterranean; Etude couplee des radionucleides et des isotopes stables du plomb en Mediterranee occidentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miralles, J

    2004-05-15

    The aim of this work is to identified an environmental deposit able to have stored the atmospheric signal over large time-scale leaning our investigations on lead stable isotopes ({sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb) and radionuclide ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu) analysis. Owing to prior studies on anthropogenic lead sources, emission intensity and sedimentary accumulation, we choose to investigate the marine sediments of the Western Mediterranean. In the Gulf of Lions, the sedimentary accumulation is 110 {+-} 7 {mu}g.cm{sup -2} high in good agreement with the atmospheric inventory estimate we made from salt marshes of Camargue (99 {mu}g.cm{sup -2}). The reconstructed lead accumulation through a modelling step coupling {sup 210}Pb and stable isotopes corroborates the regional anthropogenic emissions (Ferrand, 1996). Briefly, in this context of the marine sediments are a relevant proxy to study past lead atmospheric concentration over the last hundred years. In the Alboran Sea, the study area is less constrained and more complex in terms of climatic, meteorological and hydrological conditions. The sedimentary inventory is of 153 {+-} 47 {mu}g.cm{sup -2}, 1,5 higher than in the margin sediments of the Gulf of Lions. The analysis of aerosols, sediments and settling particles evidences a continuity between the atmospheric signal and the sedimentary record. In spite of this encouraging results, the knowledge of the Alboran system is still too restricted in order to unambiguously conclude on accuracy of deep marine sediments of this area to study past atmospheric fallouts. (author)

  2. Roseobacter-Like Bacteria in Red and Mediterranean Sea Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oz, A.; Sabehi, G.; Koblížek, Michal; Massana, R.; Béja, O.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2005), s. 344-353 ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P079; GA MŠk LN00A141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : Roseobacter * photosynthetic population Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.818, year: 2005

  3. Population and family structure of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a Mediterranean stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Manuel; Sanz, Nuria; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic differentiat...

  4. Determinants of birth interval in a rural Mediterranean population (La Alpujarra, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, V; Luna, F; Fuster, V

    2000-10-01

    The fertility pattern, in terms of birth intervals, in a rural population not practicing contraception belonging to La Alta Alpujarra Oriental (southeast Spain) is analyzed. During the first half of the 20th century, this population experienced a considerable degree of geographical and cultural isolation. Because of this population's high variability in fertility and therefore in birth intervals, the analysis was limited to a homogenous subsample of 154 families, each with at least five pregnancies. This limitation allowed us to analyze, among and within families, effects of a set of variables on the interbirth pattern, and to avoid possible problems of pseudoreplication. Information on birth date of the mother, age at marriage, children's birth date and death date, birth order, and frequency of miscarriages was collected. Our results indicate that interbirth intervals depend on an exponential effect of maternal age, especially significant after the age of 35. This effect is probably related to the biological degenerative processes of female fertility with age. A linear increase of birth intervals with birth order within families was found as well as a reduction of intervals among families experiencing an infant death. Our sample size was insufficient to detect a possible replacement behavior in the case of infant death. High natality and mortality rates, a secular decrease of natality rates, a log-normal birth interval, and family-size distributions suggest that La Alpujarra has been a natural fertility population following a demographic transition process.

  5. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  6. Genetic Structure of Bluefin Tuna in the Mediterranean Sea Correlates with Environmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Giulia; Stagioni, Marco; Landi, Monica; Ferrara, Giorgia; Barbujani, Guido; Tinti, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Background Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT) shows complex demography and ecological variation in the Mediterranean Sea. Genetic surveys have detected significant, although weak, signals of population structuring; catch series analyses and tagging programs identified complex ABFT spatial dynamics and migration patterns. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic structure of the ABFT in the Mediterranean is correlated with mean surface temperature and salinity. Methodology We used six samples collected from Western and Central Mediterranean integrated with a new sample collected from the recently identified easternmost reproductive area of Levantine Sea. To assess population structure in the Mediterranean we used a multidisciplinary framework combining classical population genetics, spatial and Bayesian clustering methods and a multivariate approach based on factor analysis. Conclusions FST analysis and Bayesian clustering methods detected several subpopulations in the Mediterranean, a result also supported by multivariate analyses. In addition, we identified significant correlations of genetic diversity with mean salinity and surface temperature values revealing that ABFT is genetically structured along two environmental gradients. These results suggest that a preference for some spawning habitat conditions could contribute to shape ABFT genetic structuring in the Mediterranean. However, further studies should be performed to assess to what extent ABFT spawning behaviour in the Mediterranean Sea can be affected by environmental variation. PMID:24260341

  7. Mutation analysis of β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population: a recent molecular approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah PS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parth S Shah,1 Nidhi D Shah,2 Hari Shankar P Ray,3 Nikunj B Khatri,3 Ketan K Vaghasia,3 Rutvik J Raval,4 Sandip C Shah,3 Mandava V Rao5 1Department of Medicine, Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Boston, MA, 2Department of Pediatrics, Nassau University Medical Centre, New York, NY, USA; 3Supratech Micropath Laboratory and Research Institute, 4Department of Zoology, 5School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Background: β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors.Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management.Patients and methods: Seventy-five referral cases for β-thalassemia were analyzed for various β-thalassemia traits, heterozygosity, and homozygosity conditions. Blood phenotypic parameters using cell counter and capillary electrophoresis were investigated. Analyses of eight common mutations of thalassemia in India were carried out using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system, end point polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing methods.Results: Of these (75 referral cases from East-Western Indian region, 68 were positive for β-thalassemia (90.67%. The majority of case types were of β-thalassemia minor (49, 65.33%, followed by HbE traits (6, 8.0% and β-thalassemia major, including heterozygous and homozygous (5, 6.66%; 4, 5.33% types and then HbE homozygous (2, 2.66%, as well as one each of the HbE/β-thalassemia and HbD/β-thalassemia (1, 1.34% combination. Mutation analysis also revealed that the highest frequency of mutation was c.92+5G>C (41, 60.29% followed by deletion 619bp (9, 13.23% and c.79G>A (8, 11

  8. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  9. A modified Mediterranean diet score is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2018-03-21

    Findings from studies in Western countries showed that Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, but little is known about this association in Asian countries. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome in Korean population, this study was conducted. A total of 8387 adults 19-64 years of age from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015 were assessed. A 112-item dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. Mediterranean diet was assessed by a modified Mediterranean diet score, which was based on the alternate Mediterranean diet score of Fung et al. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for other dietary and lifestyle variables. Participants with 5-6 and 7 or higher modified Mediterranean diet scores had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome by 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96) and 36% (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.89; P-trend = 0.0031), compared with those with 2 or lower modified Mediterranean diet scores, respectively. Higher modified Mediterranean diet scores were associated with a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, peanuts and fish is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

  10. Organic carbon at a remote site of the western Mediterranean Basin: sources and chemistry during the ChArMEx SOP2 field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Sauvage, Stéphane; Dusanter, Sébastien; Léonardis, Thierry; Gros, Valérie; Kalogridis, Cerise; Zannoni, Nora; Féron, Anaïs; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Crenn, Vincent; Baisnée, Dominique; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Marchand, Nicolas; Langley DeWitt, H.; Pey, Jorge; Colomb, Aurélie; Gheusi, François; Szidat, Sonke; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-07-01

    The ChArMEx (Chemistry and Aerosols Mediterranean Experiments) SOP2 (special observation period 2) field campaign took place from 15 July to 5 August 2013 in the western Mediterranean Basin at Ersa, a remote site in Cape Corse. During the campaign more than 80 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including oxygenated species, were measured by different online and offline techniques. At the same time, an exhaustive description of the chemical composition of fine aerosols was performed with an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM). Low levels of anthropogenic VOCs (typically tens to hundreds of parts per trillion for individual species) and black carbon (0.1-0.9 µg m-3) were observed, while significant levels of biogenic species (peaking at the ppb level) were measured. Furthermore, secondary oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) largely dominated the VOC speciation during the campaign, while organic matter (OM) dominated the aerosol chemical composition, representing 55 % of the total mass of non-refractory PM1 on average (average of 3.74 ± 1.80 µg m-3), followed by sulfate (27 %, 1.83 ± 1.06 µg m-3), ammonium (13 %, 0.90 ± 0.55 µg m-3) and nitrate (5 %, 0.31 ± 0.18 µg m-3). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) and concentration field (CF) analyses were performed on a database containing 42 VOCs (or grouped VOCs), including OVOCs, to identify the covariation factors of compounds that are representative of primary emissions or chemical transformation processes. A six-factor solution was found for the PMF analysis, including a primary and secondary biogenic factor correlated with temperature and exhibiting a clear diurnal profile. In addition, three anthropogenic factors characterized by compounds with various lifetimes and/or sources have been identified (long-lived, medium-lived and short-lived anthropogenic factors). The anthropogenic nature of these factors was confirmed by the CF analysis, which identified potential source areas known for intense anthropogenic

  11. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  12. 137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, Herve; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M.; Andral, Bruno; Barisic, Delko; Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto; Bologa, Alexandru S.; Boudjenoun, Redouane; Delfanti, Roberta; Egorov, Victor N.; El Khoukhi, Tahar; Florou, Heleni; Kniewald, Goran; Noureddine, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify 137 Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured 137 Cs levels were found to be very low (usually -1 wet wt) 137 Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area

  13. Mutation analysis of β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population: a recent molecular approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth S; Shah, Nidhi D; Ray, Hari Shankar P; Khatri, Nikunj B; Vaghasia, Ketan K; Raval, Rutvik J; Shah, Sandip C; Rao, Mandava V

