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Sample records for western highland regions

  1. Mars: Stratigraphy of Western Highlands and Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.; Tuesink, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies of Mars based on Viking images improved knowledge of the relative age and occurrence of geologic units on a global scale. Densities of geologic units or features during the Noarchian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods are indicated for the North and South polar regions as well as the equatorial region of Mars. Cumulative counts of crater size frequencies for craters larger than 2 km in diameter on plateau units mapped in the western region of Mars counts indicate that the plateau terrain as a whole was thinly resurfaced during the Hesperian Period, and a large proportion of pre-existing craters less than 10 to 15 km in diameter was buried. The formation of northern plains, subpolar highlands, and both polar regions is also described.

  2. Regional and local maize seed exchange and replacement in the western highlands of Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.; Bruin, de S.

    2007-01-01

    Regional distributions of crop diversity are important to take into account for the spatial design of in situ, farmer-participatory interventions in crop genetic management. Regional seed flows are an important factor in shaping geographical distributions of crop diversity. This study contributes to

  3. Maize Diversity, Market Access, and Poverty Reduction in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hellin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The western highlands of Guatemala lie within the area where maize was first domesticated, and maize remains central to farmers' livelihood security. Over 50% of the population in the region are in poverty, and over 48% suffer from chronic malnutrition. Development efforts have focused on improved land management, crop diversification, and improved access to markets, especially for high-value vegetable crops such as snow peas. As a result of successful initiatives worldwide, more attention is being directed at the extent to which farmers can benefit from market opportunities for indigenous crops by receiving a price premium for providing the environmental service of conserving agricultural biodiversity. Such an approach bridges the gap between poverty alleviation and in situ conservation. We explored this potential development pathway through both qualitative and quantitative research. Focus groups were conducted in 5 communities in the maize-growing highlands of Guatemala, followed by a survey of 989 farm households in 59 locations. Our results show that most farmers in the western highlands of Guatemala are severely maize deficient; on average, farm households produce enough maize for only 6.9 months of consumption a year and are forced to purchase maize to meet basic consumption needs. The results are in sharp contrast to research conducted in highland communities in neighboring Mexico, where many farmers are able to sell their maize in relatively lucrative specialty maize markets. In the context of renewed interest in reducing poverty in Central America, our research suggests that rather than focus on market development for local maize varieties, development efforts should target other types of interventions.

  4. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using χ2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the

  5. Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A

    2008-09-01

    Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.

  6. 27 CFR 9.122 - Western Connecticut Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highlands. 9.122 Section 9.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... (Litchfield-Hartford-New Haven County line); (6) The boundary then travels approximately 7 miles west along the Litchfield-New Haven County line to Connecticut Route #8 at Waterville in the Town of Waterbury...

  7. Factors associated with high heterogeneity of malaria at fine spatial scale in the Western Kenyan highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidjoe, Amrish Y; Stevenson, Jennifer; Knight, Philip; Stone, William; Stresman, Gillian; Osoti, Victor; Makori, Euniah; Owaga, Chrispin; Odongo, Wycliffe; China, Pauline; Shagari, Shehu; Kariuki, Simon; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Bousema, Teun

    2016-06-04

    The East African highlands are fringe regions between stable and unstable malaria transmission. What factors contribute to the heterogeneity of malaria exposure on different spatial scales within larger foci has not been extensively studied. In a comprehensive, community-based cross-sectional survey an attempt was made to identify factors that drive the macro- and micro epidemiology of malaria in a fringe region using parasitological and serological outcomes. A large cross-sectional survey including 17,503 individuals was conducted across all age groups in a 100 km(2) area in the Western Kenyan highlands of Rachuonyo South district. Households were geo-located and prevalence of malaria parasites and malaria-specific antibodies were determined by PCR and ELISA. Household and individual risk-factors were recorded. Geographical characteristics of the study area were digitally derived using high-resolution satellite images. Malaria antibody prevalence strongly related to altitude (1350-1600 m, p malaria infections were apparently asymptomatic. Malaria parasite prevalence was associated with age, bed net use, house construction features, altitude and topographical wetness index. Antibody prevalence was associated with all these factors and distance to the nearest water body. Altitude was a major driver of malaria transmission in this study area, even across narrow altitude bands. The large proportion of asymptomatic parasite carriers at all altitudes and the age-dependent acquisition of malaria antibodies indicate stable malaria transmission; the strong correlation between current parasite carriage and serological markers of malaria exposure indicate temporal stability of spatially heterogeneous transmission.

  8. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Graaff, de J.; Kassie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands

  9. Factors associated with high heterogeneity of malaria at fine spatial scale in the Western Kenyan highlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Baidjoe, A.Y.; Stevenson, J.; Knight, P; Stone, W.J.R.; Stresman, G.; Osoti, V; Makori, E; OWAGA, C.; Odongo, W; China, P; Shagari, S; Kariuki, S; Drakeley, C; Cox, J; Bousema, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background The East African highlands are fringe regions between stable and unstable malaria transmission. What factors contribute to the heterogeneity of malaria exposure on different spatial scales within larger foci has not been extensively studied. In a comprehensive, community-based cross-sectional survey an attempt was made to identify factors that drive the macro- and micro epidemiology of malaria in a fringe region using parasitological and serological outcomes. Methods A large cross-...

  10. Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoff, K A; Thompson, Lisa M; Bly, K C; Romero, Carolina

    2013-03-01

    Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  12. Investments in land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: the role of social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firew, A.T.; Graaff, de J.; Kessler, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the north-western highlands of Ethiopia investments in land management (LM) have not always been successful. The objectives of this study were to assess farmers⿿ perceptions about implementation approaches of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices and to explore the relationship between the

  13. What do we know about the amphibians from the Kenyan central and western highlands? A faunistic and taxonomic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, S.; Rotich, D.; Koester, T.E.; Kosuch, J.; Muchai, V.; Scheelke, K.; Schick, S.; Teege, P.; Wasonga, D.V.; Veith, M.K.H.

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the pertinent faunistic and taxonomic knowledge available from literature and scientific collections on the amphibians from the central and western highlands of Kenya. Fifty-four anuran species in 19 genera and 12 families were recognized. Higher taxa are those also found in adjacent

  14. Evaluation of soil and water conservation practices in the north-western Ethiopian highlands using multi-criteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome Firew, A.; Graaff, de J.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2014-01-01

    Investments by farmers in soil and water conservation (SWC) practices are influenced by the physical effectiveness, financial efficiency, and social acceptability of these practices. The objective of this study is to evaluate different SWC practices in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia using

  15. Miners, peasants and entrepreneurs : Regional development in the Central Highlands of Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.; Roberts, B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material

  16. Evaluation of two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in western Kenya highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Zhou, Guofa; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Gilbreath, Thomas M; Mosha, Franklin; Munga, Stephen; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2011-06-17

    Malaria vector intervention and control programs require reliable and accurate information about vector abundance and their seasonal distribution. The availability of reliable information on the spatial and temporal productivity of larval vector habitats can improve targeting of larval control interventions and our understanding of local malaria transmission and epidemics. The main objective of this study was to evaluate two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in the western Kenyan highlands, the aerial sampler and the emergence trap. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Aerial samplers and emergence traps were set up for sixty days in each season in three habitat types: drainage ditches, natural swamps, and abandoned goldmines. Aerial samplers and emergence traps were set up in eleven places in each habitat type. The success of each in estimating habitat productivity was assessed according to method, habitat type, and season. The effect of other factors including algae cover, grass cover, habitat depth and width, and habitat water volume on species productivity was analysed using stepwise logistic regression Habitat productivity estimates obtained by the two sampling methods differed significantly for all species except for An. implexus. For for An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus, aerial samplers performed better, 21.5 and 14.6 folds, than emergence trap respectively, while the emergence trap was shown to be more efficient for culicine species. Seasonality had a significant influence on the productivity of all species monitored. Dry season was most productive season. Overall, drainage ditches had significantly higher productivity in all seasons compared to other habitat types. Algae cover, debris, chlorophyll-a, and habitat depth and size had significant influence with respect to species. These findings suggest that the aerial sampler is the better of the two methods for estimating the productivity of An

  17. Evaluation of two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munga Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector intervention and control programs require reliable and accurate information about vector abundance and their seasonal distribution. The availability of reliable information on the spatial and temporal productivity of larval vector habitats can improve targeting of larval control interventions and our understanding of local malaria transmission and epidemics. The main objective of this study was to evaluate two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in the western Kenyan highlands, the aerial sampler and the emergence trap. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Aerial samplers and emergence traps were set up for sixty days in each season in three habitat types: drainage ditches, natural swamps, and abandoned goldmines. Aerial samplers and emergence traps were set up in eleven places in each habitat type. The success of each in estimating habitat productivity was assessed according to method, habitat type, and season. The effect of other factors including algae cover, grass cover, habitat depth and width, and habitat water volume on species productivity was analysed using stepwise logistic regression Results Habitat productivity estimates obtained by the two sampling methods differed significantly for all species except for An. implexus. For for An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus, aerial samplers performed better, 21.5 and 14.6 folds, than emergence trap respectively, while the emergence trap was shown to be more efficient for culicine species. Seasonality had a significant influence on the productivity of all species monitored. Dry season was most productive season. Overall, drainage ditches had significantly higher productivity in all seasons compared to other habitat types. Algae cover, debris, chlorophyll-a, and habitat depth and size had significant influence with respect to species. Conclusion These findings suggest that the aerial sampler is the

  18. Effect of deforestation and land use changes on mosquito productivity and development in western Kenya highlands: Implication for malaria Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: African highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past fifty years. However, the ever growing human population in the highlands of Africa have led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing and house construction materials needs. This has lead to creation of suitable breeding habitats which are in open places. Decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in deforested areas. This increased temperature has resulted in shortening of developmental stages of aquatic stages of mosquitoes and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes. Method: Assessment of the effects of deforestation and land coverage changes (decrease which leads to temperature changes and subsequently increases survivorship of adults and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes body was gathered from previous data collected from 2003 to 2012 using different analysis techniques. Habitats productivity, species dynamics and abundance, mosquitoes feeding rates and sporogony development are presented in relation to temperature changes.Results: The effects of temperature rise due to land cover changes in highlands of western Kenya on larval developmental rates, adult sporogony developments and malaria risk in human population were derived. Vector species dynamics and abundance in relation to land use changes have been found to change with time.Conclusion: This study found that, land cover changes is a key driver for the temperature rise in African highlands and increases the rate of malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s , An. funestus and An. arabiensis colonising the highlands. It has also significantly enhanced sporogony development rate and adult vector survival and therefore the risk of malaria transmission in the highlands.

  19. Topography and malaria transmission heterogeneity in western Kenya highlands: prospects for focal vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndenga Bryson A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent resurgence of malaria in the highlands of Western Kenya has called for a more comprehensive understanding of the previously neglected complex highland vector ecology. Besides other drivers of malaria epidemiology, topography is likely to have a major effect on spatial vector and parasite distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of topography on malaria spatial vector distribution and parasite prevalence. Methodology Indoor resting adult malaria vectors and blood parasites were collected in three villages along a 4 km transect originating from the valley bottom and ending at the hilltop for 13 months. Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were identified by PCR. Blood parasites were collected from children 6–13 years old and densities categorized by site of home location and age of the children. Results Ninety eight percent (98% of An. gambiae s.s. and (99% Anopheles funestus were collected in houses located at the edge of the valley bottom, whereas 1% of An. gambiae s.s. were collected at mid hill and at the hilltop respectively. No An. funestus were collected at the hilltop. Malaria prevalence was 68% at the valley bottom, 40.2% at mid hill and 26.7% at the hilltop. Children aged six years and living at the edge of the valley bottom had an annual geometric mean number of 66.1 trophozoites for every 200 white blood cells, while those living at mid-hill had a mean of 84.8, and those living at hilltop had 199.5 trophozoites. Conclusion Malaria transmission in this area is mainly confined to the valley bottom. Effective vector control could be targeted at the foci. However, the few vectors observed at mid-hill maintained a relatively high prevalence rate. The higher variability in blood parasite densities and their low correlation with age in children living at the hilltop suggests a lower stability of transmission than at the mid-hill and valley bottom.

  20. from Cow's Milk in the Western Highlands Region of Cameroon.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maturation temperature have been modified (Fig.l). The acid development ... sour before reaching consumers in town. Unlike the .... water bath. Add Rennet. Liquid rennet at 0.03% diluting. Weigh calf rennet powder at 0.03% (w/v) of fivefold with cold potable water. milk, add a pinch ofNaCl (common salt) and dilute ten times ...

  1. Predation efficiency of Anopheles gambiae larvae by aquatic predators in western Kenya highlands

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    Nyindo Mramba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and the effects of insecticides on non-target insect species have raised the need for alternative control methods for malaria vectors. Predation has been suggested as one of the important regulation mechanisms for malaria vectors in long-lasting aquatic habitats, but the predation efficiency of the potential predators is largely unknown in the highlands of western Kenya. In the current study, we examined the predation efficiency of five predators on Anopheles gambiae s.s larvae in 24 hour and semi- field evaluations. Methods Predators were collected from natural habitats and starved for 12 hours prior to starting experiments. Preliminary experiments were conducted to ascertain the larval stage most predated by each predator species. When each larval instar was subjected to predation, third instar larvae were predated at the highest rate. Third instar larvae of An. gambiae were introduced into artificial habitats with and without refugia at various larval densities. The numbers of surviving larvae were counted after 24 hours in 24. In semi-field experiments, the larvae were counted daily until they were all either consumed or had developed to the pupal stage. Polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the presence of An. gambiae DNA in predator guts. Results Experiments found that habitat type (P P P P An. gambiae DNA was found in at least three out of ten midguts for all predator species. Gambusia affins was the most efficient, being three times more efficient than tadpoles. Conclusion These experiments provide insight into the efficiency of specific natural predators against mosquito larvae. These naturally occurring predators may be useful in biocontrol strategies for aquatic stage An. gambiae mosquitoes. Further investigations should be done in complex natural habitats for these predators.

