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Sample records for western mediterranean populations

  1. Genetic sub-structure in western Mediterranean populations revealed by 12 Y-chromosome STR loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, V; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sánchez, J J

    2008-01-01

    Haplotype and allele frequencies of 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 a/b, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) included in the Powerplex(R) Y System were determined in seven western Mediterranean populations from Valencia...

  2. Evaluation of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in Western Mediterranean populations

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    Rodriguez, V.; Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim to establish a Y-STR haplotype database, a total of 554 males from seven Western Mediterranean populations were genotyped for the 12 Y-chromosome STR loci (minimal haplotype extended by loci DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) included in the Powerplex Y System (Promega). Among the 554 males...

  3. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

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    Marra, Annamaria; Mona, Stefano; Sà, Rui M; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia

    2015-01-01

    Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i) the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii) a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be particularly relevant to

  4. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

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    Annamaria Marra

    Full Text Available Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be

  5. Genetic analysis of 12 X-chromosome STRs in Western Mediterranean populations.

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    Ferragut, J F; Bentayebi, K; Castro, J A; Ramon, C; Picornell, A

    2015-03-01

    Haplotype and allele frequencies of 12 X-STRs included in the Investigator Argus X-12 kit are reported for 255 individuals, representing four Western Mediterranean populations: Valencia (eastern mainland Spain) and the Balearic Islands (Majorca, Minorca, and Ibiza). Ibiza shows the lowest intra-population variability and the highest level of linkage disequilibrium together with an important genetic distance with regard to the geographically close populations, which is consistent with the historical evidence for long-term demographic isolation and its different matrilineal background.

  6. Population dynamics and fishery of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western Mediterranean

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    Jordi Lleonart

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus fishery based on the island of Majorca (western Mediterranean and the population dynamics of the species were studied between 1995 and 1996. Fishing effort, landings and length composition of the catches during the sampling period, as well as the historic catch data series and fleet were analysed. Virtual Population Analysis (VPA, taking as the time unit the week in 1995 and the fortnight in 1996, were also carried out. Dolphinfish is fished from August to December, with main catches in September-October, using anchored fish aggregation devices (FADs and surrounding net. The mooring areas, placed from 70 to 1200 m depth, are distributed among the boats registered for the year´s fishery. A total of 46 boats took part in this fishery in 1995 and 37 in 1996, with a catch of 128 and 52 metric tons respectively. These wide fluctuations are also shown in the annual catches of the 16year series, which ranged from 2 to more than 120 metric tons, showing a slightly increasing trend (4 tons per year. The comparison of different measures of effort (FADs, days and hours showed similar values of CPUE, although the number of FADs showed the lowest variation, with normal variances and average values not significantly different between harbours. The length composition of the catches ranged from 20 to 64 cm fork length, which corresponds to juveniles between 2 and 6 months of age. The main results of the VPA, which must be regarded in relative rather than absolute values, showed that the available population and the recruitment in 1995 are greater (around one order of magnitude than in 1996. For both years, the number of individuals declined in the course of the fishing season, while biomass increased during the first 5 weeks. The fact that the exploited fraction of the dolphinfish population is composed of 0-age class suggests that catch fluctuations might be related to environmental parameters and to the migratory

  7. Seasonal population dynamics of Zeuxapta seriolae (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) parasitising Seriola dumerili (Carangidae) in the Western Mediterranean.

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    Repullés-Albelda, Aigües; Kostadinova, Aneta; Raga, Juan Antonio; Montero, Francisco E

    2013-03-31

    We examined the seasonal and yearly population dynamics of the monogenean pathogen Zeuxapta seriolae on juvenile fish from wild populations of Seriola dumerili. The study is based on bimonthly monitoring between April, 2005 and April, 2007 off Majorca, and newly obtained monogenean population data for juvenile fish from three additional localities in the Western Mediterranean (off Alicante, Corsica and Sardinia). We documented the highest intensities and abundances of Z. seriolae, with mean abundance values similar to or higher than those reported in the single case of wild fish mortalities reported to date. There was a recurrent pattern of seasonal change in infection with Z. seriolae in the populations of S. dumerili off Majorca, with substantially higher parasite loads during the warm season (April to June). Mean parasite abundance was significantly correlated with seawater temperature and associated with higher proportions of juvenile worms in the parasite populations, thus suggesting increased transmission rates at higher temperatures. There was a significant negative association between abundance of Z. seriolae and fish length. Comparisons with the samples of younger and older fish off Majorca indicated that whereas infection parameters gradually increased in the first year of juvenile fish life, larger/older fish (>43 cm; 1+) were much lightly infected than the smaller/younger (<30 cm; 0+) juvenile fish examined in the same season. The observed increases in abundance during the warm weather months were invariably associated with sharp increases in monogenean aggregation levels and this was in contrast with the markedly low levels for both parameters during the cold season months. These data, coupled with the strong negative correlation between the levels of aggregation of Z. seriolae and mean fish total length, indicate that heavily infected individuals are being rapidly removed (i.e. within 2-3 months) from the host population thus reducing the

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Wild Olives from the North-western Mediterranean Assessed by SSR Markers

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    Belaj, Angjelina; Muñoz-Diez, Concepción; Baldoni, Luciana; Porceddu, Andrea; Barranco, Diego; Satovic, Zlatko

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims This study examines the pattern of genetic variability and genetic relationships of wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) populations in the north-western Mediterranean. Recent bottleneck events are also assessed and an investigation is made of the underlying population structure of the wild olive populations. Methods The genetic variation within and between 11 wild olive populations (171 individuals) was analysed with eight microsatellite markers. Conventional and Bayesian-based analyses were applied to infer genetic structure and define the number of gene pools in wild olive populations. Key Results Bayesian model-based clustering identified four gene pools, which was in overall concordance with the Factorial Correspondence Analysis and Fitch–Margoliash tree. Two gene pools were predominantly found in southern Spain and Italian islands, respectively, in samples gathered from undisturbed forests of the typical Mediterranean climate. The other two gene pools were mostly detected in the north-eastern regions of Spain and in continental Italy and belong to the transition region between the temperate and Mediterranean climate zones. Conclusions On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of wild olives from the north-western Mediterranean partially reflects the evolutionary history of these populations, although hybridization between true oleasters and cultivated varieties in areas of close contact between the two forms must be assumed as well. The study indicates a degree of admixture in all the populations, and suggests some caution regarding genetic differentiation at the population level, making it difficult to identify clear-cut genetic boundaries between candidate areas containing either genuinely wild or feral germplasm. PMID:17613587

  9. Reproductive pattern of an exploited dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834 (Pisces: Serranidae population in the western Mediterranean

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    Olga Reñones

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive parameters of the dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean were studied with a histological analysis of specimens caught by artisanal and recreational spear fisheries. The histological examination of the gonads showed that the dusky grouper spawning season extends from late spring to the end of summer with clear spawning peaks in July and August. The monthly variation of the hepatosomatic index (HSI and the Le Cren condition index suggests that reserves for gonad development were obtained from the energy stored in the liver before spawning. Females reach maturation at 49 cm total length (TL and 6 years, and transitional individuals start to occur before all females are matured. Males were the largest and oldest specimens but females were also present in the largest and oldest classes and there was a large sex, size and age overlap in the population. The fecundity data showed that the dusky grouper is a determinate spawner with asynchronous oocyte development. Potential fecundity ranged between 65 thousand and 8 million oocytes in females from 39 to 92 cm TL and from 6 to 42 years of age, with a mean relative fecundity of 334 x 103 oocytes kg-1. Females spawn an average of 10 batches during the spawning season, with a relative batch fecundity of 75 x 103 oocytes kg-1. Fecundity increased significantly with length, weight, age and HSI, while relative fecundity was only related to HSI. Based on the results obtained in the present study (long reproductive lifespan of females, influence of maternal attributes on fecundity and size at maturity management measures for the species were evaluated.

  10. Deep-sea decapod crustaceans in the western and central Mediterranean Sea: preliminary aspects of species distribution, biomass and population structure

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    Joan B. Company

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Three deep-sea areas in the Mediterranean Sea were sampled using a bottom otter trawl during the DESEAS oceanographic survey carried out from early June to early July 2001, covering an area in the western Mediterranean from 600 to 2800 m in depth and two areas in the central Mediterranean, the western and eastern Ionian Sea from 600 to 4000 m in depth. Decapod crustaceans were one of the dominant megafaunal groups, together with fishes, in terms of both biomass and abundance. A total of 2799 decapod specimens belonging to 32 species were collected. Abundance and biomass of the decapod crustaceans decreased with depth. For depths below 1000 m, a decrease in total decapod biomass was recorded from west to east. From the data reported in this study and data from the available literature, decapod crustaceans display differential depth distributions in the different areas. For the most abundant species, size and sex distributions versus depth gradient were examined to compare intraspecific population structures between the sampling areas. Despite differences, among areas, in the species biomass compositions by depth strata and differences in their overall bathymetric ranges of distribution, intraspecific population structures of the most abundant species seem to follow similar trends for size and sex distribution versus depth gradient between the western and central areas. This might be an indication that the individual species structure their populations according to a similar basic pattern regardless of differences in local environmental features. The results have been discussed in the general context of the environmental features encountered by the species in each of the sampling areas.

  11. Portion of Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment completed

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    La Violette, Paul E.

    At a meeting in Palma (on the Mediterranean island of Majorca), on October 20, 1986, ocean scientists affiliated with the Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment (WMCE) met to discuss the completion of their 1-year field experiment. The convenors represented a consortium of 60 scientists from laboratories and institutions in the United States, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The consortium members pooled their talents, instruments, and resources to achieve their common goal: the derivation of the spatial and temporal variability of the circulation of the western Mediterranean Sea.

  12. The influence of oceanographic scenarios on the population dynamics of demersal resources in the western Mediterranean: Hypothesis for hake and red shrimp off Balearic Islands

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    Massutí, Enric; Monserrat, Sebastià; Oliver, Pere; Moranta, Joan; López-Jurado, José Luis; Marcos, Marta; Hidalgo, Manuel; Guijarro, Beatriz; Carbonell, Aina; Pereda, Pilar

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the relationships between some climatic indices and parental stock, recruitment and accessibility to trawl fishery of hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) off Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Available annual catch per unit effort, recruitment and spawning stock biomass have been used as biological data. As environmental data, the meso-scale IDEA index and the large-scale North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) indices have been used. To analyze possible links between these indices with the population dynamics of demersal resources, two non-linear approaches have been applied: (i) stock-recruitment relationships from Ricker and Beverton-Holt models, by sequentially incorporating environment factors; (ii) generalized additive modelling, both classical general and threshold non-additive models were considered. The latter simulate an abrupt change in explicative variables across different phases (time periods or climatic index values). The results have shown that two oceanographic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, associated with macro and meso-scale climate regimes, can influence the population dynamics of hake and red shrimp. This is especially true for recruitment, which seems to be enhanced during low NAO and IDEA indices periods. During these periods, colder-than-normal winters generate high amounts of cold Western Mediterranean Intermediate Waters (WIW) in the Gulf of Lions, which flow southwards and reach the Balearic Islands channels in spring, increasing the productivity in the area. This oceanographic scenario could also be favourable to the distribution of hake on the fishing grounds where the trawl fleet targets this species, increasing its accessibility to the fishery. Both spawning stock and abundance of red shrimp seems to be also enhanced by high MO index periods, which could reflect the increased presence of the saline and warm Levantine

  13. North Atlantic Oscillation drives the annual occurrence of an isolated, peripheral population of the brown seaweed Fucus guiryi in the Western Mediterranean Sea

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    Ignacio J. Melero-Jiménez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The canopy-forming, intertidal brown (Phaeophyceae seaweed Fucus guiryi is distributed along the cold-temperate and warm-temperate coasts of Europe and North Africa. Curiously, an isolated population develops at Punta Calaburras (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean but thalli are not present in midsummer every year, unlike the closest (ca. 80 km, perennial populations at the Strait of Gibraltar. The persistence of the alga at Punta Calaburras could be due to the growth of resilient, microscopic stages as well as the arrival of few–celled stages originating from neighbouring localities, and transported by the permanent Atlantic Jet flowing from the Atlantic Ocean into the Mediterranean. A twenty-six year time series (from 1990 to 2015 of midsummer occurrence of F. guiryi thalli at Punta Calaburras has been analysed by correlating with oceanographic (sea surface temperature, an estimator of the Atlantic Jet power and climatic factors (air temperature, rainfall, and North Atlantic Oscillation –NAO-, and Arctic Oscillation –AO- indexes. The midsummer occurrence of thalli clustered from 1990–1994 and 1999–2004, with sporadic occurrences in 2006 and 2011. Binary logistic regression showed that the occurrence of thalli at Punta Calaburras in midsummer is favoured under positive NAO index from April to June. It has been hypothesized that isolated population of F. guiryi should show greater stress than their congeners of permanent populations, and to this end, two approaches were used to evaluate stress: one based on the integrated response during ontogeny (developmental instability, based on measurements of the fractal branching pattern of algal thalli and another based on the photosynthetic response. Although significant differences were detected in photosynthetic quantum yield and water loss under emersion conditions, with thalli from Punta Calaburras being more affected by emersion than those from Tarifa, the developmental instability showed

  14. North Atlantic Oscillation drives the annual occurrence of an isolated, peripheral population of the brown seaweed Fucus guiryi in the Western Mediterranean Sea

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    Melero-Jiménez, Ignacio J.; Salvo, A. Enrique; Báez, José C.; Bañares-España, Elena; Reul, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The canopy-forming, intertidal brown (Phaeophyceae) seaweed Fucus guiryi is distributed along the cold-temperate and warm-temperate coasts of Europe and North Africa. Curiously, an isolated population develops at Punta Calaburras (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) but thalli are not present in midsummer every year, unlike the closest (ca. 80 km), perennial populations at the Strait of Gibraltar. The persistence of the alga at Punta Calaburras could be due to the growth of resilient, microscopic stages as well as the arrival of few–celled stages originating from neighbouring localities, and transported by the permanent Atlantic Jet flowing from the Atlantic Ocean into the Mediterranean. A twenty-six year time series (from 1990 to 2015) of midsummer occurrence of F. guiryi thalli at Punta Calaburras has been analysed by correlating with oceanographic (sea surface temperature, an estimator of the Atlantic Jet power) and climatic factors (air temperature, rainfall, and North Atlantic Oscillation –NAO-, and Arctic Oscillation –AO- indexes). The midsummer occurrence of thalli clustered from 1990–1994 and 1999–2004, with sporadic occurrences in 2006 and 2011. Binary logistic regression showed that the occurrence of thalli at Punta Calaburras in midsummer is favoured under positive NAO index from April to June. It has been hypothesized that isolated population of F. guiryi should show greater stress than their congeners of permanent populations, and to this end, two approaches were used to evaluate stress: one based on the integrated response during ontogeny (developmental instability, based on measurements of the fractal branching pattern of algal thalli) and another based on the photosynthetic response. Although significant differences were detected in photosynthetic quantum yield and water loss under emersion conditions, with thalli from Punta Calaburras being more affected by emersion than those from Tarifa, the developmental instability showed that the

  15. Environmentally driven synchronies of Mediterranean cephalopod populations

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    Keller, Stefanie; Quetglas, Antoni; Puerta, Patricia; Bitetto, Isabella; Casciaro, Loredana; Cuccu, Danila; Esteban, Antonio; Garcia, Cristina; Garofalo, Germana; Guijarro, Beatriz; Josephides, Marios; Jadaud, Angelique; Lefkaditou, Evgenia; Maiorano, Porzia; Manfredi, Chiara; Marceta, Bojan; Micallef, Reno; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Relini, Giulio; Sartor, Paolo; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tserpes, George; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is characterized by large scale gradients of temperature, productivity and salinity, in addition to pronounced mesoscale differences. Such a heterogeneous system is expected to shape the population dynamics of marine species. On the other hand, prevailing environmental and climatic conditions at whole basin scale may force spatially distant populations to fluctuate in synchrony. Cephalopods are excellent case studies to test these hypotheses owing to their high sensitivity to environmental conditions. Data of two cephalopod species with contrasting life histories (benthic octopus vs nectobenthic squid), obtained from scientific surveys carried out throughout the Mediterranean during the last 20 years were analyzed. The objectives of this study and the methods used to achieve them (in parentheses) were: (i) to investigate synchronies in spatially separated populations (decorrelation analysis); (ii) detect underlying common abundance trends over distant regions (dynamic factor analysis, DFA); and (iii) analyse putative influences of key environmental drivers such as productivity and sea surface temperature on the population dynamics at regional scale (general linear models, GLM). In accordance with their contrasting spatial mobility, the distance from where synchrony could no longer be detected (decorrelation scale) was higher in squid than in octopus (349 vs 217 km); for comparison, the maximum distance between locations was 2620 km. The DFA revealed a general increasing trend in the abundance of both species in most areas, which agrees with the already reported worldwide proliferation of cephalopods. DFA results also showed that population dynamics are more similar in the eastern than in the western Mediterranean basin. According to the GLM models, cephalopod populations were negatively affected by productivity, which would be explained by an increase of competition and predation by fishes. While warmer years coincided with declining octopus

  16. The structure of western Sicily, central Mediterranean

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    Catalano, R.; Sulli, A. [Universita di Palermo, Dip. di Geologia e Geodesia, Palermo (Italy); Merlini, S. [ENI-Divisione AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    Western Sicily is part of the Sicilian chain, a sector of the SE-verging Alpine orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, boreholes and recent inland geological data, have enabled us to assess the deep structural grain. A wedge of flat-lying Mesozoic-Miocene carbonate and terrigenous rocks (pre-Panormide nappes) is superimposed on NW-trending, 7-8 km thick, Mesozoic-Paleogene carbonate thrust ramps (Trapanese units), arranged in two structural levels extending from the Tyrrhenian coast to western offshore Sicily. Upper Miocene to Pleistocene terrigenous strata, often deformed, fill syntectonic basins above the thrust pile. The main tectonic transport of the thrust pile, developing from Early Miocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene times, was towards the east and southeast. Initial stacking and deformation of the pre-Panormide allochthon is bracketed between Early and Late Miocene. The Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene underthrusting of the Trapanese-Saccense units, that acted through more recent deep-seated thrusts in the carbonate platform layer, induced late stage refolding and further shortening in the early emplaced pre-Panormide nappe. Previously formed structures appear to have been dissected or reactivated by a right oblique transpression during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. The geometry of the carbonate bodies opens new potential perspectives on the existence of structural traps, but the uncertainties of source rock occurrence remain. (Author)

  17. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

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    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  18. Western and Mediterranean dietary patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents: socio-economic and lifestyle determinants.

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    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Martínez, Elisa; Llull, Rosa; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2012-04-01

    To assess prevailing food patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents, and socio-economic and lifestyle determinants. Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out (2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean region. Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative FFQ and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Anthropometric measurements and questions related to socio-economic, lifestyle, physical activity and body image were assessed. Data obtained from a representative sample of all inhabitants living in the Balearic Islands aged 12-17 years. A random sample (n 1231) of the adolescent population (12-17 years old) was interviewed. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: 'Western' and 'Mediterranean'. The 'Western' dietary pattern was higher among boys than girls, associated with spending ≥4 h/d on media screen time, but less prevalent among those adolescents who desired a thinner body and those girls who desired to remain the same weight. The 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern was mainly followed by girls, and also boys who spent Balearic Islands' adolescents: 'Western' and 'Mediterranean', but girls are more 'Mediterranean' than boys. This evidence supports that the food pattern of Balearic Islands' adolescents is in a transitional state characterised by the loss of the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern towards a Western dietary pattern. Low parental socio-economic status, much leisure-time on sedentary behaviours such as media screen time and body image are factors associated with the 'Western' dietary pattern.

  19. The Western Mediterranean summer variability and its feedbacks

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    OrtizBevia, M.J.; Alvarez-Garcia, F.J.; Ruiz de Elvira, A.M.; Liguori, G.; Carretero, J.H. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Fisica, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    The anomalous climatic variability of the Western Mediterranean in summer, its relationships with the large scale climatic teleconnection modes and its feedbacks from some of these modes are the targets of this study. The most important trait of this variability is the recurrence of warm and cold episodes, that take place at 2-4 year intervals, and which are monitored in the Western Mediterranean Index. We find that the Western Mediterranean events are part of a basin scale mode, and are related to the previous spring atmospheric anomalies. These anomalies are related mainly to the Pacific North America teleconnection pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation, but also to a number of other climatic modes, connected with the previous two, as the Southern Oscillation, the Indian Core Monsoon and the Scandinavian teleconnection pattern. We identify the main spatial and temporal traits of the Western Mediterranean summer variability, the physical mechanisms at play in the generation of the events and their impacts. Considering the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean events influence the sea surface temperature in the southeastern part of the North Atlantic Gyre. Additionally, they are significantly related to summer precipitation anomalies of the opposite sign in the Baltic basin (Central Germany and Poland) and near the Black Sea. We then estimate the mutual influence that the anomalous previous state of the Western Mediterranean, of the Pacific North America teleconnection pattern and of the North Atlantic Oscillation have on their summer conditions using a simple stochastic model. As the summer Western Mediterranean events have an influence on a part of the Baltic basin, we propose a second stochastic model in order to investigate if thereafter the Baltic basin variability will feedback on the Western Mediterranean sea surface temperature anomalies. Among the variables included in the second model are, in addition to the Western Mediterranean previous state, that of

  20. Population size structure, age and growth of Naucrates ductor in the small scale FADs fishery of Mallorca Island (western-Mediterranean

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    O. Reñones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The pilotfish (Naucrates ductor is mainly caught as a by-catch of the dolphinfish fishery using FADs deployed around Mallorca (western-Mediterranean from the end of August to December. The age and growth parameters of this species were estimated by length frequency analysis and daily growth increments observed in the otoliths. To validate the daily formation of the ring observed in the sagittae otoliths, a marking otoliths experiment with SrCl2 was carried out with juvenile specimens kept in laboratory conditions. The growth parameters obtained from otolith interpretation were based on age at length of 99 specimens ranging between 15 and 31.2 cm FL. Length frequency analyses were based on the monthly length distribution obtained in 1990, 1991, 1995 and 1996. The results obtained from the two methods were similar and showed rapid growth during the first 6 months of life. The von Bertalanffy growth equation from otoliths was FL= 28.97 (1-e (-6.87(t - 0.055. Positive allometric growth was observed in the length-weight relationship, with no differences existing between sexes: W (g= 0.0147*FL3.040 (cm.

  1. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  2. Genetic homogeneity of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western Mediterranean and the eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Pla

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus is an epipelagic, highly migratory species distributed worldwide in tropical and temperate waters including the Mediterranean Sea. Protein electrophoresis analyses can provide knowledge of the genetic population structure of the species and therefore be used as a tool for fishery management. Areas sampled include the islands of Majorca and Sicily in the western Mediterranean and the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic. The results of the protein electrophoresis reveal a level of genetic variability similar to other highly migratory species. No differences were found among locations, and it was not possible to reject the null hypothesis of one panmictic population in the area studied.

  3. Elasmobranch spatial segregation in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gouraguine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. This study focuses on the depth related trends and the geographic patterns that shape the community of the elasmobranch species in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea using data collected from 2001 to 2009. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS ordination was used to detect zonation patterns in the community. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs were applied to analyse spatial and temporal variation in elasmobranch community descriptors (abundance, biomass, mean fish weight, number of species and diversity, as well as the abundance and mean length of the four individual species (S. canicula, G. melastomus, R. clavata, R. miraletus. Depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, and the MDS analysis identified four main groups with 60% of the similarity found to correspond to the continental shelf, shelf break, upper slope and middle slope of the surveyed area. GAM analysis identified spatial patterns that were independent of the bathymetric distribution preference. Although depth was a strong predictor for all the analyses performed, the geographic variation in the elasmobranch abundance was also important. The results also show a reduction in the mean length of the elasmobranch species in the areas with high fishing intensity. Our study evidences a clear spatial segregation of the main species throughout the ontogeny because the geographic and bathymetric effects were highly size dependent, with clear differences between the bathymetric distributions of juveniles and adults but no clear spatial overlapping. This study sheds new light on the spatial distribution of the elasmobranch species off the Balearic Islands, which is essential information for protecting marine organisms along with their habitats and promoting ecosystem based management.

  4. Origin and consequences of western Mediterranean subduction, rollback, and slab segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Vissers, R.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068789203; Spakman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074103164

    2014-01-01

    The western Mediterranean recorded subduction rollback, slab segmentation and separation. Here we address the questions of what caused Oligocene rollback initiation, and how its subsequent evolution split up an originally coherent fore arc into circum-southwest Mediterranean segments. We

  5. S.O.S. Pinna nobilis: A Mass Mortality Event in Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Vázquez-Luis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A mass mortality event (MME impacting the bivalve Pinna nobilis was detected across a wide geographical area of the Spanish Mediterranean Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea in early autumn 2016. Underwater visual censuses were conducted across several localities separated by hundreds of kilometers along the Spanish Mediterranean coasts and revealed worrying high mortality rates reaching up to 100% in the center and southernmost coasts of the Iberian Peninsula including Balearic Islands. Populations on the northern coasts of the Spanish Mediterranean Sea seemed to be unaffected (Catalonian region. Histological examination of affected individuals revealed the presence of a haplosporidan-like parasite within the digestive gland being probably the pathogen that causes this mortality. The present MME has spread rapidly, causing high mortality rates in infected populations. Taking into account the degree of impact, the geographic extent, and the high probability that the infection is still in a spreading phase, this might be considered the largest MME ever registered for P. nobilis up to date, forcing this emblematic bivalve into a critical viability status over hundreds of kilometers of coast.

  6. The influence of wind direction on the capture of the wood warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix), an uncommon migratory species in the western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Barriocanal, Carles; Montserrat, David; Robson, David

    2011-01-01

    The wood warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix) is a migratory species in the western Mediterranean wintering in the Gulf of Guinea region, West Africa. In autumn and spring, this species, along with the populations breeding in Ireland and Britain, uses the Italian peninsula as its main axis of migration. From the data of captured birds at several ringing stations in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and coastal Iberian Peninsula), we analyzed capture rates of the species during spring m...

  7. A multigene species tree for Western Mediterranean painted frogs (Discoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabijan, Maciej; Crottini, Angelica; Reckwell, Dennis; Irisarri, Iker; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Vences, Miguel

    2012-09-01

    Painted frogs (Discoglossus) are an anuran clade that originated in the Upper Miocene. Extant species are morphologically similar and have a circum-Mediterranean distribution. We assembled a multilocus dataset from seven nuclear and four mitochondrial genes for several individuals of all but one of the extant species and reconstructed a robust phylogeny by applying a coalescent-based species-tree method and a concatenation approach, both of which gave congruent results. The earliest phylogenetic split within Discoglossus separates D. montalentii from a clade comprising all other species. Discoglossus montalentii is monophyletic for haplotype variation at all loci and has distinct morphological, bioacoustic and karyotypic characters. We find moderate support for a sister-group relationship between the Iberian taxa and the Moroccan D. scovazzi, and high support for a D. pictus -D. sardus clade distributed around the Tyrrhenian basin. Topological discordance among gene trees during the speciation of D. galganoi, D. scovazzi, D. pictus and D. sardus is interpreted as the consequence of nearly simultaneous, vicariant diversification. The timing of these events is unclear, but possibly coincided with the final geotectonic rearrangement of the Western Mediterranean in the Middle Miocene or later during the Messinian salinity crisis. The Iberian taxa D. galganoi galganoi and D. g. jeanneae are reciprocally monophyletic in mitochondrial DNA but not in nuclear gene trees, and are therefore treated as subspecies of D. galganoi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular phylogeography of western Mediterranean dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, A; Miquelis, A; Quignard, J P; Faure, E

    2000-02-01

    Intraspecific sequence variation in a portion of the gene coding for cytochrome b in the dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus Lowe 1834), an endangered fish species in various regions of the Mediterranean sea, was examined in 29 individuals from the western Mediterranean sea. Sixty-four phylogenetically informative nucleotide positions were present in a 353-base pair cytochrome b sequence, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis of the sequence data using a variety of tree-building algorithms separated the taxa into one group of dusky groupers corresponding to some of the Algerian individuals and another regrouped set of fishes originating in France, Tunisia and the remaining Algerian specimens. Although, on the basis of their morphology, E. marginatus are now considered as a single species, our results suggest that a subgroup of the Algerian dusky grouper constitutes a cryptic (undescribed) species. These results suggest that morphological and genetic evolution may be uncoupled in dusky grouper, resulting in morphological similarity between species despite extensive genetic divergence. In addition, we cannot rule out the possibility of gene introgression with other species of grouper. A more in depth phylogenetic analysis (i.e. between and within the different Epinephelus species) would likely affect many conservation management decisions about this assemblage of groupers.

  9. Phylogenetics, biogeography and population genetics of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri in the Mediterranean Sea and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, Eitan; Douek, Jacob; Paz, Guy; Katzir, Gadi; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2017-02-01

    The wide distribution of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri along the Mediterranean coasts has been documented since the eighteenth century. However, despite copious documentation, analyses of dispersal modes and genetic profiles were limited to local populations or restricted regions. In order to get a pan-Mediterranean overview, 288 specimens from 11 populations of B. schlosseri from the western and eastern Mediterranean basins were sampled and analyzed using five microsatellite loci and COI sequences. Both molecular markers revealed high polymorphisms, with 182 microsatellites alleles and 54 COI haplotypes. Overall, Fst, Dest, and COI Фpt values were 0.146, 0.635 and 0.322, respectively, reflecting a high genetic diversity and a significant genetic structure as compared to other B. schlosseri populations worldwide, reflected by substantially higher values for effective number of alleles (Ne) in the Mediterranean. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI sequences resulted in four distinct clades and two molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs). We recorded a stronger genetic structure among the populations of the eastern basin compared to the western basin (microsatellites Fst=0.217 versus 0.082; COI Фpt=0.416 versus 0.171), suggesting either a restricted connectivity between the basins or a stronger genetic drift in each basin. The occurrence of two OTUs and different ecological conditions may also contribute to this finding. Mean Nei's genetic distance in the eastern Mediterranean populations was more than three times higher compared to the western basin. No correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances (Mantel test), suggesting that maritime transport is the main dispersal vector of B. schlosseri colonies. The possibility that the Mediterranean is a center of diversity for B. schlosseri, and probably its site of origin, is further discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate Controls on Tree Growth in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchan, Ramzi; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Meko, David M.; Kerchouche, Dalila; Slimani, Said; Ilmen, Rachid; Hasnaoui, Fouad; Guibal, Frederic; Canarerim Hesys Hykui; Sanchez-Salguero, Raul; hide

    2017-01-01

    The first large-scale network of tree-ring chronologies from the western Mediterranean (WM; 32 deg N-43 deg N, 10 deg W-17 deg E) is described and analyzed to identify the seasonal climatic signal in indices of annual ring width. Correlation and rotated empirical orthogonal function analyses are applied to 85 tree-ring series and corresponding gridded climate data to assess the climate signal embedded in the network. Chronologies range in length from 80 to 1129 years. Monthly correlations and partial correlations show overall positive associations for Pinus halepensis (PIHA) and Cedrus atlantica (CDAT) with winter (December-February) and spring (March-May) precipitation across this network. In both seasons, the precipitation correlation with PIHA is stronger, while CDAT chronologies tend to be longer. A combination of positive correlations between growth and winter-summer precipitation and negative partial correlations with growing season temperatures suggests that chronologies in at least part of the network reflect soil moisture and the integrated effects of precipitation and evapotranspiration signal. The range of climate response observed across this network reflects a combination of both species and geographic influences. Western Moroccan chronologies have the strongest association with the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  11. Tagging reveals limited exchange of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta between regions in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Revelles

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta between the northern and southern regions of the western Mediterranean was investigated using data obtained from several Spanish tagging programmes. Tagged turtles ranged in straight carapace length from 23.0 to 74.0 cm. Thirty-six turtles were recaptured after an average interval of 390.5±462.6 days (SD. As the mean dispersal distance (MDD of a turtle population that spreads over the western Mediterranean would stabilize after 117 days (CI 95%: 98 to 149, two analyses were conducted that included data from turtles recaptured after 98 and 149 days respectively. In both analyses, turtles were recaptured more often than expected in the same region where they had been tagged. No difference was found in either of the two regions between the average distance between the capture and recapture locations and the expected MDD if the turtles were to remain in the region where they were first captured. Turtles recaptured after 15 and 25 days respectively were excluded from the analysis to ensure data independence. The overall evidence indicates that immature turtles exhibit strong site fidelity to certain areas and that there is a strong barrier to dispersal between the northern and southern parts of the western Mediterranean. Therefore, loggerhead turtles in the western Mediterranean should be split into at least two management units.

  12. S.O.S. Pinna nobilis: A Mass Mortality Event in Western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Vázquez-Luis; Elvira Álvarez; Agustín Barrajón; José R. García-March; Amalia Grau; Iris E. Hendriks; Santiago Jiménez; Diego Kersting; Diego Moreno; Marta Pérez; Ruiz, Juan M.; Jordi Sánchez; Antonio Villalba; Salud Deudero

    2017-01-01

    A mass mortality event (MME) impacting the bivalve Pinna nobilis was detected across a wide geographical area of the Spanish Mediterranean Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea) in early autumn 2016. Underwater visual censuses were conducted across several localities separated by hundreds of kilometers along the Spanish Mediterranean coasts and revealed worrying high mortality rates reaching up to 100% in the center and southernmost coasts of the Iberian Peninsula including Balearic Islands. Populat...

  13. Major storm periods and climate forcing in the Western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Bony, Guénaëlle

    2015-12-01

    Big storm events represent a major risk for populations and infrastructures settled on coastal lowlands. In the Western Mediterranean, where human societies colonized and occupied the coastal areas since the Ancient times, the variability of storm activity for the past three millennia was investigated with a multi-proxy sedimentological and geochemical study from a lagoonal sequence. Mappings of the geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility of detrital sources in the watershed of the lagoon and from the coastal barriers were undertaken in order to track the terrestrial or coastal/marine origin of sediments deposited into the lagoon. The multi-proxy analysis shows that coarser material, low magnetic susceptibility, and high strontium content characterize the sedimentological signature of the paleostorm levels identified in the lagoonal sequence. A comparison with North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean paleoclimate proxies shows that the phases of high storm activity occurred during cold periods, suggesting a climatically-controlled mechanism for the occurrence of these storm periods. Besides, an in-phase storm activity pattern is found between the Western Mediterranean and Northern Europe. Spectral analyses performed on the Sr content revealed a new 270-year solar-driven pattern of storm cyclicity. For the last 3000 years, this 270-year cycle defines a succession of ten major storm periods (SP) with a mean duration of 96 ± 54 yr. Periods of higher storm activity are recorded from >680 to 560 cal yr BC (SP10, end of the Iron Age Cold Period), from 140 to 820 cal yr AD (SP7 to SP5) with a climax of storminess between 400 and 800 cal yr AD (Dark Ages Cold Period), and from 1230 to >1800 cal yr AD (SP3 to SP1, Little Ice Age). Periods of low storm activity occurred from 560 cal yr BC to 140 cal yr AD (SP9 and SP8, Roman Warm Period) and from 820 to 1230 cal yr AD (SP4, Medieval Warm Period).

  14. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) from Western Sahara and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Assumpció; Cantos, Gemma; Aguilar, Alex; Androukaki, Eugenia; Dendrinos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    Blubber from Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) from the Western Sahara coast (Atlantic), sampled during 1996-1999, and from the Greek coast (Mediterranean), sampled during 1995-1999, was analyzed for organochlorine pollutants (OCs). In both populations, no significant difference was found between sexes. In the Atlantic population, mature females presented greater percentages of higher chlorinated PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners in relation to total PCBs (sum of 25 congeners) than pups, indicating a differential transfer of PCB congeners through lactation. In the Mediterranean, the reduced sample size of adult individuals precluded proper statistical investigation of age-related variation. Significant differences in concentrations and pollutant patterns were found between populations. Thus, Mediterranean individuals presented significantly higher levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB, and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) concentrations and DDE/tDDT and tDDT/tPCB ratios than their counterparts from the Atlantic. Moreover, the relative proportion of different congeners in relation to the total PCB load (congener/tPCB) was also different between the two areas. The 100*tDDT/tPCB ratio in Atlantic seals was 38.46, which indicates a predominance of industrial inputs over those associated with agriculture. Conversely, in the Mediterranean seal population, the 100*tDDT/tPCB ratio was 177.1, denoting a proportionally higher contribution of pollutants of agricultural origin.

  15. First GPS measurements across the Central-Western Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saadi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the displacement field of the central-western part of the Mediterranean basin estimated by the analysis of three repeated GPS surveys (1995, 1996 and 1997 consisting of 8 sites of a network. This network includes for the first time the stations of Algiers and Arzew, located in Northern Algeria, an area not yet investigated by regional GPS surveys. Lampedusa station is located in the Sicily Straits rifting area while the other five stations of Cagliari, Wettzell, Madrid, Matera and Noto belong to the IGS permanent tracking network. The statistical analysis of 1995, 1996 and 1997 data show significant displacements at five stations. The displacement vectors of the African sites show a convergence between the African and the Eurasian plates at a rate of 0.8 ± 0.4 cm within a two year time span. A comparison between the displacements estimated in the present work and the ITRF96 determinations for the five permanent stations allow us to evaluate the motion of Lampedusa, Algiers and Arzew in the IERS Terrestrial Reference System.

  16. Inter-basin movements of Mediterranean sperm whales provide insight into their population structure and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzis, A.; Airoldi, S.; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, G.; Johnson, C.; Mazzariol, S.

    2011-04-01

    The sperm whale is one of the very few deep diving mammal species in the Mediterranean Sea. Following a rare mass stranding of male sperm whales in the Adriatic Sea in December 2009, photo-identification methods were used in order to investigate previous sightings of the stranded whales in the region. Fluke photos of the stranded whales were compared with those of 153 and 128 free-ranging individuals photographed in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins, respectively. Three out of the seven stranded whales had been previously photo-identified and some of them more than once. To reach the stranding place, two of these re-identified whales performed long-range inter-basin movements of about 1600-2100 km (in a straight line) either through the Strait of Sicily or the Strait of Messina. In addition, comparisons among all whales photographed in the two Mediterranean basins revealed that one more individual first photographed in the western basin (1991) was re-identified 13 years later in the eastern basin (2004). These three cases provide the first conclusive evidence of inter-basin movement of sperm whales in the Mediterranean Sea. Inter-basin gene flow is important for the survival of the small and endangered Mediterranean sperm whale population. Mitigating the disturbance created by human activities in the straits area is crucial for its conservation.

  17. Intense winter atmospheric pollution episodes affecting the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cusack, Michael; Reche, Cristina

    2010-03-15

    The geographic location of the Western Mediterranean Basin and its peculiar topography, the climatic conditions and the intense anthropogenic and natural emissions of atmospheric pollutants are key factors necessary to interpret the atmospheric aerosol phenomenology over this area. During the cold season it is common to have severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes (of an anthropogenic origin) affecting this region, not only in the urban and industrial areas but also in the regional and rural sites. During these episodes, the midday hourly PM(1) levels at regional background sites are in many cases higher than those at urban areas. Around 10% of the days under winter anticyclonic conditions registered similar PM(1) levels at the regional background than at the urban area and, sporadically the daily PM(1) levels at the regional background sites may exceed those at urban sites. Furthermore, the very high hourly PM(1) levels measured at regional background sites during these episodes are not regularly attained in the closest urban areas, which leads to the hypothesis that an important formation of secondary aerosols occurs during the transport of the polluted air masses towards the elevated rural sites. The interpretation of the variability of PM levels and composition (2002-2008) at one urban site (Barcelona) and at one regional background site (Montseny) allows us to illustrate the phenomenology of these scenarios, to quantify the mean annual contributions to the PM levels and to identify their main tracers. Ammonium nitrate appears to be the most abundant compound during these scenarios, although organic species and trace metals also increase markedly. Owing to the intensity, composition and recurrence of these atmospheric pollution episodes, important health, climatic and ecological implications may be derived.

  18. Historical biogeography of the land snail Cornu aspersum: a new scenario inferred from haplotype distribution in the Western Mediterranean basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guiller, Annie; Madec, Luc

    2010-01-01

    .... We investigated here the phylogeography of this land snail to reassess the evolutionary scenario we previously considered for explaining its scattered distribution in the western Mediterranean...

  19. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the North Western Mediterranean Sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the North Western Mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, WRu and from atmospheric fall out, TXCs and sup(239 + 240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 V) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26.

  20. Living on the edge: demography of the slender-billed gull in the Western Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Small and peripheral populations are typically vulnerable to local extinction processes but important for the metapopulation dynamics of species. The Slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei is a long-lived species breeding in unstable ephemeral coastal habitats. Their Western Mediterranean populations are relatively small and represent the edge of their global geographical distribution. At a local scale, using long-term data (14 years on annual breeding success and capture-resights of marked individuals, we estimated and compared the vital rates and evaluated the connectivity of two Spanish populations (Ebro Delta and Doñana varying in their local environmental conditions. At a metapopulation scale, we analyzed 22 years of data on breeding numbers to predict their future prospects by means of population demographic models. Local survival and breeding success of gulls from the Ebro Delta was lower than those from Doñana, which is likely the result of higher permanent emigration and/or winter mortality in the former. Gulls from the Ebro Delta wintered mostly in Mediterranean areas whereas those from Doñana did so in Atlantic coasts, where food availability is higher. Whereas adult local survival was constant, juvenile local survival showed temporal parallel variations between colonies, probably related to natal dispersal to other breeding colonies. Our results suggested that dispersal was higher at the Ebro Delta and gulls emigrating from their natal colonies settled preferentially in close patches. We found large fluctuations in breeding numbers among local populations probably related to the fact that the Slender-billed gull is a species adapted to unstable and unpredictable habitats with high abilities to disperse between suitable patches depending on environmental stochastic conditions during breeding.

  1. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet by the Greek and Cypriot population: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Alexis; Evans, Josie M M; Economides, Nicholas; Kyriacou, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet is defined as the dietary pattern in the countries of the Mediterranean basin between the 1950s and 1960s, and it is now widely accepted that has a beneficial effect on health. A debate exists from empirical and research data if the traditional Mediterranean diet remains the main dietary pattern of the region or if it has changed overtime. This systematic review addresses whether the people of Cyprus and Greece still follow the traditional Mediterranean diet or whether the diet has become more 'Westernised'. The MEDLINE database was searched using relevant free terms and independently reviewed by two authors. In addition, all reference lists of identified studies were hand-searched to identify additional, relevant studies. The review resulted in 18 research papers that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and represented 15 independent studies. The main outcome was consistent between studies and indicated moderate adherence of the Greek, and (probably) of the Cypriot, population to the Mediterranean diet. The majority of studies found no statistically significant differences by gender. There was an observed inter-study lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet by the younger population. Few studies addressed intra-study variations by age. This review shows that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is moderate in Greece (and probably also in Cyprus).This suggests a continuing transition from dietary patterns in the 50 s-60 s towards a more Westernized diet. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Trace elements in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, F; Borrel, A; Leonzio, C; Marsili, L; Calzada, N

    1998-01-01

    Tissues obtained from Stenella coeruleoalba stranded along the Spanish and Italian Mediterranean coasts from 1987 to 1994 were analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). The age, length and weight of the dolphins were recorded. Hg levels were also assayed in skin biopsies from dolphins of the same species in the waters off northeastern Spain and in the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Seas. Levels of all elements differed in muscle of stranded dolphins from the two areas. Hg was higher in tissues from animals stranded on the Italian coasts and in skin biopsies obtained in the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Seas, than in the respective Spanish samples. This is probably related to Hg pollution from the natural weathering of cinnabar ores in central Italy. Se and Cd levels had similar accumulation patterns to those of Hg. Accumulation of Hg and Se is explained by the existence of a detoxification pathway involving both elements, however the reason for the similar Cd trend is unclear. Geographical differences in the accumulation pattern of these elements may reflect the existence of two different populations of Stenella coeruleoalba in the western Mediterranean.

  3. A newly discovered Pliocene volcanic field on the western Sardinia continental margin (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Alessandro; Budillon, Francesca; Tonielli, Renato; De Falco, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    A previously unknown submerged volcanic field offshore western Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea), has been identified based on swath bathymetric data collected in 2009, 2010 and 2013, and high-resolution seismic profiles collected in 2011 and 2013. About 40 conical-shaped volcanic edifices (maximum width of about 1600 m and maximum height of about 180 m) and several lava outcrops (up to 1,200 m wide) were recognized at 20 to 150 m water depth over an area of 800 km2. The volcanic edifices are mainly eruptive monogenic vents, mostly isolated with a rather distinct shape, or grouped to form a coalescent volcanic body in which single elements are often still recognizable. High-resolution seismics enabled identifying relationships between the volcanic bodies and continental margin successions. The edifices overlie a major erosional surface related to the margin exposure following the Messinian salinity crisis, and are overlain by or interbedded with an early Pliocene marine unit. This seismo-stratigraphic pattern dates the volcanic activity to the early Pliocene, in agreement with the radiometric age of the Catalano island lavas (4.7 Ma) reported in earlier studies. The morphometry of the volcanic bodies suggests that cone erosion was higher at shallow water depths. Indeed, most of the shallow edifices are strongly eroded and flattened at 125 to 130 m water depth, plausibly explained by recurrent sub-aerial exposure during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, whereas cones in deeper water are much better preserved. Volcanic vents and lava deposits, hereafter named the Catalano volcanic field (CVF), are emplaced along lineaments corresponding to the main directions of the normal fault system, which lowered the Sinis Basin and the western Sardinia continental margin. The CVF represents a volumetrically relevant phase of the late Miocene - Quaternary anorogenic volcanic cycle of Sardinia, which is related to the first stage of the extensional tectonics affecting the island

  4. Macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a qualitative comparison of the distribution of macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the Western Mediterranean and the Northeastern Atlantic, based on our own data from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean and available data from literature. The macroalgal-dominated coastal detritic bottoms from both regions could be distinguished by the presence of a high number of regional exclusive non-carbonated species, and the presence of a high number of maërl-forming species in the Mediterranean. Further, regional differences in the distribution of some exclusive species allowed the distinction of three zones in the Northeastern Atlantic (United Kingdom, French Brittany and Galicia, while no differences were found within the Western Mediterranean. However, the algal communities considered in the selected literature could not be qualitatively distinguished, and all the samples should be considered as maërl beds. Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatolithon calcareum were the most widespread maërl forming species in the two regions, while in the Western Mediterranean Spongites fruticulosus was also very frequent. According to the differences in the species composition of the basal and erect strata of these beds, and also in their species richness, five different morphologies of macroalgal-dominated detritic bottoms could be distinguished. Their main characteristic species and their biogeographical distribution are detailed.

  5. Parametric Reconstruction of Water Vapour Accumulation Modes in the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, J. L.; Rovira, F.; Millan, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Sea acts as a source of heat and moisture for the surrounding regions, but not only because it is a closed and warm sea. The Mediterranean Basin is located in the mid-latitudes (i.e., high solar insolation), and it is almost completely surrounded by mountains. Moreover, from a meteorological point of view, the Mediterranean Basin can be regarded as two well-differentiated sub-basins: The Western Mediterranean Basin, where the prevailing synoptic conditions are associated with the Azores High Pressure system; and the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, which is under the influence of the Middle-East monsoon low-pressure system. The combination of all these features enables strong evapotranspiration with lower ventilation conditions (especially on the Western side) than in other geographical areas of the world (e.g., areas under the direct influence of the Atlantic Ocean). As a result, there are different water vapour "accumulation modes” on both sides of the Mediterranean Basin. The determination of the main atmospheric accumulation modes and their seasonal variability on both sides of the Mediterranean Basin is a relevant issue for integrating some of the feedbacks driving climate change, e.g., precipitation regimes, secondary pollutant production, ventilation conditions, etc. This study focuses on the total water vapour accumulation modes found on both sides of the Mediterranean Basin throughout the year. The data used in this study come from the most recent EOS satellite missions. Specifically, this investigation analyses the nine-year time series of water vapour data measured by the MODIS instrument (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board the TERRA (EOS AM-1) satellite. Annual evolution (2000-2008) and seasonality of the total precipitable water column are analysed in both the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean Basins. After carrying out the parametric reconstruction of the water vapour time series, we have obtained their

  6. Patterns of Orientation in the Megalithic Tombs of the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Michael

    Nearly all the Neolithic communal tombs of western Europe and the western Mediterranean have a well-defined orientation. In the west of Iberia, the great majority faced within the range of sunrise (and moonrise), while in Iberia as a whole and the west of France nearly all faced either sunrise or the sun when it had risen and was climbing in the sky. By contrast, at Fontvieille near Arles, tombs faced sunset, and along the French Mediterranean region to both east and west of Fontvieille, tombs faced either sunset or the sun when it was declining in the sky. In Sardinia, tombs faced southeasterly; by contrast, on Menorca, tombs faced southwesterly.

  7. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Heavy Rain and Cyclones In The Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, J.; Jansá, A.; Genovés, A.; Picornell, M. A.

    The Mediterranrean regions are periodically affected by heavy rain events. These events constitute one of the most important natural hazards of the region, and due to their social impact, the correct forecasting of them constitutes a major challenge for the local meteorologists. The accurate study of several heavy rain events in the Mediterranean revealed the role of cyclones in locating, triggering or focusing them. Cyclones, even shallow and weak, organize the low-level flow, allowing the feeding of warm and wet air over the affected area. In this study the relationship between heavy rain and cyclonic centres in the West- ern Mediterranean is analized from a statistical point of view. The simultaneity of both phenomena are seek for a 5-year period. The foundation of this approach is two databases maintained and updated at the INM in the framework of the MEDEX (Mediterranean Experiment on Cyclones that produce High Impact Weather in the Mediterranean) project. The first database contains events of heavy precipitacion (more than 60 mm/24h), and the second one is composed by surface cyclones. Futher- more, the tridimensional structure of those cyclones is studied for a shorter period. Results show that in most of the heavy rain events there is a cyclonic centre in the vicinity of the affected area. Moreover, the cyclone is usually located allowing the entrance of low-level warm and wet air over the heavy precipitacion area.

  9. Moult in the Mediterranean monk seal from Cap Blanc, western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is different to that of the Hawaiian monk seal and elephant seals, as Mediterranean monk seals partly moult in the water. The intermoult period was close to one year except in females nursing a pup. Such females have longer intermoult periods and can even moult whilst still lactating. In males, the process of developing ...

  10. Brucella ceti infection in dolphins from the Western Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Pérez, Lola; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Muñoz, Pilar M; Alegre, Fernando; Barberán, Montserrat; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; González-Barrientos, Rocio; Moreno, Edgardo; Blasco, José María; Domingo, Mariano

    2014-09-17

    Brucella ceti infections have been increasingly reported in cetaceans. Brucellosis in these animals is associated with meningoencephalitis, abortion, discospondylitis', subcutaneous abscesses, endometritis and other pathological conditions B. ceti infections have been frequently described in dolphins from both, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, only two reports have been made: one from the Italian Tyrrhenian Sea and the other from the Adriatic Sea. We describe the clinical and pathological features of three cases of B. ceti infections in three dolphins stranded in the Mediterranean Catalonian coast. One striped dolphin had neurobrucellosis, showing lethargy, incoordination and lateral swimming due to meningoencephalitis, A B. ceti infected bottlenose dolphin had discospondylitis, and another striped dolphin did not show clinical signs or lesions related to Brucella infection. A detailed characterization of the three B. ceti isolates was performed by bacteriological, molecular, protein and fatty acid analyses. All the B. ceti strains originating from Mediterranean dolphins cluster together in a distinct phylogenetic clade, close to that formed by B. ceti isolates from dolphins inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean. Our study confirms the severity of pathological signs in stranded dolphins and the relevance of B. ceti as a pathogen in the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Variability of aerosol optical properties in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol light scattering, absorption and particulate matter (PM concentrations were measured at Montseny, a regional background site in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB which is part of the European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (EUSAAR. Off line analyses of 24 h PM filters collected with Hi-Vol instruments were performed for the determination of the main chemical components of PM. Mean scattering and hemispheric backscattering coefficients (@ 635 nm were 26.6±23.2 Mm−1 and 4.3±2.7 Mm−1, respectively and the mean aerosol absorption coefficient (@ 637 nm was 2.8±2.2 Mm−1. Mean values of Single Scattering Albedo (SSA and Ångström exponent (å (calculated from 450 nm to 635 nm at MSY were 0.90±0.05 and 1.3±0.5 respectively. A clear relationship was observed between the PM1/PM10 and PM2.5/PM10 ratios as a function of the calculated Ångström exponents. Mass scattering cross sections (MSC for fine mass and sulfate at 635 nm were 2.8±0.5 m2 g−1 and 11.8±2.2 m2 g−1, respectively, while the mean aerosol absorption cross section (MAC was 10.4±2.0 m2 g−1. The variability in aerosol optical properties in the WMB were largely explained by the origin and ageing of air masses over the measurement site. The MAC values appear dependent of particles aging: similar to the expected absorption cross-section for fresh emissions under Atlantic Advection episodes and higher under aerosol pollution episodes. The analysis of the Ångström exponent as a function of the origin the air masses revealed that polluted winter anticyclonic conditions and summer recirculation scenarios typical of the WMB led to an increase of fine particles in the atmosphere (å = 1.5±0.1 while the aerosol optical properties under Atlantic Advection episodes and Saharan dust outbreaks were clearly

  12. PICASSO Rayleigh wave tomography of the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Liu, K.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.

    2011-12-01

    The western Mediterranean comprises a diffusive plate boundary between the African and Eurasian plates. The area was under extension in the Mesozoic, when the Atlantic and Tethys oceans opened, and under compression from Cenozoic times to present due African-European convergence. The deformation occupies a wide area from the intra-continental Atlas mountain belt in Morocco to the southern Iberian Massif in Spain. The tectonic history of the area is complicated and several geodynamic models have been suggested. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multidisciplinary, international investigation of the Alboran System and surrounding areas. As part of this program a deployment of a dense array of 83 broadband seismic stations in the area has been done. The stations are deployed in a north-south line from central Spain to the Morocco-Algerian border, crossing part of the Iberian Massif in Spain, the Gibraltar Arc (Betics Mountains in Spain and Rif Mountains in Morocco) and the Middle and High Atlas in Morocco. Additional stations form an areal array around the Alboran Sea, in the Betic Mountains and the Rif Mountains. These stations recorded more than 115 teleseismic events since April 2009, of which we chose 30 with a good signal to noise ratio for the study of the lithosphere and asthenosphere with surface waves. To complement our data and to increase the coverage, the data recorded by the IberArray experiment have also been used. The latter experiment, of the Spanish seismological community, has covered the same region with a uniform 50 km x 50 km grid of broadband stations recording from mid-2007 to mid-2009. Rayleigh phase velocities have been measured using the two-plane-wave method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D structure on a grid of 0.25 by 0.25 degree. The resulting 3D shear velocity models provide first

  13. B1 was the ancestor B chromosome variant in the western Mediterranean area in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J; López-León, M D; Ruíz-Estévez, M; Gómez, R; Petitpierre, E; Rufas, J S; Massa, B; Kamel Ben Halima, M; Camacho, J P M

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and a satellite DNA (satDNA), on the B chromosomes found in 17 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis ploransplorans sampled around the western Mediterranean region, including the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Sicily, and Tunisia. Based on the amount of these repetitive DNAs, 4 types of B variants were found: B1, showing an equal or higher amount of rDNA than satDNA, and 3 other variants, B2, B24 and B5, bearing a higher amount of satDNA than rDNA. The variants B1 and B2 varied in size among populations: B1 was about half the size of the X chromosome in Balearic Islands, but two-thirds of the X in Iberian populations at Alicante, Murcia and Albacete provinces. Likewise, B2 was about one-third the size of the X chromosome in populations from the Granada province but half the size of the X in the populations collected at Málaga province. The widespread geographical distribution of the B1 variant makes it the best candidate for being the ancestor B chromosome in the whole western Mediterranean region. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The benthic hydroid fauna of the Chafarinas Islands (Alborán Sea, western Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Cantero, A.L.; García Carrascosa, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The benthic hydroid fauna of the Chafarinas Islands (Western Mediterranean), collected during a survey in the summer of 1991, has been studied. A total of 86 species, 20 athecate hydroids and 66 thecate hydroids, has been recorded. For every species, the synonymy, a survey of the material studied

  15. A new interstitial species of Gammarella (Amphipoda, Gammaridea) from the western Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martí, Amparo; Villora-Moreno, Santiago

    1995-01-01

    A new species of Gammarella Bate, 1857 is described from shallow water, inhabiting the interstitial system in soft bottoms of the Chafarinas Archipelago (western Mediterranean, N. Africa). The relationships of Gammarella with the genera Nuuanu and Cottesloe are briefly discussed. Numerical taxonomie

  16. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieto-Moreno, V.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Giralt, S.; Jimenéz-Espejo, F.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.; de Lange, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic basin, near the Alboran basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to

  17. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G.J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominentindicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at theseafloor on both passive and active continental margins.Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent attheWest Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlayinga major sedimentary

  18. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Rodríquez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; de Lange, G.J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary

  19. AMPHIBLESTRUM (AVICULAMPHIBLESTRUM RUGGEROI SP. N., SUBGEN. N. (BRYOZOA FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA ROSSO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species and a new subgenus Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum ruggeroi sp.n. are described from deep circalittoral-epibathyal bottoms from the Sicily Strait and the north-western Mediterranean. The new subgenus is created to distinguish, within Amphiblestrum, species with both gymnocystal adventitious and large interzooidal avicularia, both originating from basal pore chambers. 