    2017-01-01

    Background β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors. Purpose The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management. Patients and methods Seventy-five referral cases for β-thalassemia were analyzed for various β-thalassemia traits, heterozygosity, and homozygosity conditions. Blood phenotypic parameters using cell counter and capillary electrophoresis were investigated. Analyses of eight common mutations of thalassemia in India were carried out using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system, end point polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing methods. Results Of these (75) referral cases from East-Western Indian region, 68 were positive for β-thalassemia (90.67%). The majority of case types were of β-thalassemia minor (49, 65.33%), followed by HbE traits (6, 8.0%) and β-thalassemia major, including heterozygous and homozygous (5, 6.66%; 4, 5.33%) types and then HbE homozygous (2, 2.66%), as well as one each of the HbE/β-thalassemia and HbD/β-thalassemia (1, 1.34%) combination. Mutation analysis also revealed that the highest frequency of mutation was c.92+5G>C (41, 60.29%) followed by deletion 619bp (9, 13.23%) and c.79G>A (8, 11.76%) in our study group. Five cases (nos. 24, 27, 33, 58, and 71) exhibited coinheritance between β0/β+ (2), β0/β D (1), and c.124_127delTTCT/β+ or β0(2) affecting the Rajasthani and Gujarati populations in our study of the Western region of India. Conclusion We strongly recommend these Western populations for genetic screening before adopting reproductive technologies and interracial marital relations. PMID:28546763

  14. Characteristics of psoriasis in Greece: an epidemiological study of a population in a sunny Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Gregoriou, Stamatis; Katrinaki, Aimilia; Korfitis, Chrysovalantis; Larios, Giorgos; Stamou, Christos; Mourellou, Olympia; Petridis, Athanasios; Rallis, Efstathios; Sotiriadis, Dimitris; Katsambas, Andreas D; Antoniou, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with important socioeconomic consequences. Data on psoriasis prevalence in Greece is scarce and circumstantially reported. The aim of this study was the recording of psoriatic patients' demographic data, clinical characteristics of the disease, and exacerbating factors. Seven hundred and eighty four patients were enrolled in 6 centres (4 in Athens and 2 in Thessaloniki) in a multicenter epidemiologic prospective study. The mean age of patients was 43.2 (standard deviation, SD 17.44) years (median 42 years), while the men: women ratio was 1.8:1. Additionally, 35% of patients reported a positive family history of psoriasis. The mean age of patients at the first episode of psoriasis was 31.3 (SD 16.39) years (median 28 years). Psoriasis vulgaris was the most common form of psoriasis in the population participating in this study. Flares of psoriasis occurred 2.6 times per year on average. The patients considered stress as the main cause for psoriasis exacerbation. Most frequent target points of psoriasis included elbows, legs, scalp and knees. The most common symptoms reported were scaling, and itching. On average, patients visited dermatologists 2.4 times per year for issues related to psoriasis. This study provides epidemiological information regarding psoriasis in Greece. Results of this survey could assist in delineation of patient profiles, and improve communication between doctors and patients.

  15. Correlates of exposure to second-hand smoke in an urban Mediterranean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borras Josep

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the socio-demographic factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in different settings (home, leisure, and workplace. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data on self-reported SHS exposure in 1059 non-daily smokers interviewed in the Cornellà Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study in 2002. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence rates and prevalence rate ratios of SHS exposure at home, at the workplace, during leisure time, and in any of these settings. Results The age-standardized prevalence rate of SHS exposure in any setting was 69.5% in men and 62.9% in women. Among men, 25.9% reported passive smoking at home, 55.1% during leisure time, and 34.0% at the workplace. Among women, prevalence rates in these settings were 34.1%, 44.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Overall exposure to SHS decreased with age in both men and women. In men, SHS exposure was related to marital status, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. In women, SHS exposure was related to educational level, marital status, occupational status, self-perceived health, smoking-related illness, and alcohol intake. Conclusion The prevalence of SHS exposure in this population was high. The strongest association with exposure were found for age and occupational status in men, and age and educational level in women.

  16. A risk score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in an elderly Spanish Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guasch-Ferré

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To develop and test a diabetes risk score to predict incident diabetes in an elderly Spanish Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A diabetes risk score was derived from a subset of 1381 nondiabetic individuals from three centres of the PREDIMED study (derivation sample. Multivariate Cox regression model ß-coefficients were used to weigh each risk factor. PREDIMED-personal Score included body-mass-index, smoking status, family history of type 2 diabetes, alcohol consumption and hypertension as categorical variables; PREDIMED-clinical Score included also high blood glucose. We tested the predictive capability of these scores in the DE-PLAN-CAT cohort (validation sample. The discrimination of Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC, German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS and our scores was assessed with the area under curve (AUC. RESULTS: The PREDIMED-clinical Score varied from 0 to 14 points. In the subset of the PREDIMED study, 155 individuals developed diabetes during the 4.75-years follow-up. The PREDIMED-clinical score at a cutoff of ≥6 had sensitivity of 72.2%, and specificity of 72.5%, whereas AUC was 0.78. The AUC of the PREDIMED-clinical Score was 0.66 in the validation sample (sensitivity = 85.4%; specificity = 26.6%, and was significantly higher than the FINDRISC and the GDRS in both the derivation and validation samples. DISCUSSION: We identified classical risk factors for diabetes and developed the PREDIMED-clinical Score to determine those individuals at high risk of developing diabetes in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The predictive capability of the PREDIMED-clinical Score was significantly higher than the FINDRISC and GDRS, and also used fewer items in the questionnaire.

  17. Validation of Sentinel-3A altimetry data by using in-situ multi-platform observations near Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Román, Antonio; Heslop, Emma; Reeve, Krissy; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pujol, Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Torner, Marc; Tintoré, Joaquín; Pascual, Ananda

    2017-04-01

    larger than 0.75. This mission is part of a study focused on mesoscale variability and comparison of the along-track and gridded interpolated maps altimetry products in the western Mediterranean Sea using in-situ data including Argo, ADCP, gliders, drifters, HF radar and tide gauges data. We take advantage of the high spatial resolution and a multi-platform approach to investigate the variability of physical processes in the coastal area of this region. This experiment contributes to the preparatory cal/val activities of the forthcoming wide-swath satellite altimeter (SWOT) that will provide daily high resolution sea surface height measurements during the fast phase after launch around the Balearic Islands.

  18. Dust Model Intercomparison and Extensive Comparison to Observations in the Western Mediterranean for the Summer 2012 Pre-ChArMEx/TRAQA Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, S.; Dulac, F.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The present analysis focuses on the model capability to properly simulate long-range Saharan dust transport for summer 2012 in the Western Mediterranean. In this period, Saharan dust events were numerous as shown by satellite and ground-based remote sensing observations.An exhaustive comparison of model outputs against other models and observations can reveal weaknesses of individual models, provide an assessment of uncertainties in simulating the dust cycle and give additional information on sources for potential model improvement. For this kind of study, multiple and different observations are combined to deliver a detailed idea of the structure and evolution of the dust cloud and the state of the atmosphere at the different stages of the event. The present contribution shows an intercomparison of a set of 7 European regional dust model simulations (NMMB/BSC-Dust, ALADIN, Meso-NH, RegCM, CHIMERE, COSMO/MUSCAT; MOCAGE and BSC-DREAM8b). In this study, the model outputs are compared against a variety of both ground-based and airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements performed during the pre-ChArMEx/TRAQA field campaign which included in particular several AERONET sites, the airborne lidar LNG, sounding with a ULA and with the new balloonborne optical particle counter LOAC showing large particles (>15 µm), the CARAGA network of weekly deposition samples, etc. The models are also compared with satellite aerosol products (including MSG/SEVIRI, MODIS, POLDER and CALIOP), which provide a description of the spatial AOD distribution over the basin. These observational datasets provide a complete set of unusual quantitative constraints for model simulations of this period, combining data on aerosol optical depth, vertical distribution, particle size distribution, deposition flux, and chemical and optical properties. Acknowledgements are addressed to OMP/SEDOO for the ChArMEx data portal and to CNES for balloon operations and funding. The other main sponsors of the

  19. The planktonic food web of the Bizerte lagoon (south-western Mediterranean) during summer: I. Spatial distribution under different anthropogenic pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka Hlaili, Asma; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Gosselin, Michel; Hamel, Dominique; Troussellier, Marc; Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine

    2008-06-01

    The structure and the trophic interactions of the planktonic food web were investigated during summer 2004 in a coastal lagoon of south-western Mediterranean Sea. Biomasses of planktonic components as well as bacterial and phytoplankton production and grazing by microzooplankton were quantified at four stations (MA, MB, MJ and R) inside the lagoon. Station MA was impacted by urban discharge, station MB was influenced by industrial activity, station MJ was located in a shellfish farming sector, while station R represented the lagoon central area. Biomasses and production rates of bacteria (7-33 mg C m -3; 17.5-35 mg C m -3 d -1) and phytoplankton (80-299 mg C m -3; 34-210 mg C m -3 d -1) showed high values at station MJ, where substantial concentrations of nutrients (NO 3- and Si(OH) 4) were found. Microphytoplankton, which dominated the total algal biomass and production (>82%), were characterized by the proliferation of several chain-forming diatoms. Microzooplankton was mainly composed of dinoflagellates ( Torodinium, Protoperidinium and Dinophysis) and aloricate ( Lohmaniellea and Strombidium) and tintinnid ( Tintinnopsis, Tintinnus, Favella and Eutintinnus) ciliates. Higher biomass of these protozoa (359 mg C m -3) was observed at station MB, where large tintinnids were encountered. Mesozooplankton mainly represented by Calanoida ( Acartia, Temora, Calanus, Eucalanus, Paracalanus and Centropages) and Cyclopoida ( Oithona) copepods, exhibited higher and lower biomasses at stations MA/MJ and MB, respectively. Bacterivory represented only 35% of bacterial production at stations MB and R, but higher fractions (65-70%) were observed at stations MA and MJ. Small heterotrophic flagellates and aloricate ciliates seemed to be the main controllers of bacteria. Pico- and nanophytoplankton represented a significant alternative carbon pool for micrograzers, which grazing represented 67-90% of pico- and nano-algal production in all stations. Microzooplankton has, however, a