  2. Molding maize: the shaping of a crop diversity landscape in the western highlands of Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Today¿s domesticated plants not only embody past humanenature interactions, but also reflect social history. Human seed exchange, replacement and loss are important forces in shaping crop diversity. This essay explores regional history in relation to the shaping of maize diversity in the western

  3. Simulation of malaria epidemiology and control in the highlands of western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuckey Erin M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemiology that provide realistic quantitative predictions of likely epidemiological outcomes of existing vector control strategies have the potential to assist in planning for the control and elimination of malaria. This work investigates the applicability of mathematical modelling of malaria transmission dynamics in Rachuonyo South, a district with low, unstable transmission in the highlands of western Kenya. Methods Individual-based stochastic simulation models of malaria in humans and a deterministic model of malaria in mosquitoes as part of the OpenMalaria platform were parameterized to create a scenario for the study area based on data from ongoing field studies and available literature. The scenario was simulated for a period of two years with a population of 10,000 individuals and validated against malaria survey data from Rachuonyo South. Simulations were repeated with multiple random seeds and an ensemble of 14 model variants to address stochasticity and model uncertainty. A one-dimensional sensitivity analysis was conducted to address parameter uncertainty. Results The scenario was able to reproduce the seasonal pattern of the entomological inoculation rate (EIR and patent infections observed in an all-age cohort of individuals sampled monthly for one year. Using an EIR estimated from serology to parameterize the scenario resulted in a closer fit to parasite prevalence than an EIR estimated using entomological methods. The scenario parameterization was most sensitive to changes in the timing and effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS and the method used to detect P. falciparum in humans. It was less sensitive than expected to changes in vector biting behaviour and climatic patterns. Conclusions The OpenMalaria model of P. falciparum transmission can be used to simulate the impact of different combinations of current and potential control interventions to help plan

  4. Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akalu Teshome Firew,; Firew, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is

  5. The interactions of human mobility and farming systems and impacts on biodiversity and soil quality in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh

    2013-01-01

    Population growth and the drop in the returns from the major cash crop (coffee) for small farmers are the main drivers that have influenced the farming systems and mobility of farmers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon (WHC). The main objective of this research activity was to determine the

  6. Sustainable land management in dynamic agro-ecosystems: an Integrated, multi-scale socio-ecological analysis in Western Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutoko, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study was motivated by the puzzlingly localised implementation of available Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices despite the urgent need to reduce both land degradation and general poverty levels in the western highlands of Kenya. This research aimed to not only unravel reasons for the

  7. The role of historical and local factors in determining species composition of the highland avifauna of Costa Rica and Western Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Barrantes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the mountain ranges of Costa Rica and western Panamá, as well as the cold climatic conditions that prevailed during the upper Pleistocene, played a crucial role in determining the bird species composition of the highlands in this region. Glacial conditions favored dispersal movements of bird species from the Andes, and from the Neartic region. Subsequent inter-glacial conditions reduced the connectivity between neotropical highlands (e.g., Talamanca-Andes, and between neotropical highlands and Neartic temperate region, isolating recently established populations from the ancestral populations, and promoting speciation. Within Costa Rica, the highland vegetation and the birds that occupied this vegetation possibly had a continuous distribution throughout all mountain ranges during glacial periods. This vegetation retreated to the summit of the mountains during inter-glacial periods, fragmenting the original continuous bird populations and forming "sky islands", which decrease in size from Talamanca mountains towards the northwestern ranges. The sizes of such islands of available habitat determine the number of highland birds present in each mountain range. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 333-349. Epub 2009 November 30.La formación de las cordilleras en Costa Rica y oeste de Panamá, así como las frías condiciones climáticas que prevalecieron durante la última parte del Pleistoceno, jugaron un papel muy importante en determinar la composición de las especies de aves en las tierras altas de esta región. Las condiciones glaciales favorecieron la dispersión de aves desde los Andes y desde la región Neártica. Las subsecuentes condiciones inter-glaciales redujeron la conectividad entre las zonas altas neotropicales (e.g., Talamanca-Andes y entre las zonas altas neotropicales y la región templada Neártica, aislando así las poblaciones recientemente establecidas, de las poblaciones ancestrales, fomentando la especiaci

  8. Determinants of farmers’ perception to invest in soil and water conservation technologies in the North-Western Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalew Meseret Moges

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion by water is a severe and continuous ecological problem in the north-western Highlands of Ethiopia. Limited perception of farmers to practice soil and water conservation (SWC technologies is one of the major causes that have resulted accelerated soil erosion. Therefore, this paper examines the major determinants of farmers’ perception to use and invest in SWC technologies in Ankasha District, north-western highlands of Ethiopia. A detailed field survey was carried out among 338 households, randomly selected from two rural sample kebeles (called villages here after. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were used to analyse the effects of multiple variables on farmers’ perception. The results indicate that educational level of the respondents and their access to trainings were found to have a positive and very significant association (P<0.01 with farmers’ perception. Likewise, land ownership, plot size, slope type, and extension contact positively and significantly influenced farmers’ perception at 5% level of significance. On the other hand, the influence of respondents’ age and plot distance from the homestead was found to be negative and significant (P<0.05. The overall results of this study indicate that the perception of farmers to invest in SWC technologies was highly determined by socioeconomic, institutional, attitudinal and biophysical factors. Thus, a better understanding of constrains that influence farmers' perception is very important while designing and implementing SWC technologies. Frequent contacts between farmers and extension agents and continues agricultural trainings are also needed to increase awareness of the impacts of SWC benefits.

  9. Median nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the New Jersey Highlands Region estimated using regression models and land-surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Chepiga, Mary M.; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate-concentration data are used in conjunction with land-use and land-cover data to estimate median nitrate concentrations in groundwater underlying the New Jersey (NJ) Highlands Region. Sources of data on nitrate in 19,670 groundwater samples are from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the NJ Private Well Testing Act (PWTA).

  10. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Kassie, Menale

    2016-03-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. This study is based on a detailed farm survey among 298 households in three watersheds. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the stages of adoption. An ordered probit model was used to analyze the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC. This model is used to analyze more than two outcomes of an ordinal dependent variable. The results indicate that sampled households are found in different phases of adoption, i.e., dis-adoption/non-adoption (18.5 %), initial adoption (30.5 %), actual adoption (20.1 %), and final adoption (30.9 %). The results of the ordered probit model show that some socio-economic and institutional factors affect the adoption phases of SWC differently. Farm labor, parcel size, ownership of tools, training in SWC, presence of SWC program, social capital (e.g., cooperation with adjacent farm owners), labor sharing scheme, and perception of erosion problem have a significant positive influence on actual and final adoption phases of SWC. In addition, the final adoption phase of SWC is positively associated with tenure security, cultivated land sizes, parcel slope, and perception on SWC profitability. Policy makers should take into consideration factors affecting (continued) adoption of SWC such as profitability, tenure security, social capital, technical support, and resource endowments (e.g., tools and labor) when designing and implementing SWC policies and programs.

  11. Natural flow regimes of the Ozark-Ouachita Interior Highlands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasure, D. R.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Longing, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Natural flow regimes represent the hydrologic conditions to which native aquatic organisms are best adapted. We completed a regional river classification and quantitative descriptions of each natural flow regime for the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands region of Arkansas, Missouri and Oklahoma. On the basis of daily flow records from 64 reference streams, seven natural flow regimes were identified with mixture model cluster analysis: Groundwater Stable, Groundwater, Groundwater Flashy, Perennial Runoff, Runoff Flashy, Intermittent Runoff and Intermittent Flashy. Sets of flow metrics were selected that best quantified nine ecologically important components of these natural flow regimes. An uncertainty analysis was performed to avoid selecting metrics strongly affected by measurement uncertainty that can result from short periods of record. Measurement uncertainties (bias, precision and accuracy) were assessed for 170 commonly used flow metrics. The ranges of variability expected for select flow metrics under natural conditions were quantified for each flow regime to provide a reference for future assessments of hydrologic alteration. A random forest model was used to predict the natural flow regimes of all stream segments in the study area based on climate and catchment characteristics, and a map was produced. The geographic distribution of flow regimes suggested distinct ecohydrological regions that may be useful for conservation planning. This project provides a hydrologic foundation for future examination of flow–ecology relationships in the region. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Modeling the Cost Effectiveness of Malaria Control Interventions in the Highlands of Western Kenya: e107700

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erin M Stuckey; Jennifer Stevenson; Katya Galactionova; Amrish Y Baidjoe; Teun Bousema; Wycliffe Odongo; Simon Kariuki; Chris Drakeley; Thomas A Smith; Jonathan Cox; Nakul Chitnis

    2014-01-01

    .... The OpenMalaria stochastic simulation modeling platform can be applied to simulate the impact of interventions singly and in combination as implemented in Rachuonyo South District, western Kenya, to support this goal...

  13. Regional competitiveness: The case of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the concept of regional competitiveness and the factors that influence on it. A large number of various authors explain this concept, based on its different aspects, including: productivity, mikroaspekts (firm, quality of human capital, innovation, technology, infrastructure, social capital, etc.. Taking into account complex nature of regional competitiveness, it is difficult to determine a standard definition of this term. The second part of this paper refers to the case of western China. Substantial disparity in regional development is a reality in every geographically large country, and the causes of the disparity are numerous and complex. Regional inequality has been an important issue in China. This paper generally summarized China's Western regions geography, government policies and development situation. The authors put forward some practical strategies on how to help the western regions create a favorable environment to attract national and international investment.

  14. A micro-scale investigation of melt production and extraction in the upper mantle based on silicate melt pockets in ultramafic xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Eniko; Zanetti, A.; Szabo, C.

    2008-01-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Neogene alkali basalts of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary) frequently have melt pockets that contain silicate minerals, glass, and often carbonate globules. Textural, geochemical and thermobarometric data indicate that the melt pockets formed...

  15. Integrated mosquito larval source management reduces larval numbers in two highland villages in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imbahale, S.S.; Githeko, A.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In western Kenya, malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control remains an important public health measure. Malaria control is by either use of drugs to treat patients infected with malaria parasites or by controlling the vectors. Vector control may target the free

  16. Severe Flooding and Malaria Transmission in the Western Ugandan Highlands: Implications for Disease Control in an Era of Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ross; Reyes, Raquel; Matte, Michael; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Metlay, Joshua P; Band, Lawrence; Siedner, Mark J

    2016-11-01

     There are several mechanisms by which global climate change may impact malaria transmission. We sought to assess how the increased frequency of extreme precipitation events associated with global climate change will influence malaria transmission in highland areas of East Africa.  We used a differences-in-differences, quasi-experimental design to examine spatial variability in the incidence rate of laboratory-confirmed malaria cases and malaria-related hospitalizations between villages (1) at high versus low elevations, (2) with versus without rivers, and (3) upstream versus downstream before and after severe flooding that occurred in Kasese District, Western Region, Uganda, in May 2013.  During the study period, 7596 diagnostic tests were performed, and 1285 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of malaria. We observed that extreme flooding resulted in an increase of approximately 30% in the risk of an individual having a positive result of a malaria diagnostic test in the postflood period in villages bordering a flood-affected river, compared with villages farther from a river, with a larger relative impact on upstream versus downstream villages (adjusted rate ratio, 1.91 vs 1.33).  Extreme precipitation such as the flooding described here may pose significant challenges to malaria control programs and will demand timely responses to mitigate deleterious impacts on human health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Assessment of Satellite Surface Radiation Products in Highland Regions with Tibet Instrumental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Koike, Toshio; Stackhouse, Paul; Mikovitz, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    This study presents results of comparisons between instrumental radiation data in the elevated Tibetan Plateau and two global satellite products: the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment - Surface Radiation Budget (GEWEX-SRB) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project - Flux Data (ISCCP-FD). In general, shortwave radiation (SW) is estimated better by ISCCP-FD while longwave radiation (LW) is estimated better by GEWEX-SRB, but all the radiation components in both products are under-estimated. Severe and systematic errors were found in monthly-mean SRB SW (on plateau-average, -48 W/sq m for downward SW and -18 W/sq m for upward SW) and FD LW (on plateau-average, -37 W/sq m for downward LW and -62 W/sq m for upward LW) for radiation. Errors in monthly-mean diurnal variations are even larger than the monthly mean errors. Though the LW errors can be reduced about 10 W/sq m after a correction for altitude difference between the site and SRB and FD grids, these errors are still higher than that for other regions. The large errors in SRB SW was mainly due to a processing mistake for elevation effect, but the errors in SRB LW was mainly due to significant errors in input data. We suggest reprocessing satellite surface radiation budget data, at least for highland areas like Tibet.

  18. Venus Ovda Regio Stratigraphy and Tectonics: Highlands-Plains Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1996-03-01

    The global plains materials of the Venusian lowlands, generally interpreted to be composed of flood basalts, lap onto the equatorial highlands of Western Aphrodite Regio. Systematic geologic mapping of the Ovda region using the Magellan global data (radar images, altimetry and gravity) has revealed that the contacts between highlands and plains have been tilted up toward the highlands after the plains emplacement. Analysis of the western part of Ovda Regio shows that the northern contact occurs at an average radius of 6053.8 km and the mean plains elevation 500 km to the north of the contact is at a radius of 6052.0 km, indicating that the boundary position has changed by nearly 2 km. Volcanic rilles are superposed on the tilted plains surfaces along both the northern and southern boundaries of the Ovda highlands. The local volcanicity that cut the rilles indicates that some local volcanic activity occurred subsequent to the marginal uplift. Models under study include post plains-emplacement uplift of the highlands or relative sinking of the plains. Isostatic mechanisms are likely in either case. Although complex structural models for the plains-highland margin are possible, simple structural models in which plains were emplaced as a nearly level geoidal surface and subsequently the highlands of Ovda were uplifted relative to the plains. Initial mapping is focused on 1:5,000,000 scale and is integrating observations of surface characteristics and geophysical inferences drawn from topography and gravity.

  19. Effect of deforestation and land use changes on mosquito productivity and development in western Kenya highlands: Implication for malaria Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Eliningaya Kweka; Epiphania Edwin Kimaro; Stephen Munga

    2016-01-01

    Background: African highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past fifty years. However, the ever growing human population in the highlands of Africa have led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing and house construction materials needs. This has lead to creation of suitable breeding habitats which are in open places. Decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in defo...

  20. Effect of Deforestation and Land Use Changes on Mosquito Productivity and Development in Western Kenya Highlands: Implication for Malaria Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Kimaro, Epiphania E; Munga, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background African highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past 50 years. However, the ever growing human population in the highlands of Africa has led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing, and house construction materials needs. This has lead to the creation of suitable breeding habitats, which are in open places. Decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in ...