  20. Increasing zooplankton variance in the late 1990s unveils hydroclimate modifications in the Balearic Sea, Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Puelles, Ma Luz; Molinero, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    We examined seasonal and interannual patterns of zooplankton functional groups in the Balearic Sea from 1994 to 2003 and revealed a conspicuous increase in zooplankton variance at community and population levels. The change occurred in 1999-2000, and paralleled modifications in the North Atlantic climate that cascaded down affecting the water column thermal gradient in the Balearic Sea. The observed modifications in both hydroclimate and ecological compartments raise the question of a potential ecological shift in the pelagic ecosystem of the Western Mediterranean in the late 1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Historical biogeography of the land snail Cornu aspersum: a new scenario inferred from haplotype distribution in the Western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madec Luc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its key location between the rest of the continent and Europe, research on the phylogeography of north African species remains very limited compared to European and North American taxa. The Mediterranean land mollusc Cornu aspersum (= Helix aspersa is part of the few species widely sampled in north Africa for biogeographical analysis. It then provides an excellent biological model to understand phylogeographical patterns across the Mediterranean basin, and to evaluate hypotheses of population differentiation. We investigated here the phylogeography of this land snail to reassess the evolutionary scenario we previously considered for explaining its scattered distribution in the western Mediterranean, and to help to resolve the question of the direction of its range expansion (from north Africa to Europe or vice versa. By analysing simultaneously individuals from 73 sites sampled in its putative native range, the present work provides the first broad-scale screening of mitochondrial variation (cyt b and 16S rRNA genes of C. aspersum. Results Phylogeographical structure mirrored previous patterns inferred from anatomy and nuclear data, since all haplotypes could be ascribed to a B (West or a C (East lineage. Alternative migration models tested confirmed that C. aspersum most likely spread from north Africa to Europe. In addition to Kabylia in Algeria, which would have been successively a centre of dispersal and a zone of secondary contacts, we identified an area in Galicia where genetically distinct west and east type populations would have regained contact. Conclusions Vicariant and dispersal processes are reviewed and discussed in the light of signatures left in the geographical distribution of the genetic variation. In referring to Mediterranean taxa which show similar phylogeographical patterns, we proposed a parsimonious scenario to account for the "east-west" genetic splitting and the northward expansion of the

  2. The population genetics of familial mediterranean fever: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, V P; Giaglis, S; Mitroulis, I; Ritis, K

    2008-11-01

    Our aim was to construct a Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) cumulative database and to propose a MEFV based phylogenetic tree. Data were collected from published studies. A meta-analysis based on 16,756 chromosomes from FMF patients and normal individuals from 14 affected populations was performed. Arlequin 2.0 and Phylip 3.2 software were used for population genetics analysis and phylogenetic tree construction. We have shown that MEFV mutations are distributed non-uniformly along the Mediterranean Sea area. The most frequent mutations detected in FMF patients are M694V (39.6%), V726A (13.9%), M680I (11.4%), E148Q (3.4%), and M694I (2.9%), while 28.8% of chromosomes carry unidentified or no mutations, especially in Western Europeans. The mean overall carrier rate is 0.186 with peak values in Arabs, Armenians, Jews, and Turks. Only V726A obeys the Hardy-Weinberg law in FMF patients implying that this mutation is the most ancient. Jews present the most intense genetic isolation and drift; thus they might have nested de novo mutations and accelerated evolution. Besides Jews, three population groups might follow distinct evolutionary lines (Asia Minor, Eastern European, and Western European). In conclusion, the MEFV mutation pattern is non-uniform regarding distribution, phenotypic expression, neutrality and population genetics characteristics. Jews are the candidate population for founder effects in MEFV.

  3. Is the Western Mediterranean Transition showing up in the Strait of Gibraltar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lafuente, Jesús; Naranjo, Cristina; Sammartino, Simone; Flecha, Susana; Sánchez-Garrido, Jose Carlos; Huertas, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Physical and chemical properties (temperature, salinity, pH) of the Mediterranean outflow near the seafloor at Espartel sill, at the westernmost section of the Strait of Gibraltar, have been measured by a monitoring station aimed at following the changes that are taking place in the Mediterranean Sea. Presently, temperature and salinity series are longer than 13 years and they show a slight positive trend (warmer and saltier) that has increased after year 2013. The possibility of this increase being the result of the arrival of the so-called Western Mediterranean Transition (WMT), which started in year 2005 after the huge production of new and denser-than-usual Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW), has been considered. The hypothesis that the water of the WMT is now showing up in the Strait has been put forward by some authors and gets strong support from the pH time series recorded at the station, which shows a sudden and sustained decrease (acidification) starting in early 2016. This decrease is consistent with the fact that the water now being observed flowing out is younger, i.e., has been in contact with the atmosphere more recently, than the WMDW it used to flow out previously to this year. It was only after the large new WMDW production of the harsh winters of 2012 and 2013 and the expected uplift of older layers of WMDW they caused that WMT waters were made available to flow out the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Western blot as a seroepidemiologic tool for detecting foci of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, D; Arzouni, J P; Jambon, M C; Beytout, J; Ramousse, O

    1994-02-01

    We conducted a serosurvey on Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF), in a nonendemic area using western blot and microimmunofluorescence. Among 262 tested sera, 53 were positive by micro-immunofluorescence at a titer of 50. When 48 positive sera were western blot tested, 15 did not exhibited any reaction, 17 reacted against the non-specific lipopolysaccharide, and only 16 reacted against the specific protein antigens. Fourteen of the sera with a specific reaction were sampled in a village with a unique submediterranean climate. Western blot may be a more specific tool to determine the real seroprevalence of MSF.

  5. Meso- and small-scale vertical motions in the deep Western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haren, Hans van, E-mail: hans.van.haren@nioz.n [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    Acoustic reflections on particles larger than a few mm are compared with optical background data of bioluminescence at the ANTARES neutrino telescope site in the deep North-western Mediterranean Sea. Periodic increases of these data are associated with increases in horizontal and downward vertical currents. The observations provide unique knowledge of some oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean. Several periodicities are distinguished: seasonal, with large increase during spring, 20-day, which is associated with a meandering continental boundary current, 1-17.6 h, evidencing deep internal waves.

  6. Abundance and distribution of Tursiops truncatus in the Western Mediterranean Sea: an assessment towards the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriano, Giancarlo; Pierantonio, Nino; Donovan, Greg; Panigada, Simone

    2014-09-01

    The Mediterranean Sea common bottlenose dolphin population has been assessed as Vulnerable according to the IUCN Red List Criteria. The species is also included in several International Agreements, European Union Regulations and Directives. Amongst them, a strict protection and identification of special conservation areas are requested by the EU Habitats Directive. Despite direct takes, by-catch, chemical and acoustic pollution, and prey depletion, general habitat degradation and fragmentation have been indicated as detrimental for the species, the degree to which these threats pose population risk is still largely unknown. At present it is thus not possible to depict the actual status of the population and to assess prospective trends. To address this gap in the current knowledge, line transect distance sampling aerial surveys were conducted in a wide portion of the Western Mediterranean Sea between the summer of 2010 and winter 2011. A total of 165 parallel transects equally spaced at 15 km were designed providing homogeneous coverage probability. Overall, 21,090 km were flown on effort and 16 bottlenose dolphin sightings were recorded and used for the analysis. The surface abundance and density estimates resulted in 1676 animals (CV = 38.25; 95% CI = 804-3492) with a density of 0.005 (CV = 38.25%). These results represent the first ever estimates for the common bottlenose dolphin over a wide portion of the Western Mediterranean Sea Subregion, with the potential to be useful baseline data to inform conservation. Specifically, they could be used as indicators under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements, in conjunction with other study methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Atlantic forcing of Western Mediterranean winter rain minima during the last 12,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Fletcher, William J.; Mischke, Steffen; De Batist, Marc; Campbell, Jennifer F. E.; Joannin, Sebastien; Tjallingii, Rik; El Hamouti, Najib; Junginger, Annett; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Schneider, Birgit; Lauer, Tobias; Spitzer, Katrin; Strupler, Michael; Brachert, Thomas; Mikdad, Abdeslam

    2017-02-01

    The limited availability of high-resolution continuous archives, insufficient chronological control, and complex hydro-climatic forcing mechanisms lead to many uncertainties in palaeo-hydrological reconstructions for the Western Mediterranean. In this study we present a newly recovered 19.63 m long core from Lake Sidi Ali in the North African Middle Atlas, a transition zone of Atlantic, Western Mediterranean and Saharan air mass trajectories. With a multi-proxy approach based on magnetic susceptibility, carbonate and total organic C content, core-scanning and quantitative XRF, stable isotopes of ostracod shells, charcoal counts, Cedrus pollen abundance, and a first set of diatom data, we reconstruct Western Mediterranean hydro-climatic variability, seasonality and forcing mechanisms during the last 12,000 yr. A robust chronological model based on AMS 14C dated pollen concentrates supports our high-resolution multi-proxy study. Long-term trends reveal low lake levels at the end of the Younger Dryas, during the mid-Holocene interval 6.6 to 5.4 cal ka BP, and during the last 3000 years. In contrast, lake levels are mostly high during the Early and Mid-Holocene. The record also shows sub-millennial- to centennial-scale decreases in Western Mediterranean winter rain at 11.4, 10.3, 9.2, 8.2, 7.2, 6.6, 6.0, 5.4, 5.0, 4.4, 3.5, 2.9, 2.2, 1.9, 1.7, 1.5, 1.0, 0.7, and 0.2 cal ka BP. Early Holocene winter rain minima are in phase with cooling events and millennial-scale meltwater discharges in the sub-polar North Atlantic. Our proxy parameters do not show so far a clear impact of Saharan air masses on Mediterranean hydro-climate in North Africa. However, a significant hydro-climatic shift at the end of the African Humid Period (∼5 ka) indicates a change in climate forcing mechanisms. The Late Holocene climate variability in the Middle Atlas features a multi-centennial-scale NAO-type pattern, with Atlantic cooling and Western Mediterranean winter rain maxima generally

  8. An evaluation of surface micro- and mesoplastic pollution in pelagic ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Florian; Saini, Camille; Potter, Gaël; Galgani, François; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Hagmann, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the distribution, abundance and characteristics of surface micro- and mesoplastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea. 41 samples were collected in 2011 (summer) and 2012 (summer). Results, firstly, revealed that micro- (micro- and mesoplastic concentrations was identified. Secondly, a classification based on the shape and appearance of microplastics indicated the predominant presence of fragments (73%) followed by thin films (14%). Thirdly, the average mass ratio of microplastic to dry organic matter has been measured at 0.5, revealing a significant presence of microplastics in comparison to plankton. Finally, a correction method was applied in order to correct wind mixing effect on microplastics' vertical distribution. This data allows for a comprehensive view, for the first time, of the spatial distribution and nature of plastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Cold Outbreaks at the Mesoscale in the Western Mediterranean Basin: From Raincells to Rainbands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mazon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cold outbreaks that form offshore density currents within the whole mesoscale over the Western Mediterranean basin. Reflectivity radar and satellite images are used to detect clouds and precipitation that are associated with these density currents in the meso-α, meso-β, and meso-γ over the Western Mediterranean basin (WMB. Version 3.3 of the WRF-ARW model is used to describe the formation and evolution of these density currents and to estimate their lifetime as well as horizontal and vertical scales. Based on the observations and simulations, this paper suggests that a new perspective could effectively be adopted regarding the WMB region delineated by the Balearic Islands, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, and the Gulf of Lion, where inland cold outbreaks develop into density currents that move offshore and can produce precipitation ranging from raincells to rainbands at the whole mesoscale.

  10. Interannual Differences for Sea Turtles Bycatch in Spanish Longliners from Western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Báez, José C.; Macías, David; García-Barcelona, Salvador; Real, Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that regional abundance of loggerhead and leatherback turtles could oscillate interannually according to oceanographic and climatic conditions. The Western Mediterranean is an important fishing area for the Spanish drifting longline fleet, which mainly targets swordfish, bluefin tuna, and albacore. Due to the spatial overlapping in fishing activity and turtle distribution, there is an increasing sea turtle conservation concern. The main goal of this study is to analyse t...

  11. Origin and consequences of western Mediterranean subduction, rollback, and slab segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Spakman, Wim

    2014-04-01

    The western Mediterranean recorded subduction rollback, slab segmentation and separation. Here we address the questions of what caused Oligocene rollback initiation, and how its subsequent evolution split up an originally coherent fore arc into circum-southwest Mediterranean segments. We kinematically reconstruct western Mediterranean geology from subduction initiation to present, using Atlantic plate reconstructions as boundary condition. We test possible reconstructions against remnants of subducted lithosphere imaged by seismic tomography. Transform motion between Africa and Iberia (including the Baleares) between 120 and 85 Ma was followed by up to 150 km convergence until 30 Ma. Subduction likely initiated along the transform fault that accommodated pre-85 Ma translation. By the 30 Ma inception of rollback, up to 150 km of convergence had formed a small slab below the Baleares. Iberia was disconnected from Sardinia/Calabria through the North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ). Subduction below Sardinia/Calabria was slightly faster than below the Baleares, the difference being accommodated in the Pyrenees. A moving triple junction at the trench-NBTZ intersection formed a subduction transform edge propagator fault between the Baleares and Calabria slab segments. Calabria rolled back eastward, whereas the Baleares slab underwent radial (SW-S-SE) rollback. After Kabylides-Africa collision, the western slab segment retreated toward Gibraltar, here reconstructed as the maximum rollback end-member model, and a Kabylides slab detached from Africa. Opening of a slab window below the NBTZ allowed asthenospheric rise to the base of the fore arc creating high-temperature metamorphism. Western Mediterranean rollback commenced only after sufficient slab-pull was created from 100 to 150 km of slow, forced subduction before 30 Ma.

  12. Carbonate speleothems from western Mediterranean gypsum karst: palaeoclimate implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Andrea; Drysdale, Russell; Woodhead, Jon; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Hellstrom, John; Forti, Paolo; Sanna, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Gypsum caves are uncommon environments for carbonate speleothems (cave deposits). Contrary to limestone caves, the only source of non-atmospheric carbon is from biogenic CO2 produced by the overlying soils. Enhanced CO2 content in soils is in turn related with climate, where warm temperatures and high humidity favour plant activity .().....(Fairchild and Baker, 2012). Although poorly decorated, the exploration of northern Italian and Spanish gypsum karst systems reveals the existence of several generations of carbonate speleothems, which have been dated with the U-Th series method .()......(Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). Their ages coincide with current and previous two interglacials (MIS 1, 5e and 7e and Greenland interstadials (GIS) 19, 20, 21 and 24. Considering that these periods are amongst the most pronounced warm-wet pulsations over the last 250,000 ...(Martrat et al., 2007; NGRIP, 2004), and that CO2 has a fundamental role in this karst process, this study explores the climate-driven hydrogeological conditions necessary to trigger carbonate deposition in gypsum voids. The further correlation with sapropel events 5, 4, 3 and 1, considered symptomatic of enhanced rainfall across the whole Mediterranean basin .(.)(Emeis et al., 1991), highlights the importance of flow-rate in the fracture network and infiltration of meteoric water into the caves. The combination of high CO2 and a phreatic status of the fracture network is thus indispensable for the formation of carbonate speleothems in gypsum karst. This condition appears to be triggered by periods of orbital precession minimum, when the monsoonal activity peaked in the Atlantic area. Stable oxygen isotope signatures suggest that the speleothems did not grow during any interglacial-glacial or main interstadial-stadial transitions, confirming that variations from optimum climate conditions may hamper the formation of this category of speleothems. New speleological exploration and sampling campaign

  13. Sensibility analysis of the Western Mediterranean Transition inferred by four companion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Béranger, Karine; Somot, Samuel; Lebeaupin-Brossier, Cindy; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Sevault, Florence; Drillet, Yann

    2013-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean Transition (WMT) is a strong event occurring during the winter 2004-2005 in the Western Mediterranean resulting in the formation of a large amount of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW). The newly formed WMDW then invaded the whole Western Mediterranean in a relatively short period of time. Our modeling study compares four companion eddy-resolving simulations obtained by running the NEMO code in regional Mediterranean configurations differing only by the horizontal or the vertical resolution grid. The first configuration MED12v50, considered as our reference, is well described in Beuvier et al. (2012) and refers to a 1/12° ORCA grid with 50 vertical levels. The second configuration MED12v75 refers to a 1/12° ORCA grid with 75 vertical levels. The third and the fourth configurations refer to a 1/36° ORCA grid with 50 and 75 vertical levels, MED36v50 and MED36v75 respectively. All the simulations used MEDATLAS climatology in October 1998 as an initial condition and were forced from 1998 to now by the ARPERA atmospheric fields, at about 50km resolution. The first study of the reference simulation MED12v50 has shown the role of deep mesoscale cyclones in transporting a large amount of new WMDW in the southwestern Mediterranean, in agreement with altimetry data. The companion simulations are compared to highlight the improvments obtained by increasing the resolution compared to the reference simulation. The comparison focuses on the 2004-2006 period and quantifies the differences in terms of horizontal patterns and rate of the WMDW formation, mesoscale eddy characteristics and drift, and bottom circulation towards the Channel of Sardinia and the Strait of Gibraltar. For example, the increase in the horizontal resolution consequences : - an increase of the horizontal extent of the convection maximum in March 2005, - an increase of the rate of formation for density ranged between 29.10 and 29.11 kg.m-3 in better agreement with the estimate

  14. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents (N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania (N = 1863) and Serbia (N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  15. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population.

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    García-Meseguer, María José; Burriel, Faustino Cervera; García, Cruz Vico; Serrano-Urrea, Ramón

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012-2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24 hour recalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70 mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low-intermediate score in both (51.2 ± 12.8 and 4.0 ± 1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored "poor" or "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatio-temporal variations in deep-sea demersal communities off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

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    Moranta, Joan; Quetglas, Antoni; Massutí, Enric; Guijarro, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Manuel; Diaz, Paz

    2008-06-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of deep-sea megafaunal assemblages from the western Mediterranean are analysed in the present paper. The assemblages from two locations of the Balearic Islands situated 120 km apart were compared using data collected seasonally on a bathymetric stratum covering the 150-750 m depth range during six bottom-trawl surveys. The assemblage structure, in terms of species composition, species dominance and population sizes, was differentially affected by the spatio-temporal variables analysed (depth, location and fishing period). Although depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, the differences obtained between the two locations were also relevant. On the upper slope these between-location differences in the dynamics of megafaunal assemblages were found to be related to the effect of fishing exploitation. Population size-based metrics and biomass spectra were good predictors of meso-scale fishing effects, and were mainly reflected by elasmobranchs and demersal teleosts. Nevertheless, the effects of fishing depended on the species considered. Two dominant large-sized fish species found on the upper slope in both localities, Galeus melastomus and Phycis blennoides, had higher biomass values associated with lower fishing effort. Although the mean body weight (MBW) of both species and also the mean maximum body weight (MMBW) of G. melastomus agreed with this pattern, the P. blennoides MMBW did not. This last case could be indicative of natural size-trends such as the bigger-deeper phenomenon which refers to the displacement of large individuals towards the deeper limit of their bathymetric distribution, beyond the maximum depth sampled in this study for this species. By contrast, the target species of the upper slope fishery, the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, was not negatively affected by the direct impact of fishing activity and other environmental factors, such as the presence of specific water masses could also

  17. Balearic insular isolation and large continental spread framed the phylogeography of the western Mediterranean Cheirolophus intybaceus s.l. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnatje, T; Pérez-Collazos, E; Pellicer, J; Catalán, P

    2013-01-01

    Recent Quaternary geological and climate events have shaped the evolutionary histories of plant species in the Mediterranean basin, one of the most important hotspots of biodiversity. Genetic analyses of the western Mediterranean Cheirolophus intybaceus s.l. (Asteraceae) based on AFLP were conducted to establish the relationships between its close species and populations, to reconstruct the phylogeography of the group and to analyse potential unidirectional versus bidirectional dispersals between the Ibero-Provençal belt and the Balearic Islands. AFLP data revealed two main genetic groups, one constituted by the Balearic populations and Garraf (NE Iberia) and the other formed by the remaining mainland populations that were further sub-structured into two geographically separated subgroups (SE + E Iberia and NE Iberia + SW France). Genetic diversity and spatial structure analyses suggested a mid-Pleistocene scenario for the origin of C. intybaceus in southern Iberia, followed by dispersal to the north and a single colonisation event of the Balearic archipelago from the near Dianic NE Iberian area. This hypothesis was supported by paleogeographic data, which showed the existence of terrestrial connections between the continent and the islands during the Middle-Late Pleistocene marine regressions, whereas the more recent single back-colonisation of the mainland from Mallorca might be explained by several hypotheses, such as long-distance dispersal mediated by migratory marine birds or sea currents. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

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    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  19. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackradt, Carlos Werner; García-Charton, José Antonio; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pérez-Ruzafa, Ángel; Le Diréach, Laurence; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Charbonnel, Eric; Ody, Denis; Reñones, Olga; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Valle, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  20. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

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    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  1. Tsunami hazard at the Western Mediterranean Spanish coast from seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; González, M.; Otero, L.

    2011-01-01

    Spain represents an important part of the tourism sector in the Western Mediterranean, which has been affected in the past by tsunamis. Although the tsunami risk at the Spanish coasts is not the highest of the Mediterranean, the necessity of tsunami risk mitigation measures should not be neglected. In the Mediterranean area, Spain is exposed to two different tectonic environments with contrasting characteristics. On one hand, the Alboran Basin characterised by transcurrent and transpressive tectonics and, on the other hand, the North Algerian fold and thrust belt, characterised by compressive tectonics. A set of 22 seismic tsunamigenic sources has been used to estimate the tsunami threat over the Spanish Mediterranean coast of the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Maximum wave elevation maps and tsunami travel times have been computed by means of numerical modelling and we have obtained estimations of threat levels for each source over the Spanish coast. The sources on the Western edge of North Algeria are the most dangerous, due to their threat to the South-Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and to the Western Balearic Islands. In general, the Northern Algerian sources pose a greater risk to the Spanish coast than the Alboran Sea sources, which only threaten the peninsular coast. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish provinces of Almeria and Murcia are the most exposed, while all the Balearic Islands can be affected by the North Algerian sources with probable severe damage, specially the islands of Ibiza and Minorca. The results obtained in this work are useful to plan future regional and local warning systems, as well as to set the priority areas to conduct research on detailed tsunami risk.

  2. Stable isotope evidence for shifting Mediterranean climatic influences in Western Romania, East-Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Viorica, Nagavciuc; Carmen, Bădăluţă

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation, preserved in various sedimentary archives (speleothems, cave ice, tree rings) is being intensively used to reconstruct past climatic variability in western Romania. These studies heavily rely on the assumption that air temperature is the main factor controlling the isotopic composition of precipitation and hence this climatic parameter is the one reconstructed. However, ongoing monitoring studies are increasingly showing that this, especially along Romania's western border, moisture source is playing an important role in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation, hence complicating the simplistic picture outlined above. One of the main factors influencing climate variability in Romania is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a measure of the strength of the Icelandic Low and Azores High. Over During the positive NAO phase, the Atlantic storms are displaced northward and, although reduced in strength, Mediterranean cyclones penetrate further north. During the negative phase however, the Atlantic storms track is displaced southward, restricting the area receiving Mediterranean precipitation to the SW corner of Romania. Here we present isotopic evidence for a shift in the source of precipitation from North Atlantic to Mediterranean ones in SW Romania that masks the temperature signal recorded in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation. Between April 2012 and 2014 we have collected monthly samples of precipitation along a N-S transect in Western Romania and have analyzed them for their δ18O and δ2H. Precipitation in NW Romania are derived solely from North Atlantic sources, while those in SW Romania mix moisture evaporated from both the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The northern boundary of the Mediterranean influence is shifting in phase with the NAO index and the position of the jet-stream. As a result, during periods with high NAO index, the stable isotope

  3. Thermal niche evolution and geographical range expansion in a species complex of western Mediterranean diving beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Galiana, Amparo; Sánchez-Fernández, David; Bilton, David T; Cieslak, Alexandra; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-09-04

    Species thermal requirements are one of the principal determinants of their ecology and biogeography, although our understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited by the paucity of integrative empirical studies. Here we use empirically collected thermal tolerance data in combination with molecular phylogenetics/phylogeography and ecological niche modelling to study the evolution of a clade of three western Mediterranean diving beetles, the Agabus brunneus complex. The preferred mitochondrial DNA topology recovered A. ramblae (North Africa, east Iberia and Balearic islands) as paraphyletic, with A. brunneus (widespread in the southwestern Mediterranean) and A. rufulus (Corsica and Sardinia) nested within it, with an estimated origin between 0.60-0.25 Ma. All three species were, however, recovered as monophyletic using nuclear DNA markers. A Bayesian skyline plot suggested demographic expansion in the clade at the onset of the last glacial cycle. The species thermal tolerances differ significantly, with A. brunneus able to tolerate lower temperatures than the other taxa. The climatic niche of the three species also differs, with A. ramblae occupying more arid and seasonal areas, with a higher minimum temperature in the coldest month. The estimated potential distribution for both A. brunneus and A. ramblae was most restricted in the last interglacial, becoming increasingly wider through the last glacial and the Holocene. The A. brunneus complex diversified in the late Pleistocene, most likely in south Iberia after colonization from Morocco. Insular forms did not differentiate substantially in morphology or ecology, but A. brunneus evolved a wider tolerance to cold, which appeared to have facilitated its geographic expansion. Both A. brunneus and A. ramblae expanded their ranges during the last glacial, although they have not occupied areas beyond their LGM potential distribution except for isolated populations of A. brunneus in France and England. On

  4. Spreading of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water after winter 2005: Time scales and deep cyclone transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuvier, J.; BéRanger, K.; Lebeaupin Brossier, C.; Somot, S.; Sevault, F.; Drillet, Y.; Bourdallé-Badie, R.; Ferry, N.; Lyard, F.

    2012-07-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the propagation of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formed in the Gulf of Lions during the exceptional winter 2005. A simulation of the 1998-2008 period has been carried out with an eddy-resolving Ocean General Circulation Model of the Mediterranean Sea, driven by interannual high-resolution air-sea fluxes. This study first presents a validation of the recently improved model configuration against satellite observations. Then, we assess the ability of the model to reproduce the particularly intense deep convection event of winter 2005 in the Gulf of Lions. A huge volume of very dense water is formed in the simulation at that time (annual formation rate higher than 3 Sv). The thermohaline characteristics of the new WMDW allow a monitoring of its deep propagation. We identify several deep cyclones as mainly responsible of the fast spreading of the WMDW southwards in the Western Mediterranean. By comparing Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches, we estimate different transport times of the WMDW by these cyclonic eddies and compare them to those deduced from several observations. Finally, we argue that these cyclones favor the propagation of the WMDW thermohaline characteristics toward the Channel of Sardinia and decrease the volume of WMDW which can reach the Strait of Gibraltar.

  5. Interannual differences for sea turtles bycatch in Spanish longliners from Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, José C; Macías, David; García-Barcelona, Salvador; Real, Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that regional abundance of loggerhead and leatherback turtles could oscillate interannually according to oceanographic and climatic conditions. The Western Mediterranean is an important fishing area for the Spanish drifting longline fleet, which mainly targets swordfish, bluefin tuna, and albacore. Due to the spatial overlapping in fishing activity and turtle distribution, there is an increasing sea turtle conservation concern. The main goal of this study is to analyse the interannual bycatch of loggerhead and leatherback turtles by the Spanish Mediterranean longline fishery and to test the relationship between the total turtle by-catch of this fishery and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the 14 years covered in this study, the number of sea turtle bycatches was 3,940 loggerhead turtles and 8 leatherback turtles, 0.499 loggerhead turtles/1000 hooks and 0.001014 leatherback turtles/1000 hooks. In the case of the loggerhead turtle the positive phase of the NAO favours an increase of loggerhead turtles in the Western Mediterranean Sea. However, in the case of leatherback turtle the negative phase of the NAO favours the presence of leatherback turtle. This contraposition could be related to the different ecophysiological response of both species during their migration cycle.

  6. Interannual Differences for Sea Turtles Bycatch in Spanish Longliners from Western Mediterranean Sea

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    José C. Báez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed that regional abundance of loggerhead and leatherback turtles could oscillate interannually according to oceanographic and climatic conditions. The Western Mediterranean is an important fishing area for the Spanish drifting longline fleet, which mainly targets swordfish, bluefin tuna, and albacore. Due to the spatial overlapping in fishing activity and turtle distribution, there is an increasing sea turtle conservation concern. The main goal of this study is to analyse the interannual bycatch of loggerhead and leatherback turtles by the Spanish Mediterranean longline fishery and to test the relationship between the total turtle by-catch of this fishery and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. During the 14 years covered in this study, the number of sea turtle bycatches was 3,940 loggerhead turtles and 8 leatherback turtles, 0.499 loggerhead turtles/1000 hooks and 0.001014 leatherback turtles/1000 hooks. In the case of the loggerhead turtle the positive phase of the NAO favours an increase of loggerhead turtles in the Western Mediterranean Sea. However, in the case of leatherback turtle the negative phase of the NAO favours the presence of leatherback turtle. This contraposition could be related to the different ecophysiological response of both species during their migration cycle.

  7. Multiparametric analysis and validation in the western Mediterranean of three global OGCM hindcasts

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    Enrique Vidal-Vijande

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyse a hierarchy of three 1/4° global numerical simulations (ORCA-025.G70 (G70, ORCA-025.G85 (G85 and GLORYS1V1 (GLORYS by assessing their performance against observational data in the western Mediterranean. When compared with the EN3_v2a temperature and salinity database, the simulations are capable of reproducing surface layer temperature interannual variability but G70 is inaccurate with intermediate and deep-layer trends. This aspect is improved by the increased vertical resolution of G85 and by data assimilation in GLORYS. Salinity is the most problematic parameter because of the imbalance of the freshwater budget derived from inaccuracies in the atmospheric forcing parameters. Surface salinity restoring is needed in order to avoid salinity drift and inaccurate sea-level trends. G70, with a stronger relaxation, has a lower trend closer to altimetric measurements than G85. Mean surface circulation is well reproduced for relatively large-scale signals. We further show that G85 and GLORYS provide evidence of the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 deep convection events in the Gulf of Lion. Finally, transports through the main straits of the western Mediterranean are correct in order of magnitude, direction and seasonal cycle when compared with observations. This study contributes to the improvement of the ORCA hierarchy of simulations and points out the strengths and weaknesses of these simulations in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. [Proof of the indigenous nature of Populus alba L. in the western Mediterranean Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiron, Paul; Ali, Adam A; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Carcaillet, Christopher; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Around the western Mediterranean Basin, the ecological status of Populus alba, whether indigenous or introduced, is controversial. This note presents new palaeobotanical data based on analyses of leaf imprints from a travertine formation located in southern France. This travertine presents two levels with Populus alba imprints. The oldest level is dated back by 14C to the Early Holocene, i.e., 8890 +/- 70 BP. This demonstrates that Populus alba is an autochthonous species of the southern-France vegetation, removing speculations reporting that its distribution area was greatly influenced by Roman civilization. Finally, we discuss this new data in regard to other Pleistocene and Holocene deposits circum the Mediterranean Basin and in Europe, where this species was identified.

  9. The incidental capture of seabirds by Spanish drifting longline fisheries in the western Mediterranean Sea

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    Julio Valeiras

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The western Mediterranean Sea is an important fishing area for the Spanish drifting longline fleet, targeting swordfish (Xiphias gladius, bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and albacore (T. alalunga. Some seabird species can be captured incidentally as bycatch marine fauna. From July 1999 to August 2000 information on 554 surface longline sets was collected by onboard observers of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO on 18 longline fishing boats working within the Spanish Mediterranean fishing area. Eleven yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans, 9 Cory´s shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea and 1 Northern gannet (Morus bassanus were captured incidentally. Bycatch rates ranged from 0.002 to 0.023 birds/1000 hooks.

  10. Common Era Hydroclimate and Atmospheric Circulation in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchan, R.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Shishov, V. V.; Kherchouche, D.; Slimani, S.; Ilmen, R.; Hasnaoui, F.; Guibal, F.; Camarero, J. J.; Salguero, R. S.; Piermattei, A.; Sesbou, A.; Meko, D. M.; Cook, B. I.; Sabir, M.

    2016-12-01

    Drought phenomenon in the Mediterranean Basin, including North Africa and the western Mediterranean, has an impact on all segments of society and all economic sectors. To understand contemporary patterns and causes of drought in these regions, it is necessary to understand natural climate variability over the Common Era. Here, we use a network of tree-ring proxies spanning up to a millennium to understand and reconstruct both large-scale Atlantic circulation changes and regional hydroclimate. Eighty-five chronologies across the region show a variable but coherent response to winter-spring precipitation mediated by geography and topography. Reconstructions using this network of spatiotemporal drought variability as well as a new reconstruction of the North Atlantic Oscillation put the past, present, and future climate variability of the region into a long-term Common Era context.

  11. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  12. Local validation of MODIS sensor sea surface temperature on western Mediterranean shallow waters

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    E. Durá

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sea surface temperature (SST estimated from MODIS Aqua products (daytime and nighttime 11 μm and night 4 μm has been correlated with field data taken at three depths (15, 50, 100 cm in a Western Mediterranean coastal area. The comparison has allowed us to analyze the uncertainty in the estimation of this parameter in coastal waters using low spatial resolution satellite images. The results show that the daytime SST_11 μm product obtains fittest statistical values: RMSE (root mean square error and r2 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 1°C and 0.96, respectively, for 50 cm depth.

  13. Transformation of Levantine Intermediate Water tracked by MEDARGO floats in the Western Mediterranean

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    M. Emelianov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A clustering methodology is applied to investigate the thermohaline structure of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW in the western Mediterranean basin. Sixteen free-drifting hydrographic profilers were deployed in the framework of the MFSTEP project (MEDARGO component from September 2003. A total of 925 CTD profiles collected up to the beginning of February 2006 have been used in the analysis. The results are in good agreement with the general circulation scheme for intermediate waters in the basin and confirm the hypothesis about a "discrete-continuous" thermohaline structure of LIW.

  14. Population Dynamics of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Montenegro

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    Sanja Radonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the Mediterranean fruit fly was studied along Montenegro seacoast. Tephri traps baited with 3 component female-biased attractants were used in 11 different localities to monitor the fruit fly population in commercial citrus orchards, mixed-fruit orchards, and in backyards. From 2008–2010, the earliest captures were recorded no earlier than July. In 2011, the first adult fly was detected in mid-June. Low captures rates were recorded in July and August (below 0.5 flies per trap per day; FTD and peaked from mid-September to the end of October of each year. Our results indicate fluctuation of fly per trap per day depending on dates of inspection and locality, with significant differences in the adult population density. A maximum population was always reached in the area of Budva-Herceg Novi with an FTD of 66.5, 89.5, 71.63, and 24.64 (from 2008–2011 respectively. Fly activity lasts from mid-June/early-July to end December, with distinct seasonal variation in the population.

  15. Populational status of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae on Algerian islands (SW Mediterranean

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    F. Espinosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Populational status of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae on Algerian islands (SW MediterraneanPatella ferruginea is the most endangered endemic marine inverte¬brate on the Western Mediterranean coasts according to the European Council Directive 92/43/EEC. A total of 1,017 individuals were recorded in the present study along western Algerian islands, with mean densities ranging from 0.8 to 35.3 ind/m per linear transect and averages of 4.8 ind/m per linear transect for Western Habibas Island and 22 ind/m for Plane Island, making these islands a hot spot for the species in the Medi¬terranean. The expected total number of specimens in Habibas would therefore be 50,400. The mean size of P. ferruginea on the Habibas Islands (4.45 cm was significantly (p < 0.001 greater than on Plane Island (2.78 cm. Recruitment was high in Plane Island and the northern sector of the western Habibas Islands. Lar¬ge adults had very conical shells. The fact that Habibas Islands is now a marine reserve could explain these differences in populations. Conservation of these populations should be a priority in order to avoid extinction of the species.

  16. Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Caliani, Ilaria; Marra, Stefano; Camedda, Andrea; Coppa, Stefania; Alcaro, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Giannetti, Matteo; Coppola, Daniele; Cicero, Anna Maria; Panti, Cristina; Baini, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Massaro, Giorgio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Matiddi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A plethora of different sampling methodologies has been used to document the presence of micro-plastic fragments in sea water. European Marine Strategy suggests to improve standard techniques to make future data comparable. We use Manta Trawl sampling technique to quantify abundance and distribution of micro-plastic fragments in Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean), and their relation with phthalates and organoclorine in the neustonic habitat. Our results highlight a quite high average plastic abundance value (0.15 items/m(3)), comparable to the levels detected in other areas of the Mediterranean. "Site" is the only factor that significantly explains the differences observed in micro-plastic densities. Contaminant levels show high spatial and temporal variation. In every station, HCB is the contaminant with the lowest concentration while PCBs shows the highest levels. This work, in line with Marine Strategy directives, represents a preliminary study for the analysis of plastic impact on marine environment of Sardinia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marine debris ingestion in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, J; Guitart, R; Mateo, R; Raga, J A

    2002-03-01

    Marine debris represents an important threat for sea turtles, but information on this topic is scarce in some areas, such as the Mediterranean sea. This paper quantifies marine debris ingestion in 54 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) illegally captured by fishermen in Spanish Mediterranean waters. Curved carapace length was measured, necropsies were performed and debris abundance and type was recorded. Different types of debris appeared in the gastrointestinal tract of 43 turtles (79.6%), being plastics the most frequent (75.9%). Tar, paper, Styrofoam, wood, reed, feathers, hooks, lines, and net fragments were also present. A regression analysis showed that the volume of debris increased proportionally to the size of the turtles. The high variety of debris found and the large differences in ingestion among turtles indicated low feeding discrimination of this species that makes it specially prone to debris ingestion. Our data suggest that more severe control of litter spills and greater promotion of environmental educational programmes are needed in the Western Mediterranean.

  18. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  19. Variability of fine and coarse aerosol over the Western Mediterranean Basin during the Minerva 2015 research cruise campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Jessica; Carbone, Francesco; Naccarato, Attilio; Moretti, Sacha; Esposito, Giulio; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Basin, due to its semi-enclosed configuration, is heavily affected by air pollution and it is becoming, in the last years, a region of particular interest of study for its implications regarding both health effects and environmental impacts. The area is surrounded by a densely populated as well as industrialized coast, and even affected by natural sources. So, it is important to know how the various sources contributes to increase air pollution levels and discriminate among them. With special regard to aerosol pollution, natural sources, like Saharan dust, volcanoes, and fires, as well as anthropogenic sources, such as industry, road and marine traffic, and fuel combustion from heating, can equally increase the values of this dangerous pollutant. While on the land we can find numerous monitoring sites, there are not continuous measurements on the sea. For this reason, since 2000 the Institute of Atmospheric Pollution of the National Research Council (CNR-IIA) is conducting regular oceanographic campaigns of measurements in the Mediterranean Sea. In this context, here we report the results obtained during the last cruise campaign, which took place in the Western Mediterranean sector and was conducted on-board the Italian research vessel Minerva during summer 2015 (from June 27th to July 13th). Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate size fractions were collected on PTFE membrane filters (Advantec MFS) and their mass concentrations determined gravimetrically. Successively, all the filters were digested with a mixture of HNO3/H2O2 in an microwaves digestion system and then analyzed by ICP-MS for the determination of the major and trace elements. Outcomes regarding the particulate mass concentration, the content and the distribution of the analyzed elements over both PM size fractions will be discussed taking into account potential contributing sources as well as different meteorological conditions.

  20. Revealing polychaetes invasion patterns: Identification, reproduction and potential risks of the Korean ragworm, Perinereis linea (Treadwell), in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Richter, Alexandra; Anadón, Nuria; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    An established population of the polychaetous annelid Perinereis linea (Treadwell) is reported for the first time outside its native distribution range (NW Pacific). This exotic worm has reached the Western Mediterranean (Mar Menor lagoon) via importing live fishing-bait as it is commonly used by anglers in Mar Menor lagoon, an area largely used for recreational fishing. To avoid confusion with other related species, and because the scientific name has been in synonymy for many years, P. linea is redescribed and illustrated. We focus on the reproductive biology and ecology of P. linea to help to understand its introduction, naturalization and spread along this coastal lagoon. Comparison between the Mediterranean population with a native population from South Korea revealed that the species exhibits a great reproductive plasticity and adaptability, which depends on the environmental conditions. Perinereis linea can reproduce after acquiring the epitokous form or prior to complete epitokal modification. In the Mar Menor lagoon population females release eggs asynchronically without completing epitokal modifications. However, under particular laboratory conditions females produce eggs synchronically and release them after complete epitokal transformations. Fertilization can occur internally in the female coelom, and females release zygotes and larvae through openings in their body walls; they are then incubated in gelatinous masses attached to the female parapodia. The sperm morphology is of the ent-aquasperm type. The eggs and larvae are attacked by symbiotic ciliate protozoa that feed on their yolk reserves. These foreign ciliates may act as carriers of disease in native beachworms and constitute an important risk for the ecosystem health. Finally, we provide recommendations on the prevention of the adverse effects that this exotic ragworm can cause in receiving ecosystems.

  1. Gone with the plate: the opening of the Western Mediterranean basin drove the diversification of ground-dweller spiders

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    Bidegaray-Batista Leticia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major islands of the Western Mediterranean--Corsica, Sardinia, and the Balearic Islands--are continental terrenes that drifted towards their present day location following a retreat from their original position on the eastern Iberian Peninsula about 30 million years ago. Several studies have taken advantage of this well-dated geological scenario to calibrate molecular rates in species for which distributions seemed to match this tectonic event. Nevertheless, the use of external calibration points has revealed that most of the present-day fauna on these islands post-dated the opening of the western Mediterranean basin. In this study, we use sequence information of the cox1, nad1, 16S, L1, and 12S mitochondrial genes and the 18S, 28S, and h3 nuclear genes, along with relaxed clock models and a combination of biogeographic and fossil external calibration points, to test alternative historical scenarios of the evolutionary history of the ground-dweller spider genus Parachtes (Dysderidae, which is endemic to the region. Results We analyse 49 specimens representing populations of most Parachtes species and close relatives. Our results reveal that both the sequence of species formation in Parachtes and the estimated divergence times match the geochronological sequence of separation of the main islands, suggesting that the diversification of the group was driven by Tertiary plate tectonics. In addition, the confirmation that Parachtes diversification matches well-dated geological events provides a model framework to infer substitution rates of molecular markers. Divergence rates estimates ranged from 3.5% My-1 (nad1 to 0.12% My-1 (28S, and the average divergence rate for the mitochondrial genes was 2.25% My-1, very close to the "standard" arthropod mitochondrial rate (2.3% My-1. Conclusions Our study provides the first unequivocal evidence of terrestrial endemic fauna of the major western Mediterranean islands, whose origin can

  2. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of the shrub Cistus ladanifer L. (Cistaceae) in the highly diverse Western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela-Sabarís, C; Vendramin, G G; Castro-Fernández, D; Fraga, M Isabel

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the phylogeographic structure of Cistus ladanifer, in order to locate its Quaternary refugia, reconstruct its recolonisation patterns and assess the role of geographical features (mountain ranges, rivers and the Strait of Gibraltar) as barriers to its seed flow and expansion through the Western Mediterranean. Thirty-eight populations were screened for length variation of polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs). Statistical analyses included estimation of haplotypic diversity, hierarchical analysis of molecular variation (amova) and fixation indices. Mantel tests, SAMOVA and BARRIER analyses were applied to evaluate the geographical partitioning of genetic diversity across the entire species range. Pollen data from bibliography were used to complement molecular inferences. Chlorotype diversity within populations was similar throughout the natural range of C. ladanifer (mean haplotypic diversity=0.32). High differentiation among populations was estimated (G(ST)=0.60). Our data suggest that the barriers of the Strait of Gibraltar and the Betic ranges may have favoured the divergence during glacial periods of four different lineages of populations inferred with SAMOVA. The main northward colonisation of in the Iberian Peninsula occurred from refugia in southwest Iberia. This process may have been influenced by human activities (forest clearance, livestock grazing and even commerce) in the Iberian Peninsula. In contrast, populations in the Betic area have conserved a specific haplotype. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. A long term (1999-2008) study of radar anomalous propagation conditions in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi, A. V.; Mateu, M.; Bech, J.; Lorente, J.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a study of the radio propagation environment of electromagnetic waves prevailing in the lower troposphere of the Western Mediterranean basin is presented. Deviations from atmospheric average or standard radio propagation conditions (anomalous propagation or AP) can affect significantly the quality of weather radar observations and other telecommunication systems. This is particularly important when ducting or superrefraction is present and spurious echoes resulting from the interaction of the beam with the ground or sea surface may appear. These AP conditions occur mainly when temperature inversions or strong moisture gradients are present. The period covered in this study ranges from 1999 to 2008 and conditions were derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, using the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA25) dataset as initial and boundary data. From the WRF model, we use the temperature, moisture, and pressure fields with a grid length of 30-km horizontal resolution and 250 m vertical resolution to compute several indices such as the Vertical Refractivity Gradient, Vertical Modified Refractivity Gradient and a Ducting Index. Results obtained show that on the Western Mediterranean coast the most favorable conditions for superrefraction are found in summer, while the most affected areas are the Gulf of Valencia, the Strait of Gibraltar and the Northern Gulf of Lion. Additionally, a comparison with radiosonde data recorded in Barcelona (NE Spain) is also performed indicating an overall agreement between model and observational data despite a tendency to decrease subrefractive events by the WRF model.

  4. Investigating SWOT's capabilities to detect meso and submesoscale eddies in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Navarro, Laura; Pascual, Ananda; Fablet, Ronan; Mason, Evan

    2017-04-01

    The primary oceanographic objective of the future Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) altimetric satellite is to characterize the mesoscale and submesoscale ocean circulation. The aim of this study is to assess the capabilities of SWOT to resolve the meso and submesoscale in the western Mediterranean. With ROMS model data as inputs for the SWOT simulator, pseudo-SWOT data were generated. These data were compared with the original ROMS model data and ADT data from present day altimetric satellites to assess the temporal and spatial resolution of SWOT in the western Mediterranean. We then addressed the removal of the satellite's noise in the pseudo-SWOT data using a Laplacian diffusion. We investigated different parameters of the filter by looking at their impact on the spatial spectra and RMSEs calculated from the simulator outputs. To further assess the satellites capabilities, we derived absolute geostrophic velocities and relative vorticity. Our numerical experiments show that the noise patterns affect the spectral content of the pseudo-SWOT fields below 30 km. The Laplacian diffusion improves the recovery of the spectral signature of the altimetric field, especially down to 20 km. With the help of this filter, we manage to observe small scale oceanic features in pseudo-SWOT data, and in its derived variables.

  5. Ocean acidification impacts on nitrogen fixation in the coastal western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Andrew P.; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A.; Al-Moosawi, Lisa; Alliouane, Samir; Gazeau, Frédéric; Hogan, Mary E.; Zehr, Jonathan P.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of ocean acidification on nitrogen (N2) fixation rates and on the community composition of N2-fixing microbes (diazotrophs) were examined in coastal waters of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. Nine experimental mesocosm enclosures of ∼50 m3 each were deployed for 20 days during June-July 2012 in the Bay of Calvi, Corsica, France. Three control mesocosms were maintained under ambient conditions of carbonate chemistry. The remainder were manipulated with CO2 saturated seawater to attain target amendments of pCO2 of 550, 650, 750, 850, 1000 and 1250 μatm. Rates of N2 fixation were elevated up to 10 times relative to control rates (2.00 ± 1.21 nmol L-1d-1) when pCO2 concentrations were >1000 μatm and pHT (total scale) waters, including the Mediterranean, were not present at the onset of the experiment and therefore, the diazotroph community composition was characterised by amplifying partial nifH genes from the mesocosms. The diazotroph community was comprised primarily of cluster III nifH sequences (which include possible anaerobes), and proteobacterial (α and γ) sequences, in addition to small numbers of filamentous (or pseudo-filamentous) cyanobacterial phylotypes. The implication from this study is that there is some potential for elevated N2 fixation rates in the coastal western Mediterranean before the end of this century as a result of increasing ocean acidification. Observations made of variability in the diazotroph community composition could not be correlated with changes in carbon chemistry, which highlights the complexity of the relationship between ocean acidification and these keystone organisms.

  6. Feeding strategies and ecological roles of three predatory pelagic fish in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Joan; Sáez-Liante, Raquel; Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel

    2017-06-01

    Knowing the feeding ecology of marine predators is pivotal to developing an understanding of their ecological role in the ecosystem and determining the trophic relationships between them. Despite the ecological importance of predatory pelagic fish species, research on these species in the Mediterranean Sea is limited. Here, by combining analyses of stomach contents and stable isotope values, we examined the feeding strategies of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus and Atlantic bonito, Sarda sarda, in the western Mediterranean Sea. We also compared the trophic niche and trophic level of these species with published information of other sympatric pelagic predators present in the ecosystem. Results indicated that, although the diet of the three species was composed mainly by fin-fish species, a clear segregation in their main feeding strategies was found. Swordfish showed a generalist diet including demersal species such as blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou, and European hake, Merluccius merluccius, and pelagic fin-fish such as barracudina species (Arctozenus risso and Lestidiops jayakari) or small pelagic fish species. Little tunny and Atlantic bonito were segregated isotopically between them and showed a diet basically composed of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, and round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, and sardines, Sardina pilchardus, respectively. This trophic segregation, in addition to potential segregation by depth, is likely a mechanism that allows their potential coexistence within the same pelagic habitat. When the trophic position of these three predatory pelagic fish species is compared with other pelagic predators such as bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, and dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, present in the western Mediterranean Sea, we found that they show similar intermediate trophic position in the ecosystem. In conclusion, the combined stomach and isotopic results highlight, especially for little tunny and Atlantic

  7. Assessment and intercomparison of numerical simulations in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, www.socib.es) is developing high resolution numerical simulations (hindcasts and forecasts) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) with a high spatial resolution of 1/50º (1.5-2km). Thus, theses simulations are able to reproduce mesoscale and in some cases sub-mesoscale features that are key in the Mediterranean Sea since they interact and modify the basin and sub-basin circulation. These simulations are initialized from and nested in either the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS, 1/16º) or Mercator-Océan simulations (MERCATOR, 1/12º). A repeated glider section in the Ibiza Channel, operated by SOCIB, has revealed significant differences between two WMOP simulations using either MFS or MERCATOR (hereafter WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC). In this study, MFS, MERCATOR, WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC are compared and evaluated using available multi-platform observations such as satellite products (Sea Level Anomaly, Sea Surface Temperature) and in situ measurements (temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats, CTD, XBT, fixed moorings and gliders; velocity fields from HF radar and currentmeters). A quantitative comparison is necessary to evaluate the capacity of the simulations to reproduce observed ocean features, and to quantify the possible simulations biases. This will in turn allow to improve the simulations, so as to produce better ocean forecast systems, to study and better understand ocean processes and to address climate studies. Therefore, various statistical diagnostics have been developed to assess and intercompare the simulations at various spatial and temporal scales, in different sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Western and Eastern Algerian sub-basins, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion), in different dynamical zones (coastal areas, shelves and "open" sea), along key sections (Ibiza and

  8. Mediterranean Left-Wing Populism: The Case of SYRIZA

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    Mavrozacharakis, Emmanouil

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the increasing impact of the right-wing populist parties in Europe was quite impressing. Several of these parties gained significant electoral power but expediently they collapsed while others were consecrated electorally. With SYRIZA’s electoral victory in Greece, the emergence of PODEMOS in Spain and of the Five Star Movement in Italy - which includes several aspects of a left-wing populism - and the coalition between social-democrats and radical left in Portugal, the creation of a peculiar left populism has been evolved, especially in the Mediterranean part of Europe. High electoral percentages and consequently, their involvement in government through partisan organization professionalism and charismatic leadership, are main characteristics of these parties. Another crucial factor, regardless of their ideological roots, is the anti-European rhetoric, even if it existed only for some period in the past. For instance, SYRIZA in Greece, intensely criticized the present European structure but at the same time promised that Greece will remain to the EU and the Eurozone. Furthermore, it appeared as a political entity that promised, with a demagogic way, to overcome the obvious principle of state continuation, by denying to implement the agreement that the previous governments have signed with Greece’s partners. Eventually, this promise was converted into a trap as left-wing SYRIZA in government, was finally succumbed to the strong demand for adherence and implementation of all the previous agreements. Thus, SYRIZA failed both ideologically and practically. Apart from the diverse ideological and political illusions that characterize this type of populism, another characteristic is the deficit in specific policy substance. This deficit has been transformed into a large gap in terms of strategic program priorities and options. Thus, it turns out that SYRIZA’s rise to power was based on versatility and on a high degree of classless

  9. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Denjean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June–July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, time of transport (1–5 days and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried a higher concentration of pollution particles below 3 km above sea level (a.s.l. than above 3 km a.s.l., resulting in a scattering Ångström exponent up to 2.2 below 3 km a.s.l. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate absorption of light by the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assumed similar to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations, modelling

  10. HLA genes in the Chuvashian population from European Russia: admixture of Central European and Mediterranean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Moscoso, Juan; Livshits, Gregory; Zamora, Jorge; Gomez-Casado, Eduardo; Silvera-Redondo, Carlos; Melvin, Kristin; Crawford, Michael H

    2003-06-01

    HLA alleles have been determined for the first time in individuals from the Chuvashian population by DNA typing and sequencing. HLA-A, -B, -DR, and -DQ allele frequencies and extended haplotypes have also been determined, and the results compared to those for Central Europeans, Siberians and other Asians, Caucasians, Middle Easterners, and Mediterranean peoples. Genetic distances, neighbor-joining dendrograms, and correspondence analysis have been performed. Present-day Chuvash speak an Altaic-Turkic language and are genetically related to Caucasians (Georgians), Mediterraneans, and Middle Easterners, and not only to Central or Northern Europeans; Chuvash contain little indications of Central Asian-Altaic gene flow. Thus, present-day Chuvash who speak an Altaic-Turkic language are probably more closely related to ancient Mesopotamian-Hittites and northern European populations than to central Asia-Altaic people.

  11. Biodiversity of deep-sea demersal megafauna in western and central Mediterranean basins

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    Samuele Tecchio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance, biomass and diversity patterns of bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean megafauna (fishes and invertebrates were analyzed in the western Balearic Sea, the western Ionian Sea and the eastern Ionian Sea. Sampling was conducted with a Otter-trawl Maireta System (OTMS at depths ranging from 600 to 4000 m. A series of ecological indicators were computed: total abundance and biomass, Margalef species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou’s index of evenness. A multidimensional scaling was applied, indicating that the megafauna communities were grouped by depth, while geographic area had a less defined influence. Margalef richness declined with depth in all three areas, but more steeply in the western Ionian Sea. Pielou’s evenness behaved differently in the three zones, showing a V-shaped curve in the eastern Ionian while showing a decreasing pattern in the other two areas. At lower slope depths, massive presence of the fishes Alepocephalus rostratus in the western basin and Bathypterois mediterraneus in the central basin caused a sharp reduction in evenness.