  20. Geochemical and Radiological Characteristics of Harvested Rainwater and Surficial Soil in El-Alamein-Alam El-Rum area, Western Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Ramadan, A.A.; Salama, M.H.; Diab, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with investigating the geochemical and radiological properties of surficial soil and harvested rainwater in Al-Alamein-Alam El-Rum area located in the western Mediterranean coastal zone of Egypt. Forty five water and soil samples were investigated. The surficial soil has heterogeneous physical, chemical and radiological properties and the texture was dominated by sand clayey loam and sandy loam. The salinities were varied from non-saline (EC=1.25 dS/m) to strongly saline (EC=38 dS/m) and the pH ranged from slightly alkaline (7.6) to strongly alkaline (8.95). The major part of soil samples has chemical composition dominated by Na + and Cl - ions and occasionally Mg2 + and SO 4 2 - ions indicating the existence of different chemical facies. The radioactivity level indicated the dominance of 40 K followed by 226 Ra and 232 Th radionuclides and the average radioactivities in the surficial soil samples were 16.59, 11.75, 290.80 and 1.79 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs, respectively. The heterogeneity in major ion and radioactivity concentrations were attributed to the variation in chemical and radionuclide compositions of the exposed rocks in the area where the soils are originated. The harvested rainwater is fresh (EC ranged from 0.24 to 0.83 dS/m) and has alkalinity nature varied between slightly alkaline (pH=7.27) and alkaline (pH=8.69). Its chemical composition was prevailed by Na + and HCO 3 - ions and sometimes Ca 2+ and/or Mg 2+ and SO 4 2 - ions reflecting the presence of various hydrochemical facies. It shows the same trend of radionuclide dominance of soils ( 40 K > 226 Ra > 232 Th). The radioactivity concentrations in harvested water samples were 19, 1.01 and 14.0 Bq/l for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, while the water samples have 137 Cs concentrations under the detection limit and the water rocks interaction is the main reason causing the variation in major ions and radionuclide concentrations. The obtained chemical and

  1. Population health and status of epidemiology in Western European, Balkan and Baltic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniori Costantini, Adele; Gallo, Federica; Pega, Frank; Saracci, Rodolfo; Veerus, Piret; West, Robert

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association, aimed at describing population health and epidemiological resources in the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. It covers 32 of the 53 WHO European countries, namely the Western European countries, the Balkan countries and the Baltic countries. The burdens of mortality and morbidity and the patterns of risk factors and inequalities have been reviewed in order to identify health priorities and challenges. Literature and internet searches were conducted to stock-take epidemiological teaching, research activities, funding and scientific productivity. These countries have among the highest life expectancies worldwide. However, within- and between-country inequalities persist, which are largely due to inequalities in distribution of main health determinants. There is a long tradition of epidemiological research and teaching in most countries, in particular in the Western European countries. Cross-national networks and collaborations are increasing through the support of the European Union which fosters procedures to standardize educational systems across Europe and provides funding for epidemiological research through framework programmes. The number of Medline-indexed epidemiological research publications per year led by Western European countries has been increasing. The countries accounts for nearly a third of the global epidemiological publication. Although population health has improved considerably overall, persistent within- and between-country inequalities continue to challenge national and European health institutions. More research, policy and action on the social determinants of health are required in the region. Epidemiological training, research and workforce in the Baltic and Balkan countries should be strengthened. European epidemiologists can play pivotal roles and must influence legislation concerning production and access to high-quality data. © The

  2. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  3. Populations of Phytophthora rubi Show Little Differentiation and High Rates of Migration Among States in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabima, Javier F; Coffey, Michael D; Zazada, Inga A; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2018-04-11

    Population genetics is a powerful tool to understand patterns and evolutionary processes that are involved in plant-pathogen emergence and adaptation to agricultural ecosystems. We are interested in studying the population dynamics of Phytophthora rubi, the causal agent of Phytophthora root rot in raspberry. P. rubi is found in the western United States, where most of the fresh and processed raspberries are produced. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to characterize genetic diversity in populations of P. rubi sampled in the United States and other countries. Our results confirm that P. rubi is a monophyletic species with complete lineage sorting from its sister taxon P. fragariae. Overall, populations of P. rubi show low genetic diversity across the western United States. Demographic analyses suggest that populations of P. rubi from the western United States are the source of pathogen migration to Europe. We found no evidence for population differentiation at a global or regional (western United States) level. Finally, our results provide evidence of migration from California and Oregon into Washington. This report provides new insights into the evolution and structure of global and western United States populations of the raspberry pathogen P. rubi, indicating that human activity might be involved in moving the pathogen among regions and fields.

  4. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency in the Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosler, Ariel

    2006-08-01

    Eighty-five males with 17 beta-HSD3 were identified among a highly inbred Arab population in Israel and 57 studied over a period of 25 years. The founders of this defect originated in the mountainous regions of present Lebanon and Syria, but most of the families now live in Jerusalem, Hebron, the Tel-Aviv area and, in particular, in Gaza, where the frequency of affected males is estimated at 1 in 100 to 150. Affected individuals are born with ambiguity of the external genitalia and reared as females until puberty. Thereafter marked virilization occurs, leading in many cases to the spontaneous adoption of a male gender identity and role. Adults develop a male habitus with abundant body hair and beard and the phallus and testes enlarge to adult proportions. Gender reassignment in infancy was only possible when enough erectile tissue was present at birth and developed into a normal size penis with testosterone. 17 beta-HSD3 deficiency can be reliably diagnosed by endocrine evaluation and mutation analysis. In adults the defect is characterized by markedly increased concentrations of androstenedione (A) with borderline low to normal testosterone (T) levels and a high A/T ratio. 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations are moderately decreased, normal or high and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels are high. The estrogen pathway is also impaired, even though both estrone (E-1) and estradiol-17 beta (E-2) levels are high. Children have low basal levels of all androgens, but the defect may be demonstrated after prolonged stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). LH and FSH levels are very high after puberty and normal in childhood. 17 beta-HSD3 isozyme is encoded by the chromosome 9q22 17 beta-HSD3 gene and expressed exclusively in testes. A point mutation in exon 3, codon 80 of the 17 beta-HSD3 gene, R80Q, caused by a single base substitution from CGG ( arginine) to CAG ( glutamine) was identified in both alleles of 24 individuals from 9 extended Arab

  5. [Dietary sources of vitamin A, C, E and beta-carotene in a adult Mediterranean population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón-Vila, P; Ribas, L; García-Closas, R; Farrán Codina, A; Serra-Majem, L

    1999-01-01

    Estimation of vitamin A, C, E and beta-carotene food sources, as well as its nutritional intake and density in adult Catalonian population. A cross-sectional study was conducted over 2,346 individuals obtained from the sample of Catalonian Survey of Nutritional Status aged 18 to 75 years old to estimate usual dietary intake of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene using two 24 hour dietary recalls administered in two periods (june-july and november-december of 1992). Replicated 24 hour Recalls allowed for estimation of usual intake. Calculation of food sources for vitamins encompassed three phases: foods transformation into nutrients, aggregation of foods in categories and sum of nutrients by food categories. Intake of vitamin A (equivalents of retinol of provitamin A and vitamin A), E, C were closely near or higher than RDA. Nutritional density of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene were higher in female group. Nutritional density was positively associated to age for vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. Addition fat was the first source of vitamin E and it reached 33.8% of total vitamin E intake. Vegetables contributed in 17.3 % to the total vitamin C, whereas fruits accounted for 57.9%. Fruits recached 40.6% of the total beta-carotene intake, whereas vegetables accounted for 34.8%. The major contributors of vitamin A were milk and dairy products. Nutritional intake of vitamin A, C and E are over the RDA parameters suggesting an healthy nutritional status that must be confirmed and ratify by biochemical assessment. Nutritional densities were higher in female gender than in males in vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene possibly due to a higher intake of total lipids in male gender than in females. Nutritional density was positively associated to age in the same group of vitamins, suggesting a higher intake of empty calories in younger group. Fruits and Vegetables accounted for more than 70% of vitamin C and beta-carotene and major contributors were citrics, carrots, tomatoes

  6. 21,000 years of Ethiopian African monsoon variability recorded in sediments of the western Nile deep-sea fan: impact of the Nile freshwater inflow for the Mediterranean thermo-haline circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Marie; Colin, Christophe; Bernasconi, Stephano; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Rolland, Yann; Bosch, Delphine

    2014-05-01

    The Nile delta sedimentation constitutes a continuous high resolution (1.6 mm/year) record of Ethiopian African monsoon regime intensity. Multiproxy analyses performed on core MS27PT recovered in hemipelagic Nile sediment margin (Blue/White Nile River suspended matter frequency fluctuations during the last 21 cal. ka BP. The radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopes, clay mineralogy, bulk elemental composition and palynological analyses reveal large changes in source components, oscillating between a dominant aeolian Saharan contribution during the LGM and the Late Holocene (~4 to 2 cal. ka BP), a dominant Blue/Atbara Nile River contribution during the early Holocene (15 to 8.4 cal. ka BP) and a probable White Nile River contribution during the Middle Holocene (8.4 to 4 cal. ka BP). The following main features are highlighted: 1. The rapid shift from the LGM arid conditions to the African Humid Period (AHP) started at about 15 cal. ka BP. AHP extends until 8.4 cal. ka BP, and we suggest that the Ethiopian African Monsoon maximum between 12 and 8 cal. ka BP is responsible for a larger Blue/Atbara Nile sediment load and freshwater input into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. 2. The transition between the AHP and the arid Late Holocene is gradual and occurs in two main phases between 8.4 and 6.5 cal. ka BP and 6.5 to 3.2 cal. ka BP. We suggest that the main rain belt shifted southward from 8.4 to ~4 cal. ka BP and was responsible for progressively reduced sediment load and freshwater input into the eastern Mediterranean Sea. 3. The aridification along the Nile catchments occurred from ~4 to 2 cal. ka BP. A dry period, which culminates at 3.2 cal. ka BP, and seems to coincide with a re-establishment of increased oceanic primary productivity in the western Mediterranean Sea. We postulate that the decrease in thermo-haline water Mediterranean circulation could be part of a response to huge volumes of fresh-water delivered principally by the Nile River from 12 to 8.4 cal. ka BP in the

  7. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    The X-chromosome has valuable characteristics for population genetic studies. In order to investigate the genetics of the human Mediterranean populations further, we developed a 25 X-chromosome SNP-multiplex typing system. The system was based on PCR multiplex amplification and subsequent multipl...

