WorldWideScience

Sample records for western interior seaway

  1. Testing seasonality of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway with stable isotope analysis of ammonites (Baculites)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, N.; Tobin, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Common to the Western Interior Seaway, Baculites is a genus of ammonite with a straight-shelled morphology that serve as index fossils for the Late Cretaceous. Powdered shell samples were generated along growth sequences from several large Baculites fragments (20 - 40 cm) that preserve original aragonite. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O) were determined for samples using standard techniques. Sine curves were fit to δ18O and δ13C signals, where the seasonal temperature differential is expressed as the amplitude of the δ18O signal. The periods of the signals represent one annual cycle, from which preliminary Baculites growth rate estimates have been established. Additionally, carbon and oxygen isotope data obtained by Fatheree et al. [1998] were re-analyzed and fit to a sine curve. All of the Baculites that produced usable data and the Fatheree et al. [1998] Baculites produced similar periods (30 - 35 cm), suggesting that Baculites likely utilized an r-type life strategy where they reach maturity rapidly, produce large amounts of offspring, and die within a few years. Understanding their life behaviors is critical to the use of Baculites as a paleoclimate proxy since potential migration, both geographic and in the water column, may influence carbon and oxygen isotope signals. The sinusoidal nature of the isotope signals observed in several Baculites suggests that seasonal inputs are most prevalent. Changes in ammonite activity and/or behavior driven by seasonal progression, seasonally mediated environmental changes, or combinations of these are hypothesized inputs that may result in the observed sinusoidal signals. Amplitudes of δ18O signals suggest seawater temperature variance that is consistent with the paleolatitudes associated with the Baculites specimens sampled. Ammonites from higher paleolatitudes yielded larger amplitude signals indicating greater seasonality at these locations. Further experimentation with Baculites aptychi is ongoing and may yield

  2. Biostratigraphic correlation of the western and eastern margins of the Labrador-Baffin Seaway and implications for the regional geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nøhr-Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New analyses of the palynological assemblages in 13 offshore wells on the Canadian margin and six on the West Greenland Margin, in conjunction with onshore data, have led to a new biostratigraphic framework for the Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata of the Labrador Sea – Davis Strait – Baffin Bay (Labrador–Baffin Seaway region and the first broad biostratigraphic correlation of the Canadian and Greenland margins. This framework is based on 167 last occurrences and 18 local/regional peak/common-occurrence events for dinocysts, miospores, fungal spores and Azolla. Detailed biostratigraphic evidence has confirmed the following hiatuses: pre-Aptian in the Hopedale Basin; pre-Albian in the Saglek Basin; Albian–Turonian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin; Turonian–Santonian/Campanian in some areas; pre-Campanian and late Campanian – Thanetian on the Greenland Margin; late Maastrichtian and Danian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin and in the Saglek Basin; Selandian in part of the Hopedale Basin, in all the Saglek Basin wells and in two wells on the West Greenland Margin; late Ypresian and/or Lutetian on both sides; Oligocene to middle Miocene of considerable variability on both margins, with all of the Oligocene and the lower Miocene missing in all the West Greenland Margin wells; and middle to late Miocene on the western side. On the Canadian margin, the hiatuses can be partially matched with the five previously recognised regional unconformities; on the Greenland margin, however, the relationship to the five unconformities is more tenuous. Palynomorph assemblages show that most Aptian to Albian sediments were deposited in generally non-marine to marginal marine settings, interrupted by a short-lived shallow marine episode in the Aptian. A marine transgression started in the Cenomanian–Turonian and led to the most open-marine, oceanic conditions in the Campanian–Lutetian; shallowing probably started in the late Lutetian and continued into

  3. Isotopic evaluation of ocean circulation in the Late Cretaceous North American seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Alan B.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Barrick, Reese E.

    2011-12-01

    During the mid- and Late Cretaceous period, North America was split by the north-south oriented Western Interior Seaway. Its role in creating and maintaining Late Cretaceous global greenhouse conditions remains unclear. Different palaeoceanographic reconstructions portray diverse circulation patterns. The southward extent of relatively cool, low-salinity, low-δ18O surface waters critically distinguishes among these models, but past studies of invertebrates could not independently assess water temperature and isotopic compositions. Here we present oxygen isotopes in biophosphate from coeval marine turtle and fish fossils from western Kansas, representing the east central seaway, and from the Mississippi embayment, representing the marginal Tethys Ocean. Our analyses yield precise seawater isotopic values and geographic temperature differences during the main transition from the Coniacian to the early Campanian age (87-82 Myr), and indicate that the seaway oxygen isotope value and salinity were 2‰ and 3‰ lower, respectively, than in the marginal Tethys Ocean. We infer that the influence of northern freshwater probably reached as far south as Kansas. Our revised values imply relatively large temperature differences between the Mississippi embayment and central seaway, explain the documented regional latitudinal palaeobiogeographic zonation and support models with relatively little inflow of surface waters from the Tethys Ocean to the Western Interior Seaway.

  4. Late Albian dinosaur tracks from the cratonic (eastern) margin of the Western Interior Seaway, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R.M.; Cunningham, J.M.; Corner, R.G.; Brown, G.W.; Phillips, P.L.; Ludvigson, Greg A.

    2004-01-01

    At least 22 tridactyl dinosaur tracks, poorly preserved in various degrees of expression, have recently been found at an exposure in the Dakota Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Albian) in Jefferson County, Nebraska. These tracks generally have broad, blunt digits and a broad posterior margin. The largest of the tracks measures 57 cm in length and 58 cm in width. All of the tracks lie within a stratigraphic horizon of 40 cm or less, but they do not form a single trackway. We interpret the trackmakers to have been ornithopods.The Jefferson County tracks are in a well-cemented sandstone with oscillation ripples, at a stratigraphic level between two well-established sequence boundaries. Channel forms and lateral accretion units are common in the stratigraphic interval enclosing the tracks, and the site is interpreted as a bar or sand flat in a tidally influenced river.The Jefferson County tracks are only the second known occurrence of large Mesozoic tetrapod tracks east of the Rocky Mountain Front-High Plains Margin, including the Black Hills of South Dakota, west of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and north of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Further, this paper is the first documentation of in situdinosaur fossils from the Nebraska-Iowa area.

  5. Biostratigraphic correlation of the western and eastern margins of the Labrador–Baffin Seaway and implications for the regional geology. Appendix 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nøhr-Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New analyses of the palynological assemblages in 13 offshore wells on the Canadian margin and six on the West Greenland Margin, in conjunction with onshore data, have led to a new biostratigraphic framework for the Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata of the Labrador Sea – Davis Strait – Baffin Bay (Labrador–Baffin Seaway region and the first broad biostratigraphic correlation of the Canadian and Greenland margins. This framework is based on 167 last occurrences and 18 local/regional peak/common-occurrence events for dinocysts, miospores, fungal spores and Azolla. Detailed biostratigraphic evidence has confirmed the following hiatuses: pre-Aptian in the Hopedale Basin; pre-Albian in the Saglek Basin; Albian–Turonian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin; Turonian–Santonian/Campanian in some areas; pre-Campanian and late Campanian – Thanetian on the Greenland Margin; late Maastrichtian and Danian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin and in the Saglek Basin; Selandian in part of the Hopedale Basin, in all the Saglek Basin wells and in two wells on the West Greenland Margin; late Ypresian and/or Lutetian on both sides; Oligocene to middle Miocene of considerable variability on both margins, with all of the Oligocene and the lower Miocene missing in all the West Greenland Margin wells; and middle to late Miocene on the western side. On the Canadian margin, the hiatuses can be partially matched with the five previously recognised regional unconformities; on the Greenland margin, however, the relationship to the five unconformities is more tenuous. Palynomorph assemblages show that most Aptian to Albian sediments were deposited in generally non-marine to marginal marine settings, interrupted by a short-lived shallow marine episode in the Aptian. A marine transgression started in the Cenomanian–Turonian and led to the most open-marine, oceanic conditions in the Campanian–Lutetian; shallowing probably started in the late Lutetian and continued into

  6. Biostratigraphic correlation of the western and eastern margins of the Labrador–Baffin Seaway and implications for the regional geology. Fig. 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nøhr-Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New analyses of the palynological assemblages in 13 offshore wells on the Canadian margin and six on the West Greenland Margin, in conjunction with onshore data, have led to a new biostratigraphic framework for the Cretaceous–Cenozoic strata of the Labrador Sea – Davis Strait – Baffin Bay (Labrador–Baffin Seaway region and the first broad biostratigraphic correlation of the Canadian and Greenland margins. This framework is based on 167 last occurrences and 18 local/regional peak/common-occurrence events for dinocysts, miospores, fungal spores and Azolla. Detailed biostratigraphic evidence has confirmed the following hiatuses: pre-Aptian in the Hopedale Basin; pre-Albian in the Saglek Basin; Albian–Turonian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin; Turonian–Santonian/Campanian in some areas; pre-Campanian and late Campanian – Thanetian on the Greenland Margin; late Maastrichtian and Danian in some wells of the Hopedale Basin and in the Saglek Basin; Selandian in part of the Hopedale Basin, in all the Saglek Basin wells and in two wells on the West Greenland Margin; late Ypresian and/or Lutetian on both sides; Oligocene to middle Miocene of considerable variability on both margins, with all of the Oligocene and the lower Miocene missing in all the West Greenland Margin wells; and middle to late Miocene on the western side. On the Canadian margin, the hiatuses can be partially matched with the five previously recognised regional unconformities; on the Greenland margin, however, the relationship to the five unconformities is more tenuous. Palynomorph assemblages show that most Aptian to Albian sediments were deposited in generally non-marine to marginal marine settings, interrupted by a short-lived shallow marine episode in the Aptian. A marine transgression started in the Cenomanian–Turonian and led to the most open-marine, oceanic conditions in the Campanian–Lutetian; shallowing probably started in the late Lutetian and continued into

  7. An interior seaway for northern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champlin, J B.F. [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Environmental Systems (United States); Poston, J W; Lake, J A [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

    1970-05-15

    One of the difficulties confronted in advancing explosives-engineering is that experimentation is both hazardous and expensive. This is particularly true of engineering experiments employing nuclear explosives, because there is a possibility that personnel located many miles from the center of the atomic blast may suffer from fallout or the migration of radioactivity through groundwater to public sources of drinking water. As a consequence, in order to establish courses of instruction in nuclear explosives engineering, it is necessary to use the special technique of deep consideration of a problem as a substitute for a laboratory exercise. This paper represents a summary of one such exercise in which students were assigned the task of performing the preliminary engineering on a project which could, if implemented, have considerable beneficial effect on a rather large area of the world. The possibilities of this project coming into being are quite remote in our time, largely due to the political ramifications and the current tendency to overemphasize the hazards of anything pertaining to nuclear explosions. But, as a classroom device, the use of the Project Analysis as a teaching tool has proved invaluable in training the students to think of the whole system involved rather than a part of it. This paper, primarily a summary of a report submitted by a student team in the course of Engineering with Nuclear Explosives at Georgia Tech in the summer of 1968, speaks for itself in its inventiveness and its expression of deliberate concern for the betterment of mankind. A minimal amount of additional material was added by the senior author to draw attention to recent related events and publications. The students named the study 'Project Pecos Bill' after an American folklore character, a mythical super cowboy who invented roping and other cowboy skills. During a very dry spell, Pecos Bill is said to have used a pointed stick to dig the Rio Grande River and bring water from the Gulf of Mexico. The poignant results of his work can be seen in the agricultural splendor that is the Rio Grande Valley. The parallel to this present study is obvious.

  8. An interior seaway for northern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champlin, J.B.F.; Poston, J.W.; Lake, J.A.

    1970-01-01

    One of the difficulties confronted in advancing explosives-engineering is that experimentation is both hazardous and expensive. This is particularly true of engineering experiments employing nuclear explosives, because there is a possibility that personnel located many miles from the center of the atomic blast may suffer from fallout or the migration of radioactivity through groundwater to public sources of drinking water. As a consequence, in order to establish courses of instruction in nuclear explosives engineering, it is necessary to use the special technique of deep consideration of a problem as a substitute for a laboratory exercise. This paper represents a summary of one such exercise in which students were assigned the task of performing the preliminary engineering on a project which could, if implemented, have considerable beneficial effect on a rather large area of the world. The possibilities of this project coming into being are quite remote in our time, largely due to the political ramifications and the current tendency to overemphasize the hazards of anything pertaining to nuclear explosions. But, as a classroom device, the use of the Project Analysis as a teaching tool has proved invaluable in training the students to think of the whole system involved rather than a part of it. This paper, primarily a summary of a report submitted by a student team in the course of Engineering with Nuclear Explosives at Georgia Tech in the summer of 1968, speaks for itself in its inventiveness and its expression of deliberate concern for the betterment of mankind. A minimal amount of additional material was added by the senior author to draw attention to recent related events and publications. The students named the study 'Project Pecos Bill' after an American folklore character, a mythical super cowboy who invented roping and other cowboy skills. During a very dry spell, Pecos Bill is said to have used a pointed stick to dig the Rio Grande River and bring water from the Gulf of Mexico. The poignant results of his work can be seen in the agricultural splendor that is the Rio Grande Valley. The parallel to this present study is obvious

  9. Seaway Information System Management and Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    This report examines in detail the control and information system requirements of the St. Lawrence Seaway development program in terms of the needs of the vessel traffic controllers and the management users. Structural control models of Seaway operat...

  10. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  11. INTERIORITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    Dealing with the general theme of domestic architectural quality, the PhD thesis ‘INTERIORITY’ takes its point of departure in the continuous and increasing need to improve our capability as architects to theoretically articulate the intangible concept of quality, and to reveal it through an active...... been motivated by the particular hypothesis that an introduction of the notion of interiority, as an ability of the spatial envelope itself to address the sensuous scale of furniture, unfolds a particular dual critical potential signifying our experience of domestic architectural quality: On the one......, tectonically. Hence, it has been a particular idea of the study to explore the relation between furniture, the spatial envelope itself, and its construct by using furniture as an architectural concept. Consequently, the thesis has specifically investigated whether this notion of interiority, describing...

  12. Drought-triggered western spruce budworm outbreaks in the Interior Pacific Northwest: A multi-century dendrochronological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Flower; D. G. Gavin; E. K. Heyerdahl; R. A. Parsons; G. M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir forests in the interior Pacific Northwest are subject to sporadic outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, a species widely recognized as the most destructive defoliator in western North America. Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm often occur synchronously over broad regions and lead to widespread loss of leaf area and decrease in growth rates in...

  13. Climate sensitivity to Arctic seaway restriction during the early Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher D.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Tripati, Aradhna K.

    2009-09-01

    The opening and closing of ocean gateways affects the global distribution of heat, salt, and moisture, potentially driving climatic change on regional to global scales. Between 65 and 45 million years ago (Ma), during the early Paleogene, exchange between the Arctic and global oceans occurred through two narrow and shallow seaways, the Greenland-Norway seaway and the Turgai Strait. Sediments from the Arctic Ocean suggest that, during this interval, the surface ocean was warm, brackish, and episodically enabled the freshwater fern Azolla to bloom. The precise mechanisms responsible for the development of these conditions in the Paleogene Arctic remain uncertain. Here we show results from an isotope-enabled, atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, which indicate that Northern Hemisphere climate would have been very sensitive to the degree of oceanic exchange through the Arctic seaways. We also present modelled estimates of seawater and calcite δ18O for the Paleogene. By restricting these seaways, we simulate freshening of the surface Arctic Ocean to ~ 6 psu and warming of sea-surface temperatures by 2 °C in the North Atlantic and 5-10 °C in the Labrador Sea. Our results may help explain the occurrence of low-salinity tolerant taxa in the Arctic Ocean during the Eocene and provide a mechanism for enhanced warmth in the north western Atlantic. We propose that the formation of a volcanic land-bridge between Greenland and Europe could have caused increased ocean convection and warming of intermediate waters in the Atlantic. If true, this result is consistent with the theory that bathymetry changes may have caused thermal destabilisation of methane clathrates and supports a tectonic trigger hypothesis for the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM).

  14. The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) in the Western Interior US and Gulf of Mexico: Decoupled Black Shale Deposition and Carbon Isotope Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, C.; Snedden, J.; Cunningham, R.; Barrie, C.; Leckie, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The largest carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) of the Cretaceous are associated with widespread evidence for marine anoxia and have been termed Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). OAEs were originally thought to be globally-correlative intervals of black shales, but black shale deposition is an inherently provincial phenomenon driven by local conditions, and black shales associated with individual OAEs are often slightly diachronous and can be absent in some regions. Workers currently favor a definition of OAEs that is focused on the positive carbon isotope excursion driven by the global burial of organic matter and resulting carbon cycle perturbation; i.e., recording the global, rather than local, changes. While this is certainly the best way to define a global event, differences in the expression of the event between regions can be used to study the nature of the event itself. The greater Gulf of Mexico region in southern North America offers an excellent example of the diachroneity of black shale deposition and anoxia during one of the largest OAEs, the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE2. The Western Interior Seaway (WIS), flooded the interior of North America from the Gulf of Mexico up through the Canadian Arctic. In Texas and elsewhere across the WIS, high marine organic matter deposition and proxies for anoxia (especially benthic foraminifera and redox sensitive trace metals) are common before the event, but decrease at its onset, and in some places increase again after the event. Further south, across the Mexican shelf, deeper shelf environments remain dysoxic/anoxic through the event, while several carbonate platforms remain oxygenated during the event, but drown and record anoxic bottom waters shortly afterward. Here, we present new bulk carbonate and organic carbon isotopes and planktic and benthic foraminiferal populations from a 90 m core in southern Mississippi, USA, to present the first record of OAE2 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. In particular, we use

  15. Disruption of the terrestrial plant ecosystem at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, western interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.; Pillmore, C.L.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The palynologically defined Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the western interior of North America occurs at the top of an iridium-rich clay layer. The boundary is characterized by the abrupt disappearance of certain pollen species, immediately followed by a pronounced, geologically brief change in the ratio of fern spores to angiosperm pollen. The occurrence of these changes at two widely separated sites implies continentwide disruption of the terrestrial ecosystem, probably caused by a major catastrophic event at the end of the period.

  16. Recent climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological changes over the interior of western Canada: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, Chris M.; Wheater, Howard S.; Carey, Sean K.; Chun, Kwok P.

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the Earth's climate system has warmed significantly over the past several decades, and in association there have been widespread changes in various other Earth system components. This has been especially prevalent in the cold regions of the northern mid- to high latitudes. Examples of these changes can be found within the western and northern interior of Canada, a region that exemplifies the scientific and societal issues faced in many other similar parts of the world, and where impacts have global-scale consequences. This region has been the geographic focus of a large amount of previous research on changing climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological regimes in recent decades, while current initiatives such as the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) introduced in this review seek to further develop the understanding and diagnosis of this change and hence improve the capacity to predict future change. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the observed changes in various Earth system components and a concise and up-to-date regional picture of some of the temporal trends over the interior of western Canada since the mid- or late 20th century. The focus is on air temperature, precipitation, seasonal snow cover, mountain glaciers, permafrost, freshwater ice cover, and river discharge. Important long-term observational networks and data sets are described, and qualitative linkages among the changing components are highlighted. Increases in air temperature are the most notable changes within the domain, rising on average 2 °C throughout the western interior since 1950. This increase in air temperature is associated with hydrologically important changes to precipitation regimes and unambiguous declines in snow cover depth, persistence, and spatial extent. Consequences of warming air temperatures have caused mountain glaciers to recede at all latitudes, permafrost to thaw at its southern limit, and active layers over permafrost to thicken

  17. Land-surface evolution at the continental time-scale: An example from interior Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbutt, J. A.

    1988-12-01

    The interior plateau of Western Australia in the Wiluna—Meekatharra area is in part an exhumed pre-Permian surface of low relief and to that extent of Gondwana age. A lateritic duricrust on interfluvial remnants of an Old Plateau surface is probably the outcome of several cycles of weathering and stripping, rather than of a single geomorphic episode. Landforms above the Old Plateau have maintained their relief during this circumdenudation and there is no regional evidence of their isolation by major escarpment retreat. A New Plateau surface has extended by stripping of saprolite and is an etchplain, as also is the Old Plateau under the genesis postulated. The New Plateau cycle was initiated by general drainage rejuvenation whilst lateritic weathering still continued, but its extension was halted through increasing climatic aridity, probably during the Miocene.

  18. Extent, causes and timing of moose calves mortality in western interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourne, Timothy O.; Paragi, Thomas F.; Bodkin, James L.; Loranger, Andre J.; Johnson, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the causes and timing of moose (Alces alces) calf mortality during 1988­ 90 in 2 locations in western interior Alaska. Annual survival rates of all calves in 1988 (0.34, n = 42) and 1989 (0.29, n =47) on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and in 1990 (0.25, n = 62) on the Koyukuk NWR were not significantly different. Survival rates of male and female calves were not significantly different during any year. Annual survival of single calves was significantly higher than that for twins in 1989 (0.56 vs. 0.20) and 1990 (0.37 vs. 0.21), but not in 1988. Black bears (Ursus americanus) killed 40% of all calves. Wolves (Canis lupus) killed 9% of the calves, unknown predators killed 8%, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) killed 3%, and 5% died from other causes.

  19. Recent climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological changes over the interior of western Canada: a synthesis and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Carey, S. K.; Chun, K. P.

    2015-08-01

    It is well-established that the Earth's climate system has warmed significantly over the past several decades, and in association there have been widespread changes in various other Earth system components. This has been especially prevalent in the cold regions of the northern mid to high-latitudes. Examples of these changes can be found within the western and northern interior of Canada, a region that exemplifies the scientific and societal issues faced in many other similar parts of the world, and where impacts have global-scale consequences. This region has been the geographic focus of a large amount of previous research on changing climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological Earth system components in recent decades, while current initiatives such as the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) seek to further develop the understanding and diagnosis of this change and hence improve predictive capacity. This paper provides an integrated review of the observed changes in these Earth system components and a concise and up-to-date regional picture of some of the temporal trends over the interior of western Canada since the mid or late-20th century. The focus is on air temperature, precipitation, seasonal snow cover, mountain glaciers, permafrost, freshwater ice cover, and river discharge. Important long-term observational networks and datasets are described, and qualitative linkages among the changing components are highlighted. Systematic warming and significant changes to precipitation, snow and ice regimes are unambiguous. However, integrated effects on streamflow are complex. It is argued that further diagnosis is required before predictions of future change can be made with confidence.

  20. Effects of historic forest disturbance on water quality and flow in the Interior Western U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Matyjasik; G. Moisen; C. Combe; T. Hathcock; S. Mitts; M. Hernandez; T. Frescino; T. Schroeder

    2014-01-01

    Water quality and flow is affected my many complex factors in the Interior Western U.S. While many studies focus on individual water parameters response to a limited number of changing conditions, little work looks at long term effects of diverse forest disturbances on a broader array of water quality and flow metrics. The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and...

  1. Status and conservation of interior Redband Trout in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Gunckel, Stephanie L; Writer, Benjamin J; Shepard, Bradley B.; May, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe the current status and conservation of interior (potamodromous) Redband Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss sspp. throughout its range in the western United States using extant data and expert opinion provided by fish managers. Redband Trout historically occupied 60,295 km of stream habitat and 152 natural lakes. Currently, Redband Trout occupy 25,417 km of stream habitat (42% of their historical range) and 124 lakes or reservoirs. Nonhybridized populations are assumed to occupy 11,695 km (46%) of currently occupied streams; however, fish from only 4,473 km (18%) have been genetically tested. Approximately 47% of the streams occupied by Redband Trout occur on private land, 45% on government lands, and 8% in protected areas. A total of 210 Redband Trout populations, occupying 15,252 km of stream habitat (60% of the current distribution) and 95,158 ha of lake habitat (52%), are being managed as “conservation populations.” Most conservation populations have been designated as weakly to strongly connected metapopulations (125; 60%) and occupy much more stream length (14,112 km; 93%) than isolated conservation populations (1,141 km; 7%). The primary threats to Redband Trout include invasive species, habitat degradation and fragmentation, and climate change. Although the historical distribution of interior Redband Trout has declined dramatically, we conclude that the species is not currently at imminent risk of extinction because it is still widely distributed with many populations isolated by physical barriers and active conservation efforts are occurring for many populations. However, the hybridization status of many populations has not been well quantified, and introgression may be more prevalent than documented here. We recommend (1) collecting additional genetic data and estimating distribution and abundance by means of a more rigorous spatial sampling design to reduce uncertainties, (2) collecting additional information to assess and

  2. Birds and burns of the interior West: descriptions, habitats, and management in western forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Saab; William Block; Robin Russell; John Lehmkuhl; Lisa Bate; Rachel White

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides information about prescribed fire effects on habitats and populations of birds of the interior West and a synthesis of existing information on bird responses to fire across North America. Our literature synthesis indicated that aerial, ground, and bark insectivores favored recently burned habitats, whereas foliage gleaners preferred unburned...

  3. Numerical Simulation of a Seaway with Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommermuth, Douglas; O'Shea, Thomas; Brucker, Kyle; Wyatt, Donald

    2012-11-01

    The focus of this presentation is to describe the recent efforts to simulate a fully non-linear seaway with breaking by using a high-order spectral (HOS) solution of the free-surface boundary value problem to drive a three-dimensional Volume of Fluid (VOF) solution. Historically, the two main types of simulations to simulate free-surface flows are the boundary integral equations method (BIEM) and high-order spectral (HOS) methods. BIEM calculations fail at the point at which the surface impacts upon itself, if not sooner, and HOS methods can only simulate a single valued free-surface. Both also employ a single-phase approximation in which the effects of the air on the water are neglected. Due to these limitations they are unable to simulate breaking waves and air entrainment. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method on the other hand is suitable for modeling breaking waves and air entrainment. However it is computationally intractable to generate a realistic non-linear sea-state. Here, we use the HOS solution to quickly drive, or nudge, the VOF solution into a non-linear state. The computational strategies, mathematical formulation, and numerical implementation will be discussed. The results of the VOF simulation of a seaway with breaking will also be presented, and compared to the single phase, single valued HOS results.

  4. Regional paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic settings of wetland/lacustrine depositional systems in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Western Interior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.P.; Turner, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    During deposition of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, water that originated as precipitation in uplands to the west of the Western Interior depositional basin infiltrated regional aquifers that underlay the basin. This regional groundwater system delivered water into the otherwise dry continental interior basin where it discharged to form two major wetland/lacustrine successions. A freshwater carbonate wetland/lacustrine succession formed in the distal reaches of the basin, where regional groundwater discharged into the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which was a smaller structural basin within the more extensive Western Interior depositional basin. An alkaline-saline wetland/lacustrine complex (Lake T'oo'dichi') formed farther upstream, where shallower aquifers discharged into the San Juan/Paradox Basin, which was another small structural basin in the Western Interior depositional basin. These were both wetlands in the sense that groundwater was the major source of water. Input from surface and meteoric water was limited. In both basins, lacustrine conditions developed during episodes of increased input of surface water. Inclusion of wetlands in our interpretation of what had previously been considered largely lacustrine systems has important implications for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology. The distal carbonate wetland/lacustrine deposits are well developed in the Morrison Formation of east-central Colorado, occupying a stratigraphic interval that is equivalent to the "lower" Morrison but extends into the "upper" Morrison Formation. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic evidence indicate that regional groundwater discharge maintained shallow, hydrologically open, well oxygenated, perennial carbonate wetlands and lakes despite the semi-arid climate. Wetland deposits include charophyte-rich wackestone and green mudstone. Lacustrine episodes, in which surface water input was significant, were times of carbonate and siliciclastic deposition in scarce deltaic

  5. Contact allergy to finished woods in furniture and furnishings: a small allergic contact dermatitis epidemic to western red cedar in sauna interior decoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huilaja, L; Kubin, M E; Riekki, R

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dust remains uncommon and most cases are occupational. Contact allergy to finished wooden products is even more rare and only few cases of contact dermatitis to wooden furnishings and furniture are described. During 2012-2014 surprisingly many patients with dermatitis associated to sauna baths were referred to our clinic. We report three novel cases with allergic contact dermatitis to western red cedar due to exposure during sauna baths. Three cases of non-occupational contact dermatitis to western red cedar were confirmed by patch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to interior decoration or furniture is a rarity, but can be induced by novel exposures, like western red cedar in sauna interior decoration. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. A new troodontid theropod, Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay E Zanno

    Full Text Available Troodontids are a predominantly small-bodied group of feathered theropod dinosaurs notable for their close evolutionary relationship with Avialae. Despite a diverse Asian representation with remarkable growth in recent years, the North American record of the clade remains poor, with only one controversial species--Troodon formosus--presently known from substantial skeletal remains.Here we report a gracile new troodontid theropod--Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov.--from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, USA, representing one of the most complete troodontid skeletons described from North America to date. Histological assessment of the holotype specimen indicates that the adult body size of Talos was notably smaller than that of the contemporary genus Troodon. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Talos as a member of a derived, latest Cretaceous subclade, minimally containing Troodon, Saurornithoides, and Zanabazar. MicroCT scans reveal extreme pathological remodeling on pedal phalanx II-1 of the holotype specimen likely resulting from physical trauma and subsequent infectious processes.Talos sampsoni adds to the singularity of the Kaiparowits Formation dinosaur fauna, which is represented by at least 10 previously unrecognized species including the recently named ceratopsids Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops, the hadrosaurine Gryposaurus monumentensis, the tyrannosaurid Teratophoneus, and the oviraptorosaurian Hagryphus. The presence of a distinct troodontid taxon in the Kaiparowits Formation supports the hypothesis that late Campanian dinosaurs of the Western Interior Basin exhibited restricted geographic ranges and suggests that the taxonomic diversity of Late Cretaceous troodontids from North America is currently underestimated. An apparent traumatic injury to the foot of Talos with evidence of subsequent healing sheds new light on the paleobiology of deinonychosaurians by bolstering functional interpretations of prey grappling and

  7. An atmosphere-ocean GCM modelling study of the climate response to changing Arctic seaways in the early Cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. D.; Legrande, A. N.; Tripati, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    The report of fossil Azolla (a freshwater aquatic fern) in sediments from the Lomonosov Ridge suggests low salinity conditions occurred in the Arctic Ocean in the early Eocene. Restricted passages between the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding oceans are hypothesized to have caused this Arctic freshening. We investigate this scenario using a water-isotope enabled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with Eocene boundary conditions including 4xCO2, 7xCH4, altered bathymetry and topography, and an estimated distribution of Eocene vegetational types. In one experiment, oceanic exchange between the Arctic Ocean and other ocean basins was restricted to two shallow (~250 m) seaways, one in the North Atlantic, the Greenland-Norwegian seaway, and the second connecting the Arctic Ocean with the Tethys Ocean, the Turgai Straits. In the restricted configuration, the Greenland-Norwegian seaway was closed and exchange through the Turgai Straits was limited to a depth of ~60 m. The simulations suggest that the severe restriction of Arctic seaways in the early Eocene may have been sufficient to freshen Arctic Ocean surface waters, conducive to Azolla blooms. When exchange with the Arctic Ocean is limited, salinities in the upper several hundred meters of the water column decrease by ~10 psu. In some regions, surface salinity is within 2-3 psu of the reported maximum modern conditions tolerated by Azolla (~5 psu). In the restricted scenario, salt is stored preferentially in the North Atlantic and Tethys oceans, resulting in enhanced meridional overturning, increased poleward heat transport in the North Atlantic western boundary current, and warming of surface and intermediate waters in the North Atlantic by several degrees. Increased sensible and latent heat fluxes from the North Atlantic Ocean, combined with a reduction in cloud albedo, also lead to an increase in surface air temperature of over much of North America, Greenland and Eurasia. Our work is consistent with

  8. Impacts of an Extreme Early-Season Freeze Event in the Interior Pacific Northwest (30 October-3 November 2002) on Western Juniper Woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Soulé, Peter T.

    2005-07-01

    In mid-autumn 2002, an exceptional 5-day cold spell affected much of the interior Pacific Northwest, with minimum temperatures averaging 13°C below long-term means (1953-2002). On 31 October, minimum temperature records occurred at 98 of the 106 recording stations, with records lowered in some locations by 9°C. Calculation of recurrence intervals of minimum temperatures shows that 50% of the stations experienced a >500-yr event. The synoptic conditions responsible were the development of a pronounced high pressure ridge over western Canada and an intense low pressure area centered in the Intermountain West that promoted strong northeasterly winds. The cold spell occurred near the end of the growing season for an ecologically critical and dominant tree species of the interior Pacific Northwest—western juniper—and followed an extended period of severe drought. In spring 2003, it became apparent that the cold had caused high rates of tree mortality and canopy dieback in a species that is remarkable for its longevity and resistance to climatic stress. The cold event altered western juniper dominance in some areas, and this alteration may have long-term impacts on water budgets, fire intensities and frequencies, animal species interrelationships, and interspecific competition among plant species.

  9. Cheek tooth morphology and ancient mitochondrial DNA of late Pleistocene horses from the western interior of North America: Implications for the taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina I Barrón-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Horses were a dominant component of North American Pleistocene land mammal communities and their remains are well represented in the fossil record. Despite the abundant material available for study, there is still considerable disagreement over the number of species of Equus that inhabited the different regions of the continent and on their taxonomic nomenclature. In this study, we investigated cheek tooth morphology and ancient mtDNA of late Pleistocene Equus specimens from the Western Interior of North America, with the objective of clarifying the species that lived in this region prior to the end-Pleistocene extinction. Based on the morphological and molecular data analyzed, a caballine (Equus ferus and a non-caballine (E. conversidens species were identified from different localities across most of the Western Interior. A second non-caballine species (E. cedralensis was recognized from southern localities based exclusively on the morphological analyses of the cheek teeth. Notably the separation into caballine and non-caballine species was observed in the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of ancient mtDNA as well as in the geometric morphometric analyses of the upper and lower premolars. Teeth morphologically identified as E. conversidens that yielded ancient mtDNA fall within the New World stilt-legged clade recognized in previous studies and this is the name we apply to this group. Geographic variation in morphology in the caballine species is indicated by statistically different occlusal enamel patterns in the specimens from Bluefish Caves, Yukon Territory, relative to the specimens from the other geographic regions. Whether this represents ecomorphological variation and/or a certain degree of geographic and genetic isolation of these Arctic populations requires further study.

  10. Consequences of shoaling of the Central American Seaway determined from modeling Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulchre, P.; Arsouze, T.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jaramillo, C.; Le Bras, J.; Martin, E.; Montes, C.; Waite, A. J.

    2014-03-01

    The Central American Seaway played a pivotal role in shaping global climate throughout the late Cenozoic. Recent geological surveys have provided new constraints on timing of the seaway shoaling, while neodymium isotopic (ɛNd) data measured on fossil teeth, debris, and ferromanganese crusts have helped define the history of water masses in the region. Here we provide the first 3-D simulations of ɛNd responses to the shoaling seaway. Our model suggests that a narrow and shallow seaway is sufficient to affect interoceanic circulation, that inflow/outflow balance between the Caribbean and the Antilles responds nonlinearly to sill depth, and that a seaway narrower than 400 km is consistent with an active Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the late Miocene. Simulated ɛNd values in the Caribbean confirm that inputs from radiogenic Pacific waters in the Caribbean decrease as the seaway shoals. Despite model limitations, a comparison between our results and ɛNd values recorded in the Caribbean helps constrain the depth of the Central American Seaway through time, and we infer that a depth between 50 and 200 m could have been reached 10 Ma ago.