  12. IBAMar 2.0: 36 years sampling on the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, A.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Balbín, R.; Jansá, J.; Amengual, B.

    2012-04-01

    IBAMar 2.0 is a new database created from the oceanographic data obtained during the development of different oceanographic projects by the Balearic Center of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) and conducted from 1974 and ongoing in the Western Mediterranean basin (Balearic Sea and Algerian Basin). This database collects data from 27 research projects with 134 oceanographic surveys and 6463 sampling stations. IBAMar 2.0 database covers 36 year sampling and approximately 210,846 km2 in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WM). The effort applied for obtaining this data was growing from less than 100 station/year to more than 700 in the year 2009. IBAMar 2.0 database includes main hydrographic parameters such as pressure, temperature, salinity and others as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-a and nutrients (nitrates, nitrites, phosphates and silicates). Most of the data from 1990 until now were obtained with multiparametric CTDs, although earlier data corresponding to cast sampling with Niskin bottles were incorporated too. The main goal of this database is to establish a climatology for the most significant variables to study the existence of decadal cycles or long-term trends, trying to better understand the behaviour of the hydrographic conditions of the Spanish Mediterranean coast, at both seasonal and interannual time scale and long term. From these studies is possible to provide answers on topical issues as the thermohaline anomaly of the deep waters of WM, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen minimum, or the effects of the Climate Change on the hydrodynamics characteristics of the study area [1]. Future work includes data quality control based on standard protocols like [2] and publishing IBAMar 2.0 (including next surveys) on the website of the Mediterranean Group on Climate Change of IEO (http://www.ma.ieo.es/gcc/). There, the data could be obtained summarized as seasonal climatology. These will include horizontal sections at standard depths

  13. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savo Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy. Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories. In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody, or habitat (e.g., riverine, etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42% and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research

  14. Abrupt climate changes of the last deglaciation detected in a Western Mediterranean forest record

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    W. J. Fletcher

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abrupt changes in Western Mediterranean climate during the last deglaciation (20 to 6 cal ka BP are detected in marine core MD95-2043 (Alboran Sea through the investigation of high-resolution pollen data and pollen-based climate reconstructions by the modern analogue technique (MAT for annual precipitation (Pann and mean temperatures of the coldest and warmest months (MTCO and MTWA. Changes in temperate Mediterranean forest development and composition and MAT reconstructions indicate major climatic shifts with parallel temperature and precipitation changes at the onsets of Heinrich stadial 1 (equivalent to the Oldest Dryas, the Bölling-Allerød (BA, and the Younger Dryas (YD. Multi-centennial-scale oscillations in forest development occurred throughout the BA, YD, and early Holocene. Shifts in vegetation composition and (Pann reconstructions indicate that forest declines occurred during dry, and generally cool, episodes centred at 14.0, 13.3, 12.9, 11.8, 10.7, 10.1, 9.2, 8.3 and 7.4 cal ka BP. The forest record also suggests multiple, low-amplitude Preboreal (PB climate oscillations, and a marked increase in moisture availability for forest development at the end of the PB at 10.6 cal ka BP. Dry atmospheric conditions in the Western Mediterranean occurred in phase with Lateglacial events of high-latitude cooling including GI-1d (Older Dryas, GI-1b (Intra-Allerød Cold Period and GS-1 (YD, and during Holocene events associated with high-latitude cooling, meltwater pulses and N. Atlantic ice-rafting. A possible climatic mechanism for the recurrence of dry intervals and an opposed regional precipitation pattern with respect to Western-central Europe relates to the dynamics of the westerlies and the prevalence of atmospheric blocking highs. Comparison of radiocarbon and ice-core ages for well-defined climatic transitions in the forest record suggests possible enhancement of marine reservoir ages in the Alboran

  15. Updating temperature and salinity mean values and trends in the Western Mediterranean: The RADMED project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Yáñez, M.; García-Martínez, M. C.; Moya, F.; Balbín, R.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Serra, M.; Zunino, P.; Pascual, J.; Salat, J.

    2017-09-01

    The RADMED project is devoted to the implementation and maintenance of a multidisciplinary monitoring system around the Spanish Mediterranean waters. This observing system is based on periodic multidisciplinary cruises covering the coastal waters, continental shelf and slope waters and some deep stations (>2000 m) from the Westernmost Alboran Sea to Barcelona in the Catalan Sea, including the Balearic Islands. This project was launched in 2007 unifying and extending some previous monitoring projects which had a more reduced geographical coverage. Some of the time series currently available extend from 1992, while the more recent ones were initiated in 2007. The present work updates the available time series up to 2015 (included) and shows the capability of these time series for two main purposes: the calculation of mean values for the properties of main water masses around the Spanish Mediterranean, and the study of the interannual and decadal variability of such properties. The data set provided by the RADMED project has been merged with historical data from the MEDAR/MEDATLAS data base for the calculation of temperature and salinity trends from 1900 to 2015. The analysis of these time series shows that the intermediate and deep layers of the Western Mediterranean have increased their temperature and salinity with an acceleration of the warming and salting trends from 1943. Trends for the heat absorbed by the water column for the 1943-2015 period, range between 0.2 and 0.6 W/m2 depending on the used methodology. The temperature and salinity trends for the same period and for the intermediate layer are 0.002 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1 respectively. Deep layers warmed and increased their salinity at a rate of 0.004 °C/yr and 0.001 yr-1.

  16. Underpinning tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region with dynamic slab evolution from 3-D numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chertova, M. V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322943264; Spakman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074103164; Geenen, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837784; Van Den Berg, A. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073350532; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624

    No consensus exists on the tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean since ~35 Ma. Three disparate tectonic evolution scenarios are identified, each portraying slab rollback as the driving mechanism but with rollback starting from strongly different subduction geometries. As a critical test

  17. Description of Odontozona addaia spec. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidae) from a marine cave in the island of Minorca, western Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretus, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Odontozona addaia, a new species of stenopodid shrimp is described from a marine cave in the island of Minorca (Balearic Islands), being the first record of the genus for the western Mediterranean. One male and one ovigerous female were found during a systematic propspection of several Balearic

  18. Anthropogenic impacts on deep submarine canyons of the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Tubau, X.; Llorca, M.; Woodall, L.; Canals, M.; Farré, M.; Barceló, D.; Thompson, R.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine canyons are seafloor geomorphic features connecting the shallow coastal ocean to the deep continental margin and basin. Often considered biodiversity hotspots, submarine canyons have been identified as preferential pathways for water, sediment, pollutant and litter transfers from the coastal to the deep ocean. Here we provide insights on the presence of some of the most insidious man-made debris and substances in submarine canyons of the western Mediterranean Sea, which are relevant to achieve a "Good Environmental Status" by 2020 as outlined in the European Union's ambitious Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Ranked by size on a decreasing basis, we review the origin, distribution and transport mechanisms of i) marine litter, including plastic, lost fishing gear and metallic objects; ii) microplastics in the form of fibers of rayon, polyester, polyamide and acetates; and iii) persistent organic pollutants including the toxic and persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. This integrated analysis allows us to understand the pivotal role of atmospheric driven oceanographic processes occurring in Mediterranean deep canyons (dense shelf water cascading, coastal storms) in spreading any type of man-made compound to the deep sea, where they sink and accumulate before getting buried.

  19. Larval stages of crustacean species of interest for conservation and fishing exploitation in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asvin P. Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the western Mediterranean. Despite their importance for fisheries and conservation, little is known about their larval development, especially in the case of deep water species. In this paper we present new information on the occurrence and morphology of larval stages for some species of commercial interest based on samples collected off the Balearic Islands. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located on the continental shelf break and middle slope, in the northwest and south of Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. We describe in detail the second mysis stage of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, not previously known, and the first larval stage of the slipper lobster Scyllarides latus, poorly described almost a hundred years ago. We also report the second finding of larvae of the spider crab Maja squinado and the first capture from the field of larval stages of the rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris and slipper lobster in the Mediterranean.

  20. Application of the European water framework directive in a Western Mediterranean basin (Málaga, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, F.; Sánchez, D.; Vadillo, I.; Andreo, B.; Martínez, C.; Fernández, L.

    2008-04-01

    The water framework directive (WFD) is applied within the Guadalhorce river basin, a Western Mediterranean basin in the Málaga province (South Spain). Criteria defining different surface and groundwater bodies are described. The basic hydrographic network is constituted of low-mountain and low-altitude Mediterranean mineralized rivers. Heavily modified surface water bodies correspond (1) to areas where dams regulate the main watercourses, (2) to areas downstream of reservoirs, where river flow is reduced, and (3) to the coastal sector of the river where artificial channelling has caused morphological variations. Groundwater bodies are related to carbonate and porous aquifers and, locally, to aquifers influenced by dissolution of evaporites. The main impacts to water bodies are irrigated lands and livestock farming. There are also point sources of pollution, such as wastewater, landfills, golf courses, industrial zones, quarries and petrol stations. In addition, groundwater is frequently pumped for human supply and irrigation. Qualitative status of groundwater bodies was done by chemical analysis of samples from a monitoring network and the quantitative status by examining variations in piezometric levels. Both revealed the existence of water bodies at risk of not meeting the environmental objectives of the WFD. The main indicators of pollution are nitrates related to agricultural activities, and total organic carbon (TOC), PO{4/3-} and NH{4/+} in relation to wastewater.

  1. Deformation patterns in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Ridge (South Matapan Trench, Western Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikidis, Nikolaos; Kokinou, Eleni; Vafidis, Antonios; Kamberis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data and bathymetry analyses, together with geological information, are combined in the present work to identify seabed structural deformation and crustal structure in the Western Mediterranean Ridge (the backstop and the South Matapan Trench). As a first step, we apply bathymetric data and state of art methods of pattern recognition to automatically detect seabed lineaments, which are possibly related to the presence of tectonic structures (faults). The resulting pattern is tied to seismic reflection data, further assisting in the construction of a stratigraphic and structural model for this part of the Mediterranean Ridge. Structural elements and stratigraphic units in the final model are estimated based on: (a) the detected lineaments on the seabed, (b) the distribution of the interval velocities and the presence of velocity inversions, (c) the continuity and the amplitudes of the seismic reflections, the seismic structure of the units and (d) well and stratigraphic data as well as the main tectonic structures from the nearest onshore areas. Seabed morphology in the study area is probably related with the past and recent tectonics movements that result from African and European plates' convergence. Backthrusts and reverse faults, flower structures and deep normal faults are among the most important extensional/compressional structures interpreted in the study area.

  2. Field calibration of optical sensors for measuring suspended sediment concentration in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guillén

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The water turbidity measured with optical methods (transmittance and backscattering is usually expressed as beam attenuation coefficient (BAC or formazin turbidity units (FTU. The transformation of these units to volumetric suspended sediment concentration (SSC units is not straightforward, and accurate calibrations are required in order to obtain valuable information on suspended sediment distributions and fluxes. In this paper, data from field calibrations between BAC, FTU and SSC are presented and best-fit calibration curves are shown. These calibrations represent an average from different marine environments of the western Mediterranean (from estuary to continental slope. However, the general curves can only be applied for descriptive or semi-quantitative purposes. Comparison of turbidity measurements using the same sensor with different calibration ranges shows the advantage of simultaneously combining two instruments calibrated in different ranges when significant changes in suspended sediment concentrations are expected.

  3. Non-linear modelling of monthly mean vorticity time changes: an application to the western Mediterranean

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    M. Finizio

    Full Text Available Starting from a number of observables in the form of time-series of meteorological elements in various areas of the northern hemisphere, a model capable of fitting past records and predicting monthly vorticity time changes in the western Mediterranean is implemented. A new powerful statistical methodology is introduced (MARS in order to capture the non-linear dynamics of time-series representing the available 40-year history of the hemispheric circulation. The developed model is tested on a suitable independent data set. An ensemble forecast exercise is also carried out to check model stability in reference to the uncertainty of input quantities.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · General circulation ocean-atmosphere interactions · Synoptic-scale meteorology

  4. A reconstructed database of historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué M. Polanco-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data paper presents a reconstruction of a compilation of a small but consistent database of historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Italy. The compilation come from diverse historical and documentary sources and span the time interval from 1525 to 1936 covering a period of 412 years. There is a total of 3074 datum, which reach up to 67.83% of the total implying a 32.17% of missing data. However, we have only reconstructed the captures for the time interval 1700–1936 and we provide these reconstructions only for this time interval and for 9 out of 11 series due to the scarcity and inhomogeneity of the two oldest capture time series. This reconstructed database provides an invaluable opportunity for fisheries and marine research as well as for multidisciplinary research in climate change.

  5. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

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    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  6. Feeding habits of Cataetyx alleni (Pisces: Bythitidae in the deep western Mediterranean

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    Maite Carrassón

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feeding habits of Cataetyx alleni, the fifth most abundant species below 1000 m depth on the deep slope of the Catalan sea (western Mediterranean, between 1000 and 1800 m depth. Cataetyx alleni is a euryphagic predator, feeding on small epibenthic and endobenthic crustaceans and polychaetes. Predominate prey are small isopods and gammaridean amphipods and, in some cases, endobenthic and epibenthic decapods. Cataetyx alleni has bathymetric changes in diet marked by the capture of different prey-items and also by the reduction in the size of the prey with increasing depth. Seasonal fluctuations in the feeding pattern are clearly seen among the individuals of the same depths.

  7. Aerosol optical properties of Western Mediterranean basin from multi-year AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhalifa, Jamel; Léon, Jean François; Chaabane, Mabrouk

    2017-11-01

    Aerosol optical properties including the total and coarse mode aerosol extinction optical depth (AODt and AODc respectively), Angstrom exponent (AE), size distribution, single scattering albedo (SSA) were examined using long-term ground-based radiometric measurements at 9 sites in the Western Mediterranean: Oujda, Malaga, Barcelona, Carpentras, Rome Tor Vergata, Ersa, Ispra, Venice and Evora, during the 4-year study period (2010-2013). The South-North gradient in the fraction of AODc represents the signature of the increasing influence of coarse particles on the optical properties at southern stations. This fraction has a daily mean ranging from 48 ± 18% at the southern site Oujda and to 8 ± 8% at Ispra. The low average AE444-870 value (affected by such dust events in the following days.

  8. A reconstructed database of historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Martínez, Josué M; Caballero-Alfonso, Ángela M; Ganzedo, Unai; Castro-Hernández, José J

    2018-02-01

    This data paper presents a reconstruction of a compilation of a small but consistent database of historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter) from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Italy). The compilation come from diverse historical and documentary sources and span the time interval from 1525 to 1936 covering a period of 412 years. There is a total of 3074 datum, which reach up to 67.83% of the total implying a 32.17% of missing data. However, we have only reconstructed the captures for the time interval 1700-1936 and we provide these reconstructions only for this time interval and for 9 out of 11 series due to the scarcity and inhomogeneity of the two oldest capture time series. This reconstructed database provides an invaluable opportunity for fisheries and marine research as well as for multidisciplinary research in climate change.

  9. NEOLITHIC PLANT USE IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE AGRIWESTMED PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Peña-Chocarro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the preliminary results of the AGRIWESTMED project which focuses on the archaeobotanical analyses of early Neolithic sites in the western Mediterranean region (both in Iberia and in northern Morocco. A large number of sites has been studied producing an interesting dataset of plant remains which places the earliest examples of domesticated plants in the second half of the 6th millennium cal BC. Plant diversity is high as it is shown by the large number of species represented: hulled and naked wheats, barley, peas, fava beans, vetches, lentils and grass peas. To more crops, poppy and flax, are also part of the first agricultural crops of the area. Although agriculture seems to occupy a first place in the production of food, gathering is well represented in the Moroccan sites where a large number of species has been identified. 

  10. Dynamics of double-polarity subduction: application to the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Mireia; Zlotnik, Sergio; Fernandez, Manel; Vergés, Jaume; Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Torne, Montserrat

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of the Western Mediterranean is a highly debated question by geologists and geophysicists. Even though most scientists agree in considering slab roll-back to be the driving mechanism of the tectonic evolution of this area, there is still no consensus about the initial setup and its time evolution. A recent model suggests a lateral change in subduction polarity of the Ligurian-Thetys oceanic domain to explain the formation and evolution of the Betic-Rif orogenic system and the associated Alboran back-arc basin. Such geodynamic scenario is also proposed for different converging regions. The aim of this study is to analyze the dynamic evolution of a double-polarity subduction process and its consequences in order to test the physical feasibility of this interaction and provide geometries and evolutions comparable to those proposed for the Western Mediterranean. The 3D numerical model is carried out via the Underworld framework. Tectonic plate behavior is described by equations of fluid dynamics in the presence of several different phases. Underworld solves a non-linear Stokes flow problem using Finite Elements combined with particle-in-cell approach, thus the discretization combines a standard Eulerian Finite Element mesh with Lagrangian particles to track the location of the phases. The final model consists of two oceanic plates with viscoplastic rheology subducting into the upper mantle in opposite direction and the problem is driven by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We study the influence of the boundary conditions in the model evolution, and the slab deformation produced by the proximity between both plates. Moreover the case of asymmetric friction on the lateral sides of slabs is also considered. Simulations of single subduction models are used as a reference, to compare results and understand the influence of the second plate. We observe slight differences in the trench retreat velocity and the slab morphology near the contact area when plates are

  11. PICASSO: Shear velocities in the Western Mediterranean from Rayleigh Wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Mediterranean has been affected by complex subduction and slab rollback, simultaneously with compression due to African-European convergence. The deformed region occupies a wide area from the intra-continental Atlas mountain belt in Morocco to the southern Iberian Massif in Spain. Evolutionary models of the Western Mediterranean invoke extensive slab rollback and compression in the Cenozoic, as well as likely upper mantle delamination scenarios during formation of the Alboran domain, the Betics, Rif, and Atlas Mountains. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multidisciplinary, international investigation of the Alboran System and surrounding areas. In this study we have analyzed data from the 95 PICASSO broadband stations with data from the Spanish IberArray and Siberia Array in Spain and Morocco, the University of Muenster array in the Atlas Mountains and the permanent Spanish and Portuguese networks. We present Rayleigh wave tomography results made from 168 teleseimic events recorded by 237 stations from April 2009 to April 2011. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities using the two-plane-wave method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. Phase velocities were then inverted for shear velocity structure on a grid of 0.5 by 0.5 degree to form a well-resolved 3D shear velocity model to 230 km depth. Our results show low S-velocities (2.9 km/s) in the crust beneath the Gibraltar Strait. Low upper mantle S-velocities are mapped beneath the Middle and High Atlas at ~60 km depth suggesting an elevated asthenosphere beneath these young mountain belts, in agreement with receiver functions analysis (Thurner et al, this session). Beneath the Western Alboran Sea, upper-mantle velocities change laterally from high velocities (>4.5 km/s) in the east to lower velocities to the west (~4.3 km/s). The Rayleigh wave tomography is consistent with P-tomography that

  12. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Roullet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Chevaillier, Servanne; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Massanet, Ana; Triquet, Sylvain; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril; Desboeufs, Karine; Dulac, François; Bergametti, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French) have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps). Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south-north gradient, with values from 7.4 g m-2 year-1 in Lampedusa (35°31' N, 12°37' E) to 1 g m-2 year-1 in Le Casset (44°59' N, 6°28' E). The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m-2 wk-1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1 g m-2 wk-1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m-2 wk-1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m-2 year-1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11-14 g m-2 year-1). From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more than 80 % of the major dust deposition events are recorded at only one station, suggesting that the dust

  13. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  14. The Alboran volcanic arc archipelago isolated the Mediterranean during the Messinian salinity crisis forming the land bridge for biota dispersal across the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccation during isolation from the world oceans created the well-known Messinian salinity crisis but also landbridges that permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The hypotheses for the cause chocking the Mediterranean have typically sought to explain geological features, particularly the giant salt deposits, but the implications of the faunal changes occurring around that time remain inadequately integrated by current geological models. We present wide-angle seismic data that constrain for the first time the 16-18 km thick crust structure of a volcanic arc formed mostly between 10 to 6 Ma across the eastern region of the Alboran basin. The crustal structure supports that the arc created an archipelago forming a land bridge across the basin that largely isolated the Mediterranean. After the cessation of volcanic activity, the archipelago progressively submerged by thermal subsidence and accompanying sediment loading, having emerged islands that persisted into the Pleistocene time and shallow straits forming sills during the early Pliocene. The presence of an archipelago in the eastern region of the basin may explain a number of puzzling observations previously inexplicable by the proposed barriers closing the Gibraltar arc west of Alboran. The progressive volcanic build up of the archipelago together with the closure of the Betic and Rifean marine corridors would explain the initial isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma and the exchange of terrestrial biota since 6.2 Ma, i.e. before desiccation, which diversified radiating from SE Iberia and the opposite segment of the eastern Rif. In addition, an eastern barrier agrees with the continuous Messinian-age open marine sediments drilled at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, which may have been the refuge of typical Mediterranean taxa that rapidly repopulated the Mediterranean in the

  15. Sedimentary Markers : a window into deep geodynamic processes Examples from the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Leroux, Estelle; Pellen, Romain; Gorini, Christian; Moulin, Maryline; Droz, Laurence; Bache, Francois; Molliex, Stephane; Silenzario, Carmine; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    Deep Earth dynamics impact so strongly on surface geological processes that we can use sediment palaeo-markers as a window into the deeper Earth. Derived from climatic and tectonic erosive actions on the continents, and related to eustasy, subsidence and isostasy, the sediment in a deep basin is the main recorder of these processes. Nevertheless, defining and quantifying the relative roles of parameters that interact to give the final sedimentary architecture is not a simple task. Using a 3D-grid of seismic and wide-angle data, boreholes and numerical stratigraphic modelling, we propose here a quantification of post-rift vertical movements in the Provençal Basin (Western Mediterranean) involving three domains of subsidence: seaward tilting on the platform and the slope and purely vertical subsidence in the deep basin (Rabineau et al., 2014 ; Leroux et al., 2015). These domains fit the deeper crustal domains highlighted by previous geophysical data (Moulin et al., 2015 ; Afilhado et al., 2015). Post-break-up sedimentary markers may therefore be used to identify the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase, to quantify sedimentation rates and isostatic rebound (Rabineau et al., 2014) and redefine the subsidence laws. Similar work and results are obtained in the Valencia Basin (Pellen et al., 2016). This Western Mediterranean Sea is a natural laboratory with very high total subsidence rates that enable high sedimentation rates along the margin with sediments provided by the Rhône and Ebro rivers flowing from the Alps, the Pyrennees and Catalan chains, which in turn archives the detailed record of climate/tectonic evolution during the Neogene. The Western Mediterranean Sea could therefore further probe deep-earth and surface connections using deep drillings of this land-locked ocean basin transformed into a giant saline basin (Rabineau et al., 2015). Leroux, E., Aslanian, D., Rabineau, M., M. Moulin, D. Granjeon, C. Gorini, L. Droz, 2015. Sedimentary markers: a

  16. Phylogeography of Arenaria balearica L. (Caryophyllaceae): evolutionary history of a disjunct endemic from the Western Mediterranean continental islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Barrios de León, Sara B; Seguí Colomar, Jaume; Fenu, Giuseppe; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Peñas de Giles, Julio; Martínez-Ortega, María Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally accepted that Arenaria balearica (Caryophyllaceae) could be a relict Tertiary plant species, this has never been experimentally tested. Nor have the palaeohistorical reasons underlying the highly fragmented distribution of the species in the Western Mediterranean region been investigated. We have analysed AFLP data (213) and plastid DNA sequences (226) from a total of 250 plants from 29 populations sampled throughout the entire distribution range of the species in Majorca, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Tuscan Archipelago. The AFLP data analyses indicate very low geographic structure and population differentiation. Based on plastid DNA data, six alternative phylogeographic hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). These analyses revealed ancient area fragmentation as the most probable scenario, which is in accordance with the star-like topology of the parsimony network that suggests a pattern of long term survival and subsequent in situ differentiation. Overall low levels of genetic diversity and plastid DNA variation were found, reflecting evolutionary stasis of a species preserved in locally long-term stable habitats.

  17. Phylogeography of Arenaria balearica L. (Caryophyllaceae: evolutionary history of a disjunct endemic from the Western Mediterranean continental islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bobo-Pinilla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been traditionally accepted that Arenaria balearica (Caryophyllaceae could be a relict Tertiary plant species, this has never been experimentally tested. Nor have the palaeohistorical reasons underlying the highly fragmented distribution of the species in the Western Mediterranean region been investigated. We have analysed AFLP data (213 and plastid DNA sequences (226 from a total of 250 plants from 29 populations sampled throughout the entire distribution range of the species in Majorca, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Tuscan Archipelago. The AFLP data analyses indicate very low geographic structure and population differentiation. Based on plastid DNA data, six alternative phylogeographic hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. These analyses revealed ancient area fragmentation as the most probable scenario, which is in accordance with the star-like topology of the parsimony network that suggests a pattern of long term survival and subsequent in situ differentiation. Overall low levels of genetic diversity and plastid DNA variation were found, reflecting evolutionary stasis of a species preserved in locally long-term stable habitats.

  18. A new species of Mysidopsis (Crustacea, Mysida, Mysidae from coastal waters of Catalonia (north–western Mediterranean

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    San Vicente, C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Mysidopsis (Crustacea, Mysida, Mysidae, Leptomysinae is described based on specimens sampled with a suprabenthic sled in the littoral located near the coastal city of Mataró (north–western Mediterranean. The new species lives in the soft–bottom suprabenthic habitat near a Posidonia oceanica meadow, at depths between 17 and 21 m. The main distinguishing features of Mysidopsis iluroensis n. sp. are the small body size, a prominent rostrum, the absence of carapace dorsal nodules, and the armature of the antennule, telson and uropod. The morphology of the new species is compared with other species of Mysidopsis in the Mediterranean Sea

  19. Modified Mediterranean Diet Score and Cardiovascular Risk in a North American Working Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is linked to lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in studies of Mediterranean cohorts, older subjects, and/or those with existing health conditions. No studies have examined the effects of this dietary pattern in younger working populations in the United States. We investigated the effects of Mediterranean diet adherence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, metabolic syndrome and body composition in an occupationally active, non-Mediterranean cohort. Methods A cross-sectional study in a cohort of 780 career male firefighters, ages 18 years or older, from the United States Midwest. No dietary intervention was performed. A modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) was developed for assessment of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern from a previously administered life-style questionnaire that examined pre-existing dietary habits. Clinical data from fire department medical examinations were extracted and analyzed. Results Obese subjects had significantly lower mMDS, and they reported greater fast/take-out food consumption (pMediterranean-style dietary pattern had significant inverse associations with metabolic syndrome, LDL-cholesterol and reported weight gain, and was significantly and independently associated with higher HDL-cholesterol. Our results support the potential effectiveness of this diet in young, non-Mediterranean working cohorts, and justify future intervention studies. PMID:24503596

  20. A comparison between desert and Mediterranean antlion populations: differences in life history and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, I; Filin, I; Golan, M; Buchshtav, M; Subach, A; Ovadia, O

    2008-01-01

    We performed a transplant experiment to compare the life histories and morphologies of five geographically representative antlion Myrmeleon hyalinus populations along a sharp climatic gradient, from a Mediterranean climate in Israel's north to a desert climate in the south. Larvae were raised in two environmental chambers simulating Mediterranean and desert climates to investigate the extent to which the different populations exhibit phenotypic plasticity. Along the north-to-south climatic gradient, we observed a gradient in body mass prior to pupation and in pupation rate. Mediterranean populations suffered higher mortality rate when exposed to desert conditions, whereas the mortality rate of desert populations was consistent between Mediterranean and desert conditions. Our results regarding body mass, pupation rate and mortality rate suggest that Mediterranean populations had a more flexible response compared with desert populations. An analysis of digital photographs was used to measure population morphological differences, which were usually indicative of a decrease in trait size along the north-to-south gradient. We show how climatic gradients translate into phenotypic differences in an antlion population and provide a morphometric tool to distinguish between instar stages.

  1. Nile damming as plausible cause of extinction and drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp in the western Mediterranean over broad spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.

    2011-11-01

    Greatly increased retention of flow in Nile River reservoirs was initiated in 1964, after completion of the Aswan High Dam, which induced important oceanographic changes in the Mediterranean Sea, including deep waters (below a depth of 150 m). Based on an analysis of data series starting in the 1940s/1950s, the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea has become locally extinct off of the Catalonian coasts (and elsewhere in the northwestern Mediterranean) at depths of 400-900 m, with a simultaneous and significant drop in the catches of red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus, in the second half of the 1960s. The extinction and sharp decline of deep-shrimp populations off Catalonian coast (at ca. 3200 km westwards from Nile Delta) followed the 1964 drop in Nile discharge with a delay of ca. 3-5 yrs (breakpoint analysis applied to data series). The breakpoints detected in the second half of 1960s both in Nile runoff and shrimps’ abundance were independent of climatic events in the study area (e.g. changes in NAO) and occurred before the increase in fishing effort off Catalonian coasts (breakpoint in 1973-1974). The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), inhabited by A. foliacea in the western Basin, had significant temperature (T) and salinity (S) increases in the 1950-1970 period, and Nile damming has contributed about 45% of the total S increase of Western Mediterranean deep-water masses from the 1960s to the late 1990s (Skliris and Lascaratos, 2004). This had to increase, for instance, LIW salinity at its formation site in the eastern Mediterranean. Nile damming was probably a triggering factor for the extinction/drop in abundance of deep-sea shrimp off Catalonian coasts.

  2. A deep cyclone of African origin over the western Mediterranean: diagnosis and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homar, V.; Ramis, C. [Meteorology Group, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Alonso, S. [Meteorology Group, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); IMEDEA, UIB-CSIC, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    From 19 to 22 December 1979, a deep cyclone evolved over the Western Mediterranean. Gusty winds of more than 30 m/s, as well as a strong pressure decrease to about 990 hPa were recorded in Palma de Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain). ECMWF analyses are used for a diagnosis and numerical study of the case. Sensitivity experiments using the HIRLAM model are performed to assess the role of the surface sensible heat flux, latent heat release and orography on the genesis and evolution of the cyclone. At synoptic scale, the situation is governed by the instability of an upper-level short wave. The cyclone developed within a notable baroclinic environment, which resulted from a cold advection from the northwest towards North Africa. The baroclinicity at first stages of the cyclogenesis is quantified by means of the Eady model. At latter stages, the evolution of the potential vorticity structures at high levels reveals a wide tropopause fold over the cyclone, as well as the presence of a strong anomaly associated with the low-level system. Sensitivity experiments reveal a notable cyclogenetic role of the latent heat release throughout the atmosphere in the deepening of the low, whereas no significant effect of the surface sensible heat flux is obtained for the simulation interval. On the other hand, an unusual cyclolytic role can be attributed to the northern ranges of the Mediterranean basin. Effectively, the low enlargement and deepening is constrained by a ''wall effect'', which is a consequence of the interaction of the cyclonic flow and those northern mountainous systems. (orig.)

  3. An appraisal of the sediment yield in western Mediterranean river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia, C; Herrero, A; Sabater, S; Batalla, R J

    2016-12-01

    The number of studies assessing soil erosion and sediment transport has increased with the aim of achieving sustainable land and water management. Mediterranean rivers have been the object of many of these studies due to their naturally high values of sediment fluxes and a higher vulnerability under future climate scenarios. In this context, we attempt to use empirical relationships to (i) further assess the relation between sediment yield and basin scale and (ii) provide an update on the main drivers controlling sediment yield in these particular river systems. For this purpose, sediment yield data (from reservoir sedimentation surveys and sediment transport records) was collected from >100 locations distributed across the western Mediterranean area, with basin areas ranging from 1 to 100,000km(2). Quantile Regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between basin area and sediment yield, while additional basin-scale descriptors were related to sediment yield by means of multiple regression analysis. Results showed the complexity in the relationship between basin scale and sediment yield, with changes in supply conditions with increasing area introducing uncertainties in the correlation. Despite the large scatter, analysis pointed towards the same direction and area appeared to be the main constrain for the maximum value of sediment yield that can be found at a specific basin scale. Results from the multiple regression indicated that variables representing basin's physiography, climate and land use were highly correlated with the basins' sediment yield. Also, a better model performance was obtained when using total sediment yield instead of specific values (per unit area). Validation showed model instability, potentially due to data limitations and the use of catchments with varying characteristics. Overall, despite providing some insights on the correlation between sediment yield and basin-scale characteristics, validation prevented direct

  4. Aerosol distribution over the western Mediterranean basin during a Tramontane/Mistral event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salameh, T.; Menut, L. [Ecole Polytechnique/ENS/UPMC/CNRS, Palaiseau (France). Inst. Pierre Simon Laplace/Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Drobinski, P.; Flamant, C. [UPMC/UVSQ/CNRS, Paris (France). Inst. Pierre Simon Laplace/Service d' Aeronomie; Bessagnet, B. [INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France). Inst. National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques; Hodzic, A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Vautard, R. [CEA/UVSQ/CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. Pierre Simon Laplace/Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates experimentally and numerically the time evolution of the spatial distribution of aerosols over the Western Mediterranean basin during the 24 March 1998 Mistral event documented during the FETCH experiment. Mistral and Tramontane are very frequently northerly wind storms (5-15 days per month) accelerated along the Rhone and Aude valleys (France) that can transport natural and anthropogenic aerosols offshore as far as a few hundred kilometers, which can, in turn, have an impact on the radiation budget over the Mediterranean Sea and on precipitation. The spatial distribution of aerosols was documented by means of the airborne lidar LEANDRE-2 and space-borne radiometer SeaWIFS, and a validated mesoscale chemical simulation using the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE with an aerosol module, forced by the non-hydrostatic model MM5. This study shows that: (1) the Mistral and Tramontane contribute to the offshore exportation of a large amount of aerosols originally emitted over continental Europe (in particular, ammonium nitrate in the particulate phase and sulfates) and along the shore from the industrialized and urban areas of Fos-Berre/Marseille. The amount of aerosol loading solely due to the Mistral and Tramontane is as large as 3-4 times the background aerosol amount and the contribution of sea-salt particles to the total aerosol loading and optical depth ranges from 1 to 10% even in such stormy conditions; (2) the aerosol concentration pattern is very unsteady as a result of the time evolution of the two winds (or Genoa cyclone position): The Tramontane wind prevails in the morning hours of 24 March, leaving room for the Mistral wind and an unusually strong Ligurian outflow in the afternoon. The Genoa surface low contributes to advect the aerosols along a cyclonic trajectory that skirts the North African coast and reaches Italy. The wakes trailing downstream the Massif Central and the Alps prevent any horizontal diffusion of the aerosols and

  5. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

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    B. Derstroff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014 in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57′ N/32° 23′ E. Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy and eastern (Turkey, Greece Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80–100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5–3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1–8 ppbv than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were  ∼  20 and  ∼  30–60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART

  6. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derstroff, Bettina; Hüser, Imke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Crowley, John N.; Fischer, Horst; Gromov, Sergey; Harder, Hartwig; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Mallik, Chinmay; Martinez, Monica; Novelli, Anna; Parchatka, Uwe; Phillips, Gavin J.; Sander, Rolf; Sauvage, Carina; Schuladen, Jan; Stönner, Christof; Tomsche, Laura; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    During the summertime CYPHEX campaign (CYprus PHotochemical EXperiment 2014) in the eastern Mediterranean, multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from a 650 m hilltop site in western Cyprus (34° 57' N/32° 23' E). Periodic shifts in the northerly Etesian winds resulted in the site being alternately impacted by photochemically processed emissions from western (Spain, France, Italy) and eastern (Turkey, Greece) Europe. Furthermore, the site was situated within the residual layer/free troposphere during some nights which were characterized by high ozone and low relative humidity levels. In this study we examine the temporal variation of VOCs at the site. The sparse Mediterranean scrub vegetation generated diel cycles in the reactive biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, from very low values at night to a diurnal median level of 80-100 pptv. In contrast, the oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) methanol and acetone exhibited weak diel cycles and were approximately an order of magnitude higher in mixing ratio (ca. 2.5-3 ppbv median level by day, range: ca. 1-8 ppbv) than the locally emitted isoprene and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. Acetic acid was present at mixing ratios between 0.05 and 4 ppbv with a median level of ca. 1.2 ppbv during the daytime. When data points directly affected by the residual layer/free troposphere were excluded, the acid followed a pronounced diel cycle, which was influenced by various local effects including photochemical production and loss, direct emission, dry deposition and scavenging from advecting air in fog banks. The Lagrangian model FLEXPART was used to determine transport patterns and photochemical processing times (between 12 h and several days) of air masses originating from eastern and western Europe. Ozone and many OVOC levels were ˜ 20 and ˜ 30-60 % higher, respectively, in air arriving from the east. Using the FLEXPART calculated transport time, the contribution of photochemical

  7. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

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    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  8. Rapid inundation estimates using coastal amplification laws in the Western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène; Schindelé, François

    2016-04-01

    Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed and have now reached an impressive level of accuracy, especially in locations such as harbors where the tsunami waves are mostly amplified. In the framework of tsunami warning under real-time operational conditions, the main obstacle for the routine use of such numerical simulations remains the slowness of the numerical computation, which is strengthened when detailed grids are required for the precise modeling of the coastline response of an individual harbor. Thus only tsunami offshore propagation modeling tools using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid are presently included within the French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT), providing rapid estimation of tsunami impact at Western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins scale. We present here a work that performs quick estimates of the coastal impact at individual harbors from these high sea forecasting tsunami simulations. The method involves an empirical correction based on the Green's theoretical amplification law. The main limitation is that its application to a given coastal area would require a large database of previous observations, in order to define the empirical parameters of the correction equation. As no tide gage records of significant tsunamis are available for the Western Mediterranean French coasts, we use a set of points of interest distributed along these coasts, where maximum water heights are calculated for both fake events and well-known historical tsunamigenic earthquakes in the area. This synthetic dataset is obtained through accurate numerical tsunami propagation and inundation modeling by using several nested bathymetric grids of increasingly fine resolution close to the shores. Non linear shallow water tsunami modeling performed on a single 2' coarse bathymetric grid are compared to the values given by time-consuming nested grids simulations, in order to check to which extent the simple approach based on the

  9. Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean Sea, application to an early warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel

    2015-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean Sea is a highly heterogeneous and variable area, as is reflected on the wind field, the current field, and the waves, mainly in the first kilometers offshore. As a result of this variability, the wave forecast in these regions is quite complicated to perform, usually with some accuracy problems during energetic storm events. Moreover, is in these areas where most of the economic activities take part, including fisheries, sailing, tourism, coastal management and offshore renewal energy platforms. In order to introduce an indicator of the probability of occurrence of the different sea states and give more detailed information of the forecast to the end users, an ensemble wave forecast system is considered. The ensemble prediction systems have already been used in the last decades for the meteorological forecast; to deal with the uncertainties of the initial conditions and the different parametrizations used in the models, which may introduce some errors in the forecast, a bunch of different perturbed meteorological simulations are considered as possible future scenarios and compared with the deterministic forecast. In the present work, the SWAN wave model (v41.01) has been implemented for the Western Mediterranean sea, forced with wind fields produced by the deterministic Global Forecast System (GFS) and Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS). The wind fields includes a deterministic forecast (also named control), between 11 and 21 ensemble members, and some intelligent member obtained from the ensemble, as the mean of all the members. Four buoys located in the study area, moored in coastal waters, have been used to validate the results. The outputs include all the time series, with a forecast horizon of 8 days and represented in spaghetti diagrams, the spread of the system and the probability at different thresholds. The main goal of this exercise is to be able to determine the degree of the uncertainty of the wave forecast, meaningful

  10. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

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    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence

  11. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

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    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  12. Deep-sea distribution, biological and ecological aspects of Aristeus antennatus ( Risso, 1816 in the western and central Mediterranean Sea

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    Francisco Sardà

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the DESEAS Project, funded by the EC, was to gather preliminary data on the abundance and maximum depth distribution of the rose shrimp Aristeusantennatus in the Mediterranean Sea. An exploratory survey was therefore designed with that goal in mind and conducted on the R/V García del Cid, sampling the maximum depths in three specific areas in the central and western Mediterranean, one off Ibiza (Balearic Islands, one off Calabria (western Ionian Sea, and one off the southern Peloponnesian Peninsula (Gulf of Kalamata, eastern Ionian Sea. The depths sampled ranged from 600 to 4000 m, with specimens of A. antennatus being collected down to 3300 m. There were three distinct boundaries marking the abundance of this species: 1500 m, relatively low abundance (

  13. The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean

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    Novelletto Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of Greek colonization of the central and western Mediterranean during the Archaic and Classical Eras has been understudied from the perspective of population genetics. To investigate the Y chromosomal demography of Greek colonization in the western Mediterranean, Y-chromosome data consisting of 29 YSNPs and 37 YSTRs were compared from 51 subjects from Provence, 58 subjects from Smyrna and 31 subjects whose paternal ancestry derives from Asia Minor Phokaia, the ancestral embarkation port to the 6th century BCE Greek colonies of Massalia (Marseilles and Alalie (Aleria, Corsica. Results 19% of the Phokaian and 12% of the Smyrnian representatives were derived for haplogroup E-V13, characteristic of the Greek and Balkan mainland, while 4% of the Provencal, 4.6% of East Corsican and 1.6% of West Corsican samples were derived for E-V13. An admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization. Using the following putative Neolithic Anatolian lineages: J2a-DYS445 = 6, G2a-M406 and J2a1b1-M92, the data predict a 0% Neolithic contribution to Provence from Anatolia. Estimates of colonial Greek vs. indigenous Celto-Ligurian demography predict a maximum of a 10% Greek contribution, suggesting a Greek male elite-dominant input into the Iron Age Provence population. Conclusions Given the origin of viniculture in Provence is ascribed to Massalia, these results suggest that E-V13 may trace the demographic and socio-cultural impact of Greek colonization in Mediterranean Europe, a contribution that appears to be considerably larger than that of a Neolithic pioneer colonization.

  14. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

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    J. Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps. Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south–north gradient, with values from 7.4 g m−2 year−1 in Lampedusa (35°31′ N, 12°37′ E to 1 g m−2 year−1 in Le Casset (44°59′ N, 6°28′ E. The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m−2 wk−1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1 g m−2 wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m−2 wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m−2 year−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14 g m−2 year−1. From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more

  15. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  16. PICASSSO Ps Receiver Function Analysis of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Western Mediterranean

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    Thurner, S.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.

    2011-12-01

    The western Mediterranean, consisting of the Betic Mountains in southern Spain, the Gibraltar Arc, the Alboran Sea, and the Rif and Atlas Mountains in northern Africa, has been affected by many different geodynamic processes throughout the Cenozoic. The ongoing collision between Africa and Iberia initiated ~60 Ma and resulted in crustal thickening. During this same time period (~30 Ma), slab rollback began in the Tethys Sea, causing significant extension. It is the juxtaposition of these coeval extensional and compressional regimes that has motivated numerous studies of the Mediterranean tectonic environment. Multiple geodynamic models, that include slab roll-back (Royden, 1993; Lonergan and White, 1997; Gutscher et al., 2002), accompanied and followed by lithospheric convective downwelling (Seber et al., 1996; Calvert et al., 2000), and delamination (Platt et al., 1996), have been invoked to explain the tectonics. It is hypothesized that a succession of small-scale convection processes initiated beneath the Alboran Sea ~20-25 Ma, and have continued most recently under the Atlas Mountains. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multi-disciplinary, international investigation seeking to improve our understanding of the geodynamics of the western Mediterranean, including the small-scale convection processes associated with slab rollback. We use Ps teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the Atlas, Rif, and Betic Mountains. Data was collected from 33 earthquake events recorded between May 2009 and February 2011 at 83 PICASSO broadband seismic stations. 1 Hz receiver functions were calculated using both frequency domain and iterative deconvolution methods, and were CCP stacked to create a 3D image volume of the region. These results indicate crustal thicknesses between ~42-47 km in southern Spain beneath the Betic Mountains and ~35-45 km across the Gibraltar Arc. Beneath both the

  17. Morphodynamic implications for shoreline management of the western-Mediterranean sector of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihy, Omran E.

    2009-09-01

    Although the western-Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Sallum and Alexandria, ~550 km long, has maintained a considerable equilibrium throughout history, developers have built traditional protective structures in an effort to form sheltered recreational beaches without taking into consideration its geomorphologic characteristics, coastal processes and their harmful impact on the coastal environment and human safety. The improper practices in this environmentally valuable region have induced us to undertake an initiative to carry out a morphodynamic analysis to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between coastal morphology and the prevailing dynamic forces. Based on the degree of natural protection or wave sheltering, the study shoreline can be categorized into four distinct morphotypical stretches: (1) high-energy wave-exposed shores and the outer margins of the rocky headlands, (2) moderate to high wave-energy beaches along semi-exposed embayments and bays mostly downdrift of the rocky headlands, (3) low-wave energy at semi-exposed headland lee-sided and pocket beaches, and (4) calm wave-sheltered enclosing water basins for safe anchorages, moorings and recreation beaches. The results deducted will have practical applications for shoreline management initiatives regarding sustained sites suitable for future beachfront development such as safe swimming conditions, sport facilities, water intakes and sheltered areas for vessels. In addition, benefits realized by the understanding of the morphodynamic processes would enhance our awareness of the significance of the role of western coast morphodynamics in supporting sustainable development via shoreline management. As far as sustainability is concerned, the selection of appropriate sites would help avoiding or minimizing the formation of the hard structures needed for creating safe recreation beaches. On a national scale, results reached could provide reliable database for information that can be

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumard, P.; Budzinski, H.; Garrigues, P. [Univ. Bordeaux I, Talence (France)

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in superficial sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the western Mediterranean sea. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations ranged from 1 to 20,500 ng/g in the sediments. Different molecular indices allowed differentiation between the different pollutant sources. On the French coast, PAHs originated mainly from incomplete combustion of organic matter (pyrolytic origin), whereas for some sites in Corsica and Sardinia an overimposition of petrogenic PAHs occurred. The mussel PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 390 ng/g. The total and individual PAH bioaccumulation factors were calculated. The correlation between sediment and mussel PAH content was discussed in terms of bioavailability. It was possible to distinguish different absorption routes for the xenobiotics according to their physicochemical properties. Because the mussel distribution of phenanthrene and anthracene seems to be governed by their water solubility, these compounds were probably mainly absorbed as the water-dissolved form, whereas the heavier molecular weight PAHs (more than four aromatic rings), whose sediment and mussel concentrations are correlated with higher correlation coefficients than for phenanthrene and anthracene, were probably mainly absorbed as adsorbed on particles. Furthermore, a possible preferential biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene over benzo[e]pyrene is discussed.

  19. Ageostrophic Frontal Processes Controlling Phytoplankton Production in the Catalano-Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Tintore, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy-induced unstable boundary currents and the accompanying retrograde density fronts are often the sites of pronounced mesoscale activity, ageostrophic frontal processes, and associated high biological production in marginal seas. Biophysical model simulations of the Catalano-Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean) illustrated that the unstable and nonlinear southward frontal boundary current along the Spanish coast resulted in a strain-driven frontogenesis mechanism. High upwelling velocities of up to 80 m d(-1) injected nutrients into the photic layer and promoted enhanced production on the less dense, onshore side of the front characterized by negative relative vorticity. Additional down-front wind stress and heat flux (cooling) intensified boundary current instabilities and thus ageostrophic cross-frontal circulation and augmented production. Specifically, entrainment of nutrients by relatively strong buoyancy-induced vertical mixing gave rise to a more widespread phytoplankton biomass distribution within the onshore side of the front. Mesoscale cyclonic eddies contributed to production through an eddy pumping mechanism, but it was less effective and more limited regionally than the frontal processes. The model was configured for the Catalano-Balearic Sea, but the mechanisms and model findings apply to other marginal seas with similar unstable frontal boundary current systems.

  20. Feeding guilds of western Mediterranean demersal fish and crustaceans: an analysis based in a spring survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Cartes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The MEDITS-99 sampling was performed along all the Iberian Peninsula coasts of the western Mediterranean (from the Alborán Sea to Cape Creus in a space-scale of 1000 Km N-S, at depths ranging between 27-790 m. Fish and decapod crustaceans were dominant in the megafaunal compartment sampled by trawling. Based on both the fish and the decapod crustacean compositions, a comparison of trophic guilds has been attempted, with fish and decapods classified as: 1 migrator macroplankton feeders (mM, 2 non-migrator macroplankton feeders (nmM, 3 nektobenthos-suprabenthos feeders (NS, 4 epibenthos feeders (Epib, 5 large detritus-scavengers (Sca, 6 infaunal feeders (Inf, 7 deposit feeders (Dep and 8 small detritivorous feeders (Det. Multivariate techniques showed the following differences in the trophodynamics of the megafaunal assemblages along the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula: 1 crustaceans (mainly decapods have different trophic structures on the shelf and on the slope; 2 on the slope, fish exhibited more clear changes as a function of the geographical gradient than crustaceans; and 3 trophodynamics of bathyal fish showed some geographic variations between the Alborán Sea, the Catalano-Balearic Basin, and the Algerian Basin (Vera Gulf and Alicante sectors, with a progressive north-south increase in planktophagous species.

  1. Some aspects of the biology of Todarodes sagittatus (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae from the Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Quetglas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 346 individuals (152 males and 194 females of Todarodes sagittatus caught by commercial trawlers working down to 800 m in the Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean was studied. Data are presented on size frequency distributions, length-weight relationships, and relationships between mantle length and various measurements of the beak. Some aspects of the reproductive biology (maturity and gonad development were also determined. Reproductive period could be situated in the second half of the year, since the number of mature individuals was maximum from July to October for males and from September to December for females. The sex ratio was found to be significantly different from 1:1 only outside this second semester. No individual appeared in hauls performed below 100 m depth and the greatest frequency of appearance was between depths of 400 and 800 m. All mature females were caught deeper than 500 m, indicating that spawning could take place from this depth. The mean mantle length increased with depth, suggesting a possible ontogenic migration.

  2. Contaminants of emerging concern in the open sea waters of the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Bečanová, Jitka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2017-10-01

    Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas. 3 pesticides, 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products and 2 artificial sweeteners were detected at sub-ng to ng/L levels. Among them, the herbicide terbuthylazine, the pharmaceuticals caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen and paracetamol, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, the antibacterial triclocarban and the two artificial sweeteners acesulfame and saccharin were detected in all samples. The compound detected at the highest concentration was saccharin (up to 5.23 ng/L). Generally small spatial differences among individual sampling areas point to a diffuse character of sources which are likely dominated by WWTP effluents and runoffs from agricultural areas or even, at least for pharmaceuticals and artificial food additives, from offshore sources such as ferries and cruising ships. The implications of the ubiquitous presence in the open sea of chemicals that are bio-active or toxic at low doses on photosynthetic organisms and/or bacteria (i.e., terbuthylazine, sulfamethoxazole or triclocarban) deserve scientific attention, especially concerning possible subtle impacts from chronic exposure of pelagic microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental factors controlling particulate mass fluxes on the Mallorca continental slope (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqual, Catalina; Amores, Angel; Flexas, M. Mar; Monserrat, Sebastià; Calafat, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Settled material recorded by two near bottom sediment traps deployed from November 2009 to February 2011 at northern (Sóller) and southern (Cabrera) slopes of Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean) is studied with the aim of discerning their possible origin. The total settled particulate mass fluxes (TMF) at Sóller station were found to be, on average, 2.8 times greater than at Cabrera location during the deployment period, although both time series had a similar temporal evolution. It is suggested that wind episodes affecting the entire area were the common forcing, causing a primary production enhancement and being responsible of the similar temporal behavior. The greater sediment amounts collected in Sóller are explained on the basis of two physical mechanisms: 1) a number of successive eddies generated by instabilities of the Balearic Current that are regularly observed on satellite images, some of which have been reported to reach the seabed, thus increasing near bottom velocities and causing sediment resuspension. And 2) bottom trapped waves that are evidenced from a wavelet analysis in Sóller which could affect the TFM by enhancing sediment resuspension or advecting material from the surrounding areas.

  4. Insular mammalian fauna dynamics and Paleogeography: a lesson from the Western Mediterranean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Maria Rita

    2017-07-07

    Since the time of Darwin (1859) and Wallace (1869), islands have been regarded by scientists as a prime target for scrutinizing the forces that may influence evolution and diversification and important elements in biogeographic studies. This research aims to scrutinize whether and to what extent the composition and structure of past mammal insular faunas and their changes through time, may provide sound clues for inferring the paleogeographical evolution of a region. As a case study I have to critically analyzed the dynamics shown by the Plio-Pleistocene mammalian fauna of three Western Mediterranean insular districts, Balearic Islands, Sardinia, and Sicily, each characterized by its on peculiar paleobiogeographical evolutionary history. The revision of faunas and the critical analysis of the dispersal ability of the ancestors of island settlers allowed hypothesizing time and mode of island colonization. Results obtained confirm that the early isolation of Balearic Islands from the mainland led to the establishment of an endemic fauna since the pre-Messinian Miocene (?Astaracian European Land Mammal Age, MN7/8), Sardinia was definitely isolated since the Pliocene, although dispersal events led to some faunal turnovers during the Pleistocene, and suggest for Sicily a complex, still imperfectly disentangled history of alternate phases of complete separation and sporadic, more or less difficult connections with southern Italy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the results obtained by applying the Arnason Schwartz multistate mark-recapture model to eight years of data collected in and around a small no-fishing marine protected area (MPA; 4 km2 in the central western Mediterranean. From 1997 to 2004, a total of 4044 specimens of Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1787 were tagged and 317 recaptured. The most parsimonious model which best explained the data variability was that of a temporally constant rate of apparent survival and movement in each of the two strata. The absence of any temporal influence in the apparent survival rate inside the no-take area suggested that spillover and mortality are constant for each period of the study. The lower apparent survival rate in surrounding zones than inside the MPA (0.26 ± 0.04 (SE vs 0.94 ± 0.03 (SE is presumed to be a function of fishing effort. A continuous movement of P. elephas across the boundary of the small MPA was also tested. This information on retention of lobsters in the MPA contributes to our understanding of the effect of introducing MPAs into a managed commercial fishery system.

  6. Geological structure and evolution of Majorca: Implications for the origin of the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sàbat, Francesc; Gelabert, Bernadí; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio; Giménez, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    The island of Majorca forms part of the NE-SW continental Balearic Promontory, which is surrounded by continental and oceanic extensional basins. Majorca has a basin and range physiography mainly resulting from Late Neogene extension. The basins and ranges strike NE-SW. The structure of the ranges consists of thrust faults and associated folds involving Mesozoic series. Paleogene series are also involved in the compressional structures located in the southeast, whereas a stratigraphic hiatus embracing Late Cretaceous and Paleogene is present in the rest of the island. The age of syncompressive rocks and sediments is Chattian to Aquitanian in the SE Llevant Ranges, Aquitanian to Burdigalian in the Central Ranges and Burdigalian to Langhian in the NW Tramuntana Range. Thus compressive deformation progressed from southeast to northwest. The thrust fault hangingwall displacement is to the northwest and shortening is large (44%). Seismic reflection sections reveal the presence of compressive structures in the substratum of the basins. Moreover, normal faults due to WNW-ESE extension occurred during the Serravallian and Tortonian, producing additional subsidence in the basins. Minor compression could have occurred since the onset of the Pleistocene. Majorca was shortened when the extensional basins surrounding the island originated. Available models for the origin and evolution of extensional basins of the Western Mediterranean do not consider the structure observed in Majorca.