  1. Response of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae to larval habitat age in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munga Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of vector populations. Previous observations have suggested that, larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.l occur more often in small temporary habitats while other studies showed that long-lasting stable habitats are more productive than unstable habitats. In addition, the physical and biological conditions and stability of larval habitats can change rapidly in natural conditions. Therefore, we examined the effect of larval habitat age on productivity, larval survival and oviposition preference of Anopheles gambiae. Methods We sampled the three different habitat ages (10, 20 and 30 days on a daily basis for a period of six months to determine mosquito larval abundance. In addition, we tested the effect of age of water (habitat age on the oviposition choice preference of An. gambiae, larval development time and survivorship, and wing lengths of emerging adults. Additionally, chlorophyll a and abundance of mosquito larval predators in these habitats were monitored. Results Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae were significantly more abundant (P=0.0002 in habitats that were cleared every 10 days compared to the other habitats. In particular, there were 1.7 times more larvae in this habitat age compared to the ones that were cleared every 30 days. There were significantly (PAn. gambiae in the different habitat ages was statistically insignificant (P>0.05. Conclusion The current study confirmed that age of the habitat significantly influences the productivity of malaria vectors in western Kenya highlands. Given that malaria vectors were found in all habitats with varying ages of water, simple environmental methods of maintaining the drainage ditches in the valley bottoms can help reduce larval abundance of malaria vectors. Such inexpensive methods of controlling mosquito breeding could be promoted to supplement other vector control methods, especially in areas where scarce resources

  2. Cultural determinants of optimal breastfeeding practices among indigenous Mam-Mayan women in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Hilary M; Solomons, Noel W; Chomat, Anne Marie; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G

    2015-02-01

    Among indigenous Mam-Mayan women, breastfeeding practices may be intertwined with cultural influences during the early postpartum period. Our study explored whether beliefs regarding transmission of emotions through breast milk, the feeding of agüitas or temascal (traditional sauna) use were associated with achievement of the World Health Organization infant feeding recommendations and if these cultural practices served as moderators of the relationship between optimal breastfeeding practices and infant anthropometry. We recruited 190 mother-infant dyads at infant age < 46 days. Data on breastfeeding and cultural practices were collected via questionnaire. Infant length, weight, and head circumference were measured and z scores were calculated. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine determinants of initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, breastfeeding frequency, breastfeeding exclusivity, and infant weight-for-age z score (WAZ). Mothers who delivered at the traditional midwife's house (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5) and those who did not believe in the transmission of susto (fright) through breast milk (OR = 2.4) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum. Higher breastfeeding frequency was observed among mothers who spent more time in the temascal. Initiating early breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum was the sole infant feeding practice positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding and WAZ. Our investigation in the Western Highlands of Guatemala has highlighted the link between cultural practices and beliefs during lactation, breastfeeding practices and infant growth. Public health practitioners need to understand how local cultural practices influence early initiation of breastfeeding to promote adequate infant weight. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Integrated mosquito larval source management reduces larval numbers in two highland villages in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbahale Susan S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In western Kenya, malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control remains an important public health measure. Malaria control is by either use of drugs to treat patients infected with malaria parasites or by controlling the vectors. Vector control may target the free living adult or aquatic (larval stages of mosquito. The most commonly applied control strategies target indoor resting mosquitoes. However, because mosquitoes spend a considerable time in water, targeting the aquatic stages can complement well with existing adult control measures. Methods Larval source management (LSM of malaria vectors was examined in two villages i.e. Fort Ternan and Lunyerere, with the aim of testing strategies that can easily be accessed by the affected communities. Intervention strategies applied include environmental management through source reduction (drainage of canals, land levelling or by filling ditches with soil, habitat manipulation (by provision of shading from arrow root plant, application of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti and the use of predatory fish, Gambusia affinis. The abundance of immature stages of Anopheles and Culex within intervention habitats was compared to that within non-intervention habitats. Results The findings show that in Fort Ternan no significant differences were observed in the abundance of Anopheles early and late instars between intervention and non-intervention habitats. In Lunyerere, the abundance of Anopheles early instars was fifty five times more likely to be present within non-intervention habitats than in habitats under drainage. No differences in early instars abundance were observed between non-intervention and habitats applied with Bti. However, late instars had 89 % and 91 % chance of being sampled from non-intervention rather than habitats under drainage and those applied with Bti respectively. Conclusion Most of these interventions were applied in habitats

  4. Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Maize Production in the Southern and Western Highlands Sub-agro Ecological Zones of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philbert M. Luhunga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fourth assessment report confirmed that climate change is unequivocal. It is coming to us faster with larger impacts and bigger risks than even most climate scientists expected as recently as a few years ago. One particular worry is the disastrous consequence to agriculture and food security sectors in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. Adaptation is the only option to reduce the impacts of climate change. However, before planning adaptation policies or strategies to climate change, it is important to assess the impacts of climate change at regional and local scale to have scientific evidence that would guide the formulation of such policies or strategies. In this study the impacts of climate change on rain-fed maize (Zea Mays production in the southern and western highlands sub-agro ecological zones of Tanzania are evaluated. High resolution climate simulations from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment_Regional Climate Models (CORDEX_RCMs were used as input into the Decision Support System for Agro-technological Transfer (DSSAT to simulate maize yield in the historical climate condition (1971–2000, present (2010–2039, mid (2040–2069, and end (2070–2099 centuries. Daily rainfall, solar radiations, minimum and maximum temperatures for the historical (1971–2000 climate condition and future climate projections (2010–2099 under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 were used to drive DSSAT. The impacts of climate change were assessed by comparing the average maize yields in historical climate condition against the average of simulated maize yields in the present, mid and end centuries under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Results of future maize yields estimates from DSSAT driven by individual RCMs under both RCP scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 differs from one RCM to another and from one scenario to another. This highlight

  5. Early Initiation of Breastfeeding Among Maya Mothers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala: Practices and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyeo, Natalie N; Frank, Tahvi D; Vail, Emma F; Sperduto, William A L; Boyd, David L

    2017-11-01

    Guatemala exhibits the sixth highest rate of child stunting worldwide, and stunting disproportionately affects Guatemala indigenous communities. In a country struggling to combat this result of malnutrition, early child nutrition is especially critical. Specifically, early initiation of breastfeeding is important for the development of newborn infants. Understanding beliefs and practices related to early initiation of breastfeeding in Maya Guatemala may provide an avenue to guide nutrition interventions in indigenous communities. Research aim: This study aimed to determine major beliefs and practices associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among Maya mothers in Lake Atitlán, Guatemala. As part of a larger study to assess child nutrition in the Lake Atitlán region, we created a series of semistructured interview questions to document breastfeeding practices and beliefs among mothers. We conducted and audio-recorded in-person interviews that were translated from Kaqchikel, the local language, to Spanish by a community assistant. We conducted 178 interviews with mothers; 76% practiced early initiation. Early initiation was associated with the village and complementary feeding practices. Mothers held a variety of beliefs about the value of colostrum, and these beliefs were associated with the village. Mothers who held negative beliefs toward colostrum were more likely to delay breastfeeding initiation. Although most Maya mothers practice early initiation, the intervillage disparity in breastfeeding practices demonstrates a need to geographically focus breastfeeding interventions. Our novel insights into the breastfeeding beliefs among Maya mothers will serve as a guide to structure culturally competent breastfeeding education interventions in indigenous communities.

  6. [Effects of mulching and fertilization on winter wheat field soil moisture in dry highland region of Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Zi-Hui; Chen, Hui-Lin; Wang, Zhao-Hui

    2009-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field in Weibei dry highland region of Loess Plateau to study the effects of different mulching and fertilization treatments on soil moisture regime. The treatments were 1) no fertilization, 2) conventional fertilization, 3) recommended fertilization, 4) recommended fertilization + manure, 5) recommended fertilization + plastic mulch on soil ridges, 6) recommended fertilization + plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows, and 7) recommended fertilization + straw mulch on entire plot. Soil moisture content was determined regularly with a neutron probe. Among the treatments, recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows in dry season (spring) resulted in the greatest increase of soil water storage and maintained the storage to the critical stage crops needed, followed by recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges. These two treatments could store more precipitation in field, and would benefit the development of rainfed agriculture in dry highland region of Loess Plateau. As for recommended fertilization plus manure, it had the least increase of soil water storage, with a difference of 48.2 mm to the recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows in dry season.

  7. Providing Western Regional Climate Services - Perspectives from the Western Regional Climate Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The western United States faces distinct challenges such as persistent drought, dwindling water resources amidst an expanding population, and climate-sensitive alpine environments. The complex terrain of the region compounds these challenges. The Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC), one of six National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) university-based regional climate centers, has been providing climate services since 1986 that support the unique needs of stakeholders in the mountainous region of the western U.S. This includes meteorological data, tools, and products for thousands of stations across the West, and gridded data products, such as based on PRISM for example, that are used for drought assessment among other needs. WRCC and partners have developed numerous web-based tools and products to support decision-making and research pertinent to the West. Changing climate and variability along with the diverse physical and human geographies of the western U.S. require continuous advancements in climate knowledge and applications development. Examples include the need for tools and model downscaling that support and inform adaptation, mitigation and resiliency planning; web-based analytics that would allow users to interact and explore temporal and spatial data and relationships, and products from new satellite sensors that can provide higher resolution information on soil moisture and vegetation health given the sparseness of in-situ observations for the vastness of the West. This presentation provides an overview of some insights, opportunities and challenges of providing current and future climate services in the West.

  8. Stormwater Runoff Characteristics and Effective Management of Nonpoint Source Pollutants from a Highland Agricultural Region in the Lake Soyang Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Heon Cho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The dense highland field area in the upstream region of the Lake Soyang watershed is subject to excessive soil erosion during the wet season. In this study, stormwater runoff from the Lake Soyang watershed was monitored during four rainfall events at 10 locations throughout 2016. The maximum SS concentration at Naedongcheon, which is located in the upper part of the Soyang River, reached 4598 mg/L. The event mean concentration (EMC of SS loads in Naedongcheon ranged from 82.2 mg/L to 926.3 mg/L. We found that, although the first flush events were usually concentrated in highly paved urban areas, a first flush occurred in the agricultural area of the dense highland field region. The first flush phenomenon was identified by a dimensionless cumulative runoff mass and volume curve (M(V curve, and the intensity of the first flush was analyzed by the coefficient of the nonlinear regression model and the FF30 and FF25 values (the fraction of pollution load transported by the first 30% and 25% of runoff, respectively. Nonlinear regression models using the power function were applied to fit the M(V curve, the FF30 values were inversely proportional to the coefficient a of the regression model. A long-term seasonal trend decomposition for monthly turbidity and precipitation was performed for the Lake Soyang. Long-term turbidity trend was approximately coincident with the trend in long-term precipitation. In addition, the present status of the best management practices (BMPs in the upper part of the Soyang River basin was investigated, and a survey of the management and operation of the BMPs was conducted for selected farmers.

  9. Regional osteoporosis in western Sydney women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcos, G.; Lawson-Smith, R. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Recently, 15% of elderly Japanese-American women have been shown to have marked heterogeneity of bone mineral density (BMD) between measured sites. The purposes of this study were to determine (1 ) the prevalence of this finding in an Australian population; and (2) potential association with clinical factors such as age, years since menopause (YSM), alcohol, smoking, family history, exercise, and body mass index. One hundred and fourteen peri-or post- menopausal Caucasian women (mean age 55 + 8.8 years) were referred for osteoporotic (OP) fracture risk assessment. Patients (pts) had no disorders or drugs known to affect BMD and no evidence of scoliosis or arthritic change. Bone densitometry of the lumbar spine (PA), hip and distal radius were measured using a Norland XR-26. According to WHO criteria, 30 pts (26%) were normal (T score > -1) at all sites; no pts (0%) had generalised OP (T score < -2.5); 29 (25%) had OP in one or two sites only (hip = 25, spine = 13, wrist = 1); the remaining 55 pts (48%) were osteogenic (-2.5 < T score < -1) in at least one site. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, only YSM predicted regional OP (odds ratio = 1.14; pWestern Sydney women; of clinical factors only YSM is independently associated with regional OP. Fracture risk classification may be improved by BMD measurement of multiple sites.

  10. New paleomagnetic data from the Djhavakheti Highland volcanic region (Lesser Caucasus): The Plio-Pleistocene Dashbashi sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Sánchez-Moreno, Elisa; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Gogichaishvili, Avto; Vashakidze, Goga T.; Lebedev, Vladimir A.

    2017-04-01

    The Djhavakheti Highland volcanic region in the central sector of the Lesser Caucasus (South Georgia) is one of the largest neo-volcanic areas of the Caucasus. It displays an eruptive activity that provides long and continuous sequences of basaltic lava flows whose mineralogy is capable to record in a reliable way the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at the time of its cooling. Paleomagnetic and paleointensity data in this area, despite their interest, are scarce in comparison to the rest of the Alpine-Himalayan Belt. Therefore this study contributes to complete the knowledge of the magnetic field record in this region. Recently, a new sequence named Dashbashi was sampled in the volcanic Djhavakheti Highland region. The sequence consists of 16 basaltic lava flows divided into three sections of different ages which are separated by erosion surfaces. The first section (flows DB01 to DB06) has an approximate age of 3.25 ± 0.25 M.a., the second (flows DB07 to DB14), an estimated age of 2.45 ± 0.25 M.a. and lavas DB15 and DB16 yield a similar or lower age. Rock-magnetic experiments were performed to determine the carriers of remanent magnetisation, their thermal stability and grain size. These experiments included the measurement of thermomagnetic curves, hysteresis parameters and isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) acquisition curves. All experiments were performed at the UBU paleomagnetic laboratory with a Variable Field Translation Balance (VFTB). Three types of behavior have been differentiated: i) Type H: Reversible behaviour and a single ferromagnetic phase with high Curie temperature (Tc) close to 580°. This phase corresponds to magnetite/ Ti-poor titanomagnetite. ii) Type H*: Single high temperature ferromagnetic phase and more irreversible behaviour that distinguishes them Type H. iii) Type M: Two ferromagnetic phases, the high Tc present in all samples, and another medium Tc (≈400-500°C) titanomagnetite/titanomaghemite with lower

  11. Basic Western Lviv Region Conversational Ukrainian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the first complete Guide for studying the Western-Ukrainian Dialect and its scientific description of Phonology. Methodology: descriptive, contrastive and analytical methods of defining the peculiarities of the Dialect. Results: the regularities and the laws have been defined as to the specifics of the Western-Ukrainian Dialect…

  12. Health profile of highland Ethiopians in a small town in the south-western part of the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M Elizabeth; Hansen, Stig; Zeleke, Assefa; Solomon, Abebe; Tadesse, Terefe; Bezuneh, Elizabeth; Yassin, Mohammed A; Hunegnaw, Mesfin; Aseffa, Abraham; Wagaye, Wondu; Tilahun, Hiwot

    2007-10-01

    In conjunction with an investigation of nerve function tests of highland Ethiopians in an area of low endemicity of leprosy for 25-30 years, a comprehensive health survey was performed. We assessed 236 subjects, 118 females and 118 males, 177 students and 59 adults (Others) aged 10-75 years from Chencha woreda. We used a detailed medical, personal and social history, anthropomorphic measurements and complete physical examination. We identified six areas of medical concern: Intestinal parasite and diarrhoeal diseases affected 62%, despite treatment of all students and symptomatic adults the recurrence rate was high; skin diseases/conditions affected 88%; eye injections affected 26%; dental decay affected 33%; 20% had hypertension 14% requiring treatment; 11% gave a personal and/or family history of tuberculosis, 44% gave a history of BCG immunisation, while 34% had BCG scars, the lowest percentage (11%) being in students from Daramallo woreda. Supplies of clean water, effective disposal of human excreta and control of flies would greatly reduce intestinal, skin and eye infections. Regular tooth cleaning and possibly fluoridation of drinking water should improve dental health, with diet and exercise for young hypertensives. BCG immunisation in Chencha and Daramallo woredas (inaccessible areas) needs urgent attention.