  8. Association of Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyles With the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in a General Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Martí-Lluch, Ruth; García-Gil, María Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2018-06-01

    The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) assesses arterial stiffness. We aimed to describe the distribution of CAVI in a Mediterranean population, to determine the proportion of CAVI ≥ 9 by sex and coronary risk level, and to assess the association of CAVI with classic cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle patterns. This cross-sectional study was based on the population of Girona province. The CAVI was measured using the VaSera VS-1500. Of 2613 individuals included in this study, the prevalence of CAVI ≥ 9 was 46.8% in men and 36.0% in women and significantly increased with coronary risk: from 21.1% and 24.8%, respectively to 76.7%, in the low-risk group, and 61.9% in the high-risk group. The CAVI increased with age in both sexes, being higher in men across all age groups. In men, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.70; 95%CI, 1.90-3.87) and diabetes (OR, 2.38; 95%CI, 1.52-3.78), body mass index (BMI) ≤ 25 to < 30 (OR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.27-0.72) and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.14-0.58), and physical activity (OR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.47-0.92). In women, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.22; 95%CI, 1.59-3.09), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.40; 95%CI, 1.01-1.94), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.38; 95%CI, 0.20-0.71). The CAVI increases with age and is higher in men than in women. This index is associated with classic risk factors and coronary risk. It could be a good predictive biomarker, but further follow-up studies are required to assess its added value to cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. ABO blood group and risk of pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Huseyin; Bilir, Cemil; Üstün, Hasan; Gökmen, Ayla

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between blood groups and pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region. This is a retrospective study. Zonguldak Karaelmas University outpatient oncology clinic records were screened for the period between 2004 and 2011. The median age of patients were 56 (± 16) and 132 of 633 study population had pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher rates of blood group A compared to controls (OR 1.8, 95%CI, p 0.005). Rates of blood group AB was significantly lower than the control group (OR 0.37, 95% CI, p 0.04). The median survival (IR) time in subjects having the blood groups A, B, AB and O were 7.0 (1-28), 7.0 (2-38), 10 (2-36) and 9.0 (2-48) months respectively; the blood group 0 had significantly higher overall survival (OS) compared to the non-0 groups (p 0.04). Pancreatic cancer patients had more common blood group A in our population. Moreover, blood group AB appeared to be a protective factor against pancreatic cancer in our population. Blood group 0 had a significantly longer survival compared to non-0, regardless of prognostic factors.

  10. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  11. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bifenthrin in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) Populations in Western Nebraska and Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriano E; Wang, Haichuan; Zukoff, Sarah N; Meinke, Lance J; French, B Wade; Siegfried, Blair D

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control larvae or adults of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, a key pest of field corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to establish a baseline of susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, using susceptible laboratory populations and to compare this baseline with susceptibility of field populations. Concentration-response bioassays were performed to estimate the baseline susceptibility. From the baseline data, a diagnostic concentration (LC99) was determined and used to test adults of both laboratory and field populations. Larval susceptibility was also tested using both laboratory and field populations. Significant differences were recorded in adult and larval susceptibility among WCR field and laboratory populations. The highest LC50 for WCR adults was observed in populations from Keith 2 and Chase Counties, NE, with LC50s of 2.2 and 1.38 μg/vial, respectively, and Finney County 1, KS, with 1.43 μg/vial, as compared to a laboratory non-diapause population (0.24 μg/vial). For larvae, significant differences between WCR field and laboratory populations were also recorded. Significant differences in mortalities at the diagnostic bifenthrin concentration (LC99) were observed among WCR adult populations with western Corn Belt populations exhibiting lower susceptibility to bifenthrin, especially in southwestern Nebraska and southwestern Kansas. This study provides evidence that resistance to bifenthrin is evolving in field populations that have been exposed for multiple years to pyrethroid insecticides. Implications to sustainable rootworm management are discussed.

  12. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bifenthrin in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte Populations in Western Nebraska and Kansas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano E Pereira

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control larvae or adults of the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, a key pest of field corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to establish a baseline of susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, using susceptible laboratory populations and to compare this baseline with susceptibility of field populations. Concentration-response bioassays were performed to estimate the baseline susceptibility. From the baseline data, a diagnostic concentration (LC99 was determined and used to test adults of both laboratory and field populations. Larval susceptibility was also tested using both laboratory and field populations. Significant differences were recorded in adult and larval susceptibility among WCR field and laboratory populations. The highest LC50 for WCR adults was observed in populations from Keith 2 and Chase Counties, NE, with LC50s of 2.2 and 1.38 μg/vial, respectively, and Finney County 1, KS, with 1.43 μg/vial, as compared to a laboratory non-diapause population (0.24 μg/vial. For larvae, significant differences between WCR field and laboratory populations were also recorded. Significant differences in mortalities at the diagnostic bifenthrin concentration (LC99 were observed among WCR adult populations with western Corn Belt populations exhibiting lower susceptibility to bifenthrin, especially in southwestern Nebraska and southwestern Kansas. This study provides evidence that resistance to bifenthrin is evolving in field populations that have been exposed for multiple years to pyrethroid insecticides. Implications to sustainable rootworm management are discussed.

  13. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations in southeast and western Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Than Naing; Wu, Yanrui; Tun, Myo Win; Xu, Xin; Hu, Yue; Ruan, Yonghua; Win, Aung Ye Naung; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Mon, Nan Cho Nwe; Han, Kay Thwe; Aye, Khin Myo; Morris, James; Su, Pincan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Cui, Liwang

    2017-07-04

    The genetic diversity of malaria parasites reflects the complexity and size of the parasite populations. This study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations collected from two southeastern areas (Shwekyin and Myawaddy bordering Thailand) and one western area (Kyauktaw bordering Bangladesh) of Myanmar. A total of 267 blood samples collected from patients with acute P. falciparum infections during 2009 and 2010 were used for genotyping at the merozoite surface protein 1 (Msp1), Msp2 and glutamate-rich protein (Glurp) loci. One hundred and eighty four samples were successfully genotyped at three genes. The allelic distributions of the three genes were all significantly different among three areas. MAD20 and 3D7 were the most prevalent alleles in three areas for Msp1 and Msp2, respectively. The Glurp allele with a bin size of 700-750 bp was the most prevalent both in Shwekyin and Myawaddy, whereas two alleles with bin sizes of 800-850 bp and 900-1000 bp were the most prevalent in the western site Kyauktaw. Overall, 73.91% of samples contained multiclonal infections, resulting in a mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.94. Interestingly, the MOI level presented a rising trend with the order of Myawaddy, Kyauktaw and Shwekyin, which also paralleled with the increasing frequencies of Msp1 RO33 and Msp2 FC27 200-250 bp alleles. Msp1 and Msp2 genes displayed higher levels of diversity and higher MOI rates than Glurp. PCR revealed four samples (two from Shwekyin and two from Myawaddy) with mixed infections of P. falciparum and P. vivax. This study genotyped parasite clinical samples from two southeast regions and one western state of Myanmar at the Msp1, Msp2 and Glurp loci, which revealed high levels of genetic diversity and mixed-strain infections of P. falciparum populations at these sites. The results indicated that malaria transmission intensity in these regions remained high and more strengthened control efforts are

  14. Role of plasma EBV DNA levels in predicting recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a western population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Daris; Alterio, Daniela; Foa, Paolo; Codecà, Carla; Bertuzzi, Cecilia; Broggio, Francesca; Crepaldi, Francesca; Luciani, Andrea; Floriani, Irene; Ansarin, Mohssen; Chiesa, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas can be cured by the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In Eastern countries, plasma levels of viral Epstein-Barr deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are accurate in predicting recurrence, but few data are available in Western populations. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between viral Epstein-Barr DNA copy numbers in plasma and the response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival in a cohort of Western patients with stage IIb-IVb nasopharyngeal cancer. We evaluated plasma samples from 36 consecutive patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation. EBV copy numbers were determined after DNA extraction using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels were measured before treatment, at the end of concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy, and during the follow-up period. Pre-treatment levels significantly correlated with the initial stage and probability of relapse. Their increase was 100% specific and 71.3% sensitive in detecting loco-regional or metastatic recurrence (an overall accuracy of 94.4%). Three-year progression-free and overall survival were respectively 78.2% and 97.1%. The results of this study confirm that patients from a Western country affected by loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have high plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels at diagnosis. The monitoring of plasma levels is sensitive and highly specific in detecting disease recurrence and metastases