  11. Interior Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  12. Tropical Pacific Climate, Carbon, and Ocean Biogeochemical Response to the Central American Seaway in a GFDL Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, L. T.; Dunne, J. P.; Stouffer, R. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Broccoli, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    To explore the tropical Pacific climate, carbon, and ocean biogeochemical response to the shoaling and closure of the Central American Seaway during the Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma), we performed a suite of sensitivity experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, GFDL-ESM2G, varying only the seaway widths and sill depths. These novel ESM simulations include near-final closure of the seaway with a very narrow, 1º grid cell wide opening. Net mass transport through the seaway into the Caribbean is 20.5-23.1 Sv with a deep seaway, but only 14.1 Sv for the wide/shallow seaway because of the inter-basin bi-directional horizontal mass transport. Seaway transport originates from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Pacific and rejoins it in the South Atlantic, reducing the Indonesian Throughflow and transporting heat and salt southward into the South Atlantic, in contrast to present-day and previous seaway simulations. Tropical Pacific mean climate and interannual variability is sensitive to the seaway shoaling, with the largest response to the wider/deeper seaway. In the tropical Pacific, the top 300-m warms 0.4-0.8°C, the equatorial east-west sea surface temperature gradient increases, the north-south sea surface temperature asymmetry at 110°W decreases, thermocline deepens 5-11 m, and the east-west thermocline gradient increases. In the Niño-3 region, ENSO amplitude increases, skewed toward more cold (La Niña) events, El Niño and La Niña develops earlier ( 3 months), the annual cycle weakens and the semi-annual and interannual cycles strengthen from increased symmetry of the north-south sea surface temperature gradient, and atmospheric global teleconnections strengthen with the seaway. The increase in global ocean overturning with the seaway results in a younger average ocean ideal age, reduced dissolved inorganic carbon inventory and marine net primary productivity, and altered inter-basin patterns of surface sediment carbonate

  13. Calculation of paleohydraulic parameters of a fluvial system under spatially variable subsidence, of the Ericson sandstone, South western Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H.; Leva-Lopez, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the late Campanian age in North America fluvial systems drained the highlands of the Sevier orogenic belt and travelled east towards the Western Interior Seaway. One of such systems deposited the Canyon Creek Member (CCM) of the Ericson Formation in south-western Wyoming. At this time the fluvial system was being partially controlled by laterally variable subsidence caused by incipient Laramide uplifts. These uplifts rather than real topographic features were only areas of reduced subsidence at the time of deposition of the CCM. Surface expression at that time must have been minimum, only minute changes in slope and accommodation. Outcrops around these Laramide structures, in particular both flanks of the Rock Springs Uplift, the western side of the Rawlins uplift and the north flank of the Uinta Mountains, have been sampled to study the petrography, grain size, roundness and sorting of the CCM, which along with the cross-bed thickness and bar thickness allowed calculation of the hydraulic parameters of the rivers that deposited the CCM. This study reveals how the fluvial system evolved and responded to the very small changes in subsidence and slope. Furthermore, the petrography will shed light on the provenance of these sandstones and on the relative importance of Sevier sources versus Laramide sources. This work is framed in a larger study that shows how incipient Laramide structural highs modified the behavior, style and architecture of the fluvial system, affecting its thickness, facies characteristics and net-to-gross both down-dip and along strike across the basin.

  14. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for conifer stands in the interior Western United States using the Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Ex; Frederick Smith; Tara Keyser; Stephanie Rebain

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE-FVS) is often used to estimate canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH), which are key indicators of crown fire hazard for conifer stands in the Western United States. Estimated CBD from FFE-FVS is calculated as the maximum 4 m running mean bulk density of predefined 0.3 m thick canopy layers (...

  15. Signatures of seaway closures and founder dispersal in the phylogeny of a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Peter R; Hamilton, Healy; Matthee, Conrad A; Barker, Nigel P

    2007-08-15

    The importance of vicariance events on the establishment of phylogeographic patterns in the marine environment is well documented, and generally accepted as an important cause of cladogenesis. Founder dispersal (i.e. long-distance dispersal followed by founder effect speciation) is also frequently invoked as a cause of genetic divergence among lineages, but its role has long been challenged by vicariance biogeographers. Founder dispersal is likely to be common in species that colonize remote habitats by means of rafting (e.g. seahorses), as long-distance dispersal events are likely to be rare and subsequent additional recruitment from the source habitat is unlikely. In the present study, the relative importance of vicariance and founder dispersal as causes of cladogenesis in a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage was investigated using molecular dating. A phylogeny was reconstructed using sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and the well-documented closure of the Central American seaway was used as a primary calibration point to test whether other bifurcations in the phylogeny could also have been the result of vicariance events. The feasibility of three other vicariance events was explored: a) the closure of the Indonesian Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indian Ocean and West Pacific, respectively; b) the closure of the Tethyan Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, respectively, and c) continental break-up during the Mesozoic followed by spreading of the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in pairs of lineages with amphi-Atlantic distribution patterns. Comparisons of pairwise genetic distances among the seahorse species hypothesized to have diverged as a result of the closure of the Central American Seaway with those of published teleost sequences having the same distribution patterns show that the seahorses were among the last to diverge. This suggests that their

  16. Signatures of seaway closures and founder dispersal in the phylogeny of a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthee Conrad A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of vicariance events on the establishment of phylogeographic patterns in the marine environment is well documented, and generally accepted as an important cause of cladogenesis. Founder dispersal (i.e. long-distance dispersal followed by founder effect speciation is also frequently invoked as a cause of genetic divergence among lineages, but its role has long been challenged by vicariance biogeographers. Founder dispersal is likely to be common in species that colonize remote habitats by means of rafting (e.g. seahorses, as long-distance dispersal events are likely to be rare and subsequent additional recruitment from the source habitat is unlikely. In the present study, the relative importance of vicariance and founder dispersal as causes of cladogenesis in a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage was investigated using molecular dating. A phylogeny was reconstructed using sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and the well-documented closure of the Central American seaway was used as a primary calibration point to test whether other bifurcations in the phylogeny could also have been the result of vicariance events. The feasibility of three other vicariance events was explored: a the closure of the Indonesian Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indian Ocean and West Pacific, respectively; b the closure of the Tethyan Seaway, resulting in sister lineages associated with the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, respectively, and c continental break-up during the Mesozoic followed by spreading of the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in pairs of lineages with amphi-Atlantic distribution patterns. Results Comparisons of pairwise genetic distances among the seahorse species hypothesized to have diverged as a result of the closure of the Central American Seaway with those of published teleost sequences having the same distribution patterns show that the seahorses were among the last to

  17. The 2015 Mw7.2 Sarez Strike-Slip Earthquake in the Pamir Interior: Response to the Underthrusting of India's Western Promontory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Sabrina; Schurr, Bernd; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Sudhaus, Henriette; Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schöne, Tilo; Zhang, Yong; Perry, Mason; Bendick, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    The Pamir orogen, Central Asia, is the result of the ongoing northward advance of the Indian continent causing shortening inside Asia. Geodetic and seismic data place the most intense deformation along the northern rim of the Pamir, but the recent 7 December 2015, Mw7.2 Sarez earthquake occurred in the Pamir's interior. We present a distributed slip model of this earthquake using coseismic geodetic data and postseismic field observations. The earthquake ruptured an ˜80 km long, subvertical, sinistral fault consisting of three right-stepping segments from the surface to ˜30 km depth with a maximum slip of three meters in the upper 10 km of the crust. The coseismic slip model agrees well with en échelon secondary surface breaks that are partly influenced by liquefaction-induced mass movements. These structures reveal up to 2 m of sinistral offset along the northern, low-offset segment of modeled rupture. The 2015 event initiated close to the presumed epicenter of the 1911 Mw˜7.3 Lake Sarez earthquake, which had a similar strike-slip mechanism. These earthquakes highlight the importance of NE trending sinistral faults in the active tectonics of the Pamir. Strike-slip deformation accommodates shear between the rapidly northward moving eastern Pamir and the Tajik basin in the west and is part of the westward (lateral) extrusion of thickened Pamir plateau crust into the Tajik basin. The Sarez-Karakul fault system and the two large Sarez earthquakes likely are crustal expressions of the underthrusting of the northwestern leading edge of the Indian mantle lithosphere beneath the Pamir.

  18. Environmental change and hydrological responses in the interior of western Canada: Towards improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction by the Changing Cold Regions Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Carey, S. K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    The past several decades have been a period of rapid climatic and environmental change. In western Canada, as in other areas globally, warming and changes in precipitation have led to vast reductions in seasonal snowcover and freshwater ice cover, retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, changing forest composition and structure, increasing northern shrub coverage, and earlier timing of river flows in spring. Yet streamflow volume has exhibited a variety of responses across the region and over different time scales, and patterns of change are not easily generalizable. Improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction of the rapidly changing components of the Earth system are key to managing uncertain water futures, but this is challenging due to complex system behavior and sometimes compensatory responses. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a Canadian research network and GEWEX Regional Hydroclimate Project that is addressing these issues, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River basins. This paper will present examples of the changes that have been observed at a set of long-term and well-studied headwater research basins, and highlight how various processes confound hydrological responses here, pointing to the need for careful diagnosis. We will discuss some recent CCRN activities and progress toward improving conceptual understanding and developing scenarios of change for the 21st century, which can then be applied within process-based hydrological models for future prediction. Several priority research areas that will be a focus of continued work in CCRN will be recommended.

  19. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  20. Vestiges of the proto-Caribbean seaway: Origin of the San Souci Volcanic Group, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Iain; Kerr, Andrew C.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Urbani, Franco; Hastie, Alan R.; Pindell, James L.; Barry, Tiffany L.; Millar, Ian L.

    2014-06-01

    Outcrops of volcanic-hypabyssal rocks in Trinidad document the opening of the proto-Caribbean seaway during Jurassic-Cretaceous break-up of the Americas. The San Souci Group on the northern coast of Trinidad comprises the San Souci Volcanic Formation (SSVF) and passive margin sediments of the ~ 130-125 Ma Toco Formation. The Group was trapped at the leading edge of the Pacific-derived Caribbean Plate during the Cretaceous-Palaeogene, colliding with the para-autochthonous margin of Trinidad during the Oligocene-Miocene. In-situ U-Pb ion probe dating of micro-zircons from a mafic volcanic breccia reveal the SSVF crystallised at 135.0 ± 7.3 Ma. The age of the SSVF is within error of the age of the Toco Formation. Assuming a conformable contact, geodynamic models indicate a likely origin for the SSVF on the passive margin close to the northern tip of South America. Immobile element and Nd-Hf radiogenic isotope signatures of the mafic rocks indicate the SSVF was formed by ≪10% partial melting of a heterogeneous spinel peridotite source with no subduction or continental lithospheric mantle component. Felsic breccias within the SSVF are more enriched in incompatible elements, with isotope signatures that are less radiogenic than the mafic rocks of the SSVF. The felsic rocks may be derived from re-melting of mafic crust. Although geochemical comparisons are drawn here with proto-Caribbean igneous outcrops in Venezuela and elsewhere in the Caribbean more work is needed to elucidate the development of the proto-Caribbean seaway and its rifted margins. In particular, ion probe dating of micro-zircons may yield valuable insights into magmatism and metamorphism in the Caribbean, and in altered basaltic terranes more generally.

  1. Cretaceous rocks of the Western Interior basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, C.M.; Rice, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Cretaceous rocks of the conterminous United States are discussed in this chapter. Depositional facies and lithology are reviewed along with economic resources. The economic resources include coal, hydrocarbons, and uranium

  2. Are diamond-bearing Cretaceous kimberlites related to shallow-angle subduction beneath western North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, C. A.; Beaumont, C.

    2009-05-01

    The origin of deep-seated magmatism (in particular, kimberlites and lamproites) within continental plate interiors remains enigmatic in the context of plate tectonic theory. One hypothesis proposes a relationship between kimberlite occurrence and lithospheric subduction, such that a subducting plate releases fluids below a continental craton, triggering melting of the deep lithosphere and magmatism (Sharp, 1974; McCandless, 1999). This study provides a quantitative evaluation of this hypothesis, focusing on the Late Cretaceous- Eocene (105-50 Ma) kimberlites and lamproites of western North America. These magmas were emplaced along a corridor of Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere, 1000-1500 km inboard of the plate margin separating the subducting Farallon Plate and continental North America Plate. Kimberlite-lamproite magmatism coincides with tectonic events, including the Laramide orogeny, shut-down of the Sierra Nevada arc, and eastward migration of volcanism, that are commonly attributed to a change in Farallon Plate geometry to a shallow-angle trajectory (subduction that places the Farallon Plate beneath the western edge of the cratonic interior of North America. This geometry is consistent with the observed continental dynamic subsidence that lead to the development of the Western Interior Seaway. The models also show that the subducting plate has a cool thermal structure, and subducted hydrous minerals (serpentine, phengite and phlogopite) remain stable to more than 1200 km from the trench, where they may break down and release fluids that infiltrate the overlying craton lithosphere. This is supported by geochemical studies that indicate metasomatism of the Colorado Plateau and Wyoming craton mantle lithosphere by an aqueous fluid and/or silicate melt with a subduction signature. Through Cretaceous shallow-angle subduction, the Farallon Plate was in a position to mechanically and chemically interact with North American craton lithosphere at the time of

  3. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Tethyan Seaway, Qom Formation, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaghi Sadr, Fatemeh; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The Cenozoic climate transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions was associated with major paleogeographic changes in the Tethyan realm. The closure of the Tethyan Seaway and its Iranian gateways during the terminal Paleogene and early Neogene, between approximately 28 and 18 million years, influenced the latitudinal exchange of water masses and energy and is documented in sediment successions of the Qom formation in central Iran. Little is known on the spatial expression and the exact depositional histories of the Qom Formation on orbital time-scales, including a lack of quantitative sea-level reconstructions and studies on the impact of climatic and tectonic changes on marine ecosystems and sedimentation processes. The PhD project focuses on the investigation of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, paleoecology and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Iranian gateways based on late Oligocene to early Miocene foraminiferal faunas and carbonate facies from selected sediment sections of the Qom Basin. The Qom Formation was deposited in the Central Iranian back-arc basin during the Oligocene-Miocene. In this study foraminiferal faunas and carbonate microfacies were studied based on total 191 samples of two section of Qom Formation. One of them is Molkabad section, which is located northwest of Molkabad mountains, southeast of Garmsar. The section mainly consists of limestones, calcareous marls, marls, and gypsum-bearing marls with a total thickness of 760 meters. The Qom Formation at Molkabad section overlies Eocene rocks with an unconformity and consists of the following lithostratigraphic units (from the lower to upper part): Lithothamnium Limestone, Lower Marl Limestone, Bryozoa Limestone, and Upper Marl Group. The Molkabad fault separates the Qom Formation from the overlying Upper Red Formation. The other section is located at Navab anticline in Qom Formation .The section mainly consist of limestone, marl, and gypsum with a total thickness of 318 meters Navab

  4. Sustainable Commercial Interior Design

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Órla

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the environmental benefits of 3 key areas in relation to interior design: Energy, Water and Air; energy efficient lighting, water efficient plumbing fixtures and the effects of interior materials and finishes on indoor air quality. Qualitative research methodology: Extensive literature review of texts available on these topics, and also of the relevant building codes and environmental legislation applicable to Irish interior designers and the built environment. ...

  5. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C.; Dry, B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Habitat type and dispersal mode underlie the capacity for plant migration across an intermittent seaway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, J R P; Holland, B R; Beeton, N J; Schönfeld, B; Rossetto, M; Vaillancourt, R E; Jordan, G J

    2017-10-17

    Investigating species distributions across geographic barriers is a commonly utilized method in biogeography to help understand the functional traits that allow plants to disperse successfully. Here the biogeographic pattern analysis approach is extended by using chloroplast DNA whole-genome 'mining' to examine the functional traits that have impacted the dispersal of widespread temperate forest species across an intermittent seaway, the 200 km wide Bass Strait of south-eastern Australia. Multiple, co-distributed species of both dry and wet forests were sampled from five regions on either side of the Strait to obtain insights into past dispersal of these biomes via seed. Using a next-generation sequencing-based pool-seq method, the sharing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was estimated between all five regions in the chloroplast genome. A total of 3335 SNPs were detected in 20 species. SNP sharing patterns between regions provided evidence for significant seed-mediated gene flow across the study area, including across Bass Strait. A higher proportion of shared SNPs in dry forest species, especially those dispersed by birds, compared with wet forest species suggests that dry forest species have undergone greater seed-mediated gene flow across the study region during past climatic oscillations and sea level changes associated with the interglacial/glacial cycles. This finding is consistent with a greater propensity for long-distance dispersal for species of open habitats and proxy evidence that expansive areas of dry vegetation occurred during times of exposure of Bass Strait during glacials. Overall, this study provides novel genetic evidence that habitat type and its interaction with dispersal traits are major influences on dispersal of plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Interior acoustic cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Akl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which are invariably heavy and bulky. The transformation acoustics relationships that govern the operation of this class of interior acoustic cloaks are presented. Physical insights are given to relate these relationships to the reasons behind the effectiveness of the proposed interior acoustic cloaks. Finite element models are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of interior acoustic cloaks used in treating the interior walls of circular and square cavities both in the time and frequency domains. The obtained results emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed interior cloaks in eliminating the reflections of the acoustic waves from the walls of the treated cavities and thereby rendering these cavities acoustically quiet. It is important to note here that the proposed interior acoustic cloaks can find applications in acoustic cavities such as aircraft cabins and auditoriums as well as many other critical applications.

  9. Interior Space: Representation, Occupation, Well-Being and Interiority

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This article will provide an overview of space as it is understood and engaged with from within the discipline of interior design/interior architecture. Firstly, the term interior will be described. Secondly, the paper will discuss space as a general concept, before exploring what space is speifically for the interior design/interior architecture discipline. How is space understood? What does space "look" like for interuior designers/interior architects?.

  10. Perancangan InteriorInterior World Center” di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Handojo, Renita Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Interior World Center is a place that contain all needs and matters related to world of interior. The main purpose of Interior World Center is to give access and facilitate people in fulfill their needs that concern and correspond with interior world, that is to say with combine and integrate several interior activity into one in corporated place. Inside of this building there are several commercial space related with the interior world. The commercial spaces will support each other in order ...

  11. Studies in Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  12. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  13. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  14. INTUITION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Solovyova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on their intuition and require solutions based on pure reason. The author of this paper argues for bringing intuitive decision making back into interior design as a legitimate design tactic.

  15. Prefab-Interiority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    qualities is significantly dependent on our constructive ability to economically and production-technically join building elements. Consequently this paper explores the potential for developing interiority as a theory and design principle for transforming constructive challenges within prefab practice....../S. As a research result the paper suggests a positioning of interiority as a theory and design principle for developing a sensuous prefab practice......., and practical realm of prefabrication, leaving the produced houses as monotonous box-like constructions rather than inhabitable homes. But what are the sensuous qualities actually spatially defining a home, and how to formulate design principles for developing and revealing these qualities within prefab...

  16. Interior design for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, M; True, G

    1999-11-01

    In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.

  17. Meaning of Interior Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2013-01-01

    The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for collection of un-truncated projections and reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it has been elevated as a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as “omni-tomography” is being developed for grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features. PMID:23912256

  18. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  19. Breaching of strike-slip faults and flooding of pull-apart basins to form the southern Gulf of California seaway from 8 to 6 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhoefer, P. J.; Skinner, L. A.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Darin, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Studies from multiple disciplines delineate the development of the oblique-divergent Pacific - North America plate boundary in the southern Gulf of California. Integration of onshore data from the Loreto - Santa Rosalia margin with offshore data from the Pescadero, Farallon, and Guaymas basins provides a detailed geologic history. Our GIS-based paleotectonic maps of the plate boundary from 9 to 6 Ma show that evolution of pull-apart basins led to the episodic northwestward encroachment of the Gulf of California seaway. Because adjacent pull-apart basins commonly have highlands between them, juxtaposition of adjacent basin lows during translation and pull apart lengthening played a critical role in seaway flooding. Microfossils and volcanic units date the earliest marine deposits at 9(?) - 8 Ma at the mouth of the Gulf. By ca. 8 Ma, the seaway had flooded north to the Pescadero basin, while the Loreto fault and the related fault-termination basin was proposed to have formed along strike at the plate margin. East of Loreto basin, a short topographic barrier between the Pescadero and Farallon pull-apart basins suggests that the Farallon basin was either a terrestrial basin, or if breaching occurred, it may contain 8 Ma salt or marine deposits. This early southern seaway formed along a series of pull-apart basins within a narrow belt of transtension structurally similar to the modern Walker Lane in NV and CA. At ca. 7 Ma, a series of marine incursions breached a 75-100 km long transtensional fault barrier between the Farallon and Guaymas basins offshore Bahía Concepción. Repeated breaching events and the isolation of the Guaymas basin in a subtropical setting formed a 2 km-thick salt deposit imaged in offshore seismic data, and thin evaporite deposits in the onshore Santa Rosalia basin. Lengthening of the Guaymas, Yaqui, and Tiburon basins caused breaches of the intervening Guaymas and Tiburón transforms by 6.5-6.3 Ma, forming a permanent 1500 km-long marine seaway

  20. Interior intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system

  1. INTUITION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Solovyova

    2008-01-01

    Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on t...

  2. Interior acoustic cloak

    OpenAIRE

    Wael Akl; A. Baz

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which a...

  3. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the Seaway Industrial Park, Tonawanda, New York. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Cottrell, W.D.; Dickson, H.W.

    1978-05-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the Seaway Industrial Park, Tonawanda, New York, are presented in this report. The site is adjacent to the former Haist property, which was used to receive residues from uranium processing during the period 1944--46. In 1974 approximately 6000 yd 3 of this residue was transported to Seaway, where it was used as landfill. The survey was undertaken to determine radiation levels and the extent of radioactive materials on the Seaway property, as well as the extent of movement of radioactive residues by natural means such as surface run-off. The survey included measurement of: external gamma radiation on and near the site; beta-gamma radiation at the surface in the most contaminated areas; radium and uranium concentrations in the soil; concentrations of radium, uranium, and thorium in water samples collected from the drainage areas; and radium concentrations in mud samples taken from the drainage areas. The results indicate that the residues on the site do not pose any immediate health hazards. However, potential health hazards could result from some uses of the site. In particular, if buildings were to be built in certain areas on the site, significant concentrations of radon daughters could develop in these structures. 16 figs, 3 tables

  4. 76 FR 28077 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed... contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to...

  5. 76 FR 36149 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed... contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and...

  6. Interior design conceptual basis

    CERN Document Server

    Sully, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into interior design as a conceptual way of thinking, which is about ideas and how they are formulated. The major themes of this book are the seven concepts of planning, circulation, 3D, construction, materials, colour and lighting, which covers the entire spectrum of a designer’s activity. Analysing design concepts from the view of the range of possibilities that the designer can examine and eventually decide by choice and conclusive belief the appropriate course of action to take in forming that particular concept, the formation and implementation of these concepts is taken in this book to aid the designer in his/her professional task of completing a design proposal to the client. The purpose of this book is to prepare designers to focus on each concept independently as much as possible, whilst acknowledging relative connections without unwarranted influences unfairly dictating a conceptual bias, and is about that part of the design process called conceptual analysis. It is assu...

  7. Interior design and healing architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Hansen, Allan Grutt

    2015-01-01

    . Through a mixed-method study, 43 patients from the outpatient-lung department at Hospital Vendsyssel, Denmark were presented with different types of furniture and materials and were asked about their preferences. Additional questions on their experience of the hospital interior were asked to guide......Hospital design is today influenced by the design concept healing architecture, stating that the patients’ healing process is promoted through accommodating physical surroundings. However, despite the increasing amount of research in the field of healing architecture, research on interior design...... and materials are rather limited. To compliment research in hospital interior design with particular focus on the use of interior textiles, this pilot study explores if the patients’ preferences for more home-like hospital interiors can be linked to a preference for textile-based furniture and materials...

  8. Designing fire safe interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Graviatoms with de Sitter Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dymnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a graviatom with de Sitter interior as a new candidate to atomic dark matter generically related to a vacuum dark energy through its de Sitter vacuum interior. It is a gravitationally bound quantum system consisting of a nucleus represented by a regular primordial black hole (RPBH, its remnant or gravitational vacuum soliton G-lump, and a charged particle. We estimate probability of formation of RPBHs and G-lumps in the early Universe and evaluate energy spectrum and electromagnetic radiation of graviatom which can in principle bear information about a fundamental symmetry scale responsible for de Sitter interior and serve as its observational signatures.

  10. Desain Interior Gedung Kesenian Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rachmayanti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the interior design of Gedung Kesenian Jakarta in detail. Another thing is to obtain complete data and analyze the interior design development of GKJ.  This study will described in terms of design style and different designs since the early period of this building, the arrival of the Dutch until the present era. Besides aesthetic of interior design, it will review technical factors in the building that related to its interior design, such as acoustic, air conditioning, lighting system, sound system. This research is based on data literartures and interviews with the GKJ. In conclusion, it will discuss the existence of GKJ in relation to local identity, culture and heritage.   

  11. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  12. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  13. 76 FR 36145 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed..., Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Indian...

  14. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the remains. Native...

  15. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... analysis. Dr. Robert Sundick, a physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan...

  16. 76 FR 28078 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, has completed an... University, Anthropology Department. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the...

  17. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... funerary objects should contact LouAnn Wurst, Department of Anthropology, Western Michigan University, 1005...

  18. Interior Design Factors in Library Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Patricia Ann

    When planning the interior of a library facility, the planning team of librarian, library consultant, architect, and interior design consultant must focus attention on the basic principles of interior design and the psychological needs of the user. Colors for an interior should be selected with careful regard to space, light, and emotional and…

  19. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  20. Functional textiles in hospital interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe

    This PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three years collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The project...... that the physical environments affect the patients’ level of stress and influence their process of recovery and healing. However, although research in this field of hospital design has increased substantially in recent years, knowledge on the use of new materials and textiles in hospital interiors is still rather...... limited. Concerned with the design potentials of using textiles in hospital interiors, the purpose of the PhD project has been to explore the possibilities and design qualities of using these materials in hospital design. Relating to both technical and aesthetic aspects of using functional textiles...

  1. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  2. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  3. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  4. Integrating sustainability in interior design studio

    OpenAIRE

    Karslı, Umut Tuğlu

    2013-01-01

    Teaching methods on concept of sustainability are frequently searched in the interior architecture education. The purpose of this study is to propose a model for integrating sustainability in interior design studio. In this context, the first part of the research defines relationship between sustainability and interior architecture and determines sustainable interior design principles. In the second part, an interior design studio model is proposed and principles determined in the first part ...

  5. Yanai waves in the western equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, A.; Shankar, D.; McCreary, J.P.; Vinayachandran, P.N.

    ; interference between the interior and boundary responses results in a complex surface pattern that propagates eastward and has nodes. Yanai waves are also forced by instabilities primarily during June/July in a region offshore from the western boundary (52...

  6. Crash simulations for interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeze, E.; Slaats, P.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    With the increasing number of compact cars, safety aspects becomes increasingly important for interior designs. The smaller dimensions of these cars do not only decrease the car mass, but also the energy absorption length, resulting in a more severe crash pulse. As a consequence, the inertia loading

  7. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  8. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  9. INTERIORITY - a prefab case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    Dealing with the general theme of domestic architectural quality, the PhD thesis ‘INTERIORITY’ takes its point of departure in the continuous and increasing need to improve our capability as architects to theoretically articulate the intangible concept of quality, and to reveal it through an active...... been motivated by the particular hypothesis that an introduction of the notion of interiority, as an ability of the spatial envelope itself to address the sensuous scale of furniture, unfolds a particular dual critical potential signifying our experience of domestic architectural quality: On the one......, tectonically. Hence, it has been a particular idea of the study to explore the relation between furniture, the spatial envelope itself, and its construct by using furniture as an architectural concept. Consequently, the thesis has specifically investigated whether this notion of interiority, describing...

  10. COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...

  11. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  12. Colour terms in the interior design process

    OpenAIRE

    Attiah, DY; Cheung, TLV; Westland, S; Bromilow, D

    2015-01-01

    Colour is a very important topic that interior designers need to consider. Considerable research has been conducted in the area of colour application in interior design; in this study we are concerned with colour terms in interior design, mainly the terms designers use and know about. Fifteen interior designers with varied professional backgrounds, but based in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain, Lebanon, Egypt, and Turkey), were interviewed. Previously we reported that fourteen ou...

  13. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  14. Market Aspects of an Interior Design Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy E.

    A project was conducted to evaluate a proposed interior design program in order to determine the marketability (job availability in the field of interior design and home furnishings merchandising) and the feasibility (educational requirements for entrance into the interior design and home furnishings merchandising job market) of the program. To…

  15. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  16. Physics of neutron star interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, D.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron stars are the densest observable bodies in our universe. Born during the gravitational collapse of luminous stars - a birth heralded by spectacular supernova explosions - they open a window on a world where the state of the matter and the strength of the fields are anything but ordinary. This book is a collection of pedagogical lectures on the theory of neutron stars, and especially their interiors, at the forefront of current research. It adresses graduate students and researchers alike, and should be particularly suitable as a text bridging the gap between standard textbook material and the research literature

  17. Magnetohydrodynamics of neutron star interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, I.; Pethick, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic equations for the charged particles in the fluid interior of a neutron star are derived from the Landau-Boltzmann kinetic equations. It is assumed that the protons are normal and the neutrons are superfluid. The dissipative processes associated with the weak interactions are shown to be negligible except in very hot neutron stars; we neglect them here. Among the topics discussed are: the influence of the neutron-proton nuclear force (Fermi liquid corrections) on the magnetohydrodynamics; the effects of the magnetic field on the pressure, viscosity, and heat conductivity tensors; the plasma equation of state; and the form of the generalized Ohm's law

  18. Exoplanet's Figure and Its Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Zhang; Cheng-li, Huang

    2018-01-01

    Along with the development of the observing technology, the observation and study on the exoplanets' oblateness and apsidal precession have achieved significant progress. The oblateness of an exoplanet is determined by its interior density profile and rotation period. Between its Love number k2 and core size exists obviously a negative correlation. So oblateness and k2 can well constrain its interior structure. Starting from the Lane-Emden equation, the planet models based on different polytropic indices are built. Then the flattening factors are obtained by solving the Wavre's integro-differential equation. The result shows that the smaller the polytropic index, the faster the rotation, and the larger the oblateness. We have selected 469 exoplanets, which have simultaneously the observed or estimated values of radius, mass, and orbit period from the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Exoplanet Archive, and calculated their flattening factors under the two assumptions: tidal locking and fixed rotation period of 10.55 hours. The result shows that the flattening factors are too small to be detected under the tidal locking assumption, and that 28% of exoplanets have the flattening factors larger than 0.1 under the fixed rotation period of 10.55 hours. The Love numbers under the different polytropic models are solved by the Zharkov's approach, and the relation between k2 and core size is discussed.

  19. The Carboniferous of the Western Karakoram (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, M.; Zanchi, A.; Angiolini, L.; Olivini, G.; Sciunnach, D.; Brunton, H.; Nicora, A.; Mawson, R.

    2004-05-01

    The results of the study of the Carboniferous successions in the western part of the Northern Karakoram during three geological expeditions are summarized here. Rocks of that period are not uniformly preserved in the several thrust sheets forming the Northern Karakoram. In most of them only the basal part of the Carboniferous, up to the Visean, is preserved, whilst in the Karambar thrust sheet a more complete section—previously almost unknown—is preserved. Four new lithostratigraphic units, time-constrained by brachiopod and conodont biostratigraphy, are described, from bottom to top: (1) the Margach Formation: prevailing dark shales with subordinate fine subarkoses and quartzarenites, up to 300 m thick (mid-Famennian to middle Tournaisian); (2) the Ribat Formation: grey crinoidal limestones passing upwards to dark marly limestones and marls, at least 300 m thick (middle Tournaisian to Serpukhovian); (3) the Lupsuk Formation: subarkoses to feldspathic quartzarenites in thick beds, alternating with dark shales and siltstones, up to 400 m thick (Serpukhovian to uppermost Carboniferous); (4) within the Lupsuk Formation a local member, the Twin Valleys Member, up to 100 m thick, a bioclastic limestone intercalation of post-Moscovian age, is distinguished. The Carboniferous successions are invariably sealed by the arkoses to quartzarenites of the Gircha Formation, 133 m above the base of which, in the Karambar area, an Asselian brachiopod fauna was recovered. The Carboniferous succession is interpreted as recording the evolution of the passive margin of the Northern Karakoram Terrane, from early rifting stage in the Late Devonian to syn-rift events during the Late Carboniferous. The basal part of the Gircha Formation, of latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian age, is considered to have been deposited above a break-up unconformity, linked to the early drifting in the seaway bordering the Karakoram. In the palaeontological appendix the most significant brachiopod taxa

  20. Surface and interior of Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masursky, H [U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA; Kaula, W M [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA); McGill, G E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA); Pettengill, G H; Shapiro, I I [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Phillips, R J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA); Russell, C T [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics; Schubert, G [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)

    1977-06-01

    Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50/sup 0/S and 75/sup 0/N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained.

  1. Interior operators and topological connectedness | Castellini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A categorical notion of interior operator is used in topology to define connectedness and disconnectedness with respect to an interior operator. A commutative diagram of Galois connections is used to show a relationship between these notions and Arhangelskii and Wiegandt's notions of connectedness and ...

  2. Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2015-05-22

    We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent.

  3. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  4. Digital Interior Design by Stailia Design Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the thesis work is to research and create a web based service in a field of interior design. With my project, I am hoping to find out whether this kind of web service in the field of interior design can work in general and that the process together with the actual order form on internet is smooth from both customer and company point of view. The company has interior design related services but none entirely executed on the web. The target is to create a totally new service/pr...

  5. Computer vision based room interior design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  6. Dinosaur trackways from the early Late Cretaceous of western Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E.; Menkem, Elie Fosso; Djomeni, Adrien; Fowe, Paul Gustave; Ntamak-Nida, Marie-Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Dinosaur trackways have rarely been reported in Cretaceous strata across the African continent. To the exception of ichnological occurrences in Morocco, Tunisia, Niger and Cameroon, our knowledge on the composition of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas mostly relies on skeletal evidence. For the first time, we document several dinosaur trackways from the Cretaceous of the Mamfe Basin in western Cameroon. Small and medium-size tridactyl footprints as well as numerous large circular footprints are present on a single horizon showing mudcracks and ripple marks. The age of the locality is considered Cenomanian-Turonian and if confirmed, this ichnological assemblage could be younger than the dinosaur footprints reported from northern Cameroon, and coeval with or younger than skeletal remains reported from the Saharan region. These trackways were left in an adjacent subsiding basin along the southern shore of the Benue Trough during a time of high-sea stand when the Trans-Saharan Seaway was already disconnecting West Africa from the rest of the continent. We predict that other similar track sites may be occurring along the margin of the Benue Trough and may eventually permit to test hypotheses related to provincialism among African dinosaur faunas.