  7. Seasonal characterisation of maritime traffic and the relationship with cetacean presence in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, I; Angeletti, D; Crosti, R; Luperini, C; Ruvolo, A; Alessandrini, A; Arcangeli, A

    2017-02-15

    Seasonal maritime traffic was investigated in relation to cetaceans, through direct observations (July 2013-June 2015) along three fixed transects in Western Mediterranean. Visually obtained vessel abundance was compared with Automatic Identification System data to explore if the two methods provided different results. Traffic intensity and composition were characterised by seasons and vessel categories. Finally, cetacean presence was investigated in relation to traffic by measuring the difference of vessel abundance in the presence and absence of animal sightings. Results showed that visual sampling was consistent with AIS data, providing more information on small-medium vessels. Traffic was more intense and diverse in Spring/Summer, and the highest vessel abundance and seasonal variations in composition emerged for inshore subareas. The difference of traffic in the presence and absence of cetaceans was higher in most offshore subareas in Spring/Summer, verified for B. physalus and S. coeruleoalba; in inshore waters, mostly occupied by T. truncatus, no significant differences emerged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PCB concentrations in plankton size classes, a temporal study in Marseille Bay, Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Marion; Tronczyński, Jacek; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Tixier, Céline; Carlotti, François

    2014-12-15

    PCB levels in plankton were investigated in the Bay of Marseille, Western Mediterranean Sea, between September 2010 and October 2011. Concentrations of PCB congeners (CB 18, CB 52, CB 101, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 180) were determined in three plankton size-classes (60-200, 200-500 and 500-1000μm) together with different parameters: chlorophyll content, plankton dry-weight biomass, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and plankton-community structure. The ∑PCB7 concentrations ranged between 14.2 and 88.1ngg(-1)d.w., for all size classes and all sampling periods. The results do not show the biomass dilution effect and indicate moderate but significant biomagnification with plankton trophic position estimated by δ(15)N signatures. Equilibrium with water phase may notably contribute in controlling the PCB levels in the plankton. More generally, presented results imply that PCB accumulation in the plankton is an effect of abiotic and trophic complex interactions in the Bay of Marseille. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of interpolation methods in temperature and salinity trends in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VARGAS-YANEZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and salinity data in the historical record are scarce and unevenly distributed in space and time and the estimation of linear trends is sensitive to different factors. In the case of the Western Mediterranean, previous works have studied the sensitivity of these trends to the use of bathythermograph data, the averaging methods or the way in which gaps in time series are dealt with. In this work, a new factor is analysed: the effect of data interpolation. Temperature and salinity time series are generated averaging existing data over certain geographical areas and also by means of interpolation. Linear trends from both types of time series are compared. There are some differences between both estimations for some layers and geographical areas, while in other cases the results are consistent. Those results which do not depend on the use of interpolated or non-interpolated data, neither are influenced by data analysis methods can be considered as robust ones. Those results influenced by the interpolation process or the factors analysed in previous sensitivity tests are not considered as robust results.

  10. Measurement of arsenic compounds in littoral zone algae from the Western Mediterranean Sea. Occurrence of arsenobetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Ruiz-Chancho, Maria José; Barbero, Mercedes; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2010-11-01

    The determination of arsenic compounds in algae collected on the Catalan coast (Western Mediterranean) is reported. Ten algae species and the seagrass Posidonia oceanica were analyzed. Total arsenic in the samples was determined by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Arsenic speciation in water extracts of samples was analyzed by liquid chromatography with both anionic and cationic exchange with ICPMS detection (LC-ICPMS). The total arsenic content of the algae samples ranged from 2.96 to 39.0mg As kg(-1). The following compounds were detected: arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), methylarsonate (MA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), sulfonate sugar (SO3-sug), sulfate sugar (SO4-sug), phosphate sugar (PO4-sug), arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) and glycerol sugar (Gly-sug). The main arsenic species found were arsenosugars. Significant percentages of arsenobetaine (0.54 mg As kg(-1), 28% of the extractable arsenic and 0.39 mg As kg(-1), 18% of the extractable arsenic) were found in Ulva rigida and Enteromorpha compressa. These results are discussed in relation to the presence of epiphytes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Survival in Mediterranean Ambulatory Patients With Chronic Heart Failure. A Population-based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frigola Capell, E.; Comin-Colet, J.; Davins-Miralles, J.; Gich-Saladich, I.J.; Wensing, M.; Verdu-Rotellar, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Scarce research has been performed in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure in the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to describe survival trends in our target population and the impact of prognostic factors. METHODS: We carried out a population-based retrospective

  12. A population genomics insight into the Mediterranean origins of wine yeast domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Zalar, Polona; Imanishi, Yumi; Shimizu, Kiminori; Turchetti, Benedetta; Legras, Jean-Luc; Serra, Marta; Dequin, Sylvie; Couloux, Arnaud; Guy, Julie; Bensasson, Douda; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2015-11-01

    The domestication of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thought to be contemporary with the development and expansion of viticulture along the Mediterranean basin. Until now, the unavailability of wild lineages prevented the identification of the closest wild relatives of wine yeasts. Here, we enlarge the collection of natural lineages and employ whole-genome data of oak-associated wild isolates to study a balanced number of anthropic and natural S. cerevisiae strains. We identified industrial variants and new geographically delimited populations, including a novel Mediterranean oak population. This population is the closest relative of the wine lineage as shown by a weak population structure and further supported by genomewide population analyses. A coalescent model considering partial isolation with asymmetrical migration, mostly from the wild group into the Wine group, and population growth, was found to be best supported by the data. Importantly, divergence time estimates between the two populations agree with historical evidence for winemaking. We show that three horizontally transmitted regions, previously described to contain genes relevant to wine fermentation, are present in the Wine group but not in the Mediterranean oak group. This represents a major discontinuity between the two populations and is likely to denote a domestication fingerprint in wine yeasts. Taken together, these results indicate that Mediterranean oaks harbour the wild genetic stock of domesticated wine yeasts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Population and development scenarios for EU neighbor countries in the South and East Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents four population and development scenarios for 11 South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) for the period 2010-2050. Focus of analysis of scenario results is on working age population prospects, economic consequences, migration pressure in four migrant-sending SEMCs (Algeria,

  14. Aerosol distribution over the western Mediterranean basin during a Tramontane/Mistral event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salameh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates experimentally and numerically the time evolution of the spatial distribution of aerosols over the Western Mediterranean basin during the 24 March 1998 Mistral event documented during the FETCH experiment. Mistral and Tramontane are very frequently northerly wind storms (5–15 days per month accelerated along the Rh^one and Aude valleys (France that can transport natural and anthropogenic aerosols offshore as far as a few hundred kilometers, which can, in turn, have an impact on the radiation budget over the Mediterranean Sea and on precipitation.

    The spatial distribution of aerosols was documented by means of the airborne lidar LEANDRE-2 and space-borne radiometer SeaWIFS, and a validated mesoscale chemical simulation using the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE with an aerosol module, forced by the non-hydrostatic model MM5.

    This study shows that: (1 the Mistral and Tramontane contribute to the offshore exportation of a large amount of aerosols originally emitted over continental Europe (in particular, ammonium nitrate in the particulate phase and sulfates and along the shore from the industrialized and urban areas of Fos-Berre/Marseille. The amount of aerosol loading solely due to the Mistral and Tramontane is as large as 3–4 times the background aerosol amount and the contribution of sea-salt particles to the total aerosol loading and optical depth ranges from 1 to 10% even in such stormy conditions; (2 the aerosol concentration pattern is very unsteady as a result of the time evolution of the two winds (or Genoa cyclone position: The Tramontane wind prevails in the morning hours of 24 March, leaving room for the Mistral wind and an unusually strong Ligurian outflow in the afternoon. The Genoa surface low contributes to advect the aerosols along a cyclonic trajectory that skirts the North African coast and reaches Italy. The wakes trailing downstream the Massif Central and the Alps prevent any

  15. Aerosol distribution over the western Mediterranean basin during a Tramontane/Mistral event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salameh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates experimentally and numerically the time evolution of the spatial distribution of aerosols over the Western Mediterranean basin during the 24 March 1998 Mistral event documented during the FETCH experiment. Mistral and Tramontane are very frequently northerly wind storms (5–15 days per month accelerated along the Rh\\^one and Aude valleys (France that can transport natural and anthropogenic aerosols offshore as far as a few hundred kilometers, which can, in turn, have an impact on the radiation budget over the Mediterranean Sea and on precipitation. The spatial distribution of aerosols was documented by means of the airborne lidar LEANDRE-2 and space-borne radiometer SeaWIFS, and a validated mesoscale chemical simulation using the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE with an aerosol module, forced by the non-hydrostatic model MM5. This study shows that: (1 the Mistral and Tramontane contribute to the offshore exportation of a large amount of aerosols originally emitted over continental Europe (in particular, ammonium nitrate in the particulate phase and sulfates and along the shore from the industrialized and urban areas of Fos-Berre/Marseille. The amount of aerosol loading solely due to the Mistral and Tramontane is as large as 3–4 times the background aerosol amount and the contribution of sea-salt particles to the total aerosol loading and optical depth ranges from 1 to 10% even in such stormy conditions; (2 the aerosol concentration pattern is very unsteady as a result of the time evolution of the two winds (or Genoa cyclone position: The Tramontane wind prevails in the morning hours of 24 March, leaving room for the Mistral wind and an unusually strong Ligurian outflow in the afternoon. The Genoa surface low contributes to advect the aerosols along a cyclonic trajectory that skirts the North African coast and reaches Italy. The wakes trailing downstream the Massif Central and the Alps prevent any horizontal diffusion

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in a Non-Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Moslehi, Nazanin; Mahmoudof, Hessameddin; Sadeghi, Mahbubeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-07-01

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the association of the diet on MetS in non-Mediterranean populations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adherence to the MedDiet is related to the incident MetS and its components during a 3-year follow-up among Iranian adults. Longitudinal associations between the MedDiet and MetS components were investigated on 2241 adults, aged 18 - 74 years, without type 2 diabetes selected from participants of the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). The association between the MedDiet and MetS incidence was also examined in 1661 participants, free of Mets at baseline. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed using the traditional Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and a recently posteriori adaptation of the MDS of Sofi et al. (Sofi-MDS). MetS was defined according to the recent interim consensus. After adjusting for potential confounders, neither higher MDS nor higher Sofi-MDS were significantly associated with the mean values of MetS components and the risk of metabolic abnormalities incidence after 3 years follow-up. During the 3 years of follow-up, 246 developed MetS were identified. In multivariable model, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of developing MetS did not differ significantly in participants with the highest tertile of the MDS (OR (95% CI): 0.88 (0.62 - 1.23)) or sofi-MDS (OR (95% CI):1.12 (0.77 - 1.62)) compared to those in the lowest tertiles. Adherence to the MedDiet, according to MDS and Sofi-MDS, may not predict MetS components and MetS incidence after 3 years of follow-up in Iranian adult populations.

  17. Range-wide phylogeography of Juniperus thurifera L., a presumptive keystone species of western Mediterranean vegetation during cold stages of the Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrab, Anass; Schönswetter, Peter; Talavera, Salvador; Vela, Errol; Stuessy, Tod F

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the range-wide population structure and phylogeography of thuriferous juniper (Juniperus thurifera L.), a species with a highly disjunct distribution in the western Mediterranean. We genotyped a total of 327 individuals from 20 populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Different analyses such as principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA), nonmetric multidimensional scaling of F(ST) distances among populations, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), and Bayesian clustering revealed that the Strait of Gibraltar acted as an efficient barrier against gene flow between the Moroccan and European populations for a very long time, and consequently support that the Moroccan populations should be recognised as a distinct subspecies (J. thurifera L. subsp. africana (Maire) Romo and Boratyńsky). The Algerian population was genetically more closely related to the European than to the Moroccan ones, probably due to dispersal events from Europe to Algeria. With respect to the mainland European populations, our data are not conclusive to reject any of the two following hypotheses: (1) the Iberian Peninsula was subdivided into different gene pools, and was the source for the colonisation of the Pyrenees and the Alps; and (2) the pattern we see today is partly the result of immigration into the Iberian Peninsula, e.g. from the Alps. Finally, the Corsican population was closely related genetically to two northern Iberian populations most probably due to relatively recent long-distance dispersal.

  18. Understanding north-western Mediterranean climate variability: a multi-proxy and multi-sequence approach based on wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent; Jalali, Bassem; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Sabatier, Pierre; Dezileau, Laurent; Peyron, Odile; Frigola, Jaime; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Forcings and physical mechanisms underlying Holocene climate variability still remain poorly understood. Comparison of different paleoclimatic reconstructions using spectral analysis allows to investigate their common periodicities and helps to understand the causes of past climate changes. Wavelet analysis applied on several proxy time series from the Atlantic domain already revealed the first key-issues on the origin of Holocene climate variability. However the differences in duration, resolution and variance between the time-series are important issues for comparing paleoclimatic sequences in the frequency domain. This work compiles 7 paleoclimatic proxy records from 4 time-series from the north-western Mediterranean all ranging from 7000 to 1000 yrs cal BP: -pollen and clay mineral contents from the lagoonal sediment core PB06 recovered in southern France, -Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) derived from alkenones, concentration of terrestrial alkanes and their average chain length (ACL) from core KSGC-31_GolHo-1B recovered in the Gulf of Lion inner-shelf, - δ18O record from speleothems recovered in the Asiul Cave in north-western Spain, -grain size record from the deep basin sediment drift core MD99-2343 north of Minorca island. A comparison of their frequency content is proposed using wavelet analysis and cluster analysis of wavelet power spectra. Common cyclicities are assessed using cross-wavelet analysis. In addition, a new algorithm is used in order to propagate the age model errors within wavelet power spectra. Results are consistents with a non-stationnary Holocene climate variability. The Halstatt cycles (2000-2500 years) depicted in many proxies (ACL, errestrial alkanes and SSTs) demonstrate solar activity influence in the north-western Mediterranean climate. Cluster analysis shows that pollen and ACL proxies, both indicating changes in aridity, are clearly distinct from other proxies and share significant common periodicities around 1000 and 600 years

  19. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

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    J. Arndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  20. Crustal and Lithospheric Structure of the Western Mediterranean: Pds Receiver Function Results from the PICASSO Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, S.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Betic Mountains in southern Spain, the Gibraltar Arc, the Alboran Sea, and the Rif and Atlas Mountains in northern Africa comprise the western Mediterranean tectonic region, which has been affected by simultaneous extension and compression throughout the Cenozoic. Multiple geodynamic models have been invoked to explain the coeval compressional and extensional tectonic processes, including slab roll-back (Royden, 1993; Lonergan and White, 1997; Gutscher et al., 2002), accompanied and followed by lithospheric convective downwelling (Seber et al., 1996; Calvert et al., 2000), and delamination (Platt et al., 1996). We use Ps teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the crustal and lithospheric structure throughout this region. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multi-disciplinary, international investigation seeking to improve our understanding of the geodynamics of the western Mediterranean. The PICASSO deployment includes 89 broadband stations distributed linearly from central Spain to the Morocco-Algeria border. For this study we supplemented the PICASSO dataset with data from six other Moroccan, Spanish, Portuguese, and German networks in the region. Using 167 events (M > 6.0) recorded at a total of 240 stations we calculated 1 Hz and 2Hz receiver functions. The receiver functions were then CCP stacked to create a 3D image volume of the region. The Pds receiver functions indicate crustal thicknesses between ~42-47 km in southern Spain beneath the Betic Mountains and ~35-45 km across the Gibraltar Strait. Beneath both the Rif and Betic Mountains we observe complex crustal structures, including two strong positive arrivals around Moho depth (~50 km). A number of models can explain this feature, including those associated thrust systems in each region. In Morocco, along a NW-SE transect from the Gibraltar Strait across the Atlas Mountains, we observe thick crust in the north beneath the Rif Mountains and to the south

  1. Is the Mediterranean diet a feasible approach to preserving cognitive function and reducing risk of dementia for older adults in Western countries? New insights and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alissa; Bryan, Janet; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The rise in the ageing population has resulted in increased incident rates of cognitive impairment and dementia. The subsequent financial and societal burden placed on an already strained public health care system is of increasing concern. Evidence from recent studies has revealed modification of lifestyle and dietary behaviours is, at present, the best means of prevention. Some of the most important findings, in relation to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the contemporary Western diet, and potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of these two diets on age-related cognitive function, are discussed in this review. A major aim of this review was to discuss whether or not a MedDiet intervention would be a feasible preventative approach against cognitive decline for older adults living in Western countries. Critical appraisal of the literature does somewhat support this idea. Demonstrated evidence highlights the MedDiet as a potential strategy to reduce cognitive decline in older age, and suggests the Western diet may play a role in the aetiology of cognitive decline. However, strong intrinsic Western socio-cultural values, traditions and norms may impede on the feasibility of this notion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.

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    Martina Temunović

    Full Text Available Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM. We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations.

  3. Relative importance of methylotrophic methanogenesis in sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Guang-Chao; Heuer, Verena B.; Lazar, Cassandre S.; Goldhammer, Tobias; Wendt, Jenny; Samarkin, Vladimir A.; Elvert, Marcus; Teske, Andreas P.; Joye, Samantha B.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2018-03-01

    Microbial production of methane is an important terminal metabolic process during organic matter degradation in marine sediments. It is generally acknowledged that hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis constitute the dominant pathways of methane production; the importance of methanogenesis from methylated compounds remains poorly understood. We conducted various biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses to characterize substrate availability, rates of methanogenesis, and methanogen community composition, and further evaluated the contribution of different substrates and pathways for methane production in deltaic surface and subsurface sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Major substrates representing three methanogenic pathways, including H2, acetate, and methanol, trimethylamine (TMA), and dimethylsulfide (DMS), were detected in the pore waters and sediments, and exhibited variability over depth and between sites. In accompanying incubation experiments, methanogenesis rates from various 14C labeled substrates varied as well, suggesting that environmental factors, such as sulfate concentration and organic matter quality, could significantly influence the relative importance of individual pathway. In particular, methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis contributed to the presence of micromolar methane concentrations in the sulfate reduction zone, with methanogenesis from methanol accounting for up to 98% of the total methane production in the topmost surface sediment. In the sulfate-depleted zone, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant methanogenic pathway (67-98%), and enhanced methane production from acetate was observed in organic-rich sediment (up to 31%). Methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA) analysis revealed that the composition of methanogenic communities was generally consistent with the distribution of methanogenic activity from different substrates. This study provides the first quantitative assessment of

  4. Composition, provenance and source weathering of Mesozoic sandstones from Western-Central Mediterranean Alpine Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, F.

    2014-03-01

    Forty-two Mesozoic sandstone samples from three different sedimentary successions of the Internal Domains along the Western-Central Mediterranean Alpine Chains (Betic Cordillera, Rif Chain and Calabria-Peloritani Arc) were chemically analyzed to characterize their composition and the degree of weathering in the source area(s). The Rif Chain sandstones have SiO2 contents higher than those of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc and Betic Cordillera sandstones, whereas Al2O3 contents are higher in the Calabria-Peloritani Arc sandstones rather than in the Rif Chain and Betic Cordillera sandstones. The indices of compositional variability (ICV) of the studied samples are generally less than 1, suggesting that the samples are compositionally mature and were likely dominated by recycling. Recycling processes are also shown by the Al-Zr-Ti diagram indicating zircon addition and, thus, recycling processes. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values are quite homogeneous for the Calabria-Peloritani Arc (mean = 76) and Betic Cordillera sandstones (mean = 55), whereas the Rif Chain sandstones are characterized by CIA values ranging from 54 to 76. The CIW and PIA values are high for all the studied sandstones indicating intense weathering at the source areas. The different values of weathering rates among the studied sandstones may be related to variations of paleoclimatic conditions during the Mesozoic, that further favored recycling processes. Thus, these differences among the studied samples, may be related to an increase in continental palaeoweathering conditions and sediment recycling effects from the Middle Triassic to the earliest Jurassic due to rising humidity. In addition, regional tectonic movements promoted structural changes that allowed sedimentary recycling and subsidence, which in turn caused diagenetic K-metasomatism. These processes could significantly affect the CIW and PIA weathering indices, which likely monitor a cumulative effect, including several cycles of

  5. Late Miocene/Early Pliocene vertebrate fauna from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Pere; Rofes, Juan; Bailon, Salvador; Agustí, Jordi; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Torres, Enric; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-03-01

    The vertebrate fossil record from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) has improved considerably over the past decade, especially in Mallorca and Menorca. In Menorca, the Pliocene terrestrial fauna was updated by the discovery and description of the large-sized leporid Nuralagus, several reptiles and an amphibian. In Mallorca, paleontological exploration yielded 2 deposits with a Late Miocene/Early Pliocene chronology, Caló den Rafelino (CdR) and Na Burguesa-1 (NB-1). So far, 4 new mammalian taxa and 2 new reptiles have been identified for the CdR deposit, whereas the faunal assemblage from the recently discovered deposit (Apr 2012) of NB-1 is currently composed of, at least, 6 terrestrial mammals, 8 reptiles and an amphibian. Its faunal composition and some primitive characteristics of the obtained taxa suggest that the chronology of this deposit is slightly earlier than the CdR. The terrestrial vertebrates recorded in these 2 Mallorcan deposits are changing the view of the paleofaunal assemblage previously known for the Plio-Pleistocene of the island. Morphological characteristics displayed by some of the taxa suggest that these faunas would be at the beginning of an isolated evolution. In this paper we present a preliminary report on the fossils recovered from the NB-1 deposit, as well as some unpublished data from CdR, and we analyze the whole fauna from both Mallorcan deposits, focusing on taxonomical and paleobiogeographical aspects. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Spatio-temporal patterns in the north-western Mediterranean from MERIS derived chlorophyll a concentration

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    Ana Gordoa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the major surface signatures of chlorophyll a in the Catalan Sea within the context of the dynamics of the north-western Mediterranean basin. Monthly composites from MERIS measurements and CHL products for Case 1 waters were analysed from June 2002 to June 2005. Composite images of variability were used to identify surface dynamics. The results showed that coastal and open sea waters were separated by a belt of low variability, a permanent oligotrophic belt that is noticeable with respect to the bloom conditions of the surrounding areas. The width of this Catalan Oligotrophic Belt (COB located along the continental slope, varied between 17 and 30 km and became blurred in the southernmost area. The chlorophyll a temporal pattern over the shelf showed an almost steady increase from September to March. A similar behaviour but with lower concentrations was observed in oceanic waters. Both temporal patterns showed a disruption during January and/or February that coincided with the well known deep water formation event in the Gulf of Lions. In 2004, the convection was weaker and the offshore temporal trend was not disrupted; however, the opposite was observed in 2005. The spatial chlorophyll a distribution of oceanic waters presented a clear north-south decreasing trend, while the coastal distribution did not show any latitudinal patterns but rather peaks in the areas enriched by river runoff. The observed seasonality was similar to the one published from SeaWiFS data and slightly different from the seasonality shown by CZCS data. Nevertheless, we did not discard the possibility that some of the observed seasonal differences could be a true temporal shift in chlorophyll a production.

  7. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

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    Pascaline J Le Gouar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected. Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  8. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpera, Carolina [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: csanpera@ub.edu; Moreno, Roci' o [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Xavier [Departament Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Lluis [Departament Salut Publica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed.

  9. Western Mediterranean coastal waters--monitoring PCBs and pesticides accumulation in Mytilus galloprovincialis by active mussel watching: the Mytilos project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpato, Alfonso; Romanelli, Giulia; Galgani, Francois; Andral, Bruno; Amici, Marina; Giordano, Pierpaolo; Caixach, Josep; Calvo, Monica; Campillo, Juan Antonio; Albadalejo, José Benedicto; Cento, Alessandro; BenBrahim, Samir; Sammari, Cherif; Deudero, Salud; Boulahdid, Mostefa; Giovanardi, Franco

    2010-04-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination levels in the Western Mediterranean basin, the active mussel watch methodology has been applied. This methodology consists of mussel transplantation (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from non impacted areas to selected coastal areas, characterised by potential impact from the continent due to contaminating sources. The areas of interest were selected along the entire coastal development of the Western Mediterranean sea, 122 sites in total. The time of mussel caging exposure was 12 weeks. The project was co-financed in the frame of the Interreg IIIB Meddoc Programme, aimed at determining the overall chemical quality of the Mediterranean sea, consistent with the Water Framework Directive 2000/60. Several partners representative of the coastal Mediterranean Countries were involved in the Project, with the purpose of building up a common surveillance network, adopting shared methodologies. In this paper we present the results of three yearly monitoring campaigns (2004, 2005, 2006) carried out along the coasts of Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, including the coastal environment of Baleares, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. The contamination levels of Pesticides (DDT and its metabolites, Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers alpha and gamma) and Polychlorinated biphenyls, are reported and discussed. Statistical elaborations performed on the original data set were mainly aimed at validating the raw sample distributions, by means of the Johnson method. Both DD and PCB species frequency distributions have been approximated to appropriate theoretical distributions, belonging to the Log-normal and Bounded families. By integrating the related Probability Density Functions (p.d.f.), different accumulation values for DDT, DDD and DDE and PCB species have been estimated, corresponding to fixed percentage points of the area under the respective curves. By choosing appropriate probability level boundaries (33rd and 66th percentile

  10. Distribution of the Mediterranean hake populations (Merluccius merluccius smiridus Rafinesque, 1810 (Ostheichthyes: Gadiformes based on six years monitoring by trawl-surveys: some implications for management

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    Lidia Orsi Relini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of trawl survey data collected during the MEDITS project (1994-1999, the distribution of Mediterranean hake populations was described in coastal areas corresponding to about three quarters of both the latitudinal and longitudinal extensions of the Mediterranean Sea, and in the 0-800 m range. Abundance and biomass indices (in terms of number and kg per km2 are presented in 15 geographical sectors and 40 subareas from the Alborán Sea to the Aegean Sea. A statistical analysis by generalized linear modelling performed on such indices per main national blocks (Greece, France, Italy and Spain, and considering the effects of the six years of sampling and the depth, showed that biomass increased from west to east, while for all areas the most significant depth effect appeared between 100 and 200 m, corresponding to the depth range that hosts most of the summer nursery areas. The overall size-frequency distributions in shelf and slope waters, average sizes and total mortality coefficient Z per sector showed that the bulk of the MEDITS samples consisted of young individuals and, with only a few exceptions (western Sardinia, central Aegean, a generalized condition of growth overfishing was apparent. However, no negative trend was found, either in biomass or in average size of fishes, during the six years of the present study. Recruitment patterns were studied by distinguishing the youngest fish as Gaussian groups (modal length from 6 to 9 cm total length in length-frequency distributions of each subarea and main stratum (shelf and slope. Considering the timing of MEDITS surveys (May-July, this approach emphasised the nurseries in the northern part of the western Mediterranean (Gulf of Lions, Ligurian Sea, northern Tyrrhenian Sea and in the northern central Mediterranean, where recruitment occurs mainly during spring. On the other hand, few recruits were found in part of the central and particularly in the eastern Mediterranean, where

  11. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

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    Guschanski Katerina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli. Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years. However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years, followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears

  12. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli). Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years). However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years), followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years) that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears to be a typical

  13. Factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Belio, Jose Felix Magdalena; Colominas-Garrido, Ruben; Lema-Bartolomé, Jorge; Arranz, Amparo Gómez; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Our aim was to analyze the variables associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the adult population. We conducted a cross-sectional study in an established cohort of 1,553 healthy study participants (mean age=55 ± 14 years; 60.3% women). Mediterranean diet adherence was evaluated based on a 14-item questionnaire and the Mediterranean diet adherence screener, which defines adequate adherence as a score of ≥ 9. Physical activity was evaluated using the 7-day physical activity record. Sociodemographic, biological, and anthropometric variables were also evaluated. The differences between Mediterranean diet compliers and noncompliers are defined by the consumption of fruit, red meats, carbonated beverages, wine, fish/shellfish, legumes, pasta, and rice (PMediterranean diet adherence: more physical exercise (odds ratio=1.588), older age (odds ratio=2.162), and moderate alcohol consumption (odds ratio=1.342). The factors associated with improved Mediterranean diet adherence included female sex, age older than 62 years, moderate alcohol consumption, and more than 17 metabolic equivalents (METs)/h/wk of physical exercise. Poorer adherence was associated with males and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure of the crust and mantle beneath Iberia and Western Mediterranean from P and S receiver functions and SKS waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Iolanda, 1973-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Geofísicas e da Geoinformação (Geofísica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 We have conducted a P and S receiver functions [PRFs and SRFs] analysis for 19 seismic stations on the Iberia and western Mediterranean. In the transition zone [TZ] the PRFs analysis reveals a band [from Gibraltar to Balearic] increased by 10-20 km relative to the standard 250 km. The TZ thickness variations are strongly correlated with the P660s times in PRFs. We i...

  15. Crustal deformation evidences for viscous coupling and fragmented lithosphere at the Nubia-Iberia plate boundary (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.; Fernández, José

    2016-04-01

    A spatially dense crustal velocity field, based on up to 15 years of GNSS observations at more than 380 sites and extensively covering the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa, allow us to provide new insights into two main tectonic processes currently occurring in this area. We detected a slow large-scale clockwise rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to a local pole located closely to the northwestern sector of the Pyrenean mountain range (Palano et al., 2015). Although this crustal deformation pattern could suggest a rigid rotating lithosphere block, this model would predict significant shortening along the Western (off-shore Lisbon) and North Iberian margin which cannot totally ruled out but currently is not clearly observed. Conversely, we favour the interpretation that this pattern reflects the quasi-continuous straining of the ductile lithosphere in some sectors of South and Western Iberia in response to viscous coupling of the NW Nubia and Iberian plate boundary in the Gulf of Cádiz. Furthermore, the western Mediterranean basin appears fragmented into independent crustal tectonic blocks, which delimited by inherited lithospheric shear structures and trapped within the Nubia-Eurasia collision, are currently accommodating most of the plate convergence rate. Among these blocks, an (oceanic-like western) Algerian one is currently transferring a significant fraction of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence rate into the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia) and likely causing the eastward motion of the Baleares Promontory. Most of the observed crustal ground deformation can be attributed to processes driven by spatially variable lithospheric plate forces imposed along the Nubia-Eurasia convergence boundary. Nevertheless, the observed deformation field infers a very low convergence rates as observed also at the eastern side of the western Mediterranean, along the Calabro Peloritan Arc, by space geodesy (e.g. Palano, 2015). References Palano M. (2015). On the present

  16. Drivers of population structure of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Genov, Tilen; Holcer, Draško; Fortuna, Caterina Maria; Gaspari, Stefania; Scheinin, A. P.; Natali, Chiara; Frantzis, Alexandros; Chelazzi, Guido; Moura, André E.

    2015-01-01

    The drivers of population differentiation in oceanic high dispersal organisms, have been crucial for research in evolutionary biology. Adaptation to different environments is commonly invoked as a driver of differentiation in the oceans, in alternative to geographic isolation. In this study, we investigate the population structure and phylogeography of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the Mediterranean Sea, using microsatellite loci and the entire mtDNA control region. By furthe...

  17. Particulate Matter over the Western Mediterranean sea: new insights gained from data collected during the 2011, 2012 and 2015 CNR research cruise campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Jessica; D'Amore, Francesco; Naccarato, Attilio; Moretti, Sacha; Mannarino, Valentino; Bencardino, Mariantonia; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin, due to its unique geographic position and its peculiar meteo-climatic conditions, appears to be an area with a relevant pollution load. Significant is the contribution of dense ship traffic and highly industrialized population centres surrounding the basin itself but a large influence is also due to geological sources like Saharan dust and volcanic ashes. The transport of both natural dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the marine environment involves considerable interest, not least for its potential impact on marine ecosystems, world climate and air quality. However, whereas there is already a large monitoring database measuring air pollution at surface land-based sites and in ports, there is a relatively little information on atmospheric aerosol directly measured at sea. In order to fill in the gap of observations in the Mediterranean basin and to gain more insight into the atmospheric dynamical and chemical mechanisms leading to high surface Particulate Matter (PM) levels, the Institute of Atmospheric Pollution of the National Research Council (CNR-IIA), since 2003, has started regular ship-borne measurements over the Mediterranean Sea. In the present work we will specifically focus on PM observations obtained, travelling on the sea, during three cruise campaigns performed during autumn 2011, summer 2012 and summer 2015, along different tracks and almost covering the Western Mediterranean sector. We specifically recorded two, gravimetrically determined, PM size fraction mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10), whose major and trace elemental composition was subsequently obtained by chemical analysis with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Overall, we obtained 40 days of data observations whose analysis contributes to investigate the causes of aerosol pollution in this area. Data on PM mass concentrations showed a quite high variability ranging from 10.5 to 38.8 μg.m-3 for the PM10, and from 5.5 to 29.7 μg.m-3 for

  18. T waves in Western Mediterranean Sea after the May 21, 2003 Algerian earthquake

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    C. Eva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to discuss on the T phases generated after the mb 6.5 earthquake that shook Algeria on May 21, 2003. The seismograms, recorded by a cluster of seismic stations located on the coast facing the Ligurian Sea, Northern Italy, some 800 km N-NE from the source, represent a good database able to shed some light on the recognition, propagation and characteristics of these quite uncommon phases. The occurrence and the recording of T phases are in fact due to particular conditions, and require both particular characteristics of the bathymetric slope and the existence of a clear path between the instruments and the earthquake’s source: these constraints are exactly realized in the north-western part of the Mediterranean Sea, whose coasts have been affected several times in the past by similar events. The preliminary investigations on the complex recorded seismogram show two different behaviours for stations close the coast and inland. In both cases, two distinct T phases (namely T1 and T2 are observed. In one case they have apparent velocities close to an average SOFAR channel, and are thus the recording of direct T phases. In particular, T1 is probably a precursor due to some scattering, while T2 is the direct T wave. Conversely, the recordings of the stations inland show apparent velocities that suggest back conversion of the original T to P and S waves and a crustal path. The frequency content of the T phases, as derived from the spectral analysis, reveals marked amplitude peaks also in the range 1-3 Hz, conversely to what was proposed by other authors for similar occurrences in other parts of the world. Since the geometry and shape of the SOFAR channel vary, it is highly likely that the spectrum is biased by the water conditions and the frequency content might change in different seas. Finally, the attenuation of the T phase does not depend on the actual distance of the receiver from the source but rather from the

  19. Tracking climate variability in the western Mediterranean during the Late Holocene: a multiproxy approach

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    V. Nieto-Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic Basin, near the Alboran Basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to fluvial-eolian oscillations, changes in redox conditions and paleocurrent intensity. Multivariate analyses allowed us to characterize three main groups of geochemical and mineralogical proxies determining the sedimentary record of this region. These three statistical groups were applied to reconstruct paleoclimate conditions at high resolution during the Late Holocene. An increase in riverine input (fluvial-derived elements – Rb/Al, Ba/Al, REE/Al, Si/Al, Ti/Al, Mg/Al and K/Al ratios, and a decrease in Saharan eolian input (Zr/Al ratio depict the Roman Humid Period and the Little Ice Age, while drier environmental conditions are recognized during the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, faster bottom currents and more energetic hydrodynamic conditions for the former periods are evidenced by enhanced sortable silt (10-63 μm and quartz content, and by better oxygenated bottom waters – as reflected by decreasing redox-sensitive elements (V/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and Zn/Al ratios. In contrast, opposite paleoceanographic conditions are distinguished during the latter periods, i.e. the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Although no Ba excess was registered, other paleoproductivity indicators (total organic carbon content, Br/Al ratio, and organometallic ligands such as U and Cu display the highest values during the Roman Humid Period, and together with increasing preservation of organic matter, this period exhibits by far the most intense productivity of the last 4000 yr. Fluctuations in detrital input into the basin as the main process managing deposition, reflected by the

  20. PICASSO: Lithosphere Structure in the Western Mediterranean from Ps Receiver Functions and Rayleigh Wave Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Humphreys, E.; Miller, M. S.; Carbonell, R.; Gallart, J.

    2012-04-01

    The western Mediterranean is a diffuse plate boundary separating the African and Eurasian plates. Cenozoic deformation is centered on the Gibraltar arc and Alboran Sea, and occupies a wide area from the southern Iberian Massif in Spain to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. We present a model of the lithospheric structure of this region derived from Rayleigh wave tomography and Ps receiver functions, using data from the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) linear broadband array of ~100 seismographs. This array is deployed from central Spain to the Morocco-Algerian border. We complement these data with some of that recorded by IberArray, an areal broadband array, operated by the Spanish seismological community, covering the same region with a uniform 50 km x 50 km grid of stations. Rayleigh phase velocities have been measured from 20-167s period using the two-plane-wave method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D structure on a 0.25 by 0.25 degree grid. Ps receiver functions at 1Hz and 2Hz were calculated for the same area using water-level and time-domain iterative deconvolution, and were then CCP stacked. The Rayleigh wave shear velocity model, jointly interpreted with the discontinuity structure from the CCP stack, shows the first-order lithospheric structure, and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). From north to south along the PICASSO profile: The lithosphere is ~120 km thick beneath the Iberian Massif, where it has the highest shear velocity, 4.45 km/s. To the south the lithosphere thins dramatically beneath the Betic Mountains to ~85 km, and then varies in thickness and decreases in velocity beneath the Alboran Sea and Gibraltar Arc. The thinnest lithosphere, ~60 km, is observed beneath the Rif mountains and Middle Atlas, with a low velocity feature (4.2 km/s) at ~60 km depth beneath a site of Late Cenozoic

  1. Short-term temporal variability in fish community structure at two western Mediterranean slope locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moranta, Joan; Massutí, Enric; Stefanescu, Constantí; Palmer, Miquel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2008-07-01

    Short-term temporal variability in deep-sea demersal fish assemblages is described for two slope areas characterised by different oceanographic conditions, which are situated north (Balearic sub-basin, BsB) and south (Algerian sub-basin, AsB) of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). A total of 75 hauls were analysed from six bottom trawl surveys carried out in the two sub-basins. At BsB, surveys were designed for sampling different slope habitats during April 1991, December 1991, March 1992 and July 1992: (i) a submarine canyon at a depth of around 450 m, (ii) the upper slope at a depth of 600-650 m, and (iii) the middle slope at a depth of around 1200 m. At AsB, surveys were carried out during October 1996 and May 1998, along a continuous transect on the upper, middle and lower slope. The taxonomic composition, ecological parameters (number of species, abundance and biomass) and biomass spectra of the assemblages, as well as the length frequency distribution of the main species, were compared for different seasons and bathymetric ranges. Forty-four demersal species were captured in BsB and 38 in AsB. Helicolenus dactylopterus and Trachyrinchus scabrus were more abundant in BsB, and Hoplostethus mediterraneus, Galeus melastomus and Centroscymnus coelolepis in AsB. Depth was the determinant factor in all the analyses. Species-specific densities (abundance and biomass) showed significant differences between surveys, depth strata and their interaction in BsB. However, survey and its interaction with depth, were not significant in AsB. We also found significant differences in relation to depth and season for the three ecological parameters tested in BsB, but only significant differences in relation to depth in AsB. Biomass spectra showed large differences in relation to depth but only slight between-survey differences, which mainly occurred in the upper slope. The length frequency distributions of single species presented short-term temporal variations, mainly

  2. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

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    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary depocentre containing overpressured shales. Although some of these MVs have been studied, the detailed biogeochemistry of expelled mud so far has not been examined in detail. This work provides the first results on the composition and origin of organic matter, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) processes and general characteristics on MV dynamics using lipid biomarkers as the main tool. Lipid biomarker analysis was performed on MV expelled material (mud breccias) and interbedded hemipelagic sediments from Perejil, Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs located in the northwest margin of the Alboran Sea. The n alkane distributions and n alkane-derived indices (CPI and ACL), in combination with the epimerization degree of hopanes (22S/(22S+22R)) indicate that all studied mud breccia have a similar biomarker composition consisting of mainly thermally immature organic matter with an admixture of petroleum-derived compounds. This concordant composition indicates that common source strata must feed all three studied MVs. The past or present AOM activity was established using lipid biomarkers specific for anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (irregular isoprenoids and dialkyl glycerol diethers) and the depleted carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of crocetane/phytane. The presence of these lipid biomarkers, together with the low amounts of detected glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, is consistent with the dominance of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 over ANME-1, at least in mud breccia from Perejil MVs. In contrast, the scarce presence or lack of these AOM-related lipid biomarkers in sediments from Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs, suggests that no recent active methane seepage

  3. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part I: The North-Western Mediterranean, including the Pelagos sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Sophie; Pettex, Emeline; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; David, Léa; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary, the largest Marine Protected Area (MPA) designed for marine mammals in the Mediterranean. A total of 8 distinct species of cetaceans were identified, and their occurrence within the sanctuary was investigated. Abundance estimates were obtained for three groups of species: the small delphinids (striped dolphins mainly), the bottlenose dolphin and the fin whale. There was a seasonal variation in striped dolphin abundance between winter (57,300 individuals, 95% CI: 34,500-102,000) and summer (130,000, 95% CI: 76,800-222,100). In contrast, bottlenose dolphin winter abundance was thrice that of summer. It was also the only species to exhibit any preference for the Pelagos sanctuary. Fin whale abundance had the reverse pattern with winter abundance (1000 individuals, 95% CI: 500-2500) and summer (2500 individuals, 95% CI: 1500-4300), without any preference for the sanctuary. Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales did not exhibit strong seasonal pattern in their abundance. These results provide baseline estimates which can be used to inform conservation policies and instruments such as the Habitats Directive or the recent European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  4. Geochemical signal in drip waters and carbonates from three year monitoring of Drac Cave in Mallorca (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Isabel; Cisneros, Mercé; Torner, Judit; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Bladé, Ileana; Fornos, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In order to establish the potential connection between climatic conditions over Mallorca and the chemistry of speleothem growths, a still ongoing monitoring exercise is in development in Drac Cave in Mallorca (Spain) starting from April 2013. This location in the Western Mediterranean was selected to represent Mediterranean semi-arid climatic conditions within a wider monitoring plan covering a transect across the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, from the Catabric realm, across the Pyrenees and Iberian ranges until the Mediterranean, within the framework of the OPERA research project. Drip waters have been recovered at weakly resolution and carbonate precipitates represent seasonal periods. This monitoring is complemented with drip water and carbonate collection at seasonal scale in another cave close to Drac Cave. This second cave was selected in order to represent comparable climatic conditions but far of any human land-intervention since the Drac cave is partially located under an urban developed area, although drip water and carbonate collection is performed in a location bellow autochthonous forest. First results show that drip flow has a rather constant rate along the year even though the large contrast on rain availability. In contrast, chemical signal of the drip waters shows a rapid response (few days) to changes in rain patterns but of relatively small magnitude. Isotopes in the carbonate precipitates present a seasonal signal and trend that reflect changes in the drip water composition. This data set, although preliminary, will be discussed in the context of the changing meteorological conditions of the last three years.

  5. 6-kyr record of flood frequency and intensity in the western Mediterranean Alps - Interplay of solar and temperature forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Sabatier; Bruno, Wilhelm; Francesco, Ficetola Gentile; Fanny, Moiroux; Jérôme, Poulenard; Anne-Lise, Develle; Adeline, Bichet; Wentao, Chen; Cécile, Pignol; Jean-Louis, Reyss; Ludovic, Gielly; Manon, Bajard; Yves, Perrette; Emmanuel, Malet; Pierre, Taberlet; Fabien, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    The high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis of a sediment sequence from Lake Savine (Western Mediterranean Alps, France) led to the identification of 220 event layers for the last 6000 years. 200 were triggered by flood events and 20 by underwater mass movements possibly related to earthquakes that occurred in 5 clusters of increase seismicity. Because human activity could influence the flood chronicle, the presence of pastures was reconstructed through ancient DNA, which suggested that the flood chronicle was mainly driven by hydroclimate variability. Weather reanalysis of historical floods allow to identify that mesoscale precipitation events called ;East Return; events were the main triggers of floods recorded in Lake Savine. The first part of this palaeoflood record (6-4 kyr BP) was characterized by increases in flood frequency and intensity in phase with Northern Alpine palaeoflood records. By contrast, the second part of the record (i.e., since 4 kyr BP) was phased with Southern Alpine palaeoflood records. These results suggest a palaeohydrological transition at approximately 4 kyr BP, as has been previously described for the Mediterranean region. This may have resulted in a change of flood-prone hydro-meteorological processes, i.e., in the balance between occurrence and intensity of local convective climatic phenomena and their influence on Mediterranean mesoscale precipitation events in this part of the Alps. At a centennial timescale, increases in flood frequency and intensity corresponded to periods of solar minima, affecting climate through atmospheric changes in the Euro-Atlantic sector.

  6. Back arc extension, tectonic inheritance, and volcanism in the Ligurian Sea, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollet, Nadège; Déverchère, Jacques; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Guennoc, Pol; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Sosson, Marc; Truffert, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    The Ligurian basin, western Mediterranean Sea, has opened from late Oligocene to early Miocene times, behind the Apulian subduction zone and partly within the western Alpine belt. We analyze the deep structures of the basin and its conjugate margins in order to describe the tectonic styles of opening and to investigate the possible contributions of forces responsible for the basin formation, especially the pulling force induced by the retreating subduction hinge and the gravitational body force from the Alpine wedge. To undertake this analysis, we combine new multichannel seismic reflection data (Malis cruise, 1995) with other geophysical data (previous multichannel and monochannel seismic sections, magnetic anomalies) and constrain them by geological sampling from two recent cruises (dredges from Marco cruise, 1995, and submersible dives from Cylice cruise, 1997). From an analysis of basement morphology and seismic facies, we refine the extent of the different domains in the Ligurian Sea: (1) the continental thinned margins, with strong changes in width and structure along strike and on both sides of the ocean; (2) the transitional domain to the basin; and (3) a narrow, atypical oceanic domain. Margin structures are characterized by few tilted blocks along the narrow margins, where inherited structures seem to control synrift sedimentation and margin segmentation. On the NW Corsican margin, extension is distributed over more than 120 km, including offshore Alpine Corsica, and several oceanward faults sole on a relatively flat reflector. We interpret them as previous Alpine thrusts reactivated during rifting as normal faults soling on a normal ductile shear zone. Using correlations between magnetic data, seismic facies, and sampling, we propose a new map of the distribution of magmatism. The oceanic domain depicts narrow, isolated magnetic anomalies and is interpreted as tholeitic volcanics settled within an unroofed upper mantle, whereas calcalkaline volcanism

  7. Range-wide variation in the ecological niche and floral polymorphism of the western mediterranean geophyte narcissus dubius Gouan

    OpenAIRE

    Papuga, Guillaume; Gauthier, Perrine; Ramos, José; Pons, V.; Pironon, S; Farris, Emmanuele; Thompson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of research. Comparative studies of variation in the ecology and genetics of natural plant populations located at the limits and in the center of a species range provide fundamental insights into the historical formation of species distribution patterns. Methodology. In this study, we quantify variation in the ecological niche and the expression of a floral polymorphism across the range of the Mediterranean geophyte Narcissus dubius Gouan. An exhaustive data set of known locations was...

  8. Genetic structure and diversity of the selfing model grass Brachypodium stacei (Poaceae in Western Mediterranean: out of the Iberian Peninsula and into the islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriia Shiposha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual Mediterranean species of the genus Brachypodium are promising model plants for energy crops since their selfing nature and short-life cycles are an advantage in breeding programs. The false brome, B. distachyon, has already been sequenced and new genomic initiatives have triggered the de-novo genome sequencing of its close relatives such as B. stacei, a species that was until recently mistaken for B. distachyon. However, the success of these initiatives hinges on detailed knowledge about the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations for the effective use of germplasm in a breeding program. Understanding population genetic diversity and genetic structure is also an important prerequisite for designing effective experimental populations for genomic wide studies. However, population genetic data are still limited in B. stacei. We therefore selected and amplified 10 nuclear microsatellite markers to depict patterns of population structure and genetic variation among 181 individuals from 19 populations of B. stacei occurring in its predominant range, the western Mediterranean area: mainland Iberian Peninsula, continental Balearic Islands and oceanic Canary Islands. Our genetic results support the occurrence of a predominant selfing system with extremely high levels of homozygosity across the analyzed populations. Despite the low level of genetic variation found, two different genetic clusters were retrieved, one clustering all SE Iberian mainland populations and the island of Minorca and another one grouping all S Iberian mainland populations, the Canary Islands and all Majorcan populations except one that clustered with the former group. These results, together with a high sharing of alleles (89% suggest different colonization routes from the mainland Iberian Peninsula into the islands. A recent colonization scenario could explain the relatively low levels of genetic diversity and low number of alleles found in the Canary

  9. The Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A Relict Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem, D; Goffman, O; Elasar, M; Hadar, N; Scheinin, A; Lewis, T

    Only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the Mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. Preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an Atlantic origin, yet the Mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the Atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the Sicilian Channel and most within the bounds of the Levantine Basin. These dolphins are apparently a small, relict population, probably the remnant of a larger one, contiguous with that in the Atlantic and nowadays entrapped in the easternmost and warmest province. Abundance data are lacking for the species in the Mediterranean. Configuring acoustic detection software to recognise the apparently idiosyncratic vocalisations of rough-toothed dolphins in past and future acoustic recordings may prove useful for potential acoustic monitoring. Evidence accumulated so far, though scant, points to seasonal occupation of shallow coastal waters. Vulnerability to entanglement in gill-nets, contaminants in the region, and the occurrence of mass strandings (possibly in response to anthropogenic noise), are major conservation concerns for the population in the Mediterranean Sea. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of seawater fluorescence and dissolved flavins in the Almeria-Oran front (Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momzikoff, A.; Dallot, S.; Gondry, G.

    1994-08-01

    Seawater fluorescence in the blue region of the spectrum (excitation at 360 nm) due to fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), and dissolved flavins were investigated in the Almeria-Oran geostrophic front (western Mediterranean) in the 0-200 m layer. Seawater fluorescence increased with depth from a minimum in the jet divergence, increasing towards the oligotrophic waters located outside the jet zone, and reaching a maximum in the right side of the jet, a convergence zone. Comparisons with other recorded parameters suggested both physical and biological factors were involved in its distribution along the transect. Photodegradation due to light-penetration and seawater enrichment with FDOM due to biological activity appeared as driving factors of fluorescence distribution. Fluorescence increase along the secondary circulation of the jet was attributed to the combined effects of aging of a bloom (where it was suggested that both auto- and heterotrophic populations were involved) and photodegradation. FDOM of deeper waters (found in the divergence zone) was inferred to be less photodegradable than that generated in the productive layers (the convergence zone). From these data fluorescence in the oligotrophic sites was deduced to originate from prevaling biological activity. Three flavins were investigated: riboflavin and its photoproducts (lumichrome and lumiflavin). The vertical distribution of flavins was marked by a stratification into two layers of enhanced concentrations. The upper one was found to coincide with the upper chlorophyll layer (DCM or DCM1), the lower one with the lower chlorophyll layer (DCM2, where it occurred) and/or with the base of the halocline. From these depth coincidences both auto- and heterotrophic populations were inferred to be sources of flavins although their respective contributions were hard to determine. As for fluorescence, an increase of flavins was found in the jet zone. However significant differences were found between the

  11. Population genetic structure and connectivity of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Silvia; Penna, Antonella; Pecchioli, Elena; Jordi, Antoni; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2012-01-07

    The toxin-producing microbial species Alexandrium minutum has a wide distribution in the Mediterranean Sea and causes high biomass blooms with consequences on the environment, human health and coastal-related economic activities. Comprehension of algal genetic differences and associated connectivity is fundamental to understand the geographical scale of adaptation and dispersal pathways of harmful microalgal species. In the present study, we combine A. minutum population genetic analyses based on microsatellites with indirect connectivity (C(i)) estimations derived from a general circulation model of the Mediterranean sea. Our results show that four major clusters of genetically homogeneous groups can be identified, loosely corresponding to four regional seas: Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian and Catalan. Each of the four clusters included a small fraction of mixed and allochthonous genotypes from other Mediterranean areas, but the assignment to one of the four clusters was sufficiently robust as proved by the high ancestry coefficient values displayed by most of the individuals (>84%). The population structure of A. minutum on this scale can be explained by microalgal dispersion following the main regional circulation patterns over successive generations. We hypothesize that limited connectivity among the A. minutum populations results in low gene flow but not in the erosion of variability within the population, as indicated by the high gene diversity values. This study represents a first and new integrated approach, combining both genetic and numerical methods, to characterize and interpret the population structure of a toxic microalgal species. This approach of characterizing genetic population structure and connectivity at a regional scale holds promise for the control and management of the harmful algal bloom events in the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Ongoing lithospheric removal in the western Mediterranean: Evidence from Ps receiver functions and thermobarometry of Neogene basalts (PICASSO project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Sally; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan; Carbonell, Ramon; Lee, Cin-Ty

    2014-04-01

    The western Mediterranean tectonic system consists of the Betic Mountains in southern Spain and the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco curved around the back-arc extensional Alboran basin. Multiple tectonic models have been developed to explain the coeval compressional and extensional tectonic processes that have affected the western Mediterranean since the Oligocene. In order to provide constraints on these evolutionary models, we use Ps teleseismic receiver functions (RF), thermobarometric analyses of post-Oligocene basalts, and previous teleseismic tomography images to investigate the lithospheric structure of the region. Ps RFs were calculated using seismic data from 239 broadband seismic stations in southern Iberia and northern Morocco and thermobarometric analysis was performed on 19 volcanic samples distributed throughout the region. The RF images reveal a highly variable Moho depth (˜25 to ˜55 km), as well as a strong positive, sub-Moho horizon between ˜45 and ˜80 km depth beneath the central Betic and Rif Mountains, which we interpret to be the top of the previously imaged Alboran Sea slab. Thermobarometric constraints from magmas in the eastern Betics and Rif indicate mantle melting depths between 40 and 60 km, typical of melting depths beneath mid-oceanic ridges where little to no lithosphere exists. Together, the RF and thermobarometric data suggest ongoing and recent slab detachment resulting from delamination of the continental lithosphere.

  13. Recent improvements in mesoscale characterization of the western Mediterranean Sea: synergy between satellite altimetry and other observational approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Pascual

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimetry is a key component of the global observing system and plays a major role in the study of the mesoscale processes that drive most of the ocean circulation variability at middle and high latitudes. However, satellite altimetry alone provides only surface information at a limited spatio-temporal resolution. To address these limitations and to better describe the mesoscale three-dimensional variability, it is necessary to complement altimetry data with additional remote and in situ measurements. This study provides an update of the recent advances in the study of the mesoscale variability using a combination of altimetry and other independent observations, with an emphasis on the results obtained for the western Mediterranean Sea. The circulation in this area is complex because of the presence of multiple interacting scales, including basin-scale, sub-basin–scale and mesoscale structures. Thus, characterizing these processes requires high-resolution observations and multi-sensor approaches. Accordingly, multi-platform experiments and analyses have been designed and undertaken in the different sub-basins of the western Mediterranean Sea. These studies have demonstrated the advantages of synergetic approaches that use a combination of observation techniques and are able to resolve different spatio-temporal scales with the aim of better understanding mesoscale dynamics.

  14. Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

    2014-06-16

    Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Appraising timing response of paleoenvironmental proxies to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean over the last 20 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Ortega-Huertas, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    The timing of climate responses to the Bond cycle is investigated in the western Mediterranean. Periodicities had been previously reported in a marine sediment record from this region spanning the last 20 kyr, and registered by diverse paleoenvironmental proxies, in particular those associated with terrigenous input, redox conditions, productivity, sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. Further cross-spectral analyses on these time series reveal leads-lags in the 1400 year climate cycle. Considering as reference a terrigenous input proxy (the K/Al ratio), all the paleoenvironmental proxies displayed time shifts varying from ca. 700 year to ca. 350 year. SST and salinity variations show a first leaded response with the inflow of cold and less salty Atlantic waters. Followed by a time lead of 525 year, progresively arid conditions with an increase of eolian dust transport to the area, given by the Zr/Al signal, are observed. The intensification of dust transport could have triggered a latest biological response, lead by 350 year, with an increase of productivity, as suggested by the Ba/Al ratio. Lastly changes in the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation, indicated by a selected redox proxy (the U/Th ratio), are observed. These results support that the oceanic response triggered the atmospheric response to the Bond cycle in the western Mediterranean. Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation mode and in the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations with variations in the monsoon activity or Saharan winds system, are considered as main forcing mechanisms, with a complex relationship of the involved phenomena.