  13. Status Report on Ambulatory Care and Education in the VA Western Region and Western Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Alan S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    New programs and related activities in ambulatory care and education in the Western Region Veterans' Health Administration and its 11 affiliated medical schools are reported, including advisory activities, innovative projects, and a conference. Future activities in the expanded western region are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  14. Spatial synchrony of malaria outbreaks in a highland region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Midekisa, Alemayehu; Semuniguse, Paulos; Teka, Hiwot; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Senay, Gabriel B

    2012-10-01

    To understand the drivers and consequences of malaria in epidemic-prone regions, it is important to know whether epidemics emerge independently in different areas as a consequence of local contingencies, or whether they are synchronised across larger regions as a result of climatic fluctuations and other broad-scale drivers. To address this question, we collected historical malaria surveillance data for the Amhara region of Ethiopia and analysed them to assess the consistency of various indicators of malaria risk and determine the dominant spatial and temporal patterns of malaria within the region. We collected data from a total of 49 districts from 1999-2010. Data availability was better for more recent years and more data were available for clinically diagnosed outpatient malaria cases than confirmed malaria cases. Temporal patterns of outpatient malaria case counts were correlated with the proportion of outpatients diagnosed with malaria and confirmed malaria case counts. The proportion of outpatients diagnosed with malaria was spatially clustered, and these cluster locations were generally consistent from year to year. Outpatient malaria cases exhibited spatial synchrony at distances up to 300 km, supporting the hypothesis that regional climatic variability is an important driver of epidemics. Our results suggest that decomposing malaria risk into separate spatial and temporal components may be an effective strategy for modelling and forecasting malaria risk across large areas. They also emphasise both the value and limitations of working with historical surveillance datasets and highlight the importance of enhancing existing surveillance efforts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Effect of Substrates on Germination and Seedling Emergence of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. at the Yongka Western Highlands Research/Garden Park, Bamenda-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerima, BPK.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out at the Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden Park, Nkwen­Bamenda in Cameroon to evaluate the effect of substrates on the germination and seedling emergence of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. Seeds of African Giant variety were used with six substrate media (sawdust, sand, soil, sawdust­sand, sawdust­soil and sand­soil. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replications. Germinated seeds were counted daily for a 15 days period. To estimate seedling emergence from two Weeks After Sowing (WAS up to four WAS, data on seedling height and number of leaves were recorded. The results showed that germination started 8 days after sowing for all substrates. Germination rate was significantly affected by the substrates but the rates were less than 80%. The highest germination rate was recorded on the soil substrate (75% while the lowest rate (25% was recorded on the sawdust substrate. Seedlings on the sawdust substrate were also less vigorous and had less leaves (12.67 cm height and 4.7 leaves than those on other substrates at four WAS (50–63 cm and 12.6–15.3 leaves. Based on the results, it is recommendable to use the soil substrate to nurse African Giant seeds.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A STREAM BENTHOS INTEGRITY INDEX (SBII) FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multimetric index using benthic macroinvertebrates was developed to evaluate the biological condition of wadeable streams in the MAHA region. Ecological concepts and biodiversity of macroinvertebrates were used to develop the SBII, and then a statistical approach was used to va...

  17. Diversity and abundance of amphibian species in the Guguftu highland and Chefa wetland, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeje Kassie Teme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the population status, abundance and diversity of amphibians found in Guguftu highland and Chefa wetland. Methods: The present study dealed with amphibian diversity at Guguftu highland and Chefa wetland during the period of August 2015 to September 2015. Transect line and visual encounter survey methods were used in careful visual estimation and amphibians were recorded in all possible habitats of the study area. Results: The total of 251 individuals of amphibians within 12 species grouped into 5 families were recorded in the Guguftu highland and Chefa wetland. Chefa wetland had the highest species abundance as well as richness with a total of 231 individuals falling in 11 species. Conclusions: This study reveals that the Chefa wetland is rich in amphibian diversity and supports many more species. Further studies are needed on molecular basis, population structure, habitat use by amphibians for better understanding and also imposing several conservation strategies in Chefa wetland.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Oak Decline and Mortality under Periodic Regional Drought in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the forest landscape/region level, based on annual Forest Inventory and Analysis plot data from 1999 to 2010, oak decline and mortality trends for major oak species (groups were examined in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri. Oak decline has elevated cumulative mortality of red oak species to between 11 and 15 percent in terms of relative density and basal area of standing dead oak trees, respectively. These values are three to five times higher than for white oak group and non-oak species. Oak decline and associated escalating mortality have occurred primarily in red oak species while the white oak group has maintained a relatively stable mortality rate that is comparable to non-oak species. Cross-correlation analyses indicate that mortality in the red oak group was significantly correlated with the growing season Palmer drought severity index (PDSI and usually lagged two to three years following single drought events. Moreover, based on the past 17 years PDSI data, it appears that the cumulative impacts of drought may last up to 10 years. The Ozark Highlands experienced a severe drought extending from 1998 to 2000 and another milder drought from 2005 to 2006. These drought events triggered the escalation of mortality starting around year 2000. Spatially, high red oak mortality sites (hot spots with proportional basal area mortality > 0.12 initially occurred in the central Ozarks and spread gradually over most of the Ozark Highlands as regional droughts continued. In contrast, sites with elevated white oak and non-oak mortality occurred sporadically, mainly in the southern portion (Arkansas of the Ozark Highlands. During the most recent inventory period (2006–2010, over 60%, 7% and 5% of red oak, white oak and non-oak groups, respectively, had relative mortality rates of > 12%.

  19. Western Pond Turtle Observations - Region 1 [ds313

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...

  20. Leading for Sustainability in Western Australian Regional Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Coral

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I report on leadership for sustainability in regional schools in Western Australia (WA) in the context of the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI-WA). Case studies are developed to examine leading cultural change in eight WA regional schools with data presented in three representative narrative accounts. Consistency is…

  1. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    INTEGRATED NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE HIGHLANDS OF EASTERN AFRICA. This book documents a decade of research, methodological innovation, and lessons learned in an eco-regional research-for-development program operating in the eastern African highlands, the African Highlands Initiative ...

  2. The Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands include diverse topographic, geologic, soil, and hydrologic conditions that support a broad range of habitat types. The landscape features rugged uplands - some peaks higher than 2,500 feet above sea level - with exposed rock and varying soil depths and includes extensive areas of karst terrain. The Highlands are characterized by extreme biological diversity and high endemism (uniqueness of species). Vegetation communities are dominated by open oak-hickory and shortleaf pine woodlands and forests. Included in this vegetation matrix is an assemblage of various types of fens, forests, wetlands, fluvial features, and carbonate and siliceous glades. An ever-growing human population in the Ozark Highlands has become very dependent on reservoirs constructed on major rivers in the region and, in some cases, groundwater for household and public water supply. Because of human population growth in the Highlands and increases in industrial and agricultural activities, not only is adequate water quantity an issue, but maintaining good water quality is also a challenge. Point and nonpoint sources of excessive nutrients are an issue. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership programs to monitor water quality and develop simulation tools to help stakeholders better understand strategies to protect the quality of water and the environment are extremely important. The USGS collects relevant data, conducts interpretive studies, and develops simulation tools to help stakeholders understand resource availability and sustainability issues. Stakeholders dependent on these resources are interested in and benefit greatly from evolving these simulation tools (models) into decision support systems that can be used for adaptive management of water and ecological resources. The interaction of unique and high-quality biological and hydrologic resources and the effects of stresses from human activities can be evaluated best by using a multidisciplinary approach that the USGS

  3. Identification of Environmental Factors Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Southwestern Highland Region of China: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junkun Niu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in Yunnan Province, a southwestern highland region of China.In this nested case-control study, newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC cases in 2 cities in Yunnan Province and Crohn's disease (CD cases in 16 cities in Yunnan Province were recruited between 2008 and 2013. Controls were matched by geography, sex and age at a ratio of 1:4. Data were collected using the designed questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs.A total of 678 UC and 102 CD cases were recruited. For UC, various factors were associated with an increased risk of developing UC: dietary habits, including frequent irregular meal times; consumption of fried foods, salty foods and frozen dinners; childhood factors, including intestinal infectious diseases and frequent use of antibiotics; and other factors, such as mental labor, high work stress, use of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and allergies (OR > 1, p 1, p < 0.05, whereas physical activity may have reduced this risk (OR < 1, p < 0.05.This study is the first nested case-control study to analyze the association between environmental factors and IBD onset in a southwestern highland region of China. Certain dietary habits, lifestyles, allergies and childhood factors may play important roles in IBD, particularly UC.

  4. Associations among Inflammatory Biomarkers in the Circulating, Plasmatic, Salivary and Intraluminal Anatomical Compartments in Apparently Healthy Preschool Children from the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Soto-Méndez

    Full Text Available Undernutrition and inflammation are related in many ways; for instance, non-hygienic environments are associated with both poor growth and immunostimulation in children.To describe any existing interaction among different inflammation biomarkers measured in the distinct anatomical compartments of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva.In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva were collected on the 8th and last week of observation among 87 attendees (42 girls and 45 boys of 3 daycare centers offering a common 40-day rotating menu in Guatemala's Western Highlands. Analyses included white blood cell count (WBC, fecal calprotectin, and plasmatic and salivary cytokines including IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. Associations were assessed using Spearman rank-order and goodness-of-fit correlations, as indicated, followed by backwards-elimination multiple regression analyses to determine predictor variables for IL-10 in both anatomical compartments.Of a total of 66 cross-tabulations in the Spearman hemi-matrix, 22 (33% were significantly associated. All 10 paired associations among the salivary cytokines had a significant r value, whereas 7 of 10 possible associations among plasma cytokines were significant. Associations across anatomical compartments, however, were rarely significant. IL-10 in both biological fluids were higher than corresponding reference values. When a multiple regression model was run in order to determine independent predictors for IL-10 in each anatomical compartment separately, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α emerged as predictors in plasma (r2 = 0.514 and IL-1B, IL-8 and TNF-α remained as independent predictors in saliva (r2 = 0.762. Significant cross-interactions were seen with WBC, but not with fecal calprotectin.Interactions ranged from robust within the same anatomical compartment to limited to nil across distinct anatomical compartments. The prominence of the anti

  5. Human Capital Development in Western Region, Nigeria, 1955-1968

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...

  6. Farmers' perceptions about the influence of land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems on sustainable land management in the north western Ethiopian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, A.; Graaff, de J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Kassie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Land is a scarce resource in the highlands of Ethiopia. Its sustainable use is highly affected by bio-physical and institutional factors. The purpose of this research is to investigate farmers' perceptions about land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems and their influences on sustainable

  7. Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions in Western Eurasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Walter, W.R.; Flanagan, M.P,; O' Boyle, J.; Pasyanos, M.E.

    2000-04-03

    The authors present a regionalized crustal model of Western Eurasia, WEA. The model is constructed using results from published studies and maps of geological and geophysical parameters in this region, and was developed in conjunction with the updated regionalization of Middle East and North Africa by Walter et al.[2000]. As this is the first realization of the Eurasian modeling effort, they have limited themselves to only twelve broad regions. Particular attention has been given to identifying the boundaries for each region. The main use of this model will be to assist in monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Specifically, this model will help them to calibrate and predict the travel time and amplitudes of various regional seismic phases and to locate events accurately. The model based approach allows them to readily calibrate both the seismic and the aseismic parts of western Eurasia. Each region is specified by an one-dimensional model of compressional and shear velocities, densities and layer thicknesses. Further improvements to this model will involve, but not be limited to, increasing the spatial coverage toward the east and west of Eurasia, identify sub-regions based on their distinct physical properties and the use of new and improved body wave and surface wave datasets. In the future, they expect to use this model and its successors to be the baseline model for calibration techniques, e.g., kriging, to improve their capability to detect, locate and discriminate different seismic events in Eurasia.

  8. Child pneumonia - focus on the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T K P; Tran, T H; Roberts, C L; Graham, S M; Marais, B J

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in infants and young children (aged pneumonia disease burden, as well as the aetiology and management practices in different parts of the world, with a specific focus on the WHO Western Pacific Region. In 2011, the Western Pacific region had an estimated 0.11 pneumonia episodes per child-year with 61,900 pneumonia-related deaths in children less than 5 years of age. The majority (>75%) of pneumonia deaths occurred in six countries; Cambodia, China, Laos, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Viet Nam. Historically Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the commonest causes of severe pneumonia and pneumonia-related deaths in young children, but this is changing with the introduction of highly effective conjugate vaccines and socio-economic development. The relative contribution of viruses and atypical bacteria appear to be increasing and traditional case management approaches may require revision to accommodate increased uptake of conjugated vaccines in the Western Pacific region. Careful consideration should be given to risk reduction strategies, enhanced vaccination coverage, improved management of hypoxaemia and antibiotic stewardship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee: progress and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee (rGLC WPR was established in 2011 to promote the rational scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (PMDT. We reflect on its achievements, consider the challenges faced, and explore its potential future role. Achievements include the supervision and support of national PMDT action plans, increased local ownership, contextualized guidance, and a strong focus on regional capacity building, as well as a greater awareness of regional challenges. Future rGLC activities should include (1 advocacy for high-level political commitment; (2 monitoring, evaluation, and supervision; (3 technical support and contextualized guidance; and (4 training, capacity building, and operational research. Regional activities require close collaboration with both national and global efforts, and should be an important component of the new Global Drug-resistant TB Initiative.

  10. Lg Attenuation Characteristic of Gujarat Region (Western India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Namrata; Singh, Chandrani

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the Lg attenuation characteristics of the Gujarat Region in Western India by using a reliable two-station method. This region comes under the V, IV and III seismicity zone. So, in India this is the seismic active region other than Himalayas, which shows high seismicity. Lg is typically the most prominent short-period seismic phase on high frequency seismogram observed over the continental paths from regional to teleseimic distance. We use data from 15 earthquakes with magnitude > 5 mb and focal depth Gujarat region. Low Q0 (Gujarat. The northern region of Saurashtra (Gujarat) shows a high Q0 (> 300) value. These observations are consistent with the results of the body wave attenuation structure reported for the region. The variations in the attenuation characteristics may be caused due to both the intrinsic and scattering contributions caused by thermal effects, sedimentary layer thickness as well as heterogeneities present below the study region. Our results are found to be comparable with the previous studies of the attenuation characteristics of the Gujarat region.