  7. Interior Design's Role in Educational Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Mary Ann

    1986-01-01

    An experienced interior designer, equipped with a well-written educational specification, will specify the best materials and coordinate colors, materials, and furnishings in line with the district's budget. (MLF)

  8. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  9. Penerapan Interior Branding pada Hotel Yello

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Astri Indrawati

    2017-01-01

    The development of entertainment and tourism in Surabaya has lead to increasing of tourist arrival. This condition makes hotel businesses flourishing. The 3 star hotel is currently the best-selling hotel due to adequate facilities at current economic level. To cope with the competition, many 3 star hotels applied branding in the interior. Interior branding is formed not only from the visual beauty, but rather to the room's atmosphere that contains stories and unique messages to influence the ...

  10. Discovering the interior of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.; Yagi, K.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from black hole (BH) mergers provides an inroad toward probing the interior of astrophysical BHs. The general-relativistic description of the BH interior is that of empty spacetime with a (possibly) singular core. Recently, however, the hypothesis that the BH interior does not exist has been gaining traction, as it provides a means for resolving the BH information-loss problem. Here, we propose a simple method for answering the following question: Does the BH interior exist and, if so, does it contain some distribution of matter or is it mostly empty? Our proposal is premised on the idea that, similar to the case of relativistic, ultracompact stars, any BH-like object whose interior has some matter distribution should support fluid modes in addition to the conventional spacetime modes. In particular, the Coriolis-induced Rossby (r-) modes, whose spectrum is mostly insensitive to the composition of the interior matter, should be a universal feature of such BH-like objects. In fact, the frequency and damping time of these modes are determined by only the object's mass and speed of rotation. The r-modes oscillate at a lower frequency, decay at a slower rate, and produce weaker GWs than do the spacetime modes. Hence, they imprint a model-insensitive signature of a nonempty interior in the GW spectrum resulting from a BH merger. We find that future GW detectors, such as Advanced LIGO with its design sensitivity, have the potential of detecting such r-modes if the amount of GWs leaking out quantum mechanically from the interior of a BH-like object is sufficiently large.

  11. Project management in interior design services

    OpenAIRE

    Şahinoglu, Alp

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references. In this study, the concept of project management is analyzed within the framework of interior design services. Project management has been defined as the managing and coordination of all human and physical resources, in order to accomplish the predetermined goals (aim of the proj...

  12. Interior transmission eigenvalues of a rectangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeman, B D; Stocks, D C

    2016-01-01

    The problem of scattering of acoustic waves by an inhomogeneous medium is intimately connected with so called inside–outside duality, in which the interior transmission eigenvalue problem plays a fundamental role. Here a study of the interior transmission eigenvalues for rectangular domains of constant refractive index is made. By making a nonstandard use of the classical separation of variables technique both real and complex eigenvalues are determined. (paper)

  13. The State of Environmentally Sustainable Interior Design Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mihyun Kang; Denise A. Guerin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Research that investigates how interior designers use environmentally sustainable interior design criteria in their design solutions has not been done. To provide a base to develop education strategies for sustainable interior design, this study examined the state of environmentally sustainable interior design practice. Approach: A national, Internet-based survey of interior design practitioners was conducted. To collect data, the random sample of US interior design practit...

  14. Determining building interior structures using compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas, Eva; Amin, Moeness G.; Ahmad, Fauzia; Nájar, Montse

    2013-04-01

    We consider imaging of the building interior structures using compressive sensing (CS) with applications to through-the-wall imaging and urban sensing. We consider a monostatic synthetic aperture radar imaging system employing stepped frequency waveform. The proposed approach exploits prior information of building construction practices to form an appropriate sparse representation of the building interior layout. We devise a dictionary of possible wall locations, which is consistent with the fact that interior walls are typically parallel or perpendicular to the front wall. The dictionary accounts for the dominant normal angle reflections from exterior and interior walls for the monostatic imaging system. CS is applied to a reduced set of observations to recover the true positions of the walls. Additional information about interior walls can be obtained using a dictionary of possible corner reflectors, which is the response of the junction of two walls. Supporting results based on simulation and laboratory experiments are provided. It is shown that the proposed sparsifying basis outperforms the conventional through-the-wall CS model, the wavelet sparsifying basis, and the block sparse model for building interior layout detection.

  15. A demographic comparison of two black bear populations in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark and Ouachita mountain regions of western Arkansas, collectively known as the Interior Highlands, historically supported large numbers of black bears (Ursus americanus). Indiscriminate killing of bears by early settlers and subsequent habitat reductions due to extensive logging and changes in land use resulted in their decline (Smith et al. 1991). By the late 1940's, bears had been extirpated from both regions (Holder 1951).

  16. Developing and testing a landscape habitat suitability model for fisher (Martes pennanti) in forests of interior northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Zielinski; J. R. Dunk; J. S. Yaeger; D. W. LaPlante

    2010-01-01

    The fisher is warranted for protection under the Endangered Species Act in the western United States and, as such, it is especially important that conservation and management actions are based on sound scientific information. We developed a landscape-scale suitability model for interior northern California to predict the probability of detecting fishers and to identify...

  17. The Prefabricated Interior Design Studio: An Exploration into the History and Sustainability of Interior Prefabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…

  18. Interior design. Mastering the master plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, C E

    1995-10-01

    Reflecting on the results of the survey, this proposed interior design master planning process addresses the concerns and issues of both CEOs and facility managers in ways that focus on problem-solving strategies and methods. Use of the interior design master plan process further promotes the goals and outcomes expressed in the survey by both groups. These include enhanced facility image, the efficient selection of finishes and furnishings, continuity despite staff changes, and overall savings in both costs and time. The interior design master plan allows administrators and facility managers to anticipate changes resulting from the restructuring of health care delivery. The administrators and facility managers are then able to respond in ways that manage those changes in the flexible and cost-effective manner they are striving for. This framework permits staff members to concentrate their time and energy on the care of their patients--which is, after all, what it's all about.

  19. Inequivalence of interior and exterior dynamical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    We begin a series of notes with the review of the historical distinction by Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi and other Founding Fathers of analytic dynamics, between the exteriordynamical problem, consisting of motion in vacuum under action-at-a-distance interactions, and the interior dynamical problem, consisting of motion within a resistive medium with the additional presence of contact, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian internal forces. After recalling some of the historical reasons that led to the contemporary, virtually complete restriction of research to the exterior problem, we show that the interior dynamical problem cannot be reduced to the exterior one. This establishes the open character of the central objective of these notes: the identification of the space-time symmetries and relativities that are applicable to interior, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian systems. (author). 29 refs

  20. Penerapan Psikologi Desain pada Elemen Desain Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of main interior designer’s assignments is to solve the problem within the facility. Problems may occur because the activities of design decision had done or will be done on the facility are not maximized. This problem can be reduced by rethinking the design through psychology design. Utilizing psychology design will help designer decide a better judgment of objects that affects the person using it in routine. The example of interior objects is wall, door, floor, color, and other elements of interior. Desk research method was used to support this article trough data collection from books and other professional institution websites. At the end, the conclusion of this article does not directly impact the result since it took time to persuade judgment of the user, but positively it will construct designer to rethink the design object.  

  1. Interior point algorithms theory and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive review of the theory and practice of one of today's most powerful optimization techniques. The explosive growth of research into and development of interior point algorithms over the past two decades has significantly improved the complexity of linear programming and yielded some of today's most sophisticated computing techniques. This book offers a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the theory, analysis, and implementation of this powerful computational tool. Interior Point Algorithms provides detailed coverage of all basic and advanced aspects of the subject.

  2. Perancangan Interior Museum Film Indonesia Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Limantoro, Lim Renawati

    2013-01-01

    Surabaya is a city with a thriving cultural variety with a pluralistic society where people in Surabaya is more modern that easy to accept new things that developed in the community. Museum is a public place so that the necessary interior educative and informative and can be used as a sports-themed Indonesian films. The purpose of designing the interior of the film museum in Surabaya this is a venue to preserve Indonesian films and give knowledge to the people of Surabaya on the world of cine...

  3. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farke, Andrew A; Phillips, George E

    2017-01-01

    Ceratopsids ("horned dinosaurs") are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian) of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  4. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  5. resonant inverter supplied interior permanent magnet (ipm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    [5] Zhenyue Hong, “DC-voltage link resonant inverters”, Department of Electrical and. Electronic Engineering University of. Canterbury, New Zealand. [6] Kalyan Kumar Halder, Naruttam Kumar Roy and B.C. Ghosh, “Position Sensorless. Control for an Interior Permanent Magnet. Synchronous Motor SVM Drive with ANN.

  6. The interiors of the giant planets - 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoluchowski, R.

    1983-01-01

    The last few years brought progress in understanding the interiors of the giant planets especially of the two larger ones which have been visited by Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft. An analysis of the formation of the giant planets also helped to clarify certain important common features. The presently available model of Jupiter is still based on certain somewhat bothersome approximations but it appears to satisfy the main observational constraints. Saturn's interior is much better understood than it was previously although the quantitative aspects of the role of the miscibility gap in the hydrogen-helium system have not yet been entirely resolved. Much attention has been directed at the interiors of Uranus and Neptune and the outstanding question appears to be the location and the amount of ices and methane present in their outer layers. Both the two- and the three-layer models are moderately successful. Serious difficulties arise from the considerable uncertainties concerning the rotational periods of both planets. Also the estimates of the internal heat fluxes and of the magnetic fields of both planets are not sufficiently certain. It is hoped that the forthcoming flyby of these two planets by a Voyager spacecraft will provide important new data for a future study of their interiors. (Auth.)

  7. Discussion on interior greening decoration of residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, ZhiNeng

    2018-02-01

    Green plants bring endless natural energy into the room. This paper introduces the functions, principles and functions of indoor greening decoration from different angles. Its conclusion is that it has become an important measure to improve the living environment of the people, and through the interior greening decoration to create a harmonious living space of architecture, human and nature.

  8. Building of Requirement: Liberating Academic Interior Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Yelena; Dawkins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The authors focus on the strategies employed in the recent renovation of the William Johnston Building at Florida State University, in which the historical exterior was preserved, while the interiors were adapted to new functions as classrooms, study centers, and common spaces with intentionally undefined purposes. The building's various use…

  9. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  10. Potential for forest products in interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Sampson; Willem W.S. van Hees; Theodore S. Setzer; Richard C. Smith

    1988-01-01

    Future opportunities for producing Alaska forest products were examined from the perspective of timber supply as reported in timber inventory reports and past studies of forest products industry potential. The best prospects for increasing industrial production of forest products in interior Alaska are for softwood lumber. Current softwood lumber production in the...

  11. Interior Pathways to Dissipation of Mesoscale Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-27

    This talk at Goethe University asks What Powers Overturning Circulation? How does Ocean Circulation Equilibrate? There is a HUGE reservoir of energy sitting in the interior ocean. Can fluid dynamic instabilities contribute to the mixing required to drive global overturning circulation? Study designed to eliminate distinguished horizontal surfaces such as bottom BL and surface layer

  12. Speed of sound in the solar interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Rhodes, E.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Frequencies of solar 5-min oscillations can be used to determine directly the sound speed of the solar interior. The determination described does not depend on a solar model, but relies only on a simple asymptotic description of the oscillations in terms of trapped acoustic waves. (author)

  13. Juno's first peek at Jupiter's interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Tristan; Miguel, Yamila; Hubbard, William B.; Kaspi, Yohai; Reese, Daniel; Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Militzer, Burkhard; Wahl, Sean; Folkner, William M.; Anderson, John; Iess, Luciano; Durante, Daniele; Parisi, Marzia; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-04-01

    The first orbits of Juno around Jupiter have led to a considerable improvement in the measurement of the planet's even gravitational moments. We will discuss how this leads to better constraints on jovian interior models, and how internal differential rotation and equations of state play an important part in the analysis.

  14. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Bin; Yan, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models

  15. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock. ...

  16. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  17. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While the effe......The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While...... the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models allow quantified assessment, their reliance on the ‘moisture penetration depth’ necessitates comprehensive material properties and hampers their application to multi-dimensional interior objects. On the other hand, while various recently...... an alternative basis for quantitative evaluation of interior moisture buffering by the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models. The presented methodology uses simple and fast measurements only and can also be applied to multimaterial and/or multidimensional interior elements....

  18. Elemen Pembentuk Makna pada Sebuah Interior Arsitektur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dila Hendrassukma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing needs of the community, also increasing the need for space to accommodated those needs. With limited space available nowadays, it is not uncommon to change the old buildings’ function as a place to meet the social growing need of the space. However, it is must be remembered by architects and interior architects when changing the functions of a space that the old space has its own histories and particular meaning to people who had ever occupied it. Those histories and meanings should be included in the creation of the new function. Article gives and describes elements that need to be known in order to understand the sense of a space, such as drawing plans, scale, proportion, movement, transition and access that embodied in the architecture and interior space. Qualitative methods by literature study is used in the making of this article.. 

  19. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  20. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  1. Upgrading the seismic performance of the interior water pipe supporting system of a cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, G.C.; Soulis, V.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from a numerical study that was performed in order to simulate the seismic behavior of the interior support system of the piping and cooling features of a cooling tower in one of the old power stations located in an area at the North-Western part of Greece. This cooling tower has a diameter of 60 m and a height of 100 m. The interior piping support system consists mainly of a series of nine-meter high pre-cast vertical columns made by pre-stressed concrete; these columns, together with reinforced concrete pre-cast horizontal beams that are joined monolithically with the columns at their top, form the old interior supporting system. This system represented a very flexible structure, a fact that was verified from a preliminary numerical analysis of its seismic behavior. The maximum response to the design earthquake levels resulted in large horizontal displacements at the top of the columns as well as overstress to some of the columns. The most important part of the current numerical investigation was to examine various strengthening schemes of the old interior support system and to select one that will demonstrate acceptable seismic behavior. (authors)

  2. Process design (exterior – interior design)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The design is a complex process of spatial organization and creative problem object. It switched to the study of complex natural conditions (analysis and evaluation) and the development of compositional solution structure of the object. Construction and shaping of all buildings whether it is exterior or interior, be it street, Square apartment building, park or greater forest massif, public facility (administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, galleries etc.), residential object (garsion...

  3. Quantum state of the black hole interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of “Fermi sea” of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a “firewall”, as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.

  4. Realization of FRC interior and exterior furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šonka, Š.; Frantová, M.; Štemberk, P.; Havrda, J.; Janouch, P.

    2017-09-01

    This article deals with the implementation of fibre reinforced concrete for interior and exterior furniture. The use of fibre reinforced concrete for non-traditional and small structures brings some specifics in design and realization. These are, in particular, the design of a suitable mixture, the choice of the shape of the structure in relation to the technological possibilities of realization, the static effects and finally the actual production of the element.

  5. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  6. Memahami Estetika dari Sudut Pandang Desain Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunida Sofiana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The term aesthetic has always become part of design. Without aesthetic, design has just a functional object. Aesthetic in design, particularly in interior design, has been influenced by many factors, which are aesthetic value, aesthetic perception, and time frame. Aesthetic has subjective meaning related to time frame and objective meaning related to implementation of element and principles of design on aesthetic term. Aesthetic perception is how we judge and see the object using our own thinking and value. Time frame is where and when the aesthetic value happens. Interior design trend right now has been influenced by technology in many ways so the concept of modern design theme is always the best choice for designer. However, using modern theme as a design concept has to be implemented as a whole theme and related to aesthetical value so that the design will gain much appreciation from others. This paper used deductive method to explain the theory of aesthetic and the implementation of aesthetic value in interior design context. Design should speak louder than it looked. 

  7. Crane cabins' interior space multivariate anthropometric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essdai, Ahmed; Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar; Popović, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that today's crane cabins fail to meet the needs of a large proportion of operators. Performance and financial losses and effects on safety should not be overlooked as well. The first aim of this survey is to model the crane cabin interior space using up-to-date crane operator anthropometric data and to compare the multivariate and univariate method anthropometric models. The second aim of the paper is to define the crane cabin interior space dimensions that enable anthropometric convenience. To facilitate the cabin design, the anthropometric dimensions of 64 crane operators in the first sample and 19 more in the second sample were collected in Serbia. The multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the population on the basis of a set of 8 anthropometric dimensions, have been developed. The percentile method was also used on the same set of data. The dimensions of the interior space, necessary for the accommodation of the crane operator, are 1174×1080×1865 mm. The percentiles results for the 5th and 95th model are within the obtained dimensions. The results of this study may prove useful to crane cabin designers in eliminating anthropometric inconsistencies and improving the health of operators, but can also aid in improving the safety, performance and financial results of the companies where crane cabins operate.

  8. PCX, Interior-Point Linear Programming Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyzyk, J.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PCX solves linear programming problems using the Mehrota predictor-corrector interior-point algorithm. PCX can be called as a subroutine or used in stand-alone mode, with data supplied from an MPS file. The software incorporates modules that can be used separately from the linear programming solver, including a pre-solve routine and data structure definitions. 2 - Methods: The Mehrota predictor-corrector method is a primal-dual interior-point method for linear programming. The starting point is determined from a modified least squares heuristic. Linear systems of equations are solved at each interior-point iteration via a sparse Cholesky algorithm native to the code. A pre-solver is incorporated in the code to eliminate inefficiencies in the user's formulation of the problem. 3 - Restriction on the complexity of the problem: There are no size limitations built into the program. The size of problem solved is limited by RAM and swap space on the user's computer

  9. Asymmetric interiors for small black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College,City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science,University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-08-16

    We develop the representation of infalling observers and bulk fields in the CFT as a way to understand the black hole interior in AdS. We first discuss properties of CFT states which are dual to black holes. We then show that in the presence of a Killing horizon bulk fields can be decomposed into pieces we call ingoing and outgoing. The ingoing field admits a simple operator representation in the CFT, even inside a small black hole at late times, which leads to a simple CFT description of infalling geodesics. This means classical infalling observers will experience the classical geometry in the interior. The outgoing piece of the field is more subtle. In an eternal two-sided geometry it can be represented as an operator on the left CFT. In a stable one-sided geometry it can be described using entanglement via the PR construction. But in an evaporating black hole trans-horizon entanglement breaks down at the Page time, which means that for old black holes the PR construction fails and the outgoing field does not see local geometry. This picture of the interior allows the CFT to reconcile unitary Hawking evaporation with the classical experience of infalling observers.

  10. The interior transmission spectrum in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmann, Kyle S

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks conditions on acoustic profiles c(x) and b(x) which imply the existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues. The existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues has important implications in the question of unique recovery of the acoustic profile for inverse acoustic scattering theory using the linear sampling method and for the inverse source problem in thermoacoustic tomography. We examine the interior transmission spectrum relative to two acoustic profiles on the unit interval. This research includes the case when the difference of the two acoustic profiles changes sign and is, to the author's knowledge, the only work to date on the interior transmission spectrum allowing this behavior. It is shown that for a large class of acoustic profiles the transmission spectrum is asymptotically sparse. The spectrum exhibits three distinct types of behavior dependent on the relation of the two acoustic profiles. Numerical examples of each type of behavior are given which show how the transmission eigenvalues are distributed depending on the relation between c(x) and b(x). Our method of study is to reduce the interior transmission problem on [0, 1] to a problem of finding roots of a determinant of fundamental solutions to a Sturm–Liouville problem. The asymptotic expansion of solutions of the Sturm–Liouville problem then allows us to analyze properties of the transmission spectrum for large values of the wavenumber. (paper)

  11. Kajian Gaya Interior Pada Restoran Tip Top di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify / determine the style of interior design that is applied to the Tip Top Restaurant in Medan as well as the public perception of the interior arrangement of Tip Top Restaurant in Medan by using qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research methods now that the observation / observation, observation of interior elements Tip Top restaurant is analyzed based on the criteria of interior design, this is done in order to ...

  12. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Design Requirements § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved design and materials. If a tank is divided into compartments, a separate system shall be provided for... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12...

  13. Temporal trends of forest interior conditions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; James. Wickham

    2012-01-01

    Nature's benefits derived from forest interior environments cannot be sustained if the natural capital of forest interior area is not sustained. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest loss and gain for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to determine whether forest interior environments were maintained at five spatial scales. A 1.1 percent net...

  14. Interior design students win two IDEC Student Design Competition awards

    OpenAIRE

    Watson-Bloch, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Interior Design students in the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech won two of the four awards presented in the 2004-2005 Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC) Student Design Competition. Winners were selected at the International IDEC Conference in Savannah, Ga. with Virginia Tech Interior Design students winning second place and honorable mention.

  15. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  16. Interior Design 1992 Buyers Guide issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-30

    The Interior Design Magazine Buyers Guide is compiled with you, the designer, in mind. So it's packed with the most comprehensive collection of sources available anyplace--arranged for fast, easy access. First, the Keyword Index presents all the Buyers Guide product categories alphabetically (see the first tab divider). Refer to the page number indicated in the Product Index (second tab divider) to view various manufacturers of products under each category heading. Addresses, phone and fax numbers, regional and international showroom/representatives are located in the A-Z Index (third tab divider) in alphabetical order. Consult the table of contents for trade associations, lighting consultants, marts, and other useful sections.

  17. Interior point decoding for linear vector channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadayama, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem

  18. The Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helled, Ravit

    2018-05-01

    Probing the interiors of the giant planets in our Solar System is not an easy task. This requires a set of observations combined with theoretical models that are used to infer the planetary composition and its depth dependence. The masses of Jupiter and Saturn are 318 and 96 Earth masses, respectively, and since a few decades, we know that they mostly consist of hydrogen and helium. It is the mass of heavy elements (all elements heavier than helium) that is not well determined, as well as its distribution within the planets. While the heavy elements are not the dominating materials in Jupiter and Saturn, they are the key for our understanding of their formation and evolution histories. The planetary internal structure is inferred to fit the available observational constraints including the planetary masses, radii, 1-bar temperatures, rotation rates, and gravitational fields. Then, using theoretical equations of states (EOSs) for hydrogen, helium, their mixtures, and heavier elements (typically rocks and/or ices), a structure model is developed. However, there is no unique solution for the planetary structure, and the results depend on the used EOSs and the model assumptions imposed by the modeler. Standard interior models of Jupiter and Saturn include three main regions: (1) the central region (core) that consists of heavy elements, (2) an inner metallic hydrogen envelope that is helium rich, and (3) an outer molecular hydrogen envelope depleted with helium. The distribution of heavy elements can be either homogenous or discontinuous between the two envelopes. Major model assumptions that can affect the derived internal structure include the number of layers, the heat transport mechanism within the planet (and its entropy), the nature of the core (compact vs. diluted), and the location/pressure where the envelopes are divided. Alternative structure models assume a less distinct division between the layers and/or a less non-homogenous distribution of the heavy

  19. Interior point decoding for linear vector channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadayama, T [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: wadayama@nitech.ac.jp

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem.

  20. Hydraulic properties and fine root mass of Larix sibirica along forest edge-interior gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenlemuge, Tselmeg; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hertel, Dietrich; Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2015-02-01

    At its southernmost distribution limit in Inner Asia, the boreal forest disintegrates into forest fragments on moist sites (e.g. north-facing slopes), which are embedded in grasslands. This landscape mosaic is characterized by a much higher forest edge-to-interior ratio than in closed boreal forests. Earlier work in the forest-steppe ecotone of Mongolia has shown that Larix sibirica trees at forest edges grow faster than in the forest interior, as the more xeric environment at the edge promotes self-thinning and edges are preferentially targeted by selective logging and livestock grazing. Lowered stand density reduces competition for water in these semi-arid forests, where productivity is usually limited by summer drought. We studied how branch and coarse root hydraulic architecture and xylem conductivity, fine root biomass and necromass, and fine root morphology of L. sibirica respond to sites differing in water availability. Studying forest edge-interior gradients in two regions of western Mongolia, we found a significant reduction of branch theoretical (Kp) and empirical conductivity (Ks) in the putatively more drought-affected forest interior in the Mongolian Altai (mean precipitation: 120 mm yr-1), while no branch xylem modification occurred in the moister Khangai Mountains (215 mm yr-1). Kp and Ks were several times larger in roots than in branches, but root hydraulics were not influenced by stand density or mean annual precipitation. Very low fine root biomass: necromass ratios at all sites, and in the forest interior in particular, suggest that L. sibirica seeks to maintain a relatively high root conductivity by producing large conduits, which results in high root mortality due to embolism during drought. Our results suggest that L. sibirica is adapted to the semi-arid climate at its southernmost distribution limit by considerable plasticity of the branch hydraulic system and a small but apparently dynamic fine root system.

  1. Int-Soft Interior Hyperideals of Ordered Semihypergroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is to study ordered semihypergroups in the context of int-soft interior hyperideals. In this paper, the notion of int-soft interior hyperideals are studied and their related properties are discussed. We present characterizations of interior hyperideals in terms of int-soft interior hyperideals. The concepts of int-soft hyperideals and int-soft interior hyperideals coincide in a regular as well as in intra-regular ordered semihypergroups. We prove that every int-soft hyperideal is an int-soft interior hyperideal but the converse is not true which is shown with help of an example. Furthermore we characterize simple ordered semihypergroups by means of int-soft hyperideals and int-soft interior hyperideals.

  2. 75 FR 22423 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division Proposed Project Use Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...: Reopening of comment period for review of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western... reopening the comment period for the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and...

  3. 75 FR 1408 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division Proposed Project Use Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Proposed Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Divisions, Project Use Power Rate...) for Project Use Power for the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program (P-SMBP), Eastern and Western... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and...

  4. Conditional stability for a single interior measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Naofumi; McLaughlin, Joyce; Nakamura, Gen

    2014-01-01

    An inverse problem to identify unknown coefficients of a partial differential equation by a single interior measurement is considered. The equation considered in this paper is a strongly elliptic second order scalar equation which can have complex coefficients in a bounded domain with C 2 boundary. We are given a single interior measurement. This means that we know a given solution of the forward equation in this domain. The equation includes some model equations arising from acoustics, viscoelasticity and hydrology. We assume that the coefficients are piecewise analytic. Our major result is the local Hölder stability estimate for identifying the unknown coefficients. If the unknown coefficient is a complex coefficient in the principal part of the equation, we assumed a condition which we name admissibility assumption for the real part and imaginary part of the difference of two complex coefficients. This admissibility assumption is automatically satisfied if the complex coefficients are real valued. For identifying either the real coefficient in the principal part or the coefficient of the 0th order of the equation, the major result implies global uniqueness for the identification. (paper)

  5. Demography of northern flying squirrels informs ecosystem management of western interior forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl; Keith D. Kistler; James S. Begley; John. Boulanger

    2006-01-01

    We studied northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) demography in the eastern Washington Cascade Range to test hypotheses about regional and local abundance patterns and to inform managers of the possible effects of fire and fuels management on flying squirrels. We quantified habitat characteristics and squirrel density, population trends, and...

  6. Post-fire bedload sediment delivery across spatial scales in the interior western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2014-01-01

    Post-fire sediment yields can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than sediment yields in unburned forests. Much of the research on post-fire erosion rates has been at small scales (100m2 or less), and post-fire sediment delivery rates across spatial scales have not been quantified in detail. We developed relationships for post-fire bedload sediment delivery...

  7. Coal depositional models in some tertiary and cretaceous coal fields in the US western interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, R M

    1979-12-01

    Detailed stratigraphic and sedimentological studies of the Tertiary Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, and the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation and Star Point Sandstone in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, indicate that the depositional environments of coal played a major role in controlling coal thickness, lateral continuity, potential minability, and type of floor and roof rocks. The potentially minable, thick coal beds of the Tongue River Member were primarily formed in long-lived floodbasin backswamps of upper alluvial plain environment. Avulsion of meandering fluvial channels contributed to the erratic lateral extent of coals in this environment. Laterally extensive coals formed in floodbasin backswamps of a lower alluvial plain environment; however, interruption by overbank and crevasse-splay sedimentation produced highly split and merging coal beds. Lacustrine sedimentation common to the lower alluvial plain, similar to the lake-covered lower alluvial valley of the Atchafalaya River Basin, is related to a high-constructive delta. In contrast to these alluvial coals are the deltaic coal deposits of the Blackhawk Formation. The formation consists of three coal populations: upper delta plain, lower delta plain, and back-barrier. Coals of the lower delta plain are thick and laterally extensive, in contrast to those of the upper delta plain and back-barrier, which contain abundant, very thin and laterally discontinuous carbonaceous shale partings. The reworking of the delta-front sediments of the Star Point Sandstone suggests that the Blackhawk-Star Point delta was a high-destructive system. 1 figure, 1 table.

  8. Dendrohydrology in Canada's western interior and applications to water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauchyn, David; Vanstone, Jessica; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Sauchyn, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Across the southern Canadian Prairies, annual precipitation is relatively low (200-400 mm) and periodic water deficits limit economic and environmental productivity. Rapid population growth, economic development and climate change have exposed this region to increasing vulnerability to hydrologic drought. There is high demand for surface water, streamflow from the Rocky Mountains in particular. This paper describes the application of dendrohydrology to water resource management in this region. Four projects were initiated by the sponsoring organizations: a private utility, an urban municipality and two federal government agencies. The fact that government and industry would initiate and fund tree-ring research indicates that practitioners recognize paleohydrology as a legitimate source of technical support for water resource planning and management. The major advantage of tree-rings as a proxy of annual and seasonal streamflow is that the reconstructions exceed the length of gauge records by at least several centuries. The extent of our network of 180 tree-ring chronologies, spanning AD 549-2013 and ∼20° of latitude, with a high density of sites in the headwaters of the major river basins, enables us to construct large ensembles of tree-ring reconstructions as a means of expressing uncertainty in the inference of streamflow from tree rings. We characterize paleo-droughts in terms of modern analogues, translating the tree-ring reconstructions from a paleo-time scale to the time frame in which engineers and planners operate. Water resource managers and policy analysts have used our paleo-drought scenarios in their various forms to inform and assist drought preparedness planning, a re-evaluation of surface water apportionment policy and an assessment of the reliability of urban water supply systems.

  9. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2010-09-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the modern deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology

  10. On the interior of (quantum) black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R.

    2013-01-01

    Different approaches to quantum gravity conclude that black holes may possess an inner horizon, in addition to the (quantum corrected) outer ‘Schwarzschild’ horizon. In this Letter we assume the existence of this inner horizon and explain the physical process that might lead to the tunneling of particles through it. It is shown that the tunneling would produce a flux of particles with a spectrum that deviates from the pure thermal one. Under the appropriate approximation the extremely high temperature of this horizon is calculated for an improved quantum black hole. It is argued that the flux of particles tunneled through the horizons affects the dynamics of the black hole interior leading to an endogenous instability

  11. Interior design of the lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing study on the interior design of a lunar outpost habitat facility. The concept presented represents the work done up to and including August 1989. This concept is part of NASA's ongoing effort to explore alternative options for planet surface systems habitation. Results of a volume analog study to determine the required pressurized volume are presented along with an internal layout of the habitat facility. The concept presented in this paper is a constructible lunar habitat that provides a living and working environment for a crew of 12. It is a 16-m diameter spherical pneumatic structure which contains 2145 cubic meters of volume. Five levels of living and working areas make up the 742 sq m of floor space. A 2-m vertical circulation shaft at the center allows for transfer of crew and equipment.

  12. Interior beam searchlight semi-analytical benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Kornreich, Drew E.

    2008-01-01

    Multidimensional semi-analytical benchmarks to provide highly accurate standards to assess routine numerical particle transport algorithms are few and far between. Because of the well-established 1D theory for the analytical solution of the transport equation, it is sometimes possible to 'bootstrap' a 1D solution to generate a more comprehensive solution representation. Here, we consider the searchlight problem (SLP) as a multidimensional benchmark. A variation of the usual SLP is the interior beam SLP (IBSLP) where a beam source lies beneath the surface of a half space and emits directly towards the free surface. We consider the establishment of a new semi-analytical benchmark based on a new FN formulation. This problem is important in radiative transfer experimental analysis to determine cloud absorption and scattering properties. (authors)

  13. Planetary Interior Modeling and Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is described for estimating spectral admittance functions using Pioneer Venus gravity and topography data. These admittance functions provide a convenient means to carry out systematic geophysical studies over much of the surface of Venus with a variety of interior density models. The admittance functions are calculated in the observation space of line-of-sight (LOS) gravity. Both closed and open system petrological models are considered for the Tharsis region of Mars. An analytic theory for isostatic compensation on one-plate planet is applied, including membrane stresses in the lithosphere, self gravitation, and rotational ellipticity. Crucial to this stress modeling and also to the petrological modeling is the observation that the earliest fracturing seen in the Tharsis region is associated with isostatic stresses. The radial fractures that extend far from Tharsis are associated with an additional and/or a completely different mechanism.

  14. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  15. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  16. Injury, Interiority, and Isolation in Men's Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Creighton, Genevieve; Robertson, Steve; Broom, Alex; Jenkins, Emily K; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Ferlatte, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Men's high suicide rates have been linked to individual risk factors including history of being abused as a child, single marital status, and financial difficulties. While it has also been suggested that the normative influences of hegemonic masculinities are implicated in men's suicide, the gendered experiences of male suicidality are poorly understood. In the current photovoice study, 20 men who previously had suicidal thoughts, plans, and/or attempts were interviewed as a means to better understanding the connections between masculinities and their experiences of suicidality. The study findings revealed injury, interiority, and isolation as interconnected themes characterizing men's suicidality. Injury comprised an array of childhood and/or cumulative traumas that fueled men's ruminating thoughts inhibiting recovery and limiting hopes for improved life quality. In attempting to blunt these traumas, many men described self-injuring through the overuse of alcohol and other drugs. The interiority theme revealed how suicidal thoughts can fuel hopelessness amid summonsing remedies from within. The challenges to self-manage, especially when experiencing muddled thinking and negative thought were evident, and led some participants to summons exterior resources to counter suicidality. Isolation included separateness from others, and was linked to abandonment issues and not having a job and/or partner. Self-isolating also featured as a protection strategy to avoid troubling others and/or reducing exposure to additional noxious stimuli. The study findings suggest multiple intervention points and strategies, the majority of which are premised on promoting men's social connectedness. The destigmatizing value of photovoice methods is also discussed.

  17. Interior Design Based on Forough Farrokhzad Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sanami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to correlate between art, literature, architect and visualization to translate the emotions and aspirations embodied in a well-known poet such as Forough Farrokhzad. Forough Farrokhzad widely regarded as a famous Iranian poet and an advocate for women’s liberation and independence. She wrote during a time when Iranian women were facing extensive discrimination and prejudice. Many of her works are rich in feminist related aspects of Iranian women. By visualization of Forough’s inner feelings, one can see a great revaluation in society towards women feelings and emotions. Like any other human, poets and artist both have thoughts and dreams rich in colors and words capsulizing their imaginary world in possible dreams which are all related to each person’s personality, culture, environment and etc. One of the ways to understand a poet is to understand the depth of his/her thoughts through his/her poems. Thus the main purpose of this research is to review interior design based on in depth analysis of related poems. Psychoanalysis of symbols, themes and colors used in poems, can be used to supplement words in extracting symptoms and energy depicting the poet inner feelings and imaginations when designing. The results of the discussing symbols and colors used by Forough in most of her poems, indicate her interest in life, death, love, society, intellectuality and philosophy. Finally the researchers through usage of visual effects and pictures used in her designs tries to assist the viewers to understand and feel the poet’s emotions and passions for life at the time of creating the poems. Thus, it can be assumed that the interior design is based on poetry rich in motion and dynamism.