  16. Modified Mediterranean diet score and cardiovascular risk in a North American working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Yang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is linked to lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in studies of Mediterranean cohorts, older subjects, and/or those with existing health conditions. No studies have examined the effects of this dietary pattern in younger working populations in the United States. We investigated the effects of Mediterranean diet adherence on cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers, metabolic syndrome and body composition in an occupationally active, non-Mediterranean cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a cohort of 780 career male firefighters, ages 18 years or older, from the United States Midwest. No dietary intervention was performed. A modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS was developed for assessment of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern from a previously administered life-style questionnaire that examined pre-existing dietary habits. Clinical data from fire department medical examinations were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Obese subjects had significantly lower mMDS, and they reported greater fast/take-out food consumption (p<0.001 and intake of sweetened drinks during meals (p = 0.002. After multivariate adjustment, higher mMDS was inversely related to risk of weight gain over the past 5 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.84, p for trend across score quartiles: 0.01; as well as the presence of metabolic syndrome components (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.94, p for trend across score quartiles: 0.04. Higher HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.008 and lower LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.04 were observed in those with higher mMDS in linear regression after multivariate adjustment for age, BMI and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of young and active US adults, greater adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern had significant inverse associations with metabolic syndrome, LDL-cholesterol and reported weight gain, and was significantly and

  17. West Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Balearic islands, Sardinia) and the Basque population: contribution of HLA class I molecular markers to their evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, M C; Crouau-Roy, B; Amoros, J P; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Carcassi, C; Orru, S; Viader, C; Contu, L

    2001-11-01

    The genetic structure of Balearic islands (Corsica and Sardinia), situated on the same trans-Mediterranean maritime routes and having very similar histories, were compared and their position among the neighbouring Caucasian populations was inferred. For this purpose, three HLA loci (HLA-A, -B and -Cw) were typed at the DNA level in these populations and the allelic and haplotypic frequencies were estimated. Because previous studies have shown common genetic features in the Sardinians and Basques, HLA-Cw molecular typing was also performed in a sample of French Basques in order to establish the haplotypic structure of this population for a more accurate comparison with the three others. By its allelic composition, the Corsican population has an intermediate position between the two other islander populations. Its close relationship with the Sardinian population, however, was clearly revealed by the phylogenetic analysis which also suggests a proximity with eastern Mediterranean peoples, whereas the Balearic islands are more narrowly related to Spain and western Europe. Peculiarities were observed in the distributions of some common haplotypes in the populations of the islands that confirm the results of the phylogenetic analysis and could be related to their history. Noteworthy is the presence of the HLA-A30-Cw*0501-B18 haplotype at frequencies approximately 2% in Corsica and the Balearic islands, yet the estimated frequencies of this haplotype are much lower than in the Sardinian and Basque populations.

  18. Maternal fasting glycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, G; Meler, E; Perea, V; Rodríguez, I; Rodríguez-Melcón, A; Guerrero, M; Serra, B

    2017-03-01

    The hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome study demonstrated a continuous association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels below those diagnostic of diabetes and adverse neonatal outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether the same association was found in a Mediterranean population. A retrospective analysis of singleton pregnancies attended at our Hospital between 2008 and 2015 (n = 5203). FPG was evaluated in the second trimester, and it was divided into 7 categories (1 fasting plasma glucose (7 mg/dL) were 1.26 (1.15 to 1.37) for LGA, 1.28 (1.09 to 1.49) for GHD and 0.83 (0.74-0.93) for SGA. In a multivariate analysis controlling for confounders, FPG remained associated with LGA. We found an association between FPG levels, below those diagnostic of gestational diabetes according to our guidelines, and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in a Mediterranean population.

  19. Technological Language as a Common Language for Euro-Mediterranean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sebastio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and social networks provide new forms of public spaces, virtual continents populated by people of different races, languages, and religions that communicate with a single language, in one unique mode and with one unique tool. In the era of extreme social participation, it is impossible not to consider the role of future policies of education. We cannot ignore the basic language in which the Euro-Mediterranean people recognize themselves, allowing them to interact on all sides of the Mediterranean basin. Technology provides a dialogue bridge, as well as mutual recognition and accreditation for the people who share the Mediterranean Sea and the world. The Internet is the true centre of the Union membership and provides a common good, which generates shared recognition and willingness to communicate; furthermore, it results in the renunciation of personal data protection, as well as the management of its powers to private entities. The aim of this paper is to envisage the effects of the electronic society on the Mediterranean Policies.

  20. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive pote...

  1. Bronze Age metal artefacts found on Cyprus - metal from Anatolia and the Western Mediterranean

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    Stos-Gale, Zofia A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of Bronze Age metal artefacts excavated on archaeological sites in Cyprus have been analysed for their lead isotope and elemental composition in the Isotrace Laboratory, University of Oxford, in the years 1982-2002. In parallel, but in particular after 1995, hundreds of samples of minerals and slags collected from the mines and smelting sites around the Troodos Mountains were also analysed. Most of the results were published in various articles over the years, but the interpretation of some of the lead isotope data needs a current revision in view of new research conducted in Spain, Sardinia and southern France. It has been known that the lead isotope data for metal artefacts from the Cypriot Bronze Age sites shows that not all of the copper is consistent with origin from the Cypriot ores. In addition, the lead and silver artefacts found there must have been imported, because there are no lead or silver ores on Cyprus. The re-evaluation of the data shows that about 11 % of the analysed metal artefacts are consistent with the origin from the deposits in the Aegean and Turkey, while about 14 % with sources in the Western Mediterranean. This paper discusses in detail the current interpretation of the research into the sources of imported metal found in the Bronze Age context on Cyprus.

    Cientos de objetos de metal de la Edad del Bronce excavados en yacimientos de Chipre han sido analizados para conocer su composición elemental y sus isótopos de plomo en el Isotrace Laboratory de la Universidad de Oxford entre los años 1982 y 2002. Especialmente con posterioridad a 1995 cientos de muestras de minerales y escorias recogidas de minas y sitios de reducción de minerales localizadas en el entorno de las montañas de Troodos también fueron analizadas. La mayoría de los resultados fueron publicados en varios artículos a lo largo del tiempo, pero la interpretación de algunos análisis de isótopos de plomo necesitan de una revisión a

  2. The Contribution of the Topo-Iberia Project to the Knowledge of the Western Mediterranean Geodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Cusi, J.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale research program Topo-Iberia aims to unravel the complex structure and mantle processes in the area of interaction between the African and European continental plates in the western Mediterranean. The project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, started in 2007 and will be active till Fall 2013. Topo-Iberia has gathered expertise of different fields of the Earth Sciences. One of the key assets of the project involves the deploying of a technological observatory platform, IberArray, with unprecedented resolution and coverage. This platform is currently building up a comprehensive, multidisciplinary data set, stored by the SIGEOF database, which includes seismological, GPS and magnetotelluric data. Using also other analytical methodologies included in the Topo-Iberia program (potential fields, quantitative analysis of the topography, dating methods) the final scope of the project is to study the relationship between superficial and deep-rooted processes. Topo-Iberia has also benefited from the interaction with other projects investigating the same area, as the American program PICASSO, the French Pyrope or the Portuguese WILAS. This interaction includes sharing the available data to better assess the key geological questions. This contribution will present the current state of the most significant scientific results which are arising from the data acquired using the Iberarray platform. -. SKS splitting analysis has provided a spectacular image of the anisotropic pattern over the area, including a clear rotation of the fast velocity direction along the Gibraltar Arc. -. Receiver functions have revealed the crustal thickness variations beneath the Rif and southern Iberia, including a crustal root beneath the Rif not clearly documented previously. The 410-km and 660-km upper mantle discontinuities have been investigated using novel cross-correlation/stacking techniques. -. Surface wave tomography using both earthquakes and ambient

  3. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  4. Population genetics of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Europe reveal source-sink dynamics and secondary dispersal to the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Sören; Fuentes, Veronica; Haslob, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Repeated invasions of European waters by the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi offer a unique opportunity to study population dynamics and dispersal in gelatinous zooplankton. Here we followed population establishment in two recently invaded areas, the North and Baltic Sea, and analysed changes...... in population structure during a 3-yr interval using 7 highly polymorphic microsatellites (representing 191 alleles). A second goal was to reconstruct routes of recent invasive range expansion into the Mediterranean Sea. During the study period (2008-2010) populations in North Sea and Western Baltic Sea...... maintained their allelic composition with virtually unchanged levels of genetic diversity and between-population differentiation. This demonstrates that gene flow between the two regions was limited and indicates successful reproduction in both areas. In contrast, at the eastern distribution limit...

  5. Increase in metabolic syndrome as defined by ATPIII from 1992 - 1993 to 2002 - 2003 in a Mediterranean population

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvadó; Genevieve G Buckland; Lluís Serra-Majem; Conxa Castell; Juanjo Cabré; Lluis Salleras-Sanmartí

    2009-01-01

    Increase in metabolic syndrome as defined by ATPIII from 1992 - 1993 to 2002 - 2003 in a Mediterranean population This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to describe the prevalence and evolution of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Mediterranean population of Catalonia, Spain, between 1992-1993 and 2002-2003 by applying the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. Data from two cross-se...

  6. Low clonal propagation in Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata (Octocorallia

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    Joanna Pilczynska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal propagation is a common feature of benthic marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of clonal reproduction in the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata. Mediterranean populations of P. clavata were severely affected by mass mortality events caused by increased water temperature in 1999 and 2003. The populations are characterized by slow growth and episodic recruitment, but after the observed mortalities, an unexpectedly high recovery rate was observed in the severely affected populations from the Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean. Ten years after the last mortality event, we investigated the contribution of clonal propagation in populations from the Ligurian Sea, where some populations were highly affected by mass mortality events, and from the Atlantic, where mortality was never observed. All individuals were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. The contribution of clonal reproduction varied from 0% to 13% and did not differ significantly between affected and unaffected populations. We confirm by using genetic markers that clonal propagation in P. clavata is not common, and that the contribution of clones is too low to play an important role in red gorgonian reproduction and cannot contribute to population recovery at sites that have been affected by mass mortality events.

  7. Genetic diversity and phylogeography in two diploid ferns, Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, in the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, H V; Ansell, S W; Russell, S J; Schneider, H; Vogel, J C

    2009-12-01

    Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum and A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens are diploid rock ferns of limestone outcrops of the western Mediterranean region. Asplenium fontanum subsp. fontanum occurs from Valencia through northeastern Spain to the Alpes-Maritimes and Swiss Jura. Asplenium petrarchae subsp. bivalens occurs only on Majorca, in Valencia and possibly in southern Spain. We analysed allozyme and chloroplast genetic marker diversity in 75 populations of A. fontanum subsp. fontanum and 12 populations of A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens sampled from across their respective ranges. The two species show similar levels of species and population genetic diversity to one another and to other diploid European Asplenium taxa. Both are predominantly outbreeding, as indicated by F(IS) = 0.108 and 0.167 respectively. Substantial between-population differentiation results largely from differentiation between regions. Isolation by distance operates over limited geographic ranges, up to 50 km. In A. fontanum subsp. fontanum, the major geographical differentiation between Valencia and the rest of the taxon range probably represents an ancient range fragmentation. A less pronounced differentiation divides populations in the SW from those in the NE of the range, with evidence for a biogeographic link between the eastern Pyrenees and southeastern France. High diversity in the Pyrenees may either represent ancient population differentiation, or a suture zone. In A. petrarchae subsp. bivalens, populations on Majorca exhibit a subset of the genetic diversity present in Valencia, although the two regions are strongly differentiated by differing allele frequencies. Dispersal from the mainland may have founded Majorcan populations, although a role for in situ island survival cannot be excluded.

  8. Heat flow anomalies on the Western Mediterranean margins: first results from the WestMedFlux-2016 cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Jeffrey; Lucazeau, Francis; Le Gal, Virginie; Rabineau, Marina; Dal Cin, Michela; Bouzid, Abderrezak; Palomino, Desirée; Leroux, Estelle; Akhmanov, Grigory; Battani, Anne; Bachir, Roza Si; Khlystov, Oleg; Koptev, Aleksandre

    2017-04-01

    While there is now a large consensus that Western Mediterranean basins developed in a Miocene back-arc setting due to slab roll-back and that some of its domains are floored by oceanic crust, there is still a lot of speculation on the configuration, nature and evolution of its margins and the ocean-continent transitions (OCT). A thick Messinian layer of evaporites in the deep basin obscures deep seismic reflectors, and only recently seismic refraction and wide-angle studies revealed a confident picture of basement configuration. In order to further constrain models of crustal structure and margin evolution, heat flow is one of the key parameters needed. Recent heat flow studies on other margins have shown the existence of a persistent thermal anomaly under rifted margins that urges to reconsider the classical models of its evolution. The young age of OCT and ceased oceanic formation in the Western Mediterranean make it an interesting test case for a thermo-mechanical study of its margins. The presence of halokinetic structuring and salt diapirs urges the need of close spaced heat flow measurement to evaluate heat refraction and advective heat transfer by fluid migration. During the WestMedFlux cruise on the research vessel L'Atalante, we collected a total of 150 new heat flow measurement (123 in pogo mode, 27 with a sediment corer) in the deep basin of the Western Mediterranean where heat flow data were sparse. Preliminary analysis of the heat flow data confirms two regional trends: in the southern Provencal basin an overall increase from west to east (from about 60 mW/m2 at the Golf of Lion towards 75 mW/m2 at the West-Sardinia margin), while in the northern part of the Algero-Balearic basin heat flow increases from east to west (from about 80 to 100 mW/m2). On this regional trends, several local anomalies are clearly differentiated. In the deep oceanic basin, strong anomalies seem to be merely associated to salt diapiric structures. On the OCT and on the rifted

  9. Diet of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus in the western Mediterranean Sea

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    Carmen Blanco

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Risso’s dolphin in the Mediterranean is described based on 15 animals stranded between 40°25’N 00°32’W and 37°35’N 00°45’E from April 1987 to January 2003. The prey were mainly oceanic cephalopods. Pelagic octopods, especially A. argo, were the most abundant (mean = 41.28%; SD±34.32. Species belonging to the families Ommastrephidae, Histioteuthidae and Onychoteuthidae were also frequent components of its diet. The bathymetric distribution of cephalopods shows that Risso’s dolphin preferentially feeds on the middle slope (600 to 800 m depth in the Mediterranean.

  10. Coralligenous "atolls": discovery of a new morphotype in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Marina; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Clabaut, Philippe; Pergent, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Coralligenous habitat and rhodoliths beds are very important in terms of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea. During an oceanographic campaign, carried out in northern Cap Corse, new coralligenous structures have been discovered. These structures, never previously identified in the Mediterranean Sea, are named "coralligenous atolls" because of their circular shape. The origin and growth dynamics of these atolls are still unknown but their form does not appear to result from hydrodynamic action and an anthropogenic origin also seems unlikely. However, this kind of shape seems rather closer to that of other circular structures (e.g. pockmarks) the origin of which is related to gaseous emissions. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis through chemical analysis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA markers distinguish three sand smelt species in the Atherina boyeri species complex in western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinar, A. S.; Chaoui, L.; Quignard, J. P.; Aurelle, D.; Kara, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atherina boyeri is a common euryhaline teleost fish in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas, which inhabits coastal and estuarine waters, including coastal lagoons and more rarely inland waters. Several recent studies have pointed the possible existence of three distinct groups or species, one lagoon/freshwater group and two 'punctuated and unpunctuated on the flanks' marine groups, within an A. boyeri species complex. This study is a combined approach using otolith shape and molecular markers to better define the structure of the species in the western Mediterranean. Genetic differentiation and species delimitation among nine Atherina boyeri populations from several marine and lagoon/brakish habitat sites in Algeria, Tunisia and France were investigated using three mitochondrial (control region, Cyt b and 16S) and one nuclear markers (2nd intron of S7). For further phylogenetic and phylogeographic study, we added sequences from Genbank covering more areas (Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic). Five groups were found. Two of them perfectly corresponded to two species already recognized Atherina presbyter and Atherina hepsetus, both living in marine waters; and three additional, including Atherina boyeri (brackish and freshwater environments) and two independent groups of marine punctated and unpunctated individuals. Those findings are corroborated by the study of the otolith contour shape of 362 individuals of seven populations from different habitats using Fourier analysis. Individuals could be discriminated into five groups based on the first two functions (Wilk's lambda = 0.07, p < 0.001). Samples from Ziama inlet, marine punctuated individuals and unpunctuated marine specimens from Annaba's Gulf formed three well separated groups. Specimens from Mellah and Mauguio lagoons formed another group. The last one includes individuals from Bizerte and Thau lagoons. The divergences between them strongly support the potential species within the

  12. Parasites of cephalopods in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean: new host records and host specificity

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    C. Gestal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the species composition of the parasite fauna and the values of infection for seven species of cephalopods in the Mediterranean at the Tyrrhenian Sea (West coast of Italy. Results suggest the important role of cephalopods as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of anisakine nematodes and pennellid copepods. The low host specificity (i. e., eurixenous condition of metazoan parasites in cephalopods worldwide is also reinforced.

  13. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective.

  14. Intestinal helminth fauna of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and common dolphin Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Ruth; Giovannini, Anna; Raga, J Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2013-06-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 15 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and 6 short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis from the western Mediterranean. Eight helminth species were found in bottlenose dolphin, i.e., the digeneans Synthesium tursionis, Brachycladium atlanticum, and Pholeter gastrophilus, the nematode Anisakis sp., and the cestodes Tetrabothrius forsteri, Diphyllobothrium sp., Strobilocephalus triangularis, and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. Brachycladium atlanticum, S. triangularis , and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids are new host records. No T. forsteri had previously been reported in Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins. Three species of helminths were recorded in the common dolphin, i.e., the digenean Synthesium delamurei (which was a new host record), and the cestodes T. forsteri and tetraphyllidean plerocercoids. The intestinal helminth communities of bottlenose and common dolphins are depauperate, similar to that of other cetacean species, but those from bottlenose dolphins harbored a higher number of helminth species. This study supports the notion that oceanic cetaceans, such as common dolphins, have a comparatively poorer helminth fauna than that of neritic species, such as bottlenose dolphins, because the likelihood of parasite recruitment is decreased.

  15. Atmospheric mercury species measurements across the Western Mediterranean region: Behaviour and variability during a 2015 research cruise campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Jessica; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Esposito, Giulio; Pirrone, Nicola; Sprovieri, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the ongoing MEDOCEANOR measurements program, an oceanographic cruise campaign was carried out during summer 2015 in the Western sector of Mediterranean Sea basin, on-board the research vessel ;Minerva Uno; of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The overall goal was to investigate the dynamic patterns of mercury in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the main factors affecting mercury behaviour at both coastal and offshore locations. The mean concentrations of the recorded Hg species were 1.6 ± 0.5 ngm-3 , 11.8 ± 15.0 pgm-3 , and 2.4 ± 1.1 pgm-3 , respectively for GEM, GOM, and PBM. Moreover, during the measurement period typical fair-weather conditions of the Mediterranean summer were encountered with high levels of solar radiation and temperature that favoured photochemical reactions. Atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides and other meteorological parameters were in addition recorded and jointly discussed with selected mercury events in terms of their spatio-temporal variations. Changes in air pollutant concentrations were also argued in the light of their likely influencing sources, among which, anthropogenic activities, such as the mercury cell chlor-alkali complex in Tuscany, Italy, and natural influence, like volcanic ashes, detected around the Aeolian area and the in-situ production of reactive gaseous mercury within the Marine Boundary Layer.

  16. Population genetics of Mediterranean and Saharan olives: geographic patterns of differentiation and evidence for early generations of admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, G; El Bakkali, A; Haouane, H; Baali-Cherif, D; Moukhli, A; Khadari, B

    2013-11-01

    The olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was domesticated in the Mediterranean area but its wild relatives are distributed over three continents, from the Mediterranean basin to South Africa and south-western Asia. Recent studies suggested that this crop originated in the Levant while a secondary diversification occurred in most westward areas. A possible contribution of the Saharan subspecies (subsp. laperrinei) has been highlighted, but the data available were too limited to draw definite conclusions. Here, patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean and Saharan olives are analysed to test for recent admixture between these taxa. Nuclear microsatellite and plastid DNA (ptDNA) data were compiled from previous studies and completed for a sample of 470 cultivars, 390 wild Mediterranean trees and 270 Saharan olives. A network was reconstructed for the ptDNA haplotypes, while a Bayesian clustering method was applied to identify the main gene pools in the data set and then simulate and test for early generations of admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Four lineages of ptDNA haplotypes are recognized: three from the Mediterranean basin and one from the Sahara. Only one haplotype, primarily distributed in the Sahara, is shared between laperrinei and europaea. This haplotype is detected once in 'Dhokar', a cultivar from the Maghreb. Nuclear microsatellites show geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean olive that reflect the primary origins of cultivars in the Levant, and indicate a high genetic differentiation between europaea and laperrinei. No first-generation hybrid between europaea and laperrinei is detected, but recent, reciprocal admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan subspecies is found in a few accessions, including 'Dhokar'. This study reports for the first time admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Although its contribution remains limited, Laperrine's olive has been involved in the

  17. From medieval Dar al-Islam to contemporary Malta: raḥl toponymy in a wider western Mediterranean context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Dalli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of raḥl placenames in Andalus and the islands of Majorca, Sicily and Malta in the High Middle Ages has long been noted, studied, and served as the subject of scholarly debate. With the transition of these western Mediterranean lands from Islam to Christianity in the wake of the Iberian Reconquista and the establishment of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, the raḥl did not disappear, but rather became a staple of Christian colonization records in Majorca and Sicily. The same cross-cultural process extends to the example of Malta, where the survival of an Arabic dialect arguably assisted the retention of the raḥl as a living model for placenaming. The paper argues that the raḥl toponym, originally representing a small-scale and individual unit, lent itself particularly well in the insular contexts of the medieval Christian expansion, fitting flexibly in the wider framework of cultural hybridization.

  18. Using SPMDs to monitor the seawater concentrations of PAHs and PCBs in marine protected areas (Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrucci, Alessandro; Marras, Barbara; Campisi, Susanna S; Schintu, Marco

    2013-10-15

    Aqueous concentrations of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in coastal sites of two marine protected areas (MPAs), that is, Asinara and the La Maddalena Archipelago, in Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). The use of semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) enabled the detection of dissolved PAHs and PCBs, even in very low concentrations of (pgL(-1)), in seawater. The results reveal significant differences between the two sampling areas relative to the concentration of the individual PAHs, which provide information concerning the pollution sources affecting relatively pristine environments. The PCBs were generally observed at levels below the detection limits of the utilised method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protogrammus alboranensis n. sp. (Teleostei: Callionymidae, a new species of dragonet from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Farias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Protogrammus alboranensis n. sp. is described on the basis of four specimens from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea. It is characterized within the genus Protogrammus by a total of nine unbranched rays on the second dorsal fin, eight unbranched rays on the anal fin, a very small preopercular spine with an upcurved main tip and one point on the dorsal margin, which is lacking an antrorse spine at the base, the first and second spines of the first dorsal fin filamentous and much longer than the first ray of the second dorsal fin in males, the tip of the last ray of the second dorsal fin reaching beyond the caudal fin base in males, and the anal fin distally black in the males (translucent in females. A key to the species of Protogrammus is presented; the zoogeography of the species is discussed.

  20. A comparison of two seabird communities on opposite coasts of the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Paracuellos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the seabird communities at two sites of the southern and northern shores of the Alborán Sea in the Western Mediterranean (Melilla and Adra respectively during a whole year. Similarities and differences in environmental characteristics of the two study sites were caused by a set of geographical, physical and socio-economic human factors. Sampling was performed weekly during two-hour periods by counting seabirds crossing a given point of the coast. We found similarities in the composition and seasonality of the species between Melilla and Adra. However, there were differences between the two sites in the number of species and individuals, which were usually higher on the southern shore. In this area, seabirds depending on marine trophic resources were more abundant, whereas on the northern shore the most abundant seabird species were those whose feeding habits were not so dependent on sea resources.

  1. The genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana in the south-western Mediterranean range reveals a shared history between North Africa and southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Adrian C; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Haddioui, Abdelmajid; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Picó, F Xavier; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-10

    Deciphering the genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana diversity across its geographic range provides the bases for elucidating the demographic history of this model plant. Despite the unique A. thaliana genomic resources currently available, its history in North Africa, the extreme southern limit in the biodiversity hotspot of the Mediterranean Basin, remains virtually unknown. To approach A. thaliana evolutionary history in North Africa, we have analysed the genetic diversity and structure of 151 individuals collected from 20 populations distributed across Morocco. Genotyping of 249 genome-wide SNPs indicated that Morocco contains substantially lower diversity than most analyzed world regions. However, IBD, STRUCTURE and PCA clustering analyses showed that genetic variation is strongly geographically structured. We also determined the genetic relationships between Morocco and the closest European region, the Iberian Peninsula, by analyses of 201 populations from both regions genotyped with the same SNPs. These analyses detected four genetic groups, but all Moroccan accessions belonged to a common Iberian/Moroccan cluster that appeared highly differentiated from the remaining groups. Thus, we identified a genetic lineage with an isolated demographic history in the south-western Mediterranean region. The existence of this lineage was further supported by the study of several flowering genes and traits, which also found Moroccan accessions similar to the same Iberian group. Nevertheless, genetic diversity for neutral SNPs and flowering genes was higher in Moroccan than in Iberian populations of this lineage. Furthermore, we analyzed the genetic relationships between Morocco and other world regions by joint analyses of a worldwide collection of 337 accessions, which detected an additional weak relationship between North Africa and Asia. The patterns of genetic diversity and structure of A. thaliana in Morocco show that North Africa is part of the species native

  2. Host specificity of Oschmarinella rochebruni and Brachycladium atlanticum (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) in five cetacean species from western Mediterranean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, P; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2011-03-01

    We investigated patterns of specificity of liver flukes (fam. Brachycladiidae) in a community of cetaceans from the western Mediterranean. The liver and pancreas of 103 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, 18 Risso's dolphins, Grampus griseus, 14 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, 8 common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, and 5 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas, were analysed for brachycladiid species. Two species were found: Oschmarinella rochebruni in striped dolphins (prevalence (P): 61.2%; mean intensity (MI) (95% CI): 34.2 (25.7-45.6)), and Brachycladium atlanticum in striped dolphins (P: 39.8%; MI: 7.1 (4.8-13.1)) and a single individual of common dolphin (P: 12.5%; intensity: 19), which represents a new host record. A molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the rDNA gene confirmed that specimens of B. atlanticum were conspecific regardless of host species. Available dietary data suggest that Risso's dolphins, bottlenose dolphins and long-finned pilot whales would contact rarely, if at all, the infective stages of O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum. Neither the prevalence nor the mean abundance of B. atlanticum differed significantly between striped and common dolphins, but a principal component analysis using seven morphometric variables indicated that specimens collected from the common dolphin were stunted. These worms also had fewer eggs compared with specimens typically found in striped dolphins, although the size of the eggs was similar in both host species. Dwarfism and low fecundity have typically been found in helminths infecting unusual host species, and might reflect the lower compatibility of B. atlanticum for common dolphins. In summary, both O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum appear to exhibit a narrow specificity for striped dolphins in the western Mediterranean.

  3. Constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs on Oligocene to present-day Western Mediterranean plate reconstructions: potential role of north Iberia continental delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Te; Wu, Jonny; Wu, Yi-Min; Suppe, John; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Chevrot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    Seismic tomographic images of subducted lithospheric remnants under the western Mediterranean have provided new constraints for Oligocene to present-day plate reconstructions. In this study, we mapped slabs under the western Mediterranean and Iberia from regional seismic tomography (Chevrot et al., 2014; Bezada et al., 2013) and from MITP08 global tomography (Li et al., 2008). A newly developed method was used to unfold (ie. structurally restore) the mapped slabs to a model spherical Earth surface, minimizing area and shape distortion. Slab constraints were input into plate tectonic reconstructions using Gplates software. Our mapping confirms the existence of western Mediterranean slabs including the Betic-Alboran, Algerian, and Calabrian slabs that were previously identified by Spakman and Wortel (2004). When unfolded these mapped slabs fit together in an Oligocene plate reconstruction, within tomographic resolution limits. Slab stretching was not required. Slab segmentation supports the existence of a North Balearic transform. Here we emphasize the potential importance for western Mediterranean tectonics of antoher slab under Iberia that we call the 'mid-Iberia slab'. This slab was first identified by Sibuet et al. (2004) and interpreted to be a Neotethyan suture. We have mapped this slab in detail from recent regional tomography (Chevrot et al., 2014). Our mapped slab is sub-vertical and strikes E-W under the southern margins of the Duero and Ebro basins. We newly interpret this slab to be delaminated northern Iberian continental lithosphere. We propose that continental delamination occurred during the Oligocene and produced uplifted Iberian Meseta topography, internally-drained basins, and high mean elevations that still persist today. We show how Oligocene northern Iberian continental delamination could have initiated subduction and rollback of the western Mediterranean

  4. Dental age estimation standards for a Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkhanis, Shalmira; Mack, Peter; Franklin, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Age estimation in the juvenile skeleton primarily relies on the assessment of the degree of dental and skeletal development relative to full maturity. The timing of the mineralization and eruption of the teeth is a sequential process that, compared to skeletal growth and development, is less affected by extrinsic influences such as nutrition and/or chronic illness. Accordingly, radiographic visualization and analysis of different tooth formation stages are the foundation for a number of widely applied age estimation standards. Presently, however, there is a relative paucity of contemporary dental age estimation standards for a Western Australian population. To that end, the aim of the present study is to develop statistically quantified radiographic age estimation standards for a Western Australian juvenile population. A total of 392 digital orthopantomograms (202 male and 190 female) of Western Australian individuals are analyzed. Following, Moorrees et al. (J. Dent. Res. 42 (1963a) 490-502; Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 21 (1963) 205-213), dental development and root resorption was assessed. Alveolar eruption was analyzed following Bengston (Northwest Univ. Bull. 35 (1935) 3-9). Stages of dental development were used to formulate a series of age estimation polynomial regression models; prediction accuracy (±0.998 to 2.183 years) is further validated using a cross-validation (holdout) sample of 30 film orthopantomograms. A visual atlas of dental development and eruption was subsequently designed for the pooled sex sample. The standards presented here represent a non-invasive and statistically quantified approach for accurate dental age estimation in Western Australian juvenile individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of lantern fish (Myctophidae) in the life-cycle of cetacean parasites from western Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Paula; Nardi, Valentina; Fraija-Fernández, Natalia; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Gil de Sola, Luis; Raga, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Myctophids (lantern fish) and cephalopods play a key role in trophic webs from the continental slope and oceanic waters linking the zooplankton to top predators. Many cetaceans feed on both lantern fish and cephalopods, and such prey would thus be expected to bridge the trophic gap in the life-cycles of helminths infecting cetaceans. However, information on the life-cycles of most of these helminths is extremely scanty. We examined the parasite fauna of myctophids and cephalopods in two areas from the western Mediterranean where at least 21 helminth taxa from cetaceans have been reported and both cetacean diversity and abundance is high. A total of 1012 individuals of 8 lantern fish species, namely, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Notoscopelus elongatus, Benthosema glaciale, Myctophum punctatum, Lobianchia dofleini, Diaphus holti and Hygophum benoiti, and 792 individuals of 2 cephalopod species, Alloteuthis media and Sepietta oweniana, were collected from the Gulf of Valencia and Alboran Sea (Spanish Mediterranean) during 2010-2012 and examined for larval helminths. All these species have been reported as prey for at least some cetacean species in the area. Only five helminth taxa were found. The nematodes Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis physeteris were detected in N. elongatus and C. maderensis (overall prevalence for Anisakis: 8.1% and 0.5%, respectively). Their prevalence in N. elongatus was significantly higher than that from the other three myctophid species with n>50 individuals. A single individual of Hysterothylacium sp. was found in N. elongatus (prevalence: 0.5%) and Raphidascarididae gen. spp. in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 20.3% and 0.7%, respectively). Juvenile didymozoid digeneans (Torticaecum type) were detected in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 18.5% and 4.3%, respectively). Two unidentified cestode plerocercoids were collected from N. elongatus. Our study suggests, for the first time, that myctophids

  6. Mediterranean Founder Mutation Database (MFMD): Taking Advantage from Founder Mutations in Genetics Diagnosis, Genetic Diversity and Migration History of the Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoute, Hicham; Bakhchane, Amina; Benrahma, Houda; Romdhane, Lilia; Gabi, Khalid; Rouba, Hassan; Fakiri, Malika; Abdelhak, Sonia; Lenaers, Guy; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean basin has been the theater of migration crossroads followed by settlement of several societies and cultures in prehistoric and historical times, with important consequences on genetic and genomic determinisms. Here, we present the Mediterranean Founder Mutation Database (MFMD), established to offer web-based access to founder mutation information in the Mediterranean population. Mutation data were collected from the literature and other online resources and systematically reviewed and assembled into this database. The information provided for each founder mutation includes DNA change, amino-acid change, mutation type and mutation effect, as well as mutation frequency and coalescence time when available. Currently, the database contains 383 founder mutations found in 210 genes related to 219 diseases. We believe that MFMD will help scientists and physicians to design more rapid and less expensive genetic diagnostic tests. Moreover, the coalescence time of founder mutations gives an overview about the migration history of the Mediterranean population. MFMD can be publicly accessed from http://mfmd.pasteur.ma. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Dust sources and atmospheric circulation in concert controlling Saharan dust emission and transport towards the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepanski, Kerstin; Mallet, Marc; Heinold, Bernd; Ulrich, Max

    2017-04-01

    Dust transported from north African source regions towards Europe is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the Mediterranean region, a geographic region that is in part densely populated. Besides its impacts on the atmospheric radiation budget, dust suspended in the atmosphere results in reduced air quality, which is generally sensed as a reduction in quality of life. Furthermore, the exposure to dust aerosols enhances the prevalence of respiratory diseases, which reduces the general human wellbeing, and ultimately results in an increased loss of working hours due to illness and hospitalization rates. Characteristics of the atmospheric dust life cycle that determine dust transport will be presented with focus on the ChArMEx special observation period in June and July 2013 using the atmosphere-dust model COSMO-MUSCAT (COSMO: Consortium for Small-scale MOdeling; MUSCAT: MUltiScale Chemistry Aerosol Transport Model). Modes of atmospheric circulation were identified from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the geopotential height at 850 hPa for summer 2013 and compared to EOFs calculated from 1979-2015 ERA-Interim reanalysis. Generally, two different phases were identified. They are related to the eastward propagation of the subtropical ridge into the Mediterranean basin, the position of the Saharan heat low, and the predominant Iberian heat low. The relation of these centres of action illustrates a dipole pattern for enhanced (reduced) dust emission fluxes, stronger (weaker) meridional dust transport, and consequent increase (decrease) atmospheric dust concentrations and deposition fluxes. In concert, the results from this study aim at illustrating the relevance of knowing the dust source locations in concert with the atmospheric circulation. Ultimately, this study addresses the question of what is finally transported towards the Mediterranean basin and Europe from which source regions - and fostered by which atmospheric circulation pattern. Outcomes from this study

  8. A review of methods to assess connectivity and dispersal between fish populations in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Calò

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish populations are linked to each other via dispersal of individuals as eggs, larvae, juveniles or adults. The understanding of this process, known as connectivity, has a pivotal role for the management of overexploited fish stocks and the development of accurate conservation strategies. Knowledge on connectivity and fish movements is considered fundamental toward the correct design of marine protected area (MPA networks for the achievement of the benefits of protection. Connectivity patterns are still largely unknown worldwide. A general lack of knowledge is particularly evident for the Mediterranean Sea where few studies dealing with this topic have been carried out and some methods, currently available for assessing connectivity, have not been used yet. In this review we present the methods used for studying connectivity patterns and fish movements at different life history stages and the main results achieved until now in the Mediterranean Sea. We encompass the pros and cons of each method, and conclude with future perspectives on the use of these methodologies in the Mediterranean context.

  9. Population Structure of the Coral-eating Fireworm Hermodice carunculata in the Wider Caribbean, Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M.; Schizas, N. V.

    2016-02-01

    The bearded fireworm Hermodice carunculata is an important benthic invertebrate scavenger distributed in reefs worldwide. Fireworms are facultative corallivores and have been shown to transfer pathogenic agents between coral colonies. The effects of predation on coral species can be substantial. There is limited data on the genetic population structure of H. carunculata because of its cryptic nature and past studies resulted in ambiguous findings. Both morphological and molecular data suggest the presence of multiple fireworm sibling species but the morphological differences do not reflect the phylogeographic patterns of the species complex. Hermodice carunculata is an ideal species to use for genetic analysis to infer patterns of population structure and gene flow because of its biphasic life style with planktonic larvae and benthic adults. We collected 412 H. carunculata samples from over 20 locations in the Caribbean, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Western and Eastern Atlantic Ocean. We sequenced two mitochondrial markers: Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I (COI) and Cytochrome b (Cytb) from each specimen to examine the genetic diversity of H. carunculata. There is substantial genetic diversity within H. carunculata and preliminary evidence suggests the presence of at least two cryptic species in multiple locations. The presence of multiple species in bearded fireworms indicates our incomplete knowledge in one of the most important invertebrate scavengers in tropical and subtropical reefs.

  10. First in situ observations of the deep-sea carnivorous ascidian Dicopia antirrhinum Monniot C., 1972 in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecho, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Turon, X.

    2014-01-01

    Dicopia antirrhinum C. Monniot, 1972 is a rare species of deep-sea ascidian belonging to the Family Octacnemidae, reported at depths of 1000-2500 m in European Atlantic waters. Adult individuals have never been reported before in the Mediterranean Sea, where only seven juvenile specimens were found in 1975 at 500 m water depth in the Central basin (Malta). The affinities of these specimens with D. antirrhinum were noted, but lack of some typical characters of the species in juveniles prevented a definite taxonomical identification. No other member of the Octacnemidae has ever been found in the Mediterranean. In this study we describe the sampling of an adult specimen of D. antirrhinum at around 1100 m water depth on the flank of the La Fonera (Palamós) canyon, Northwestern Mediterranean, confirming their presence in the Mediterranean Sea. We also observed 5 individuals of this species on their natural habitat with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Our results highlight the potential occurrence of Octacnemidae, the presence of which has been largely overlooked, in several deep-sea canyon areas within the Western Mediterranean basin. These observations are important because they indicate the need for increased sampling effort with new technologies, such as ROVs, in ecologically relevant habitats such as canyons, in order to obtain a more accurate picture of deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  12. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  13. Enviromental influences on the spatio-temporal distribution of Aristeus Antennatus (Risso, 1816) and Aristaeomorpha Foliacea (Risso, 1827) in the Central-Western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Palmas, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    According to the Food and Agriculture of United Nations, almost 80% of the world fish populations are overexploited, depleted or in a state of collapse. In general the Mediterranean Sea is characterized by the 33% of assessed stocks fully exploited, 50% overexploited and the remaining 17% non-fully exploited. Bottom trawling fleets predominate in many Mediterranean fisheries, being responsible for a high share of total catches and, in many cases, yielding the highest earnings among all the fi...

  14. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and population history of Meladema diving beetles on the Atlantic Islands and in the Mediterranean basin (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, I; Bilton, D T; Vogler, A P

    2003-01-01

    The phylogeny and population history of Meladema diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) were examined using mitochondrial DNA sequence from 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase I genes in 51 individuals from 22 populations of the three extant species (M. imbricata endemic to the western Canary Islands, M. lanio endemic to Madeira and M. coriacea widespread in the Western Mediterranean and on the western Canaries), using a combination of phylogenetic and nested clade analyses. Four main lineages are observed within Meladema, representing the three recognized species plus Corsican populations of M. coriacea. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate the sister relationship of the two Atlantic Island taxa, and suggest the possible paraphyly of M. coriacea. A molecular clock approach reveals that speciation within the genus occurred in the Early Pleistocene, indicating that the Atlantic Island endemics are not Tertiary relict taxa as had been proposed previously. Our results point to past population bottlenecks in all four lineages, with recent (Late-Middle Pleistocene) range expansion in non-Corsican M. coriacea and M. imbricata. Within the Canary Islands, M. imbricata seems to have independently colonized La Gomera and La Palma from Tenerife (although a colonization of La Palma from La Gomera cannot be discarded), and M. coriacea has independently colonized Tenerife and Gran Canaria from separate mainland lineages. In the Mediterranean basin this species apparently colonized Corsica on a single occasion, relatively early in its evolutionary history (Early Pleistocene), and has colonized Mallorca recently on multiple occasions. On the only island where M. coriacea and M. imbricata are broadly sympatric (Tenerife), we report evidence of bidirectional hybridization between the two species.

  15. Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H‧ values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

  16. Formation and dispersion of dense water in the western Mediterranean Sea : a focus on small scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estournel, Claude; Marsaleix, Patrick; Ulses, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Convection and dense shelf water formation in the western Mediterranean basin feeds thermohaline circulation through the transformation of Atlantic water into deep water masses. During the summer 2012 - summer 2013 period, a huge data set documenting the different phases of convection have been collected in the frame of the HyMeX and MerMex programs. Numerous processes have been documented from the scale of the mixed patch to the mesoscale and submesoscale. This data set is invaluable to test the ability of numerical models to reproduce these processes. This study uses the SYMPHONIE model at one-kilometer resolution at the scale of the whole western basin. The initial state of the model has been carefully prepared thanks to assimilation of temperature and salinity profiles available in the basin. In a first part, the simulation is validated during the preconditioning, convective and restratification phases. Then the dense water dispersion toward the southern part of the basin is described with an emphasis on the spatial scales of this dispersion. Submesoscale processes are highlighted through the documentation of submesoscale coherent vortices, the existence of which has been proven by observations.

  17. Folk pharmaceutical formulations in western Mediterranean: identification and safety of clays used in pelotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Espejo, Rita; Aguzzi, Carola; Cerezo, Pilar; Salcedo, Inmaculada; López-Galindo, Alberto; Viseras, César

    2014-08-08

    Clays are naturally occurring ingredients of many natural health products, being included in most of ancient Mediterranean/European medical texts and currently used to prepare therapeutic hot-muds (peloids) in several thermal stations of the Mediterranean region. Clays are included in the formulation of peloids as vehicles of the mineral-medicinal water, to obtain inorganic gels with rheological and thermal properties suitable to be topically applied. Knowledge about formulations and preparation procedures of these traditional medicines has been orally transmitted since ancient times. Increasing recognition of the therapeutic utility of these traditional and natural health care substances make necessary a full ethnopharmaceutic research to ascertain those compositional characters that allow to establish quality attributes and corresponding requirements for these materials and products, including identity, purity, richness and safety. Five clay samples (A, B, C, D and E) currently used in various spa centers of southern European/Mediterranean countries were studied. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data were used to asses sample identity and richness. Elemental impurities and microbiological contaminants were also determined and compared to normative limits. Particle size distribution was related to their safety as powder materials. Samples A, C, D and E were identified as "high purity clay", while sample B was identified as a mix of clay minerals and carbonates. The presence of carbonates in this sample could compromise its suitability for pelotherapy. The studied clays meet the main normative limits for metals impurities, with the exception of arsenic in sample A and nickel in sample B. The samples comply with the microbiological limits proposed by European legislation for medicinal products. According to the particle size of the studied samples, prevention and control of dust exposure must be considered. Despite their demonstrated longevity

  18. A Comparison Between Craniofacial Templates of Iranian and Western Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Hosseinzadeh Nik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Templates are very useful tools for diagnosis of malocclusions. A number of templates have been provided for some populations in previous years. Since craniofacial characteristics of different ethnic groups are not the same, each population needs its own norms. The aim of this study was to provide orthodontic craniofacial templates for 8-16 year old Iranian boys and compare dentoskeletal features between Iranian and western populations. 3330 boys with the age range of 8-16 years were examined in Tehran, and 107 cases were finally chosen for the study and their lateral cephalograms were traced. Since there is no universal, consensus about the selection of one specific point or line for cephalometric superimposition, both the sella nasion (SN and basion nasion (Ba-N lines were chosen for this purpose. Based on both SN and Ba-N lines, a template was prepared for each age. Simple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the angles and the multivariant regression analysis for evaluation of landmark vectors. Posterior cranial base, maxillary and mandibular lengths, upper and lower anterior facial heights (N-ANS and ANS-Me and posterior facial height (S-Go are greater in Iranian population. But anterior cranial base, height and inclination of the incisors and molar height are similar in two populations.

  19. Active population growth and immigration hypotheses in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, S

    2000-03-01

    The paper examines, in respect of 12 Western European countries over a period of 20 years, the widely held view that any decline in their working population should be offset by greater reliance on immigrant labor. This research, based on demographic projections and forecasts regarding labor market participation rates by age and sex for each of the countries concerned, focuses on the two most likely scenarios. It appears that only Italy will be faced with a fall in its working population. All other western countries will either maintain the same level or, more generally, see their workforce grow substantially. Accordingly, the authors may safely assert that there is no risk of a shortage of workers between now and the year 2020, and that an increasing supply of labor will render reliance on a greater influx of immigrant workers unnecessary. The second part analyses changes in the structure of the demand for labor. The authors deal chiefly with the phenomenon of the concentration of foreign manpower in each sector, its flexibility and mobility in a context of unemployment, as well as the impact of new technologies and globalization on the main determinants of international migration of labor.

  20. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbel, H; Châari, M; Neifar, L

    2012-05-01

    This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia). A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  1. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean

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    Derbel H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia. A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  2. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  3. Tsunamigenic submarine landslides along the Xauen-Tofiño banks in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Mathieu; Maleuvre, Clément; Jollivet-Castelot, Martin; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Lafosse, Manfred; Ercilla, Gemma; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Alonso, Belén; Ammar, Abdellah; Gorini, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The active Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary runs across the Alboran Sea in the Western Mediterranean Sea, where the connection between the Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses occurs. Earthquakes above magnitude Mw > 6 may favour the occurrence of landslides within contouritic drifts in the Alboran Sea. A compilation of recent multibeam data reveals for the first time the distribution of slope failures along the Xauen-Tofiño banks, in the southern Alboran Sea. Here, we provide a detailed mapping and description of the morphology of eight Holocene landslides, including volume estimations of the failed mass and the related mass transport deposits (MTDs). The most voluminous landslide mobilized ∼0.5 km3 of sediment at the initial stage of slope failure, and formed a ∼2.2-5.6 km3 MTD. A finite-difference numerical model, assimilating the landslide to a granular flow, simulates tsunami generation and propagation for a slide similar to the most voluminous one. Simulations show that the coastline of Al Hoceima may be impacted by a ∼0.5-m-high tsunami wave, whereas the coastline of Al Jebha may be impacted by a ∼1-m-high tsunami wave, only ∼13 min after sediment failure. The 0.2-m-high tsunami waves may impact the southern Spanish coast of the Iberian Peninsula ∼20 min after slide initiation. Although the elevations of the modeled tsunami waves are modest, landslides from the Xauen-Tofiño banks may represent a more dangerous source of tsunami in some parts of the Moroccan coast than earthquakes.

  4. Diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating Lupinus micranthus on both sides of the Western Mediterranean: Algeria and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourebaba, Yasmina; Durán, David; Boulila, Farida; Ahnia, Hadjira; Boulila, Abdelghani; Temprano, Francisco; Palacios, José M; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Rey, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Lupinus micranthus is a lupine distributed in the Mediterranean basin whose nitrogen fixing symbiosis has not been described in detail. In this study, 101 slow-growing nodule isolates were obtained from L. micranthus thriving in soils on both sides of the Western Mediterranean. The diversity of the isolates, 60 from Algeria and 41 from Spain, was addressed by multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, atpD, glnII and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodC). Using genomic fingerprints from BOX elements, 37 different profiles were obtained (22 from Algeria and 15 from Spain). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and concatenated atpD, glnII and recA sequences of a representative isolate of each BOX profile displayed a homogeneous distribution of profiles in six different phylogenetic clusters. All isolates were taxonomically ascribed to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Three clusters comprising 24, 6, and 4 isolates, respectively, accounted for most of the profiles. The largest cluster was close to the Bradyrhizobium canariense lineage, while the other two were related to B. cytisi/B. rifense. The three remaining clusters included only one isolate each, and were close to B. canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii species, respectively. In contrast, phylogenetic clustering of BOX profiles based on nodC sequences yielded only two phylogenetic groups. One of them included all the profiles except one, and belonged to symbiovar genistearum. The remaining profile, constituted by a strain related to B. elkanii, was not related to any well-defined symbiotic lineage, and may constitute both a new symbiovar and a new genospecies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Late Holocene climate change in the western Mediterranean: centennial-scale vegetation and North Atlantic Oscillation variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Román, M. J.; Jimenez-Moreno, G.; Anderson, R. S.; García-Alix, A.; Toney, J. L.; Jiménez-Espejo, F. J. J.; Carrión, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments from alpine peat bogs and lakes from the Sierra Nevada in southeastern Spain (western Mediterranean area) have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by past climate change. Recently, many studies try to find out the relationship between solar activity, atmosphere and ocean dynamics and changes in the terrestrial environments. The Mediterranean is a very sensitive area with respect to atmospheric dynamics due to (1) its location, right in the boundary between subtropical and temperate climate systems and (2) the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the main mechanism that influence present climate in this area. Here we present a multi-proxy high-resolution study from Borreguil de la Caldera (BdlC), a peat bog that records the last ca. 4500 cal yr BP of vegetation, fire, human impact and climate history from the Sierra Nevada. The pollen, charcoal and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) reconstruction in the BdlC-01 record evidence relative humidity changes in the last millennia interrupting the late Holocene aridification trend. This study shows a relative arid period between ca. 4000 and 3100 cal yr BP; the Iberian Roman humid period (ca. 2600 to 1600 cal yr BP); a relative arid period during the Dark Ages (from ca. AD 500 to AD 900) and Medieval Climate Anomaly (from ca. AD 900 to ca. AD 1300) and predominantly wetter conditions corresponding with The Little Ice Age period (from ca. AD 1300 to AD 1850). This climate variability could be explained by centennial scale changes in the NAO and solar activity.

  6. Description of a new Gibbaranea (Araneae: Araneidae from the Western Mediterranean

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    Lissner, Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new humped orb-weaver, Gibbaranea bruuni Lissner spec. nov., is described from specimens collected in Majorca, Spain. The new species is most closely related to two other western Palaearctic species, Gibbaranea gibbosa (Walckenaer, 1802 and Gibbaranea occidentalis Wunderlich, 1989. Araneus dromedarius cuculliger Simon, 1909 (= Gibbaranea bituberculata cuculliger is synonymized with Gibbaranea bituberculata (Walckenaer, 1802, syn. nov.

  7. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  8. Near field earthquake sources scenarios and related tsunamis on the French-Italian Riviera (Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Christophe; Ioualalen, Mansour; Scotti, Oona

    2014-05-01

    The large system of thrust faults recently evidenced at the foot of the northern Ligurian margin accommodates the inversion of this ancient passive margin since at least 5 Ma (Messinian times). At depth, these faults are certainly connected to a major northward dipping thrust that accounts for the major part of the seismicity in the northern Ligurian Sea. The deformations of the Quaternary sediments along the faults attest to a compressive tectonic regime consistent with the focal mechanisms of earthquakes. The major event in the area (the Ligurian earthquake, 1887/02/23, Mw 6.7-6.9 and the related tsunami) could result from the activation of part of the Ligurian thrust. Starting from the Ligurian earthquake source characteristics (strike: N55°E, dip: 16°N, length: 35 km, width: 17 km, co-seismic slip: 1.5 m, focal depth: 15 km, Mw 6.9), we have built an exhaustive set of earthquake scenarios involving the 80 km long Ligurian thrust. (1) Two of these earthquake scenarios ruptured respectively the eastern (offshore Imperia) and western (offshore Nice) part of the Ligurian thrust. (2) As these scenarios must scan the range of potential events in accordance with the geology, a second group of scenarios tests an 80 km long rupture of the entire Ligurian thrust with different strikes (N55°E and N70°E) and different widths of the faulting surface (17 km and 27 km) and then co-seismic slips of 2 m and 3.3 m, respectively. As the Ligurian coast is a densely populated and industrial area, the vulnerability is high. We want to stress here that we are more concerned with tsunamis triggered by local earthquakes. This is because, considering their arrival times (a few minutes), the risk prevention cannot be handled by existing tsunami warning system. For all scenarios we evaluate the tsunami coastal impact. The spatial distribution of the maximum wave height (MWH) is provided with a tentative identification of the processes that are responsible for it. The predictions

  9. [Coffee and tea consumption in a high cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Carrasco, P; Sorlí, J V; Guillén, M; Guillém-Sáiz, P; Quiles, L; Corella, D

    2010-01-01

    Coffee and tea consumption recommendations for a healthy diet have been changing in recent years as it has increased the level of evidence on their benefits has increased. To know the frequency of coffee and tea consumption of in a high cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population (CVR) and to analyze whether there are differences between the consumption of these drinks by cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 945 people (340 males, 605 females) (67.4+/-6.2 years old) with high CVR recruited in primary care centres of Valencia, included in the PREDIMED study. Coffee and tea consumption has been determined through a validated questionnaire. We analyzed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric variables by standard methods. Tea consumption is very low in this Mediterranean population (0.4+/-1.6 cups/weeks). By contrast, coffee consumption averaged nearly one cup per day (6.5+/-5.2 cups/weeks). Hypertensive patients showed a lower overall consumption of coffee than in non-hypertensive patients (6.6+/-5.1 vs 7.3+/-5.9; P=0.023 respectively). These differences were greatest when caffeinated coffee consumption is analyzed (2.9+/-4.5 vs 4.3+/-5.3, Pcoffee and tea than non-diabetics (P=0.015 and P=0.022 respectively), these differences being greater for caffeinated coffee (Pcoffee consumption pattern, based on traditional recommendations, is observed, that as a result of new scientific evidence should be update.

  10. Harvest Strategies for an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management in Western Mediterranean Demersal Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Quetglas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The serious overfishing of most Mediterranean stocks demands urgent reforms of the management measures aiming to guarantee the sustainability of resources, notably when compared with the improvement observed in other European areas. The new EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP constitutes an excellent opportunity to introduce the changes needed for such a reform. According to this CFP, all European fish stocks should be brought to a state where they can produce at MSY by 2020 at the latest. The CFP also establishes that the objective of sustainable exploitation should be achieved through multiannual plans (MAPs adopted in consultation with relevant stakeholders having fisheries management interests such as fishermen, non-governmental organizations, and policy makers. Together with the MSY and MAP approaches, the new CFP contains several other measures, directed to guarantee the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of fisheries by means of the implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM. With this new perspective, the CFP wants to avoid past failures of fisheries management based on monospecific approaches. This study is a first step toward the application of the EAFM in the Balearic Islands by means of the development of a harvest strategy with defined objectives, targets, limits, and clear management control rules aimed at optimizing socioeconomic and ecological objectives in the framework of the new CFP. Different management scenarios designed to achieve that goal were modeled for the main demersal commercial fisheries from the study area, the bottom trawl, and small-scale fisheries. The work begins with a general description of those fisheries, their main fishing grounds, and assessments of the exploitation status of the main target stocks in order to establish the current situation. Secondly, alternative management scenarios to maximize catch and profits while considering societal objectives were evaluated by

  11. Multi-platform validation of a high-resolution model in the Western Mediterranean Sea: insight into spatial-temporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Eva; Mourre, Baptiste; Heslop, Emma; Juza, Mélanie; Escudier, Romain; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the validation of the high resolution Western Mediterranean Operational model (WMOP) developed at SOCIB, the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System. The Mediterranean Sea is often seen as a small scale ocean laboratory where energetic eddies, fronts and circulation features have important ecological consequences. The Medclic project is a program between "La Caixa" Foundation and SOCIB which aims at characterizing and forecasting the "oceanic weather" in the Western Mediterranean Sea, specifically investigating the interactions between the general circulation and mesoscale processes. We use a WMOP 2009-2015 free run hindcast simulation and available observational datasets (altimetry, moorings and gliders) to both assess the numerical simulation and investigate the ocean variability. WMOP has a 2-km spatial resolution and uses CMEMS Mediterranean products as initial and boundary conditions, with surface forcing from the high-resolution Spanish Meteorological Agency model HIRLAM. Different aspects of the spatial and temporal variability in the model are validated from local to regional and basin scales: (1) the principal axis of variability of the surface circulation using altimetry and moorings along the Iberian coast, (2) the inter-annual changes of the surface flows incorporating also glider data, (3) the propagation of mesoscale eddies formed in the Algerian sub-basin using altimetry, and (4) the statistical properties of eddies (number, rotation, size) applying an eddy tracker detection method in the Western Mediterranean Sea. With these key points evaluated in the model, EOF analysis of sea surface height maps are used to investigate spatial patterns of variability associated with eddies, gyres and the basis-scale circulation and so gain insight into the interconnections between sub-basins, as well as the interactions between physical processes at different scales.