  15. Reproductive and population parameters of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J H; Cortés, F; Belleggia, M; Massa, A M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate reproductive and population parameters of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. In total, 2714 specimens (1616 males and 1098 females) were collected from surveys carried out using research vessels. Males ranged from 225 to 861 mm total length (LT ) and females from 235 to 925 mm LT . The size at maturity of females (651 mm) was significantly greater than that of males (565 mm). The maximum proportion of mature individuals (Pmax ) of the gestation ogive was 156 mm). The temporal and spatial co-occurrence of non-gravid adult females at different stages of ovarian development, as well as gravid females at all embryonic development stages would indicate that the female reproductive cycle in the south-western Atlantic Ocean is asynchronous. The results indicate that S. acanthias is susceptible to fishing pressure on account of its length at maturity, extended reproductive cycles and low fecundity. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Applicability of western chemical dietary exposure models to the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shizhen; Price, Oliver; Liu, Zhengtao; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    A range of exposure models, which have been developed in Europe and North America, are playing an increasingly important role in priority setting and the risk assessment of chemicals. However, the applicability of these tools, which are based on Western dietary exposure pathways, to estimate chemical exposure to the Chinese population to support the development of a risk-based environment and exposure assessment, is unclear. Three frequently used modelling tools, EUSES, RAIDAR and ACC-HUMANsteady, have been evaluated in terms of human dietary exposure estimation by application to a range of chemicals with different physicochemical properties under both model default and Chinese dietary scenarios. Hence, the modelling approaches were assessed by considering dietary pattern differences only. The predicted dietary exposure pathways were compared under both scenarios using a range of hypothetical and current emerging contaminants. Although the differences across models are greater than those between dietary scenarios, model predictions indicated that dietary preference can have a significant impact on human exposure, with the relatively high consumption of vegetables and cereals resulting in higher exposure via plants-based foodstuffs under Chinese consumption patterns compared to Western diets. The selected models demonstrated a good ability to identify key dietary exposure pathways which can be used for screening purposes and an evaluative risk assessment. However, some model adaptations will be required to cover a number of important Chinese exposure pathways, such as freshwater farmed-fish, grains and pork. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of climate-related change in vegetation on leaf litter consumption and energy storage by Gammarus pulex from Continental or Mediterranean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Foucreau

    Full Text Available As a consequence of global warming, it is important to characterise the potential changes occurring for some functional processes through the intra-specific study of key species. Changes in species distribution, particularly when key or engineer species are affected, should contribute to global changes in ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined the potential consequences induced by global warming on ecosystem functioning in term of organic matter recycling. We compared consumption of leaf litter by some shredder populations (Gammarus pulex between five tree species inhabiting continental (i.e., the northern region of the Rhône River Valley and/or Mediterranean (i.e., the southern region of the Rhône River Valley conditions. To consider any potential adaptation of the gammarid population to vegetation in the same climate conditions, three populations of the key shredder Gammarus pulex from the northern region and three from the southern region of the Rhône River Valley were used. We experimentally compared the effects of the geographical origin of both the gammarid populations and the leaf litter species on the shredding activity and the physiological state of animals (through body triglyceride content. This study demonstrated that leaf toughness is more important than geographical origin for determining shredder leaf litter consumption. The overall consumption rate of the gammarid populations from the southern region of Rhône Valley was much higher than that of the populations from the northern region, but no clear differences between the origins of the leaf litter (i.e., continental vs. Mediterranean were observed. The northwards shift of G. pulex populations adapted to warmer conditions might significantly modify organic matter recycling in continental streams. As gammarid populations can demonstrate local adaptations to certain leaf species as a trophic resource, changes in riparian vegetation associated with climate change

  18. Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of −0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: −4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we

  19. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2011-04-01

    To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40-60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21,326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII)=2.02-5.17) and women (RII=2.09-3.57). The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position.

  20. Outcomes of emergent embolisation of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma in a western population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroe, E.J.; Kogut, M.J.; Ingraham, C.R.; Kwan, S.W.; Hippe, D.S.; Padia, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the authors' experience with interventional radiological management of tumour rupture in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a Western population. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was performed of all consecutive patients treated at a single institution with transcatheter embolisation for ruptured HCC between 2000 and 2013. Patient age, sex, aetiology of liver disease, degree of underlying liver dysfunction, and clinical presentation were assessed. Embolisation was performed in a selective fashion when possible. Success, complications, and survival were assessed. Results: Twenty-three patients were treated with embolisation for ruptured HCC. Of these patients, nine, nine, and five patients were Child–Pugh Class A, B, and C respectively. Embolisation was successful in 22 patients; one patient remained haemodynamically unstable and transfusion dependent despite embolisation. No major complications occurred. Median survival time was 260 days and the 30 day and 1 year survival rates were 83% and 45%, respectively. Child–Pugh class B or C (p = 0.04), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score greater than 10 (p = 0.04), lobar embolisation (p = 0.04), and presence of portal vein thrombosis (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with worse prognosis. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolisation is effective at controlling haemorrhage in patients with ruptured HCC. Although major procedural complications are low, embolisation should proceed with an understanding of poor prognosis in patients with decompensated liver disease. Superselective embolisation is associated with improved prognosis and should be performed when feasible. -- Highlights: •We reviewed our outcomes after transcatheter embolization of ruptured HCC in a western population. •Overall survival in the setting of ruptured HCC remains poor despite successful embolization. •Worse liver function, portal vein thrombosis, and lobar embolization were all associated with

  1. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Dailianis, T.; Akyol, O.; Babali, N.; Bariche, M.; Crocetta, F.; Gerovasileiou, V.; Chanem, R.; Gökoğlu, M.; Hasiotis, T.; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Julian, D.; Katsanevakis, S.; Lipez, L.; Mancini, E.; Mytilineou, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the A...

  2. Dynamics of suprabenthos off the Ebro Delta (Catalan Sea: western Mediterranean): Spatial 13 and temporal patterns and relationships with environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Palanques, Albert; Guillén, Jorge; Demestre, Montserrat

    2007-12-01

    Dynamics of suprabenthos (hyperbenthos) composition and biomass have been simultaneously analyzed at two sites (S1, S2) off the Ebro River Delta (western Mediterranean). The stations, separated by ca. 5 km, differed in terms of depth (S1, 47 m; S2, 61 m), distance to the river mouth (S2 south of S1 and farther from the mouth) and fishing activity (S1 is a fishing ground; S2 is in an area closed to fishing). Peracarids (gammaridean amphipods, mysids, and cumaceans) were dominant among suprabenthic taxa. Seasonality was the main explanation for changes in taxonomic composition, with two seasonal groups indicated by MDS analyses (late summer-autumn, August-September, and November 2003; early summer, June and July samples). Peracarids at both S1 and S2 showed a peak of abundance in early July, with the highest densities reaching 5400 individuals (100 m) -2 at S2. There was a sharp decrease of density in late July (S1) and August (S2), then an increase in August (S1) and in September (S2), respectively. A secondary peak of abundance occurred in November (S1) and December (S2). There was, therefore, a similar picture in the dynamics of suprabenthic peracarids at both sites, though with a delay of 1 month at the deeper S2. This pattern coincided with changes in river discharge (specifically, a decrease of suprabenthos when influx was below 200 m 3 s -1 in the period June-September 2003), and with the formation of a thermal gradient (also in June-September 2003) between S1 and S2 associated with the 15 °C isotherm. In addition, the decrease of suprabenthos in late July-August also coincided with the massive occurrence of mucilaginous aggregates close to the bottom (at between 0 and 4 m above the bottom), in the usual habitat of suprabenthos. C/N ratios in sediments (an indicator of the degree of degradation of organic matter (OM)) increased during this peak abundance of mucilaginous aggregates. The impoverishment of sediments in total organic carbon (TOC) was parallel to

  3. Optical, physical and chemical properties of aerosols transported to a coastal site in the western Mediterranean: a focus on primary marine aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Claeys

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ChArMEx-ADRIMED campaign (summer 2013, ground-based in situ observations were conducted at the Ersa site (northern tip of Corsica; 533 m a.s.l. to characterise the optical, physical and chemical properties of aerosols. During the observation period, a major influence of primary marine aerosols was detected (22–26 June, with a mass concentration reaching up to 6.5 µg m−3 and representing more than 40 % of the total PM10 mass concentration. Its relatively low ratio of chloride to sodium (average of 0.57 indicates a fairly aged sea salt aerosol at Ersa. In this work, an original data set, obtained from online real-time instruments (ATOFMS, PILS-IC has been used to characterise the ageing of primary marine aerosols (PMAs. During this PMA period, the mixing of fresh and aged PMAs was found to originate from both local and regional (Gulf of Lion emissions, according to local wind measurements and FLEXPART back trajectories. Two different aerosol regimes have been identified: a dust outbreak (dust originating from Algeria/Tunisia, and a pollution period with aerosols originating from eastern Europe, which includes anthropogenic and biomass burning sources (BBP. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the observed aerosols, as well as their local shortwave (SW direct radiative effect (DRE in clear-sky conditions, are compared for these three periods in order to assess the importance of the direct radiative impact of PMAs compared to other sources above the western Mediterranean Basin. As expected, AERONET retrievals indicate a relatively low local SW DRF during the PMA period with mean values of −11 ± 4 at the surface and −8 ± 3 W m−2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA. In comparison, our results indicate that the dust outbreak observed at our site during the campaign, although of moderate intensity (AOD of 0.3–0.4 at 440 nm and column-integrated SSA of 0.90–0.95, induced a local