  18. La temperatura del interior de la tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslava R. Jesús A.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of defining the Earth interior temperature is analized from Heat Flow observations and the acceptance of convection processes in the mantle. Comparative analyses of thermal, adiabatic, and melting point profiles, allow to obtain the optimum temperature profile, wich fits the seismic model of a liquid external core.

    EI problema de definir la temperatura del interior de la Tierra, se analiza a partir de las observaciones del flujo térmico y la aceptación de procesos de convección en el manto.

    Análisis comparativos de perfiles térmicos, adiabáticos y de puntos de fusión, permiten obtener un perfil óptimo de distribución de temperaturas, que además satisface la observación sísmica de un núcleo externo líquido.

  19. Kajian Estetika Interior Restoran Boncafe Di Jalan Pregolan Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Fanuel W., Yemima

    2014-01-01

    Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is a restaurant in Surabaya located at Pregolan Street 2, Tegal sari, Central Surabaya. Boncafe Pregolan restaurant built in 2007. The interior of Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is divided into several rooms, main entrance area, main dining area I, main dining area II, smoking dining area, and terrace dining. The aesthetic of interior Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is interesting to be analyzed, because of the interior's plays inside. The design principles implemented t...

  20. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2004-12-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth in the future. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT), in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that these important members of the solar system are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission's RRT technique is analogous to doing a ``CAT scan" of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate >1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use a redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Deep interior has two targets (S-type 1999 ND43 and V-type Nyx ) whose composition bracket the diversity of solar system materials that we are likely to encounter, and are richly complementary.

  1. Optimal Power Flow by Interior Point and Non Interior Point Modern Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Połomski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of optimal power flow (OPF is to determine the optimal settings for control variables while respecting various constraints, and in general it is related to power system operational and planning optimization problems. A vast number of optimization methods have been applied to solve the OPF problem, but their performance is highly dependent on the size of a power system being optimized. The development of the OPF recently has tracked significant progress both in numerical optimization techniques and computer techniques application. In recent years, application of interior point methods to solve OPF problem has been paid great attention. This is due to the fact that IP methods are among the fastest algorithms, well suited to solve large-scale nonlinear optimization problems. This paper presents the primal-dual interior point method based optimal power flow algorithm and new variant of the non interior point method algorithm with application to optimal power flow problem. Described algorithms were implemented in custom software. The experiments show the usefulness of computational software and implemented algorithms for solving the optimal power flow problem, including the system model sizes comparable to the size of the National Power System.

  2. Teaching the Western.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan, John H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the content of a course on the genre of western films that was utilized as a film study and a U.S. cultural history credit. Describes in detail the film, "Winchester '73," and addresses other films utilized in the course. States that the course also focuses on the development of the western genre. (CMK)

  3. Western Slope Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epis, R.C.; Callender, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A conference on the geology and geologic resources of the Western Slope of western Colorado and eastern Utah is presented. Fourteen papers from the conference have been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. These papers covered such topics as uranium resources, oil shale deposits, coal resources, oil and gas resources, and geothermal resources of the area

  4. Tidal constraints on the interior of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, C.; Tobie, G.; Verhoeven, O.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rambaux, N.

    2017-12-01

    As a prospective study for a future exploration of Venus, we compute the tidal response of Venus' interior assuming various mantle compositions and temperature profiles representative of different scenarios of Venus' formation and evolution. The mantle density and seismic velocities are modeled from thermodynamical equilibria of mantle minerals and used to predict the moment of inertia, Love numbers, and tide-induced phase lag characterizing the signature of the internal structure in the gravity field. The viscoelasticity of the mantle is parameterized using an Andrade rheology. From the models considered here, the moment of inertia lies in the range of 0.327 to 0.342, corresponding to a core radius of 2900 to 3450 km. Viscoelasticity of the mantle strongly increases the potential Love number relative to previously published elastic models. Due to the anelasticity effects, we show that the possibility of a completely solid metal core inside Venus cannot be ruled out based on the available estimate of k2 from the Magellan mission (Konopliv and Yoder, 1996). A Love number k2 lower than 0.27 would indicate the presence of a fully solid iron core, while for larger values, solutions with an entirely or partially liquid core are possible. Precise determination of the Love numbers, k2 and h2, together with an estimate of the tidal phase lag, are required to determine the state and size of the core, as well as the composition and viscosity of the mantle.

  5. Titan's interior from Cassini-Huygens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobie, G.; Baland, R.-M.; Lefevre, A.; Monteux, J.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Mitri, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has brought many informations about Titan that can be used to infer its interior structure: the gravity field coefficients (up to degree 3, [1]), the surface shape (up to degree 6, [2]), the tidal Love number [1], the electric field [3], and the orientation of its rotation axis [4]. The measured obliquity and gravity perturbation due to tides, as well as the electric field, are lines of evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the ice surface of Titan [5,1,3]. The observed surface shape and gravity can be used to further constrain the structure of the ice shell above the internal ocean. The presence of a significant topography associated with weak gravity anomalies indicates that deflections of internal interface or lateral density variations may exist to compensate the topography. To assess the sources of compensation, we consider interior models including interface deflections and/or density variations, which reproduces simultaneously the surface gravity and long-wavelength topography data [6]. Furthermore, in order to test the long-term mechanical stability of the internal mass anomalies, we compute the relaxation rate of each internal interface in response to surface mass load. We show that the topography can be explained either by defections of the ocean/ice interface or by density variations in an upper crust [6]. For non-perfectly compensated models of the outer ice shell, the present-day structure is stable only for a conductive layer above a relatively cold ocean (for bottom viscosity > 1016 Pa.s, T residual gravity anomalies. The existence of mass anomalies in the rocky core is a most likely explanation. However, as the observed geoid and topography are mostly sensitive to the lateral structure of the outer ice shell, no information can be retrieved on the ice shell thickness, ocean density and/or size of the rocky core. Constraints on these internal parameters can be obtained from the tidal Love number and

  6. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued

  7. 10. The surface and interior of venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masursky, H.; Kaula, W.M.; McGill, G.E.; Pettengill, G.H.; Phillips, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Schubert, G.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50??S and 75??N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  8. Present problems of the solar interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.W.

    1986-01-01

    The standard model of solar evolution is reviewed and a number of problems highlighted. A fundamental question is whether there is any mixing of matter in the central regions, since such mixing could radically alter the model of the present Sun and modify our understanding of the evolution of other stars. Standard models of solar evolution become unstable to /sup 3/He driven global oscillations at an age of 3 x 10/sup 8/ years and this may drive some mixing, even if this is not the case the finite amptitude limit of these oscillations is likely to produce modifications in the standard model. Convective overshooting at the bottom of the outer convective zone leads to an increased depth of this zone and small changes in the interior. It is pointed out that the young Sun had a /sup 12/C driven convective core whose extent and duration depends on the extend of overshooting. Such a core is likely to produce a magnetic field which will affect the internal dynamics. The internal rotation of the sun remains an enigma and absence of knowledge of any internal magnetic field makes it difficult to study the problem. Rotationally driven instabilities are ineffective in the central chemically inhomogeneous regions but may contribute to the inward diffusion of lithium from the convective zone. These and other problems are considered, but few solutions are proposed

  9. Magnetic field generations in planetary interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most fundamental properties of some better known planets is their internally generated magnetic field. A successful explanation of such magnetic fields in 'large hot planetary interiors' remains elusive. Starting from Sir Joseph Larmor's discussions of 'How could a rotating body such as Sun become a magnet' (1979) to present day general consensus that 'the existence of the geomagnetic field is a manifestation of a finite amplitude instability of the Earth's core', significant theoretical developments have taken place in this field. The essential ingredients of the successful theories are the presence of a rotating fluid core of large size having sufficiently high electrical conductivity and energy source to drive the convection. These theories use equations of Newton and Maxwell to generate the requisite kind of the magnetic and velocity fields in response to the preferred distribution of the energy sources. Studies before early seventies, were devoted, mainly, to resolve the kinematics of the problem, and have convincingly demonstrated the plausibility of regeneration action of the organised motion. However, the main problem of the dynamo-processes is yet in the early stages of development despite important contributions made by Soward and Busse. A review of some of these developments is presented. (author)

  10. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972, 11 magnetometers were sent to the moon. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the results of lunar magnetometer data analysis, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are 38, 103 (maximum), 3, and 327 gammas (maximum), respectively. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the Apollo 12 and 16 remanent fields are compressed during times of high plasma dynamic pressure. Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometers have mapped in detail the field above portions of the lunar surface and have placed an upper limit on the global permanent dipole moment. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. Magnetic fields are stronger in highland regions than in mare regions and stronger on the lunar far side than on the near side. The largest magnetic anomaly measured to date is between the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken on the lunar far side.

  11. Field Dependence and Vocational Choice of Interior Design Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Diane M.; And Others

    One hundred ninety-three interior design college students were administered the Group Embedded Figures Test, a measure of field dependence, in order to evaluate two of Witkin's hypotheses regarding career choice. The career-differentiation hypothesis predicted that students electing to major in interior design would be field independent because…

  12. Virtual Interior Design Based On VRML AND JAVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shaoliang

    Virtual reality has been involved in a wide range of academic and commercial applications. It can give users a natural feeling of the environment by creating realistic virtual worlds. In this paper, we use vrml and java to discuss the virtual interior design. EAI and JASI are used to realize the interaction between user and virtual interior scene.

  13. Mood perception of interior colors in a gym

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Haruyo; Koizumi, Naoko

    2002-06-01

    When people enter a gym, they feel more like exercising in some cases than other cases. The interior color of the space may be a contributing factor. This paper discusses how the interior color of a gym affects female subjects in their twenties and forties to fifties both physiologically and psychologically.

  14. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  15. Design for subjective well-being in interior architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petermans, A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Can interior environments engage people in pleasurable and meaningful experiences and thereby have a positive influence on their happiness? This paper discusses why and how interior architects might want to consider implementing ideas in relation to ‘design for subjective well-being’. Despite of

  16. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  17. Interior spatial layout with soft objectives using evolutionary computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzikonstantinou, I.; Bengisu, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design problem of furniture arrangement in a residential interior living space, and addresses it by means of evolutionary computation. Interior arrangement is an important and interesting problem that occurs commonly when designing living spaces. It entails determining the

  18. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  19. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  20. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

  1. Knotworking In An Interior Décor Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2016-01-01

    These days, new buildings are being built at Aalborg University in Denmark, why interior décor processes are initiated. Planning the interior décor of Aalborg University is centralized at the Shared Service Center, where internal architects furnish the spaces and buy the selected furniture withou...

  2. Interior-Point Methods for Linear Programming: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. N.; Singh, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews some recent advances in interior-point methods for linear programming and indicates directions in which future progress can be made. Most of the interior-point methods belong to any of three categories: affine-scaling methods, potential reduction methods and central path methods. These methods are discussed together with…

  3. Resilience of Athabascan subsistence systems to interior Alaska's changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary P. Kofinas; F. Stuart Chapin; Shauna BurnSilver; Jennifer I. Schmidt; Nancy L. Fresco; Knut Kielland; Stephanie Martin; Anna Springsteen; T. Scott Rupp

    2010-01-01

    Subsistence harvesting and wild food production by Athabascan peoples is part of an integrated social-ecological system of interior Alaska. We describe effects of recent trends and future climate change projections on the boreal ecosystem of interior Alaska and relate changes in ecosystem services to Athabascan subsistence. We focus primarily on moose, a keystone...

  4. Dream Home: a multiview stereoscopic interior design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fu-Jen; Teng, Chih-Jen; Lin, Chung-Wei; Luo, An-Chun; Yang, Jinn-Cherng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-view stereoscopic interior design system, "Dream Home", has been developed to bring users new interior design experience. Different than other interior design system before, we put emphasis on its intuitive manipulation and multi-view stereoscopic visualization in real time. Users can do their own interior design just using their hands and eyes without any difficulty. They manipulate furniture cards directly as they wish to setup their living room in the model house task space, get the multi-view 3D visual feedback instantly, and re-adjust cards until they are satisfied. No special skills are required, and you can explore your design talent arbitrarily. We hope that "Dream Home" will make interior design more user-friendly, more intuitive, and more vivid.

  5. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  6. Notice of release for Eagle Germplasm western yarrow (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office; Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station; and University of Idaho, Agricultural Experiment Station, announce the release of a selected germplasm (natural track) of western...

  7. The challenge to explore the Brazilian interior basins; O desafio da exploracao das bacias interiores brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacoccoli, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Organizacao da Industria do Petroleo (ONIP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the development of the fields, already discovered in the deep waters of the Southeastern Atlantic Margin, the Brazilian domestic production will shortly be equivalent to the consumption. Despite reaching this goal, the exploration of large interior basins is still considered a challenge. Surprisingly, after the discoveries in the Solimoes Basin, as well after the opening of the Brazilian Petroleum Sector in 1997, the present level of the exploration activities in these basins is far below the previous historical averages. The available data are still now considered too scarce, to perform a proper evaluation. Apparently, a vicious circle has been established: due to the a priori low attractiveness new data are not acquired and because the lack of new data the attractiveness cannot be modified nor improved. The Parnaiba Basin is usually mentioned as an example of this poor amount of data. A modest coverage of ancient 2D seismic lines, and obsolete aero magnetic survey and thirty one exploratory wells, mostly located without geophysical support, represents all the available data in this vast basin with an area over 600,000 sq km. Recent regional geologic interpretations in such interior basins, as in Solimoes, Parana and also Parnaiba, are pointing out the presence of remarkable intraplate tectonic events, successively reactivated along the geologic time. It is now intended that these events can play an important role in the control of the petroleum system and in focalizing the new exploration activities. However, efforts should be applied in the revision of some regulatory rules, in Brazil, in order to better stimulate the onshore exploration and particularly the exploration of the interior basins. As recommended by the new Brazilian Petroleum Law, part of the government takes shall be effectively applied to acquire more geologic and geophysical data in the onshore areas (author)

  8. Statistical interior properties of globular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou-Ting, Jiang; Tai-Quan, Wu; Lin-Xi, Zhang; Ting-Ting, Sun

    2009-01-01

    The character of forming long-range contacts affects the three-dimensional structure of globular proteins deeply. As the different ability to form long-range contacts between 20 types of amino acids and 4 categories of globular proteins, the statistical properties are thoroughly discussed in this paper. Two parameters N C and N D are defined to confine the valid residues in detail. The relationship between hydrophobicity scales and valid residue percentage of each amino acid is given in the present work and the linear functions are shown in our statistical results. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity scale defined by chemical derivatives of the amino acids and nonpolar phase of large unilamellar vesicle membranes is the most effective technique to characterise the hydrophobic behavior of amino acid residues. Meanwhile, residue percentage P i and sequential residue length L i of a certain protein i are calculated under different conditions. The statistical results show that the average value of P i as well as L i of all-α proteins has a minimum among these 4 classes of globular proteins, indicating that all-α proteins are hardly capable of forming long-range contacts one by one along their linear amino acid sequences. All-β proteins have a higher tendency to construct long-range contacts along their primary sequences related to the secondary configurations, i.e. parallel and anti-parallel configurations of β sheets. The investigation of the interior properties of globular proteins give us the connection between the three-dimensional structure and its primary sequence data or secondary configurations, and help us to understand the structure of protein and its folding process well. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Western Mountain Initiative - Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    unprecendented severity in the western United States, extensive tree mortality from outbreaks of bark beetles climatic stressors (Goals 1.1, 1.3) and identification of critical areas (Goal 1.2). Causal mechanisms

  10. Computer Simulation Western

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)

  11. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária

    2017-06-01

    We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies

  12. Mercury's Interior from MESSENGER Radio Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A.; Mazarico, E.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft provided precise radio tracking data in orbit about Mercury for more than 4 years, from March 2011 to April 2015. These geodetic measurements enable us to investigate the interior structure of the planet from the inner core to the crust. The first three years of radio data allowed us to determine the gravity field of Mercury with a resolution of 150 km in the northern hemisphere (degree and order 50 in spherical harmonics) since the periapsis was located at higher latitudes (>65˚N) and 200-500 km altitudes. The comparison of this gravity solution with Mercury's topography, which was retrieved by using over 25 million individual measurements of the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA), resulted in a preliminary map of the crustal thickness of the planet. However, those results were limited by the resolution of the gravity field since the topography was defined in spherical harmonics up to degree and order 125. The last year of the MESSENGER extended mission was dedicated to a low-altitude campaign, where the spacecraft periapsis was maintained at altitudes between 25 and 100 km. The radio data collected during this mission phase allowed us to significantly improve the resolution of the gravity field locally in the northern hemisphere up to degree and order 100 in spherical harmonics. We present the gravity anomalies and crustal thickness maps that lead to a better understanding on the formation and evolution of specific regions. We present our estimated orientation model, which slightly differs from the solutions that were obtained by using Earth-based radar measurements and the co-registration of MESSENGER imaging and altimetry data. These previous estimates provide a direct measurement of the surface response, whereas the orientation model from gravity is more sensitive to the inner and outer core. A discrepancy between core and surface obliquities may provide fundamental

  13. CHIC - Coupling Habitability, Interior and Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Labbe, Francois; Boiveau, Thomas; Rivoldini, Attilio; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2014-05-01

    We present a new code developed for simulating convection in terrestrial planets and icy moons. The code CHIC is written in Fortran and employs the finite volume method and finite difference method for solving energy, mass and momentum equations in either silicate or icy mantles. The code uses either Cartesian (2D and 3D box) or spherical coordinates (2D cylinder or annulus). It furthermore contains a 1D parametrised model to obtain temperature profiles in specific regions, for example in the iron core or in the silicate mantle (solving only the energy equation). The 2D/3D convection model uses the same input parameters as the 1D model, which allows for comparison of the different models and adaptation of the 1D model, if needed. The code has already been benchmarked for the following aspects: - viscosity-dependent rheology (Blankenbach et al., 1989) - pseudo-plastic deformation (Tosi et al., in preparation phase) - subduction mechanism and plastic deformation (Quinquis et al., in preparation phase) New features that are currently developed and benchmarked include: - compressibility (following King et al., 2009 and Leng and Zhong, 2008) - different melt modules (Plesa et al., in preparation phase) - freezing of an inner core (comparison with GAIA code, Huettig and Stemmer, 2008) - build-up of oceanic and continental crust (Noack et al., in preparation phase) The code represents a useful tool to couple the interior with the surface of a planet (e.g. via build-up and erosion of crust) and it's atmosphere (via outgassing on the one hand and subduction of hydrated crust and carbonates back into the mantle). It will be applied to investigate several factors that might influence the habitability of a terrestrial planet, and will also be used to simulate icy bodies with high-pressure ice phases. References: Blankenbach et al. (1989). A benchmark comparison for mantle convection codes. GJI 98, 23-38. Huettig and Stemmer (2008). Finite volume discretization for dynamic

  14. Design team simplifies interior to aid patient recuperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishback, B W; Krewson, C

    1981-02-16

    Vanderbilt University Medical Center's architect and interior designer coordinated efforts to minimize medical components by painting them a neutral color and sought a unified approach throughout the building to make it more personal without a substantial cost increase.

  15. 3D radar wavefield tomography of comet interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Paul; Asphaug, Erik

    2018-04-01

    Answering fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of small planetary bodies hinges on our ability to image their surface and interior structure in detail and at high resolution. The interior structure is not easily accessible without systematic imaging using, e.g., radar transmission and reflection data from multiple viewpoints, as in medical tomography. Radar tomography can be performed using methodology adapted from terrestrial exploration seismology. Our feasibility study primarily focuses on full wavefield methods that facilitate high quality imaging of small body interiors. We consider the case of a monostatic system (co-located transmitters and receivers) operated in various frequency bands between 5 and 15 MHz, from a spacecraft in slow polar orbit around a spinning comet nucleus. Using realistic numerical experiments, we demonstrate that wavefield techniques can generate high resolution tomograms of comets nuclei with arbitrary shape and complex interior properties.

  16. Connecting horizon pixels and interior voxels of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, Piero; Singleton, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss to what extent one can infer details of the interior structure of a black hole based on its horizon. Recalling that black hole thermal properties are connected to the non-classical nature of gravity, we circumvent the restrictions of the no-hair theorem by postulating that the black hole interior is singularity free due to violations of the usual energy conditions. Further these conditions allow one to establish a one-to-one, holographic projection between Planckian areal “bits” on the horizon and “voxels”, representing the gravitational degrees of freedom in the black hole interior. We illustrate the repercussions of this idea by discussing an example of the black hole interior consisting of a de Sitter core postulated to arise from the local graviton quantum vacuum energy. It is shown that the black hole entropy can emerge as the statistical entropy of a gas of voxels

  17. Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2007 Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincent, Carol H; Bearden, David M; Corn, M. L; Gorte, Ross W; Humphries, Marc; Sheikh, Pervaze A; Whiteman, David L; Boren, Susan; Walke, Roger; Bea, Keith

    2007-01-01

    ... of Health and Human Services. It also includes funding for arts and cultural agencies; the Environmental Protection Agency, which was recently transferred to the appropriations subcommittees that deal with Interior and Related Agencies...

  18. Dynamical measurements of the interior structure of exoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Giant gaseous planets often reside on orbits in sufficient proximity to their host stars for the planetary quadrupole gravitational field to become non-negligible. In presence of an additional planetary companion, a precise characterization of the system's orbital state can yield meaningful constraints on the transiting planet's interior structure. However, such methods can require a very specific type of system. This paper explores the dynamic range of applicability of these methods and shows that interior structure calculations are possible for a wide array of orbital architectures. The HAT-P-13 system is used as a case study, and the implications of perturbations arising from a third distant companion on the feasibility of an interior calculation are discussed. We find that the method discussed here is likely to be useful in studying other planetary systems, allowing the possibility of an expanded survey of the interiors of exoplanets.

  19. Vibrant Interior Reflects Lifestyle. 1974 Award Winning Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The design of the student center at Essex Community College in Baltimore County, Maryland, reflects youthful lifestyles in the interior decor while providing exterior design to harmonize with existing campus buildings. (Author/MF)

  20. Early User Appraisal of the MDARS Interior Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laird, R

    1999-01-01

    The Mobile Detection Assessment Response System (MDARS) is a joint Army-Navy effort to field interior and exterior autonomous platforms for security and inventory assessment functions at DoD warehouses and storage sites...

  1. Entropy corresponding to the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhas Ranjan Majhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Interior volume within the horizon of a black hole is a non-trivial concept which turns out to be very important to explain several issues in the context of quantum nature of black hole. Here we show that the entropy, contained by the maximum interior volume for massless modes, is proportional to the Bekenstein–Hawking expression. The proportionality constant is less than unity implying the horizon bears maximum entropy than that by the interior. The derivation is very systematic and free of any ambiguity. To do so the precise value of the energy of the modes, living in the interior, is derived by constraint analysis. Finally, the implications of the result are discussed.

  2. Entropy corresponding to the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2017-07-01

    Interior volume within the horizon of a black hole is a non-trivial concept which turns out to be very important to explain several issues in the context of quantum nature of black hole. Here we show that the entropy, contained by the maximum interior volume for massless modes, is proportional to the Bekenstein-Hawking expression. The proportionality constant is less than unity implying the horizon bears maximum entropy than that by the interior. The derivation is very systematic and free of any ambiguity. To do so the precise value of the energy of the modes, living in the interior, is derived by constraint analysis. Finally, the implications of the result are discussed.

  3. Support-free interior carving for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent interior carving methods for functional design necessitate a cumbersome cut-and-glue process in fabrication. We propose a method to generate interior voids which not only satisfy the functional purposes but are also support-free during the 3D printing process. We introduce a support-free unit structure for voxelization and derive the wall thicknesses parametrization for continuous optimization. We also design a discrete dithering algorithm to ensure the printability of ghost voxels. The interior voids are iteratively carved by alternating the optimization and dithering. We apply our method to optimize the static and rotational stability, and print various results to evaluate the efficacy. Keywords: Interior carving, Support-free, Voxels dithering, Shape optimization, 3D printing

  4. Effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Odabaşıoğlu, Seden

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 142-152). The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of area on color harmony in interior spaces. Area in color harmony is the relative amount of different color areas represented as a proportion on which color harmony depends. Colors in the color ...

  5. Interior design as a motivation for creating creative spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The thesis underlines the importance of a thoughtful, systematic and modern way of designing classrooms due to its effects on productivity and creativity of pupils. The theoretical part focuses on the relationship between creativity and art classroom; a particular attention is given to the elements of interior design of art classrooms, enabling such organisation of space that fosters creativity in pupils. The emphasis is given on colour and lights as essential elements of interior design. In ...

  6. Perancangan Interior Redesain Restoran Bambuden 2 Di Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Limewa, Jaquliene Feby

    2017-01-01

    Chinese restaurant is one of the most popular places in the community. Rebranding interior design Bambuden 2 restaurant in Makassar is an interior design of a restaurant that presents dominant chinese food, by offering a blend of Oriental character & Elegant Nuance by adding Bar within the restaurant in different scope area. The restaurant is designed is one restaurant that is designed for the middle to top, with a system of waiter service or waitress to tables. The planned facilities inc...

  7. Trends in CAD education in interior design programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Hye Mi

    1990-01-01

    This research investigated Computer Aided Design (CAD) education in the interior design. program focusing on educators' opinions about creativity aspects including computer application, teaching materials and teaching methods as well as other trends in CAD education. A questionnaire was sent to one hundred eighty-two members of the Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC). A frequency distribution was used on 69 usable returned surveys to describe the sample characteristi...

  8. Architecture, landscape architecture and interior- Hons B 2009

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available will be as follows: 1. History of Urban Form 2. Urban Renewal and Reactions 3. Urban Order, Security and Power 4. Colonial Impact on Urban From 5. Memory and Conservation 6. Considering the Public and Private Realm 7. Housing and Urban Form ? Type, Poetics 8....e. ?interior design? / ?inte- rior architecture?). Interior design is the reaction to ?found? space and follows three modes of produc- tion: installation, insertion and intervention. Archi- tectural theory pertinent to the discipline?s ontology...

  9. Perancangan Interior Pusat Pendidikan Fashion Di Kota Samarinda

    OpenAIRE

    William, Livia Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Interior Education Center Fashion in Samarinda City aims to find education center of fashion that can complete student's facilities, finding educational center of fashion that produces interior design educational, informative, and presentative, find educational center of fashion which can show elements of Indonesian culture, discover fashion education center that can attract people in Samarinda. The expected benefits of this research is for the public forum for people who have become fashion ...

  10. Interior Gradient Estimates for Nonuniformly Parabolic Equations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove interior gradient estimates for a large class of parabolic equations in divergence form. Using some simple ideas, we prove these estimates for several types of equations that are not amenable to previous methods. In particular, we have no restrictions on the maximum eigenvalue of the coefficient matrix and we obtain interior gradient estimates for so-called false mean curvature equation.

  11. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  12. Environmental Approach In Interior Design Education In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Adıgüzel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available These days there has been a severe encroachment on nature, a large amount of waste being generated, and natural resources being used irresponsibly during the design, application and usage phases of buildings. Environmental sensitivity is necessary during the construction of new buildings and re-usage of current buildings to resolve environmental problems. In order to increase environmental sensitivity, a great responsibility falls onto interior design along with other disciplines during the creation of living spaces. The accumulation of knowledge from career training and the level of awareness will determine the practical development of environmentally sensitive interior design. Therefore the purpose of this article is to make a determination of the current state of environmental design in interior design education in Turkey. The degree to which environmental design is reflected in the curricula of interior design departments was studied. The relationship between the awareness level of the students and the educational programs will be presented through three samples. Surveys were conducted at three universities that have varying degrees of environmental design within the interior design curricula. As a result, the importance of having an environmentally conscious design understanding within the curricula of interior design and recommendations for improving the environmental design awareness of students will be presented in this article.

  13. Effects of coloured lighting on the perception of interior spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaşioğlu, Seden; Olguntürk, Nіlgün

    2015-02-01

    Use of coloured lighting in interior spaces has become prevalent in recent years. Considerable importance is ascribed to coloured lighting in interior and lighting design. The effects of colour on the perception of interior spaces have been studied as surface colour; but here, the effects of three different types of chromatic light were investigated. The lighting differed in colour (red, green and white) and perceptions of interior space were assessed. 97 participants (59 women, 38 men; M age = 21.4 yr.) evaluated the experiment room on a questionnaire assessing eight evaluative factors: Pleasantness, Arousal, Aesthetics, Usefulness, Comfort, Spaciousness, Colour, and Lighting quality. Perceptions of the room differed by colour of lighting for some of the evaluative factors, but there was no sex difference in perceptions. Interior spaces may be perceived as equally pleasant under white, green and red lighting. Under white lighting a space is perceived as more useful, spacious, clear, and luminous. Green lighting would make the same effect. Green and white lighting were perceived equally comfortable in an interior space. Chromatic coloured lighting was perceived to be more aesthetic than white lighting. The results support previous findings for some evaluative factors, but differed for others.

  14. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  15. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  16. Scout-view assisted interior micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kriti Sen; Narayanan, Shree; Agah, Masoud; Holzner, Christian; Vasilescu, Dragoş M; Jin, Xin; Hoffman, Eric A; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely-used imaging technique. A challenge of micro-CT is to quantitatively reconstruct a sample larger than the field-of-view (FOV) of the detector. This scenario is characterized by truncated projections and associated image artifacts. However, for such truncated scans, a low resolution scout scan with an increased FOV is frequently acquired so as to position the sample properly. This study shows that the otherwise discarded scout scans can provide sufficient additional information to uniquely and stably reconstruct the interior region of interest. Two interior reconstruction methods are designed to utilize the multi-resolution data without significant computational overhead. While most previous studies used numerically truncated global projections as interior data, this study uses truly hybrid scans where global and interior scans were carried out at different resolutions. Additionally, owing to the lack of standard interior micro-CT phantoms, we designed and fabricated novel interior micro-CT phantoms for this study to provide means of validation for our algorithms. Finally, two characteristic samples from separate studies were scanned to show the effect of our reconstructions. The presented methods show significant improvements over existing reconstruction algorithms. (paper)

  17. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  18. Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence

  19. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  20. Adaptation of lodgepole pine and interior spruce to climate: implications for reforestation in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepe, Katharina J; Hamann, Andreas; Smets, Pia; Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Aitken, Sally N

    2016-02-01

    We investigated adaptation to climate in populations of two widespread tree species across a range of contrasting environments in western Canada. In a series of common garden experiments, bud phenology, cold hardiness, and seedling growth traits were assessed for 254 populations in the interior spruce complex (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, and their hybrids) and for 281 populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Complex multitrait adaptations to different ecological regions such as boreal, montane, coastal, and arid environments accounted for 15-20% of the total variance. This population differentiation could be directly linked to climate variables through multivariate regression tree analysis. Our results suggest that adaptation to climate does not always correspond linearly to temperature gradients. For example, opposite trait values (e.g., early versus late budbreak) may be found in response to apparently similar cold environments (e.g., boreal and montane). Climate change adaptation strategies may therefore not always be possible through a simple shift of seed sources along environmental gradients. For the two species in this study, we identified a relatively small number of uniquely adapted populations (11 for interior spruce and nine for lodgepole pine) that may be used to manage adaptive variation under current and expected future climates.

  1. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  2. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  3. Emotion and interior space design: an ergonomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Swathi Matta; Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Karmakar, Sougata

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between the users and their environment is spontaneous and unavoidable. This interaction can be positive or negative. A good interior space is about considering all the physical, environmental and cognitive elements and harmonizing them to make it a space that feels right, functionally and emotionally. The important element that has to be considered the most in an interior space is the "user". Balancing all these elements is a challenging job and results in a perfect interior space design. This paper intends to bring to light the necessity of designing an optimum interior space, which is a balance of the user's choice and the mandatory standards that ought to be followed for user safety and convenience. There has to be an intervening domain of ergonomics which will guide to bring out a balance between the personal choice of the user and the usual standards followed. It should also provide a step-by-step information, guidance and direction to act to the specifications and standards systematically to adapt an integrated approach of handling all the elements holistically which will indeed result in a good interior space.

  4. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    with a threat both abroad and within their homeland societies. Civilians fulfil a ..... we have now with the use of force and forces is their persistent structuring ... advanced equipment remains the main feature of Western military culture. Western.

  5. 26 CFR 49.4253-9 - Exemption for certain interior communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Exemption for certain interior communication systems. (a) In general. The taxes imposed by section 4251 do... rendered through the use of an interior communication system. (b) Interior communication system. The term “interior communication system” means any system: (1) No part of which is situated off the premises of the...

  6. On ethics and the earthquake resistant interior design of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-03-01

    The most common tectonic quality of modern structures, such as frame systems, is their flexibility; they are open for change. Although this characteristic is a big advantage in comparison to the inflexible masonry structures of the past, it might also create some serious problems, such as e.g. the lack of safety in the event of an earthquake, if the flexibility is not used consciously by architects and interior designers. This article attempts to define and establish some rules for the interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems. The rules for making subtractions from these structures and extending them by making additions to them are contained within this article. The main objective of this article is to derive some ethical values from these rules. Thus, the conclusion of the article focuses on the derivation of some ethical values for achieving earthquake resistant interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems.

  7. PhD Thesis: Functional Textiles in Hospital Interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe Emil

    The PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three-year collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The thesis...... years, knowledge on the use of interior materials and textiles are still rather limited. Contemporary hospital design has been widely criticised of being too institutional and clinical, and one of the main reasons for this experience may be related to the use of ‘cold’, hard-surfaced materials...... of plastic, vinyl and steel. These materials also dominate the new hospitals, designed and constructed these years, and despite the increased focus on the design concept healing architecture, the rational requirements of ef cient cleaning and maintenance still seems to direct the interior design of hospital...

  8. SYSTEMS OF INTERIOR STYLING AND TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samatdinov Marat Orynbaevich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the quality of construction works and heat insulation efficiency of building envelope as well as providing additional fire proof and acoustic comfort suppose the use of special construction systems provided with the whole complex of components — composite construction systems. Composite interior systems include structural solutions of dividing walls, floors, suspended ceilings, inner facing of walls and fireproof facing, as well as assembling technology of these constructions. The main components of interior composite systems are gypsum board and gypsum-fiber sheets, gypsum-containing dry mortars. Less often gypsum partition blocks or panels based on Portland cement are used (cement fibrolite plates, aquapanels, etc.. The companies producing these materials are usually the movers of the creation of complex systems of interior facing. The systems are developed by leading Russian design organizations or engineering services of companies-the movers.

  9. Model Based Control of Moisture Sorption in a Historical Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel scheme for microclimate control in historical exhibition rooms, inhibiting moisture sorption phenomena that are inadmissible from the preventive conservation point of view. The impact of air humidity is the most significant harmful exposure for a great deal of the cultural heritage deposited in remote historical buildings. Leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, the proposed non-linear model-based control protects exhibits from harmful variations in moisture content by compensating the temperature drifts with an adequate adjustment of the air humidity. Already implemented in a medieval interior since 1999, the proposed microclimate control has proved capable of permanently maintaining constant a desirable moisture content in organic or porous materials in the interior of a building. 

  10. Western blotting: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is an important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. This process involves the transfer of protein patterns from gel to microporous membrane. Electrophoretic as well as non-electrophoretic transfer of proteins to membranes was first described in 1979. Protein blotting has evolved greatly since the inception of this protocol, allowing protein transfer to be accomplished in a variety of ways.