  12. The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ternon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric deposition and of sinking particles at 200 and 1000 m depth, were performed in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean between 2003 and 2007, along with phytoplanktonic activity derived from satellite images. Atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust particles was very irregular and confirmed the importance of sporadic high magnitude events over the annual average (11.4 g m−2 yr−1 for the 4 years. The average marine total mass flux was 31 g m−2 yr−1, the larger fraction being the lithogenic one (~37%. The marine total mass flux displayed a seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter, occurring before the onset of the spring bloom. The highest POC fluxes did not occur during the spring bloom nor could they be directly related to any noticeable increase in the surface phytoplanktonic biomass. Over the 4 years of the study, the strongest POC fluxes were concomitant with large increases of the lithogenic marine flux, which had originated from either recent Saharan fallout events (February 2004 and August 2005, from "old" Saharan dust "stored" in the upper water column layer (March 2003 and February 2005, or alternatively from lithogenic material originating from Ligurian riverine flooding (December 2003, Arno, Roya and Var rivers. Those associated export fluxes defined as "lithogenic events", are believed to result from a combination of forcing (winter mixing or Saharan events, in particular extreme ones, biological (zooplankton activity, and also organic-mineral aggregation inducing a ballast effect. By fertilising the surface layer, mixed Saharan dust events were shown to be able to induce "lithogenic events" during the stratification period. These events would be more efficient in transferring POC to the deeper layers than the spring bloom itself. The extreme Saharan event of February 2004 exported ~45% of the total annual POC, compared to an average of

  13. The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternon, E.; Guieu, C.; Loã¿E-Pilot, M.-D.; Leblond, N.; Bosc, E.; Gasser, B.; Miquel, J.-C.; Martín, J.

    2010-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric deposition and of sinking particles at 200 and 1000 m depth, were performed in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) between 2003 and 2007, along with phytoplanktonic activity derived from satellite images. Atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust particles was very irregular and confirmed the importance of sporadic high magnitude events over the annual average (11.4 g m-2 yr-1 for the 4 years). The average marine total mass flux was 31 g m-2 yr-1, the larger fraction being the lithogenic one (~37%). The marine total mass flux displayed a seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter, occurring before the onset of the spring bloom. The highest POC fluxes did not occur during the spring bloom nor could they be directly related to any noticeable increase in the surface phytoplanktonic biomass. Over the 4 years of the study, the strongest POC fluxes were concomitant with large increases of the lithogenic marine flux, which had originated from either recent Saharan fallout events (February 2004 and August 2005), from "old" Saharan dust "stored" in the upper water column layer (March 2003 and February 2005), or alternatively from lithogenic material originating from Ligurian riverine flooding (December 2003, Arno, Roya and Var rivers). Those associated export fluxes defined as "lithogenic events", are believed to result from a combination of forcing (winter mixing or Saharan events, in particular extreme ones), biological (zooplankton) activity, and also organic-mineral aggregation inducing a ballast effect. By fertilising the surface layer, mixed Saharan dust events were shown to be able to induce "lithogenic events" during the stratification period. These events would be more efficient in transferring POC to the deeper layers than the spring bloom itself. The extreme Saharan event of February 2004 exported ~45% of the total annual POC, compared to an average of ~25% for the bloom period. This emphasises the role played by

  14. Very high MHC Class IIB diversity without spatial differentiation in the mediterranean population of greater Flamingos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Mark A F; Béchet, Arnaud; Courtiol, Alexandre; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Amat, Juan A; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Onmuş, Ortaç; Sommer, Simone; Cézilly, Frank

    2017-02-20

    Selective pressure from pathogens is thought to shape the allelic diversity of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in vertebrates. In particular, both local adaptation to pathogens and gene flow are thought to explain a large part of the intraspecific variation observed in MHC allelic diversity. To date, however, evidence that adaptation to locally prevalent pathogens maintains MHC variation is limited to species with limited dispersal and, hence, reduced gene flow. On the one hand high gene flow can disrupt local adaptation in species with high dispersal rates, on the other hand such species are much more likely to experience spatial variation in pathogen pressure, suggesting that there may be intense pathogen mediated selection pressure operating across breeding sites in panmictic species. Such pathogen mediated selection pressure operating across breeding sites should therefore be sufficient to maintain high MHC diversity in high dispersing species in the absence of local adaptation mechanisms. We used the Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus, a long-lived colonial bird showing a homogeneous genetic structure of neutral markers at the scale of the Mediterranean region, to test the prediction that higher MHC allelic diversity with no population structure should occur in large panmictic populations of long-distance dispersing birds than in other resident species. We assessed the level of allelic diversity at the MHC Class IIB exon 2 from 116 individuals born in four different breeding colonies of Greater Flamingo in the Mediterranean region. We found one of the highest allelic diversity (109 alleles, 2 loci) of any non-passerine avian species investigated so far relative to the number of individuals and loci genotyped. There was no evidence of population structure between the four major Mediterranean breeding colonies. Our results suggest that local adaptation at MHC Class IIB in Greater Flamingos is constrained by high gene flow and high MHC diversity

  15. Characterization of the lipid fraction of wild sea urchin from the Sardinian Sea (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Addis, Pierantonio

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of Spatangus purpureus, Echinus melo, Sphaerechinus granularis, and Paracentrotus lividus, sea urchins, has been studied. Sea urchins were collected at different depth along Sardinia coast in the Mediterranean sea, and their gonad was measured, separated, and analyzed for FA composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 53 FAs were detected, 16 saturated (SFA), 10 monounsaturated (MUFA), 9 polyunsaturated (PUFA), and 13 highly unsaturated (HUFA). Moreover, 5 furan FAs (FFAs) were revealed for the first time in sea urchin. The HUFA and PUFA classes were the most represented accounting for almost 80% of total FAs. Among these compounds, C20:4 n6 (19.64, 20.52, 23.37, and 8.48 mg/g, respectively) and C22:6 n3 (19.68, 20.05, 3.83, and 1.78 mg/g, respectively) were the most abundant. The results of principal component analysis indicated that the sea urchin samples could be clearly discriminated with respect to their FAs composition. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Geographical variation in metazoan parasites of the deep-sea fish Bathypterois mediterraneus Bauchot, 1962 (Osteichthyes: Ipnopidae) from the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Paula; Montero, Francisco E.; Carrassón, Maite

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the parasite fauna of Bathypterois mediterraneus, the most common fish below 1500 m in Western Mediterranean waters. Samples were obtained during July 2010 from the continental slope of two different areas (off Catalonia and Balearic Islands) in three different bathymetric strata at depths between 1000 and 2200 m. The parasite fauna of B. mediterraneus included a narrow range of species: Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum, Scolex pleuronectis, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Anisakis sp. larva 3 type II and Sarcotretes sp. Steringophorus cf. dorsolineatum and H. aduncum were the most predominant parasites. H. aduncum showed significant differences in abundance between depths of 2000-2200 m with 1000-1400 m and 1400-2000 m, irrespective of locality, whereas S. cf. dorsolineatum showed significant differences between the two localities at all depths except for 2000-2200 m. We suggest the possible usefulness of these two parasites as geographical indicators for discriminating discrete stocks of B. mediterraneus in Western Mediterranean waters.

  17. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern among the population of the Balearic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Josep A; Romaguera, Dora; Pons, Antoni

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) in the population of the Balearic Islands and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors that might determine adherence to the MDP. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands between 1999 and 2000. A random sample (n 1200) of the adult population (16-65 years) was interviewed. Dietary questionnaires incorporating questions related to socio-economic status, education level, lifestyle factors and health status were utilised. Dietary habits were assessed by means of two 24 h recalls, and a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the MDP was defined according to a score constructed considering the consumption of nine MDP characteristic components: high MUFA:saturated fatty acids ratio, moderate ethanol consumption, high legumes, cereals and roots, fruits, vegetables, and fish consumption, and low consumption of meat and milk. Then, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health status variables that could determine a higher or lower adherence were assessed. Adherence to the MDP among the population of the Balearic Islands was found to be 43.1 (sd 5.8)%, and was similar in all socio-demographic and lifestyle groups, with some differences according to age, sex and physical status. There was an increase in the percentage of adherence with age, which was greater in males than in females. A more physically active lifestyle was associated with a higher adherence to the MDP. The promotion of the Mediterranean lifestyle, including the MDP and greater physical activity, should be reinforced in the population of the Balearic Islands and especially in the younger generations.

  18. Evidencing a prominent Moho topography beneath the Iberian-Western Mediterranean Region, compiled from controlled-source and natural seismic surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, J; Gallart Muset, Josep; Carbonell, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    The complex tectonic interaction processes between the European and African plates at the Western Mediterranean since Mesozoic times have left marked imprints in the present-day crustal architecture of this area, particularly as regarding the lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. The detailed mapping of such variations is essential to understand the regional geodynamics, as it provides major constraints for different seismological, geophysical and geodynamic modeling met...

  19. Predicting SKS-splitting from 35 Myr of subduction and mantle flow evolution in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, Maria; Spakman, Wim; Faccenda, Manuele

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the development of mantle anisotropy associated with the evolution of the Rif-Gibraltar-Betic (RGB) slab of the western Mediterranean and predict SKS-splitting directions for comparison with the recent observations compiled in Diaz and Gallart (2014). Our numerical model of slab evolution starts at 35 Ma and builds on our on recent work (Chertova et al., 2014) with the extension of imposing mantle flow velocities on the side boundaries of the model (Chertova et al., 2017). For the calculation of the evolution of finite strain deformation from the mantle flow field and for prediction of SKS-splitting directions we use the modified D-Rex program of Faccenda (2014). We test the predicted splitting observations against present-day shear wave splitting observations for subduction models with open boundary conditions (Chertova, 2014) and for models with various prescribed mantle flow conditions on the model side boundaries. The latter are predicted time-dependent (1 Myr time steps) velocity boundary conditions computed from back-advection of a temperature and density model of the present-day mantle scaled from a global seismic tomography model (Steinberger et al., 2015). These boundary conditions where used recently to demonstrate the relative insensitivity of RGB slab position and overall slab morphology for external mantle flow (Chertova et al., 2017). Using open boundaries only we obtain a poor to moderate fit between predicted and observed splitting directions after 35 Myr of slab and mantle flow evolution. In contrast, a good fit is obtained when imposing the computed mantle flow velocities on the western, southern, and northern boundaries during 35 Myr of model evolution. This successful model combines local slab-driven mantle flow with remotely forced mantle flow. We are in the process to repeat these calculations for shorter periods of mantle flow evolution to determine how much of past mantle flow is implicitly recorded in present-day observation

  20. [A lower adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with a poorer self-rated health in university population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Vicedo, Ricardo; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; García de la Hera, Manuela; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Checa-Sevilla, José Francisco; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-09-15

    A higher adherence to Mediterranean diet is considered as a protective factor against the large number of deaths attributable to the main chronic degenerative diseases in developed countries. Self-rated health is established as a good indicator of population health status and as a predictor of mortality. Studies exploring the relationship between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and self-rated health are scarce, especially, in young adults. Our aim was to explore the factors related, specially the adherence to a priori-defined Mediterranean diet with self-rated health in a cohort of Spanish university students. We analyzed data from 1110 participants of Spanish DiSA-UMH (Dieta, Salud y Antropometría en universitarios de la Universidad Miguel Hernández) study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the adherence to Mediterranean diet was calculated using the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) according to the consumption of 9 dietary components. Self-rated health was gathered from the question: "In general, how do you consider your health to be? (Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor). Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was also collected. Multinomial logistic regression (using relative risk ratio, RRR) was used to analyze the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet (low rMED: 0-6 points; medium: 7-10 points; high: 11-18 points) and self-rated health (Excellent (reference), good and fair/ poor/very poor). A low, medium or high adherence to Mediterranean diet conformed to 26.8%, 58.7% and 14.4% of participants, which of them reported an excellent (23.1%), good (65.1%) and fair/poor or very poor health, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a lower adherence to Mediterranean diet was significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Assimilation of lidar signals: application to aerosol forecasting in the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Sartelet, K. N.; Bocquet, M.; Chazette, P.; Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Léon, J. F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Augustin, P.; Bach, J.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bush, X.; Comerón, A.; Delbarre, H.; García-Vízcaino, D.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz, C.; Nicolae, D.; Papayannis, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Preissler, J.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Wagner, F.; Dulac, F.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new application of assimilating lidar signals to aerosol forecasting. It aims at investigating the impact of a ground-based lidar network on the analysis and short-term forecasts of aerosols through a case study in the Mediterranean basin. To do so, we employ a data assimilation (DA) algorithm based on the optimal interpolation method developed in the Polair3D chemistry transport model (CTM) of the Polyphemus air quality modelling platform. We assimilate hourly averaged normalised range-corrected lidar signals (PR2) retrieved from a 72 h period of intensive and continuous measurements performed in July 2012 by ground-based lidar systems of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) integrated into the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) network and an additional system in Corsica deployed in the framework of the pre-ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment)/TRAQA (TRAnsport à longue distance et Qualité de l'Air) campaign. This lidar campaign was dedicated to demonstrating the potential operationality of a research network like EARLINET and the potential usefulness of assimilation of lidar signals to aerosol forecasts. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and those with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 2.5 μm but lower than 10 μm (PM10-2.5) are analysed separately using the lidar observations at each DA step. First, we study the spatial and temporal influences of the assimilation of lidar signals on aerosol forecasting. We conduct sensitivity studies on algorithmic parameters, e.g. the horizontal correlation length (Lh) used in the background error covariance matrix (50 km, 100 km or 200 km), the altitudes at which DA is performed (0.75-3.5 km, 1.0-3.5 km or 1.5-3.5 km a.g.l.) and the assimilation period length (12 h or 24 h). We find that DA with Lh = 100 km and assimilation from 1.0 to 3.5 km a.g.l. during a 12 h assimilation period length leads to the

  2. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  3. Potential of Electricity Generation on the Western Coast of Mediterranean Sea in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Shata, A. S.; Abdelaty, S. M.; Hanitsch, R.

    2008-01-01

    A technical and economic assessment has been made of the electricity generation by wind turbines located at three promising potential wind sites: Sidi Barrani, Mersa Matruh and El Dabaa in the extreme northwest of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. These contiguous stations along the coast have an annual mean wind speed greater than 5.0 m/s at a height of 10 m. Weibull's parameters and the power law coefficient for all seasons have been estimated and used to describe the distribution and behavior of seasonal winds at these stations. The annual values of wind potential at the heights of 70-100 m above the ground level were obtained by extrapolation of the 10 m data from the results of our previous work using the power law. The three stations have a high wind power density, ranging from 340-425 to 450-555 W/m2 at the heights of 70-100 m, respectively. In this paper, an analysis of the cost per kWh of electricity generated by two different systems has been made: one using a relatively large single 2 MW wind turbine and the other - 25 small wind turbines (80 kW, total 2 MW) arranged in a wind farm. The yearly energy output of each system at each site was determined, and the electricity generation costs in each case were also calculated and compared with those at using diesel oil, natural gas and photovoltaic systems furnished by the Egyptian Electricity Authority. The single 2 MW wind turbine was found to be more efficient than the wind farm. For all the three considered stations the electricity production cost was found to be less than 2 ɛ cent/kWh, which is about half the specific cost of the wind farm.

  4. Evaluation of an ensemble precipitation prediction system over the Western Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. L.; Santos-Muñoz, D.; Valero, F.; Morata, A.

    2010-10-01

    A short-range ensemble precipitation forecast system has been constructed to be applied to over the Mediterranean area down to a 25-km grid spacing using ten members from the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Model (MM5). The ensemble system consists of ten members, each run with a different combination of two different initial conditions from global models and five different subgrid-scale physics configurations for a 2-weeks period of October 2006. The mesoscale verification is made by using observational precipitation data of Spanish Climatic Network. In terms of the total daily precipitation, spatially averaged over the region, time evolution of bias and root mean square error have shown larger departures in the first and final part of the selected period, maintaining quasi-zero values in the middle of the period. Although the created short-range ensemble shows high-spread-skill correlation values for daily precipitation, the asymmetric shape of the rank histogram shows some underdispersion, suggesting a bias behaviour. Confidence intervals have been built to show observational errors, showing more errors in the bins that suggest bias and underdispersive behaviour of the EPS and less errors in the first bins. Additionally, mean spatial forecast rainfall distributions have shown similar patterns to the observed mean precipitation ones, matching the largest accumulated rainfall values and settling down over the same areas. Relative Operative Characteristics diagrams, showing very outstanding areas, and the attribute diagram are indicative of usefulness of the forecasting system, depicting in general a good agreement between forecast probability and the mean observed frequency. Epsgrams of the spatially averaged total daily precipitation for each ensemble member and for the ensemble system illustrate, in general, good agreement among the different members, showing the spread of the ensemble system with

  5. Sexual development, maturity and reproduction of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in the western and central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potoschi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been conducted on the sexual development, maturity and reproduction of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus L. 1758 in the Mediterranean area, with special reference to the Balearic islands and Sicily. Professional fishing, carried out from August to December 1996, uses FADs (Fish Attracting Devices and surrounding nets. 2087 juvenile specimens of dolphinfish from the Ionian and southern Tyrrhenian seas, the Strait of Sicily and the Balearic islands were sampled. A small number of adult fish (39, which are not usually caught in surrounding nets, was sampled in the swordfish long-line by-catch. The gonads of the young fish were analysed monthly to establish the stage of development of the ovaries or testes, during the first few months of life. The gonads of the adult fish, sampled in the months of June-September only, were all mature. The specimens caught between October and December presented maturity stage V in the case of the females and I in the case of the males, indicating the end of the reproductive period. The gonado-somatic index (GSI and condition factor (CF were calculated for both genders. The trend of the GSI confirms the presence of immature specimens as regards the juvenile fish; the low value of GSI was obtained for the adults, probably associated with the post-reproduction conditions found in the October-December period. Most of the gonads sampled during the months between August and December belonged to young specimens born in early summer. This is confirmed by the juvenile stages (FL 2.5 to 4.3 cm caught with plankton nets in the Strait of Messina area in July.

  6. Pockets, conduits, channels, and plumes: links to volcanism and orogeny in the rollback dominated western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; O'Driscoll, Leland; Becker, Thorsten W.; Holt, Adam; Diaz, Jordi; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Detailed mantle and lithospheric structure from the Canary Islands to Iberia have been imaged with data from recent temporary deployments and select permanent stations from over 300 broadband seismometers. The stations extended across Morocco and Spain as part of the PICASSO, IberArray, and Morocco-Münster experiments. We present results from S receiver functions (SRF), shear wave splitting, waveform modeling, and geodynamic models that help constrain the tectonic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean, including orogenesis of the Atlas Mountains and occurrence of localized alkaline volcanism. Our receiver function images, in agreement with previous geophysical modeling, show that the lithosphere is thin (~65 km) beneath the Atlas, but thickens (~100 km) over a very short length scale at the flanks of the mountains. We find that these dramatic changes in lithospheric thickness also correspond to dramatic decreases in delay times inferred from S and SKS splitting observations of seismic anisotropy. Pockets and conduits of low seismic velocity material below the lithosphere extend along much of the Atlas to Southern Spain and correlate with the locations of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism. Waveform analysis from the USC linear seismic array across the Atlas Mountains constrains the position, shape, and physical characteristics of one localized, low velocity conduit that extends from the uppermost mantle (~200 km depth) up to the volcanoes in the Middle Atlas. The shape, position and temperature of these seismically imaged low velocity anomalies, topography of the base of the lithosphere, morphology of the subducted slab beneath the Alboran Sea, position of the West African Craton and correlation with mantle flow inferred from shear wave splitting suggest that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains and isolated recent volcanics are due to active mantle support that may be from material channeled from the Canary Island plume.

  7. Microtriches of tetraphyllidean metacestodes from Western Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Celia; Aznar, Francisco Javier; Raga, Juan Antonio

    2005-08-01

    The tegumental structures of two types of tetraphyllidean plerocercoids and two types of merocercoids (Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii) from Mediterranean striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, are described for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The tegument of all of the specimens was fully covered with microtriches. Four basic types were found: filitriches, blade-like spinitriches of different sizes and shapes, cone-shaped spinitriches (with two parallel small projections of equal length at the apex), and crowned cylindrical spinitriches (with 6-7 small papillae forming a crown at the apex); the two latter types are newly described. The two types of plerocercoids had a similar morphology and distribution of microtriches; in addition, cilium-like projections appeared interspersed among the microtriches on the apical sucker, accessory suckers, and distal bothridial loculus. Merocercoids exhibited a greater variety of tegumental structures, especially on the distal bothridial loculus. Both merocercoid types had regularly spaced papillae or "buttons" on the accessory suckers and the distal bothridial loculus that were composed of a central cilium-like projection surrounded by numerous filitriches. However, crowned cylindrical spinitriches were specific to P. delphini and cone-shaped spinitriches were specific to M. grimaldii. Differences in the morphology and distribution of scolex microtriches of adult cestodes have been considered useful for species identification. A previous molecular study has suggested that P. delphini and M. grimaldii are actually different congeneric species. Our study has shown that significant differences in the morphology and distribution of microtriches occur between these species at the merocercoid stage. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Usage of satellite data SMOS in order to characterize Sea Surface Salinity in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Robins, Lotem; Olmedo Casal, Estrella

    2017-04-01

    central device. By using interferometry and a matching algorithm between the signals of each possible couple of antennas, synthesis of all the antennas is preformed, which makes it possible to overcome the problem of using large antennas. The SMOS satellite delivers data at accuracy of 0.1psu, with spatial resolution of 200 km. The data is available in different forms, starting from unprocessed data to final products of brightness temperature that are temporally and spatially synchronized (L2 level). By downscaling those products, models of spatial resolution of 25 km and temporal daily resolution are calculated. The meaning of this long process is that the data is going through long process before arriving to scientific analysis. The process from raw data until L2 level involves radiometric and physical corrections, detection and exclusion of atmospheric disturbance, geographical anchor etc. In order to check the possible usage of the processed data of SMOS in the Mediterranean, a simple comparison was held between SMOS and MEDRYS1V2 - reanalysis of the Mediterranean sea during the years 1992-2013, which is based on the oceanic model of NEMO12, and forced by the atmospheric model of ALDERA. While doing this comparison, it is important to remember that the goal of the SMOS program is to deliver data in a global scale, while MEDRYS1V2 was created especially for the Mediterranean. From the comparison of the two data sets, it is possible to detect to main issues: The first issue is that it seems that the SMOS satellite uses more linear interpolation, to describe the space, while the reanalysis is based on the primitive physical equations and data assimilation. The second issue is a large anomaly that occurs probably due to the river spill, which is getting a different signature, as the low resolution of SMOS might be a problem detecting correctly the spill, without another local data source. To conclude, the SMOS program which one of its main goals is to create a reliable

  9. Intraannual variability of the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) and occurrence of extreme torrential rainfall in Catalonia (NE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Bustins, Joan-Albert; Martin-Vide, Javier; Arbiol-Roca, Laia; Prohom, Marc

    2017-04-01

    In previous studies, the use of the Western Mediterranean Oscillation index (WeMOi) at daily resolution has proven to constitute an effective tool for analysing the occurrence of episodes of torrential rainfall over eastern Spain. In the present study, we selected the extreme torrential episodes (≥200 mm in 24 hours) that had taken place over the coastal provinces of Catalonia (Girona, Barcelona and Tarragona) (NE Spain) during the 1950-2013 study period (64 years). We computed daily WeMOi values and constructed WeMOi calendars based upon the mean values obtained for 10-day periods. We considered a threshold of WeMOi <-2 to detect an extreme negative WeMO phase at daily resolution. Our principal results show an occurrence of 36 episodes, mainly concentrated in autumn months. Most of the 36 episodes in the study area occurred on days presenting an extreme negative WeMOi value. Specifically, the most negative WeMOi values are detected in autumn, during the second 10-day period of October (from the 11th to the 20th of October), coinciding with a torrential rainfall maximum. On comparing the sub-periods (1950-1981 and 1982-2013), we observed a decrease in WeMOi values in the month of November, as well as an increase in these extreme torrential episodes. This might indicate a lengthening of the seasonality of the torrential rainfall period up to the end of autumn.

  10. Dating the beginning of the Roman viticultural model in the Western Mediterranean: The case study of Chianti (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversano, Riccardo; Basile, Boris; Buonincontri, Mauro Paolo; Carucci, Francesca; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Di Pasquale, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy) is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a) the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b) a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties. In this period, the Etruscans settlers in Chianti were stimulated by northward-expanding Roman culture to use novel vineyard management practices. We hypothesize that one of the most important innovations may have been the introduction of pruning, inducing vine physiological conditions more favorable to pip growth. Such changes were the consequence of specific entrepreneurial choices made by the Romans in a period of economic investment in grape cultivation and wine making to satisfy the increased trade demand after the conquest of the Central-Western Mediterranean basin.

  11. Dating the beginning of the Roman viticultural model in the Western Mediterranean: The case study of Chianti (Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Aversano

    Full Text Available Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties. In this period, the Etruscans settlers in Chianti were stimulated by northward-expanding Roman culture to use novel vineyard management practices. We hypothesize that one of the most important innovations may have been the introduction of pruning, inducing vine physiological conditions more favorable to pip growth. Such changes were the consequence of specific entrepreneurial choices made by the Romans in a period of economic investment in grape cultivation and wine making to satisfy the increased trade demand after the conquest of the Central-Western Mediterranean basin.

  12. Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ginés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

  13. Stable isotope evidence for the environmental impact of a land-based fish farm in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2004-07-01

    Isotopic examination ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) of organic matter sources and consumers was used to assess the impact and trace the dispersal of wastewater from a land-based fish farm in western Mediterranean. The results provide evidence of the non-negligible effect of aquaculture facilities on the natural stable isotopic composition of organisms. Aquaculture waste entered the food web, altering the natural isotopic composition of organic matter sources at the base and the upper trophic levels. Nitrogen-rich fish waste mainly affected {delta}{sup 15}N values, while {delta}{sup 13}C showed less alteration. Waste seemed to disperse widely enough to affect the isotopic composition at the study site about 500 m from the outfall, while sites at 1 and 2 km from the outfall showed values that were similar to each other and different from those of the impacted site. The impact was detected at different ecosystem levels, although primary producers were more affected by fish farm waste taking up aquaculture-derived nutrients.

  14. Paleoparasitological analysis of the extinct Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba Nunes, Victor Hugo; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Cruz, Paula Borba; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; de Araújo, Adauto José Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca. The samples were subjected to microscopic examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for E. histolytica/E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This study provides new paleoparasitological data from an extinct animal species of the Holocene period. The microscopy revealed one sample containing uninucleated-cyst of Entamoeba sp., whereas ELISA detected nine positive samples for Cryptosporidium sp. The finding of these protozoans can help in the discussion of its extinction cause and demonstrates the antiquity and the evolutionary history of host-parasite relationships between protozoa and caprines since the Messinian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Ocean Dynamics with a Regional Circulation Model and Improved Altimetry in the North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bouffard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal resolution of satellite altimetry is usually sufficient for monitoring the changes of sea surface topography in the open ocean. However, coastal ocean dynamics are much more complex, being characterized by smaller spatial and temporal scales of variability. The quality and availability of satellite-derived products along the coasts have to be improved, with a strategy optimized for coastal targets. Therefore a coastal multi-satellite altimetry dataset (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1; Envisat; GFO at a 10 - 20 Hz sampling rate has been derived from routine geophysical data products using a new processing software dedicated to coastal zone applications. Improved along-track sea level variations with fine space scales are available in the North-western Mediterranean Sea from 2001 to 2003, and are compared with high-resolution numerical model elevations from the eddy-resolving model SYMPHONIE. This preparatory work emphasizes the potential of improved multi-satellite altimetry for validating coastal hydro-dynamical models and could contribute in the future to a better tuning of the boundary conditions of the simulations.

  16. Strategy to design the sea-level monitoring networks for small tsunamigenic oceanic basins: the Western Mediterranean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schindelé

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami triggered a number of international and national initiatives aimed at establishing modern, reliable and robust tsunami warning systems. In addition to the seismic network for initial warning, the main component of the monitoring system is the sea level network. Networks of coastal tide gages and tsunameters are implemented to detect the tsunami after the occurrence of a large earthquake, to confirm or refute the tsunami occurrence. Large oceans tsunami monitoring currently in place in the Pacific and in implementation in the Indian Ocean will be able to detect tsunamis in 1 h. But due to the very short time of waves propagation, in general less than 1 h, a tsunami monitoring system in a smaller basin requires a denser network located close to the seismic zones. A methodology is proposed based on the modeling of tsunami travel time and waveform, and on the estimation of the delay of transmission to design the location and the spacing of the stations. In the case of Western Mediterranean, we demonstrate that a network of around 17 coastal tide gages and 13 tsunameters located at 50 km along the shore is required to detect and measure nearly all tsunamis generated on the Northern coasts of Africa.

  17. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk. PMID:26236294

  18. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and consumption of functional foods among the Balearic Islands' adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Asli Emine; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Murcia, María Antonia; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-03-01

    To assess differences in adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) between consumers and non-consumers of functional foods among the Balearic Islands' adolescent population. Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out (2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean region. Dietary assessment was based on a semi-quantitative FFQ and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Anthropometric measurements and questions related to socio-economic status, physical activity and adherence to the MD were assessed. Data obtained from a representative sample of all inhabitants living in the Balearic Islands aged 12-17 years. A random sample (n 1961) of the adolescent population was interviewed. The mean adherence to the MD among consumers of functional foods was 56.42 (sd 6.05) % and 55.76 (sd 5.41) % among non-consumers. Consumption of fruit juice, fibre-rich bread/cookies, cereal bars, fish and soya milk was higher among adolescents with high MD adherence, and consumption of modified milk, probiotics, breakfast cereals and infusions was higher among adolescents with low MD adherence. Daily intakes of functional dietary components from plant foods (dietary fibre, vitamins C and E, carotene, folic acid) were higher among adolescents with high MD adherence. The Balearic Islands' adolescent population had moderate adherence to the MD; higher adherence was observed among consumers of functional foods. Average daily intakes of functional foods and functional dietary components were higher among adolescents with high adherence to the MD. Gender, age and low parental education were risk factors for low adherence to the MD, mainly among non-consumers of functional foods.

  19. Population structure and connectivity in the Mediterranean sponge Ircinia fasciculata are affected by mass mortalities and hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, A; Pérez-Portela, R; Pita, L; Blasco, G; Erwin, P M; López-Legentil, S

    2016-12-01

    Recent episodes of mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea have been reported for the closely related marine sponges Ircinia fasciculata and Ircinia variabilis that live in sympatry. In this context, the assessment of the genetic diversity, bottlenecks and connectivity of these sponges has become urgent in order to evaluate the potential effects of mass mortalities on their latitudinal range. Our study aims to establish (1) the genetic structure, connectivity and signs of bottlenecks across the populations of I. fasciculata and (2) the hybridization levels between I. fasciculata and I. variabilis. To accomplish the first objective, 194 individuals of I. fasciculata from 12 locations across the Mediterranean were genotyped at 14 microsatellite loci. For the second objective, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences of 16 individuals from both species were analyzed along with genotypes at 12 microsatellite loci of 40 individuals coexisting in 3 Mediterranean populations. We detected strong genetic structure along the Mediterranean for I. fasciculata, with high levels of inbreeding in all locations and bottleneck signs in most locations. Oceanographic barriers like the Almeria-Oran front, North-Balearic front and the Ligurian-Thyrrenian barrier seem to be impeding gene flow for I. fasciculata, adding population divergence to the pattern of isolation by distance derived from the low dispersal abilities of sponge larvae. Hybridization between both species occurred in some populations that might be increasing genetic diversity and somewhat palliating the genetic loss caused by population decimation in I. fasciculata.

  20. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  1. Breast density in screening mammography in Indian population - Is it different from western population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tulika; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singla, Veenu; Kumar, Dileep; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Gurpreet; Bal, Amanjit

    2017-11-15

    Mammography is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of breast cancer. However, higher breast density was strongly associated with lower mammographic sensitivity. Breast density is also identified as independent and strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Studies have shown women with high breast density have four to six times increased risk of breast cancer as compare to women with fatty breast. It varies between different age group it generally decreases with increasing age in postmenopausal women and it can be different in different ethnic groups and people from different geographical areas. This study evaluates the breast density in Indian population and its relationship with the age. We reviewed of all screening mammography examinations performed from May 2012 to January 2015 at our institute PGIMER, Chandigarh, INDIA. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the association between age and breast density. A total of 6132 screening mammograms were performed. Each subgroup categorized by decade of age. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and breast density (P density in Indian and Western population with more Indians having ACR Grade 1 and 2 and Western population having 2 and 3. We found an inverse relationship between patient age and mammographic breast density. However, there were a large proportion of young women who had lower grades of mammographic density which could potentially benefit from the use of routine screening mammography in this subgroup of patients. Moreover, the breast density of Indian population is less when compared to the Western population. This might suggest that mammography is a good modality of choice for screening Indian population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  3. Oblique basin inversion and strain partitioning in back-arc context: example from the Moroccan Alboran Margin (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Manfred; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Tomas Vazquez, Juan; Estrada, Ferran; Galindo-Zaldivar, Jesús; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belén; Gorini, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Neogene and Quaternary directions of extension recorded in the Mediterranean back-arc basins are oblique to the Africa-Eurasia convergence direction (Jolivet and Faccenna, 2000). In those basins, particularly in the Alboran basin, strike-slip tectonics is favored by the obliquity of coeval extension and compressional deformations, first with a transtensive style that switches to a transpressive mode during the Quaternary. Northwards the Betic Cordillera and southward, the Rifian and the Atlas belts bound the Alboran domain. Transtensional and transpressional episodes deform the Alboran domain and create rotating micro-blocks delimited by a major left lateral NE-SW Miocene transtensional shear zone, a.k.a. the Trans Alboran Shear Zone (TASZ). We present new evidences of strain partitioning affecting the South Alboran Margin (Western Mediterranean) during the end of the Neogene and Quaternary. We use seismic data and high-resolution bathymetry (EM710 multibeam echo sounder) from the MARLBORO-1 (12-channel streamer and Air Gun source), SARAS (single channel Sparker and TOPAS systems) and MARLBORO-2 (single channel Sparker source) surveys. The pre-Messinian deformation and the geometry of the Messinian Erosional Surface (MES) and Plio-Quaternary deposits in the deep basin, developed during a regional extensional back-arc setting, evidence late Miocene to Quaternary folding and left-lateral shearing along the South Alboran Ridge. Around 2.58-1.81 My, the sedimentary shelves of volcanic edifices near the Boudinar and Nekor peripheral sub-basins highlight localized subsidence. At present-day, the NNE-SSW left-lateral Al-Idrissi shear zone delimits westwards the youngest micro-block boundary. Non-cylindrical hinge axes of Pliocene folds are interpreted as evidences of a wrench component of the deformation, which seems maximum to the northern flank of the South Alboran Ridge and decreases toward the Nekor Fault. The observed basin geometries and inversion process could

  4. Integrated assessment of infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants and mercury via dietary intake in a central western Mediterranean site (Menorca Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqué, Eva; Garí, Mercè; Arce, Anna; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O

    2017-07-01

    In this research the levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and mercury (Hg) in several food items from Menorca Island were presented. The dietary exposure assessment was performed in children population from the island. Finally, body burden of OCs and Hg in these infants were associated with their dietary intakes of the selected food items. The dietary exposure to persistent pollutants by children population from Menorca Island was assessed. The concentrations of 11 organochlorine pesticides, 6 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs) and 1 inorganic toxic element, Hg, were determined in 46 food samples that included fish, shellfish, meat, fruit, vegetables, cheese and eggs, which were acquired in local markets and department stores in the Menorca Island. The most contaminated food items were fish and shellfish, followed by meat and cheese products. OC levels were similar or lower than in other previous studies. However, 66% of the analysed fish and shellfish species for Hg exceeded the human consumption safety limits according to the European Union Legislation. Pollutant data from food was combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of these contaminants. According to our results, fish and fruit were the main sources of OCs to the EDIs (contributing to 37% and 29%, respectively) while fish and shellfish were the main sources of Hg (76% and 17%). The estimated EDIs of OCs were well below to the reported FAO/WHO Tolerable Intakes. However, estimated weekly intake of Hg would exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake indicated by EFSA in the case that the only fish and seafood source would be from the central western Mediterranean. Direct associations between fish/shellfish consumption and hair concentrations of Hg and fish and meat consumption and 4,4'-DDT concentrations in venous serum in the Menorcan children were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  6. Population and family structure of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a Mediterranean stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Manuel; Sanz, Nuria; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic differentiat......The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic...... differentiation. In the present study, we compared population structure v. family relationships of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) along a Mediterranean stream (Pyrenees) by using eight microsatellite loci. Results showed low levels of genetic (FST) differentiation between collections in a 6.5-km transect along...... the stream, and a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distance matrices, indicating a weak population structure associated with spatial distribution. Our data also indicated that geographical proximity of related individuals in the youngest (0+, 1+) cohorts probably was associated...

  7. Social kin associations and genetic structuring of striped dolphin populations (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, Stefania; Azzellino, Arianna; Airoldi, Sabina; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2007-07-01

    We investigated hierarchical patterns of genetic subdivision, and assessed kinship within and between social groups of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Tyrrhenian Sea. A total of 165 samples were analysed at eight microsatellite DNA loci, including outgroup samples from the Adriatic, Scotland and Spain for population-level comparisons. We found population genetic structure within the Mediterranean basin, including small but significant differentiation between the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas (FST=0.0047, P=0.008), and between putative 'inshore' and 'offshore' (FST=0.0217, P=0.005) populations in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Assessment of kinship within and among 12 association groups showed higher average kinship for females within than between groups, and smaller groups showed higher average kinship. Comparisons of relatedness for both sexes showed a significant difference between males and females, with females more likely to associate with adult kin. Together these data emphasize the importance of the social cohesion of kin in small groups to the structuring of striped dolphin populations in this environment.

  8. Drilling below the salt in the Western Mediterranean Sea : the GOLD-1 (Gulf of Lion Drilling) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Gorini, Christian; Alain, Karine; Participants, International

    2010-05-01

    ultimately on sedimentation in the deep basin. For the Miocene and older sediments the drilling, will yield information about the nature, paleoenvironments and age of deposits enabling an astronomically-tuned Neogene time scale to be refined for the period of Aquitanian through Langhian interval. 3) The Messinian extreme event represents a unique sedimentological, hydrological, oceanographic, biological and probably climatological crisis in Earth history. It is a unique case to study the impact of sea-level drop (more than 1000 m, one order of magnitude greater than Late Quaternary glaciations) on sedimentary river behavior, deltaic and evaporitic deposition and ensuing biotic crisis. Deep drilling with the R/V Chikyu is the only way to go through the complete series of evaporites in the Provence Basin, sample the initiation and evolution of the crises, the first deposits related to the lowering of sea-level on the one hand and to the salinity crisis on the other. 4) Finally, this drilling will represent the first opportunity to study the composition and functioning (metabolic processes and products, regulation of populations, etc.) of the microbial communities (bacteria, Archaea, viruses, fungi and protists) from the deep biosphere of the Mediterranean Sea. An additional and linked MSP GOLD-2 project has the objectives of recovering a unique global Pliocene records preserved on the shelf (Rabineau et al., this congress, session CL 1.6) We invite all interested scientists to join us in planning and promoting this drilling project. We are proposing an IODP Magellan workshop in Banyuls in October 2010 to bring together all interested scientists and stake-holders around these proposals and other drilling projects in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. ICDP). Please contat us at the earliest opportunity.

  9. LiDAR-guided Archaeological Survey of a Mediterranean Landscape: Lessons from the Ancient Greek Polis of Kolophon (Ionia, Western Anatolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Benedikt; Draganits, Erich; Gretscher, Martin; Muss, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, an airborne laser scan survey was conducted in the territory of the Ionian city of Kolophon near the western coast of modern Turkey as part of an archaeological survey project carried out by the Mimar Sinan University of Istanbul (Turkey) and the University of Vienna (Austria). Several light detection and ranging (LiDAR) studies have been carried out in the temperate climate zones of Europe, but only a few in Mediterranean landscapes. Our study is based on the first LiDAR survey carried out for an archaeological purpose in Turkey and one of the first in the Mediterranean that have been planned, measured and filtered especially for archaeological research questions. The interpretation of LiDAR data combined with ground-observations proved extremely useful for the detection and documentation of archaeological remains below Mediterranean evergreen vegetation and dense maquis. This article deals with the methodological aspects of interpreting LiDAR data, using the Kolophon data as a case study. We offer a discussion of the strengths and limitations of LiDAR as an archaeological remote sensing method and suggest a best practice model for interpreting LiDAR data in a Mediterranean context. © 2017 The Authors. Archaeological Prospection published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Depth-related trends in morphological and functional diversity of demersal fish assemblages in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marc; Tuset, Víctor M.; Cartes, Joan E.; Massutí, Enric; Lombarte, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    The morphological and functional traits of fishes are key factors defining the ecological and biological habits of species within ecosystems. However, little is known about how the depth gradient affects these factors. In the present study, several demersal fish assemblages from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea) along a wide depth range (40-2200 m) were morphologically, functionally and ecologically described. The morphological characterization of communities was performed using geometric morphometric methods, while the functional structures were obtained by the functional categorization of species and the application of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). The results revealed that morphospaces presented less richness of body forms as depth increases, although they showed a progressive spreading of species toward the periphery, with a proliferation of more extreme body traits, demonstrating lower morphological redundancy. In addition, a trend toward the elongation of body shape was also observed with depth. Moreover, functional diversity increased with bathymetry up to 1400 m, where it sharply decreased downwards. This decrease was parallel to a progressive fall of H‧ (ecological diversity) up to 2200 m. Functional redundancy progressively decreased until the deepest assemblage (more constantly in the deeper levels), which was almost exclusively dominated by benthopelagic wandering species feeding on suprabenthos. Redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that both morphological and functional spaces showed high variation along the bathymetric range. Mantel test indicated that the majority of species presented similar spatial distribution within the morphospace and functional space, although in the functional space the more abundant species were always located at the periphery. These results demonstrate that the assessment of the morpho-functional variation between marine communities helps to understand the processes that affect the structure and

  11. Underpinning tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region with dynamic slab evolution from 3-D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, M. V.; Spakman, W.; Geenen, T.; van den Berg, A. P.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2014-07-01

    No consensus exists on the tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean since 35 Ma. Three disparate tectonic evolution scenarios are identified, each portraying slab rollback as the driving mechanism but with rollback starting from strongly different subduction geometries. As a critical test for the validity of each tectonic scenario we employ thermomechanical modeling of the 3-D subduction evolution. From each tectonic scenario we configure an initial condition for numerical modeling that mimics the perceived subduction geometry at 35 Ma. We seek to optimize the fit between observed and predicted slab morphology by varying the nonlinear viscoplastic rheology for mantle, slab, and continental margins. From a wide range of experiments we conclude that a tectonic scenario that starts from NW dipping subduction confined to the Balearic margin at 35 Ma is successful in predicting present-day slab morphology. The other two scenarios (initial subduction from Gibraltar to the Baleares and initial subduction under the African margin) lead to mantle structure much different from what is tomographically imaged. The preferred model predicts slab rotation by more than 180°, east-west lithosphere tearing along the north African margin and a resulting steep east dipping slab under the Gibraltar Strait. The preferred subduction model also meets the first-order temporal constraints corresponding to Mid-Miocene ( 16 Ma) thrusting of the Kabylides onto the African margin and nearly stalled subduction under the Rif-Gibraltar-Betic arc since the Tortonian ( 8 Ma). Our modeling also provides constraints on the rheological properties of the mantle and slab, and of continental margins in the region.

  12. Seasonal spatial pattern and community structure of zooplankton in waters off the Baleares archipelago (Central Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Macias, V.; Vicente, L.; Molinero, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the zooplankton community in two different areas of the Baleares Archipelago, Western Mediterranean, using data obtained in autumn (December 2009) and summer (July 2010). Micrometazooplankton and mesozooplankton samples were collected in the 0-200 m layer above the shelf (200 m) and the slope (900 m) of each area by a 53 μm and a 200 μm mesh size net respectively. The zooplankton biomass (expressed as dry weight) was higher in autumn than in summer (9.30 and 6.95 mg m- 3, respectively) with an important contribution of micrometazooplankters (29% and 41% of total biomass respectively). The latter fraction overwhelmed in the entire metazooplankton abundance, suggesting a non-negligible role as potential food for fish in the epipelagic waters of the Baleares archipelago. The abundance of micrometazooplankton was two-fold higher in December (3581 ind. m- 3) than in July (1585 ind. m- 3), represented mainly by small copepods and nauplii. Likewise, the mesozooplankton community showed smaller difference between months (554 and 390 ind. m- 3, in December and July). Micrometazooplankton abundance was higher in the northern area than in the southern area during autumn, probably linked to the presence of a front, while the opposite was found in summer. In both periods and areas copepods dominated, and within the highly diverse community ten species and their juveniles accounted for 70% of the community. In both areas, Clausocalanus (C. pergens + paululus and C. arcuicornis), Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea media, Oithona plumifera and Acartia clausi were abundant in autumn, whereas Centropages typicus, Temora stylifera and Mecynocera clausi were mainly present in summer. ANOSIM analysis revealed significant differences in the mesozooplankton community composition between months while differences between areas were detected only in summer.

  13. Factors affecting the fishing impact on cartilaginous fishes in southeastern Spain (western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mendoza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a global index of impact based on the relative vulnerability of the local population of every species and the further application of regression trees globally optimized with evolutionary algorithms to study the fishing impact on the cartilaginous fish in southeastern Spain. The fishing impact is much higher in areas of less than 40 m depth within 11 km of the Cape Palos marine reserve. The impact also depends on the state of the sea and the kind of habitat. Deep-sea habitats associated with hard substrata and sandy beds show the highest impact, and sublittoral muds and habitats associated with circa littoral rocks with moderate energy show the lowest impact. The fishing impact changes throughout the moon cycle, showing different day-scale patterns associated with different habitats and different species compositions. Finally, we show that the global optimization of the regression trees can be essential to find some important patterns and that these trees are a useful tool for determining which areas are considered to be more important in terms of protection, taking into account specifically the vulnerability of the local populations.

  14. On the occurrence of Zenopsis conchifer (Lowe, 1852 (Osteichthyes, Zeidae in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The capture of four specimens of Silvery John Dory (Zenopsis conchifer,a species recorded in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time in 2006, is reported from the Iberian coast (western Mediterranean. One of the specimens was caught near the Strait of Gibraltar and is probably a vagrant. Despite these catches, there is no evidence of a self–sustaining population, so this species should be considered as alien in the Mediterranean.

  15. Psychiatric Status across Body Mass Index in a Mediterranean Spanish Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar

    Full Text Available Mental and body weight disorders are among the major global health challenges, and their comorbidity may play an important role in treatment and prevention of both pathologies. A growing number of studies have examined the relationship between psychiatric status and body weight, but our knowledge is still limited.The present study aims to investigate the cross-sectional relationships of psychiatric status and body mass index (BMI in Málaga, a Mediterranean city in the South of Spain.A total of 563 participants were recruited from those who came to his primary care physician, using a systematic random sampling, non-proportional stratified by BMI categories. Structured clinical interviews were used to assess current Axes-I and II mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR. BMI was calculated as weight (Kg divided by square of height in meters (m2. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between BMI and the presence of any mental disorder. BMI was introduced in the models using restricted cubic splines.We found that high BMI values were directly associated with mood and adjustment disorders, and low BMI values were directly associated with avoidant and dependent personality disorders (PDs. We observed an inverse relationship between low BMI values and cluster A PDs. There were not significant relationships between anxiety or substance-related disorders and BMI.Psychiatric status and BMI are related in a Mediterranean Spanish population. A multidisciplinary approach to both pathologies becomes increasingly more necessary.

  16. Application of a multi-annual generalized depletion model to the assessment of a data-limited coastal fishery in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Maynou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-annual generalized depletion model was applied to a coastal fishery in Vilanova i la Geltrú (western Mediterranean to assess the exploitation status of striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, two of the main target species of Mediterranean small-scale fisheries. It is shown that in data-limited stocks, which is often the case in small-scale fisheries, catch and effort data at high temporal frequency (day, week, month complemented with biological information and a priori knowledge (mean body weight, natural mortality and period of recruitment to the fishery can be effectively exploited to produce assessment results applicable to fisheries management. For the two species analysed, the assessment results showed that exploitation rates are high and vulnerable biomass has been decreasing over the last 14 years.

  17. First detection of CYP1A1 and CYP2B induction in Mediterranean cetacean skin biopsies and cultured fibroblasts by Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Casini, Silvia; Bucalossi, Daniela; Marsili, Letizia

    2008-07-01

    The need to develop powerful tools to detect exposure and effects of POPs and emerging contaminants in Mediterranean cetaceans led us to develop a suite of sensitive non-lethal biomarkers in integument biopsies of free-ranging animals. In order to propose induction of CYP1A1 and CYP2B, detected by Western blot analysis, as biomarkers of exposure to OCs, PAHs and PBDEs, a three-phase experimental protocol (in vitro experiments, calibration experiments and field applications) was followed using fibroblast cell cultures and biopsies of Mediterranean Stenella coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. This methodology was confirmed to be sensitive and stable in comparison to previous methods used to detect CYP1A1 in biopsies, enabling analysis of several inducible proteins in non-lethal samples and analysis of material from stranded animals.

  18. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  19. Coherent millennial-scale patterns in U37k‧ and TEX86H temperature records during the penultimate interglacial-to-glacial cycle in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Carme; Martrat, Belen; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    The TEX86H temperature proxy is a relatively new proxy based on crenarchaeotal lipids and has rarely been applied together with other temperature proxies. In this study, we applied the TEX86H on a sediment core from the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean, core ODP-977A) covering the penultimate climate cycle, that is, from 244 to 130 ka, and compared this with previously published sea surface temperatures derived from the U37k' of alkenones of haptophyta and Mg/Ca records of planktonic foraminifera. The TEX86H temperature record shows remarkably similar stadial-interstadial patterns and abrupt temperature changes to those observed with the U37k' palaeothermometer. Absolute TEX86H temperature estimates are generally higher than those of U37k', though this difference (crenarchaeota and haptophyta experienced similar temperature variations. During occasional events (<5% of the analyzed time span), however, the TEX86H exhibits considerably higher absolute temperature estimates than the U37k'. Comparison with Mg/Ca records of planktonic foraminifera as well as other Mediterranean TEX86 and U37k' records suggests that part of this divergence may be attributed to seasonal differences, that is, with TEX86H reflecting mainly the warm summer season while U37k' would show annual mean. Biases in the global calibration of both proxies or specific biases in the Mediterranean are an alternative, though less likely, explanation. Despite differences between absolute TEX86H and U37k' temperatures, the correlation between the two proxies (r2 = 0.59, 95% significance) provides support for the occurrence of abrupt temperature variations in the western Mediterranean during the penultimate interglacial-to-glacial cycle.

  20. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with the gut microbiota pattern and gastrointestinal characteristics in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsou, Evdokia K; Kakali, Aimilia; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kyriacou, Adamantini

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the potential associations of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with gut microbiota characteristics and gastrointestinal symptomatology in an adult population. Other long-term dietary habits (e.g. consumption of snacks and junk food or stimulant intake) were also evaluated in terms of the gut microbiota profile. Participants (n 120) underwent anthropometric, dietary, physical activity and lifestyle evaluation. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a Mediterranean diet score, the MedDietScore, and subjects were classified into three tertiles according to individual adherence scoring. Gut microbiota composition was determined using quantitative PCR and plate-count techniques, and faecal SCFA were analysed using GC. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. Participants with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet had lower Escherichia coli counts (P=0·022), a higher bifidobacteria:E. coli ratio (P=0·025), increased levels and prevalence of Candida albicans (P=0·039 and P=0·050, respectively), greater molar ratio of acetate (P=0·009), higher defaecation frequency (P=0·028) and a more pronounced gastrointestinal symptomatology compared with those reporting low adherence. A lower molar ratio of valerate was also observed in the case of high adherence to the Mediterranean diet compared with the other two tertiles (P for trend=0·005). Positive correlations of MedDietScore with gastrointestinal symptoms, faecal moisture, total bacteria, bifidobacteria:E. coli ratio, relative share of Bacteroides, C. albicans and total SCFA, as well as negative associations with cultivable E. coli levels and valerate were indicated. Fast food consumption was characterised by suppressed representation of lactobacilli and butyrate-producing bacteria. In conclusion, our findings support a link between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and gut microbiota characteristics.

  1. Settlement and post-settlement survival rates of the white seabream (Diplodus sargus) in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Amalia; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Cardona, Luis; Cheminée, Adrien; Hidalgo, Manuel; Moranta, Joan

    2018-01-01

    Survival during the settlement window is a limiting variable for recruitment. The survival is believed to be strongly determined by biological interactions and sea conditions, however it has been poorly investigated. We examined the settlement patterns related to relevant biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. Density-dependence, wind stress, wave height and coastal current velocity) potentially determining post-settler survival rates of a coastal necto-benthic fish of wide distribution in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, the white seabream (Diplodus sargus). An observational study of the demography of juveniles of this species was carried out at six coves in Menorca Island (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean). Three of the coves were located in the northern and wind exposed coast, at the Northeast (NE) side; while the other three were found along the southern and sheltered coast, at the Southwest (SW) side of the island. The settlement period extended from early May to late June and maximum juvenile densities at the sampling sites varied between 5 and 11 ind. m-1 with maximum values observed in late May simultaneously occurring in the two coasts. Our analysis of juvenile survival, based on the interpretation of the observed patters using an individual based model (IBM), revealed two stages in the size-mortality relationships. An initial density-dependent stage was observed for juveniles up to 20 mm TL, followed by a density independent stage when other factors dominated the survival at sizes > 20 mm TL. No significant environmental effects were observed for the small size class (30mm TL) size class. In the NE, the wind stress consistently affected the density of fish of 20-30 mm and >30 mm TL with a dome-shape effect with higher densities at intermediate values of wind stress and negative effect at the extremes. The best models applied in the SW coves showed a significant non-linear negative effect on fish density that was also consistent for both groups 20

  2. Settlement and post-settlement survival rates of the white seabream (Diplodus sargus in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Cuadros

    Full Text Available Survival during the settlement window is a limiting variable for recruitment. The survival is believed to be strongly determined by biological interactions and sea conditions, however it has been poorly investigated. We examined the settlement patterns related to relevant biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. Density-dependence, wind stress, wave height and coastal current velocity potentially determining post-settler survival rates of a coastal necto-benthic fish of wide distribution in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, the white seabream (Diplodus sargus. An observational study of the demography of juveniles of this species was carried out at six coves in Menorca Island (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Three of the coves were located in the northern and wind exposed coast, at the Northeast (NE side; while the other three were found along the southern and sheltered coast, at the Southwest (SW side of the island. The settlement period extended from early May to late June and maximum juvenile densities at the sampling sites varied between 5 and 11 ind. m-1 with maximum values observed in late May simultaneously occurring in the two coasts. Our analysis of juvenile survival, based on the interpretation of the observed patters using an individual based model (IBM, revealed two stages in the size-mortality relationships. An initial density-dependent stage was observed for juveniles up to 20 mm TL, followed by a density independent stage when other factors dominated the survival at sizes > 20 mm TL. No significant environmental effects were observed for the small size class (30mm TL size class. In the NE, the wind stress consistently affected the density of fish of 20-30 mm and >30 mm TL with a dome-shape effect with higher densities at intermediate values of wind stress and negative effect at the extremes. The best models applied in the SW coves showed a significant non-linear negative effect on fish density that was also consistent for

  3. Dietary habits of the hypertensive population of Spain: accordance with the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, Luz M; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Graciani, Auxiliadora; López-García, Esther; Mesas, Arthur E; Taboada, José M; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Dietary treatment is appropriate for all patients with hypertension. However, only a few population-based studies have evaluated the diet of hypertensive individuals, and none of them has been conducted in Europe. This study examined accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and the Mediterranean diet in the hypertensive population of Spain. A cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 12 948 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged at least 18 years. Blood pressure was measured with validated devices under standardized conditions. Habitual food consumption was assessed with a computerized diet history. DASH accordance was defined as at least 4.5 points on a score using nine nutrient targets, and Mediterranean diet accordance as at least 9 points on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener score. Among the diagnosed hypertensive individuals, 17.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.4-19.2%] had a DASH-accordant diet, and 17.2% (95% CI 15.4-19.1%) had a Mediterranean-accordant diet. The frequency of DASH accordance increased with age, was higher among women and hypercholesterolaemic individuals, and lower in current smokers. Similar results were found for Mediterranean diet accordance. Only 60% of the diagnosed hypertensive individuals reported receiving and following a diet prescribed to control hypertension; this group showed a better accordance with the DASH diet [age and sex-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.43; 95% CI 1.08-1.88]. As compared with the 1518 hypertensive individuals unaware of their condition, those who were diagnosed showed a similar frequency of accordance with the DASH diet (aOR 1.08; 95% CI 0.87-1.34) and the Mediterranean diet (aOR 0.98; 95% CI 0.79-1.20). The diet of hypertensive individuals in Spain has a low accordance with the DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns. The similarity in healthy-diets accordance between the diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertensive individuals suggests that

  4. Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge.