  4. Epidemiology of uveitis in a Western urban multiethnic population. The challenge of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorenç, Victor; Mesquida, Marina; Sainz de la Maza, Maite; Keller, Johannes; Molins, Blanca; Espinosa, Gerard; Hernandez, María V; Gonzalez-Martín, Julian; Adán, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    To report the anatomical pattern and etiological spectrum of uveitis in an urban multi-ethnic population from Barcelona, Spain. General and specific epidemiological data for the most prevalent aetiologies are also calculated. A cross-sectional study of consecutive uveitis cases was performed between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012. Exogenous endophthalmitis, surgery-related, post-traumatic and toxic uveitis along with masquerade syndromes were excluded. Anatomical (Standard Uveitis Nomenclature criteria) and aetiological patterns (by tailored tests), age, sex, geographical origin and laterality were analysed. Mean incidence and prevalence were calculated for a mid-period reference population. From 1022 patients included, 52% were anterior uveitis (AU), 23% posterior, 15% panuveitis and 9% intermediate uveitis. Aetiologically, 26% were unclassifiable, 29% infectious, 25% associated with systemic immune diseases, and 20% corresponded to ocular-specific syndromes. Among classified causes, herpesvirus (12%), toxoplasma (7%), Behçet's disease (BD) (5%), HLA-B27-isolated AU (5%), ankylosing spondylitis (5%), tuberculosis-related uveitis (TRU) (5%), birdshot chorioretinopathy (3%) and sarcoidosis (3%) were the most frequent. Non-Spanish origin was recorded in 22%, with 47% of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada and 36% of toxoplasma cases coming from South America, 10% of BD and 11% of TRU from Africa and 24% of TRU cases from Asia. A mean annual incidence of 51.91 cases/100,000 inhabitants was found for the referral population. In our referral area, 74% of the uveitis cases can be correctly classified. A large myriad of uveitis aetiologies with a strong geographical origin burden are found in Western urban multi-ethnic populations. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  6. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  7. Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:25148043

  8. Standing at the gateway to Europe--the genetic structure of Western balkan populations based on autosomal and haploid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula.

  9. Classical polymorphisms in Berbers from Moyen Atlas (Morocco): genetics, geography, and historical evidence in the Mediterranean peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harich, N; Esteban, E; Chafik, A; López-Alomar, A; Vona, G; Moral, P

    2002-01-01

    Mediterranean population relationships have recently been reviewed through the analysis of classical and DNA markers. The differentiation between Berbers and Arabic-speakers to the south, and the genetic impact of the seven centuries of Muslim domination in the Iberian Peninsula have been among the most interesting questions posed in these studies. The present study seeks to assess the degree of genetic affinity between the two main population groups of Morocco: Berbers and Arabic-speakers. Data from the Berber study population were also compared with published information on 20 circum-Mediterranean groups. A Berber sample of 140 individuals from Moyen Atlas (Morocco) has been characterized using 15 classical markers (ABO, Duffy, MNSs, Rh, ACPl, AKl, ESD, GLOI, 6-PGD, PGMl, GC, HP, PI, PLG and TF). Allele frequencies in the Berbers fit well into the general southern Mediterranean ranges, albeit with some peculiarities, such as the high FY*A, ACPl*C, and PI*S values. The general pattern of relationships among Mediterranean peoples tested by genetic variance analysis was compatible with a north-south geographical differentiation. Spatial auto-correlation analysis in the different geographical regions of the Mediterranean reveals that the highest degree of association between allele frequencies and geographical distances corresponds to the western (41% of significant correlograms) and northern Mediterranean populations (33%). When only southern Mediterranean groups were considered, the degree of geographical structure considerably decreases (11% of significant correlograms). The different loci studied revealed close similarity between the Berbers and other north African groups, mainly with Moroccan Arabic-speakers, which is in accord with the hypothesis that the current Moroccan population has a strong Berber background. Differences in the spatial pattern of allele frequencies also are compatible with specific population histories in distinct Mediterranean areas

  10. The planktonic food web of the Bizerte lagoon (south-western Mediterranean) during summer: I. Spatial distribution under different anthropogenic pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaili, A; Grami, B; Niquil, N; Gosselin, M; Hamel, D; Troussellier, Marc; Mabrouk, H

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the trophic interactions of the planktonic food web were investigated during summer 2004 in a coastal lagoon of southwestern Mediterranean Sea. Biomasses of planktonic components as well as bacterial and phytoplankton production and grazing by microzooplankton were quantified at four stations (MA, MB, MJ and R) inside the lagoon. Station MA was impacted by urban discharge, station MB was influenced by industrial activity, station MJ was located in a shellfish farming sector,...

  11. Relative sea level in the Western Mediterranean basin: A regional test of the ICE-7G_NA (VM7) model and a constraint on late Holocene Antarctic deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Keven; Peltier, W. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a region of special interest in the study of past and present relative sea level evolution, given its location south of the ice sheets that covered large fractions of Northern Europe during the last glaciation, the large number of biological, geological and archaeological sea level indicators that have been retrieved from its coastal regions, as well as its high density of modern coastal infrastructure. Models of the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) process provide reconstructions of past relative sea level evolution, and can be tested for validity against past sea level indicators from the region. It is demonstrated herein that the latest ICE-7G_NA (VM7) model of the GIA process, the North American component of which was refined using a full suite of geophysical observables, is able to reconcile the vast majority of uniformly analyzed relative sea level constraints available for the Western part of the Mediterranean basin, a region to which it was not tuned. We also revisit herein the previously published interpretations of relative sea level information obtained from Roman-era coastal Mediterranean "fish tanks", analyze the far-field influence of the rate of late Holocene Antarctic ice sheet melting history on the exceptionally detailed relative sea level history available from southern Tunisia, and extend the analysis to complementary constraints on the history of Antarctic ice-sheet melting available from islands in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The analyses reported herein provide strong support for the global "exportability" of the ICE-7G_NA (VM7) model, a result that speaks directly to the ability of spherically symmetric models of the internal viscoelastic structure to explain globally distributed observations, while also identifying isolated regions of remaining misfit which will benefit from further study.

  12. Risk assessment for parasites in cultures of Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae) in the Western Mediterranean: prospects of cross infection with Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Neus; Raga, Juan Antonio; Montero, Francisco E

    2014-08-29

    The sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo is of interest in Mediterranean fish farming. Disease is an important problem because parasites can spread quickly in culture conditions and fish often develop high parasite burdens. Here we assess the risk that documented parasites pose to the sustainability of D. puntazzo farming. This study specifically considers metazoan and protist parasites recorded from wild and farmed D. puntazzo in scientific literature. Risk assessment studies involve the identification, characterization and qualitative quantification of the risk in question (parasitoses in this case) and the probability of establishment. We considered the parasite species which may be difficult to manage as a priority for research into potential management strategies. Those parasites which could be transmitted from cultures of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were also included in this study. Four groups of parasites represented a risk to D. puntazzo farming, ranging from moderate to high: Ciliophora, Myxozoa, Monogenea and Copepoda. Three parasite species were considered high risk to D. puntazzo cultures: Amyloodinium sp., Cryptocaryon sp. and Enteromyxum leei. These species were responsible for high mortalities in cultures of these and other fish species. In addition Sparicotyle chrysophrii, Caligus ligusticus and Gnathia vorax entail a moderate risk to D. puntazzo Mediterranean farms. No important episodes have been related to caligids and isopods in Mediterranean sparids, nevertheless they should be properly managed to prevent future problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alimentation méditerranéenne et cancers [Mediterranean diet and cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette GERBER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer prevention through food habits is an important matter of public health, given that everybody is exposed to food. The Mediterranean diet model is briefly reported, together with the way to evaluate the adherence to this diet. However, the original score, made for Mediterranean populations, had to be adapted to Western populations. These modifications pinpoint the peculiar aspects of the Mediterranean diet related to health. The studies reporting on the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cancer mortality, colorectal, breast, prostate and other cancers incidence are described. A risk reduction is generally evoked for these outcomes in Mediterranean countries, but it is more difficult to show in US or North-European country. Enough subjects with sane food habits, capable to reveal an inverse association of a Mediterranean-style diet and cancers, might only be found in large cohorts. In addition, the group of “negative” foods in the score needs to include “junk food”, known to be deleterious, and often part of the habits in these occidental countries. In conclusion, it can be said that a high and diverse consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grain cereals is a must, be underlined the importance of olive oil, be mentioned the advantage of eating sea-food at least twice-a-week. Consumption of red and processed meat, dairy foods, and alcohol should be kept low and it is important to avoid sugars, saturated fats, all junk-foods, providing empty calories.

  14. Recent population size, trends, and limiting factors for the double-crested Cormorant in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica Y.; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Courtot, Karen N.; Collis, Ken; Carter, Harry R.; Shuford, W. David; Capitolo, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    The status of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America was last evaluated during 1987–2003. In the interim, concern has grown over the potential impact of predation by double-crested cormorants on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchusspp.), particularly in the Columbia Basin and along the Pacific coast where some salmonids are listed for protection under the United States Endangered Species Act. Recent re-evaluations of double-crested cormorant management at the local, flyway, and federal level warrant further examination of the current population size and trends in western North America. We collected colony size data for the western population (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and the portions of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico west of the Continental Divide) by conducting aircraft-, boat-, or ground-based surveys and by cooperating with government agencies, universities, and non-profit organizations. In 2009, we estimated approximately 31,200 breeding pairs in the western population. We estimated that cormorant numbers in the Pacific Region (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California) increased 72% from 1987–1992 to circa 2009. Based on the best available data for this period, the average annual growth rate (λ) of the number of breeding birds in the Pacific Region was 1.03, versus 1.07 for the population east of the Continental Divide during recent decades. Most of the increase in the Pacific Region can be attributed to an increase in the size of the nesting colony on East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary, which accounts for about 39% of all breeding pairs in the western population and is the largest known breeding colony for the species (12,087 breeding pairs estimated in 2009). In contrast, numbers of breeding pairs estimated in coastal British Columbia and Washington have declined by approximately 66% during this same period. Disturbance at breeding

  15. Random Forest population modelling of striped and common-bottlenose dolphins in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Cipriano, Giulia; Paoli, Chiara; Ricci, Pasquale; Fanizza, Carmelo; Capezzuto, Francesca; Vassallo, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    This study provides the first estimates of density and abundance of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba and common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central Mediterranean Sea) and identifies the predictive variables mainly influencing their occurrence and concentration in the study area. Conventional Distance Sampling (CDS) and the Delta approach on Random Forest (DaRF) methods have been applied to sightings data collected between 2009 and 2016 during standardized vessel-based surveys, providing similar outcomes. The mean value of density over the entire study area was 0.72 ± 0.26 specimens/km2 for the striped dolphin and 0.47 ± 0.09 specimens/km2 for the common bottlenose dolphin. The abundance estimated by DaRF in the Gulf of Taranto was 10080 ± 3584 specimens of S. coeruleoalba and 6580 ± 1270 specimens of T. truncatus, respectively. Eight predictive variables were selected, considering both the local physiographic features and human activities existing in the investigated area. The explanatory variables depth, distance from the coast, distance from industrial areas and distance from areas exploited by fishery seem to play a key role in influencing the spatial distribution of both species, whereas the geomorphological variables proved to be the most significant factors shaping the concentration of both dolphins. The establishment of a Specially Protected Area of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMI) according the SPA/BD Protocol in the Gulf of Taranto is indicated as an effective management tool for the conservation of both dolphin populations in the Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  16. The Rocky Mountain population of the western Canada goose: its distribution, habitats, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.; Bizeau, Elwood G.