  11. Atopic dermatitis in West Highland white terriers is associated with a 1.3-Mb region on CFA 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Joana B; O'Leary, Caroline A; Duffy, David L; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Gharahkhani, Puya; Vogelnest, Linda; Mason, Kenneth; Shipstone, Michael; Latter, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic inflammatory skin disease that shares similarities with AD in humans. Canine AD is likely to be an inherited disease in dogs and is common in West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). We performed a genome-wide association study using the Affymetrix Canine SNP V2 array consisting of over 42,800 single nucleotide polymorphisms, on 35 atopic and 25 non-atopic WHWTs. A gene-dropping simulation method, using SIB-PAIR, identified a projected 1.3 Mb area of association (genome-wide P = 6 × 10(-5) to P = 7 × 10(-4)) on CFA 17. Nineteen genes on CFA 17, including 1 potential candidate gene (PTPN22), were located less than 0.5 Mb from the interval of association identified on the genome-wide association analysis. Four haplotypes within this locus were differently distributed between cases and controls in this population of dogs. These findings suggest that a major locus for canine AD in WHWTs may be located on, or in close proximity to an area on CFA 17.

  12. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses: yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis Westendorf f. sp. tritici and wheat stem sawfly (WSS Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae, and abiotic stresses: cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed. Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized. Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4% (yellow rust to 21.6% (cold stress for 1000-kernel weight (TKW and from 19.9 (yellow rust to 91.9% (cold stress for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  13. Geologic mapping of the Reull Vallis Region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.

    1997-03-01

    Geologic mapping of the Reull Vallis region is being undertaken in order to determine the sequence of events that formed the Reull Vallis outflow channel system and to understand the geologic processes that modified the Martian southern highlands. The region is situated on the northeast rim of the Hellas Basin in the heavily cratered highlands and shows evidence of fluvial activity, volcanism, mass wasting, and tectonism. The western portion of the Reull Vallis region was previously mapped in a study of Hadriaca Patera.

  14. On fortification of ancient settlements of the western Volga region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrat M. Gubaydullin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine specific features of defense lines in the pre-Mongol medieval forts from the Western Volga region (10th – early 13th centuries. Such fortified settlements are located in the valley of the Sura river, predominantly. The archaeological studies revealed some specific features of fortification on these sites. However, all of them fit into the general concept of fortifications in the Volga Bulgaria. Most of the forts in this region are located on capes, and thus are compact. Still, they have a complex system of fortifications consisting of one or several (up to three lines of ramparts with wooden walls and moats. Some of them are arranged as one belt, others consist of separate protective boundaries and divide settlements into internal and external town. Walls had different constructive features and varied between vertical palisades (row of stakes to wooden cages. Suburbs could be protected by a simple wooden wall without any additional earthen fortifications.

  15. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  16. Discontinuous drainage systems formed by highland precipitation and ground-water outflow in the Navua Valles and southwest Hadriacus Mons regions, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H. I.; Gulick, V. C.; Glines, N. H.

    2017-09-01

    The Navua Valles are systems of paleodrainages located north of Dao Vallis, which empty into Hellas Planitia, the largest impact basin on Mars. In this study, we mapped and characterized the Navua Valles Region's individual drainage systems, including drainages along the southwestern flank of Hadriacus Mons, and one valley network from the same source as Navua Valles but flowing in the opposite direction. The major drainage systems share morphological characteristics common to both outflow channels and valley networks. The slopes in this region are dissected by two major Navua drainage systems (here Navua A* and B*) and several shorter, sub-parallel valleys formed on the highest gradient (approximately 20 m/km [1.15°]) slopes, at the lowest part of Hellas Basin's rim. The two major drainage systems originate in the highlands, and empty into the basin. Our mapping suggests that water in Navua Valles reached the basin floor in a complicated descent and included several episodes of surface ponding, surface runoff, infiltration, subsurface flow and subsequent outflow. The most prominent channel system, Navua A, forms a repetitive sequence of deep incision into bedrock, followed by a transition into broad channels in erodible materials, and then into unconfined deposits. This successive erosion-transport-deposition sequence continues to repeat along the valley's entire length forming a discontinuous pattern that is consistent with classical fluvial process models. The channels cut into volcanic plains likely emplaced from the formation of Tyrrhenus and Hadriacus Montes. The dendritic source valleys of Navua A originate from the rim of a highland crater while the rest of this subsystem consists of a single, discontinuous channel which is consistent with a single water source zone that likely supplied water for all channels downslope. These drainages may have formed as discontinuous channels, revealing the potential existence of subsurface drainage pathways located

  17. Mercury in forest mushrooms and topsoil from the Yunnan highlands and the subalpine region of the Minya Konka summit in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Saba, Martyna; Liu, Hong-Gao; Li, Tao; Wang, Ji-Peng; Wiejak, Anna; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Zhang, Dan

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate and discuss the occurrence and accumulation of mercury in the fruiting bodies of wild-growing fungi (Macromycetes) collected from montane forests in two regions of southwestern China with differences in soil geochemistry, climate and geographical conditions. Fungal mycelia in soils of the subalpine region of the Minya Konka (Gongga Mountain) in Sichuan and in the highlands of Yunnan efficiently accumulated mercury in fruiting bodies (mushrooms). The examined sites in Yunnan with highly mineralized red and yellow soils showed Hg contents ranging from 0.066 to 0.28 mg kg -1 dry biomass (db) which is roughly similar to the results obtained for samples collected from sites with dark soils relatively rich in organic matter from a remote, the subalpine region of Minya Konka. Due to the remoteness of the subalpine section of Minya Konka, as well as its elevation and climate, airborne mercury from long-range transport could be deposited preferentially on the topsoil and the Hg levels determined in soil samples taken beneath the fruiting bodies were up to 0.48 mg kg -1 dry matter. In Yunnan, with polymetallic soils (Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt), Amanita mushrooms showed mercury in caps of fruiting bodies of up to 7.3 mg kg -1 dry biomass. Geogenic Hg from the mercuriferous belt seems to be the overriding source of mercury accumulated in mushrooms foraged in the regions of Yunnan, while long-range atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition are the mercury sources for specimens foraged in the region of Minya Konka.

  18. Additions To The Lichen Biota Of SE Siberia: Records From The Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands (Trans-Baikal Region, Russia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergey Chesnokov; Lydmila Konoreva

    2015-01-01

    ... Nagor’e Highlands in southeastern Siberia, including 64 species new for the area. Some of the newly recorded species are extremely rare in Russia [e.g., (Mudd) Poelt, Noble & Vězda and Nyl. Cromb...

  19. Native title contestation in Western Australia's Pilbara region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cleary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rights afforded to Indigenous Australians under the Native Title Act 1993 (NTA are very limited and allow for undue coercion by corporate interests, contrary to the claims of many prominent authors in this field. Unlike the Commonwealth’s first land rights law, Aboriginal Lands Rights (Northern Territory Act 1976 (ALRA , the NTA does not offer a right of veto to Aboriginal parties; instead, they have a right to negotiate with developers, which has in practice meant very little leverage in negotiations for native title parties. And unlike ALRA, developers can deal with any Indigenous corporation, rather than land councils. These two factors have encouraged opportunistic conduct by some developers and led to vexatious litigation designed to break the resistance of native title parties, as demonstrated by the experience of Aboriginal corporations in the iron ore-rich Pilbara region of Western Australia.

  20. Discovery of a Plains Caldera Complex and Extinct Lava Lake in Arabia Terra, Mars: Implications for the Discovery of Additional Highland Volcanic Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob; Michalski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped topographic depressions occur near the dichotomy boundary in northern Arabia Terra, Mars. The geomorphology of these features suggests that they formed by collapse, opposed to meteor impact. At least one depression (approx.55 by 85 km) displays geologic features indicating a complex, multi-stage collapse history. Features within and around the collapse structure indicate volcanic processes. The complex occurs within Hesperian ridged plains of likely volcanic origin and displays no crater rim or evidence for ejecta. Instead the depression consists of a series of circumferential graben and down-dropped blocks which also display upper surfaces similar to ridged plain lavas. Large blocks within the depression are tilted towards the crater center, and display graben that appear to have originally been linked with circumferential graben outside of the complex related to earlier collapse events. A nearly 700 m high mound exists along a graben within the complex that might be a vent. The deepest depression displays two sets of nearly continuous terraces, which we interpret as high-stands of a drained lava lake. These features appear similar to the black ledge described during the Kilauea Iki eruption in 1959. A lacustrine origin for the terraces seems unlikely because of the paucity of channels found in or around the depression that could be linked to aqueous surface processes. In addition, there is no obvious evidence for lacustrine sediments within the basin. Together with the presence of significant faulting that is indicative of collapse we conclude that this crater complex represents a large caldera formed in the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian. Other linear and irregular depressions in the region also might be linked to ancient volcanism. If that hypothesis is correct, it suggests that northern Arabia Terra could contain a large, previously unrecognized highland igneous province. Evacuation of magma via explosive and effusive activity

  1. Structural problems of mining region innovative development (Kuzbass, Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsenko Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the issues of overcoming the negative structural shift in Russian economy, accelerating economic growth, reducing technological and social- and-economic gap between Russia and the developed countries are strategically important. Modern structure of Russian economy which had been developed as a part of market model does not generate the innovative type of development. In this situation, mining regions, the structure of which was formed in the early 20th century and is represented by the extractive industries, are undergoing the greatest problems of innovative development. Therefore, despite high urbanization and industrial development level the economy of Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia is characterized by significant structural problems. They are associated with primary extractive nature of the regional industry, in which coal and iron ore, metallurgical and chemical industries dominate. They highly depend on Russian and global market of raw materials, widely use low-productive technologies, and they are characterized by high level of fixed capital depreciation and insufficient pace of innovative infrastructure development. The solution of the structural problems of economic development of mining region is connected with technological modernization of extractive industries and use of modern materials for the production of high-tech products.

  2. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.

  3. Identification of Environmental Factors Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Southwestern Highland Region of China: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Tang, Yuan; Nan, Qiong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Gang; Dong, Xiangqian; Huang, Qi; Xia, Shuxian; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Yunnan Province, a southwestern highland region of China. In this nested case-control study, newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (UC) cases in 2 cities in Yunnan Province and Crohn's disease (CD) cases in 16 cities in Yunnan Province were recruited between 2008 and 2013. Controls were matched by geography, sex and age at a ratio of 1:4. Data were collected using the designed questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs). A total of 678 UC and 102 CD cases were recruited. For UC, various factors were associated with an increased risk of developing UC: dietary habits, including frequent irregular meal times; consumption of fried foods, salty foods and frozen dinners; childhood factors, including intestinal infectious diseases and frequent use of antibiotics; and other factors, such as mental labor, high work stress, use of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and allergies (OR > 1, p 1, p China. Certain dietary habits, lifestyles, allergies and childhood factors may play important roles in IBD, particularly UC.

  4. Impact of Ramadan fasting on energy intake and anthropometry of type 2 diabetics-Study in two regions of the central highlands and southeastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Bencharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:During the month of Ramadan, muslims change their lifestyle. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the energy intake and anthropometry of type 2 diabetics. Methods:Epidemiological study by questionnaire were collected before (T0, during (T1 and after (T3 Ramadan 2013. The data were collected during medical consultations in sanitary establishments in two regions of the central highlands (Boussaâda and the south-east of Algeria (Djamaâ. The survey card concerned a food recording and anthropometry repeated during the 3 time periods mentioned before. Results:The study concerned 476 diabetics (255 women, 221 men with the mean age of 54.9±4.7 years old. 66.4% of diabetics of Boussaâda and 61.8% of Djamaâ followed nutritional education sessions preparing for fasting (p˃0.05. The number of fasting days during the month of Ramadan is 24.0±1.7days. By comparing both of the regions, no significant difference was observed in the energy intake distribution and in macronutriments of the diabetics (p>0.05. By comparing the 3 periods, the diabetics of Boussaâda had an energy intake significantly increased at T1 (p=0.000. In Djamaâ, the energy intake decreased from T0 to T2 (p=0.000. The energy distribution of macronutrients remained stable (p>0.05 between the three periods. Body mass index, waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio were significantly decreased from T0 to T2 (p

  5. Herpetological surveys of south-western and south-eastern regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herpetofauna of part of the south-western (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States) and south-eastern (Cross River State) regions were investigated. Specimens were located opportunistically during visual surveys. Both regions fall in the tropical zone, and the south-western region surveyed, was mostly lowland, degraded forests ...

  6. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... This book documents a decade of research, methodological innovation, and lessons learned in an eco-regional research-for-development program operating in the eastern African highlands, the African Highlands Initiative (AHI). It does this through reflections of the protagonists themselves—AHI site teams ...

  7. Politics in the Western Maya Region (II: Emblem Glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express ideas and concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. In this article I investigate the meaning of emblem glyphs. I suggest that originally they were toponyms but later on they became titles of origin which indicated descendance from a common origin place.En una serie de artículos investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental que se conectan con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan ideas y conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. En este artículo investigo el significado de los glifos emblema. Propongo que originalmente fueron topónimos y después llegaron a ser títulos de origen que indicaron descendencia común de un lugar original.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Peruvian highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Noboru; Guillen, Sonia; Shimada, Izumi

    2006-09-01

    Ancient DNA recovered from 57 individuals excavated by Hiram Bingham at the rural communities of Paucarcancha, Patallacta, and Huata near the famed Inca royal estate and ritual site of Machu Picchu was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with ancient and modern DNA from various Central Andean areas to test their hypothesized indigenous highland origins. The control and coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 35 individuals in this group were sequenced, and the haplogroups of each individual were determined. The frequency data for the haplogroups of these samples show clear proximity to those of modern Quechua and Aymara populations in the Peruvian and Bolivian highlands, and contrast with those of pre-Hispanic individuals of the north coast of Peru that we defined previously. Our study suggests a strong genetic affinity between sampled late pre-Hispanic individuals and modern Andean highlanders. A previous analysis of the Machu Picchu osteological collection suggests that the residents there were a mixed group of natives from various coastal and highland regions relocated by the Inca state for varied purposes. Overall, our study indicates that the sampled individuals from Paucarcancha and Patallacta were indigenous highlanders who provided supportive roles for nearby Machu Picchu. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Adoption potential of hedgerow intercropping in maize-based cropping systems in the highlands of western Kenya: I Background and agronomic evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, K.D.; Ndufa, J.K.; Ohlsson, E.; Sjögren, H.; Swinkels, R.