  5. Stochastic population dynamics in populations of western terrestrial garter snakes with divergent life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Clark, W.R.; Arnold, S.J.; Bronikowski, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative evaluations of population dynamics in species with temporal and spatial variation in life-history traits are rare because they require long-term demographic time series from multiple populations. We present such an analysis using demographic data collected during the interval 1978-1996 for six populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) from two evolutionarily divergent ecotypes. Three replicate populations from a slow-living ecotype, found in mountain meadows of northeastern California, were characterized by individuals that develop slowly, mature late, reproduce infrequently with small reproductive effort, and live longer than individuals of three populations of a fast-living ecotype found at lakeshore locales. We constructed matrix population models for each of the populations based on 8-13 years of data per population and analyzed both deterministic dynamics based on mean annual vital rates and stochastic dynamics incorporating annual variation in vital rates. (1) Contributions of highly variable vital rates to fitness (??s) were buffered against the negative effects of stochastic variation, and this relationship was consistent with differences between the meadow (M-slow) and lakeshore (L-fast) ecotypes. (2) Annual variation in the proportion of gravid females had the greatest negative effect among all vital rates on ?? s. The magnitude of variation in the proportion of gravid females and its effect on ??s was greater in M-slow than L-fast populations. (3) Variation in the proportion of gravid females, in turn, depended on annual variation in prey availability, and its effect on ??s was 4- 23 times greater in M-slow than L-fast populations. In addition to differences in stochastic dynamics between ecotypes, we also found higher mean mortality rates across all age classes in the L-fast populations. Our results suggest that both deterministic and stochastic selective forces have affected the evolution of divergent life

  6. Daily variation of fishing effort and ex-vessel prices in a western Mediterranean multi-species fishery: Implications for sustainable management

    OpenAIRE

    Samy-Kamal, Mohammed; Forcada, Aitor; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The daily variation of fishing effort and ex-vessel price was analysed to determine which day of the week is suitable to ban the fishery, as an alternative management measure to the one month seasonal closure. Thus, 10-years landings data were used from two representative trawling ports of the western Mediterranean: Dénia and La Vila Joiosa. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect significant differences in fishing effort (total and by métier) and daily ex-vessel price of the main tar...

  7. X-chromosome SNP analyses in 11 human Mediterranean populations show a high overall genetic homogeneity except in North-west Africans (Moroccans)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its history, with a high number of migration events, the Mediterranean basin represents a challenging area for population genetic studies. A large number of genetic studies have been carried out in the Mediterranean area using different markers but no consensus has been reached...... of the Mediterranean Sea.A higher migration rate in females versus males was observed by comparing data from X-chromosome, mt-DNA and Y-chromosome SNPs both in the Mediterranean and a wider geographic area.Multilocus association was observed among the 25 SNPs on the X-chromosome in the populations from Ibiza...... and Cosenza. CONCLUSION: Our results support both the hypothesis of (1) a reduced impact of the Neolithic Wave and more recent migration movements in NW-Africa, and (2) the importance of the Strait of Gibraltar as a geographic barrier. In contrast, the high genetic homogeneity observed in the Mediterranean...

  8. Vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of cataract in a Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, María Pastor; Fletcher, Astrid E; De Stavola, Bianca L; Vioque, Jesús; Alepuz, Vicente Chaqués

    2002-06-01

    Cataract is an important visual problem of older people and a substantial health care cost in many countries. Most studies investigating risk factors for cataract have been conducted in the United States, and there is less information on the possible role of dietary factors in European populations. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein) and minerals (zinc and selenium) and risk of cataract in a Mediterranean population. Cases with cataract (343) and 334 age/sex frequency-matched controls aged 55 to 74 y were selected from an ophthalmic outreach clinic in Valencia, Spain. Participants were interviewed about their diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and other information on potential confounders, such as smoking, alcohol, and education. Blood samples were analyzed by a colorimetric method for vitamin C and by reversed-phase HLPC for other blood antioxidants. Blood levels of vitamin C above 49 micromol/L were associated with a 64% reduced odds for cataract (P selenium were marginally associated with decreased odds (P = 0.09, P = 0.09, P = 0.07, respectively), whereas moderately high levels of blood lycopene (>0.30 micromol/L) were associated with a 46% increased odds of cataract (P = 0.04). Our results strengthen the evidence for a protective role for vitamin C on the aging lens as this effect was seen in a population characterized by high vitamin C intakes.

  9. Seasonality in the Western Mediterranean During the Last Glacial From Paired Oxygen Isotopes and Mg/Ca in Limpet Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. E.; Henderson, G. M.; Fa, D.; Finlayson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Molluscs have shown great potential to act as seasonal-resolution archives of sea-surface temperatures (SST) at mid to high latitudes, outside the range of tropical surface corals. Seasonal resolution climate records from higher latitudes are important to allow investigation of the role of seasonality in controlling mean climate on diverse timescales, and of the evolution of climate systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. Long sequences of intertidal mollusc shells are difficult to find due to sea level fluctuations over glacial- interglacial periods. This study makes use of Patella shells collected by Neanderthals and humans and transported inland to caves on Gibraltar over at least the last 120 kyrs. Some 30 fossil Patella shells were selected from several hundred excavated from Gorham's and Vanguard Caves at Gibraltar. Oxygen isotope analysis of micromilled samples of modern Patella shells from the Gibraltar coastline demonstrate that the shells accurately record absolute SSTs and capture more than 80% of the full seasonal range. Analysis of fossil Patella shells, dated using 14C, provides records of the change in absolute SST and seasonality during the last glacial. Paired Mg/Ca ratios of micromilled samples in modern Patella shells follow a consistent positive relationship with SST providing an independent paleothermometer, analogous with coral Sr/Ca. Applying this Mg/Ca-SST relationship to fossil Patella shells allows the independent reconstruction of the absolute values and range of SSTs and the reconstruction of seawater δ18O for the western Mediterranean. Results show a cooling of glacial summer SSTs from 36 kyr BP to the LGM with maximum cooling of glacial summer SSTs of 7.5 °C relative to modern. In contrast, winter SSTs show greater variability on millennial timescales with a maximum cooling of up to 10 °C. SST seasonality is therefore extended due to greater winter cooling but SST seasonality is highly variable as a result of large

  10. Late Cenozoic tectonics of the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Continental deformation in the diffuse western Mediterranean plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Francisco Gustavo

    -Eurasian plate convergence since the Early Miocene. The diffuse plate boundary comprises large, relatively rigid crustal blocks (Moroccan Meseta, High Plateau, and Saharan Platform) bounded by narrow deformable zones (the Atlas). In this context, the Middle Atlas can be interpreted as an accommodation zone resulting from differential movements between two large crustal blocks impinging on stable Africa. The Atlas Mountains exemplify the possible structural influence of inherited crustal weaknesses in a diffuse plate boundary such as the western Mediterranean region.

  11. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  12. Heating rate profiles and radiative forcing due to a dust storm in the Western Mediterranean using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Ferrús, C.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Marcos, C.; Freile-Aranda, M. D.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the vertically-resolved radiative impact due to a dust storm in the Western Mediterranean. The dust plume travels around 3-5 km altitude and the aerosol optical depth derived by MODIS at 550 nm ranges from 0.33 to 0.52 at the overpass time (13:05 UT). The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF), forcing efficiency (FE) and heating rate profile (AHR) are determined throughout the dust trajectory in shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) ranges. To do this, we integrate different satellite observations (CALIPSO and MODIS) and detailed radiative transfer modeling. The combined (SW + LW) effect of the dust event induces a net cooling in the studied region. On average, the FE at 22.4° solar zenith angle is -190.3 W m-2 and -38.1 W m-2, at surface and TOA, respectively. The corresponding LW/SW offset is 14% and 38% at surface and TOA, respectively. Our results at TOA are sensitive to the surface albedo in the SW and surface temperature in the LW. The absolute value of FE decrease (increase) in the SW (LW) with the surface albedo, resulting in an increasing LW/SW offset, up to 76%. The AHR profiles show a net warming within the dust layer, with a maximum value of 3.3 Kd-1. The ARF, FE and AHR are also highly sensitive to the dust optical properties in SW and LW. We evaluate this sensitivity by comparing the results obtained using two set of dust properties as input in our simulations: a) the prescribed dust model by Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and; b) the dust optical properties derived from measurements of the size distribution and refractive index. Experimentally derived dust properties present larger SSA and asymmetry parameter in the SW than OPAC dust. Conversely, OPAC dust presents higher AOD in the LW range. These parameters drive the FE and AHR sensitivities in the SW and LW ranges, respectively. Therefore, when measured dust properties are used in our simulations: the ARF in the LW substantially reduces at surface and TOA (up to 57%); the

  13. Record of an established population of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in the Mediterranean Sea: confirming a prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. CUESTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The capture of larvae of Palaemon macrodactylus off Mallorca (Balearic Islands has been recently reported as evidence of a potential presence of a population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos of this species, taken during dives in the Sacca di Goro (northern Adriatic were published in the same year, but no specimen could be collected at that time. Herein we report the capture in 2013 of numerous individuals of the oriental shrimp, including ovigerous females, both in the Sacca di Goro and in the Lagoon of Marano and Grado (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, confirming the existence of a well-established population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Food consumption of five deep-sea fishes in the Balearic Basin (western Mediterranean Sea): are there daily feeding rhythms in fishes living below 1000 m?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, L; Cartes, J E; Carrassón, M

    2014-09-01

    Predation and food consumption of five deep-sea fish species living below 1000 m depth in the western Mediterranean Sea were analysed to identify the feeding patterns and food requirements of a deep-sea fish assemblage. A feeding rhythm was observed for Risso's smooth-head Alepocephalus rostratus, Mediterranean grenadier Coryphaenoides mediterraeus and Mediterranean codling Lepidion lepidion. Differences in the patterns of the prey consumed suggest that feeding rhythms at such depths are linked with prey availability. The diets of those predators with feeding rhythms are based principally on active-swimmer prey, including pelagic prey known to perform vertical migrations. The diets of Günther's grenadier Coryphaenoides guentheri and smallmouth spiny eel Polyacanthonotus rissoanus, which did not show any rhythm in their feeding patterns, are based mainly on benthic prey. Food consumption estimates were low (<1% of body wet mass day(-1) ). Pelagic feeding species showing diel feeding rhythms consumed more food than benthic feeding species with no feeding rhythms. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. The population structure and diversity of eggplant from Asia and the Mediterranean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cericola

    Full Text Available A collection of 238 eggplant breeding lines, heritage varieties and selections within local landraces provenanced from Asia and the Mediterranean Basin was phenotyped with respect to key plant and fruit traits, and genotyped using 24 microsatellite loci distributed uniformly throughout the genome. STRUCTURE analysis based on the genotypic data identified two major sub-groups, which to a large extent mirrored the provenance of the entries. With the goal to identify true-breeding types, 38 of the entries were discarded on the basis of microsatellite-based residual heterozygosity, along with a further nine which were not phenotypically uniform. The remaining 191 entries were scored for a set of 19 fruit and plant traits in a replicated experimental field trial. The phenotypic data were subjected to principal component and hierarchical principal component analyses, allowing three major morphological groups to be identified. All three morphological groups were represented in both the "Occidental" and the "Oriental" germplasm, so the correlation between the phenotypic and the genotypic data sets was quite weak. The relevance of these results for evolutionary studies and the further improvement of eggplant are discussed. The population structure of the core set of germplasm shows that it can be used as a basis for an association mapping approach.

  16. Mediterranean meal versus Western meal effects on postprandial ox-LDL, oxidative and inflammatory gene expression in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial for nutrigenomic approach in cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bernardini, Sergio; Gualtieri, Paola; Cabibbo, Andrea; Perrone, Marco Alfonso; Giambini, Ilio; Di Renzo, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation and oxidative damage contribute significantly to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation are characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism toward oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. Micronutrients modulate immune system and exert a protective action by reducing oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) level. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postprandial plasma ox-LDL level and the gene expression of 13 genes related to oxidative stress (HOSp) and human inflammasome pathways (HIp), after a tocopherol-enriched Mediterranean meal (TEM), and a Western high-fat meal (HFM). Moreover, Mediterranean Adequacy Index was calculated to define the quality of both meals. We set up a randomized and crossover trial in healthy human volunteers. Ox-LDL level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the gene expression of 13 genes related to HOSp and HIp by qRT-PCR. Ox-LDL levels significantly decreased comparing HFM versus TEM (p risk factors of CVD, such as ox-LDL, and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes. Chronic studies on larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions. ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070.

  17. Nut Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Mediterranean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajka Relja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are often considered beneficial for health, yet few studies have examined determinants of their intake and the associations between nut consumption and various cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with nut intake in a Mediterranean population, in Croatia, and to investigate the association of nut intake and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Subjects from the Island of Vis, Island of Korčula and the City of Split were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 4416 in total; 4011 without known cardiovascular disease. Survey responses, medical records and clinically relevant measurements were utilized. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regression models were used in the analysis, adjusting for known confounding factors. Results: As low as 5% of all subjects reported daily, and 11% reported weekly, nut consumption. The characteristics associated with more frequent nut intake were female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.19–1.62, highest level of education (1.42; 1.15–1.76 and material status (1.58; 1.29–1.93, smoking abstinence (1.21; 1.04–1.42 in never-smokers and 1.22; 1.02–1.46 in ex-smokers, Mediterranean diet adherence (1.87; 1.62–2.15, and absence of central obesity (1.29; 1.09–1.53, absence of diabetes (1.30; 1.02–1.66 and metabolic syndrome (1.17; 1.01–1.36. Subjects who consumed nuts had more favorable waist-to-height (overall p = 0.036 and waist-to-hip ratios (0.033, lesser odds of elevated fibrinogen (p < 0.001 in both weekly and monthly nut consumers and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.026, compared to non-consumers. Conclusions: It appears that frequent nut consumption is an integral part of a healthy lifestyle and better socioeconomic status. A beneficial association of nut intake with cardiovascular risk factors was confirmed in this study.

  18. The Edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816): a valuable resource for fisheries and aquaculture purposes in Sardinia (Central-western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Marco Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, several research approaches were used to increase the knowledge on the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Morphometric characters and gonad indexes of sea urchin populations were monitored during one year to examine possible differences among seasons in 3 locations of Alghero Bay (NW Sardinia). Moreover, 2 experiments to test somatic growth, and gonad and alimentary indexes of laboratory-reared specimens fed an artificial diet were also carried out. The experime...

  19. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. COPPA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  20. Increased iron levels and lipid peroxidation in a Mediterranean population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Nuria; Fernandez-Cao, Jose Candido; Tous, Monica; Arija, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Many chronic diseases are adversely affected by elevated iron levels. It has been speculated that this relationship is mediated by increased oxidative stress, due to the ability of iron to generate reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between elevated iron levels and lipid peroxidation in Caucasian adults residing in the north-eastern Mediterranean region of Spain. This cross-sectional case-control study included 300 subjects: 150 adults displaying elevated iron levels (cases) selected from a representative sample of our general population and 150 age- and sex-matched adults exhibiting normal iron levels (controls). Dietary assessment (3-day food records), iron biomarkers (serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation) and lipid profile were determined. Elevated iron levels were defined by high serum ferritin (SF>110 μg/L in women and>200 μg/L in men) and/or transferrin saturation (TS)>45%. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plasma levels were measured, and oxLDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio was calculated to estimate lipid peroxidation. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were applied. Individuals with elevated serum iron levels showed increased oxLDL/LDL ratio, but not oxLDL levels, compared to control subjects (20·92 ± 4·89 U/mmol vs. 19·72 ± 3·573 U/mmol, P = 0·028). These results were further confirmed by the regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics, diet, lipid profile and inflammation. Importantly, higher serum levels of triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and lower intake of Vitamin E increased lipid peroxidation. In our general population, we have observed that higher circulating levels of iron, measured by serum ferritin and/or TS, increased lipid peroxidation (measured by oxLDL/LDL ratio). © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  1. Multiple processes regulate long-term population dynamics of sea urchins on Mediterranean rocky reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Hereu

    Full Text Available We annually monitored the abundance and size structure of herbivorous sea urchin populations (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula inside and outside a marine reserve in the Northwestern Mediterranean on two distinct habitats (boulders and vertical walls over a period of 20 years, with the aim of analyzing changes at different temporal scales in relation to biotic and abiotic drivers. P. lividus exhibited significant variability in density over time on boulder bottoms but not on vertical walls, and temporal trends were not significantly different between the protection levels. Differences in densities were caused primarily by variance in recruitment, which was less pronounced inside the MPA and was correlated with adult density, indicating density-dependent recruitment under high predation pressure, as well as some positive feedback mechanisms that may facilitate higher urchin abundances despite higher predator abundance. Populations within the reserve were less variable in abundance and did not exhibit the hyper-abundances observed outside the reserve, suggesting that predation effects maybe more subtle than simply lowering the numbers of urchins in reserves. A. lixula densities were an order of magnitude lower than P. lividus densities and varied within sites and over time on boulder bottoms but did not differ between protection levels. In December 2008, an exceptionally violent storm reduced sea urchin densities drastically (by 50% to 80% on boulder substrates, resulting in the lowest values observed over the entire study period, which remained at that level for at least two years (up to the present. Our results also showed great variability in the biological and physical processes acting at different temporal scales. This study highlights the need for appropriate temporal scales for studies to fully understand ecosystem functioning, the concepts of which are fundamental to successful conservation and management.

  2. Multiple processes regulate long-term population dynamics of sea urchins on Mediterranean rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereu, Bernat; Linares, Cristina; Sala, Enric; Garrabou, Joaquim; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni; Diaz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2012-01-01

    We annually monitored the abundance and size structure of herbivorous sea urchin populations (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula) inside and outside a marine reserve in the Northwestern Mediterranean on two distinct habitats (boulders and vertical walls) over a period of 20 years, with the aim of analyzing changes at different temporal scales in relation to biotic and abiotic drivers. P. lividus exhibited significant variability in density over time on boulder bottoms but not on vertical walls, and temporal trends were not significantly different between the protection levels. Differences in densities were caused primarily by variance in recruitment, which was less pronounced inside the MPA and was correlated with adult density, indicating density-dependent recruitment under high predation pressure, as well as some positive feedback mechanisms that may facilitate higher urchin abundances despite higher predator abundance. Populations within the reserve were less variable in abundance and did not exhibit the hyper-abundances observed outside the reserve, suggesting that predation effects maybe more subtle than simply lowering the numbers of urchins in reserves. A. lixula densities were an order of magnitude lower than P. lividus densities and varied within sites and over time on boulder bottoms but did not differ between protection levels. In December 2008, an exceptionally violent storm reduced sea urchin densities drastically (by 50% to 80%) on boulder substrates, resulting in the lowest values observed over the entire study period, which remained at that level for at least two years (up to the present). Our results also showed great variability in the biological and physical processes acting at different temporal scales. This study highlights the need for appropriate temporal scales for studies to fully understand ecosystem functioning, the concepts of which are fundamental to successful conservation and management.

  3. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  4. A Mediterranean diet and risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidis, Thanasis G; Åkesson, Agneta; Gigante, Bruna; Wolk, Alicja; Larsson, Susanna C

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean diet, which is palatable and easily achievable, has been associated with lower all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Data on heart failure (HF) and stroke types are lacking. The aim was to examine a Mediterranean diet in relation to incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), HF and stroke types in a Swedish prospective cohort. In a population-based cohort of 32,921 women, diet was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. The modified Mediterranean diet (mMED) score was created based on high consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grains, fermented dairy products, fish and monounsaturated fat, moderate intakes of alcohol and low consumption of red meat, on a 0-8 scale. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 10 y of follow-up (1998-2008), 1109 MIs, 1648 HFs, 1270 ischemic strokes and 262 total hemorrhagic strokes were ascertained. A high adherence to the mMED score (6-8), compared to low, was associated with a lower risk of MI (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61-0.90, p = 0.003), HF (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93, p = 0.004) and ischemic stroke (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.93, p = 0.007), but not hemorrhagic stroke (RR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.61-1.29, p = 0.53). Better adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of MI, HF and ischemic stroke. The Mediterranean diet is most likely to be beneficial in primary prevention of all major types of atherosclerosis-related CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Compressional tectonic inversion of the Algero-Balearic basin: Latemost Miocene to present oblique convergence at the Palomares margin (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael; Calahorrano, Alcinoe; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Vendrell, Montserrat G.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Costa, Sergio; Gómez de la Peña, Laura; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Perea, Hector; Viñas, Marina

    2015-07-01

    Interpretation of new multichannel seismic reflection profiles indicates that the Palomares margin was formed by crustal-scale extension and coeval magmatic accretion during middle to late Miocene opening of the Algero-Balearic basin. The margin formed at the transition between thinned continental crust intruded by arc volcanism and back-arc oceanic crust. Deformation produced during the later positive inversion of the margin offshore and onshore is partitioned between N50°E striking reverse faults and associated folds like the Sierra Cabrera and Abubacer anticlines and N10-20°E sinistral strike-slip faults like Palomares and Terreros faults. Parametric subbottom profiles and multibeam bathymetry offshore, structural analysis, available GPS geodetic displacement data, and earthquake focal mechanisms jointly indicate that tectonic inversion of the Palomares margin is currently active. The Palomares margin shows a structural pattern comparable to the north Maghrebian margins where Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is accommodated by NE-SW reverse faults, NNW-SSE sinistral faults, and WNW-ESE dextral ones. Contractive structures at this margin contribute to the general inversion of the Western Mediterranean since 7 Ma, coeval to inversion at the Algerian margin. Shortening at the Alboran ridge and Al-Idrisi faults occurred later, since 5 Ma, indicating a westward propagation of the compressional inversion of the Western Mediterranean.

  6. Contribution of planktonic and benthic food sources to the diet of the reef-forming vermetid gastropod Dendropoma petraeum in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Colombo, Francesca; Costa, Valentina; Mazzola, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the vermetid Dendropoma petraeum (Monterosato, 1884) forms highly biodiverse reefs that have received increasing attention in recent years although very little is known about the food habit of this species. The main goal of this study was to describe the trophic role of planktonic and benthic food sources for D. petraeum. Specimens from three morphological zones of the reef (inner edge, cuvette and outer edge) at two sites with different wave exposure along the north-western coast of Sicily (Italy; western Mediterranean) were compared for δ 13C and δ 15N. Isotopic determinations were also carried out on potential food sources identified in epilithon, reef macroalgae and suspended particulate organic matter. δ 13C for D. petraeum showed significantly more depleted values in the more exposed conditions (i.e. the site with higher wave exposure and outer edge of the reef), while δ 15N did not differ appreciably. These results suggest greater exploitation of benthic sources in the sheltered than in the exposed site and reveal diet shift and trophic flexibility at a small spatial scale for the reef-former D. petraeum.

  7. Resolving key drivers of variability through an important circulation choke point in the western Mediterranean Sea; using gliders, models & satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Emma; Aguiar, Eva; Mourre, Baptiste; Juza, Mélanie; Escudier, Romain; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    The Ibiza Channel plays an important role in the circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea, it governs the north/south exchange of different water masses that are known to affect regional ecosystems and is influenced by variability in the different drivers that affect sub-basins to the north (N) and south (S). A complex system. In this study we use a multi-platform approach to resolve the key drivers of this variability, and gain insight into the inter-connection between the N and S of the Western Mediterranean Sea through this choke point. The 6-year glider time series from the quasi-continuous glider endurance line monitoring of the Ibiza Channel, undertaken by SOCIB (Balearic Coastal Ocean observing and Forecasting System), is used as the base from which to identify key sub-seasonal to inter-annual patterns and shifts in water mass properties and transport volumes. The glider data indicates the following key components in the variability of the N/S flow of different water mass through the channel; regional winter mode water production, change in intermediate water mass properties, northward flows of a fresher water mass and the basin-scale circulation. To resolve the drivers of these components of variability, the strength of combining datasets from different sources, glider, modeling, altimetry and moorings, is harnessed. To the north atmospheric forcing in the Gulf of Lions is a dominant driver, while to the south the mesoscale circulation patterns of the Atlantic Jet and Alboran gyres dominate the variability but do not appear to influence the fresher inflows. Evidence of a connection between the northern and southern sub-basins is however indicated. The study highlights importance of sub-seasonal variability and the scale of rapid change possible in the Mediterranean, as well as the benefits of leveraging high resolution glider datasets within a multi-platform and modelling study.

  8. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Di Somma, Carolina; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-02-17

    The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA) is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern). In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively (p Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity.

  9. Pacific Flyway management plan for the Western Population of tundra swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to establish guidelines for the cooperative management of the Western Population (WP) of tundra swans (Cygnus c. columbianus). This...

  10. Ecological study of benthic communities in the continental shelf and upper slope in the Menorca Channel (North Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Grinyó Andreu, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Technological development and increased availability of remotely operated vehicles and manned submersibles have significantly increased accessibility to deep environments revealing the presence of rich and diverse macrobenthic assemblages dominated by suspension feeders. These assemblages have been largely exposed to the impacts of fishing activities (especially bottom trawling) in the Mediterranean Sea. Consequently, it is currently urgent to increase knowledge on their distribution, as ...

  11. Two new species of Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Dendrobrachiidae from the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. López-González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Examination of recent benthic material collected during several cruises in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic and the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean has allowed the taxonomic reassessment of some previously identified specimens belonging to the monogeneric gorgonian family Dendrobrachiidae Brook, 1889. Dendrobrachia fallax Brook, 1889 is the type species of the single genus in this family, and was originally described from Ascension Island (South Atlantic. Subsequently, other authors reported the presence of this species in Cape Verde Islands (north-eastern Atlantic and some Mediterranean localities (Alboran Sea and the Strait of Sicily. The study of the specimen from the Prince of Monaco collections in Cape Verde Islands, and recently collected material from the Gulf of Cadiz (north-eastern Atlantic and in the south of Malta (Mediterranean, materials previously considered as D. fallax, allow us to recognize two undescribed species in this genus. All previous records of D. fallax from the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean should be considered incorrect. Opresko and Bayer (1991 added two additional species of Dendrobrachia. Two new species are described here and compared with their congeners.

  12. The role of vicariance vs. dispersal in shaping genetic patterns in ocellated lizard species in the western Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulo, O. S.; Pinheiro, J.; Miraldo, A.

    2008-01-01

    The schism between North Africa and Southern Europe caused by the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar and the consequent refilling of the Mediterranean basin at the end of Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), 5.33 million years ago, has been advocated as the main event shaping biogeographical patterns...

  13. First report of a swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758) beneath open-sea farming cages in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    ARECHAVALA-LOPEZ, P.; IZQUIERDO-GOMEZ, D.; SANCHEZ-JEREZ, P.

    2013-01-01

    An adult individual of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) was reported for the first time aggregated at coastal Mediterranean fish-farm facilities. This record highlights the necessity to assess the potential ecological changes on wild fish assemblages by coastal farming activity, especially on this type of endangered large migratory fish predators, which might be taken into account for further management strategies.

  14. First report of a swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 beneath open-sea farming cages in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ARECHAVALA-LOPEZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An adult individual of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. was reported for the first time aggregated at coastal Mediterranean fish-farm facilities. This record highlights the necessity to assess the potential ecological changes on wild fish assemblages by coastal farming activity, especially on this type of endangered large migratory fish predators, which might be taken into account for further management strategies.

  15. The tropical African hermit crab Pagurus mbizi (Crustacea, Decapoda, Paguridae in the Western Mediterranean Sea: a new alien species or filling gaps in the knowledge of the distribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. GARCIA RASO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the first occurrence in the European Mediterranean Sea of a tropical Atlantic hermit crab, Pagurus mbizi (Forest, 1955, based on the capture of twenty specimens (all sizes and ovigerous females collected along the northern shores of the Alboran Sea, which proof the existence of a well-established population of this species, and the importance of this geographic area as a transitional and settlement zone for Atlantic species, which makes the Alboran Sea one of the richest marine biodiversity areas in the Mediterranean Sea. Some morphological comparative data with the closely related hermit crab Pagurus pubescentulus are given. In addition, data on its habitat and geographical distribution, as well as the probable pathways of introduction, are commented.

  16. Long-term assessment of recruitment, early stages and population dynamics of the endangered Mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis in the Columbretes Islands (NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Diego K; García-March, José R

    2017-09-01

    A long-term experimental approach was undertaken to assess viability and resilience of the endangered Mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis. Artificial and natural recruitment, mortality, population traits and juvenile growth were assessed in seasonal and annual surveys. In the Columbretes Islands, P. nobilis thrives in differing substrate types, from coarse sand to boulders, in Cymodocea nodosa meadows and among rhodoliths, and is always found sharing habitat with the less abundant sibling species P. rudis. In artificial collectors larval settlement occurred over a several months period, concentrating its peak in September and resulting from two separated spawning events. Recruitment in the collectors showed high inter-annual variability and was independent of depth, but positively correlated with seasonal water temperature increase in June. Natural recruitment of P. nobilis was low and showed little variability, evidencing the existence of intense post-settlement processes. Adult mortality was also low, thus leading to slow population dynamics and to the species' vulnerability to catastrophic events. Population size structure suggests the existence of a refuge size above 45 cm shell length. The fast growth during the first years of life would help shortening this vulnerability period. Altogether, essential information and tools for the species' conservation are provided, which will be critical in the current context of mass mortalities affecting P. nobilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of energy under-reporting on secular trends of dietary patterns in a mediterranean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N Funtikova

    Full Text Available Diet is an important factor in the prevention of chronic diseases. Analysis of secular trends of dietary patterns can be biased by energy under-reporting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of energy under-reporting on dietary patterns and secular trends in dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis.Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in Spain, in 2000 and 2005, with 3058 and 6352 participants, respectively, aged 25 to 74 years. Validated questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Cluster analysis was run separately for all participants, plausible energy reporters (PER, and energy under-reporters (EUR to define dietary patterns.Three clusters, "healthy", "mixed" and "western", were identified for both surveys. The "mixed" cluster was the predominant cluster in both surveys. Excluding EUR reduced the proportion of the "mixed" cluster up to 6.40% in the 2000 survey; this caused secular trend increase in the prevalence of the "mixed" pattern. Cross-classification analysis of all participants and PER' data showed substantial agreement in cluster assignments: 68.7% in 2000 and 84.4% in 2005. Excluding EUR did not cause meaningful (≥ 15% changes in the "healthy" pattern. It provoked changes in consumption of some food groups in the "mixed" and "western" patterns: mainly decreases of unhealthy foods within the 2000 and increases of unhealthy foods within the 2005 surveys. Secular trend effects of EUR were similar to those within the 2005 survey. Excluding EUR reversed the direction of secular trends in consumption of several food groups in PER in the "mixed" and "western" patterns.EUR affected distribution of participants between dietary patterns within and between surveys, secular trends in food group consumption and amount of food consumed in all, but not in the "healthy" pattern. Our findings emphasize threats from energy under-reporting in dietary data analysis.

  18. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangoiti, G. [Fundacion CEAM, Valencia (Spain). Parque Tecnologico; Universidad del Pais Vasco-Euskal Herriko Universitatea. Bilbao (Spain); Millan, M.M.; Salvador, R.; Mantilla, E. [Fundacion CEAM, Valencia (Spain). Parque Tecnologico

    2001-07-01

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millan et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high 0{sub 3} concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project-Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area-are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65ppb of 0{sub 3} of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O{sub 3} concentrations up to 100ppb and even more. (author)

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, S; Corriero, A; Cirillo, F; Deflorio, M; Brill, R; Griffiths, M; Lopata, A L; de la Serna, J M; Bridges, C R; Kime, D E; De Metrio, G

    2005-01-18

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans.

  20. Benthic foraminiferal faunal and geochemical proxies as tracers for paleoenvironmental and paleoceanographic changes in the western Mediterranean over the last 24 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Asensio, José N.; Cacho, Isabel; Frigola, Jaime; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Sierro, Francisco J.; Asioli, Alessandra; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    Paleoenvironmental and paleoceanographic changes in the western Mediterranean are reconstructed for the last 24 ka using a combination of benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical proxies measured on benthic foraminiferal shells (Mg/Ca-deep water temperatures and stable isotopes). The studied materials are sediment cores HER-GC-UB06 and MD95-2043recovered at 946 m and 1841 m, respectively, from the Alboran Sea. At present, both core sites are bathed by the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW), although UB06 core is close to the boundary with the overlying Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). Therefore, past variability of both water masses can potentially be recorded by the benthic foraminiferal proxies from the studied sites. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical data show fluctuations in bottom-water ventilation, organic matter accumulation and deep-water temperatures related to WMDW and LIW circulation. During the glacial interval, an alternation of events showing better ventilation (higher abundance of Cibicides pachyderma) with lower temperatures and events of warmer deep water temperatures with poorer ventilation (Nonionella iridea assemblage, lower abundance of C. pachyderma) are observed. This variability might reflect stronger WMDW formation during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Heinrich Stadial 1. During the Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas (YD) periods, cold temperatures and the lowest oxygenation rates are recorded coinciding with the highest abundance of deep infaunal taxa on both UB06 and MD95-2043 cores. This interval was coetaneous to the deposition of an Organic Rich Layer in the Alboran Sea. However, a re-ventilation trend started at the end of the YD in the shallower site (UB06 core) whereas low-oxygen conditions prevailed until the end of the early Holocene in the deep site (MD95-2043 core). During the early Holocene a significant deep water temperature increase occurred at the shallower site suggesting the

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Phase Angle in a Sample of Adult Population: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Di Somma, Carolina; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA) is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) questionnaire. PhA was calculated by BIA phase-sensitive system (50 kHz BIA 101 RJL, Akern Bioresearch, Florence, Italy Akern). In both sexes, at ROC analysis a PREDIMED score ≥ 6 predicted a PhA beyond the median value. At the multivariate analysis, among PREDIMED score, age, and BMI, the PREDIMED score was the major determinant of PhA, explaining 44.5% and 47.3% of PhA variability, in males and females respectively (p < 0.001). A novel association was reported between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and PhA, independently of sex, age, and body weight. This association uncovered a new potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet on health outcomes, as in both sexes higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated to larger PhAs, as expression of cell membrane integrity. PMID:28218645

  2. Including pork in the Mediterranean diet for an Australian population: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing cardiovascular risk and cognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Alexandra T.; Davis, Courtney R.; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.; Woodman, Richard J.; Keage, Hannah A. D.; Murphy, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Mediterranean diet is characterised by the high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts; moderate consumption of fish, poultry, eggs and dairy; and low consumption of red meat and sweets. Cross sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies indicate that a Mediterranean diet may be effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, previous research suggests that an Australian population may find red meat ...

  3. Observations on the distribution, population structure and biology of Bathypterois mediterraneus Bauchot, 1962 in three areas of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco d'Onghia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During the DESEAS cruise Bathypterois mediterraneus specimens were sampled in the Balearic Sea between 1000 and 2800 m as well as in the western and eastern Ionian Sea from 800 to 3300 m and from 800 to 2600 m respectively. The species was found to be more abundant at depths of 1500-2000 m. The size-range was 26-190 mm and the most abundant size class was around 100-120 mm standard length. No significant size-depth trends were shown for either length or weight. Negative allometry was shown in the growth of fishes and otoliths and in the relationship between fish length and otolith size in the samples from the western and eastern Ionian Sea. In these two areas the absolute growth was estimated by adopting the Von Bertalanffy function (western Ionian: SL∞ = 194.3 ± 38.51 mm, k = 0.146 ± 0.061/year, t0 = - 0.921 ± 0.699, ø' = 3.74; eastern Ionian: SL∞ = 180.23 ± 63.36 mm, k = 0.150 ± 0.112/year, t0 = - 0.968 ± 0.868, ø' = 3.70. Although most of the specimens were immature, some ripe gonads were recorded in individuals greater than 104 mm in standard length, confirming the simultaneous hermaphroditism in this fish. The results are discussed in relation to previous observations on the life strategy of B.mediterraneus in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Identificazione mediante DNA barcoding del mitilide alloctono Xenostrobus securis e nuove segnalazioni in Mediterraneo occidentale = DNA barcoding identification of the exotic mussel Xenostrobus securis and new records in Western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Michele; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Di Giuseppe, G.; Cristo, Benedetto; Lardicci, Claudio; Castelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports species' identification by means of DNA barcoding and new records of the invasive pygmy mussel Xenostrobus securis (Lam. 1819) (Mollusca, Bivalvia), native to South Oceania, in some Western Mediterranean brackish-water biotopes. Monitoring of this species is recommended, given its ecological effects on native biological communities and as fouling agent.

  5. The Diffuse Plate boundary of Nubia and Iberia in the Western Mediterranean: Crustal deformation evidence for viscous coupling and fragmented lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.; Fernández, José

    2015-11-01

    A spatially dense GNSS-based crustal velocity field for the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa allows us to provide new insights into two main tectonic processes currently occurring in this area. In particular, we provide, for the first time, clear evidence for a large-scale clockwise rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to stable Eurasia (Euler pole component: N42.612°, W1.833°, clockwise rotation rate of 0.07 deg/Myr). We favor the interpretation that this pattern reflects the quasi-continuous straining of the ductile lithosphere in some sectors of South and Western Iberia in response to viscous coupling of the NW Nubia and Iberian plate boundary in the Gulf of Cádiz. We furnish evidence for a fragmentation of the western Mediterranean basin into independent crustal tectonic blocks, which are delimited by inherited lithospheric shear structures. Among these blocks, an (oceanic-like western) Algerian one is currently transferring a significant fraction of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence rate into the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia) and likely causing the eastward motion of the Baleares Promontory. These processes can be mainly explained by spatially variable lithospheric plate forces imposed along the Nubia-Eurasia convergence boundary.

  6. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  7. The influence of the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO) upon the spatio-temporal variability of precipitation over Catalonia (NE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Bustins, Joan-Albert

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of a statistically significant influence of the Western Mediterranean Oscillation index (WeMOi) on the rainfall totals of Catalonia (NE Spain). In the present study, I analyse the statistical relationship between the WeMOi/rainfall correlation coefficients and two pluviometric indices at seasonal and annual time scales. The rainfall database used in the analyses comprises 70 pluviometric series covering the 1950-2015 (66 years) study period, and they are spatially distributed throughout Catalonia. The two pluviometric indices considered are the coefficient of variation (CV) and the disparity consecutive index (S). The results of the spatial variability of rainfall showed the strongest influence of the WeMO over locations in which precipitation irregularity was highest (high CV and S values), and vice versa. The results of temporal rainfall variability showed that in the subperiods in which the correlation coefficients between the WeMOi and precipitation were weak, rainfall variability decreased (low CV and S values), and vice versa. The best results were found to occur in autumn and winter, and in annual rainfall. The main conclusion is that this Mediterranean teleconnection pattern strongly determines precipitation variability in its areas of influence.

  8. Parasitism of dolfinfhishes, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carbonell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 648 dolphinfishes were examined for internal and external parasites in western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands waters in order to make a comparative study between the two areas. The specimens studied from the Mediterranean Sea was Coryphaena hippurus, with 62 large individuals captured from May to September and 497 juveniles captured from August to December. The specimens studied from the central-eastern Atlantic were 39 adult C. hippurus and 49 adult Coryphaena equiselis. Parasites were found in 70% of the fish examined, and represented a total of nine endoparasitic taxa: six digeneans (Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea; Dinurus tornatus, Dinurus breviductus, Dinurus longisinus, Lecithocladium excisum, Bathycotyle branchialis and Hirudinella sp., two nematodes (Class Nematoda, Order Spirurida; Philometroides sp. and Metabronema magna and one acanthocephalan (Phyllum Acanthocephala; Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Seven crustacean copepod ectoparasites were identified: Caligus quadratus, Caligus productus, Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae (Family Caligidae and Euryphorus nymphae (Family Euriphoridae were found in gill mucus masses or on the inner surface of the operculum, the lernaeopodid Neobrachiella coryphaenae (Family Lernaeopodidae was attached to gill filaments and the pennellid Pennella filosa (Family Pennellidae was anchored to fins and rays or, deeply, to muscular tissue and abdominal cavity. The relationships between feeding habits, parasite recruitment and parasite transmission were analysed, some ecological aspects of all the parasitic species are discussed, and some comments are made on parasite-host relationships.

  9. Influences of natural emission sources (wildfires and Saharan dust) on the urban organic aerosol in Barcelona (Western Mediterranean Basis) during a PM event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend L; Lopez, Jordi F; Grimalt, Joan O

    2012-11-01

    The urban air quality in Barcelona in the Western Mediterranean Basin is characterized by overall high particulate matter (PM) concentrations, due to intensive local anthropogenic emissions and specific meteorological conditions. Moreover, on several days, especially in summer, natural PM sources, such as long-range transported Saharan dust from Northern Africa or wildfires on the Iberian Peninsula and around the Mediterranean Basin, may influence the levels and composition of the organic aerosol. In the second half of July 2009, daily collected PM(10) filter samples in an urban background site in Barcelona were analyzed on organic tracer compounds representing several emission sources. During this period, an important PM peak event was observed. Individual organic compound concentrations increased two to five times during this event. Although highest increase was observed for the organic tracer of biomass burning, the contribution to the organic aerosol was estimated to be around 6 %. Organic tracers that could be related to Saharan dust showed no correlation with the PM and OC levels, while this was the case for those related to fossil fuel combustion from traffic emissions. Moreover, a change in the meteorological conditions gave way to an overall increase of the urban background contamination. Long-range atmospheric transport of organic compounds from primary emissions sources (i.e., wildfires and Saharan dust) has a relatively moderate impact on the organic aerosol in an urban area where the local emissions are dominating.

  10. Prevalence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis in western population of Maharashtra, India

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    Yojari R Rajmane

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, the prevalence of RAS in western population of Maharashtra was 0.1%, which was very low as compared to other Indian population. Females were more commonly affected. The most common age affected in our study group was second and third decades. The most common site was buccal mucosa followed by labial mucosa and tongue.

  11. Socioeconomic status and ischaemic heart disease mortality in 10 western European populations during the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avendano, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Huisman, M.; Lenthe, F. V.; Bopp, M.; Regidor, E.; Glickman, M.; Costa, G.; Spadea, T.; Deboosere, P.; Borrell, C.; Valkonen, T.; Gisser, R.; Borgan, J.-K.; Gadeyne, S.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between socioeconomic status and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in 10 western European populations during the 1990s. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: 10 European populations (95,009,822 person years). METHODS: Longitudinal data on IHD mortality by

  12. Population Genetic Status of the Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whatever the system, whether coral reefs, sea grasses or mangroves, the general consensus appears to be that .... populations from the Red Sea, Mauritius and South. Africa showed no genetic separation from Pacific ..... seas: Global phylogeography of the sea urchin. Diadema. Evolution. 55: 955-975. Lessios, H.A., Kane ...

  13. Population growth, urban expansion, and private forestry in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    Private forestlands in the United States face increasing pressures from growing populations, resulting in greater numbers of people living in closer proximity to forests. What often is called the "wildland/urban interface" is characterized by expansion of residential and other developed land uses onto forested landscapes in a manner that threatens forestlands...

  14. Population differentiation in a Mediterranean relict shrub: the potential role of local adaptation for coping with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Nogal, Ana; Matesanz, Silvia; Hallik, Lea; Krasnova, Alisa; Traveset, Anna; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Plants can respond to climate change by either migrating, adapting to the new conditions or going extinct. Relict plant species of limited distribution can be especially vulnerable as they are usually composed of small and isolated populations, which may reduce their ability to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the vulnerability of Cneorum tricoccon L. (Cneoraceae), a Mediterranean relict shrub of limited distribution, to a future drier climate. We evaluated population differentiation in functional traits related to drought tolerance across seven representative populations of the species' range. We measured morphological and physiological traits in both the field and the greenhouse under three water availability levels. Large phenotypic differences among populations were found under field conditions. All populations responded plastically to simulated drought, but they differed in mean trait values as well as in the slope of the phenotypic response. Particularly, dry-edge populations exhibited multiple functional traits that favored drought tolerance, such as more sclerophyllous leaves, strong stomatal control but high photosynthetic rates, which increases water use efficiency (iWUE), and an enhanced ability to accumulate sugars as osmolytes. Although drought decreased RGR in all populations, this reduction was smaller for populations from the dry edge. Our results suggest that dry-edge populations of this relict species are well adapted to drought, which could potentially mitigate the species' extinction risk under drier scenarios. Dry-edge populations not only have a great conservation value but can also change expectations from current species' distribution models.

  15. Molecular evidence of the taxonomic status of western Mexican populations of Pliaethornis longirostris (Aves: Trochilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity is largely underestimated by current taxonomy, precluding a precise understanding of evolutionary processes. Genetic data have increased our understanding of that cryptic diversity, and multilocus studies are now desirable. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to evaluate the taxonomic status of the western Mexico's populations of Phaethornis longirostris. We found differences of 4.2 % in mtDNA and different alleles for one nDNA locus between western and eastern Mexican populations. Molecular and morphological evidence support the separation of these populations (P. 1. mexicanus and P. 1. griseoventer) as the species Phaethornis mexicanus Hartert 1897. Phaethornis mexicanus is endemic to western Mexico and sister to the remaining populations of P. longirostris. The speciation of P mexicanus probably occurred around 880,000 years ago by a vicariant event involving climatic-vegetational changes.

  16. Contribution to the study of deep coastal detritic bottoms: the algal communities of the continental shelf off the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three main algal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the continental shelf off Mallorca and Menorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean are described herein: maërl beds dominated by Spongites fruticulosus and forests of Laminaria rodriguezii located in the Menorca channel, and Peyssonnelia inamoena beds found along the Southern coast of Menorca. There seems to be a gradient of disturbance from the highly disturbed Peyssonnelia beds to the almost undisturbed L. rodriguezii forests. Whether this gradient is the result of current and past anthropogenic pressure (e.g. trawling intensity or is driven by natural environmental factors needs further assessment. Finally, the location of the target communities by means of ROV dives combined with the use of a Box-Corer dredge and beam trawl proved to be a good methodology in the study of the composition and structure of these deep water detritic communities.

  17. Effects of release cutting on the development of young natural lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) stands of western Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Ramazan; Eler, Unal

    2009-03-01

    Release cutting is ecologically and economically one of the most important silvicultural treatments for establishing a new stand. The study was designed to determine the suitable silvicultural treatments of different spacing of thinning for release cutting on young natural lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) stands at the thicket stage. Studies were carried out at Bucak and Gölhisar forest districts in the Western Mediterranean region of Turkey between the years of 1999-2005. Results showed that release cutting treatment had a positive effect on diameter growth for individual trees with the 1.5 m x 3 m spacing and positively correlated with spacing of thinning. However there was not significant effect of the thinning application on height growth of young natural Lebanon cedar stands.

  18. Inventory and new records of polychaete species from the Cap Bon Peninsula, north-east coast of Tunisia, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAABI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Polychaete species is recorded from the North east coast of Tunisia with an historic review of the previous literature from Tunisian coasts. Altogether 40 families, 146 genera, and 238 species are currently known from the area in which 86 taxa, 4 families (Chrysopetalidae, Pilargidae, Protodrilidae and Saccocirridae and 40 genera (Saccocirrus, Protodrilus, Parathelepus, Thelepus, Petta, Isolda, Brada, Tharyx, Paraprionospio, Jasmineira, Hypsicomus, Euchone, Pseudobranchiomma, Laonome, Galathowenia, Lugia, Pseudomystides, Protomystides, Pirakia, Mysta, Eurysyllis, Parapionosyllis, Streptosyllis, Paraehlersia, Sigambra, Ancistrosyllis, Kefersteinia, Chrysopetalum, Bhawania, Fimbriosthenelais, Subadyte, Panthalis, Dorvillea, Scalibregma, Paradoneis, Cirrophorus, Metasychis, Websterinereis, Euniphysa and Mastobranchus are new additions to the Polychaete fauna of Tunisia. The list, which provides a synthesis of the regional taxonomica work, including coastal areas from Sidi Daoud to the area of Menzel Hurr (Cap Bon Peninsula, Western Mediterranean Sea, can serve as a baseline survey for future studies.

  19. Carbohydrate-to-Insulin Ratio in a Mediterranean Population of Type 1 Diabetic Patients on Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Aragón, Valeria; Gonzalez, Cintia; Corcoy, Rosa; Ubeda, Justa; Chico, Ana

    2015-05-01

    The carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) is initially calculated from the total daily insulin dose (TDID). However, CIR likely presents variations owing to different population characteristics and intraday variations not being taken into account by most formulas. No information is available concerning the Mediterranean population. We investigated the CIR used by patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy in a Mediterranean area, to identify possible intraday variations and establish an adequate formula to calculate CIR. Data from 170 T1DM patients from Barcelona were obtained retrospectively from the Spanish National Registry of CSII Therapy (SNR-CSII). Theoretical CIR was calculated using the formula: 500 divided by TDID. This theoretical CIR was compared to the real CIR. The real CIR was also compared between main meals. Patients with HbA1c insulin requirements. A calculation of 350/TDID for breakfast and 400/TDID for lunch and dinner would be more appropriate for this population. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Dense water formation in the north-western Mediterranean area during HyMeX-SOP2 in 1/36° ocean simulations: Sensitivity to initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Bresson, Émilie; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia; Nuret, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The north-western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur in autumn and winter. The succession of strong mistral and tramontane situations, leading to significant evaporation and ocean heat loss, is well known as the controlling factor in the dense water formation (DWF) with deep convection episodes. During HyMeX-SOP2 (1 February to 15 March 2013), several platforms sampled the area in order to document DWF and air-sea exchanges. This study investigates the ability of the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36°-resolution), driven in surface by the hourly air-sea fluxes from the AROME-WMED forecasts (2.5 km resolution), to represent DWF during HyMeX-SOP2 and focuses on the sensitivity to initial conditions. After a short evaluation of the atmospheric forcing, the high-resolution oceanic simulations using three different data sets as initial and boundary conditions are compared to observations collected during the field campaign. It evidences that using regional model outputs may lead to unrealistic thermohaline characteristics for the intermediate and deep waters, which degrade the simulated new dense water formed. Using ocean analyses built from observations, permits to obtain more realistic characteristics of the Western Mediterranean dense water. However, a low stratification favors an overestimation of the convective area and of the DWF rate. The DWF chronology is also impacted. Nevertheless, in every run, SOP2 is characterized by the production of water denser than 29.11 kg m-3 with a peak during the strong mistral event of 23-25 February followed by a period of restratification, before a last event of bottom convection on 13-15 March.

  1. An inverse method to derive surface fluxes from the closure of oceanic heat and water budgets: Application to the north-western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniaux, G.; Prieur, L.; Giordani, H.; Redelsperger, J.-L.

    2017-04-01

    The large amount of data collected during DeWEX, MOOSE, and HyMeX campaigns in the north-western Mediterranean in 2012-2013 allowed to implement an inverse method to solve the difficult problem of heat and water budget closure. The inverse method is based on the simulation of the observed heat and water budgets, strongly constrained by observations collected during the campaigns and on the deduction of adjusted surface fluxes. The inverse method uses a genetic algorithm that generates 50,000 simulations of a single-column model and optimizes some adjustable coefficients introduced in the surface fluxes. Finally, the single-column model forced by the adjusted fluxes during 1 year and over a test area of about 300 × 300 km2 simulates the daily mean satellite bulk SST with an accuracy/uncertainty of 0.011 ± 0.072°C, as well as daily mean SSS and residual buoyancy series deduced from wintertime analyses with an accuracy of 0.011 ± 0.008 and 0.03 ± 0.012 m2 s-2, respectively. The adjusted fluxes close the annual heat and rescaled water budgets by less than 5 W m-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a flux data set is produced. It can thus be considered as a reference for the north-western Mediterranean and be used for estimating other flux data sets, for forcing regional models and for process studies. Compared with the adjusted fluxes, some operational numerical weather prediction models (ARPEGE, NCEP, ERA-INTERIM, ECMWF, and AROME), often used to force oceanic models, were evaluated: they are unable to retrieve the mean annual patterns and values.

  2. Management of root diseases of annual pasture legumes in Mediterranean ecosystems - a case study of subterranean clover root diseases in the south-west of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barbetti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum is an important component of Mediterranean dryland pasture ecosystems, such as in the south-west of Western Australia, where it is utilised as a winter annual pasture that provides nitrogen as well as disease breaks for rotational crops. Necrotrophic soil-borne fungal pathogens dominate Mediterranean ecosystems because of the ease of survival of these pathogens on infested residues over the dry summer period, and because of low levels of microbial competition in the impoverished and nutrient-defi cient soils characteristic of these regions that predisposes plants to root diseases. In addition to herbage and seed yield losses from soil-borne fungal and nematode pathogens, changes in botanical composition, in the number of regenerating plants, their persistence, and factors affecting feed quality are signifi cantly affected. Further, where the causal organisms of the diseases on subterranean clover are also common on other rotational crops, the impact of these soilborne pathogens appears far wider in Mediterranean ecosystems than previously considered. Under these conditions, soil-borne pathogens pose a serious threat to the productivity of this self-seeding pasture legume, to the extent that reseeding may become necessary. Pathogens such as Phytophthora clandestina, various Pythium species particularly Pythium irregulare, Aphanomyces sp., Rhizoctonia solani, one or more Fusarium species, Phoma medicaginis and Cylindrocarpon didymium are of concern, as are the nematode parasites from the genera Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Pratylenchus, Trichodorus and Radopholus. In this ecosystem, root pathogens operate together as disease complexes and the challenge therefore has been to source host genotypes with resistance to multiple pathogens. In addition to plant nutrition, environmental factors, in particular rainfall (soil moisture and soil temperature, have a marked effect on both the disease severity caused by

  3. Does the diet of the Balearic population, a Mediterranean type diet, still provide adequate antioxidant nutrient intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Josep A; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Romaguera, Dora; Pons, Antoni

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the intake of antioxidant nutrients, as important components of the diet of the Balearic population, a typical Mediterranean type diet, as well as socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors that could be associated to their consumption. Cross sectional survey: dietary information (replicated 24-h recall) and socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected from a representative sample of the Balearic Islands population (n = 1200, 498 males and 702 females) aged 16-65 years (response rate 77.22%). A Dietary Antioxidant Quality Score (DAQS) was computed considering the risk of inadequate intakes (Balearic diet among certain groups of the Balearic Islands population, and this trend may be responsible for the observed low intake of antioxidant nutrients.

  4. Food consumption and civil society: Mediterranean diet as a sustainable resource for the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, F Xavier

    2011-12-01

    To define the Mediterranean diet model inside a Mediterranean social and cultural food framework and from the perspective of a local model of consumption. Reflexion and review of literature available in relation to the Mediterranean diet, locality and proximity. Mediterranean region and its populations. The Mediterranean local food system under the term Mediterranean diet encourages local production and local consumption. From this perspective, this model takes part of every local Mediterranean lifestyles and encourages sustainability. From a local Mediterranean point of view and as a proximity model of consumption, Mediterranean food and diet can be a sustainable resource for the Mediterranean area.

  5. Long-term changes in the composition and diversity of deep-slope megabenthos and trophic webs off Catalonia (western Mediterranean): Are trends related to climatic oscillations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; Maynou, F.; Fanelli, E.; Papiol, V.; Lloris, D.