    1980-01-01

    The western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) was divided into a Rocky Mountain population (RMP) and a Pacific population (PP) on the basis of band recovery patterns examined in this study and recovery data from other investigators. Habitat information obtained from nine cooperating wildlife agencies within the RMP's range provided a base line for evaluating future changes in nesting, molting, and wintering areas. The habitat inventory indicated that none of the seasonal habitats were currently limiting the size of the RMP. The RMP's range is divided into 15 reference areas and these are briefly described. Past studies of Canada geese in the Intermountain Region are reviewed. Topics covered in the discussion of breeding biology are nesting chronology, spring population composition, breeding age, clutch size, nesting success. artificial nesting structures, and gosling survival. Much of the mortality of Canada geese occurs before the birds are fledged. Man-made nesting structures reduce losses during incubation. but research is needed on the relations between brooding sites and gosling survival. Some western Canada geese, mainly prebreeders and unsuccessful nesters, make molt migrations to and from molting areas during and after the brood-rearing season. More than half of these molt-migrants are yearlings too young to nest; there are indications that even some successful nesters leave nesting areas to molt before the fledging of their offspring. Geese 2 years old or older may serve as guides to traditional molting areas for the first-time migrants (i.e., yearlings). Lack of disturbance appears to influence selection of specific molting areas within the nesting range of moffitti, whereas movements of molters out of the Intermountain Region may be related to the evolution of this subspecies. Apparently. molters of both the PP and RMP that leave the Region go to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although the taxonomic status of moffitti as related to the

  17. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the

  18. Mitochondrial DNA reveals genetic structuring of Pinna nobilis across the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sanna

    Full Text Available Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic Mediterranean marine bivalve. During past centuries, various human activities have promoted the regression of its populations. As a consequence of stringent standards of protection, demographic expansions are currently reported in many sites. The aim of this study was to provide the first large broad-scale insight into the genetic variability of P. nobilis in the area that encompasses the western Mediterranean, Ionian Sea, and Adriatic Sea marine ecoregions. To accomplish this objective twenty-five populations from this area were surveyed using two mitochondrial DNA markers (COI and 16S. Our dataset was then merged with those obtained in other studies for the Aegean and Tunisian populations (eastern Mediterranean, and statistical analyses (Bayesian model-based clustering, median-joining network, AMOVA, mismatch distribution, Tajima's and Fu's neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots were performed. The results revealed genetic divergence among three distinguishable areas: (1 western Mediterranean and Ionian Sea; (2 Adriatic Sea; and (3 Aegean Sea and Tunisian coastal areas. From a conservational point of view, populations from the three genetically divergent groups found may be considered as different management units.

  19. A Two-Year Prospective Analysis of Mandibular Fractures in Western Population of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwinirani Suragimath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trauma to the facial region causes injuries to hard and soft tissues of the face. Injuries to the maxillofacial region are increasing in frequency and severity because of the increased number of road traffic accidents (RTAs and increased number of violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate age, gender distribution, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures in Western part of Maharashtra population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology for a period of two years from June 2013 to June 2015. Clinical examination of all trauma patients was done and diagnosis was made based on signs, clinical features, and confirmed by orthopantomographs. Results: Totally, 193 patients were detected with different types of mandibular fractures. Study group involved 77.2% males and 22.8% females with a male to female ratio of 3.3:1. Majority of patients were in the age group of 21–30 years followed by 31–40 years. Trauma due to RTAs were more common followed by assaults and fall. Parasymphyseal fractures were most common type followed by condylar fracture and fracture of angle of mandible. Conclusion: Males were most commonly affected by trauma than females with a predominant age group of 21–30 years. Majority of trauma were due to RTAs with parasymphyseal as most common type of fracture.

  20. Using satellite telemetry to define spatial population structure in polar bears in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritzen, Mette; Derocher, Andrew E.; Wiig, Øystein; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Garner, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    1. Animal populations, defined by geographical areas within a species’ distribution where population dynamics are largely regulated by births and deaths rather than by migration from surrounding areas, may be the correct unit for wildlife management. However, in heterogeneous landscapes varying habitat quality may yield subpopulations with distinct patterns in resource use and demography significant to the dynamics of populations.2. To define the spatial population structure of polar bears Ursus maritimus in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic, and to assess the existence of a shared population between the two countries, we analysed satellite telemetry data obtained from 105 female polar bears over 12 years.3. Using both cluster analyses and home-range estimation methods, we identified five population units inhabiting areas with different sea-ice characteristics and prey availability.4. The continuous distribution of polar bear positions indicated that the different subpopulations formed one continuous polar bear population in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic. Hence, Norway and Russia have a shared management responsibility.5. The spatial population structure identified will provide a guide for evaluating geographical patterns in polar bear ecology, the dynamics of polar bear–seal relationships and the effects of habitat alteration due to climate change. The work illustrates the importance of defining population borders and subpopulation structure in understanding the dynamics and management of larger animals.

  1. Linkage Maps of a Mediterranean × Continental Tall Fescue Population and their Comparative Analysis with Other Poaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Dierking

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasses belonging to the complex are important throughout the world in pasture and grassland agriculture. Tall fescue ( Schreb. is the predominant species in the United States, covering approximately 15 million ha. Tall fescue has distinctive morphotypes, two of which are Continental (summer active and Mediterranean (summer semidormant. This is the first report of a linkage map created for Mediterranean tall fescue, while updating the Continental map with additional simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers. Additionally, this is the first time that diversity arrays technology (DArT markers were used in the construction of a tall fescue map. The male parent (Continental, R43-64, map consisted of 594 markers arranged in 22 linkage groups (LGs and covered a total of 1577 cM. The female parent (Mediterranean, 103-2, map was shorter (1258 cM and consisted of only 208 markers arranged in 29 LGs. Marker densities for R43-64 and 103-2 were 2.65 and 6.08 cM per marker, respectively. When compared with the other Poaceae species, meadow fescue ( Huds., annual ryegrass ( Lam., perennial ryegrass ( L., (L. Beauv., and barley ( L., a total of 171 and 98 orthologous or homologous sequences, identified by DArT analysis, were identified in R43-64 and 103-2, respectively. By using genomic in situ hybridization, we aimed to identify potential progenitors of both morphotypes. However, no clear conclusion on genomic constitution was reached. These maps will aid in the search for quantitative trait loci of various traits as well as help define and distinguish genetic differences between the two morphotypes.

  2. Acarbose monotherapy and weight loss in Eastern and Western populations with hyperglycaemia: an ethnicity-specific meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Tong, Y; Zhang, Y; Huang, L; Wu, T; Tong, N

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate if weight loss achieved with acarbose in individuals with hyperglycaemia differs between Eastern and Western populations. Databases and reference lists of clinical trials on acarbose were searched. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials of acarbose monotherapy in populations with hyperglycaemia of more than 12-week duration that provided data on body weight (BW) or body mass index (BMI). A total of 34 trials (6082 participants) were included. The effect of acarbose on BW was superior to that of placebo [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.78 to -0.25], nateglinide (WMD = -1.33, 95% CI -1.51 to -0.75) and metformin (WMD = -0.67, 95% CI -1.14 to -0.20). Compared with placebo, there was a significantly greater weight loss of 0.92 kg (p Eastern populations (WMD = -1.20, 95% CI -1.51 to -0.75) than that in Western populations (WMD = -0.28, 95% CI -0.59 to 0.03). Across all studies, the acarbose group achieved a significantly larger absolute weight loss of (change from baseline) 1.35 kg (p Eastern populations (WMD = -2.26, 95% CI -2.70 to -1.81) than in Western populations (WMD = -0.91, 95% CI -1.36 to -0.47). Nevertheless, the possible risk of bias in Eastern studies may influence the results. The effect of acarbose on weight loss seems to be more pronounced in Eastern than in Western populations with hyperglycaemia, and is superior to that of placebo, nateglinide and metformin across both ethnicities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Differences in the population structure of Neisseria meningitidis in two Australian states: Victoria and Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. A recombinant vaccine called Bexsero® incorporates four subcapsular antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA and PorA which are used to assign a Bexsero® antigen sequence type (BAST to each meningococcal strain. The vaccine elicits an immune response against combinations of variants of these antigens which have been grouped into specific BAST profiles that have been shown to have different distributions within geographical locations thus potentially affecting the efficacy of the vaccine. In this study, invasive meningococcal disease isolates from the western seaboard of Australia (Western Australia; WA were compared to those from the south-eastern seaboard (Victoria; VIC from 2008 to 2012. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of 131 meningococci from VIC and 70 meningococci from WA were analysed for MLST, FetA and BAST profiling. Serogroup B predominated in both jurisdictions and a total of 10 MLST clonal complexes (cc were shared by both states. Isolates belonging to cc22, cc103 and cc1157 were unique to VIC whilst isolates from cc60 and cc212 were unique to WA. Clonal complex 41/44 represented one-third of the meningococcal population in each state but the predominant ST was locally different: ST-6058 in VIC and ST-146 in WA. Of the 108 BAST profiles identified in this collection, only 9 BASTs were simultaneously observed in both states. A significantly larger proportion of isolates in VIC harboured alleles for the NHBA-2 peptide and fHbp-1, antigenic variants predicted to be covered by the Bexsero® vaccine. The estimate for vaccine coverage in WA (47.1% [95% CI: 41.1-53.1%] was significantly lower than that in VIC (66.4% [95% CI: 62.3-70.5%]. In conclusion, the antigenic structure of meningococci causing invasive disease in two geographically distinct states of Australia differed significantly during the study period which may affect vaccine effectiveness and highlights the