  11. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  12. Suicide and Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; McArthur, Milford

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the cultural roots and transmission of Western suicide and suicidal behaviour. We explored a period of antiquity (mythical Greece-61 CE) and selected accounts of 10 prominent suicides. The precipitating circumstances were tabulated and an assessment made of the most likely attendant emotions. The same process was followed for a recent period (1994-2008), from which 10 suicides were identified. The precipitating circumstances and the attendant emotions were compared. These circumstances and emotions were then compared to statements commonly encountered in clinical practice from people demonstrating suicidal behaviour. Finally, we looked for evidence that these stories (and the response models) had entered Western culture. Precipitating circumstances, loss of a loved one, actual or imminent execution or imprisonment, other losses and public disgrace, and the negative emotions of shame, guilt, fear, anger, grief and sorrow were common to both historical periods. These circumstances and emotions are similar to those commonly expressed by people who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour. There was a clear record (literature, visual arts) of these stories forming part of our cultural heritage. Models of maladaptive responses to certain adverse circumstances are part of Western culture. Suicide as a response to certain circumstances and negative emotions can be traced back more than 2000 years. Cultural change will be necessary to minimize suicide.

  13. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  14. Interior near-field acoustical holography in flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E G; Houston, B H; Herdic, P C; Raveendra, S T; Gardner, B

    2000-10-01

    In this paper boundary element methods (BEM) are mated with near-field acoustical holography (NAH) in order to determine the normal velocity over a large area of a fuselage of a turboprop airplane from a measurement of the pressure (hologram) on a concentric surface in the interior of the aircraft. This work represents the first time NAH has been applied in situ, in-flight. The normal fuselage velocity was successfully reconstructed at the blade passage frequency (BPF) of the propeller and its first two harmonics. This reconstructed velocity reveals structure-borne and airborne sound-transmission paths from the engine to the interior space.

  15. Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume offers contributions reflecting a selection of the lectures presented at the international conference BAIL 2014, which was held from 15th to 19th September 2014 at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. These are devoted to the theoretical and/or numerical analysis of problems involving boundary and interior layers and methods for solving these problems numerically. The authors are both mathematicians (pure and applied) and engineers, and bring together a large number of interesting ideas. The wide variety of topics treated in the contributions provides an excellent overview of current research into the theory and numerical solution of problems involving boundary and interior layers.  .

  16. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  17. Interior structure of rotating black holes. I. Concise derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.; Polhemus, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a concise derivation of a new set of solutions for the interior structure of accreting, rotating black holes. The solutions are conformally stationary, axisymmetric, and conformally separable. Hyper-relativistic counter-streaming between freely-falling collisionless ingoing and outgoing streams leads to mass inflation at the inner horizon, followed by collapse. The solutions fail at an exponentially tiny radius, where the rotational motion of the streams becomes comparable to their radial motion. The papers provide a fully nonlinear, dynamical solution for the interior structure of a rotating black hole from just above the inner horizon inward, down to a tiny scale.

  18. Science You Can Use Bulletin: Return of the king: Western white pine conservation and restoration in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hines; Ned Klopfenstein; Bryce Richardson; Marcus Warwell; Mee-Sook Kim

    2013-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is a species that used to dominate the forests of the Interior Northwest prior to the expansion of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the late 19th century. Its foundational role contributed to a landscape that was resilient, fire-adapted, and provided abundant suitable habitat for terrestrial and aquatic species. However, substantial...

  19. 76 FR 50245 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... sale's incremental contribution to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources... Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the...

  20. Saint Lawrence Seaway Additional Locks Study. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    1790320 1945 2370 27000 LO 710 i...l.I27.121.710.0443 23.00.769 12.229.146 2,3231.503 2.5~06.000 2.239.100 23.760.400 23.019.2002 3.413200 P.. Capita...1955. - ,. XISING EISENHOWER LOCK G ISO Se-s SP*c.--2 2, 13 TIL ANDBDROC ~~~~~~ AREA LIISO9TL AD All b 22 CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFAL0 NY RUFFALO DISTR

  1. Nuclear energy in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, M.; Walker, W.

    1984-01-01

    This is an overview of nuclear energy in Western Europe, as seen by two Western Europeans, attempting to place the topic into the context not only of energy supply but also of industrial relations, institutional structure, and sociocultural factors. Although its main focus is Western Europe, it is sometimes necessary to glance at the wider context, in particular the industrial relations with the United States and Japan. Export markets are also considered, in particular, in the Pacific. The paper does not, however, deal with nonproliferation policies and the possible difference of opinion within Western Europe and between Western Europe and other regions over this topic. (author)

  2. Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization in Interior Architecture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ali Riza; Dazkir, Sibel Seda

    2017-01-01

    We explored how beginning-level interior architecture students develop skills to create mental visualizations of three-dimensional objects and environments, how they develop their technical drawing skills, and whether or not physical and computer generated models aid this design process. We used interviews and observations to collect data. The…

  3. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-10-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  4. Computer-assisted ergonomic analysis for vehicle interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punte, P.A.J.; Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.

    2000-01-01

    TNO Human Factors is involved in the process of designing and testing a new concept for driver workplaces in passenger cars, i.e. with a horizontally fixed driver seat and adjustable pedals, steering wheel and instrument panel. This new concept is intended to achieve an interior space and

  5. Radon measurements in the interior of the great pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenawy, M A; Morsy, A A [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). College for Girls

    1991-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements were made in the interior of the great pyramid of ''Cheops'' at Giza. Measurements were carried out using CR-39 as a solid state nuclear track detector. The CR-39 sheets were placed inside the Queen's and King's chambers and along the ascending corridor leading to them. An evaluation of the radon concentration is presented and discussed. (author).

  6. Penerapan Tipografi dalam Sistem Signage pada Interior Ruang Publik

    OpenAIRE

    Ulli Aulia Ruki; Amarena Nediari

    2014-01-01

    Sistem signage diaplikasikan pada sebuah interior ruang publik dengan memerhatikan dasar tipografi. Manfaat signage adalah memberikan kemudahan para pengguna ruang publik dalam mencapai tujuan saat mereka berada di dalam sebuah bangunan. Hal mendasar yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merencanakan sistem signage adalah kejelasan bentuk huruf serta kemudahan untuk dibaca. Masih banyak desainer yang kurang memerhatikan desain signage, sehingga terkadang desainnya memberikan kesan hanya s...

  7. 77 FR 45650 - Interior Fire Program Assessment 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill for fiscal year 2012, the House of... management services in support of the Departmental and bureau missions and to better direct scarce resources... been conducted as they are a major partner in the Federal wildland fire management program. On June 19...

  8. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  9. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs

  10. Exploring the Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Interior Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afacan, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how blended learning can contribute to interior design students' learning outcomes, their engagement with non-studio courses and affect their learning achievements. Within the framework of the study, a blended learning experience was carried out in "IAED 342 Building Performance" module at Bilkent University, Turkey.…

  11. U-CrAc Flexible Interior Doctrine, Agile Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2012-01-01

    The research domain of this article is flexible learning environment for immediate use. The research question is: How can the learning environment support an agile learning process? The research contribution of this article is a flexible interior doctrine. The research method is action research...

  12. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  13. The Integration of Interior Architecture Education with Digital Design Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Deniz Ayse

    2011-01-01

    It is inevitable that as a result of progress in technology and the changes in the ways with which design is conceived, interior architecture schools should be updated according to these requirements and that new educational processes should be tried out. It is for this reason that the scope and aim of this study have been determined as being the…

  14. Service-Learning and Interior Design: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The case study approach was used to analyze experiential learning through its three components: knowledge, action, and reflection. Two interior design courses were integrated through a university service-learning project. The restoration/adaptive reuse of a 95-year-old library building was to serve as a prototype for future off-campus…

  15. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  16. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER): design and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Adkins, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    During 2014 and 2015, NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission proceeded successfully through Phase C, Design and Development. An X-ray (0.2-12 keV) astrophysics payload destined for the International Space Station, NICER is manifested for launch in early 2017...

  17. Perceptions of Interior Design Program Chairs Regarding Credentials for Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Beth R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether program chairs in interior design have a preferred degree credential for candidates seeking a full-time, tenure-track position or other full-time position at their institution and to determine if there is a correlation between this preference and the program chair's university's demographics,…

  18. Improving FCS Accountability: Increasing STEM Awareness with Interior Design Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Jessica; Moody, Dana; Cooper, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates ways in which family and consumer sciences (FCS) educators can explore more opportunities to integrate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) principles into secondary education curriculum. Interior design is used as a case study for creating learning modules that incorporate STEM principles in a creative and…

  19. Group Dynamics in the Interior Design Studio: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study measuring the classroom climates in collegiate interior design studios and considers these findings within the group dynamics theory framework. Three groups of students completed the College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES) questionnaire. Five of the six CCES subscale F ratios were statistically…

  20. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The

  1. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Bazley, C.; Kamp, I.; Blok, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet

  2. The Attitudes of Interior Design Students towards Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Caimen Leigh; Olson, Margot A.

    2009-01-01

    To measure attitudes toward environmental issues, interior design students responded to a four-part survey: demographics, ecology, sustainability, and comments. The ecology section was composed of modifications of questions from the New Ecological Paradigm Scale (Dunlap et al. "Journal of Environmental Education," 9:10-19, 2000). The researchers…

  3. Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Fragnelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

  4. Pertimbangan Aspek Kejiwaan terhadap Feng Shui dalam Perancangan Interior

    OpenAIRE

    C. Indrani, Hedy

    2003-01-01

    The truth of applying feng shui in interior design is always doubted because feng shui is still consider mystically, unlogic, and unusual, therefore it needs facts of this potential feng shui. As knowledge, feng shui psychologically plays important role for home design that it increases psychological life of the residents.

  5. Resonant inverter supplied Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, rotor position in relation to the resonant frequency component current in the stator winding of DC-voltage link resonant inverter supplied Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor has been developed. Six reference frames are used to relate the rotor position angle to the resonant frequency component current ...

  6. Hot-start Giant Planets Form with Radiative Interiors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardo, David; Cumming, Andrew, E-mail: david.berardo@mcgill.ca, E-mail: andrew.cumming@mcgill.ca [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-09-10

    In the hot-start core accretion formation model for gas giants, the interior of a planet is usually assumed to be fully convective. By calculating the detailed internal evolution of a planet assuming hot-start outer boundary conditions, we show that such a planet will in fact form with a radially increasing internal entropy profile, so that its interior will be radiative instead of convective. For a hot outer boundary, there is a minimum value for the entropy of the internal adiabat S {sub min} below which the accreting envelope does not match smoothly onto the interior, but instead deposits high entropy material onto the growing interior. One implication of this would be to at least temporarily halt the mixing of heavy elements within the planet, which are deposited by planetesimals accreted during formation. The compositional gradient this would impose could subsequently disrupt convection during post-accretion cooling, which would alter the observed cooling curve of the planet. However, even with a homogeneous composition, for which convection develops as the planet cools, the difference in cooling timescale will change the inferred mass of directly imaged gas giants.

  7. Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior. 355. Figure 2. Zonal and meridional components of the time-dependent residual velocity at a few selected depths as marked above each panel, are plotted as contours of constant velocity in the longitude-latitude plane. The left panels show the zonal component, ...

  8. Primal-Dual Interior Point Multigrid Method for Topology Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočvara, Michal; Mohammed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2016), B685-B709 ISSN 1064-8275 Grant - others:European Commission - EC(XE) 313781 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : topology optimization * multigrid method s * interior point method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/kocvara-0462418.pdf

  9. A smartphone photogrammetry method for digitizing prosthetic socket interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Amaia; Lemaire, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Prosthetic CAD/CAM systems require accurate 3D limb models; however, difficulties arise when working from the person's socket since current 3D scanners have difficulties scanning socket interiors. While dedicated scanners exist, they are expensive and the cost may be prohibitive for a limited number of scans per year. A low-cost and accessible photogrammetry method for socket interior digitization is proposed, using a smartphone camera and cloud-based photogrammetry services. 15 two-dimensional images of the socket's interior are captured using a smartphone camera. A 3D model is generated using cloud-based software. Linear measurements were comparing between sockets and the related 3D models. 3D reconstruction accuracy averaged 2.6 ± 2.0 mm and 0.086 ± 0.078 L, which was less accurate than models obtained by high quality 3D scanners. However, this method would provide a viable 3D digital socket reproduction that is accessible and low-cost, after processing in prosthetic CAD software. Clinical relevance The described method provides a low-cost and accessible means to digitize a socket interior for use in prosthetic CAD/CAM systems, employing a smartphone camera and cloud-based photogrammetry software.

  10. Remarks on interior transmission eigenvalues, Weyl formula and branching billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshtanov, E; Vainberg, B

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the Weyl formula for the counting function of the interior transmission problem when the latter is parameter elliptic. Branching billiard trajectories are constructed, and the second term of the Weyl asymptotics is estimated from above under some conditions on the set of periodic billiard trajectories. (paper)

  11. Interior Point Methods for Large-Scale Nonlinear Programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4-5 (2005), s. 569-582 ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : nonlinear programming * interior point methods * KKT systems * indefinite preconditioners * filter methods * algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2005

  12. 49 CFR 38.155 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.155 Section 38.155 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH... passenger from the door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able to lean against the assist...

  13. 49 CFR 38.29 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.29 Section 38.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES... boarding passenger from the front door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able to lean...

  14. 49 CFR 38.77 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.77 Section 38.77 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES... passenger from the door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be able to lean against the assist...

  15. Woody debris dynamics in Interior West forests and woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw; James Long; Raffaella Marzano; Matteo Garbarino

    2012-01-01

    Managers are interested in the dynamics of down woody material because of its role as a fuel component, a feature of wildlife habitat, a carbon pool, and other characteristics. We analyzed nearly 9,000 plots from the Interior West, spanning the range from sparse juniper and mesquite woodland to dense spruce-fir forests, in order to characterize down woody material as...

  16. Forward scatter radar for remote intelligence of building interiors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Wit, J.J.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Through-wall radar allows for remote intelligence of building interiors including stand-off detection and tracking of persons inside a building. However, reliable radar tracking of people inside a building is not trivial. Conventional, monostatic through-wall radar measures the backscatter of moving

  17. Perancangan Interior Nestlé's Cereal World Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Wibowo, Linda Gunawan

    2014-01-01

    Nestlé's Cereal World is a new facility in foodservice industry, which people can explore and obtain a new experience about cereal through 4 main facilities: attraction, discover, dining, and shopping. Nestlé's Cereal World design will use Nestlé's interior branding, which the tangible and intangible design will represent the Nestlé's Cereal identity.

  18. Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…

  19. Radon measurements in the interior of the great pyramid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, M.A.; Morsy, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements were made in the interior of the great pyramid of ''Cheops'' at Giza. Measurements were carried out using CR-39 as a solid state nuclear track detector. The CR-39 sheets were placed inside the Queen's and King's chambers and along the ascending corridor leading to them. An evaluation of the radon concentration is presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Exact solution for the interior of a black hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Within the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation it is shown that the equation of state p = rho holds near the center of a black hole. For the stiff equation of state p = rho - rho(c) the interior metric is solved exactly. It is matched with the Schwarzschild metric, which is deformed in a narrow range

  1. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  2. The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Isabella; Blefari, Maria Laura; Tadi, Tej; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification) and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location). However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented architectonic space. PMID

  3. The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Isabella; Blefari, Maria Laura; Tadi, Tej; Serino, Andrea; Blanke, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification) and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location). However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented architectonic space.

  4. The Architectonic Experience of Body and Space in Augmented Interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Pasqualini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self. In the full-body illusion paradigm, participants feel as if the avatar was their body (ownership, self-identification and they shift their center of awareness toward the position of the avatar (self-location. However, the influence of non-bodily spatial cues around the body on embodiment remains unclear, and data about the impact of architectonic space on human perception and self-conscious states are sparse. We placed participants into a Virtual Reality arena, where large and narrow virtual interiors were displayed with and without an avatar. We then applied synchronous or asynchronous visuotactile strokes to the back of the participants and avatar, or, to the front wall of the void interiors. During conditions of illusory self-identification with the avatar, participants reported sensations of containment, drift, and touch with the architectonic environment. The absence of the avatar suppressed such feelings, yet, in the large space, we found an effect of continuity between the physical and the virtual interior depending on the full-body illusion. We discuss subjective feelings evoked by architecture and compare the full-body illusion in augmented interiors to architectonic embodiment. A relevant outcome of this study is the potential to dissociate the egocentric, first-person view from the physical point of view through augmented

  5. Pengaruh Elemen Interior Restoran terhadap Pengalaman Nostalgia Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranti Sari Rahma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Selama beberapa tahun terakhir, restoran bertema "nostalgia" menjadi populer di Bandung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi unsur-unsur lingkungan yang disukai konsumen di restoran yang dapat mempengaruhi respon pengalaman nostalgia konsumen di restoran. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif eksploratif untuk menentukan variabel yang dapat digunakan sebagai stimulus eksperimen berikutnya guna mendapatkan respon persepsi, emosi, dan sikap. Data hasil eksperimen dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA, menunjukkan bahwa (1 elemen interior restoran yang paling mempengaruhi pengalaman nostalgia konsumen di restoran; (2 meskipun gaya modern dapat membangkitkan respon persepsi, emosi dan sikap nostalgia, elemen dekoratif dan furnitur kolonial paling efektif dapat membangkitkan pengalaman nostalga; (3 ditemukan juga hubungan antara persepsi, emosi, dan sikap kaitannya dengan proses persepsi, emosi dapat mempengaruhi sikap konsumen di restoran, hal ini sejalan dengan mekanisme persepsi dimana kontribusi pengalaman masa lalu dapat membangkitkan emosi sehingga mempengaruhi persepsi dan munculnya sikap konsumen di restoran. Effect of Restaurant Interior Elements on Consumer Nostalgic Experience Abstract. In the last few years, ‘nostalgic’ restaurants have become quite popular in Bandung. This study was aimed at exploring interior elements that may evoke a nostalgic experience in consumers in a restaurant. In this study, an exploratory descriptive method was applied to determine the variables to be used as stimulus in the experiment to get perception, emotion, and attitude responses. The data of this research were analyzed by ANOVA and showed that: (1 interior elements of the restaurant influenced the nostalgic experience by consumers; (2 colonial decorative elements and colonial style furniture, even if other interior elements have a modern style, can evoke nostalgic perceptions, emotions, and attitudes; (3 a link was found between perceptions

  6. Fluvial-deltaic sedimentation and stratigraphy of the ferron sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P.B.; Chidsey, T.C.; Ryer, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    East-central Utah has world-class outcrops of dominantly fluvial-deltaic Turonian to Coniacian aged strata deposited in the Cretaceous foreland basin. The Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale records the influences of both tidal and wave energy on fluvial-dominated deltas on the western margin of the Cretaceous western interior seaway. Revisions of the stratigraphy are proposed for the Ferron Sandstone. Facies representing a variety of environments of deposition are well exposed, including delta-front, strandline, marginal marine, and coastal-plain. Some of these facies are described in detail for use in petroleum reservoir characterization and include permeability structure.

  7. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  8. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  9. Semantic feature extraction for interior environment understanding and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhibin; Liang, Yufeng

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel system of semantic feature extraction and retrieval for interior design and decoration application. The system, V2ID(Virtual Visual Interior Design), uses colored texture and spatial edge layout to obtain simple information about global room environment. We address the domain-specific segmentation problem in our application and present techniques for obtaining semantic features from a room environment. We also discuss heuristics for making use of these features (color, texture, edge layout, and shape), to retrieve objects from an existing database. The final resynthesized room environment, with the original scene and objects from the database, is created for the purpose of animation and virtual walk-through.

  10. Modal response of interior mass based upon external measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, C T; Eli, M; Jorgensen, B R; Woehrle, T.

    1999-01-01

    Modal response testing has been used to predict the motion of interior masses of a system in which only external instrumentation is allowed. Testing of this form may occasionally be necessary in validation of a computer model, but also has potential as a tool for validating individual assemblies in a QA process. Examination of the external frequency response and mode shapes can offer insight into interior response. The interpretation of these results is improved through parallel analytical solutions. A simple, three-mass model has been examined experimentally and analytically to demonstrate modal theory. These results show the limitations of the external measurement in predicting internal response due to transmissibility. A procedure for utilizing external testing is described. The question posed through this research is whether or not modal correlation analysis can be adapted for use in systems for which instrumentation of critical components is missing

  11. Plasma Decontamination of Uranium From the Interior of Aluminum Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilleux, J.M.; Munson, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Chamberlin, E.P.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    RF plasma glow discharges are being investigated for removing and recovering radioactive elements from contaminated objects, especially those contaminated with transuranic (TRU) materials. These plasmas, using nitrogen trifluoride as the working gas, have been successful at removing uranium and plutonium contaminants from test coupons of stainless steel and aluminum surfaces, including small cracks and crevices, and the interior surfaces of relatively hard to reach aluminum pipes. Contaminant removal exceeded 99.9% from simple surfaces and contaminant recovery using cryogenic traps has exceeded 50%. Work continues with the objective of demonstrating that transuranic contaminated waste can be transformed to low level waste (LLW) and to better understand the physics of the interaction between plasma and surface contaminants. This work summarizes the preliminary results from plasma decontamination from the interior of aluminum objects--the nooks and crannies experiments

  12. Numerical simulation of effect of laser nonuniformity in interior interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaojin; Wu Junfeng; Ye Wenhua

    2007-01-01

    Using the LARED-S code and referring to the NIF direct-drive DT ignition target, the effect of laser nonuniformity on the interior interface in direct-drive spherical implosion with high convergence ratio was numerically studied. The two-dimensional results show that the implosion with high convergence ratio is sensitive to the nonuniformity of driving laser, and the growth of hydrodynamic instability on interior interface destroys the symmetric-drive and reduces the volume of central hot spot observably. Taking the limit that perturbation amplitude is equal to 1/3 radius of central hot spot, the simulation also gives that the requirements for the laser uniformity for different mode number(less than 12) on simple physical model are between 2.5% -0.25%, and the modes between 8-10 have the most rigorous requirement which is about 0.25%. (authors)

  13. Numerical simulation of interior flow field of nuclear model pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunlin; Peng Na; Kang Can; Zhao Baitong; Zhang Hao

    2009-01-01

    Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and the standard k-ε turbulent model were adopted, and three-dimensional non-structural of tetrahedral mesh division was used for modeling. Multiple reference frame model of rotating fluid mechanical model was used, under the design condition, the three-dimensional incompressible turbulent flow of nuclear model pump was simulated, and the results preferably post the characteristics of the interior flow field. This paper first analyzes the total pressure and velocity distribution in the flow field, and then describes the interior flow field characteristics of each part such as the impeller, diffuser and spherical shell, and also discusses the reasons that cause these characteristics. The study results can be used to estimate the performance of nuclear model pump, and will provide some useful references for its hydraulic optimized design. (authors)

  14. Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment

  15. Early warning signal for interior crises in excitable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatak, Rajat; Kantz, Holger; Bialonski, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The ability to reliably predict critical transitions in dynamical systems is a long-standing goal of diverse scientific communities. Previous work focused on early warning signals related to local bifurcations (critical slowing down) and nonbifurcation-type transitions. We extend this toolbox and report on a characteristic scaling behavior (critical attractor growth) which is indicative of an impending global bifurcation, an interior crisis in excitable systems. We demonstrate our early warning signal in a conceptual climate model as well as in a model of coupled neurons known to exhibit extreme events. We observed critical attractor growth prior to interior crises of chaotic as well as strange-nonchaotic attractors. These observations promise to extend the classes of transitions that can be predicted via early warning signals.

  16. Strange distance: towards an anthropology of interior dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    The capacity for a complex inner life--encompassing inner speech, imaginative reverie, and unarticulated moods--is an essential feature of living with illness and a principal means through which people interpret, understand, and manage their condition. Nevertheless, anthropology lacks a generally accepted theory or methodological framework for understanding how interiority relates to people's public actions and expressions. Moreover, as conventional social-scientific methods are often too static to understand the fluidity of perception among people living with illness or bodily instability, I argue we need to develop new, practical approaches to knowing. By placing the problem of interiority directly into the field and turning it into an ethnographic, practice-based question to be addressed through fieldwork in collaboration with informants, this article works alongside women living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda with the aim of capturing the unvoiced but sometimes radical changes in being, belief, and perception that accompany terminal illness.

  17. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, P; Bazley, C; Kamp, I; Blok, M

    2012-03-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet trip reports and 153 passenger interviews were used to gather opinions about aspects which need to be improved in order to design a more comfortable aircraft interior. The results show clear relationships between comfort and legroom, hygiene, crew attention and seat/personal space. Passengers rate the newer planes significantly better than older ones, indicating that attention to design for comfort has proven effective. The study also shows that rude flight attendants and bad hygiene reduce the comfort experience drastically and that a high comfort rating is related to higher "fly again" values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, G. P.; Chin, C. L.; Simpson, M. A.; Lee, J. T.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the results of Task 14, "Structural Acoustic Prediction and Interior Noise Control Technology". The task was to evaluate the performance of tuned foam elements (termed Smart Foam) both analytically and experimentally. Results taken from a three-dimensional finite element model of an active, tuned foam element are presented. Measurements of sound absorption and sound transmission loss were taken using the model. These results agree well with published data. Experimental performance data were taken in Boeing's Interior Noise Test Facility where 12 smart foam elements were applied to a 757 sidewall. Several configurations were tested. Noise reductions of 5-10 dB were achieved over the 200-800 Hz bandwidth of the controller. Accelerometers mounted on the panel provided a good reference for the controller. Configurations with far-field error microphones outperformed near-field cases.

  19. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  20. The interactive optical fiber fabrics for smart interior environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Z. Q.; Dong, A. H.; Du, Z. Y.; Tan, J.

    2017-10-01

    Comparing to conventional textiles, interactive photonic textiles can emit light, present different colors, change the surface pattern and can interact with users. They are particularly suitable for decorative purpose. Home furniture is one possible application [1]. With attractive illumination and color effect, the photonic textiles can also be used in hotels, exhibition halls, restaurants and many other circumstances to enhance the interior environment. However, the functionality of the interactive photonic textile for interior purpose is still underdeveloped, since there are still sever challenges about how to improve the usability and functionality of the interactive textile. This project aims to study how to improve the interactive function of photonic textiles, which can enhance the well-being of the end-user. In the end, a color-changeable interactive cushion which can detect the main primary particulate matter (PM) 2.5 was developed.

  1. Aircraft Interior Noise Control Using Distributed Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian Q.

    1996-01-01

    Developing a control system that can reduce the noise and structural vibration at the same time is an important task. This talk presents one possible technical approach for accomplishing this task. The target application of the research is for aircraft interior noise control. The emphasis of the present approach is not on control strategies, but rather on the design of actuators for the control system. In the talk, a theory of distributed piezoelectric actuators is introduced. A uniform cylindrical shell is taken as a simplified model of fuselage structures to illustrate the effectiveness of the design theory. The actuators developed are such that they can reduce the tonal structural vibration and interior noise in a wide range of frequencies. Extensive computer simulations have been done to study various aspects of the design theory. Experiments have also been conducted and the test results strongly support the theoretical development.

  2. Evaluation of piezoceramic actuators for control of aircraft interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silcox, Richard J.; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Metcalf, Vern L.; Beyer, Todd B.; Fuller, Chris R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an experiment to evaluate piezoceramic actuators as the control actuator for active control of interior noise in a large-scale fuselage model are presented. Control was demonstrated for tonal excitation using a time domain least mean squares algorithm. A maximum of four actuator channels and six error signals were used. The actuators were employed for control of noise at frequencies where interior cavity modes were the dominant response and for driven acoustic responses where a structure resonance was dominant. Global reductions of 9 to 12 dB were obtained for the cases examined. The most effective configuration of skin-mounted actuators was found to be a pure in-plane forcing function as opposed to a bending excitation. The frame-mounted actuators were found to be equally effective as the skin-mounted actuators. However, both configurations resulted in local regions of unacceptably high vibration response in the structure.

  3. Evaluation of physical-protection elements for interior applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Considerable emphasis has been given in recent years to the threat of sabotage by an insider at nuclear facilities. This threat is inherently different from the outsider threat of theft or sabotage because of the insiders' unique knowledge and access to vital material and equipment. Thus, special safeguards elements are needed in order to counter the insider threat. In addition, insider physical protection system elements must be compatible with the operations, safety, and maintenance programs at the facility. To help identify elements which meet these needs, field evaluations were performed on an interior access control system, piping sensors, interior video motion detectors, and valve monitoring devices. These elements were tested in a realistic operating environment and both technical and operational evaluation data were obtained. Safeguards element descriptions and the results of the operational tests and evaluations are outlined

  4. Interior thermal insulation systems for historical building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Miloš; Solař, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The design specifics of interior thermal insulation systems applied for historical building envelopes are described. The vapor-tight systems and systems based on capillary thermal insulation materials are taken into account as two basic options differing in building-physical considerations. The possibilities of hygrothermal analysis of renovated historical envelopes including laboratory methods, computer simulation techniques, and in-situ tests are discussed. It is concluded that the application of computational models for hygrothermal assessment of interior thermal insulation systems should always be performed with a particular care. On one hand, they present a very effective tool for both service life assessment and possible planning of subsequent reconstructions. On the other, the hygrothermal analysis of any historical building can involve quite a few potential uncertainties which may affect negatively the accuracy of obtained results.

  5. Approach to interior design for passive direct gain solar homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachadorian, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    In response to requests from buyers and builders of direct gain passive solar homes interior design criteria either specific to, or emphasized by, passive solar buildings are investigated. Problems of high sunlight penetration, secondary illumination, material selection, sound control and psychology are approached. Material deterioration, fading, glare, noise, and a sense of spacial confinement can be minimized, contributing to the appeal and saleability of passive solar homes.

  6. Estimation of parameters of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, C.C.; Chang, S.M.; Pan, C.T.; Chang, T.Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a magnetic circuit model to the estimation of machine parameters of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine. It extends the earlier work of Hwang and Cho that focused mainly on the magnetic aspects of motor design. The proposed model used to calculate EMF, d- and q-axis reactances. These calculations are compared to those from finite element analysis and measurement with good agreement

  7. Interior design criteria for successful hospital patient rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Bilir, Seda

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references leaves 94-99 In this study, the design requirements of hospital acute-care patient rooms, which support the recovery and well-being of the patients, are examined. Patients' psycho-spatial needs which may be complementary to the healing effects of the medical treatme...

  8. Remote viewing of melter interior Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1986-01-01

    A remote system has been developed and demonstrated for continuous reviewing of the interior of a glass melter, which is used to vitrify highly radioactive waste. The system is currently being implemented with the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) now under construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The environment in which the borescope/TV unit is implemented combines high temperature, high ionizing radiation, low light, spattering, deposition, and remote maintenance

  9. Primal Interior Point Method for Minimization of Generalized Minimax Functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2010), s. 697-721 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : unconstrained optimization * large-scale optimization * nonsmooth optimization * generalized minimax optimization * interior-point methods * modified Newton methods * variable metric methods * global convergence * computational experiments Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/140779

  10. A post-Galileo view of Io's interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.L.; Turtle, E.P.; Milazzo, M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a self-consistent model for the interior of Io, taking the recent Galileo data into account. In this model, Io has a completely molten core, substantially molten mantle, and a very cold lithosphere. Heat from magmatic activity can mobilize volatile compounds such as SO2 in the lithosphere, and the movement of such cryogenic fluids may be important in the formation of surface features including sapping scarps and paterae. ?? Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Integration of Models of Building Interiors with Cadastral Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gotlib Dariusz; Karabin Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Demands for applications which use models of building interiors is growing and highly diversified. Those models are applied at the stage of designing and construction of a building, in applications which support real estate management, in navigation and marketing systems and, finally, in crisis management and security systems. They are created on the basis of different data: architectural and construction plans, both, in the analogue form, as well as CAD files, BIM data files, by means of las...

  12. Re-Design Interior Boutique Hotel Di Malang

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Wibowo, Inez Natalia Suteja

    2016-01-01

    Malang is one of the places nostalgia tourists by Dutchman. Design boutique hotel take building's dutch colonial. Boutique hotel having the characteristics of unique, historic, and fancy. Uniqueness boutique hotel ditonjolkan in the atmosphere hotel that looks homey with support 3star class hotel facilities. The concept of the basis of design with apply a style of design colonial into the interior of boutique hotel good with the material the wall, the floor, ceiling, column and the elements d...

  13. The Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER): design and development

    OpenAIRE

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Adkins, Phillip W.; Albert, Cheryl L.; Anders, John F.; Aylward, Andrew T.; Baker, Charles L.; Balsamo, Erin R.; Bamford, William A.; Benegalrao, Suyog S.; Berry, Daniel L.; Bhalwani, Shiraz; Black, J. Kevin; Blaurock, Carl; Bronke, Ginger M.

    2016-01-01

    During 2014 and 2015, NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission proceeded successfully through Phase C, Design and Development. An X-ray (0.2-12 keV) astrophysics payload destined for the International Space Station, NICER is manifested for launch in early 2017 on the Commercial Resupply Services SpaceX-11 flight. Its scientific objectives are to investigate the internal structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars, the densest objects in the universe. During P...

  14. Redesain Interior Hotel Bisnis Dengan Konsep Minimalis Montana

    OpenAIRE

    Nurfadilah, Citra; Rachmaniyah, Nanik

    2016-01-01

    Pada era global ini bisnis perhotelan berkembang seiring dengan kemajuan sektor pariwisata dan bisnis. Kondisi ini tidak lepas dari mobilisasi yang dilakukan oleh manusia di seluruh dunia dari waktu ke waktu. Perkembangan bisnis yang pesat di kota besar seperti Surabaya membuat orang- orang berdatangan ke kota ini untuk berbisnis. Akibatnya, industri hotel berbasis bisnis bersaing ketat. Tema perancangan desain interior hotel bisnis ini ditentukan setelah melewati beberapa tahapan, seperti st...

  15. Analysis of Subway Interior Noise at Peak Commuter Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donguk; Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae

    2017-07-01

    Although mass transit systems are convenient and efficient for urban people, little attention has been paid to the potential hearing hazard from their noise. The purpose of the current study was to measure and analyze levels of subway interior noise at peak commuter times and to provide information about commuters' daily dose of noise exposure. To measure the subway interior noise, nine subway lines inside Seoul (i.e., lines 1-9) and six lines surrounding the capital city area (i.e., Central, Bundang, Sinbundang, Incheon, Gyeongui, and Gyeongchun) were chosen. The noise was measured and recorded by a sound level meter for two-hour periods in the morning and evening. 1) In the LZeq analysis, the average noise level of all 15 lines was 72.78 dB; the maximum and minimum noise levels were 78.34 and 62.46 dB, respectively. The average noise level of the nine lines inside Seoul was 73.45 dB, which was 1.68-dB louder than that of the six lines surrounding the capital city area. 2) Based on the LZeq analysis of 33 measured frequencies, 12.5 Hz was the highest frequency and 20,000 Hz was the lowest. 3) There was no remarkable difference in the level of subway interior noise between morning and evening peak commuter times. We concluded that the level of subway interior noise was not loud enough for commuters to incur noise-induced hearing loss. Regardless, environmental noise control efforts in the subway system might be needed for commuters who take a subway every day.