    1997-01-01

    The biophysical performance of hedgerow intercropping for soil fertility inprovement was assessed in a farmer-participatory trial in western Kenya over three years. Farmers successfully established dense hedgerows (median 6680 trees ha−1 on plots of 790 m2, but annual yields of hedgerow prunings of

  10. Geophysical models of Western Aphrodite-Niobe region: Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenkov, K. I.; Saunders, R. S.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    have modeled the region of Western Aphrodite and the Niobe plains to get reasonable depths of compensation. Crust mantle boundary relief is calculated for Western Aphrodite-Niobe relative to a mean crustal thickness of 50 km. The calculations include the consequences of simple crust models and more complicated models with a weak, ductile lower crust, a strong upper mantle and a weak lower mantle layer.

  11. Atmospheric water budget over the western Himalayas in a regional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During winter months (December, January, February – DJF), the western Himalayas (WH) receive precipitation from eastward moving extratropical cyclones, called western disturbances (WDs) in Indian parlance. Winter precipitation–moisture convergence–evaporation (P–C–E) cycle is analyzed for a period of 22 years ...

  12. Atmospheric water budget over the western Himalayas in a regional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During winter months (December, January, February – DJF), the western Himalayas (WH) receive pre- cipitation from eastward moving extratropical cyclones, called western disturbances (WDs) in Indian par- lance. Winter precipitation–moisture convergence–evaporation (P–C–E) cycle is analyzed for a period of. 22 years ...

  13. The Complex Stratigraphy of the Highland Crust in the Serenitatis Region of the Moon Inferred from Mineral Fragment Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Large impact basins are natural drill holes into the Moon, and their ejecta carries unique information about the rock types and stratigraphy of the lunar crust. We have conducted an electron microprobe study of mineral fragments in the poikilitic melt breccias collected from the Taurus Mountains at the Apollo 17 landing site. These breccias are virtually unanimously agreed to be impact melt produced in the Serenitatis impact event. They contain lithic fragments and much more abundant mineral fragments of crustal origin. We have made precise microprobe analyses of minor element abundances in fragments of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase to provide new information on the possible source rocks and the crustal stratigraphy in the Serenitatis region. These data were also intended to elucidate the nature of the cryptic geochemical component in breccias such as these with low-K Fra Mauro basalt compositions. We chose the finest-grained (i.e., most rapidly quenched) breccias for study, to avoid reacted and partly assimilated fragments as much as possible. Most of the mineral fragments appear to have been derived from rocks that would fall into the pristine igneous Mg-suite as represented by lithic fragments in the Apollo collection, or reasonable extensions of it. Gabbroic rocks were more abundant in the target stratigraphy than is apparent from the Apollo sample collection. Some pyroxene and plagiociase, but probably not much olivine, could be derived from feldspathic granulites, which are metamorphosed polymict breccias. Some mineral fragments are from previously unknown rocks. These include highly magnesian olivines (up to Fo(sub 94)), possibly volcanic in origin, that exacerbate the difficulty in explaining highly magnesian rocks in the lunar crust. It appears that some part of the lunar interior has an mg*(= 100 x Mg/(Mg/Fe) atomic) greater than the conventional bulk Moon value of 80-84. Other volcanic rocks, including mare basalts, and rapidly- cooled impact melt

  14. Patients’ and Caretakers’ Satisfaction at Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Dahal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Curative services are highly demanded component of health service. Besides competence in technical aspects; behavior of health care providers, availability of consumer friendly environment and the trusting relationship with the physician along with open two way communication between health care provider and consumer determines the consumers’ perception about the quality of service that further determines whether they seek and continue to use services. This study was conducted with the objective of finding out consumers’ satisfaction with the services of Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara and the findings can be helpful in designing interventions accordingly. A client-exit interview was conducted which included 146 respondents representing both old and new OPD cases of the hospital. Two Focus Group Discussions were also conducted. Results obtained showed that service of hospital were of good satisfaction to more than half of the respondents. Drug availability and cheap cost of service were strong aspects of hospital. More than half of the respondents had visited private medicals before coming to hospital. Poor place of examination, poor hospital sanitation, long waiting time for doctor and service of staffs other than doctor were some of the aspects that consumers were poorly satisfied with. Fifty four out of 115 (47% who had spent less than 5 minutes with the doctor, had good satisfaction with doctors’ service. Hence, consumers’ satisfaction is influenced by the factors like behavior of attending physician and other hospital staffs, place of examination, waiting time for doctor, hospital sanitation etc.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6364 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 205-16

  15. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the western Okanogan highlands and of the upper Columbia River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples; no known uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern portions of the western Okanogan highlands and in the upper Columbia River valley were investigated during a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of the Tertiary sedimentary rocks of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples. No portion of the project area of this report is rated of high or of medium favorability for potential uranium resources. Low favorability ratings are given to Oroville, Tonasket, and Pine Creek areas of the Okanogan River valley; to the Republic graben; and to the William Lakes, Colville, and Sheep Creek areas of the upper Columbia River valley. All these areas contain some fluvial, poorly sorted feldspathic or arkosic sandstones and conglomerates. These rocks are characterized by very low permeability and a consistently high siliceous matrix suggesting very low initial permeability. There are no known uranium deposits in any of these areas, and low level uranium anomalies are rare.

  16. Towards sustainable Highland Banana production in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East Africa highland bananas (Musa sp., AAA-EAHB) are an important starchy food and cash crop in Uganda and the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Widespread reports of declining yields in Uganda since the 1930s and the low yields today do raise serious sustainability and food security concerns, especially as food ...

  17. Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the Highland Medical Research Journal is to publish scientific research in various fields of medical science and to communicate such research findings to the larger world community. It aims to promote cooperation and understanding amoungst workers in various fields of medical science.

  18. Additions To The Lichen Biota Of SE Siberia: Records From The Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands (Trans-Baikal Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chesnokov Sergey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports 120 species of lichens and one lichenicolous fungus from the Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands in southeastern Siberia, including 64 species new for the area. Some of the newly recorded species are extremely rare in Russia [e.g., Bryonora curvescens (Mudd Poelt, Gyalideopsis alnicola Noble & Vězda and Pilophorus strumaticus Nyl. ex Cromb.]. The distribution and habitat preferences of several rare species are briefly discussed.

  19. Australia's role in promoting and supporting tuberculosis control in the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kerrie A

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-one percent of the world's tuberculosis cases are found in the Western Pacific Region. The region has demonstrated a lower rate of decline in incidence than the regions of Africa, the Americas and Europe. Issues around drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus and diabetes impact on the burden of tuberculosis disease in the Western Pacific Region. Australia has exhibited a low and relatively stable tuberculosis incidence rate but has not progressed toward the desired international goal for tuberculosis elimination (globalisation and Australia's increasing economic and strategic engagement within the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia. Promoting and supporting tuberculosis control within the Western Pacific Region provides an opportunity for Australia to maintain its low tuberculosis incidence rate and progress toward elimination.

  20. Industrialization of western region of ukraine: problems of environmental consequences management

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Malyarchuk

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on the consequences of industrialization of the western region of the Ukrainian SSR – large-scale construction industry provided jobs for the active population of the region, led to the expansion of infrastructure of settlements and towns, strengthened social sphere and became a positive factor for the development of the western regions of Ukraine. However, due to the increased production capacity natural resources got depleted. The ability of ecosystems to self-healing an...

  1. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small

  2. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. De; J Sonnadara, D. U.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869-2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed trend is estimated using the Mann-Kendall statistic. The results clearly show that there is a statistically significant decrease in annual rainfall in the western slopes of the central highlands. Throughout the last century, the annual reduction of rainfall in Nuwara Eliya which is at an altitude of 1895 m was 5.2 mm/year. The decrease is largely due to the reduction in southwest monsoon rainfall which contributes to 75% of the total reduction. No significant change was observed on the eastern side of the central highlands which receives rainfall predominantly from the northeast monsoons. The mean annual temperature in the mountainous region shows a uniform increasing trend which is in line with the 100-year global temperature increase of 0.8 ± 0.2∘C. Kandy, which is at an altitude of 477 m and closely linked with the rainfall climatology of Nuwara Eliya, showed no significant change in the mean annual temperature. If the current trend continues, in another 100 years, western and eastern slopes of central highlands will receive the same amount of rainfall from the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon which will have far reaching consequences for Sri Lanka's economy and the ecology of the hill country.

  3. The water hyacinth problem and the biological control option in the highland lake region of the upper Nile basin: Uganda's experience

    OpenAIRE

    Twongo, T.; Balirwa, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid proliferation and extensive spread of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms in the highland lakes of the Nile Basin within less than 15 years of introduction into the basin in the 1980s pauses potential environmental and social economic menace if the noxious weed is not controlled soon. The water weed has spread all round Lake Victoria and, in Uganda where infes tation is mos t severe, water hyacinth estimated at 1,330,000 ton smothers over 2,000 ha of the lakeshore...

  4. Survey of Barley and Wheat Diseases in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Yahyaoui

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Annual surveys of barley and wheat diseases were conducted in Eritrea from 2000 to 2002. The surveys covered six zones of the central highlands where barley and wheat are grown. The main diseases of barley were netform net blotch, spot-form net blotch, leaf rust and scald. Other, less important diseases were loose smut, covered smut, barley stripe and septoria leaf blotch. Wheat was mainly affected by yellow rust and leaf rust. Loose smut, septoria leaf spot and tan spot diseases were less prevalent. The average incidence of these diseases varied according to the zone. Among barley diseases, net blotch incidence was high in four of the six zones surveyed. Leaf rust occurred at medium incidence in five zones. Loose smut was more severe in the southern highland plains, while covered smut was more common in the south-eastern highland terraces. For wheat, yellow rust incidence was high in two zones. Areas with a high incidence of yellow rust were not necessarily those with a high incidence of leaf rust. Leaf rust was important in the south-eastern and western highland terraces and in the western highland plains. The number of diseases found in the same field varied from 2 to 5. The south eastern highland terraces, the western highland terraces and the northern highland terraces had the highest proportions of individual barley fields with three or more diseases.

  5. Menopause in highland Guatemala Mayan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donna E

    2003-04-25

    To explore any feelings and symptoms surrounding menopause among Mayan women in three ethnolinguistic groups in highland Guatemala and compare these with previous reports from Mexico. This was a qualitative exploratory study of the experiences around menopause of eight middle aged women and one local key informant in each of three villages in western highland Guatemala (n=27). Individual interviews were conducted in women with irregular menses or whose menses has ceased in the last 3 years. Field notes were kept and then an analysis undertaken by the author. Twenty-four Mayan women, aged 38-55, and three Mayan key informants (all women over age 50) were interviewed. Most women reported some symptoms, including hot flashes, night sweats, changes in libido, irritability, moodiness, abdominal cramps and menstrual clots occurring at some stage during the last 3 years. Although women reported symptoms, they mostly accepted them with equanimity; and rejoiced at the cessation of their periods. Highland Guatemalan Mayan women reported symptoms that were not reported in Mayan women in Yucatan, Mexico in the years surrounding menopause. The reasons for this disparity are unclear but may reflect differences in body weight and diet. Despite these symptoms, Mayan women looked forward to menopause and their newfound freedom and status. Symptoms in women in the years around menopause must be interpreted in geographical, nutritional, biological, psychological and cultural context.

  6. Highland Medical Research Journal: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highland Medical Research Journal: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Highland Medical Research Journal: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Natural Hazards and the press in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Llasat-Botija

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses press articles published between 1982 and 2005 in an attempt to describe the social perception of natural hazards in Catalonia. The articles included in the database have been classified according to different types of risk. In addition, the study examines the evolution of each type of risk in the press coverage during the study period. Finally, the results have been compared to data provided by insurance companies with respect to compensations paid out for damages. Conclusions show that floods are the most important natural hazard in the region, but that the number of headlines for each event is greater in the case of snowfalls and forest fires. Factors such as the season of the year, the proximity of the affected region to the capital, the topical issues at the time, and the presence of other important news must be considered when the impact in the press is analysed.

  8. Barium in landscape components of the western Transbaikal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashin, V. K.

    2015-10-01

    Barium concentrations in parent materials, soils, and plants of the forest-steppe, steppe, and dry steppe landscapes of the Transbaikal region have been studied. The average concentration of this element in rocks and soils of this region exceeds its clarke by 1.8-2.1 times. A positive correlation between the contents of Ba in soils, soil-forming rocks, and plants has been found. The concentration of Ba in soils does not correlate with the soil pH and humus content. Distribution patterns of Ba in the soil profiles have been characterized. With respect to the coefficient of the biological uptake by plants, Ba is assigned to the group of low accumulation (0.55-0.65) for mineral soils and of strong accumulation (6.0) for alluvial bog soils. Average concentrations of Ba in the steppe, meadow, and cultivated vegetation of the region are 1.9-2.3 times higher in comparison with the average concentration of this element in plants of the continents. The biological migration of Ba is most active in meadow landscapes, whereas steppe landscapes are characterized by the least active biological migration of this element.

  9. Application of regional climate models to the Indian winter monsoon over the western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A P; Yasunari, T; Wiltshire, A; Kumar, P; Mathison, C; Ridley, J; Jacob, D

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayan region is characterized by pronounced topographic heterogeneity and land use variability from west to east, with a large variation in regional climate patterns. Over the western part of the region, almost one-third of the annual precipitation is received in winter during cyclonic storms embedded in westerlies, known locally as the western disturbance. In the present paper, the regional winter climate over the western Himalayas is analyzed from simulations produced by two regional climate models (RCMs) forced with large-scale fields from ERA-Interim. The analysis was conducted by the composition of contrasting (wet and dry) winter precipitation years. The findings showed that RCMs could simulate the regional climate of the western Himalayas and represent the atmospheric circulation during extreme precipitation years in accordance with observations. The results suggest the important role of topography in moisture fluxes, transport and vertical flows. Dynamical downscaling with RCMs represented regional climates at the mountain or even event scale. However, uncertainties of precipitation scale and liquid-solid precipitation ratios within RCMs are still large for the purposes of hydrological and glaciological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 28422 - Fisheries of the Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... Fishery Management Council (Western Pacific Council), is subject to overfishing. NMFS notifies the appropriate fishery management council (Council) whenever it determines that; overfishing is occurring, a...

  11. Gaining ground : land reform and the constitution of community in the Tojolabal Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der G.