    2009-07-01

    For depths ranging between 650 and 1700 m we have compared recent (2007-2008) to older (from 1988 to 1992) data, searching for long-term changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of deep megafauna (fish and decapods) off the central Catalonian coasts (western Mediterranean). Overall, in the depth interval between 600 and 1100 m, we found higher abundance of fish in 1988-1992 than in 2007, a decrease simultaneous with an increase of decapod crustaceans. Older and more recent haul replicates (after 20 years) had similar assemblage composition in the depth range 1300-1700 m, whereas we found significant changes at 1000 m. Diversity of fish was greater in 1988-1992 than in 2007, while diversity of decapod crustaceans increased between the two periods. Thus, there was a reorganization in benthopelagic communities, rather than a loss of biodiversity. This was in agreement with long-term changes described for diversity of (neritic) zooplankton in the western Mediterranean. We found a dominance of plankton-suprabenthos feeders (e.g. fish such as Lepidion lepidion, Hymenocephalus italicus and Alepocephalus rostratus; the decapods Plesionika spp. and Sergestes arcticus) in 1988-1992. In 2007 by contrast, dominance of plankton-suprabenthos feeders decreased, and assemblages were increasingly composed of benthos-feeding decapods (e.g. Aristeus antennatus, Pontophilus norvegicus and some hermit crabs) preying for instance on polychaetes. These results coincided with low/negative North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) in 2007 and in the period immediately before (2004-2006) 2007 (increase of benthos feeders), and with high average NAO in 1988-1992 (decrease of benthos feeders, which in turn may enhance abundance of plankton feeders). The benthic decapod Calocaris macandreae and suprabenthos (small crustaceans, mostly peracarids, living on and just beneath the sediment surface) are key prey in food webs off Catalonian margins, acting as links between surface

  6. Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales.

  7. A population survey of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD 563C>T (Mediterranean mutation in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuda Jamornthanyawat

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a common inherited enzyme defect and an important problem in areas with Plasmodium vivax infection because of the risk of haemolysis following administration of primaquine to treat the liver forms of the parasite. We undertook a genotypic survey of 713 male individuals across nine provinces of Afghanistan in which malaria is found, four in the north and five in the east. RFLP typing at nucleotide position 563 detected 40 individuals with the Mediterranean mutation 563C>T, an overall prevalence of 5.6%. This varied according to self-reported ethnicity, with prevalence in the Pashtun/Pashai group of 33/369 (8.9% compared to 7/344 individuals in the rest of the population (2.0%; pT in exon 11, and C93T in intron XI in a subset of 82 individuals wild-type at C563 revealed a mixture of 3 haplotypes in the background population and was consistent with data from the 1000 Genomes Project and published studies. By comparison individuals with G6PD deficiency showed a highly skewed haplotype distribution, with 95% showing the CT haplotype, a finding consistent with relatively recent appearance and positive selection of the Mediterranean variant in Afghanistan. Overall, the data confirm that the Mediterranean variant of G6PD is common in many ethnic groups in Afghanistan, indicating that screening for G6PD deficiency is required in all individuals before radical treatment of P. vivax with primaquine.

  8. Is the western population of the European mink, (Mustela lutreola), a distinct Management Unit for conservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Michaux, Johan; Libois, Roland; Davison, A; Chevret, P; Rosoux, R.

    2004-01-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is one of the most threatened carnivores in Europe, with fragmented populations in Belarus. Russia and Romania, as well in south-western France and northern Spain. Many populations have become extinct recently, or are declining. We investigated mitochondrial DNA variation, using the complete D-loop region, and concentrating oil the west European population. The aim was two-fold: to use the genetic information to advise on the conservation of European mink,...

  9. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Canepa

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  10. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  11. First detection of Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora, Bolinopsidae in Sardinia (S’Ena Arrubia Lagoon, Western Mediterranean: a threat for local fishery and species recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. DICIOTTI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi is a lobate ctenophore native of coastal and estuarine waters of the temperate western Atlantic Ocean. In the last decades this species has expanded its range of distribution, colonizing marine and transitional environments in Europe. In October 2015, during a survey fishing the European eel Anguilla anguilla in Sardinia (western Mediterranean, a massive bloom of this specie was observed in the eutrophic S’Ena Arrubia Lagoon for the first time. In November 2015, sampling was conducted at three stations in the lagoon and in a fyke net, in order to estimate the abundance of M. leidyi and to determine its impact on the fishing activity. The results showed an abundance of 2.83 ctenophores m-3. Specimens were all adults, measuring 18 - 62 mm total length. The abundant number of ctenophores (6837 individuals per fyke net damaged fishing operations, reducing catches and affecting the performance of fishing gears. Since there is no effective mechanical, chemical or biological method to counter M. leidyi, the short term economic damage may be approached by new management measures of fisheries. In addition, other actions against the recurring of M. leidyi invasion, can include management strategies, in particular those finalized to reduce the high trophic state of the lagoon.

  12. Observation of oxygen ventilation into deep waters through targeted deployment of multiple Argo-O2 floats in the north-western Mediterranean Sea in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, L.; Prieur, L.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Estournel, C.; Testor, P.; Lefevre, D.; Belamari, S.; LeReste, S.; Taillandier, V.

    2017-08-01

    During the winter 2013, an intense observation and monitoring was performed in the north-western Mediterranean Sea to study deep water formation process that drives thermohaline circulation and biogeochemical processes (HYMEX SOP2 and DEWEX projects). To observe intensively and continuously the impact of deep convection on oxygen (O2) ventilation, an observation strategy was based on the enhancement of the Argo-O2 floats to monitor the offshore dense water formation area (DWF) in the Gulf of Lion prior to and at the end of the convective period (December 2012 to April 2013). The intense O2 measurements performed through shipborne CTD casts and Argo-O2 floats deployment revealed an O2 inventory rapidly impacted by mixed layer (ML) deepening on the month scale. The open-sea convection in winter 2013 ventilated the deep waters from mid-February to the end of May 2013. The newly ventilated dense water volume, based on an Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) threshold, was estimated to be about 1.5 × 1013 m3 during the DWF episode, increasing the deep O2 concentrations from 196 to 205 µmol kg-1 in the north-western basin.

  13. Tectonic block rotation, arc curvature, and back-arc rifting: Insights into these processes in the Mediterranean and the western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, L M; Ellis, S [GNS Science, PO Box 30368, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mann, P [Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States)], E-mail: l.wallace@gns.cri.nz

    2008-07-01

    The fastest modern-day tectonic block rotations on Earth (up to 9 degrees/Myr) occur in the forearcs of convergent plate margins where a transition from collision of a bathymetric high to subduction of normal oceanic crust occurs. GPS techniques have enabled accurate documentation of the kinematics of these rotations, leading us to develop a conceptual model where the change from collision to subduction exerts a torque on microplates within the plate boundary zone, causing them to spin rapidly about an axis at the collision point. We have investigated geophysical and geological data from several active plate boundaries (from the western Pacific and Mediterranean regions) to document a compelling spatial and temporal relationship between the transition from collision to subduction, plate boundary curvature, and rapid tectonic block rotations. In some cases, these microplate rotations can initiate back-arc rifting. We also present numerical modelling results supporting our conceptual model for block rotations at collision/subduction transition. Our results suggest that the rate of microplate rotation depends on the incoming indentor velocity, and can be greatly enhanced by: (1) extensional stresses acting at the subduction interface (possibly due to slab roll back), and (2) a low-viscosity back-arc. Where viscosity of the back-arc is low, forearc microplate rotation dominates. In contrast, tectonic escape of strike-slip fault-bounded microplates is predicted in areas where the back-arc viscosity is high. Previous workers have suggested that the kinematics of the Anatolian block and back-arc rifting in the Aegean are influenced by some combination of forces associated with Arabia/Eurasia collision, and/or subduction (including slab rollback) at the Hellenic trench. Based on previous work from active western Pacific arcs, we propose that the collision of two separate indentors (Arabian promontory in the east, Apulian platform in the west), is a fundamental tectonic

  14. Increase in metabolic syndrome as defined by ATPIII from 1992-1993 to 2002-2003 in a Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Genevieve G; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Castell, Conxa; Cabré, Juanjo; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluis

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to describe the prevalence and evolution of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Mediterranean population of Catalonia, Spain, between 1992-1993 and 2002-2003 by applying the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. Data from two cross-sectional population-based surveys were used (ENCAT 1992-1993 [n = 820] and 2002-2003 [n = 1,384]). Applying IDF definitions, MetS tended to increase (P = 0.08), from 25% in 1992-1993 to 28.5% in 2002-2003. Applying ATPIII definitions, MetS prevalence was lower, and it increased significantly (P < 0.001) from 18.4% in 1992-1993 to 24.8% in 2002-2003. MetS prevalence is high and has increased significantly in the last decade in Catalonia.

  15. Linking basin-scale connectivity, oceanography and population dynamics for the management of marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Vincent; Dubois, Mélodie; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Lopez, Cristobal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    A major challenge in marine ecology is to describe properly larval dispersal and marine connectivity since they structure marine populations and are thus crucial criteria to design Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents in the entire Mediterranean Sea, I present a new approach coupling Lagrangian modeling and Network Theory tools to characterize broad-scale connectivity of marine populations. The Mediterranean basin is subdivided into an ensemble of sub-regions that are interconnected through oceanic transport. Passive larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are advected in a simulated surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. First, the global analysis of the transport network using a community detection algorithm enables the extraction of hydrodynamical provinces which are delimited by frontiers matching multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. We also analyze novel connectivity metrics for the existing marine reserves and we discussed our results in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design. Secondly, we studied the local properties of the network with the computation of proxies commonly used in population ecology to measure local retention, self-recruitment and larval sources/sinks. Our results confirmed that retention processes are favored along certain coastlines due to specific oceanographic conditions while they are weak in the open ocean. Moreover, we found that divergent (convergent) oceanic zones resulting from Ekman theory are systematically characterized by larval sources (sinks). Finally, although these proxies are often studied separately in the literature, we suggest they are inter-related under certain conditions. Their integrated interpretation leads to a better understanding of population dynamics and

  16. Impact and recovery from a mass mortality event of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata populations on the french Mediterranean coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, D.; Garrabou, J.; Perez, T.; Sartoretto, S.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2003-04-01

    An unprecedented mass mortality occurred in the NW Mediterranean in summer 1999. This event affected 30 species of invertebrates from 5 different Phyla (sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, ascidians, bryozoans) on several hundred kilometres of shoreline from the Bay of Genoa in Italy to the Bay of Marseilles in France. The most affected taxa were sponges and cnidarians. This mass mortality took place under an unusual environmental context characterized by high and stable water column temperatures. The impact of the mass mortality and recovery (1999-2002) of populations of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata from Provence's coasts (France) have been studied. Most surveyed populations displayed 50 % of affected colonies at different degree (dead, severe and low damage), although a great variability in rates of mortality and tissue loss was also evident depending among sites. The mortality impact decreased with depth, a pattern which supports the hypothesis that temperature played a key role in this event. Surveys on populations for which pre-mortality data (density and size structure) was attested that recovery was far from completion three years after the mortality. Considering the growth rate of P. clavata, full recovery of the most affected local populations will take several decades will be necessary to return to pre-mortality values. In the context of the global change and taking into account the correlation with the temperature, one may expect that the frequency of of these kind of events will increase in the next decades. Dramatic consequences can be expected for the conservation of the affected species in shallow habitats, in particular, and for the Mediterranean biodiversity, in general.

  17. Population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from five Mediterranean countries: evidence for frequent recombination and epidemic occurrence of CC235.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaoui Maatallah

    Full Text Available Several studies in recent years have provided evidence that Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a non-clonal population structure punctuated by highly successful epidemic clones or clonal complexes. The role of recombination in the diversification of P. aeruginosa clones has been suggested, but not yet demonstrated using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from five Mediterranean countries (n = 141 were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, serotyping and PCR targeting the virulence genes exoS and exoU. The occurrence of multi-resistance (≥ 3 antipseudomonal drugs was analyzed with disk diffusion according to EUCAST. MLST was performed on a subset of strains (n = 110 most of them had a distinct PFGE variant. MLST data were analyzed with Bionumerics 6.0, using minimal spanning tree (MST as well as eBURST. Measurement of clonality was assessed by the standardized index of association (I(A (S. Evidence of recombination was estimated by ClonalFrame as well as SplitsTree4.0. The MST analysis connected 70 sequence types, among which ST235 was by far the most common. ST235 was very frequently associated with the O11 serotype, and frequently displayed multi-resistance and the virulence genotype exoS⁻/exoU⁺. ClonalFrame linked several groups previously identified by eBURST and MST, and provided insight to the evolutionary events occurring in the population; the recombination/mutation ratio was found to be 8.4. A Neighbor-Net analysis based on the concatenated sequences revealed a complex network, providing evidence of frequent recombination. The index of association when all the strains were considered indicated a freely recombining population. P. aeruginosa isolates from the Mediterranean countries display an epidemic population structure, particularly dominated by ST235-O11, which has earlier also been coupled to the spread of ß-lactamases in many countries.

  18. Distribution patterns of alien coral Oculina patagonica De Angelis D'Ossat, 1908 in western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Ramos Esplá, Alfonso A.

    2014-01-01

    Oculina patagonica is an alien species putatively from the Southwest Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea, which is widely spread over large extensions of the Spanish Southeast coast. In the present study we examine the distribution patterns of this species in the Valencian Region in order to understand the environmental factors contributing to its current increase. The results from this study provide evidences that harbours could be a focal point of dispersion of this species. The highest occurrences and the hot spots were situated less than 5 km from the nearest harbour; in addition, macroalgal community also plays an important role facilitating coral recruitment, since the turf-forming algae and calcareous macroalgae presented the highest occurrences of the species.

  19. Rapid northward spread of a zooxanthellate coral enhanced by artificial structures and sea warming in the western Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Serrano

    Full Text Available The hermatypic coral Oculina patagonica can drive a compositional shift in shallow water benthic marine communities in the northwestern Mediterranean. Here, we analyze a long-term, large-scale observational dataset to characterize the dynamics of the species' recent northward range shift along the coast of Catalonia and examine the main factors that could have influenced this spread. The variation in the distributional range of Oculina patagonica was examined by monitoring 223 locations including natural and artificial habitats along >400 km of coastline over the last 19 years (1992-2010. Abundance of the species increased from being present in one location in 1992 to occur on 19% of the locations in 2010, and exhibited an acceleration of its spreading over time driven by the join action of neighborhood and long-distance dispersal. However, the pattern of spread diverged between artificial and natural habitats. A short lag phase and a high slope on the exponential phase characterized the temporal pattern of spread on artificial habitats in contrast to that observed on natural ones. Northward expansion has occurred at the fastest rate (22 km year(-1 reported for a coral species thus far, which is sufficiently fast to cope with certain climate warming predictions. The pattern of spread suggests that this process is mediated by the interplay of (i the availability of open space provided by artificial habitats, (ii the seawater temperature increase with the subsequent extension of the growth period, and (iii the particular biological features of O. patagonica (current high growth rates, early reproduction, and survival to low temperature and in polluted areas. These results are indicative of an ongoing fundamental modification of temperate shallow water assemblages, which is consistent with the predictions indicating that the Mediterranean Sea is one of the most sensitive regions to global change.

  20. Frequency of mutations in Mediterranean fever gene, with gender and genotype-phenotype correlations in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Kurtgöz, Serkan; Keskin, Ece; Sönmez, Ferah; Bozkurt, Gökay

    2015-12-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common hereditary inflammatory periodic disease, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, abdominal pain, synovitis and pleurisy. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene mutations and to investigate the clinical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with FMF in Aydin, a province in western Anatolia, Turkey. Therefore, we retrospectively analysed MEFV gene mutations in 383 patients with suspected FMF and the clinical features of 327 among them. The MEFV gene mutations were investigated using the reverse dot-blot hybridization technique. We detected 26 different genotypes and 11 different mutations. The most common mutations in our cohort were p.M694V (41.15%), p.E148Q (20.35%), p.M680I(G/C) (12.39%) and p.R761H (9.73%). Abdominal pain (86.2%), fever (80.7%), arthralgia (57.2%), vomiting (36.1%), arthritis (34.6%), fatigue (31.5%), anorexia (22.9%) and chest pain (19.0%) were the most prevalent clinical features in our patients. This is the first study from Aydin in which the distribution of MEFV gene mutations and clinical features were evaluated in patients with FMF. We found that the most common mutation was p.M694V in our region, while the frequency of the p.R761H mutation was higher compared to other regions of Turkey with respect to extracted data from previous similar studies. Presented results supported the clinical findings in the literature that the homozygous p.M694V and compound heterozygous genotype were associated with more severe courses in FMF patients.

  1. A diagnostic Study of a High Impact Weather Episode in the Western Mediterranean Region: IOP8 a HyMeX case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayar, Samiro; Kalthoff, Norbert; Raff, Fritz

    2013-04-01

    Fall season heavy rainfall in the western Mediterranean region is one of the most threatening phenomena in the area. Devastating flash floods occur every year somewhere in eastern Spain resulting in a large amount of property losses, destruction of infrastructures, enormous agricultural losses and human fatalities. The forecast of the underlying HIW is a subject of special concern for local meteorologist because of its catastrophic nature. Within the framework of HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) a HIW (High Impact Weather) event took place on the south and eastern part of the Spanish coast, particularly in Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia and less pronouncedly in the Balearic Islands, moving afterwards towards France southern coast. During this event casualties and important economic damage were registered. The amounts of precipitation locally overpassed 200 mm in 24 hours and a tornado occurred in Gandia (Valencia). The main objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive description of the physical atmospheric processes giving rise to the intense precipitation in this event and its movement along the Spanish coast. High-resolution COSMO-CLM model simulations supported by the analysis of observational data sets will be presented. The model simulations and observational data sets, such as a dense network of global positioning systems (GPS), raingauges, surface measurements and radiosoundings are analyzed to document in detail the evolution of the warm and wet air masses which fed the high precipitation event (HPE) systems, as well as the low-level convergence to which the main convective systems were associated.

  2. A kite-based approach for water-vapor lidar calibration and application to multi-platform intercomparison in the Western Mediterranean during ChArMEx/ADRIMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totems, Julien; Chazette, Patrick; Dulac, François; Hassanzadeh, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the ADRIMED campaign included in the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) research program, performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean, the mobile Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI) developed by LSCE was deployed at Cap d'en Font on the island of Menorca (Spain). Alongside an elastic backscatter channel, it features depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels, the two latter yielding profiles of atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR). The water content thus provided by the lidar is essential to validate models or satellite water vapor products for meteorological purposes. It also proved to be very helpful in characterizing particle types and sources, especially for the multi-layer situations observed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED special observation period. Beforehand, however, a precise calibration of the WVMR had to be done on-site. Balloon rawindsoundings performed by CNES were available about 10 km off-site on Saint-Lluis aerodrome or 100 km away on Majorca for this purpose, but strong inhomogeneities in the WVMR observed under 2 km altitude prevent an accurate calibration and the determination of the lidar overlap factor, which biases WVMR retrieval under 300 m. Instead, we propose the use of a lightweight Pressure-Temperature-Relative Humidity (PTU) sound carried under a simple kite to perform a co-localized sounding. Modern kites indeed combine the advantages of an easy deployment and the possibility of longer, more precise soundings in the low troposphere. After showing that this approach leads to calibration with less than 2% error from 80 m altitude, we validate it against rawindsounding WVMR profiles, with very good agreement at high altitude. We also present further comparisons between the lidar-derived WVMR and the one given by meteorological model reanalyses (AROME, ECMWF) or satellite inversion products (IASI).

  3. The Pen Shell, Pinna nobilis: A Review of Population Status and Recommended Research Priorities in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Lorena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; García-March, José R; Deudero, Salud; Alvarez, Elvira; Vicente, Nardo; Duarte, Carlos M; Hendriks, Iris E

    2015-01-01

    The pen shell Pinna nobilis (also known as the fan mussel) is an endemic bivalve of the Mediterranean Sea. Threatened by human activities, it has been listed as an endangered and protected species under the European Council Directive 92/43/EEC since 1992. The ecological role of this species is of importance because it filters and retains large amounts of organic matter from suspended detritus contributing to water clarity. In addition, as a hard substrate in the soft-bottom seafloor, it provides a surface that can be colonized by other (floral and faunal) benthic species. Here, we provide an overview of all available published studies on the pen shell, compiling available data and summarizing current knowledge on the conservation status and viability of populations over the full range of the Mediterranean Basin. Additionally, we discuss the different practices in applied methodology and identify gaps and new research areas in order to render conservation programmes of the species more effective. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Demography and population status of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Regher, Eric V; Servanty, Sabrina; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the demography and population status of the Western Hudson Bay (WH) polar bear subpopulation for the period 1984-2011, using live-recapture data from research studies and management actions, and dead-recovery data from polar bears harvested for subsistence purposes or removed during human-bear conflicts.

  5. A core set of microsatellite markers for Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population genetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in the ecological and population genetics of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has grown rapidly in the last few years in North America and Europe. This interest is a result of a number of converging issues related to increasing difficult...

  6. Genetic consequences of forest population dynamics influenced by historic climatic variability in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Westfall; Constance I. Millar

    2004-01-01

    We review recent advances in climate science that show cyclic climatic variation over multiple time scales and give examples of the impacts of this variation on plant populations in the western USA. The paleohistorical reconstructions we review and others indicate that plant specles track these cycles in individualistically complex ways. These dynamic histories suggest...

  7. A populist Zeitgeist? The impact of populism on parties, media and the public in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.

    2013-01-01

    Various scholars have claimed that populism has become mainstream in Western Europe, and that we are therefore witnessing a populist ‘Zeitgeist’ in this part of the world. This dissertation puts this claim to the test. Have political parties, media and citizens indeed become increasingly populist

  8. High resolution climate and vegetation simulations of the Late Pliocene, a model-data comparison over western Europe and the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jost

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we perform a detailed comparison between climate model results and climate reconstructions in western Europe and the Mediterranean area for the mid-Piacenzian warm interval (ca 3 Myr ago of the Late Pliocene epoch. This region is particularly well suited for such a comparison as several quantitative climate estimates from local pollen records are available. They show evidence for temperatures significantly warmer than today over the whole area, mean annual precipitation higher in northwestern Europe and equivalent to modern values in its southwestern part. To improve our comparison, we have performed high resolution simulations of the mid-Piacenzian climate using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM with a stretched grid which allows a finer resolution over Europe. In a first step, we applied the PRISM2 (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping boundary conditions except that we used modern terrestrial vegetation. Second, we simulated the vegetation for this period by forcing the ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM with the climatic outputs from the AGCM. We then supplied this simulated terrestrial vegetation cover as an additional boundary condition in a second AGCM run. This gives us the opportunity to investigate the model's sensitivity to the simulated vegetation changes in a global warming context.

    Model results and data show a great consistency for mean annual temperatures, indicating increases by up to 4°C in the study area, and some disparities, in particular in the northern Mediterranean sector, as regards winter and summer temperatures. Similar continental mean annual precipitation and moisture patterns are predicted by the model, which broadly underestimates the wetter conditions indicated by the data in northwestern Europe. The biogeophysical effects due to the changes in vegetation simulated by ORCHIDEE are weak

  9. Summer Distribution, Relative Abundance and Encounter Rates of Cetaceans in the Mediterranean Waters off Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea and Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SANTORO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2010 and summer 2011, weekly cetacean surveys were undertaken in “passing mode”, using ferries as platform of opportunity, along the “fixed line transect” between Catania and Civitavecchia (Southern Italy. Of the 20 species of cetaceans confirmed for the Mediterranean sea, 8 were sighted within the survey period: 7 species represented by Mediterranean subpopulations (Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Grampus griseus, Tursiops truncatus and Ziphius cavirostris and one considered visitor (Steno bredanensis. We had a total of 220 sightings during the 2010 and a total of 240 sightings in the 2011. The most frequent species was S. coeruleoalba. By the comparison of the data from the two sampling seasons, a significant increase of D. delphis sightings and a decrease of sightings of B. physalus and P. macrocephalus was observed from 2010 to 2011. While all the other species were observed in both sampling seasons, Z. cavirostris and Steno bredanensis were observed only during 2011. The presence of mixed groups of odontocetes was documented too: we sighted groups composed by S. coeruleoalba and D. delphis, by S. coeruleoalba and T. truncatus, and by S. coeruleoalba and G. griseus. The results of this research add useful information on cetacean species in a very poorly known area and highlight the need to standardize large scale and long term monitoring programs in order to detect variation in presence, abundance and distribution of cetaceans populations and understand the effect of anthropogenic factors.

  10. Common Mediterranean Fever (MEFV Gene Mutations Associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Turkish Population

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    Serbulent Yigit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease. Mediterranean fever (MEFV gene, which has already been identified as being responsible for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, is also a suspicious gene for AS because of the clinical association of these two diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and clinical significance of MEFV gene mutations (M694V, M680I, V726A, E148Q and P369S in a cohort of Turkish patients with AS. Genomic DNAs of 103 AS patients and 120 controls were isolated and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods. There was a statistically significant difference of the MEFV gene mutation carrier rates between AS patients and healthy controls (p = 0.004, OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.32–4.76. This association was also observed in allele frequencies (p = 0.005, OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.27–4.2. A relatively higher frequency was observed for M694V mutation in AS patients than controls (10.7% versus 4.2% , p = 0.060. There were no significant differences between MEFV mutation carriers and non-carriers with respect to the clinical and demographic characteristics. The results of this study suggest that MEFV gene mutations are positively associated with a predisposition to develop AS.

  11. Common Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) Gene Mutations Associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Turkish Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Serbulent; Inanir, Ahmet; Karakus, Nevin; Kesici, Esra; Bozkurt, Nihan

    2012-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease. Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene, which has already been identified as being responsible for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), is also a suspicious gene for AS because of the clinical association of these two diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and clinical significance of MEFV gene mutations (M694V, M680I, V726A, E148Q and P369S) in a cohort of Turkish patients with AS. Genomic DNAs of 103 AS patients and 120 controls were isolated and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. There was a statistically significant difference of the MEFV gene mutation carrier rates between AS patients and healthy controls (p = 0.004, OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.32–4.76). This association was also observed in allele frequencies (p = 0.005, OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.27–4.2). A relatively higher frequency was observed for M694V mutation in AS patients than controls (10.7% versus 4.2% , p = 0.060). There were no significant differences between MEFV mutation carriers and non-carriers with respect to the clinical and demographic characteristics. The results of this study suggest that MEFV gene mutations are positively associated with a predisposition to develop AS. PMID:22960328

  12. Mitochondrial DNA reveals genetic structuring of Pinna nobilis across the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna, Daria; Cossu,Piero; Dedola, Gian Luca; Scarpa, Fabio; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Castelli, Alberto; Franzoi, Piero; Lai, Tiziana; Cristo, Benedetto; Curini Galletti, Marco; Francalacci, Paolo; Casu, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic Mediterranean marine bivalve. During past centuries, various human activities have promoted the regression of its populations. As a consequence of stringent standards of protection, demographic expansions are currently reported in many sites. The aim of this study was to provide the first large broad-scale insight into the genetic variability of P. nobilis in the area that encompasses the western Mediterranean, Ionian Sea, and Adriatic Sea marine ecoregion...

  13. Simulated bat populations erode when exposed to climate change projections for western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that temperature and precipitation conditions correlate with successful reproduction in some insectivorous bat species that live in arid and semiarid regions, and that hot and dry conditions correlate with reduced lactation and reproductive output by females of some species. However, the potential long-term impacts of climate-induced reproductive declines on bat populations in western North America are not well understood. We combined results from long-term field monitoring and experiments in our study area with information on vital rates to develop stochastic age-structured population dynamics models and analyzed how simulated fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes populations changed under projected future climate conditions in our study area near Boulder, Colorado (Boulder Models and throughout western North America (General Models. Each simulation consisted of an initial population of 2,000 females and an approximately stable age distribution at the beginning of the simulation. We allowed each population to be influenced by the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation for our study area and a generalized range-wide model projected through year 2086, for each of four carbon emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5. Each population simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Of the 8 Boulder Model simulations, 1 increased (+29.10%, 3 stayed approximately stable (+2.45%, +0.05%, -0.03%, and 4 simulations decreased substantially (-44.10%, -44.70%, -44.95%, -78.85%. All General Model simulations for western North America decreased by >90% (-93.75%, -96.70%, -96.70%, -98.75%. These results suggest that a changing climate in western North America has the potential to quickly erode some forest bat populations including species of conservation concern, such as fringed myotis.

  14. Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean through a multiproxy analysis from Padul peat bog (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Román, María J.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Camuera, Jon; García-Alix, Antonio; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula, located in the Mediterranean area, is an interesting location for paleoclimate studies due to its geographic situation between arid and humid climates. Sediments from peat bogs and lakes from Sierra Nevada, in southeastern Iberian Peninsula, have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by Holocene climate change. These studies are essential if we want to understand the past climate change in the area, which is the key to identify the possible environmental response of the Sierra Nevada ecosystems to future climate scenarios. Padul basin, located in the southwest of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, contains a ca. 100 m-thick peat bog sedimentary sequence that was deposited during the past 1 Ma making this area interesting for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. A new 43 m-long sedimentary record has recently been retrieved from the Padul peat bog. In this study we have developed a multiproxy analysis of the Holocene part of the Padul-15-05 core including pollen analysis, XRF-core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry, supported by an age control based on AMS radiocarbon dates, providing with information about vegetation and climate variability during the past 9.9 cal ka BP. This multiproxy reconstruction of the Padul-15-05 evidences the Mediterranean as a sensitive area with respect to global-scale climate system, showing relevant climate episodes such as the ca. 8, 7.5, 6.5 and 5.5 cal ka BP events during the early and middle Holocene. The trend to aridification to the late Holocene is interrupted by more arid and humid periods as the Iberian Roman Humid Period (from ca. 3 to 1.6 cal ka BP), the Dark Ages (from ca. 1.5 to 1.1 cal ka BP), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (from ca. 1.1 to 1.3 cal ka BP) and the Little Ice Age period (from ca. 500 to 100 cal yr BP).

  15. Volatile organic compounds in the western Mediterranean basin: urban and rural winter measurements during the DAURE campaign

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    R. Seco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs have key environmental and biological roles, but little is known about the daily VOC mixing ratios in Mediterranean urban and natural environments. We measured VOC mixing ratios concurrently at an urban and a rural site during the winter DAURE campaign in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, by means of PTR-MS at both locations: a PTR-Quad-MS at the urban site and a PTR-ToF-MS at the rural site. All VOC mixing ratios measured were higher at the urban site (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 1.68, 0.31, 0.58 and 2.71 ppbv, respectively, with the exception of some short-chain oxygenated VOCs such as acetone (with similar averages of 0.7–1.6 ppbv at both sites. The average diurnal pattern also differed between the sites. Most of the VOCs at the urban location showed their highest mixing ratios in the morning and evening. These peaks coincided with traffic during rush hour, the main origin of most of the VOCs analyzed. Between these two peaks, the sea breeze transported the urban air inland, thus helping to lower the VOC loading at the urban site. At the rural site, most of the measured VOCs were advected by the midday sea breeze, yielding the highest daily VOC mixing ratios (e.g. acetaldehyde, isoprene, benzene, and toluene with averages up to 0.65, 0.07, 0.19, and 0.41 ppbv, respectively. Only biogenic monoterpenes showed a clear local origin at this site. In addition, the concentrations of fine particulate matter observed at both sites, together with the synoptic meteorological conditions and radio-sounding data, allowed the identification of different atmospheric scenarios that had a clear influence on the measured VOC mixing ratios. These results highlight the differences and relationships in VOC mixing ratios between nearby urban and rural areas in Mediterranean regions. Further research in other urban-rural areas is warranted to better understand the urban

  16. Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect

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    C. Di Biagio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between  ∼  160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84–0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70–0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84–0.70 between 370 and 950 nm are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41–1.77 and 0.002–0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE, i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (−160/−235 W m−2 τ−1 at 60° solar zenith angle and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (−137/−92

  17. Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Doppler, Lionel; Gaimoz, Cécile; Grand, Noel; Ancellet, Gerard; Attié, Jean-Luc; Bucci, Silvia; Dubuisson, Philippe; Fierli, Federico; Mallet, Marc; Ravetta, François

    2016-08-01

    Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω) of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity) airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between ˜ 160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84-0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70-0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84-0.70 between 370 and 950 nm) are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41-1.77 and 0.002-0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE) to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE), i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (-160/-235 W m-2 τ-1 at 60° solar zenith angle) and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (-137/-92 W m-2 τ-1) for ω varying between its maximum and minimum value

  18. Reproduction, gonad histology and fecundity of Aidablennius sphynx (Pisces: Blenniidae of the Catalan Sea (North-Western Mediterranean

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    Maite Carrassón

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the Mediterranean blenny fish Aidablennius sphinx was studied on the basis of microscopic and macroscopic analysis. A. sphynx is a resident species of the shallow waters of this region, lays demersal eggs and provides parental care to the developing embryos. Mature male gonads occur between March and July, whereas mature females appear between April and August. Male gonads are composed of the testis and the testicular gland. Spermatids are released into the testicular gland. The testicular gland is relatively more prominent than the testis after the reproductive season. Six stages of oocyte development (included atretic ones are considered. Seasonal variations of gonads of both males and females are illustrated. Low fecundity was recorded, as the ovaries may contain 432 to 1682 oocytes according to female size. Equations describing the relationship between gonad weight and length and weight of males and females are presented. Equations describing the relationship between absolute individual fecundity and length and weight of females are also presented.

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of tetraphyllidean merocercoids (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, C; Aznar, F J; Olson, P D; Littlewood, D T J; Kostadinova, A; Raga, J A

    2005-04-01

    Two types of tetraphyllidean merocercoids, Phyllobothrium delphini and Monorygma grimaldii, are well known from most cetaceans world-wide. The role of cetaceans in the life-cycle of these merocercoids is unclear because their specific identity is as yet unknown. The problem is compounded by poor descriptions of both merocercoids. We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and histological techniques to provide a thorough description of merocercoids collected from 11 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, from the Spanish Mediterranean. We also described, for the first time, specimens of P. delphini with immature proglottides. Our merocercoids were morphologically similar to those described previously, except in the structure of the apical organ. Intra- and inter-sample variability in the morphology of the apical organ suggested that it degenerates during larval development. A subsample of 16 specimens of P. delphini and M. grimaldii was characterized for the D2 variable region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU) and compared with published tetraphyllidean cestode LSU sequences. P. delphini showed 2 unique signatures that differed from one another by a single base, whereas all sequences of M. grimaldii were identical. This suggests that each type may represent a single species, contrary to previous speculations based on morphological data. All merocercoid specimens formed a clade together with Clistobothrium montaukensis. Based on the low degree of divergence, all specimens of this clade are predicted to be congeneric.

  20. Patterns of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in a highly structured Hordeum vulgare association-mapping population for the Mediterranean basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comodran, J.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.; Akar, T.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benbelkacem, A.; Ouabbou, H.; Bort, J.; Romagosa, I.; Hackett, C.A.; Russel, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Population structure and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) were investigated in 192 Hordeum vulgare accessions providing a comprehensive coverage of past and present barley breeding in the Mediterranean basin, using 50 nuclear microsatellite and 1,130 DArT® markers. Both clustering and

  1. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.

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    Natalia Vizcaíno-Palomar

    Full Text Available Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton, an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  2. Assessment of the diversity and dynamics of Plum pox virus and aphid populations in transgenic European plums under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Nieves; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; Monzó, César; Carbonell, Emilio; Urbaneja, Alberto; Scorza, Ralph; Ravelonandro, Michel; Cambra, Mariano

    2008-06-01

    The molecular variability of Plum pox virus (PPV) populations was compared in transgenic European plums (Prunus domestica L.) carrying the coat protein (CP) gene of PPV and non-transgenic plums in an experimental orchard in Valencia, Spain. A major objective of this study was to detect recombination between PPV CP transgene transcripts and infecting PPV RNA. Additionally, we assessed the number and species of PPV aphid vectors that visited transgenic and non-transgenic plum trees. Test trees consisted of five different P. domestica transgenic lines, i.e. the PPV-resistant C5 'HoneySweet' line and the PPV-susceptible C4, C6, PT6 and PT23 lines, and non-transgenic P. domestica and P. salicina Lind trees. No significant difference in the genetic diversity of PPV populations infecting transgenic and conventional plums was detected, in particular no recombinant between transgene transcripts and incoming viral RNA was found at detectable levels. Also, no significant difference was detected in aphid populations, including viruliferous individuals, that visited transgenic and conventional plums. Our data indicate that PPV-CP transgenic European plums exposed to natural PPV infection over an 8 year period caused limited, if any, risk beyond the cultivation of conventional plums under Mediterranean conditions in terms of the emergence of recombinant PPV and diversity of PPV and aphid populations.

  3. Application of allozyme markers for screening of turbot populations along Western Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENELIN NIKOLOV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Data for electrophoretic pattern of 26 loci, resolved for the 8 protein systems (7- enzyme and 1-non-enzyme assayed were used to investigate population structure of turbot along the Bulgarian and Romanian Black Sea coasts using genetic diversity measures. Seventeen loci were polymorphic in all populations and a total of 34 alleles were identified. Four types of tissue: muscle, retina, plasma and haemoglobin were analyzed. The percentage of polymorphic loci was high (65.38% within populations. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected, based on the Shannon’s information index (0.446-0.448 and the coefficient of genetic differentiation between populations (FST =0.014. The overall mean of within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS was (-0.209 and demonstrated low level of inbreeding. The genetic distance (DNei between the populations was low and vary between 0.003 and 0.014. Genetic distances among turbot populations were positively correlated with geographic distances (r = 0.474, but the association was not significant according to the Mantel test (p=0.651 and showed a lack of correlation between genetic distance and the geographic location of populations. Results identified one genetic stock with sufficient gene flow between all the three sites to prevent genetic differentiation from occurring. Only 1.4% of the genetic variation was observed among populations. Results revealed that adopting a single stock model and regional shared management could probably be appropriate for sustainable long-term use of turbot along western Black Sea coast. Determination of the contemporary state of the population distribution will be the prerequisite for determination of adequate measures for exploitation and protection of the existing turbot populations along western Black Sea coast.

  4. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  5. The summer 2012 Saharan dust season in the western Mediterranean with focus on the intense event of late June during the Pre-ChArMEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, François; Nicolas, José B.; Sciare, Jean; Mallet, Marc; Léon, Jean-François; Pont, Véronique; Sicard, Michaël; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Nabat, Pierre; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Jaumouillé, Elodie; Roberts, Greg; Attié, Jean-Luc; Somot, Samuel; Laurent, Benoît; Losno, Rémi; Vincent, Julie; Formenti, Paola; Bergametti, Gilles; Ravetta, François

    2013-04-01

    Saharan dust is an usual aerosol over the Mediterranean basin that contributes to the high average aerosol load during summer in the western Mediterranean marine environment. Satellite monitoring shows that dust events were numerous during summer 2012. Even though most of the transport of dust particles occurs in altitude, as shown by surface lidars and airborne data, dust events significantly impact surface PM10 concentrations even in urban traffic type of air quality monitoring stations, and background stations are needed to assess the contribution of desert dust. During the pre-ChArMEx field campaign and associated field campaigns TRAQA and VESSAER in the north-western Mediterranean, a large scale African dust event occurred in late June-early July with optical depth levels in the visible up to 0.5-0.7 rather unusual in that area according to long time remote sensing AERONET or satellite series. We have performed measurements in the dust plume for several days with a particularly large variety of both ground-based and airborne (from sounding balloons, an aircraft and an ultra-light aircraft) remote sensing and in situ instruments. In addition to satellite aerosol products including MSG/SEVIRI, which provides the spatial distribution of the aerosol optical depth over the basin up to 4 times per hour, POLDER and CALIOP, this yields a complete set of unusual quantitative constraints for model simulations of this event, combining data on aerosol optical depth, vertical distribution, particle size distribution, chemical, optical and microphysical properties. We shall provide an overview of the data set that includes original measurements of the vertical profile of the aerosol size distribution with a new small balloon borne OPC called LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) showing large dust particles (up to 30 µm in diameter) within a thick dust layer between 1 and 5 km above south-eastern France, and original network measurement of weekly dust deposition with a new

  6. The plankton food web of the Bizerte Lagoon (South-western Mediterranean): II. Carbon steady-state modelling using inverse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grami, Boutheïna; Niquil, Nathalie; Sakka Hlaili, Asma; Gosselin, Michel; Hamel, Dominique; Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine

    2008-08-01

    A steady-state model of the planktonic food web of the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia, South-western Mediterranean) was developed to characterize its structure and functioning through four stations: MA under urban discharge, MB impacted by industrial input, MJ located at proximity of shellfish farming and R in the central area of the lagoon. Carbon stocks of eight chosen compartments were determined and flows were assigned for each one from field data. Missing flow values were calculated by inverse analysis for each station. Network analysis was applied to the resulting food web models to characterize their properties. These analyses mainly showed similarity among stations concerning (1) a high primary production of phytoplankton which was dominated by >10 μm cells (i.e. diatoms); (2) important herbivory against detritivory in stations MA and MJ; (3) major role of detritivory in stations MB and R; (4) efficiency of microbial link in transferring carbon for higher trophic level; (5) efficiency of microzooplankton as a trophic link between detritus, dissolved organic carbon, autotrophs and mesozooplankton; (6) important recycling of carbon leading to conclude about an immature state of the ecosystem. Differences between the functioning of microbial food webs in the lagoon are mainly due to the location of stations. The proximity of station MB to inland and industrial discharges affected its productivity and made it the least productive station. Water circulation into the lagoon made pollutant concentrate into the south and the western sections which seemed to affect the planktonic food web, since the values of productivity reported for stations MB and R were lower than those calculated for the others stations.

  7. Stable water isotope patterns in a climate change hotspot: the isotope hydrology framework of Corsica (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Schiebel, Ralf; Taubald, Heinrich; Barth, Johannes A C

    2014-06-01

    The Mediterranean is regarded as a region of intense climate change. To better understand future climate change, this area has been the target of several palaeoclimate studies which also studied stable isotope proxies that are directly linked to the stable isotope composition of water, such as tree rings, tooth enamel or speleothems. For such work, it is also essential to establish an isotope hydrology framework of the region of interest. Surface waters from streams and lakes as well as groundwater from springs on the island of Corsica were sampled between 2003 and 2009 for their oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions. Isotope values from lake waters were enriched in heavier isotopes and define a local evaporation line (LEL). On the other hand, stream and spring waters reflect the isotope composition of local precipitation in the catchment. The intersection of the LEL and the linear fit of the spring and stream waters reflect the mean isotope composition of the annual precipitation (δP) with values of-8.6(± 0.2) ‰ for δ(18)O and-58(± 2) ‰ for δ(2)H. This value is also a good indicator of the average isotope composition of the local groundwater in the island. Surface water samples reflect the altitude isotope effect with a value of-0.17(± 0.02) ‰ per 100 m elevation for oxygen isotopes. At Vizzavona Pass in central Corsica, water samples from two catchments within a lateral distance of only a few hundred metres showed unexpected but systematic differences in their stable isotope composition. At this specific location, the direction of exposure seems to be an important factor. The differences were likely caused by isotopic enrichment during recharge in warm weather conditions in south-exposed valley flanks compared to the opposite, north-exposed valley flanks.

  8. Determination of the Factors Affecting The Use of the Support Program of the Enterprises Benefiting from the Rural Development Investments Program in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Taşcıoğlu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With industrialization, change has taken place in the world and development efforts have concentrated in urban areas. This has affected the rural area negatively and the increase in rural development studies has increased with the emergence of interregional economic imbalances. With the planned period, rural development studies in Turkey have increased and strategies, projects and programs have begun to be developed. One of these activities is the Rural Development Investment Support Program (RDISP, which entered into force in 2006. The aim of the program is to increase the level of rural area income, to ensure integration of agricultural production and agricultural industry, to strengthen food safety, to create alternative income sources in the rural area. In this study, it was aimed to determine the attitudes and behaviors of program beneficiaries in the Western Mediterranean Region within the framework of the RDISP applied in Turkey, and the factors affecting their utilization from the program. In the study, a total of 96 enterprises provided interviews based on face to face interviews. In this study, Factor Analysis was applied to determine the factors that affect the preferences of the enterprises and to determine the factors affecting the investments of the enterprises. In the study, 12 variables that were effective in factor analysis in the utilization of this support were combined into 3 factors. These factors have been found to be “support for local support and information about support”, “employment support for support” and “environmental sensitivity for support”.

  9. Lipid Peroxidation in a Stomach Medium Is Affected by Dietary Oils (Olive/Fish) and Antioxidants: The Mediterranean versus Western Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Oren; Shpaizer, Adi; Kanner, Joseph

    2015-08-12

    Red meat is an integral part of the Western diet, and high consumption is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases. Using a system that simulated the human stomach, red meat was interacted with different oils (olive/fish) and lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxides (LOOH). Olive oil decreased meat lipid peroxidation from 121.7 ± 3.1 to 48.2 ± 1.3 μM and from 327.1 ± 9.5 to 77.3 ± 6.0 μM as assessed by MDA and ROOH, respectively. The inhibitory effect of olive oil was attributed to oleic acid rather than its polyphenol content. In contrast, fish oils from tuna or an ω-3 supplement dramatically increased meat lipid peroxidation from 96.2 ± 3.6 to 514.2 ± 6.7 μM MDA. Vitamin E inhibited meat lipid peroxidation in the presence of olive oil but paradoxically increased peroxidation in the presence of fish oil. The inhibitory properties of oleic acid may play a key role in the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

  10. Comparison of the catches of European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758 taken with experimental gillnets of different mesh sizes in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sbrana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the gillnet fishery on Merluccius merluccius (European hake was investigated in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, western Mediterranean. Four mesh sizes were tested: 53, 62.5, 70 and 82 mm. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, hake and tub gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucerna dominated the catches, from a minimum of 89% (82 mm mesh to a maximum of 97.8% (70 mm of the biomass caught. Efficiency of the four meshes was not significantly different with respect to the total hake catches. Selectivity on M. merluccius was assessed by Sechin and SELECT methods. Tangling was an important catch modality for hake, as evidenced by the results of the Sechin model which described only the first mode of the size distributions corresponding to the entangled specimens. SELECT showed that the bi-modal function gave the best adjustment to the length-frequency distributions; the modal catch sizes were 33, 39.2, 43.6 and 51 cm total length respectively for the 53, 62.5, 70 and 82 mm mesh sizes. Taking into account the size of first maturity for females (35.1 cm TL, 62.5 mm is the most adequate mesh for exploiting hake as it gives some protection to both immature specimens and large females.

  11. Annual variation of parasite communities of deep-sea macrourid fishes from the western Mediterranean Sea and their relationship with fish diet and histopathological alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, M.; Montero, F. E.; Padrós, F.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Carrassón, M.

    2015-10-01

    Parasite communities of three abundant benthopelagic macrourid species (Hymenocephalus italicus, Nezumia aequalis and Trachyrincus scabrus) of the upper slope from the western Mediterranean were analysed seasonally. Histopathological, dietary and environmental information (temperature, salinity, O2 and turbidity) were also obtained. The three fish hosts shared only three parasite species (the nematodes Raphidascaris macrouri and Hysterothylacium aduncum and the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus trachyrinci). H. italicus, the most benthopelagic fish, showed low parasite richness and diversity. The highest total mean abundance of parasites was found in spring for H. italicus and T. scabrus, coinciding with the highest prevalence/abundance of the majority of parasites whereas parasites of N. aequalis exhibited the highest richness, mean abundance and diversity in winter. Parasites related with benthic or infaunal preys were linked to autumn and summer samples off Besós (Barcelona). Some parasites were also linked to high turbidity, which may be due to higher abundances of the intermediate hosts, such as near-bottom zooplaktonic or suprabenthic preys. Few histopathological alterations (e.g. cysts of unknown aetiology) were observed restricted to the two most benthic-feeding fish species inhabiting more closely the near-bottom/sediment level, especially in autumn.

  12. Limestone biopitting in coastal settings: A spatial, morphometric, SEM and molecular microbiology sequencing study in the Mallorca rocky coast (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, F.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Del Valle, L.; Nogales, B.

    2017-01-01

    Biological agency on rock coasts has been widely recognised over recent decades. This study deals with the distribution and morphometric characteristics of microforms features developed by cyanobacteria (Rivularia sp.) on coastal limestone outcrops. These coastal microforms, known as biopits, have a small rounded basin shape a few millimetres in size. Environmental and geological data were collected from 100 random rock surface spots from Punta des Faralló cape (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean), from which major controls on the spatial distribution of biopits were established. Additionally, morphological data on 382 biopits determined the diagnostic morphometry of these features and their enlargement mechanisms. The results indicated that biopits exhibit a preferential location in shaded exposures and sheltered areas from prevailing winds and waves, avoiding direct insolation and desiccation. Other major controls on these microforms location and development were variables such as the rock surface slope and the distance to the coast (i.e. influence of splash and spray). Shadow spots displayed higher biopits density than other locations according to the patterns determined by environmental and geomorphological factors at the study site. Morphometric analyses showed that biopits have a width twice their depth. The average width of the microforms was 6.49 ± 2.40 mm and the average depth 2.46 ± 1.09 mm. Most frequently, the width/depth ratio was 2 or larger. This characteristic shape ratio was an additional factor that plays a role in maintaining the necessary humidity for microorganisms associated with biopits.

  13. Vertical and temporal distribution of pelagic decapod crustaceans over the shelf-break and middle slope in two contrasting zones around Mallorca (western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Daniela S.; Torres, Asvin P.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Abelló, Pere

    2014-10-01

    The pelagic decapod crustacean fauna of two different zones (Sóller and Cabrera) with different hydrographic dynamics and oligotrophy levels was studied around Mallorca (western Mediterranean), the latter with a higher degree of oligotrophy than the former. Samples were taken with a Pelagic Trawl and an IKMT in the upper 600 m of the water column, targeting larger and middle-sized nektonic species, respectively. Fourteen species were collected: five dendrobranchiate shrimps, eight caridean shrimps and one scyllarid lobster. Some species were restricted to the shelf-break: Chlorotocus crassicornis and Plesionika heterocarpus. Others were exclusive of the middle slope: Pasiphaea multidentata, and Sergia robusta. Pasiphaea sivado and Gennadas elegans occurred in all pelagic strata. Multivariate analyses showed several distinct assemblages related to bathymetry and sampling depth. No significant differences were found concerning zone or sampled seasons. Bathymetrically, Deep Scattering Layers showed the highest diversity. No decapod crustaceans occurred in epipelagic daytime samples. The pelagic decapod community sampled was structured by both the geomorphology (and associated hydrographic characteristics over the shelf-break) and the influence of light in the water column. Size analysis showed species-specific patterns concerning size/age movements into the water column throughout the day-night cycle.

  14. Changes in beach shoreline due to sea level rise and waves under climate change scenarios: application to the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Alejandra R.; Marcos, Marta; Álvarez-Ellacuría, Amaya; Orfila, Alejandro; Gomis, Damià

    2017-07-01

    This work assesses the impacts in reshaping coastlines as a result of sea level rise and changes in wave climate. The methodology proposed combines the SWAN and SWASH wave models to resolve the wave processes from deep waters up to the swash zone in two micro-tidal sandy beaches in Mallorca island, western Mediterranean. In a first step, the modelling approach has been validated with observations from wave gauges and from the shoreline inferred from video monitoring stations, showing a good agreement between them. Afterwards, the modelling set-up has been applied to the 21st century sea level and wave projections under two different climate scenarios, representative concentration pathways RCP45 and RCP85. Sea level projections have been retrieved from state-of-the-art regional estimates, while wave projections were obtained from regional climate models. Changes in the shoreline position have been explored under mean and extreme wave conditions. Our results indicate that the studied beaches would suffer a coastal retreat between 7 and up to 50 m, equivalent to half of the present-day aerial beach surface, under the climate scenarios considered.

  15. Skoulekia erythrini n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae): a parasite of Pagellus erythrinus (L.) (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the western Mediterranean with an amendment of the generic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Abella, José F; Georgieva, Simona; Mele, Salvatore; Raga, Juan Antonio; Isbert, Wolf; Kostadinova, Aneta; Montero, Francisco E

    2017-07-01

    A new aporocotylid, Skoulekia erythrini n. sp., is described from the heart, cephalic kidney and gill blood vessels of the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus (L.) collected from several localities of the western Mediterranean off Spain. The new species differs from the type- and only species of the genus, S. meningialis Alama-Bermejo, Montero, Raga & Holzer, 2011 in possessing a symmetrical body (vs laterally curved), short tegumental spines (3-4 vs 7-10 µm) without hooked ends, diffuse (vs conspicuous) oesophageal gland-cells, a relatively longer oesophagus, a testis that is shorter in relation to body length and a much smaller seminal vesicle (17-34 × 10-26 vs 33-101 × 27-97 μm). Elongated ellipsoidal eggs of S. erythrini n. sp. were found trapped in gill vessels in histological sections. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial 28S rDNA and ITS2 sequences supported the placement of the new species within Skoulekia and the close relationships of this genus with Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929 and Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1986. Skoulekia meningialis is described from a new sparid host, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum), collected off Santa Pola, Spain. The new morphological data for the two Skoulekia spp. and a re-examination of three paratypes of S. meningialis pinpointed features amending both the description of S. meningialis and the generic diagnosis of Skoulekia.

  16. Incorporation of habitat information in the development of indices of larval bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (2001-2005 and 2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G. Walter; Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Reglero, Patricia; Balbín, Rosa; García, Alberto; Alemany, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Fishery independent indices of bluefin tuna larvae in the Western Mediterranean Sea are presented utilizing ichthyoplankton survey data collected from 2001 through 2005 and 2012 through 2013. Indices were developed using larval catch rates collected using two different types of bongo sampling, by first standardizing catch rates by gear/fishing-style and then employing a delta-lognormal modeling approach. The delta-lognormal models were developed three ways: 1) a basic larval index including the following covariates: time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; 2) a standard environmental larval index including the following covariates: mean water temperature over the mixed layer depth, mean salinity over the mixed layer depth, geostrophic velocity, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; and 3) a habitat-adjusted larval index including the following covariates: a potential habitat variable, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year. Results indicated that all three model-types had similar precision in index values. However, the habitat-adjusted larval index demonstrated a high correlation with estimates of spawning stock biomass from the previous stock assessment model, and, therefore, is recommended as a tuning index in future stock assessment models.

  17. First haplosporidan parasite reported infecting a member of the Superfamily Pinnoidea (Pinna nobilis) during a mortality event in Alicante (Spain, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriba, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Several stages of a haplosporidan parasite, including spores, were detected infecting three out of four specimens of the Pen Shell Pinna nobilis from the coast of Alicante (Western Mediterranean). A mortality event initiated few weeks before the sampling. The infection was systemic in the connective tissue, with free uni-nucleate stages and early plasmodia, whereas sporulation process took place in the digestive tubules disrupting them. Morphological details, by light and transmission electron microscopy, and PCR amplification confirmed that the parasite belongs to the haplosporidan group. Spores were pleomorphic, usually elongated ovoid, with round to elongated haplosporosomes-like in the sporoplasma. The operculum was situated in the apical zone of the wall, with an external lid, and the nucleus tended to be eccentric in the basal zone. Spore ornamentation was not observed. The single uninfected specimen appeared to be healthy. This is the first report of a haplosporidan parasite infecting a member of the Superfamily Pinnoidea and this is the first histopathological study of a mortality event in the endangered and protected P. nobilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epiphyte load on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile does not indicate anthropogenic nutrient loading in Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Terrados

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The epiphyte load on the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile was estimated at the end of summer in three sites and two depths (7 m and 17 m of the Cabrera Archipelago National Park (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate if epiphyte load could be used as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient loading in the shallow marine ecosystems of the park. Asymmetrical ANOVA was used to divide data variability into two components: the contrast between the site receiving direct anthropogenic inputs of nutrients and organic matter (Es Port and the two control sites (Cala Santa María, Es Burri; and the variability between the control sites. The nitrogen concentration in P. oceanica leaves was higher in Es Port than in Cala Santa María and Es Burri but only at 7 m depth. There was no difference between the epiphyte load on P. oceanica shoots in Es Port and the sites without inputs at both 7 m and 17 m. However, the epiphyte load in Es Burri was higher than that in Cala Santa María at both depths. The results show that the epiphyte load on P. oceanica shoots was not a sensitive indicator of anthropogenic nutrient and organic matter loading in Cabrera Archipelago National Park.

  19. Age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean: Insight from rutile and minute zircon inclusions in a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst (Edough Massif, NE Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguier, Olivier; Bosch, Delphine; Caby, Renaud; Vitale-Brovarone, Alberto; Fernandez, Laure; Hammor, Dalila; Laouar, Rabah; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Abdallah, Nachida; Mechati, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    Diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks witness for subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle and their return to shallow levels. In this study we present U-Pb and trace