  16. SYSTEMS OF INTERIOR STYLING AND TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS

    OpenAIRE

    samatdinov Marat Orynbaevich; Chkunin Anatoliy Sergeevich; Ivanov Kazbek Kazbekovich; Rumyantsev Georgiy Borisovich

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the quality of construction works and heat insulation efficiency of building envelope as well as providing additional fire proof and acoustic comfort suppose the use of special construction systems provided with the whole complex of components — composite construction systems. Composite interior systems include structural solutions of dividing walls, floors, suspended ceilings, inner facing of walls and fireproof facing, as well as assembling technology of these constructions. The ...

  17. Estimation of parameters of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, C C; Pan, C T; Chang, T Y

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a magnetic circuit model to the estimation of machine parameters of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine. It extends the earlier work of Hwang and Cho that focused mainly on the magnetic aspects of motor design. The proposed model used to calculate EMF, d- and q-axis reactances. These calculations are compared to those from finite element analysis and measurement with good agreement.

  18. Perancangan Interior Sekolah Musik Surabaya Symphony Orchestra Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Mulyono, Liliyana Tan IGN. Ardana

    2016-01-01

    Classical music has a lot of benefits that can make more optimal brain development. Surabaya Symphony Orchestra Music School is a place to facilitate society in Surabaya to learn classical music.Many activities that can support learning classical music has not been facilitated due to the limited area, and lack of interior on SSO create interest and learning music became blocked. In accordance with Dolce concept which means “to play sweetly”, the music school design is using bright colors with...

  19. Traversing the interior landscape: five dialogues in existential space

    OpenAIRE

    Roes, Remco

    2016-01-01

    “Traversing the interior landscape: five dialogues in existential space” examines how existing spaces can be used as a basis for their rearrangement into meaningful, exitential (‘wezenlijke’) places. The research consists of a textual part and an artistic part (a series of works and exhibitions, including a retrospective on show in CIAP (Hasselt) from december 2015 – march 2016). One of the innovative aspects of this research is the unique methodology that was used. Through the point of vi...

  20. Exact interior solutions in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook; Bhar, Piyali [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Ritabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Sceince and Technology Shibpur, Howrah, West Bengal (India); Usmani, A.A. [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-04-15

    We provide a new class of exact solutions for the interior in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime. The solutions obtained for the perfect fluid model both with and without cosmological constant (Λ) are found to be regular and singularity free. It assumes very simple analytical forms that help us to study the various physical properties of the configuration. Solutions without Λ are found to be physically acceptable. (orig.)

  1. Penerapan Tipografi dalam Sistem Signage pada Interior Ruang Publik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulli Aulia Ruki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Signage system is applied in interior public spaces with consideration to the basic of typography. The objective of signage system is to provide the user convenience in public spaces in order to reach destination while the user is in the building. The basic requirements for designing signage system are legibility and readability. There are still designers who are not aware about the importance of designing a signage system so that sometimes it is found only as decorative element. It is necessary to make the best use of the purpose of signage design, so an interior design should be more carefully in conducting research related to the application of signage system in public spaces. The applied typography has to be considered by its size, placement, colors, and materials to be used. This research used design thinking goal grid method that is suitable to examine the signage system in order to complete design objectives. Article focuses on how to design the signage system to accommodate information that was useful for the user in public space. At the end, there would be identified signage system’s function in interior public spaces as information, guidance, identification as well as safety regulation. 

  2. Evaluation of internal/external exposure from interior building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Morita-Murase, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Internal exposure to alpha particles emitted from 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters is the second leading cause of lung cancer. As a source of indoor radon in home, there are interior building materials that contain radioactive minerals. These radioactive consumer products have been claimed by distributors to have effect of 'minus-ion' or 'radon spring' for healthy promotion. We analyzed radioactive nuclides contained in the interior building materials, and measured radon levels released from them. The results of gamma-ray spectrometry revealed that these interior building materials contain U- and Th-series nuclides. The densities of some radioactive nuclides in the tile used for a bathroom exceeded the exempt limits of International Basic Safety Standards. However, the radon densities released from the tile was lower than detectable limit. In contrast, one of the wallpaper released 34 Bq·m -3 of radon gas in a 50-liter container. This value is two times higher than the average radon level in Japanese homes. The minus-ion effect' wallpapers are thought to be a cause of residential exposure to radon. (author)

  3. CALCULATION OF INDUCTANCE OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM refers to salient-pole synchronous motors, characterized by inequality of inductances of longitudinal (d and transverse (q axes. Electromagnetic torque of IPMSM consists of two components: active torque and reactive torque; the latter depends on inductances of d and q axes. An analytical method to calculate own inductances and mutual inductances of a three-phase IPMSM is presented. Distributed windings of the stator are substituted by equivalent sine distributed windings. An interior permanent magnets rotor is substituted by an equivalent salient-pole rotor. Sections of a magnetic circuit comprising interior permanent magnets, air barriers and steel bridges are substituted by equivalent air-gap. The expressions of the magnetic induction created by current of the stator windings at each point of the air gap as well as of magnetic flux linkage of the stator windings have been obtained. The equations of the self-inductances of phases A, B, C, and of inductance of mutual induction are determined from magnetic flux linkage. The inductance of the d and q axes have been obtained as a result of transformation of the axes abc–dq. The results obtained with the use of the proposed analytical method and the finite element method are presented in the form of a graph; the calculations that have been obtained by these two methods were compared. 

  4. Perkembangan Material Rotan dan Penggunaan di Dunia Desain Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hartanti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For most Indonesia people, rattan had long been known, for personal use and trade.  It started from raw materials and semi-finished trades, and later it was developed  into the finished rattan product trade conducted by the wholesalers in Indonesia. In addition to the processing of rattan in Indonesia, the rattan finished-product trade has also been done widely.The trade agreement that has been made with foreign parties spur the contribution in increasing the state revenue which deserves to be taken into account. In this case, rattan application has grown in the world of Interior Design, for example as furniture and as interior accessories. The use of substitute materials, such as synthetic rattan, is now also widely used to fulfill high demand and product diversity.With the growing numbers of variants of rattan application in interior design field, a research based on qualitative research was applied. Article explores the process of research and rattan is expected to be the mediator in bringing local Indonesian culture to the global world competition. Thus, the state gait could be known more widely, and hopefully could help improving the welfare of Indonesian people into a better place.  

  5. Transient simulation in interior flow field of lobe pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y B; Sang, X H; Shen, H; Jia, K; Meng, Q W

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this paper is mainly focused on the development and control of the double folium and trifolium lobe pump profiles by using the principle of involute engagement and use CAD to get an accurate involute profile. We use the standard k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm based on CFD software FLUENT. The dynamic mesh and UDF technology is introduced to simulate the interior flow field inside a lobe pump, and the variation of interior flow field under the condition of the lobe rotating is analyzed. We also analyse the influence produced by the difference in lobes, and then reveal which lobe is best. The results show that dynamic variation of the interior flow field is easily obtained by dynamic mesh technology and the distribution of its pressure and velocity. Because of the small gaps existing between the rotors and pump case, the higher pressure area will flow into the lower area though the small gaps which cause the working area keep with higher pressure all the time. Both of the double folium and trifolium are existing the vortex during the rotting time and its position, size and shape changes all the time. The vortexes even disappear in a circle period and there are more vortexes in double folium lobe pump. The velocity and pressure pulsation of trifolium pump are lower than that of the double folium

  6. Modelling of the inhomogeneous interior of polymer gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shew, C-Y; Iwaki, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    A simple model has been investigated to elucidate the mean squared displacement (MSD) of probe molecules in cross-linked polymer gels. In the model, we assume that numerous cavities distribute in the inhomogeneous interior of a gel, and probe molecules are confined within these cavities. The individual probe molecules trapped in a gel are treated as Brownian particles confined to a spherical harmonic potential. The harmonic potential is chosen to model the effective potential experienced by the probe particle in the cavity of a gel. Each field strength is corresponding to the characteristic of one type of effective cavity. Since the statistical distribution of different effective cavity sizes is unknown, several distribution functions are examined. Meanwhile, the calculated averaged MSDs are compared to the experimental data by Nisato et al (2000 Phys. Rev. E 61 2879). We find that the theoretical results of the MSD are sensitive to the shape of the distribution function. For low cross-linked gels, the best fit is obtained when the interior cavities of a gel follow a bimodal distribution. Such a result may be attributed to the presence of at least two distinct classes of cavity in gels. For high cross-linked gels, the cavities in the gel can be depicted by a single-modal uniform distribution function, suggesting that the range of cavity sizes becomes smaller. These results manifest the voids inside a gel, and the shape of distribution functions may provide the insight into the inhomogeneous interior of a gel

  7. Optimization of actuator arrays for aircraft interior noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, R. H.; Lester, H. C.; Mathur, G. P.; Tran, B. N.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical procedure for grouping actuators in order to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in an active noise control system is evaluated using experimental data. Piezoceramic actuators for reducing aircraft interior noise are arranged into groups using a nonlinear optimization routine and clustering algorithm. An actuator group is created when two or more actuators are driven with the same control input. This procedure is suitable for active control applications where actuators are already mounted on a structure. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated using measured data from the aft cabin of a Douglas DC-9 fuselage. The measured data include transfer functions between 34 piezoceramic actuators and 29 interior microphones and microphone responses due to the primary noise produced by external speakers. Control inputs for the grouped actuators were calculated so that a cost function, defined as a quadratic pressure term and a penalty term, was a minimum. The measured transfer functions and microphone responses are checked by comparing calculated noise reductions with measured noise reductions for four frequencies. The grouping procedure is then used to determine actuator groups that improve overall interior noise reductions by 5.3 to 15 dB, compared to the baseline experimental configuration.

  8. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  9. Lake Habitat and Fish Surveys on Interior Alaska National Wildlife Refuges, 1984–1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — A large-scale lake study on Interior Alaska National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) was undertaken from 1984–1986. Six NWRs were surveyed (Innoko, Kanuti, Koyukuk, Nowitna,...

  10. Deep Interior: The first comprehensive geophysical investigation of an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Ostro, S.; Safaeinili, A.; Scheeres, D.; Sunshine, J.; Yeomans, D.

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) come closer to Earth than any other celestial body, and their compositions are represented on Earth by thousands of well-studied meteorites. Yet we understand neither their origin, evolution, nor their geophysical behavior. These secrets are locked up in their unexplored interiors. Goal 1 of the NASA Strategic Plan emphasizes the requirement to catalogue and understand NEOs down to 1 km diameter. Goal 4 urges us to understand natural processes at work in the low gravity environment. Goal 5 expresses the need to explore the solar system and to learn how planets originated and evolved. In response to the NASA Strategic Plan we are proposing a NASA Discovery mission whose primary science objective is to greatly advance the realization of these Goals by conducting the first investigation of the global geophysics of an asteroid. Radio reflection data from 5 km orbit about a 1 km NEO will provide a tomographic 3D image of electromagnetic properties. Mechanical properties will be examined in the simplest possible way, using explosions to initiate seismic cratering events and to expose diverse interior units for spectroscopic analysis. Deep Interior is the lowest-risk, lowest cost path towards attaining the required characterization of NEOs. It breaks new ground for future missions to asteroids and comets and facilitates the design of reliable NEO technologies. Our science goals are as follows, and the techniques (radio science, imaging, IR spectroscopy, active surface science) will be described at this meeting: Asteroid Interiors. Radio, gravity, and seismology experiments give a complete first picture of an asteroid's deep interior, resolving inclusions, voids and unit boundaries at ˜ 30 m scales, and determining global and regional mechanical properties. Surface Geophysics. Blast experiments explore the structure and mechanics of the upper meters, demonstrate microgravity cratering, trigger natural geomorphic events, and expose subsurface

  11. A New Wave of Permafrost Warming in the Alaskan Interior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Cable, W.; Kholodov, A. L.; Panda, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Ground temperatures are a primary indicator of permafrost stability. Many of the research sites in our permafrost network are located along the North American Arctic Permafrost-Ecological Transect that spans all permafrost zones in Alaska. Most of the sites in Alaska show substantial warming of permafrost since the 1980s. The magnitude of warming has varied with location, but was typically from 0.5 to 3°C. However, this warming was not linear in time and not spatially uniform. In some regions this warming even may be reversed and a slight recent cooling of permafrost has been observed recently at some locations. The Interior of Alaska is one of such regions where a slight permafrost cooling was observed starting in the late 1990s that has continued through the 2000s and in the beginning of the 2010s. The cooling has followed the substantial increase in permafrost temperatures documented for the Interior during the 1980s and 1990s. Permafrost temperatures at 15 m depth increased here by 0.3 to 0.6°C between 1983 and 1996. In most locations they reached their maximum in the second half of the 1990s. Since then, the permafrost temperatures started to decrease slowly and by 2013 this decrease at some locations was as much as 0.3°C at 15 m depth. There are some indications that the warming trend in the Alaskan Interior permafrost resumed during the last four years. By 2016, new record highs for the entire period of measurements of permafrost temperatures at 15 m depth were recorded at several locations. The latest observed permafrost warming in the Interior was combined with higher than normal summer precipitations. This combination has triggered near-surface permafrost degradation in many locations with adverse consequences for the ground surface stability affecting ecosystems and infrastructure. In

  12. Insert Tidal Here: Finding Stability of Galilean Satellite Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M.; Bills, B. G.; Mitchell, J.; Rhoden, A.

    2017-12-01

    The tidal environment is often hypothesized as a cause of surface expression in the satellites of the outer solar system. In two notable cases, Io's volcanism is thought to be driven by tidal heating of its mantle while the shattered surface of Europa's ice shell is said to be generated by tidal stresses in that ice. Being adjacent moons of Jupiter, these satellites give us a unique opportunity to apply a single set of general coupled models at each body to predict how one model can predict the heat generation and flow, strain and stress states, and structural parameters for each body. We include the effects of interior evolution into the tidal environment in addition to an evolving orbit. We find that the interiors of Io and Europa will evolve, as a consequence of the heat transfer from interior to surface, and stable structural and heat flow conditions are found. Then as their orbits evolve, perturbed by the mutual interactions of the Laplace mean motion resonance, those conditions of structural and heat stability also change. In particular, we find that at current orbital conditions there is sufficient heat to completely melt Io models for which a convecting interior is capped by a conducting lid. This argues for the presence of a non dissipating (or barely dissipating) core below the mantle, which future Io structure models should include. For the Europa model at current orbit, we use a silicate interior under an ocean capped by a two layer ice; convecting below with a conducting surface. We find stability in heat and structure occurs when the lower ice melts and recedes until the shell is roughly 50km thick. We present a variety of plausible structures for these bodies, and track how the stability of those structures trend as the orbit (in particular the orbital eccentricity, mean motion, and obliquity) change. We show how the Love numbers, layer thicknesses, surface heat flow, and orbital parameters are all linked. For Europa, upcoming measurements from

  13. Arc-Search Infeasible Interior-Point Algorithm for Linear Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yaguang

    2014-01-01

    Mehrotra's algorithm has been the most successful infeasible interior-point algorithm for linear programming since 1990. Most popular interior-point software packages for linear programming are based on Mehrotra's algorithm. This paper proposes an alternative algorithm, arc-search infeasible interior-point algorithm. We will demonstrate, by testing Netlib problems and comparing the test results obtained by arc-search infeasible interior-point algorithm and Mehrotra's algorithm, that the propo...

  14. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  15. 78 FR 42970 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Bering Sea-Western Interior...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... integrated into the entire planning process, from preparing the pre-plan to implementation and monitoring; 17... allocations for these lands. Considering wilderness characteristics in the land use planning process may... impacts on Indian trust assets and potential impacts to cultural resources, will be given due...

  16. Clay mineralogical constraints on weathering in response to early Eocene hyperthermal events in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (Western Interior, USA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chaowen; Adriaens, Rieko; Hong, Hanlie; Elsen, Jan; Vandenberghe, Noël; Lourens, Lucas J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103; Gingerich, Philip D.; Abels, Hemmo A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018

    2017-01-01

    Series of transient greenhouse warming intervals in the early Eocene provide an opportunity to study the response of rock weathering and erosion to changes in temperature and precipitation. During greenhouse warming, chemical weathering is thought to increase the uptake of carbon from the

  17. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  18. Content Analysis of Introductory Interior Design College Textbooks: A Study Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Julie A.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2013-01-01

    Introductory interior design texts adopted by design educators present information relevant to both historical and contemporary issues in interior design. According to one author, they provide a "survey of the field of interior design as it now exists" (Pile, 2007). A comparison of the content of contemporary texts with those of more…

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.506 - Interior planning and design services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.506 Interior planning and design services. In... various phases of interior planning and design. These services will be provided either directly or through... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interior planning and...

  20. Residential Interior Design as Complex Composition: A Case Study of a High School Senior's Composing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Zoss, Michelle; Reed, Patty M.

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzed the composing processes of one high school student as she designed the interiors of homes for a course in interior design. Data included field notes, an interview with the teacher, artifacts from the class, and the focal student's concurrent and retrospective protocols in relation to her design of home interiors. The…

  1. Manipulating the optical properties of symmetrically branched Au/Pd nanocrystals through interior design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Christopher J; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2014-05-25

    Au/Pd octopods with hollow, cubic interiors and Oh symmetry were synthesized for the first time by etching core@shell Pd@Au/Pd octopods to selectively remove their Pd interiors. Integration of multiple architectural features - in this case branching symmetry, composition, and interior design - into one nanostructure provides design strategies to new plasmonic colloids.

  2. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Steve; Miller, George; Frantz, Stephen; Beller, Denis; Morse, Ed; Krahenbuhl, Melinda; Flocchini, Bob; Elliston, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The Western Nuclear Science Alliance (WNSA) was formed at Oregon State University (OSU) under the DOE Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program in 2002. The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program. WNSA has been very effective in meeting these goals. The infrastructure at several of the WNSA university nuclear reactors has been upgraded significantly, as have classroom and laboratory facilities for Nuclear Engineering, Health Physics, and Radiochemistry students and faculty. Major nuclear-related education programs have been inaugurated, including considerable assistance by WNSA universities to other university nuclear programs. Research has also been enhanced under WNSA, as has outreach to pre-college and college students and faculty. The INIE program under WNSA has been an exceptional boost to the nuclear programs at the eight funded WNSA universities. In subsequent years under INIE these programs have expanded even further in terms of new research facilities, research reactor renovations, expanded educational opportunities, and extended cooperation and collaboration between universities, national laboratories, and nuclear utilities.

  3. Birds of Puerto Interior Turístico Jocotepec in Lake Chapala, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlo Cuevas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chapala is the largest lake in Mexico. It is an area of interest for biological conservation, designated as a Ramsar site and recognized as an Important Bird Conservation Area for Mexico (aica 58. The wetlands of Jalisco are of high importance for bird conservation; however, there are few studies about the birds of Lake Chapala. We studied bird community in the Puerto Interior Turistico Jocotepec, an urban park of Lake Chapala. We conducted our study from April 2015 to March 2016. We registered 100 bird species of 14 orders and 34 families. Sixty-nine percent of birds are residents, 30% are winter visitors, and 1% are transient. Also, we compared species richness and composition between our results and other studies from the state of Jalisco. We highlight the presence of Rallus longirostris, a resident and endemic species to central-western Mexico, which has the highest vulnerability value. We highlight the biological importance of the urban park and we suggest increasing the number of bird research in Lake Chapala.

  4. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of

  5. Deep Interior: Multiple-Rendezvous Prospecting of NEOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, R. Y.; Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Gulkis, S.; Huebner, W. F.

    2000-10-01

    This is an international multiple-rendezvous mission designed to prospect the deep interior and subsurface geophysical properties of diverse near-Earth objects, using reflection radar tomography, imaging, gravity, and explosions. What we learn will greatly influence future missions and guide strategies for the diversion, disruption, or utilization of potentially hazardous objects. Deep Interior. Low-frequency radar to determine internal variations of complex permittivity at resolutions approaching 20 m. Map inclusions or voids, fracture geometries, and compositional or structural boundaries. Subsurface. High-frequency radar to determine depth of regolith, existence and nature of cometary mantle, geology beneath and around craters, and subsurface expressions to surface geology. Topography and Geodesy. Stereogrammetric imaging with 1 m/pixel spatial resolution, supplemented by radar altimetry in shadowed regions, to determine detailed shape, volume, and spin state. Compare with radar sounding to learn how internal structure is manifested on the surface. Mass and Density. Total mass and lower moments of the internal mass distribution by mapping the exterior gravitational field. Look for mass concentrations. Surface microphysics and composition. Map color, albedo, and scattering properties of the surface over sunlit regions in six optical filters. Material properties. Deploy grenades to characterize the mechanics and dynamics of surface materials. Record 8 frame/sec, 20 cm/pixel videos of crater formation and ejecta dynamics, to enable simple and direct laboratory constraints on material density, cohesion and porosity. Dust. Look for dust lofted by surface waves propagating from the explosions, to constrain elastic properties and attenuation. Observe longer-term dynamics and optical properties of dust "atmosphere" generated by human activity. Cometary Activity. At comet 107P/Wilson-Harrington, look for expressions of past cometary activity, and for possible awakening

  6. Introduction: Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar; Hashas, Mohammed; de Ruiter, Jan Jaap

    2018-01-01

    by this source of religious authority in the context of the secular-liberal societies of Western Europe since the Second World War and the subsequent migration and refugee flows. At the same time, this research also serves to highlight secular-liberal institutions and their adaptation, or lack thereof......, to the multiculturalism that characterizes Western European states. The social facts of globalization, transnational migration, and various interpretations of secularism have challenged the visibility of religion in the public sphere in Western societies. This has most importantly and urgently required religious...

  7. The effect of lighting exterior and interior design

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Light, whether natural or artificial is a very important element in interior and exterior design. It actually helps us to see color because color is visible to our eye because the substances of which was obtained reflect wavelengths of light. Light as an element of design influences other elements. It can make the space large or small, showy and bright or dark and unpleasant. Places that are well-lit with clean, clear light make the space seem larger, while the fading light and shadows ...

  8. Development of assembly techniques for fire resistant aircraft interior panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ten NASA Type A fire resistant aircraft interior panels were fabricated and tested to develop assembly techniques. These techiques were used in the construction of a full scale lavatory test structure for flame propagation testing. The Type A panel is of sandwich construction consisting of Nomex honeycomb filled with quinone dioxime foam, and bismaleimide/glass face sheets bonded to the core with polyimide film adhesive. The materials selected and the assembly techniques developed for the lavatory test structure were designed for obtaining maximum fire containment with minimum smoke and toxic emission.

  9. Multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch by an interior point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  10. New model for the lunar interior to 250 km

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwinskii, A.J.; Duba, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A new model for the structure of the lunar interior to about a 250-km depth is proposed. It is suggested that this region is composed of plagioclase-bearing rocks, and that the 65-km seismic discontinuity represents the appearance of garnet. A variety of rock types mainly composed of plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine and garnet is envisioned, with at least half of the outer 250 km of the moon made of plagioclase, which dominates the electrical conductivity. This model agrees with recent petrological and electrical conductivity results and does not violate velocity-depth profiles obtained from elastic-wave studies of lunar and terrestrial materials. (U.S.)

  11. Primal Interior-Point Method for Large Sparse Minimax Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2009), s. 841-864 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405; GA ČR GP201/06/P397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : unconstrained optimization * large-scale optimization * minimax optimization * nonsmooth optimization * interior-point methods * modified Newton methods * variable metric methods * computational experiments Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2009 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/140034

  12. A subtractive approach to interior intrusion detection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sons, R.J.; Graham, R.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the subtractive approach to interior intrusion detection system design which assumes that all sensors are viable candidates until they are subjected to the constraints imposed by a particular facility. The constraints are determined by a sequence of questions concerning parameters such as threat definition, facility description and operation, environment, assets to be protected, security system capabilities, and cost. As a result of the questioning, some sensors will be eliminated from the candidate list, and the ''best'' set of sensors for the facility will remain. This form of questioning could be incorporated into an expert system aiding future intrusion detection system designs

  13. Development of fire resistant, nontoxic aircraft interior materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, G.; Silverman, B.; Tajima, Y.

    1976-01-01

    All available newly developed nonmetallic polymers were examined for possible usage in developing fire resistant, nontoxic nonmetallic parts or assemblies for aircraft interiors. Specifically, feasibility for the development of clear films for new decorative laminates, compression moldings, injection molded parts, thermoformed plastic parts, and flexible foams were given primary considerations. Preliminary data on the flame resistant characteristics of the materials were obtained. Preliminary toxicity data were generated from samples of materials submitted from the contractor. Preliminary data on the physical characteristics of various thermoplastic materials to be considered for either compression molded, injection molded, or thermoformed parts were obtained.

  14. Analysis of Daylight Control in a Chateau Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mohelníková

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of daylighting in the residential hall of a historical chateau is presented. The evaluation is based on both the daylight measurement and simulations. Illuminance levels in the interior were controlled in accordance with requirements for light exposition of light sensitive materials. Valuable paintings and claddings as well as wallpapers and furniture upholstery in the hall are extremely light sensitive and they need to be protected from light damage. The daylight measurements and simulations give an overview of daylight conditions in the annual profile for clear sky conditions and for different levels of window shadings.

  15. Isolated Neutron Stars: From the Surface to the Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, Silvia; Page, Dany

    2007-01-01

    This book collects the contributions presented at the conference Isolated Neutron Stars: From the Surface to the Interior, held in London in April 2006. Forty years after the discovery of radio pulsars it presents an up-to-date description of the new vision of isolated neutron stars that has emerged in recent years with the advance of multi-wavelength observations. The great variety of isolated neutron stars, from pulsars to magnetars, some of them discovered very recently and many of them not detectable in radio wavelengths, is amply covered by descriptions of recent observational results and presentations of the latest theoretical interpretation of these data.

  16. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  17. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  18. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  19. The Western Sahara conflict I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polisario unilaterally declared a "Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic" (27 Feb. 1976). Since .... Furthermore, Frente Polisario managed to keep the Western Sahara question on .... these countries and their fragile ethnic and political balance.

  20. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  1. Monitoring Interior and Exterior Wall Inspections within a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two prototype applications based on the Virtual Reality (VR technology for use in maintenance planning of buildings. In a building, the paint coating applied to interior walls and the different types of materials applied to façades convey their aesthetic character and also perform an important function of protection. This a construction component which is exposed to agents of deterioration related to its use, needing the regular evaluation of its state of repair. The applications support the performance of such periodic inspections and the monitoring of interior and exterior wall maintenance, using the VR technology. Used during an inspection visit, the applications allow users to consult a database of irregularities, normally associated with the coating, classified by the most probable causes and by the recommended repair methodologies. In addition, a chromatic scale related to the degree of deterioration of the coating, defined as a function of the time between the dates of the application of the paint and the scheduled repainting, can be attributed to each element of coating monitored. This use of the VR technology allows inspections and the evaluation of the degree of wear and tear of materials to be carried out in a highly direct and intuitive manner.

  2. An interior vessel viewing system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, R.

    1989-11-01

    It was anticipated that there could be damage to the interior walls of the vacuum vessel during operations of the DIII-D tokamak. A method of viewing the inside of the vessel from the outside was required, that would allow the interior walls to be inspected visually for damage and to locate any debris resulting from operations. A miniature closed circuit television color camera system was developed which could be inserted into one of several ports of the vessel during a 'clean' vent, i.e., vented to inert gas. The system has pan, tilt and zoom capability and carries its own lighting. The use of this system allows a quick assessment of the condition of the vessel to be made under 'clean' vent conditions. This precludes the need for the permit process and manned entry into the vessel which would allow air inside the vessel. A permanent record of the inspection can then be made on video tape. The design and configuration of this camera system is presented and its use as a diagnostic tool discussed. 2 refs., 5 figs

  3. Competing Grain Boundary and Interior Deformation Mechanisms with Varying Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [University of Tennessee (UT); Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Nieh, T. G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2018-01-01

    In typical coarse-grained alloys, the dominant plastic deformations are dislocation gliding or climbing, and material strengths can be tuned by dislocation interactions with grain boundaries, precipitates, solid solutions, and other defects. With the reduction of grain size, the increase of material strengths follows the classic Hall-Petch relationship up to nano-grained materials. Even at room temperatures, nano-grained materials exhibit strength softening, or called the inverse Hall-Petch effect, as grain boundary processes take over as the dominant deformation mechanisms. On the other hand, at elevated temperatures, grain boundary processes compete with grain interior deformation mechanisms over a wide range of the applied stress and grain sizes. This book chapter reviews and compares the rate equation model and the microstructure-based finite element simulations. The latter explicitly accounts for the grain boundary sliding, grain boundary diffusion and migration, as well as the grain interior dislocation creep. Therefore the explicit finite element method has clear advantages in problems where microstructural heterogeneities play a critical role, such as in the gradient microstructure in shot peening or weldment. Furthermore, combined with the Hall-Petch effect and its breakdown, the above competing processes help construct deformation mechanism maps by extending from the classic Frost-Ashby type to the ones with the dependence of grain size.

  4. Integration of Models of Building Interiors with Cadastral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotlib Dariusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Demands for applications which use models of building interiors is growing and highly diversified. Those models are applied at the stage of designing and construction of a building, in applications which support real estate management, in navigation and marketing systems and, finally, in crisis management and security systems. They are created on the basis of different data: architectural and construction plans, both, in the analogue form, as well as CAD files, BIM data files, by means of laser scanning (TLS and conventional surveys. In this context the issue of searching solutions which would integrate the existing models and lead to elimination of data redundancy is becoming more important. The authors analysed the possible input- of cadastral data (legal extent of premises at the stage of the creation and updating different models of building’s interiors. The paper focuses on one issue - the way of describing the geometry of premises basing on the most popular source data, i.e. architectural and construction plans. However, the described rules may be considered as universal and also may be applied in practice concerned may be used during the process of creation and updating indoor models based on BIM dataset or laser scanning clouds

  5. New initiative in studies of Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Thorne

    A multidisciplinary U.S. research community is undertaking a new coordinated effort to study the state and dynamics of the Earth's deep mantle and core. At an open meeting held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, from September 11 to 12, 1992, over 120 Earth scientists gathered to discuss this new program, which is an outgrowth of activity during the previous year by an ad hoc steering committee. The research program will be coordinated by a community-based scientific organization and supported through competitive research proposals submitted to the National Science Foundation with the aim of facilitating cooperative research projects cutting across traditional disciplinary and institutional boundaries.The new organization is the U.S. Studies of the Earth's Deep Interior (SEDI) Coordinating Committee. This committee will facilitate communication among the U.S. SEDI research community, federal funding agencies, the AGU Committee for Studies of the Earth's Interior (SEI), the Union SEDI Committee of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and the general public (Figure 1).

  6. Magnetic Fields of Extrasolar Planets: Planetary Interiors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph

    2018-06-01

    Ground-based observations showed that Jupiter's radio emission is linked to its planetary-scale magnetic field, and subsequent spacecraft observations have shown that most planets, and some moons, have or had a global magnetic field. Generated by internal dynamos, magnetic fields are one of the few remote sensing means of constraining the properties of planetary interiors. For the Earth, its magnetic field has been speculated to be partially responsible for its habitability, and knowledge of an extrasolar planet's magnetic field may be necessary to assess its habitability. The radio emission from Jupiter and other solar system planets is produced by an electron cyclotron maser, and detections of extrasolar planetary electron cyclotron masers will enable measurements of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields. Based on experience from the solar system, such observations will almost certainly require space-based observations, but they will also be guided by on-going and near-future ground-based observations.This work has benefited from the discussion and participants of the W. M. Keck Institute of Space Studies "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" and content within a white paper submitted to the National Academy of Science Committee on Exoplanet Science Strategy. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Corrected Statistical Energy Analysis Model for Car Interior Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical energy analysis (SEA is a well-known method to analyze the flow of acoustic and vibration energy in a complex structure. For an acoustic space where significant absorptive materials are present, direct field component from the sound source dominates the total sound field rather than a reverberant field, where the latter becomes the basis in constructing the conventional SEA model. Such environment can be found in a car interior and thus a corrected SEA model is proposed here to counter this situation. The model is developed by eliminating the direct field component from the total sound field and only the power after the first reflection is considered. A test car cabin was divided into two subsystems and by using a loudspeaker as a sound source, the power injection method in SEA was employed to obtain the corrected coupling loss factor and the damping loss factor from the corrected SEA model. These parameters were then used to predict the sound pressure level in the interior cabin using the injected input power from the engine. The results show satisfactory agreement with the directly measured SPL.

  8. A numerical method to compute interior transmission eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleefeld, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the numerical calculation of eigenvalues of the interior transmission problem arising in acoustic scattering for constant contrast in three dimensions is considered. From the computational point of view existing methods are very expensive, and are only able to show the existence of such transmission eigenvalues. Furthermore, they have trouble finding them if two or more eigenvalues are situated closely together. We present a new method based on complex-valued contour integrals and the boundary integral equation method which is able to calculate highly accurate transmission eigenvalues. So far, this is the first paper providing such accurate values for various surfaces different from a sphere in three dimensions. Additionally, the computational cost is even lower than those of existing methods. Furthermore, the algorithm is capable of finding complex-valued eigenvalues for which no numerical results have been reported yet. Until now, the proof of existence of such eigenvalues is still open. Finally, highly accurate eigenvalues of the interior Dirichlet problem are provided and might serve as test cases to check newly derived Faber–Krahn type inequalities for larger transmission eigenvalues that are not yet available. (paper)

  9. Intercambios convectivos en el interior de los edificios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roset, J.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Convection inside buildings is the main mechanism to explain heat transfer among its parts. The numerical model, we use in this work, is bidimensional with the heat flux in laminar regime. We simule different thermal conditions of a room with one of its walls having several non-uniform distributions of temperature. We obtain, for these configurations, the heat fluxes through the different parts of the wall and the final distribution of the temperatures inside the whole room.

    La convección en el interior de los edificios es el principal mecanismo de transferencia de calor entre las partes de los mismos. El modelo numérico que se utiliza en este trabajo es bidimensional con el flujo de calor en régimen laminan Se simulan diferentes condiciones térmicas de un cerramiento con la hipótesis de que una de sus paredes es sometida a varias distribuciones de temperatura no uniformes. Se obtienen, para estas configuraciones, los flujos de calor en las distintas partes de la pared así como la distribución final de temperaturas en el interior de toda la habitación.

  10. Integration of Models of Building Interiors with Cadastral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dariusz; Karabin, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Demands for applications which use models of building interiors is growing and highly diversified. Those models are applied at the stage of designing and construction of a building, in applications which support real estate management, in navigation and marketing systems and, finally, in crisis management and security systems. They are created on the basis of different data: architectural and construction plans, both, in the analogue form, as well as CAD files, BIM data files, by means of laser scanning (TLS) and conventional surveys. In this context the issue of searching solutions which would integrate the existing models and lead to elimination of data redundancy is becoming more important. The authors analysed the possible input- of cadastral data (legal extent of premises) at the stage of the creation and updating different models of building's interiors. The paper focuses on one issue - the way of describing the geometry of premises basing on the most popular source data, i.e. architectural and construction plans. However, the described rules may be considered as universal and also may be applied in practice concerned may be used during the process of creation and updating indoor models based on BIM dataset or laser scanning clouds

  11. MUEBLES E INTERIORES EN CANET DE MAR 1890-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de la Fuente Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1900 y 1910 se produce un auge constructivo en Canet de Mar, población cercana a Barcelona. Reformas o construcciones de nueva planta integran las novedades técnicas, como el gas y después la electricidad; adaptándose a modas y nuevos estilos de vida. El primer edificio construido por Lluís Domènech i Montaner en Canet, en 1884, es el Ateneu. Pere Domènech Roura, su hijo, diseña en 1917, la Casa Serra Pujadas. Entre ambas construcciones se crean interiores decorados en mayor o menor medida con objetos Art Nouveau/Modernistas que conviven con muebles anteriores, reflejando tanto el gusto personal de las familias, como su pasado, con muebles heredados. Junto a las casas para pequeños fabricantes locales destacan los interiores creados por artistas de renombre, como Lluís Domènech i Montaner o Eduard Ferrés i Puig, para grandes fortunas como Ramon de Montaner o Ramir Busquets.