    2001-01-01

    This study reconstructs the process of land redistribution in an indigenous region of Chiapas, the Tojolabal Highlands, situated between the better known Central Highlands and the Lacandona Rainforest. Until 1930 this region was dominated by large private estates or fincas ,

  12. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  13. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  14. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  15. The Challenges of Bottom-up Approach of Natural-Social Integration in China Highland Pasture Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Likun

    2017-04-01

    The pasture land covers two fifth of total Chinese land area, which is mainly distributed in western highland of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan Provinces. China pasture land is not only in charge of providing food resource to regional people, but also plays important role in highland ecosystem services and biodiversity. Along with global warming and enhanced grazing activity, 90% of China pasture land is facing the threat of land degradation. From middle 1990's, Chinese government has released a series of pasture land conservation policies to prevent further environmental degradation. In the same time, lots of pasture ecosystem and environment change researches are supported by national and regional funding agencies. In this study, by monitoring and investigating this top-down approach of pasture land research and policy making processes, we would like to find out the gaps and problems of current research and policy making on China pasture land conservation, especially focusing on the possibility of establishing the bottom-up approach of natural-social sciences integration to support the pasture land conservation and sustainable pasture land management in highland China.

  16. 75 FR 22725 - Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 242 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 100 Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting (teleconference). SUMMARY: This...

  17. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... CONTACT: Jody S. Sundsted, Power Marketing Manager, Upper Great Plains Region, Western Area Power... marketing administration (PMA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), is publishing a recommendation to pursue...' marketing of power across the seams. To address certain transmission congestion in the MISO and SPP...

  18. Impact of climate induced glacial melting on coastal marine systems in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region

    OpenAIRE

    Abele, Doris; Bers, A. V.; Costi, Juliana; Deregibus, D.

    2012-01-01

    IMCOAST is an international research program that features a multidisciplinary approach involving geo and biological sciences, field investigations, remote sensing and modeling and knowledge into the hydrographical and biological history of the marine coastal ecosystems of the Western Antarctic Peninsula region.

  19. Revision of Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolando Bastida-Zavala, J.; Hove, ten Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the Hydroides species (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) from the Western Atlantic Region is presented. Twenty-six taxa are described, including a comparison between four species with ‘winged’ verticil spines: Hydroides alatalateralis, H. elegantulus, H. floridanus and H. spongicola,

  20. Dust from the dark region in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, I.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296912743; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; Reichart, G.-J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165599081; Sluijs, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X

    2011-01-01

    A dark region tens of kilometres wide is located in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. The dark appearance is caused by higher amounts of dust relative to the brighter surroundings. This dust has either been deposited recently or was brought to the surface by melting of

  1. Croton maasii (Euphorbiaceae), a new species from the western Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riina, R.; Berry, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Croton maasii, a new species from South America, is described and illustrated. The species is only known from terra firme forests of the extreme western Amazonian region, in W Brazil and adjacent E Peru. Croton maasii resembles C. pachypodus, a more abundant and widely distributed species in the

  2. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  3. Secondary analysis of snake bite data in the Western Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Method: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional review of 2006 - 2010 snake bite secondary data generated by the Western Regional Health Information Office in Ghana. Data was .... Estimate of the burden of Snake bites in Sub-Saharan Africa; A meta-analytic approach. Toxicon. 2011; 57(4): 586-99.

  4. Seismicity study of Javakhety highland (Southrn Georgia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Dorbath, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Caucasus is a region of active tectonics and complex crustal structure located between the Caspian Sea to the East and the Black Sea to the west. To the North is the aseismic Eurasian shield and to the South-West and the South are the active tectonic regions of East Anatolia and the Zagros thrust and fault belt of Northwestern Iran. Main interest of our study is Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the Lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. While the region is seismically active, most of the crustal models and earthquake locations are based on field work and seismic studies of the soviet era until 2003, when recent technical advances has continued in the former USSR republics of the Southern Caucasus. Before 2003 the only broadband digital instrumentation in the region was an IRIS station in Garni, Armenia. Now there are new regional networks in Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. There is considerable interest in examining the tectonics and fault structure of the region in more detail and in obtaining seismic data to develop crustal models and improve our ability to accurately locate events as the inputs for the seismic hazard assessment of the Caucasus. Several field works have been conducted in the Javakheti highland from 2009 to 2011. The goal of the intensive field investigations was multidisciplinary study of the fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. We relocated hypocenters of the earthquakes in the region and improved local 3D velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analog data of the soviet time have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversions were performed for the recent moderate size earthquakes of the Javakheti highland associated with the fault

  5. Standing Height and its Estimation Utilizing Foot Length Measurements in Adolescents from Western Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine standing height in both Kosovan genders in the Western Region as well as its association with foot length, as an alternative to estimating standing height. A total of 664 individuals (338 male and 326 female participated in this research. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of ISAK. The relationships between body height and foot length were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a ninety-five percent confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and foot length between genders was performed using a t-test. After that a linear regression analysis were carried out to examine extent to which foot length can reliably predict standing height. Results displayed that Western Kosovan male are 179.71±6.00cm tall and have a foot length of 26.73±1.20cm, while Western Kosovan female are 166.26±5.23cm tall and have a foot length of 23.66±1.06cm. The results have shown that both genders made Western-Kosovans a tall group, a little bit taller that general Kosovan population. Moreover, the foot length reliably predicts standing height in both genders; but, not reliably enough as arm span. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo as the results from Western-Kosovans don’t correspond to the general values.

  6. Virulence diversity of Uromyces Appendiculatus in the Highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is planted throughout Guatemala, especially in the highlands of the South East, North East, and South West regions. In these regions, temperatures fluctuate between 16 y 20 °C and the average rain precipitation is about 1000 mm. These conditions are optimum for the rust disease and b...

  7. Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungate, Bruce A. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    2013-05-02

    The major goal of this project was fostering, integrating, synthesizing, and disseminating experimental, observational, and modeling research on predicted climate change in the western region of the U.S. and the impacts of that change on the structure, productivity, and climatic interactions of the region's natural and managed ecological systems. This was accomplished through administering a competitive grants program developed in collaboration with the other four regional centers of the NICCR. The activities supported included efforts to synthesize research on climate change in the western U.S. through meta-analysis studies, model comparisons, and data synthesis workshops. Results from this work were disseminated to the scientific and public media. This project also supported the development of the NICCR web site, hosted at NAU, which was used as the means to accept pre-proposal and proposal submissions for each funding cycle, and served as a clearing house for public outreach for results from NICCR-funded research

  8. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Raynal C; Konings, Frank

    2016-01-01

    On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84%) countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  9. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal C Squires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84% countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  10. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  11. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AS A CHAIN PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS AND TECHNOLOGICAL ROUTES: THE CASE OF SANTA CATARINA'S WESTERN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cristina Aléssio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a transformation of the concept of development and of the analysis of its explanatory variables. Regional/local specificities became important aspects of development processes since each territory reacts differently to different strategies and creates specific solutions for its development. This article analyzes the path of a regional development process from the perspective of the institutional, schumpeterian and territorial approach theories. They provide important references to analyze development processes at the local level, as they consider history, culture, behavior codes, values and techniques as determinants of development. The study builds on Santa Catarina's Western region case and shows that regional development processes can be analyzed with the support of these theories as a chain of organizational dynamics and local technological trajectories that influence each other and determine the possible courses of territorial development.

  12. Mulheres Negras e HIV: determinantes de vulnerabilidade na região serrana do estado do Rio de Janeiro Black Women and HIV: vulnerability determinants in highland region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Santos Albuquerque

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo de base quantitativa que teve como objetivo central analisar componentes socioculturais e comportamentais relacionados ao processo de vulnerabilização ao HIV/aids a partir da percepção de mulheres negras na região serrana do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para tal, foram entrevistadas 1.464 mulheres negras dos diferentes municípios que compõem essa região. Os principais determinantes que marcaram com maior intensidade a vulnerabilidade dessas mulheres associaram-se aos seguintes fatores: baixa escolaridade, renda e, consequentemente, acesso a bens e serviços, baixo índice de uso sistemático do preservativo e percepções de gênero, que reforçam a menor autonomia feminina na tomada de decisões protetoras.This quantitative study aimed at analyzing social, cultural and behavioral components related to HIV vulnerability from perception of black women who live on a specific region of Rio de Janeiro - the highland area. For that, 1,464 black women from different towns of this region were interviewed. The main components that influenced vulnerability of these women could be associated to some factors, like: poor schooling, poverty, and consequently a difficulty to access property and services, low rates of using condom appropriately and some gender perceptions that reinforce women's autonomy on protection decisions is very short.

  13. OILSPILL RESPONSE ON THE WESTERN REGION OF GHANA: ENVIRONMENTAL MANEGEMENT PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    DORIS BAAH; KHARLAMOVA M.

    2016-01-01

    The research project attempted to investigate, examine, highlight, and understand if prevention of oil spill is better than cure (in management system terms with regards to two oil companies), to ascertain whether improving maintenance and control of facilities goes a long way to reduce the cost of managing oil and gas spillage while evaluating the post spill impacts on the western regional people of Ghana.This research study was a combination of both qualitative and quantitative research met...

  14. HIV drug resistance assessment in the Western Pacific region. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongbao; Sutherland, Donald; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Jordan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy is being rapidly scaled-up in Western Pacific region countries. Prevention and assessment of HIV drug resistance is an essential component of successful global antiretroviral therapy scale-up. We performed a systematic review of public health surveys and HIV drug resistance studies conducted in the low- and middle-income countries in the Western Pacific region. A total of 38 publications assessing HIV drug resistance were reviewed. Studies assessing transmitted drug resistance in recently infected individuals or drug resistance among individuals starting antiretroviral therapy found low rates of HIV drug resistance. Assessments of HIV drug resistance emerging in populations receiving antiretroviral therapy demonstrated variable rates of drug resistance, but suggest an urgent need to support antiretroviral therapy adherence and retention in care, ensure the use of quality assured drugs, and guarantee continuous drug supplies. Additionally, programmatic assessment informed by routine standardized surveillance of transmitted and acquired HIV drug resistance is essential to optimize antiretroviral therapy delivery in the Western Pacific region.

  15. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in the Western Pacific Region: update with 2013 case notification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hiatt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the year 2000, tuberculosis (TB prevalence in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region decreased 36%. However, there were an estimated 1.6 million TB cases in the Region in 2013. This study describes a regional analysis using the WHO global TB database data from 2000 to 2013. Methods: TB surveillance data are annually collected from 36 countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region using a web-based system. TB case notifications, treatment outcomes and information on TB/HIV coinfection are analysed descriptively. Stratified analysis of the TB data by age, sex and countries and areas were conducted. Results: Countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region notified 1.3 million new and relapse TB cases in 2013. TB notification rate increased in the early 2000s, stabilized for several years and declined recently. Country-specific TB notification rates declined over time for all age groups in most countries. TB treatment success rates remain high in the Region with 16 countries reaching or maintaining 85% (or higher in 2013. HIV testing among TB cases has increased gradually with approximately 11 000 HIV-positive TB cases diagnosed each year since 2009. Discussion: The results suggest that true TB incidence is possibly declining. Treatment success rates have remained high for six of seven high-burden countries. TB surveillance data analysis is an important source of programmatic and epidemiological information. Careful interpretation of these findings can provide useful insight for programmatic decision-making. While the TB burden remains immense, national TB programmes must evolve and adapt to build upon previous efforts.

  16. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  17. 'Dar' + gerund in Ecuadorian Highland Spanish: contact-induced grammaticalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The benefactive construction dar + gerund is used in the North Andean region only and is unknown elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. Based on the analysis of spontaneous data from Ecuadorian Highland Spanish, this paper provides a linguististic description of dar + gerund and of the social and

  18. Going to Scale : Sustainable Land Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Journal articles. Farmers' preference for soil and water conservation practices in Central highlands of Ethiopia. Download PDF. Journal articles. Implications of market access on soil and water conservation investment in Sebei sub region of eastern Uganda. Download PDF. Journal articles. Devolution : a mechanism for ...

  19. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays

  20. Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These case studies, coupled with climate data and an analysis of water policies, customary rights, and water management practices, will form the basis for local and regional ... Outputs. Journal articles. Integrating local hybrid knowledge and state support for climate change adaptation in the Asian Highlands. Download PDF ...

  1. Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers at the Kunming Institute of Botany in China will develop regional bioclimatic maps and model climate scenarios to predict climate change impacts in the Asian Highlands. HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation will partner with the Kunming Institute to assess vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate change in ...

  2. Registration of Urjii, Field Pea Variety for Bale Highlands, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urjii (Acc. 32615-1) a semi-erect white seeded field pea variety has been selected and developed by Sinana Agricultural Research Center. The variety was released in 2007 for Bale highlands and similar agroecologies. This variety was tested in a regional variety trial in 12 environments, at four locations (Sinana, Sinja, ...

  3. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  4. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties, and Zoogeographical Composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Family in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region. PMID:24787627

  5. Challenges and future perspective for dengue vector control in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Md Abdur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue remains a significant public health issue in the Western Pacific Region. In the absence of a vaccine, vector control is the mainstay for dengue prevention and control. In this paper we describe vector surveillance and vector control in the Western Pacific countries and areas.Vector surveillance and control strategies used by countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region vary. Vector control strategies include chemical, biological and environmental management that mainly target larval breeding sites. The use of insecticides targeting larvae and adult mosquitoes remains the mainstay of vector control programmes. Existing vector control tools have several limitations in terms of cost, delivery and long-term sustainability. However, there are several new innovative tools in the pipeline. These include Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal system and Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium, to inhibit dengue virus in the vector. In addition, the use of biological control such as larvivorous fish in combination with community participation has potential to be scaled up. Any vector control strategy should be selected based on evidence and appropriateness for the entomological and epidemiological setting and carried out in both inter-epidemic and epidemic periods. Community participation and interagency collaboration are required for effective and sustainable dengue prevention and control. Countries and areas are now moving towards integrated vector management.

  6. Stand structure of a primate rich rainforest region in the central Western Ghats of southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Roy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats of southern India are one of the most important biodiversity regions in the world, not only due to their faunal diversity and abundance but also due to different habitat types, floral diversity and the presence of several endemic plant species. The rainforests in the central Western Ghats are inhabited by several primate species. We investigated the vegetation pattern and tree species occupancy of one of the prime primate habitats in the central Western Ghats. Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus, Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata, Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus achates and Malabar Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus malabaricus inhabit the study area. We studied the density, dominance, frequency and Importance Value Index (IVI of different tree species, using the belt transect method on randomly selected plots covering 4.1ha. We found that all the plant species that emerged to be the most dominant species with high IVI in the forest were also used by the diurnal primates for foraging. Knema attenuata and Syzygium gardneri were found to be the ‘keystone’ species. Since the forests of the study area do not come under the ‘protected area network’ for wildlife, the data obtained during this study will be helpful in the forestry management practices with a view for wildlife conservation of the region.