  4. Genetic species identification and population structure of Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae) from the Western Pacific to the Eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vy X; Detcharoen, Matsapume; Tuntiprapas, Piyalap; Soe-Htun, U; Sidik, Japar B; Harah, Muta Z; Prathep, Anchana; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-04-30

    The Indo-Pacific region has the largest number of seagrass species worldwide and this region is considered as the origin of the Hydrocharitaceae. Halophila ovalis and its closely-related species belonging to the Hydrocharitaceae are well-known as a complex taxonomic challenge mainly due to their high morphological plasticity. The relationship of genetic differentiation and geographic barriers of H. ovalis radiation was not much studied in this region. Are there misidentifications between H. ovalis and its closely related species? Does any taxonomic uncertainty among different populations of H. ovalis persist? Is there any genetic differentiation among populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean, which are separated by the Thai-Malay peninsula? Genetic markers can be used to characterize and identify individuals or species and will be used to answer these questions. Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region based on materials collected from 17 populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed that some specimens identified as H. ovalis belonged to the H. major clade, also supported by morphological data. Evolutionary divergence between the two clades is between 0.033 and 0.038, much higher than the evolutionary divergence among H. ovalis populations. Eight haplotypes were found; none of the haplotypes from the Western Pacific is found in India and vice versa. Analysis of genetic diversity based on microsatellite analysis revealed that the genetic diversity in the Western Pacific is higher than in the Eastern Indian Ocean. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree among 14 populations from the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed six groups. The Mantel test results revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations. Results from band-based and allele frequency-based approaches from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed that all

  5. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the

  6. Population-Based Prevalence of Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Smith, Timothy; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Western Australia (WA). A cohort of children born from 1983 to 2010 in WA with an ID and/or ASD were identified using the population-based IDEA (Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers) database, which ascertains cases through the Disability Services Commission (DSC) as well as education sources. Information on race, gender, mother's residence at birth and deaths was obtained through linkage to the Midwives Notification System and the Mortality Register. Diagnostic information on the cause of ID was obtained through review of medical records where available and children were classified as biomedical cause, ASD, or unknown cause. An overall prevalence of ID of 17.0/1000 livebirths (95% CI: 16.7, 17.4) showed an increase from the 10-year previous prevalence of 14.3/1000. The prevalence for mild or moderate ID was 15.0 (95% CI: 14.6, 15.3), severe ID was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.3), and unknown level of ID was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)/1000 livebirths. The prevalence for Aboriginal children was 39.0/1000 compared with 15.7/1000 for non-Aboriginal children, giving a prevalence ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6). Prevalence of all ASD was 5.1/1000 of which 3.8/1000 had ASD and ID. The prevalence of ID has risen in WA over the last 10 years with most of this increase due to mild or moderate ID. Whilst the prevalence of ASD has also increased over this time this does not fully explain the observed increase. Aboriginal children are at a 2.5-fold risk of ID but are less likely to be accessing disability services. PMID:27227936

  7. Cultural Transmission of Traditional Knowledge in two populations of North-western Patagonia

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    Lozada Mariana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we have investigated the cultural transmission of two types of traditional plant knowledge in two communities of North-western Patagonia, Argentina. In the Pilcaniyeu community, we studied the transmission of traditional knowledge related to horticultural practices in home-gardens, greenhouses and gardens; while in the community of Cuyin Manzano, we studied wild plant gathering customs. Methods Ethnobotanical fieldwork was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, in which we investigated which plants are used, at what life history phase was learned, modes of transmission and who the principal transmitters were in childhood and adulthood. In both communities, each of this three aspects related to cultural transmission were categorized and the frequencies of each category were obtained. The total number of species recorded in each community was also calculated. Frequencies were analyzed with the Chi-square test of independence. Results and discussion In both communities, transmission of traditional plant knowledge begins at an early age, as a family custom, in which women play a predominant role. Wild plant use and horticultural knowledge continue to be learned during adulthood. This was particularly registered associated with horticultural learning, which receives greater influence from extension agents who are introducing new practices and technology. This outside influence, which implies novelty, could imply syncretism but also traditional knowledge loss. Conclusion Given the remarkable acculturation processes occurring at present in rural communities of Northwestern Patagonia, it might be of vital importance to document traditional knowledge of ancient practices. Moreover, it could be interesting to share our results with both populations in order to encourage participatory activities within the communities which could enhance traditional knowledge horizontal transmission, particularly among

  8. Isolation and characterization of 10 microsatellite loci in Cneorum tricoccon (Cneoraceae), a Mediterranean relict plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Alfredo; Lázaro-Nogal, Ana; Traveset, Anna; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize microsatellite loci in Cneorum tricoccon (Cneoraceae), a Mediterranean shrub relict of the early Tertiary, which inhabits western Mediterranean islands and coasts. Microsatellites will be useful for investigating biogeography and landscape genetics across the species distribution range, including current or past gene flow. Seventeen microsatellite loci were characterized, of which 10 were polymorphic and amplified for a total of 56 alleles in three populations of C. tricoccon. The markers revealed average coefficients of expected heterozygosity (H(e) = 0.425), observed heterozygosity (H(o) = 0.282), and inbreeding coefficient value per population (F(IS) = 0.408). These microsatellite primers will potentially be useful in the study of population and landscape genetics, conservation status of isolated populations, island-continental distribution, current or historical movements between populations, and in the investigation of the consequences of dispersal mechanisms of these plants.

  9. Migration stopover ecology of western avian populations: A southwestern migration workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Hazelwood, Rob

    2004-01-01

    The importance of migration stopover sites in ensuring that migratory birds successfully accomplish their journeys between breeding and non-breeding ranges has come to the forefront of avian research. Migratory birds that breed in western United States (US) and Canada and overwinter primarily in western Mexico migrate across the arid region of northern Mexico and southwestern US. Many of these migrants use lowland riparian stopover habitats, which comprise less than 0.1% of the western U.S. landscape. These habitats represent a significant conservation priority.

  10. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

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    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce.

    We conducted seasonal (winter and summer measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l. holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula. Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air.

    The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these

  11. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are involved in ozone and aerosol generation, thus having implications for air quality and climate. VOCs and their emissions by vegetation also have important ecological roles as they can protect plants from stresses and act as communication cues between plants and between plants and animals. In spite of these key environmental and biological roles, the reports on seasonal and daily VOC mixing ratios in the literature for Mediterranean natural environments are scarce. We conducted seasonal (winter and summer) measurements of VOC mixing ratios in an elevated (720 m a.s.l.) holm oak Mediterranean forest site near the metropolitan area of Barcelona (NE Iberian Peninsula). Methanol was the most abundant compound among all the VOCs measured in both seasons. While aromatic VOCs showed almost no seasonal variability, short-chain oxygenated VOCs presented higher mixing ratios in summer, presumably due to greater emission by vegetation and increased photochemistry, both enhanced by the high temperatures and solar radiation in summer. Isoprenoid VOCs showed the biggest seasonal change in mixing ratios: they increased by one order of magnitude in summer, as a result of the vegetation's greater physiological activity and emission rates. The maximum diurnal concentrations of ozone increased in summer too, most likely due to more intense photochemical activity and the higher levels of VOCs in the air. The daily variation of VOC mixing ratios was mainly governed by the wind regime of the mountain, as the majority of the VOC species analyzed followed a very similar diel cycle. Mountain and sea breezes that develop after sunrise advect polluted air masses to the mountain. These polluted air masses had previously passed over the urban and industrial areas surrounding the Barcelona metropolitan area, where they were enriched in NOx and in VOCs of biotic and abiotic origin. Moreover, these polluted air masses receive additional biogenic

  12. 8000 years of coastal changes on a western Mediterranean island: A multiproxy approach from the Posada plain of Sardinia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melis, Rita T.; Di Rita, Federico; French, Charles

    2018-01-01

    -stratigraphy exhibited by a series of new cores taken from the coastal plain. This new study elucidates the main paleoecological changes, phases of shoreline migration and relative sea-level change during the last 8000 years. These results indicate the major role of sea-level stabilization and high sediment supply...... in driving major landscape changes, especially during the Neolithic period (6th–4th millennia BC), and the long-term settlement history of this coastal valley area. It is concluded that human occupation of the coastal plain, from prehistoric to historical times, was most likely constrained by the rapid......A multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental investigation was conducted to reconstruct the Holocene history of coastal landscape change in the lower Posada coastal plain of eastern Sardinia. In the Mediterranean region, coastal modifications during the Holocene have been driven by a complex interplay between...

  13. A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean: Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicodontidae

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