  12. Formation of Oxides in the Interior of Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Chen, Po; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSWing) the actual solid state joining takes place between the faying surfaces which form the weld seam. Thus the seam trace is often investigated for clues when the strength of the weld is reduced. Aluminum and its alloys are known to form a native, protective oxide on the surface. If these native surface oxides are not sufficiently broken up during the FSW process, they are reported to remain in the FSW interior and weaken the bond strength. This type of weld defect has been referred to as a lazy "S", lazy "Z", joint line defect, kissing bond, or residual oxide defect. Usually these defects are mitigated by modification of the process parameters, such as increased tool rotation rate, which causes a finer breakup of the native oxide particles. This study proposes that there may be an alternative mechanism for formation of oxides found within the weld nugget. As the oxidation rate increases at elevated temperatures above 400ºC, it may be possible for enhanced oxidation to occur on the interior surfaces during the FSW process from entrained air entering the seam gap. Normally, FSWs of aluminum alloys are made without a purge gas and it is unknown how process parameters and initial fit up could affect a potential air path into the interior during the processing. In addition, variations in FSW parameters, such as the tool rotation, are known to have a strong influence on the FSW temperature which may affect the oxidation rate if internal surfaces are exposed to entrained air. A series of FSWs were made in 3 different thickness panels of AA2219 (0.95, 1.27 and 1.56 cm) at 2 different weld pitches. As the thickness of the panels increased, there was an increased tendency for a gap to form in advance of the weld tool. If sufficient air is able to enter the workpiece gap prior to consolidation, the weld temperature can increase the oxidation rate on the interior surfaces. These oxidation rates would also be accelerated in areas of localized

  13. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    Deep Interior is a mature Discovery-class mission concept focused on probing the geophysical behavior of primitive bodies, from the mechanics of their exterior materials to the structures of their interiors. Its theme is to discover how small bodies work - to learn the natural origin and evolution of asteroids, comets and other primitive bodies through radar reflection tomography and through detailed observations of the local and global effects of cratering. Learning the structure and mechanical response of asteroids and comets is also a precursor to resource utilization and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Overall the mission is aligned with NASA strategic sub-goal 3C, to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ... and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Deep Interior deploys no complex landers or sub-spacecraft; the scientific instruments are a radar and a camera. A blast cratering experiments triggered by grenades leads to a low cost seismological investigation which complements the radar investigation. A desired addition is an imaging spectrometer. The science instruments are high heritage, as are the navigation techniques for orbiting and station-keeping. The mission conducts the following investigations at one or more asteroids: Radar Reflection Tomography (RRT). The first science phase is to operate a penetrating radar during each several-month rendezvous, deployed in reflection mode in the manner of ongoing radar investigations underway by Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kaguya. The RRT technique (Safaeinili et al., MAPS 2002) is analogous to performing a "CAT scan" from orbit: closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior dielectric properties. Deep Interior utilizes a polar orbit (or station keeping) while the asteroid spins underneath; the result is to "peel the apple" with thousands of unique

  14. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  15. Using GPS Imaging to Unravel Vertical Land Motions in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overacker, J.; Hammond, W. C.; Kraner, M.; Blewitt, G.

    2017-12-01

    GPS Imaging uses robust trends in time series of GPS positions to create a velocity field that can reveal rates and patterns of vertical motions that would be otherwise difficult to detect. We have constructed an image of vertical land velocities within the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States using GPS Imaging. The image shows a 50-250 km wide swath of approximately 2 mm/yr of subsidence seemingly unrelated to topographic features of the region. The extent of the signal roughly corresponds to the Juan de Fuca plate subduction latitudes and longitude of the Cascade arc. This suggests that the signal could be associated with ongoing crustal deformation possibly related to plate-scale geodynamic forces arising from interseismic coupling, long term plate boundary tractions, volcanic loading, and/or mantle flow. However, hydrological loading from accumulating precipitation in the Cascades and in the region's groundwater basins, and possible effects from Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) near its hinge line cannot be discounted as potential contributors to the observed subsidence signal. Here we attempt to unravel the contributions of hydrological loading and GIA to the vertical GPS signal observed within the interior Pacific Northwest. In order to determine the non-tectonic contributions to the observed vertical GPS Image, we will examine how the subsidence rate changes over time using early and late period comparisons. GPS, GRACE, and climatic data will be used in conjunction to disentangle the hydrological effect from the GPS Image. GIA models of the Western Cordillera will be compared with the patterns in the GPS Image to assess whether the signal can be explained with current models of GIA. Our presentation will document the signals, uncertainties, and hypotheses for the possible mechanisms behind this subsidence and attempt to quantify their relation and contribution to the observed deformation signal. Figure 1: Pacific Northwest GPS Imaging

  16. Numerical simulation and optimized design of cased telescoped ammunition interior ballistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-gang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the optimized design of a cased telescoped ammunition (CTA interior ballistic design, a genetic algorithm was introduced into the optimal design of CTA interior ballistics with coupling the CTA interior ballistic model. Aiming at the interior ballistic characteristics of a CTA gun, the goal of CTA interior ballistic design is to obtain a projectile velocity as large as possible. The optimal design of CTA interior ballistic is carried out using a genetic algorithm by setting peak pressure, changing the chamber volume and gun powder charge density. A numerical simulation of interior ballistics based on a 35 mm CTA firing experimental scheme was conducted and then the genetic algorithm was used for numerical optimization. The projectile muzzle velocity of the optimized scheme is increased from 1168 m/s for the initial experimental scheme to 1182 m/s. Then four optimization schemes were obtained with several independent optimization processes. The schemes were compared with each other and the difference between these schemes is small. The peak pressure and muzzle velocity of these schemes are almost the same. The result shows that the genetic algorithm is effective in the optimal design of the CTA interior ballistics. This work will be lay the foundation for further CTA interior ballistic design. Keywords: Cased telescoped ammunition, Interior ballistics, Gunpowder, Optimization genetic algorithm

  17. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Farke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopsids (“horned dinosaurs” are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  18. A Primary Study on the Recording Method of Interior Decoration in Qing Dynasty - A Case Study of Interior Decoration of Jingfu Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, X.; He, B.; Zhuang, L.

    2017-08-01

    The existing interior decoration of Qing Dynasty is the master of that of each dynasty, with its diversified forms and complicated functions. As early as 1920s, the Rehabilitation Committee of Qing court recorded the interior furnishing in the Forbidden City by using Chinese traditional documentary method. Today, along with the constantly updated techniques, the recording method for the current situation of interior decoration has gradually developed from two-dimensional drawings into digital and comprehensive record. However, the current research results are mostly limited to a single field. This paper takes the digital record and reproduction about the current situation of interior decoration in Jingfu Palace in the Forbidden City as an example. Through the use of photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning, virtual display and other technology and equipment at the forefront of architectural field, it makes qualitative and quantitative record about the interior decoration inside Jingfu Palace. By combing with the interpretation of historical documents, it restores the original design ideas hidden behind the current situation of interior decoration, so as to summarize the best recording and reproducing method of interior decoration of Qing Dynasty.

  19. A Primary Study on the Recording Method of Interior Decoration in Qing Dynasty – A Case Study of Interior Decoration of Jingfu Palace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Rong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing interior decoration of Qing Dynasty is the master of that of each dynasty, with its diversified forms and complicated functions. As early as 1920s, the Rehabilitation Committee of Qing court recorded the interior furnishing in the Forbidden City by using Chinese traditional documentary method. Today, along with the constantly updated techniques, the recording method for the current situation of interior decoration has gradually developed from two-dimensional drawings into digital and comprehensive record. However, the current research results are mostly limited to a single field. This paper takes the digital record and reproduction about the current situation of interior decoration in Jingfu Palace in the Forbidden City as an example. Through the use of photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning, virtual display and other technology and equipment at the forefront of architectural field, it makes qualitative and quantitative record about the interior decoration inside Jingfu Palace. By combing with the interpretation of historical documents, it restores the original design ideas hidden behind the current situation of interior decoration, so as to summarize the best recording and reproducing method of interior decoration of Qing Dynasty.

  20. Thermal automobile interior model; Thermisches Pkw-Innenraum-Modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flieger, Bjoern; Streblow, Rita; Mueller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen (Germany). E.ON Energieforschungszentrum

    2012-11-01

    The energy demand of climate-control instruments is an increasingly important focus of study in the automobile industry. The ratio of the energy demand for the engine as opposed to that of other car components will greatly change in the future. Especially for electrical vehicles the auxiliary energy use is very critical because of the limited battery capacity. Thus, the aim of this research project is to investigate means of more efficiently using the available energy by maintaining comfort criteria for all passengers. To realize this, a simulation model of a car interior cabin is being developed with which conclusions can be drawn, under the given boundary conditions, about the air circulation and -states as well as about the resulting energy demand to evaluate the efficiency and the thermal comfort. (orig.)

  1. Limited solubility of iron in the Sun's interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, E.L.; Alder, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    Stripped iron nuclei in a hydrogen plasma under central solar conditions, according to the classical Debye-Huckel model, would undergo phase separation for concentrations well below the cosmic abundance value. The higher concentration corrections, needed to characterise the iron-rich phase, lead to enhanced solubility for a simplified model where the electrons form a uniform background. Support for an iron-rich phase coalescing in the solar interior requires more accurate treatment of bound and partially bound electrons in such a mixture. The results of the Debye-Huckel model where the electrons are treated discretely and as a continuum, are reported here and support the possibility of phase separation. The physical cause of that phase separation is simply that the potential energy is lower in the separated phase than in the mixture because the local charge neutralisation is much better satisfied in the two separated phases. (author)

  2. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  3. Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan; Lazarov, Raytcho D.; Moon, M.; Sarkis, Marcus V.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the "mass" matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  4. A demonstrated method for upgrading existing control room interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, R.M.; Terrill, D.; Brice, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main control room (MCR) of any nuclear power plant can justifiably be called the most important area staffed by personnel in the entire facility. The interior workstation configuration, equipment arrangement, and staff placement all affect the efficiency and habitability of the room. There are many guidelines available that describe various human factor principles to use when upgrading the environment of the MCR. These involve anthropometric standards and rules for placement of peripheral equipment. Due to the variations in plant design, however, hard-and-fast rules have not and cannot be standardized for retrofits in any significant way. How then does one develop criteria for the improvement of a MCR? The purpose of this paper is to discuss, from the designer's point of view, a method for the collection of information, development of criteria, and creation of a final design for a MCR upgrade. This method is best understood by describing the successful implementation at Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah nuclear plant

  5. A superlinear interior points algorithm for engineering design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, J.; Asquier, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present a quasi-Newton interior points algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization. It is based on a general approach consisting of the iterative solution in the primal and dual spaces of the equalities in Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. This is done in such a way to have primal and dual feasibility at each iteration, which ensures satisfaction of those optimality conditions at the limit points. This approach is very strong and efficient, since at each iteration it only requires the solution of two linear systems with the same matrix, instead of quadratic programming subproblems. It is also particularly appropriate for engineering design optimization inasmuch at each iteration a feasible design is obtained. The present algorithm uses a quasi-Newton approximation of the second derivative of the Lagrangian function in order to have superlinear asymptotic convergence. We discuss theoretical aspects of the algorithm and its computer implementation.

  6. Thermal Comfort-CFD maps for Architectural Interior Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Fabbri, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    opportunities of movable interior partitions (operated by the users) could be estimated, providing a new layer of information to the designer. The applicability of the thermal maps within an architectural design process is discussed adopting standard energy simulation comfort outputs as a reference......Within the context of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, it is debated that the energy-centred notion of design, proposed by regulatory frames, needs to be combined with a further focus toward users’ comfort and delight. Accordingly, the underlying theory of the research is that designers should take...... responsibility for understanding the heat flows through the building parts and its spaces. A design, which is sensible to the micro-thermal conditions coexisting in a space, allows the inhabitants to control the building to their needs and desires: for instance, maximising the benefits of heat gain from the sun...

  7. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description and Construction Cost Estimate

  8. Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the "mass" matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Stynes, Martin; Zhang, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects papers associated with lectures that were presented at the BAIL 2016 conference, which was held from 14 to 19 August 2016 at Beijing Computational Science Research Center and Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. It showcases the variety and quality of current research into numerical and asymptotic methods for theoretical and practical problems whose solutions involve layer phenomena. The BAIL (Boundary And Interior Layers) conferences, held usually in even-numbered years, bring together mathematicians and engineers/physicists whose research involves layer phenomena, with the aim of promoting interaction between these often-separate disciplines. These layers appear as solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations of various types, and are common in physical problems, most notably in fluid dynamics. This book is of interest for current researchers from mathematics, engineering and physics whose work involves the accurate app roximation of solutions of singularly perturbed diffe...

  10. System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Campbell

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

  11. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  12. Designing interior space for drivers of passenger vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Brkić Vesna K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a review of our previous papers with certain improvements, so it proves the hypothesis that passenger vehicles are still not sufficiently adapted to man in terms of ergonomics, especially from the aspect of interior space. In the ergonomic adjustment of passenger vehicles, the limits of anthropomeasures and technical limitations, are the most important. The methodology mainly uses operative investigations, and the 'man-vehicle' system is optimized within existing limitations. Here, we also explain original methodology for modeling that space. The fact that there is a point '0' as the origin point of a coordinate system with x, y and z axes of the man-vehicle system, which can be considered to be more or less fixed, enabled us to determine more accurately the mechanical and mathematical codependence in this system. The paper also proves that the anthropomeasures of length have mechanical and mathematical functions which also determine the width, i.e. all three dimensions and provides the design of the space behind the windscreen glass, the position of the steering wheel and the position of the foot commands with space for feet and knees determined, as well as the total space which the driver occupies. It is proved that the floor-ceiling height of a vehicle is primarily affected by the anthropomeasures of seating height and lower leg, while width is affected by the anthropomeasures of lower and upper leg and only then by shoulder width, so that the interior space for the driver of a passenger vehicle is 1250 mm and the width for knees spread at seat level is 926 mm maximum.

  13. Spectral analysis methods for vehicle interior vibro-acoustics identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Fouladi, Mohammad; Nor, Mohd. Jailani Mohd.; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Noise has various effects on comfort, performance and health of human. Sound are analysed by human brain based on the frequencies and amplitudes. In a dynamic system, transmission of sound and vibrations depend on frequency and direction of the input motion and characteristics of the output. It is imperative that automotive manufacturers invest a lot of effort and money to improve and enhance the vibro-acoustics performance of their products. The enhancement effort may be very difficult and time-consuming if one relies only on 'trial and error' method without prior knowledge about the sources itself. Complex noise inside a vehicle cabin originated from various sources and travel through many pathways. First stage of sound quality refinement is to find the source. It is vital for automotive engineers to identify the dominant noise sources such as engine noise, exhaust noise and noise due to vibration transmission inside of vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to find the vibro-acoustical sources of noise in a passenger vehicle compartment. The implementation of spectral analysis method is much faster than the 'trial and error' methods in which, parts should be separated to measure the transfer functions. Also by using spectral analysis method, signals can be recorded in real operational conditions which conduce to more consistent results. A multi-channel analyser is utilised to measure and record the vibro-acoustical signals. Computational algorithms are also employed to identify contribution of various sources towards the measured interior signal. These achievements can be utilised to detect, control and optimise interior noise performance of road transport vehicles.

  14. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  15. Perwujudan Brand Image Dalam Penataan Interior Rotelli Shoes Di Galaxy Mall

    OpenAIRE

    Sriti Mayang Sari, Maria Sulistya C

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the economic developmentis increasing in Surabaya. This has a positive impact on retail companies in Surabaya. In order to remain competitive shop among many other stores, they need a unique interior design, comfortable and functional that can attract customers to shop. An attractive interior design alone is not enough, however they need an interior design that canreflect the image and strategies.Rotelli is one of the famous shoesbrand from Italy and has a vision to be a trendsetter ...

  16. Investigation of the interior of Mercury through the study of its gravity, topography, and tidal response

    OpenAIRE

    Padovan, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of furthering our understanding of the interior structure of Mercury, this work tries to answer the following two questions. What can the response of the planet to solar tides reveal about the interior structure? What is the thickness of the crust and what are the implications for the interior?By comparing the models developed here for the tidal response of Mercury with the response measured by the MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging spacecraft (MESSENGER)...

  17. Using BIM Technology to Optimize the Traditional Interior Design Work Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning Ke

    2018-06-01

    the development of BIM technology and application in the field of architecture design has produced results, but BIM technology and application in the field of interior design is still immaturity because of construction and decoration engineering separation. The article analyzes the problems that BIM technology lead to the interior design work mode optimization, from the 3D visualization work environment, real-time collaborative design mode, physical analysis design mode, information integration design mode state the application in interior design.

  18. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  19. Insectivorous Birds and Environmental Factors Across an Edge-Interior Gradient in Tropical Rainforest of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah B. Mohd; Mohamed Zakaria; Hossein Varasteh Moradi; Ebil Yusof

    2009-01-01

    The study objectives were to test: (1) the effects of the edge-interior gradient on understorey insectivorous bird abundance, density and diversity; (2) effects of environmental variables along an edge-interior gradient at population level (i.e., on each sub-guilds and species abundance); (3) possible effects of environmental structure along an edge-interior gradient at community level (i.e., species richness, diversity and total abundance). Fifteen hundred and four birds belonging to ...

  20. Thermodynamic Effects of Replacements of Pro Residues in Helix Interiors of Maltose-Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, RS; Lingaraju, GM; Bacchawat, Kiran; Surolia, Avadhesha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of Pro residues into helix interiors results in protein destabilization. It is currently unclear if the converse substitution (i.e., replacement of Pro residues that naturally occur in helix interiors would be stabilizing). Maltose-binding protein is a large 370-amino acid protein that contains 21 Pro residues. Of these, three nonconserved residues (P48, P133, and P159) occur at helix interiors. Each of the residues was replaced with Ala and Ser. Stabilities were characterized by...

  1. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    About 1 million seabirds (indvs) breed in 1032 colonies distributed along the coasts of western Greenland (Fig. 1). However, this figure does not include the little auk colonies in Avanersuaq. These colonies are roughly estimated to hold about 20 mill. pairs. All the basic information on seabird...... colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... colonies are found in the northern part of the region, viz. Upernavik and Avanersuaq. The numbers of birds recorded in the database for each species are presented in Tab. 4, and on the basis of these figures estimates of the populations in western Greenland are given (Tab. 5). The most numerous species...

  2. Simulation on a car interior aerodynamic noise control based on statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Dengfeng; Ma, Zhengdong

    2012-09-01

    How to simulate interior aerodynamic noise accurately is an important question of a car interior noise reduction. The unsteady aerodynamic pressure on body surfaces is proved to be the key effect factor of car interior aerodynamic noise control in high frequency on high speed. In this paper, a detail statistical energy analysis (SEA) model is built. And the vibra-acoustic power inputs are loaded on the model for the valid result of car interior noise analysis. The model is the solid foundation for further optimization on car interior noise control. After the most sensitive subsystems for the power contribution to car interior noise are pointed by SEA comprehensive analysis, the sound pressure level of car interior aerodynamic noise can be reduced by improving their sound and damping characteristics. The further vehicle testing results show that it is available to improve the interior acoustic performance by using detailed SEA model, which comprised by more than 80 subsystems, with the unsteady aerodynamic pressure calculation on body surfaces and the materials improvement of sound/damping properties. It is able to acquire more than 2 dB reduction on the central frequency in the spectrum over 800 Hz. The proposed optimization method can be looked as a reference of car interior aerodynamic noise control by the detail SEA model integrated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sensitivity analysis of acoustic contribution.

  3. The Western Denmark Heart Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Morten; Maeng, Michael; Madsen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary interven......The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary...

  4. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  5. Smoke exposure at western wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    2000-01-01

    Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters at wildfires in the Western United States between 1992 and 1995 showed that altogether most exposures were not significant, between 3 and 5 percent of the shift-average exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants. Exposure to benzene and total suspended particulate was not...

  6. Western blotting using chemiluminescent substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Western blotting is a powerful and commonly used tool to identify and quantify a specific protein in a complex mixture (Towbin et al., 1979). The technique enables indirect detection of protein samples immobilized on a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  8. Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kynan T.; Whittle, Amanda J.; Altman, Shelley A.; Speers, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A cluster of sporotrichosis cases occurred in the Busselton-Margaret River region of Western Australia from 2000 to 2003. Epidemiologic investigation and mycologic culture for Sporothrix schenckii implicated hay initially distributed through a commercial hay supplier as the source of the outbreak. Declining infection rates have occurred after various community measures were instigated. PMID:17953099

  9. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  10. Pigmentary disorders in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, J. P. Wietze

    2007-01-01

    Countries in the so-called "Western" world, especially in Europe, witnessed a dramatic change in ethnic backgrounds of their populations starting in the last decennia of the last century. This had repercussions on various aspects of our society, including medical practice. In dermatology for

  11. Gendering Citizenship in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona

    The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee...

  12. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...

  13. Skywatch: The Western Weather Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Richard A.

    The western United States is a region of mountains and valleys with the world's largest ocean next door. Its weather is unique. This book discusses how water, wind, and environmental conditions combine to create the climatic conditions of the region. Included are sections describing: fronts; cyclones; precipitation; storms; tornadoes; hurricanes;…

  14. The Shape of a Western

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    The article is written for an issue on the Western genre. By means of a comparative analysis of Winchester '73 (Anthony Mann, 1950) and The Man from Laramie (Anthony Mann, 1955) the article accounts for stylistic, narrative, generic and theoretical implications of the transition from Academy ratio...

  15. Modeling vehicle interior noise exposure dose on freeways: Considering weaving segment designs and engine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Shi, Junqing

    2017-07-05

    Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a laboratory environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic and road conditions and configuration. However, the interior noise is highly associated with vehicle maneuvering. The vehicle maneuvering on a freeway weaving segment is more complex because of its nature of conflicting areas. This research is intended to explore the risk of the interior noise exposure on freeway weaving segments for freeway commuters and to improve the interior noise estimation by constructing a decision tree learning-based noise exposure dose (NED) model, considering weaving segment designs and engine operation. On-road driving tests were conducted on 12 subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. On-board Diagnosis (OBD) II, a smartphone-based roughness app, and a digital sound meter were used to collect vehicle maneuvering and engine information, International Roughness Index, and interior noise levels, respectively. Eleven variables were obtainable from the driving tests, including the length and type of a weaving segment, serving as predictors. The importance of the predictors was estimated by their out-of-bag-permuted predictor delta errors. The hazardous exposure level of the interior noise on weaving segments was quantified to hazard quotient, NED, and daily noise exposure level, respectively. Results showed that the risk of hearing impairment on freeway is acceptable; the interior noise level is the most sensitive to the pavement roughness and is subject to freeway configuration and traffic conditions. The constructed NED model shows high predictive

  16. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were approx. 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973. It is shown that analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting 228 Ra vs 226 Ra from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf. (author)

  17. Monitoring the deep western boundary current in the western North Pacific by echo intensity measured with lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Kanae; Nagano, Akira

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation of iron and manganese ions is predominant in the oxygen-rich deep western boundary current (DWBC) within the Pacific Ocean. By the faster removal of particulate iron hydroxide and manganese oxide, densities of the particulate matters are considered to be lower in the DWBC than the interior region. To detect the density variation of suspended particles between the DWBC and interior regions, we analyzed echo intensity (EI) measured in the western North Pacific by hydrographic casts with a 300 kHz lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) in a whole water column. At depths greater than 3000 m ( 3000 dbar), EI is almost uniformly low between 12°N and 30°N but peaks sharply from 30°N to 35°N to a maximum north of 35°N. EI is found to be anomalously low in the DWBC compared to the background distribution. The DWBC pathways are identifiable by the low EI and high dissolved oxygen concentration. EI data by LADCPs and other acoustic instruments may be used to observe the temporal variations of the DWBC pathways.

  18. Evaluation of Standard Concepts Design of Library Interior Physical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debri Harindya Putri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the function of a room is not only used as a shelter, the function of the room itself to be increased as a refreshing or relaxation area for users to follow the development of creativity and technology in the field of design. The comfortable factor becomes the main factor that indicates a successful process of creating a space. No exception library. The nature of library seemed stiff because of its function as a place to read, now can be developed and made into more dynamic with the special design concepts or color patterns used. Libraries can be created a special concept that suits the characteristics of the users themselves. Most users of the library, especially in college libraries are teenagers. Naturally, teenagers like to gather with their friends and we have to facilitate this activity in our library design concept. In addition we can also determine the needs of users through research by questionnaire method. The answers of users can be mapped and drawn conclusions. To explore the research, the author reviewed some literature about library interior design and observed the library of Ma Chung University as a case study. The combined results of the method can be concluded and the discovery of ideal standards of physical environment. So, the library can be made as a comfortable reading environment so as to increased interest in reading behavior and the frequent visits of students in the library

  19. Experimental Study of Interior Temperature Distribution Inside Parked Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Mohammed Ali Aljubury

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very important to provide comfortable conditions to the car passengers. Temperature inside the cabin will be increased, when the car is left or parked directly under the sunlight. Experimental studies were performed in Baghdad, Iraq (33.3 oN, 44.4 oE to investigate the effects of solar radiation on car cabin components (dashboard, steering wheel, seat, and inside air. The test vehicle was oriented to face south to ensure maximum (thermal sun load on the front windscreen. Six different parking conditions were investigated. A suggested car cover was examined experimentally. The measurements were recorded for clear sky summer days started at 8 A.M. till 5 P.M. Results show that interior air temperature in unshaded parked car reaches 70oC and dashboard temperature can approach 100 oC. While, cardboard car shade inside the car not reduce the air temperature inside it. Suggested car cover with 1 cm part-down side windows reduced temperature of cabin components by 70 % in average compare to the base case.

  20. Microbial Habitability and Pleistocene Aridification of the Asian Interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiuyi; Lowenstein, Tim K; Fang, Xiaomin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped in ancient halite can contain a community of halophilic prokaryotes and eukaryotes that inhabited the surface brines from which the halite formed. Long-term survival of bacteria and archaea and preservation of DNA have been reported from halite, but little is known about the distribution of microbes in buried evaporites. Here we report the discovery of prokaryotes and single-celled algae in fluid inclusions in Pleistocene halite, up to 2.26 Ma in age, from the Qaidam Basin, China. We show that water activity (aw), a measure of water availability and an environmental control on biological habitability in surface brines, is also related to microbe entrapment in fluid inclusions. The aw of Qaidam Basin brines progressively decreased over the last ∼1 million years, driven by aridification of the Asian interior, which led to decreased precipitation and water inflow and heightened evaporation rates. These changes in water balance produced highly concentrated brines, which reduced the habitability of surface lakes and decreased the number of microbes trapped in halite. By 0.13 Ma, the aw of surface brines approached the limits tolerated by halophilic prokaryotes and algae. These results show the response of microbial ecosystems to climate change in an extreme environment, which will guide future studies exploring deep life on Earth and elsewhere in the Solar System. Halite fluid inclusions-Ancient microbes-Water activity-Qaidam Basin-Pleistocene aridification. Astrobiology 16, 379-388.

  1. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Gulf Interior Region of the United States (Louisiana and Mississippi). Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Permian Basin in Texas) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in-situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homoqeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptural design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  2. Large deficiency of polonium in the oligotrophic ocean's interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Guebuem

    2001-09-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclide 210Po is typically deficient relative to its parent 210Pb in the surface ocean due to preferential removal by biota, while in near equilibrium or excess below the surface mixed layer due to rapid regeneration from sinking organic matter. However, a strikingly large deficit of 210Po is observed in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea's interior. This argues against the general concept that the removal of reactive elements depends on the population of settling particles. A 210Po mass balance model suggests that rather than downward transport, polonium (proxy for S, Se, and Te) is taken up efficiently by bacteria (i.e., cyanobacteria) and transferred to higher trophic levels (i.e., nekton) in this environment. In contrast, in productive areas of the ocean, sulfur group elements seem to reside in the subsurface ocean for much longer periods as taken up by abundant free-living bacteria (non-sinking fine particles). This study sheds new light on global biogeochemical cycling of sulfur group elements in association with microbial roles, and suggests that 210Po may be useful as a tracer of nitrogen fixation in the ocean.

  3. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  4. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER): Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Adkins, Phillip W.; Albert, Cheryl L.; Anders, John F.; Aylward, Andrew T.; Baker, Charles L.; Balsamo, Erin R.; Bamford, William A.; Benegalrao, Suyog S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During 2014 and 2015, NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission proceeded successfully through Phase C, Design and Development. An X-ray (0.2{12 keV) astrophysics payload destined for the International Space Station, NICER is manifested for launch in early 2017 on the Commercial Resupply Services SpaceX-11 flight. Its scientific objectives are to investigate the internal structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars, the densest objects in the universe. During Phase C, flight components including optics, detectors, the optical bench, pointing actuators, electronics, and others were subjected to environmental testing and integrated to form the flight payload. A custom-built facility was used to co-align and integrate the X-ray \\concentrator" optics and silicon-drift detectors. Ground calibration provided robust performance measures of the optical (at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center) and detector (at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) subsystems, while comprehensive functional tests prior to payload-level environmental testing met all instrument performance requirements. We describe here the implementation of NICER's major subsystems, summarize their performance and calibration, and outline the component-level testing that was successfully applied.

  5. Climate deteriorations and Neanderthal demise in interior Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D; Kolb, T; Alcaraz-Castaño, M; Heinrich, S; Baumgart, P; Calvo, R; Sánchez, J; Ryborz, K; Schäfer, I; Bliedtner, M; Zech, R; Zöller, L; Faust, D

    2018-05-04

    Time and circumstances for the disappearance of Neanderthals and its relationship with the advent of Modern Humans are not yet sufficiently resolved, especially in case of the Iberian Peninsula. Reconstructing palaeoenvironmental conditions during the last glacial period is crucial to clarifying whether climate deteriorations or competition and contacts with Modern Humans played the pivotal role in driving Neanderthals to extinction. A high-resolution loess record from the Upper Tagus Basin in central Spain demonstrates that the Neanderthal abandonment of inner Iberian territories 42 kyr ago coincided with the evolvement of hostile environmental conditions, while archaeological evidence testifies that this desertion took place regardless of modern humans' activities. According to stratigraphic findings and stable isotope analyses, this period corresponded to the driest environmental conditions of the last glacial apart from an even drier period linked to Heinrich Stadial 3. Our results show that during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4 and 2 climate deteriorations in interior Iberia temporally coincided with northern hemisphere cold periods (Heinrich stadials). Solely during the middle MIS 3, in a period surrounding 42 kyr ago, this relation seems not straightforward, which may demonstrate the complexity of terrestrial climate conditions during glacial periods.

  6. Ecosystem Carbon Emissions from 2015 Forest Fires in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2018-01-01

    In the summer of 2015, hundreds of wildfires burned across the state of Alaska, and consumed more than 1.6 million ha of boreal forest and wetlands in the Yukon-Koyukuk region. Mapping of 113 large wildfires using Landsat satellite images from before and after 2015 indicated that nearly 60% of this area was burned at moderate-to-high severity levels. Field measurements near the town of Tanana on the Yukon River were carried out in July of 2017 in both unburned and 2015 burned forested areas (nearly adjacent to one-another) to visually verify locations of different Landsat burn severity classes (low, moderate, or high). Results: Field measurements indicated that the loss of surface organic layers in boreal ecosystem fires is a major factor determining post-fire soil temperature changes, depth of thawing, and carbon losses from the mineral topsoil layer. Measurements in forest sites showed that soil temperature profiles to 30 cm depth at burned forest sites increased by an average of 8o - 10o C compared to unburned forest sites. Sampling and laboratory analysis indicated a 65% reduction in soil carbon content and a 58% reduction in soil nitrogen content in severely burned sample sites compared to soil mineral samples from nearby unburned spruce forests. Conclusions: Combined with nearly unprecedented forest areas severely burned in the Interior region of Alaska in 2015, total ecosystem fire emission of carbon to the atmosphere exceeded most previous estimates for the state.

  7. Aplikasi Kaca pada Perancangan Desain Interior dan Arsitektur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hartanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glass is a clear and see-through material that comes from SiO2, which is a form of sands heated to 2000oC until they are melted. Glass has its own characteristics, such as: hard, transparent, clear, and fragile. The use of glass can be applied in a wide range of building elements, for example: roofing, walling, flooring, window and door, even staircase elements. By this wide range of utilities, this material could be very useful in design process. It can provide a wider view for small room with a lot of partitions or wall. It is because this material allows the light passing trough the material. That’s why people are able to see what’s behind the glass and eyes can see-through although the glass wall is limited by the glass. Hopefully, the research about diversity of glasses will be useful for designer, architect, and community in interior design and architecture world. 

  8. Adaptive Feed-Forward Control of Low Frequency Interior Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Kletschkowski, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a mechatronic approach to Active Noise Control (ANC). It describes the required elements of system theory, engineering acoustics, electroacoustics and adaptive signal processing in a comprehensive, consistent and systematic manner using a unified notation. Furthermore, it includes a design methodology for ANC-systems, explains its application and describes tools to be used for ANC-system design. From the research point of view, the book presents new approaches to sound source localization in weakly damped interiors. One is based on the inverse finite element method, the other is based on a sound intensity probe with an active free field. Furthermore, a prototype of an ANC-system able to reach the physical limits of local (feed-forward) ANC is described. This is one example for applied research in ANC-system design. Other examples are given for (i) local ANC in a semi-enclosed subspace of an aircraft cargo hold and (ii) for the combination of audio entertainment with ANC.

  9. The interior structure of Ceres as revealed by surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Roger R.; Ermakov, Anton; Marchi, Simone; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Raymond, Carol A.; Hager, Bradford; Zuber, Maria; King, Scott D.; Bland, Michael T.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Preusker, Frank; Park, Ryan S.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Ceres, the largest body in the asteroid belt (940 km diameter), provides a unique opportunity to study the interior structure of a volatile-rich dwarf planet. Variations in a planetary body's subsurface rheology and density affect the rate of topographic relaxation. Preferential attenuation of long wavelength topography (≥150 km) on Ceres suggests that the viscosity of its crust decreases with increasing depth. We present finite element (FE) geodynamical simulations of Ceres to identify the internal structures and compositions that best reproduce its topography as observed by the NASA Dawn mission. We infer that Ceres has a mechanically strong crust with maximum effective viscosity ∼1025 Pa s. Combined with density constraints, this rheology suggests a crustal composition of carbonates or phyllosilicates, water ice, and at least 30 volume percent (vol.%) low-density, high-strength phases most consistent with salt and/or clathrate hydrates. The inference of these crustal materials supports the past existence of a global ocean, consistent with the observed surface composition. Meanwhile, we infer that the uppermost ≥60 km of the silicate-rich mantle is mechanically weak with viscosity <1021 Pa s, suggesting the presence of liquid pore fluids in this region and a low temperature history that avoided igneous differentiation due to late accretion or efficient heat loss through hydrothermal processes.

  10. Pre-Employment Laboratory Education. Home Furnishings/Interior Design Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This guidebook is designed for use in teaching students enrolled in pre-employment laboratory education (PELE) home furnishing/interior design programs. The first of two major sections includes an overview for teachers on planning, conducting, and evaluating a home furnishings/interior design program. Specific topics discussed in section 1 include…

  11. Cross-Cultural Socialization at Tibetan Classes (Schools) in the Interior: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longyan

    2010-01-01

    Education by means of the Tibetan Classes (schools) in "neidi," or China's interior regions (or the Tibet Class), was a creative measure in the history of China's ethnic minority education, and the cross-cultural growth and experiences of the Tibetan students as they went to school in China's interior regions was of special significance…

  12. 48 CFR 1415.406-70 - Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... price negotiation memorandum (PNM). 1415.406-70 Section 1415.406-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1415.406-70 Department of the Interior price negotiation memorandum (PNM). (a) Policy. In...

  13. Fire history and fire management implications in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Drury; P. J. Grissom

    2008-01-01

    We conducted this investigation in response to criticisms that the current Alaska Interagency Fire Management Plans are allowing too much of the landscape in interior Alaska to burn annually. To address this issue, we analyzed fire history patterns within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, interior Alaska. We dated 40 fires on 27 landscape points within the...

  14. 77 FR 11154 - Notice of Availability for the Eastern Interior Draft Resource Management Plan/Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... BLM will announce future meetings or hearings and any other public participation activities at least..., Attention--Eastern Interior Draft RMP/EIS, Bureau of Land Management, 1150 University Avenue, Fairbanks... interior Alaska and is divided into four geographic areas: The Fortymile, Steese, Upper Black River, and...

  15. On the complexity of a combined homotopy interior method for convex programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Xu, Qing; Feng, Guochen

    2007-03-01

    In [G.C. Feng, Z.H. Lin, B. Yu, Existence of an interior pathway to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point of a nonconvex programming problem, Nonlinear Anal. 32 (1998) 761-768; G.C. Feng, B. Yu, Combined homotopy interior point method for nonlinear programming problems, in: H. Fujita, M. Yamaguti (Eds.), Advances in Numerical Mathematics, Proceedings of the Second Japan-China Seminar on Numerical Mathematics, Lecture Notes in Numerical and Applied Analysis, vol. 14, Kinokuniya, Tokyo, 1995, pp. 9-16; Z.H. Lin, B. Yu, G.C. Feng, A combined homotopy interior point method for convex programming problem, Appl. Math. Comput. 84 (1997) 193-211.], a combined homotopy was constructed for solving non-convex programming and convex programming with weaker conditions, without assuming the logarithmic barrier function to be strictly convex and the solution set to be bounded. It was proven that a smooth interior path from an interior point of the feasible set to a K-K-T point of the problem exists. This shows that combined homotopy interior point methods can solve the problem that commonly used interior point methods cannot solveE However, so far, there is no result on its complexity, even for linear programming. The main difficulty is that the objective function is not monotonically decreasing on the combined homotopy path. In this paper, by taking a piecewise technique, under commonly used conditions, polynomiality of a combined homotopy interior point method is given for convex nonlinear programming.

  16. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Van Straaten, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  17. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  18. Differences in human versus lightning fires between urban and rural areas of the boreal forest in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calef, Monika; Varvak, Anna; McGuire, A. David

    2017-01-01

    In western North America, the carbon-rich boreal forest is experiencing warmer temperatures, drier conditions and larger and more frequent wildfires. However, the fire regime is also affected by direct human activities through suppression, ignition, and land use changes. Models are important predictive tools for understanding future conditions but they are based on regional generalizations of wildfire behavior and weather that do not adequately account for the complexity of human–fire interactions. To achieve a better understanding of the intensity of human influence on fires in this sparsely populated area and to quantify differences between human and lightning fires, we analyzed fires by both ignition types in regard to human proximity in urban (the Fairbanks subregion) and rural areas of interior Alaska using spatial (Geographic Information Systems) and quantitative analysis methods. We found substantial differences in drivers of wildfire: while increases in fire ignitions and area burned were caused by lightning in rural interior Alaska, in the Fairbanks subregion these increases were due to human fires, especially in the wildland urban interface. Lightning fires are starting earlier and fires are burning longer, which is much more pronounced in the Fairbanks subregion than in rural areas. Human fires differed from lightning fires in several ways: they started closer to settlements and highways, burned for a shorter duration, were concentrated in the Fairbanks subregion, and often occurred outside the brief seasonal window for lightning fires. This study provides important insights that improve our understanding of the direct human influence on recently observed changes in wildfire regime with implications for both fire modeling and fire management.

  19. Differences in Human versus Lightning Fires between Urban and Rural Areas of the Boreal Forest in Interior Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika P. Calef

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In western North America, the carbon-rich boreal forest is experiencing warmer temperatures, drier conditions and larger and more frequent wildfires. However, the fire regime is also affected by direct human activities through suppression, ignition, and land use changes. Models are important predictive tools for understanding future conditions but they are based on regional generalizations of wildfire behavior and weather that do not adequately account for the complexity of human–fire interactions. To achieve a better understanding of the intensity of human influence on fires in this sparsely populated area and to quantify differences between human and lightning fires, we analyzed fires by both ignition types in regard to human proximity in urban (the Fairbanks subregion and rural areas of interior Alaska using spatial (Geographic Information Systems and quantitative analysis methods. We found substantial differences in drivers of wildfire: while increases in fire ignitions and area burned were caused by lightning in rural interior Alaska, in the Fairbanks subregion these increases were due to human fires, especially in the wildland urban interface. Lightning fires are starting earlier and fires are burning longer, which is much more pronounced in the Fairbanks subregion than in rural areas. Human fires differed from lightning fires in several ways: they started closer to settlements and highways, burned for a shorter duration, were concentrated in the Fairbanks subregion, and often occurred outside the brief seasonal window for lightning fires. This study provides important insights that improve our understanding of the direct human influence on recently observed changes in wildfire regime with implications for both fire modeling and fire management.

  20. The evolution of interior intrusion detection technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    Interior Intrusion Detection Technology began at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in 1975 as part of the Fixed Facilities Physical Protection Research and Development program sponsored by the US Department of Energy in connection with their nuclear safeguards effort. This paper describes the evolution of Interior Intrusion Detection Technology at Sandia National Laboratories from the beginning of the Interior Sensor Laboratory to the present. This Laboratory was established in 1976 to evaluate commercial interior intrusion sensors and to assist in site-specific intrusion detection system designs. Examples of special test techniques and new test equipment that were developed at the Lab are presented, including the Sandia Intruder Motion Simulator (SIMS), the Sensor and Environment Monitor (SEM), and the Sandia Interior Robot (SIR). We also discuss new sensors and unique sensor combination developed when commercial sensors were unavailable and the future application of expert systems. 5 refs

  1. The evolution of Interior Intrusion Detection Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    Interior Intrusion Detection Technology began at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in 1975 as part of the Fixed Facilities Physical Protection Research and Development program sponsored by the US Department of Energy in connection with their nuclear safeguards effort. This paper describes the evolution of Interior Intrusion Detection Technology at Sandia National Laboratories from the beginning of the Interior Sensor Laboratory to the present. This Laboratory was established in 1976 to evaluate commercial interior intrusion sensors and to assist in site-specific intrusion detection system designs. Examples of special test techniques and new test equipment that were developed at the Lab are presented, including the Sandia Intruder Motion Simulator (SIMS), the Sensor and Environment Monitor (SEM), and the Sandia Interior Robot (SIR). We also discuss new sensors and unique sensor combinations developed when commercial sensors were unavailable and the future application of expert systems

  2. The evolution of interior intrusion detection technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Interior Intrusion Detection Technology began at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in 1975 as part of the Fixed Facilities Physical Protection Research and Development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy in connection with their nuclear safeguards effort. This paper describes the evolution of Interior Intrusion Detection Technology at Sandia National Laboratories from the beginning of the Interior Sensor Laboratory to the present. This Laboratory was established in 1976 to evaluate commercial interior intrusion sensors and to assist in site-specific intrusion detection system designs. Examples of special test techniques and new test equipment that were developed at the Lab are presented, including the Sandia Intruder Motion Simulator (SIMS), the Sensor and Environment Monitor (SEM), and the Sandia Interior Robot (SIR). The authors also discuss new sensors and unique sensor combinations developed when commercial sensors were unavailable and the future application of expert systems

  3. Iodine-123 in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinreich, R.

    1976-08-01

    The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123 I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  5. The western Veil nebula (Image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, M.

    2009-12-01

    The western Veil nebula in Cygnus. 15-part mosaic by Mike Glenny, Gloucestershire, taken over several months mostly in the autumn of 2008. 200mm LX90/f10 autoguided, Meade UHC filter, 0.3xFR/FF, Canon 20Da DSLR. Exposures each typically 10x360 secs at ISO1600, processed in Registax4, PixInsight (for flat field correction) & Photoshop CS.

  6. Ethics, Gesture and the Western

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Minden

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates the Western Movie to Agamben’s implied gestural zone between intention and act. Film is important in the realisation of this zone because it was the first means of representation to capture the body in movement. The Western movie explores the space of ethical indistinction between the acts of individual fighters and the establishment of a rule of law, or putting this another way, between violence and justice. Two classic examples of an archetypal Western plot (Shane, 1953 and Unforgiven, 1991 that particularly embodies this are cited. In both a gunfighter who has forsworn violence at the start is led by the circumstances of the plot to take it up once more at the conclusion. In these terms all the gestures contained between these beginning- and end-points are analysable as an ethics of gesture because, captured as gestures, they occupy the human space between abstraction and action, suspended between them, and reducible to neither.  David Foster Wallace's definition of this narrative arc in Infinite Jest (and embodied in it is adduced in order to suggest a parallel between Agamben's notion of an ethics of gesture, and an ethics of genre.

  7. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  8. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  9. Vegetation Change in Interior Alaska Over the Last Four Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, H.; Dewitz, J.; Cristobal, J.; Prakash, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic has become a generally warmer place over the past decades leading to earlier snowmelt, permafrost degradation and changing plant communities. One area in particular, vegetation change, is responding relatively rapidly to climate change, impacting the surrounding environment with changes to forest fire regime, forest type, forest resiliency, habitat availability for subsistence flora and fauna, hydrology, among others. To quantify changes in vegetation in the interior Alaska boreal forest over the last four decades, this study uses the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) decision-tree based classification methods, using both C5 and ERDAS Imagine software, to classify Landsat Surface Reflectance Images into the following NLCD-consistent vegetation classes: planted, herbaceous, shrubland, and forest (deciduous, evergreen and mixed). The results of this process are a total of four vegetation cover maps, that are freely accessible to the public, one for each decade in the 1980's, 1990's, 2000's, and a current map for 2017. These maps focus on Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding area covering approximately 36,140 square miles. The maps are validated with over 4,000 ground truth points collected through organizations such as the Landfire Project and the Long Term Ecological Research Network, as well as vegetation and soil spectra collected from the study area concurrent with the Landsat satellite over-passes with a Spectral Evolution PSR+ 3500 spectro-radiometer (0.35 - 2.5 μm). We anticipate these maps to be viewed by a wide user-community and may aid in preparing the residents of Alaska for changes in their subsistence food sources and will contribute to the scientific community in understanding the variety of changes that can occur in response to changing vegetation.

  10. Composition of the Earth's interior: the importance of early events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Richard W; Boyet, Maud

    2008-11-28

    The detection of excess 142Nd caused by the decay of 103Ma half-life 146Sm in all terrestrial rocks compared with chondrites shows that the chondrite analogue compositional model cannot be strictly correct, at least for the accessible portion of the Earth. Both the continental crust (CC) and the mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) originate from the material characterized by superchondritic 142Nd/144Nd. Thus, the mass balance of CC plus mantle depleted by crust extraction (the MORB-source mantle) does not sum back to chondritic compositions, but instead to a composition with Sm/Nd ratio sufficiently high to explain the superchondritic 142Nd/144Nd. This requires that the mass of mantle depleted by CC extraction expand to 75-100 per cent of the mantle depending on the composition assumed for average CC. If the bulk silicate Earth has chondritic relative abundances of the refractory lithophile elements, then there must exist within the Earth's interior an incompatible-element-enriched reservoir that contains roughly 40 per cent of the Earth's 40Ar and heat-producing radioactive elements. The existence of this enriched reservoir is demonstrated by time-varying 142Nd/144Nd in Archaean crustal rocks. Calculations of the mass of the enriched reservoir along with seismically determined properties of the D'' layer at the base of the mantle allow the speculation that this enriched reservoir formed by the sinking of dense melts deep in a terrestrial magma ocean. The enriched reservoir may now be confined to the base of the mantle owing to a combination of compositionally induced high density and low viscosity, both of which allow only minimal entrainment into the overlying convecting mantle.

  11. Measuring the opacity of stellar interior matter in terrestrial laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James

    2015-11-01

    How does energy propagate from the core to the surface of the Sun, where it emerges to warm the Earth? Nearly a century ago Eddington recognized that the attenuation of radiation by stellar matter controls the internal structure of stars like the sun. Opacities for high energy density (HED) matter are challenging to calculate because accurate and complete descriptions of the energy levels, populations, and plasma effects such as continuum lowering and line broadening are needed for partially ionized atoms. This requires approximations, in part because billions of bound-bound and bound-free electronic transitions can contribute to the opacity. Opacity calculations, however, have never been benchmarked against laboratory measurements at stellar interior conditions. Laboratory opacity measurements were limited in the past by the challenges of creating and diagnosing sufficiently large and uniform samples at the extreme conditions found inside stars. In research conducted over more than 10 years, we developed an experimental platform on the Z facility and measured wavelength-resolved iron opacity at electron temperatures Te = 156-195 eV and densities ne = 0.7-4.0 x 1022 cm-3 - conditions very similar to the radiation/convection boundary zone within the Sun. The wavelength-dependent opacity in the 975-1775 eV photon energy range is 30-400% higher than models predict. This raises questions about how well we understand the behavior of atoms in HED plasma. These measurements may also help resolve decade-old discrepancies between solar model predictions and helioseismic observations. This talk will provide an overview of the measurements, investigations of possible errors, and ongoing experiments aimed at testing hypotheses to resolve the model-data discrepancy. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Simulation of the planetary interior differentiation processes in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yingwei

    2013-11-15

    A planetary interior is under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions and it has a layered structure. There are two important processes that led to that layered structure, (1) percolation of liquid metal in a solid silicate matrix by planet differentiation, and (2) inner core crystallization by subsequent planet cooling. We conduct high-pressure and high-temperature experiments to simulate both processes in the laboratory. Formation of percolative planetary core depends on the efficiency of melt percolation, which is controlled by the dihedral (wetting) angle. The percolation simulation includes heating the sample at high pressure to a target temperature at which iron-sulfur alloy is molten while the silicate remains solid, and then determining the true dihedral angle to evaluate the style of liquid migration in a crystalline matrix by 3D visualization. The 3D volume rendering is achieved by slicing the recovered sample with a focused ion beam (FIB) and taking SEM image of each slice with a FIB/SEM crossbeam instrument. The second set of experiments is designed to understand the inner core crystallization and element distribution between the liquid outer core and solid inner core by determining the melting temperature and element partitioning at high pressure. The melting experiments are conducted in the multi-anvil apparatus up to 27 GPa and extended to higher pressure in the diamond-anvil cell with laser-heating. We have developed techniques to recover small heated samples by precision FIB milling and obtain high-resolution images of the laser-heated spot that show melting texture at high pressure. By analyzing the chemical compositions of the coexisting liquid and solid phases, we precisely determine the liquidus curve, providing necessary data to understand the inner core crystallization process.

  13. Constraints on Super-Earth Interiors from Stellar Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, B.; Mousis, O.; Deleuil, M.; Deschamps, F.

    2017-11-01

    Modeling the interior of exoplanets is essential to go further than the conclusions provided by mean density measurements. In addition to the still limited precision on the planets’ fundamental parameters, models are limited by the existence of degeneracies on their compositions. Here, we present a model of internal structure dedicated to the study of solid planets up to ˜10 Earth masses, I.e., super-Earths. When the measurement is available, the assumption that the bulk Fe/Si ratio of a planet is similar to that of its host star allows us to significantly reduce the existing degeneracy and more precisely constrain the planet’s composition. Based on our model, we provide an update of the mass-radius relationships used to provide a first estimate of a planet’s composition from density measurements. Our model is also applied to the cases of two well-known exoplanets, CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b, using their recently updated parameters. The core mass fractions of CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b are found to lie within the 10%-37% and 10%-33% ranges, respectively, allowing both planets to be compatible with an Earth-like composition. We also extend the recent study of Proxima Centauri b and show that its radius may reach 1.94 {R}\\oplus in the case of a 5 {M}\\oplus planet, as there is a 96.7% probability that the real mass of Proxima Centauri b is below this value.

  14. Intestinal parasites among young children in the interior of Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, J F; Validum, L; Ager, A L; Campa, A; Cuadrado, R R; Cummings, R; Palmer, C J

    2002-03-01

    Intestinal parasites contribute greatly to morbidity in developing countries. While there have been several studies of the problem in the Caribbean, including the implementation of control programmes, this has not been done for Guyana. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among young children in a town located in the interior of Guyana. Eighty-five children under the age of 12 years were studied prospectively for intestinal parasites in Mahdia, Guyana. Stool samples were transported in formalin to the Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, for analysis using the formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Data on age and gender of the children were recorded on field data sheets. At least one intestinal parasite was detected in 43.5% (37/85) of the children studied and multiple parasitic infections were recorded in 21.2% (18/85). The most common intestinal helminth parasite was hookworm (28.2%; 24/85), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.8%; 16/85) and then Trichuris trichuria (14.1%; 12/85). Among the protozoan infections Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.5% (9/85) of the study population while Entamoeba histolytica appeared rarely. All stool samples were negative for Cryptosporidium and other intestinal Coccidia. There was no predilection for gender with any of the parasites. The pattern of distribution of worms in this area of Guyana was unlike that seen in other studies. Hookworm infection was the most common among the children and a large proportion had multiple infections. The study established the occurrence and prevalence of a number of intestinal parasites in the population of Guyana. This sets the stage for the design and implementation of more detailed epidemiological studies.

  15. Annosus Root disease of Western Conifers (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Schmitt; John R. Parmeter; John T. Kliejunas

    2000-01-01

    Annosus root disease is found on all western conifer species but is of most concern on true firs, hemlocks, and pines. Incense cedar, coast redwood and sequoia are sometimes infected in California. Western juniper is infected throughout its range. Annosus is common and causes extensive decay in old-growth western and mountain hemlock stands. Many mixed conifer stands...

  16. Women and Islam in the Western Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vintges, K.; Ennaji, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on recent debates on women and Islam as framed in the Western media. The first section discusses the way these debates are organized through the presentations and self-presentations of Muslim women in the Western media. The second section (titled “The Restyling of Western

  17. Map Showing Geologic Terranes of the Hailey 1°x2° Quadrangle and the western part of the Idaho Falls 1°x2° Quadrangle, south-central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The paper version of Map Showing Geologic Terranes of the Hailey 1°x2° Quadrangle and the western part of the Idaho Falls 1°x2° Quadrangle, south-central Idaho was...

  18. A simplified model of dynamic interior cooling load evaluation for office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Min; He, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The core interior disturbance was determined by principle component analysis. • Influences of occupants on cooling load should be described using time series. • A simplified model was built to evaluate dynamic interior building cooling load. - Abstract: Predicted cooling load is a valuable tool for assessing the operation of air-conditioning systems. Compared with exterior cooling load, interior cooling load is more unpredictable. According to principle components analysis, occupancy was proved to be a typical factor influencing interior cooling loads in buildings. By exploring the regularity of interior disturbances in an office building, a simplified evaluation model for interior cooling load was established in this paper. The stochastic occupancy rate was represented by a Markov transition model. Equipment power, lighting power and fresh air were all related to occupancy rate based on time sequence. The superposition of different types of interior cooling loads was also considered in the evaluation model. The error between the evaluation results and measurement results was found to be lower than 10%. In reference to the cooling loads calculated by the traditional design method and area-based method in case study office rooms, the evaluated cooling loads were suitable for operation regulation.

  19. Interior seeding for the fabrication of single-grain REBCO bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C-J; Park, S-D; Jun, B-H; Park, H-W

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new seeding technique, named ‘interior seeding’ which allows the growth of a single REBCO (RE: rare-earth elements) grain in the interior of REBCO compacts. The key techniques of interior seeding are to provide appropriate open space for seeds in the interior of REBCO powder compacts to supply air or oxygen to the seeds, and to minimize the contact area between the seeds and liquid. The advantages of interior seeding are as follows: (1) simultaneous growth from the seed to the top and bottom of the REBCO compacts is possible, (2) fractions of the a-b growth sector and the a-c growth sector on the top surface can be controlled and (3) the top surfaces of the single-grain REBCO bulk superconductors are free from samarium or neodymium contamination from the used seeds. The very large single-grain Y 1.5 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7−y (Y1.5) bulk superconductors (42 mm) were successfully fabricated using a melt growth (MG) process combined with interior seeding. Also, large-grain Y1.5 bulk superconductors (41 mm) with 〈110〉/〈110〉 and 〈100〉/〈100〉 grain junctions were fabricated using multiple interior seeding. In this paper, the detailed process of interior seeding, the development of top surface patterns and the properties of single-grain Y123 bulk superconductors fabricated using interior seeding were reported. (paper)

  20. Interior Design Styles and Socio-demographic Characteristics in Egypt: From the concept of Zeitgeist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interior design plays an important role in reflecting the social and cultural environments of countries and showing the characteristics of the age. The previous literature has suggested that people’s preferences for interior design styles are influenced by social distinctions, based on education level and age. In this study, we have argued more precisely socio – demographic factors (gender, age, income, major and city that affect the Egyptians’ preferences for interior design styles, and have discussed to what extent do the people preferences reflect Zeitgeist in Egypt. The findings supported the idea that socio-demographic factors can explain people’s design preferences.

  1. The complexity of interior point methods for solving discounted turn-based stochastic games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    for general 2TBSGs. This implies that a number of interior point methods can be used to solve 2TBSGs. We consider two such algorithms: the unified interior point method of Kojima, Megiddo, Noma, and Yoshise, and the interior point potential reduction algorithm of Kojima, Megiddo, and Ye. The algorithms run...... states and discount factor γ we get κ=Θ(n(1−γ)2) , −δ=Θ(n√1−γ) , and 1/θ=Θ(n(1−γ)2) in the worst case. The lower bounds for κ, − δ, and 1/θ are all obtained using the same family of deterministic games....

  2. The Barriers and Causes of Building Information Modelling Usage for Interior Design Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. B. Abd; Taib, M. Z. Mohd; Razak, A. H. N. Abdul; Embi, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) has since developed alongside the improvement in the construction industry, purposely to simulate the design, management, construction and documentation. It facilitates and monitors the construction through visualization and emphasizes on various inputs to virtually design and construct a building using specific software. This study aims to identify and elaborate barriers of BIM usage in interior design industry in Malaysia. This study is initiated with a pilot survey utilising sixteen respondents that has been randomly chosen. Respondents are attached with interior design firms that are registered by Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM). The research findings are expected to provide significant information to encourage BIM adoption among interior design firms.

  3. Electrical conductivity of the lunar interior - Theory, error sources, and estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, B. E.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior were previously obtained by comparison of magnetometer data at the lunar surface and in near lunar space. In studies based on solar wind observations, IR was assumed that fields induced in the lunar interior by time-varying external fields are confined by the solar wind within the lunar interior on the dayside and within a cylindrical plasma cavity on the nightside. In the present paper, the induced fields are calculated for a more realistic conical plasma cavity geometry.

  4. Photorealistic lighting and rendering of a small apartment interior : a case study with 3DS Max and V-Ray

    OpenAIRE

    Kämä, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the process of creating photorealistic lighting for a small apartment interior and the process of rendering that interior. Both nighttime and daytime lighting was created for the 3D interior scene modeled beforehand. The 3D interior scene was comprised the walls, windows and the largest furniture of the apartment excluding the bathroom. The theoretical section of the thesis focuses on different settings and features which in combination influence...

  5. Constraining the volatile budget of the lunar interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, N. J.; Bromiley, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of volatiles (F, Cl, S, H2O) in a range of lunar samples confirm the presence of volatile material in lunar magmas. It remains unknown, however, where this volatile material is stored and when it was delivered to the Moon. On Earth, point defects within mantle olivine, and its high-pressure polymorphs, are thought to be the largest reservoir of volatile material. However, as volatiles have been cycled into and out of the Earth's mantle throughout geological time, via subduction and volcanism, this masks any original volatile signatures. As the Moon has no plate tectonics, it is expected that any volatile material present in the deep lunar interior would have been inherited during accretion and differentiation, providing insight into the delivery of volatiles to the early Earth-Moon system. Our aim was, therefore, to test the volatile storage capacity of the deep lunar mantle and determine mineral/melt partitioning for key volatiles. Experiments were performed in a primitive lunar mantle composition and run at relevant T, P, and at fO2 below the IW buffer. Experiments replicated the initial stages of LMO solidification with either olivine + melt, olivine + pyroxene + melt, or pyroxene + melt as the only phases present. Mineral-melt partition coefficients (Dx) derived for volatile material (F, Cl, S, H2O) vary significantly compared to those derived for terrestrial conditions. An order of magnitude more H2O was found to partition into lunar olivine compared to the terrestrial upper mantle. DF derived for lunar olivine are comparable to the highest terrestrial derived values whilst no Cl was found to partition into lunar olivine under these conditions. Furthermore, an inverse trend between DF and DOH hints towards coupled-substitution mechanisms between H and F under low-fO2/lunar bulk composition. These results suggest that if volatile material was present in the LMO a significant proportion could be partitioned into the lower lunar mantle. The

  6. Water in the Earth's Interior: Distribution and Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Schönbächler, Maria; Busemann, Henner; Karato, Shun-Ichiro

    2017-10-01

    The concentration and distribution of water in the Earth has influenced its evolution throughout its history. Even at the trace levels contained in the planet's deep interior (mantle and core), water affects Earth's thermal, deformational, melting, electrical and seismic properties, that control differentiation, plate tectonics and volcanism. These in turn influenced the development of Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and life. In addition to the ubiquitous presence of water in the hydrosphere, most of Earth's "water" actually occurs as trace amounts of hydrogen incorporated in the rock-forming silicate minerals that constitute the planet's crust and mantle, and may also be stored in the metallic core. The heterogeneous distribution of water in the Earth is the result of early planetary differentiation into crust, mantle and core, followed by remixing of lithosphere into the mantle after plate-tectonics started. The Earth's total water content is estimated at 18_{-15}^{+81} times the equivalent mass of the oceans (or a concentration of 3900_{-3300}^{+32700} ppm weight H2O). Uncertainties in this estimate arise primarily from the less-well-known concentrations for the lower mantle and core, since samples for water analyses are only available from the crust, the upper mantle and very rarely from the mantle transition zone (410-670 km depth). For the lower mantle (670-2900 km) and core (2900-4500 km), the estimates rely on laboratory experiments and indirect geophysical techniques (electrical conductivity and seismology). The Earth's accretion likely started relatively dry because it mainly acquired material from the inner part of the proto-planetary disk, where temperatures were too high for the formation and accretion of water ice. Combined evidence from several radionuclide systems (Pd-Ag, Mn-Cr, Rb-Sr, U-Pb) suggests that water was not incorporated in the Earth in significant quantities until the planet had grown to ˜60-90% of its current size, while core formation

  7. Shock Wave Propagation in Layered Planetary Interiors: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Monteux, J.

    2017-12-01

    The end of the terrestrial planet accretion is characterized by numerous large impacts. About 90% of the mass of a large planet is accreted while the core mantle separation is occurring, because of the accretionary and the short-lived radio-isotope heating. The characteristics of the shockwave propagation, hence the existing scaling laws are poorly known within the layered planets. Here, we use iSALE-2D hydrocode simulations to calculate shock pressure in a differentiated Mars type body for impact velocities of 5-20 km/s, and impactor sizes of 100-400 km. We use two different rheologies for the target interior, an inviscid model ("no-stress model") and a pressure and damage-dependent strength model ("elaborated model"). To better characterize the shock pressure within the whole mantle as a function of distance from the impact site, we propose the following distribution: (1) a near field zone larger than the isobaric core that extends to 7-15 times the projectile radius into the target, where the peak shock pressure decays exponentially with increasing distance, (2) a far field zone where the pressure decays with distance following a power law. The shock pressure decreases more rapidly with distance in the near field for the elaborated model than for the no-stress model because of the influence of acoustic fluidization and damage. However to better illustrate the influence of the rheology on the shock propagation, we use the same expressions to fit the shock pressure with distance for both models. At the core-mantle boundary, CMB, the peak shock pressure jumps as the shock wave enters the core. We derived the boundary condition at CMB for the peak shock pressure. It is less sensitive to the impact velocity or the impactor size, but strongly depends on the rheology of the planet's mantle. Because of the lower shock wave velocity in the core compared to that in the mantle, the refracted shockwave propagates toward the symmetry axis of the planet, and the shock

  8. Diagnosing Atmospheric Influences on the Interannual 18O/16O Variations in Western U.S. Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yoshimura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many climate proxies in geological archives are dependent on the isotopic content of precipitation (δ18Op, which over sub-annual timescales has been linked to temperature, condensation height, atmospheric circulation, and post-condensation exchanges in the western U.S. However, many proxies do not resolve temporal changes finer than interannual-scales. This study explores causes of the interannual variations in δ18Op within the western U.S. Simulations with the Isotope-incorporated Global Spectral Model (IsoGSM revealed an amplifying influence of post-condensation exchanges (i.e., raindrop evaporation and vapor equilibration on interannual δ18Op variations throughout the western U.S. Mid-latitude and subtropical vapor tagging simulations showed that the influence of moisture advection on δ18Op was relatively strong in the Pacific Northwest, but weak over the rest of the western U.S. The vapor tags correlated well with interannual variations in the 18O/16O composition of vapor, an indication that isotopes in vapor trace atmospheric circulation. However, vertical-tagging simulations revealed a strong influence of condensation height on δ18Op in California. In the interior of the western U.S., a strong temperature effect was found only after annual mean temperatures were weighted by monthly precipitation totals. These multiple influences on δ18Op complicate interpretations of western U.S. climate proxies that are derived from isotopes in precipitation.

  9. Western Areas new U plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    On March 30, 1982 Western Areas Gold Mining Company Limited's uranium plant was officialy opened. The plant is designed to treat 100 000t/month of uranium bearing ore. The majority of this ore is from the Middle Elsburg series, while the miner part comes from routing upgrated Upper Elsburg products into the uranium plant treatment route. The forward leach concept of gold and uranium extraction is adopted, i.e. the gold is extracted before the uranium. The flow of work, instrumentation, electrical installation and other facilities at the plant are also discussed

  10. Nuclear power in western society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1977-01-01

    The degree to which problems of public acceptance have contributed to the slowdown in progress of nuclear power in Western European countries and the USA is discussed. Some of the effects on the nuclear power industry, i.e. the electrical utilities, the power station suppliers, and the fuel cycle contractors are described. The problem of the lack of public acceptance is examined by consideration of four areas: the position of the employee working in nuclear installations, opposition from the local community, the question of terrorism and its impact on nuclear policy, and finally, what is felt to constitute the greatest anxiety concerning nuclear power, that of proliferation. (U.K.)

  11. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-02-16

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance.

  12. Exploring Socio-Technical Features of Green Interior Design of Residential Buildings: Indicators, Interdependence and Embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the boundaries of green interior design were identified with respect to three dimensions, namely performance, methodology and stakeholders. The socio-technical systems approach argues for the recognition of the interdependence between the systems elements and the feature of embeddedness. The interdependence of the systems elements exists within each of these three dimensions and across them. It is also found that the socio-technical systems of green interior design are embedded in the social, regulatory and geographic context. Taking interior design of residential buildings as the empirical setting, this study contributes to the literature of green building assessment by presenting a socio-technical systems approach.

  13. Apply 3D model on the customized product color combination for the interior decoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheih-Ying

    2013-03-01

    The customized product color interface for the interior decoration is designed to simulate the display of various color combination sofas in the interior of the room. There are 144 color combinations of the spatial image resulted from four the interior rooms and 36 popular color sofas. The image compositing technique is adopted to appear the 144 color combinations of the spatial image on computer screen. This study tests the experience of using the interface by the questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction (QUIS). The results show that the high grade of evaluation items including wonderful, easy, satisfying, stimulating and flexible for the experience of users. Therefore, the entrepreneur who wants to display the color primarily commodity could using the customized color combination interface with 3D models for consumers to take opportunity to find the appropriate products to meet with the interior room, so as to shorten communication time between entrepreneurs and consumers.

  14. A constitutive model of nanocrystalline metals based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Gurses, Ercan; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a viscoplastic constitutive model for nanocrystalline metals is presented. The model is based on competing grain boundary and grain interior deformation mechanisms. In particular, inelastic deformations caused by grain boundary

  15. Venus Interior Probe Using In-situ Power and Propulsion (VIP-INSPR), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We envision a novel architecture for Venus Interior Probes based on in-situ resources for power generation (VIP-INSPR). Proposed Venus probe is based on the...

  16. On the Convergence of the Iteration Sequence in Primal-Dual Interior-Point Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tapia, Richard A; Zhang, Yin; Ye, Yinyu

    1993-01-01

    Recently, numerous research efforts, most of them concerned with superlinear convergence of the duality gap sequence to zero in the Kojima-Mizuno-Yoshise primal-dual interior-point method for linear...

  17. Divergence-Conforming Discontinuous Galerkin Methods and $C^0$ Interior Penalty Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Kanschat, Guido; Sharma, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. In this paper, we show that recently developed divergence-conforming methods for the Stokes problem have discrete stream functions. These stream functions in turn solve a continuous interior

  18. Design analysis report for the 244-AR vault Interim Stabilization interior transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to verify that the 244-AR Vault Interior Transfer System piping installed in the vault meets ASME B31.3 code requirements. This calculation also evaluates the pipe support loads

  19. Constraint-aware interior layout exploration for pre-cast concrete-based buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Han; Yang, Yongliang; AlHalawani, Sawsan; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2013-01-01

    Creating desirable layouts of building interiors is a complex task as designers have to manually adhere to various local and global considerations arising from competing practical and design considerations. In this work, we present an interactive

  20. Learning through Nomadic Interiors - Villa Rotonda through the lenses of Heterotopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    in a series of nomadic interiors allowing the students to travel in time and place; from Palladio to the 14th Architectural Biennale and from Vincenza to Venice. In the paper we use Foucaults concept of Heterotopia to analyze how a window in 1:10 from the south façade of Villa Rotonda now re-designed......The question of the critical role of our built heritage to the complex and interdisciplinary processes that govern the current development of the built environment define a continuous challenge in interior studies and education: Can a study of the fundamental interior elements of Villa Rotonda...... of human geography as elaborated by Foucault and apply it on a project developed and exhibited on the 14th International Architecture Biennale in Venice that focused on the current need to develop Urban Farming strategies. Here an interdisciplinary team of students analyzed fundamental interior elements...