  7. Dicrocoelium dendriticum found in a Bronze Age cemetery in western Iran in the pre-Persepolis period: The oldest Asian palaeofinding in the present human infection hottest spot region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mokhtarian, Kobra; Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mobedi, Iraj; Masoumian, Mohammad; Naseri, Reza; Hoseini, Ghasem; Nekouei, Parisa; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Dicrocoeliasis of animals and humans is caused by trematode species of the genus Dicrocoelium, mainly Dicrocoelium dendriticum in ruminants of the Holarctic region. D. dendriticum may be considered an old parasite, probably related to the appearance and diversification of Eurasian ovicaprines, occurred 14.7-14.5 million years ago. The oldest palaeoparasitological findings of Dicrocoelium in domestic animals and humans date from more than 5000 years BC in Europe. Eggs of D. dendriticum have been found in a burial of a Bronze Age cemetery (2600-2200 BC) close to Yasuj city, southwestern Iran. This is the oldest finding of D. dendriticum in the Near East, where present human infection reports are more numerous than in other world regions where human dicrocoeliasis is rare and sporadic. This palaeofinding in the Zagros mountainous chain area is of interest by its location close to Persepolis, suggesting a narrow relationship between humans and herbivorous animals in these highlands. Domestic ruminant populations of these highlands were following a repeated contact with those of the western flat lowlands of the Fertile Crescent thanks to annual altitudinal transhumance migrations of the nomadic pastoral tribes with their herds living throughout Zagros Mountains in the several millennium period BC. It is concluded that D. dendriticum spread together with sheep and goats westward throughout Europe from the Fertile Crescent during the 8000-6000 year BC period and somewhat later southward into Africa, both spreads facilitated by the low specificity of that trematode species regarding the snail and ant intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sympatric wolf and coyote populations of the western Great Lakes region are reproductively isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Tyler J; Patterson, Brent R; White, Bradley N

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation of the genetic composition and taxonomic history of wolves in the western Great Lakes region (WGLR) of the United States has long been debated and has become more important to their conservation given the recent changes in their status under the Endangered Species Act. Currently, the two competing hypotheses on WGLR wolves are that they resulted from hybridization between (i) grey wolves (Canis lupus) and western coyotes (C. latrans) or (ii) between grey wolves and eastern wolves (C. lycaon). We performed a genetic analysis of sympatric wolves and coyotes from the region to assess the degree of reproductive isolation between them and to clarify the taxonomic status of WGLR wolves. Based on data from maternal, paternal and bi-parental genetic markers, we demonstrate a clear genetic distinction between sympatric wolves and coyotes and conclude that they are reproductively isolated and that wolf-coyote hybridization in the WGLR is uncommon. The data reject the hypothesis that wolves in the WGLR derive from hybridization between grey wolves and western coyotes, and we conclude that the extant WGLR wolf population is derived from hybridization between grey wolves and eastern wolves. Grey-eastern wolf hybrids (C. lupus × lycaon) comprise a substantial population that extends across Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and western Ontario. These findings have important implications for the conservation and management of wolves in North America, specifically concerning the overestimation of grey wolf numbers in the United States and the need to address policies for hybrids. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of Bovine Tuberculosis in Abattoirs of the Littoral and Western Highland Regions of Cameroon: A Cause for Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah Ndukum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is widespread but poorly controlled in Africa and M. bovis is posing threats to human health. The risk of cattle handlers to M. bovis prevalence and public health significance of BTB in Cameroon were assessed. Slaughter inspection records from major cities revealed that BTB detection rates in cattle from 0.18% to 4.25% and BTB lesions were most common. Analyses of tissues and sera confirmed BTB in 31% (Ziehl-Neelsen, 51% (culture, and 60% (antibody detection of test cattle. Among cattle handlers, 81.9% were aware of BTB, 67.9% knew that BTB is zoonotic, and 53.8% knew one mode of transmission but over 27% consumed raw meat and/or drank unpasteurized milk. Respondents who had encountered tuberculosis cases were more informed about zoonotic BTB (P<.05. Tuberculosis is prevalent in cattle destined for human consumption in Cameroon with serious public health implications. Targeted monitoring of infected animal populations and concerted veterinary/medical efforts are essential for control.

  10. Industrialization of western region of ukraine: problems of environmental consequences management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Malyarchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the consequences of industrialization of the western region of the Ukrainian SSR – large-scale construction industry provided jobs for the active population of the region, led to the expansion of infrastructure of settlements and towns, strengthened social sphere and became a positive factor for the development of the western regions of Ukraine. However, due to the increased production capacity natural resources got depleted. The ability of ecosystems to self-healing and self-cleaning was not taken into account, which caused devastating impact on nature and human health. Uncontrolled industrial pollution of air, water and land resources became a common phenomenon for the urbanized western region. Promoting environmental knowledge and declaration of achievement of significant progress in official documents gave no mechanisms to solve environmental problems. Overcoming the difficulties of the past is connected with the Ukraine had been being a part of the USSR. The leading place took environmental issues. Poor environmental condition of the whole country was not only caused by the world’s largest man-made disaster on the Chernobyl nuclear plant in April 1986, but also intensive industrialization and collectivization. Full conversion of the economy and agriculture in the middle of the last century led to the growth of anthropogenic impact on the environment. A radical break steady of socio-political and socio-economic life took place in western Ukraine in the second half of the twentieth century. Party-Soviet government in a short time made a «socialist transformation» and social progress was considered only as a means to achieve this goal. A number of issues concerning environmental protection, safety of life, were ignored. Environmental protection, regulation of environmental and economic activities, guaranteeing rights of Ukrainian citizens to environmental safety is currently among the national priorities of the

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Cystic Echinococcosis in the Cusco Region of the Peruvian Highlands Diagnosed Using Focused Abdominal Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarozzi, Francesca; Hou, Amy; Morales, Maria Luisa; Giordani, Maria Teresa; Vilca, Freddy; Mozo, Karen; Bascope, Ruben; White, A Clinton; Brunetti, Enrico; Chen, Lin; Cabada, Miguel M

    2017-06-01

    AbstractLatin America is among the highly endemic regions for cystic echinococcosis (CE). In Peru, an estimated 1,139 disability-adjusted life years are lost annually from surgical treatment of CE. This is comparable with the combined total for Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Chile. The prevalence of human infection has been investigated in the central Peruvian Andes, but there are no community-based screening data from other regions of Peru. We carried out a population survey in January 2015 using abdominal ultrasound to estimate the prevalence of abdominal CE in the Canas and Canchis provinces, in the Cusco region of Peru. Among 1,351 subjects screened, 41 (3%) had CE. There was significant variation between communities with similar socioeconomic features in a small geographical area. A history of CE was reported by 4.1% of the screened subjects, among whom 30.3% still had CE on ultrasound. Among patients reporting previous CE treatment, 14.9% had CE in active stages. Limited education, community of residence, and knowing people with CE in the community were associated with CE. These results demonstrate a significant burden of CE in the region and suggest the need for further investigations, control activities, and optimization of clinical management for CE in this area.

  12. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.

  13. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  14. Seismic hazard assessment of Kashmir and Kangra valley region, Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basab Mukhopadhyay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A complete earthquake catalogue of the Western Himalaya (latitudes 30°N–36°N and longitudes 72°E–78°E for the period of 1501–2010 has been compiled with earthquake magnitude computed in moment magnitude (Mw scale. Pre- and early twentieth century records of earthquake damage have been documented from rare and out of print publications. Seismotectonics and seismic hazard for Kohistan arc, Kashmir–Hazara Syntaxis, Nanga-Parbat (Western Syntaxis, Karakoram and Himachal Himalaya are discussed with special reference to 1905 Kangra and 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquakes. Analyses of spatio-temporal variation in b-value from the region indicate significant precursor prior to the 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake; progressive rise of background b-value observed and the main shock locates close to relative high b-value domains. Regions surrounding the location of the 1905 Kangra earthquake also display such high b-value for the period of 2005–2010 that calls for closer scrutiny. Temporal analysis of b-value from the epicentral block of Muzaffarabad earthquake clearly showed a high–low b-value couplet of 1.45–0.72, which may be treated as a typical precursor before an imminent large earthquake. Gumbel extreme value statistics indicate probability of occurrence of an event of Mw > 7.0 within 50 years in the region.

  15. Specific identification of Western Atlantic Ocean scombrids using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region sequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paine, Melissa A; McDowell, Jan R; Graves, John E

    2007-01-01

    .... The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region was evaluated as a molecular marker for the specific identification of the 17 members of the family Scombridae common to the western Atlantic Ocean...

  16. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali, R; McFarlane, D; Varma, S; Dawes, W; Emelyanova, I; Hodgson, G

    2012-01-01

      This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall...

  17. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Marn

    Full Text Available Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i two different regional subsets and (ii three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications.Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  18. Threshold responses in regional runoff from a heterogeneous low relief terrain - Western Canada's Boreal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Kevin; Anderson, Axel; Kettridge, Nick; Mendoza, Carl; Petrone, Rich; Silins, Uldis; Smith, Kevin; Waddington, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Runoff from larger catchments (>1000km) in the continental Boreal Plains (BP) eco-region of Western Canada, although low, can range over 3 orders of magnitude (4 mm to 350 mm/yr) among years and be difficult to predict. This region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedentedly rapid and large-scale industrial development. There is a need to assess and understand the dominant controls on the temporal and spatial threshold responses of regional runoff generation to be able to predict and mitigate the potential impacts of land use and effectiveness of reclamation practices on surface water quantity and quality. The Boreal Plain climate has regional moisture deficit (P 200 mm) states occurring every 2-3 decades. The differing CMD states altered the hydrologic connectivity among different portions of HRA's and HUs within catchments. During dry states base flow conditions ranged by over an order of magnitude (2 to 80 mm/yr), and increased with percent area of coarse textured HRAs. In fine textured landforms significant runoff was observed only in catchments with >30% wetland area. During mesic conditions catchment runoff coefficients were positively correlated with percent wetland area, suggesting that wetland networks were the primary source areas of surface water to regional runoff. During the infrequent wet states, runoff coefficients were similar among all catchments indicating that storage in forest HUs was exceeded and both forestlands and wetlands contribute to catchment runoff. Integrating the CMD with the configuration of wetland and forestland HUs and the type of glacial landforms HRAs rather than topographic drainage networks appears to better represent water cycling and sink source dynamics controlling runoff in low relief glacial landscapes such as the Boreal Plain.

  19. Bedrock geologic and structural map through the western Candor Colles region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    The Candor Colles are a population of low, conical hills along the southeast flank of Ceti Mensa, in west Candor Chasma, within the Valles Marineris system of Mars (fig. 1). Ceti Mensa and the adjacent Candor Mensa are mounds of layered sedimentary deposits and are the most prominent landforms within west Candor Chasma. Prior to the arrival of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) in orbit around Mars in 2006 (Zurek and Smrekar, 2007), geologic maps of the area utilized the relatively low resolution Viking Orbiter photomosaics (20–150 m/pixel). Geologic maps covering west Candor Chasma were created at scales of 1:15,000,000 for the western equatorial region of Mars (Scott and Tanaka, 1986), 1:2,000,000 for the Valles Marineris region (Witbeck and others, 1991), and 1:500,000 for the far eastern part of west Candor Chasma (Mars Transverse Mercator quadrangle–05072; Lucchitta, 1999). 

  20. Nutritional aspects of changes in disease patterns in the Western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L T; Rosman, A; de Boer, A S; Darnton-Hill, I

    1996-01-01

    One impact of socioeconomic progress on populations has been to reduce the number of cases due to diseases of undernutrition and microbial contamination of food, which affected mostly infants and young children, and to increase those due to diseases of excessive food consumption, which are affecting adults and a growing number of children. This article reviews the main dietary factors which have an influence on cardiovascular disease and cancer, and discusses the link between economic development and increased rates of chronic diseases. There is evidence that the noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors have risen rapidly in countries of the WHO Western Pacific Region. Data from 29 countries and areas in the region indicate that 70% of them show lifestyle diseases in three or more of the top five causes of death. While public health measures have been implemented by some countries to prevent and control nutrition-related chronic diseases, further action is needed.

  1. Raised temperatures over the Kericho tea estates: revisiting the climate in the East African highlands malaria debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether or not observed increases in malaria incidence in the Kenyan Highlands during the last thirty years are associated with co-varying changes in local temperature, possibly connected to global changes in climate, has been debated for over a decade. Studies, using differing data sets and methodologies, produced conflicting results regarding the occurrence of temperature trends and their likelihood of being responsible, at least in part, for the increases in malaria incidence in the highlands of western Kenya. A time series of quality controlled daily temperature and rainfall data from Kericho, in the Kenyan Highlands, may help resolve the controversy. If significant temperature trends over the last three decades have occurred then climate should be included (along with other factors such as land use change and drug resistance as a potential driver of the observed increases in malaria in the region. Methods Over 30 years (1 January 1979 to 31 December 2009 of quality controlled daily observations ( > 97% complete of maximum, minimum and mean temperature were used in the analysis of trends at Kericho meteorological station, sited in a tea growing area of Kenya's western highlands. Inhomogeneities in all the time series were identified and corrected. Linear trends were identified via a least-squares regression analysis with statistical significance assessed using a two-tailed t-test. These 'gold standard' meteorological observations were compared with spatially interpolated temperature datasets that have been developed for regional or global applications. The relationship of local climate processes with larger climate variations, including tropical sea surface temperatures (SST, and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO was also assessed. Results An upward trend of ≈0.2°C/decade was observed in all three temperature variables (P Conclusion This study presents evidence of a warming trend in observed maximum, minimum and mean

  2. Regional paleotopographic trends and production, Chesterian and Morrowan strata, Western Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolson, J.; Adams, C.; Van Zant, K. (Amoco Production Co., Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Late Chesterian (Mississippian) and Morrowan (Pennsylvanian) unconformity-bounded packages in the Western Interior have traditionally been viewed as sequences separated by a regional basal Pennsylvanian unconformity. Analysis of alluvial valley trends and paleontological data suggests that these sequences are related and formed in response to multiple relative sea level fluctuations initiated in the Chesterian which continued throughout the Pennsylvanian. The Darwin, Tyler, Morrowan, and Humbug formations of the Western Interior appear to have formed in retrogradational parasequence sets of alluvial valley fills and marine transgressive systems tracts repeatedly developed around the flanks of the transcontinental arch. Relative sea level rises following each major incisement created a complex intertonguing of marine strata responsible for fluvial aggradation of each valley system. These sequences progressively backstep and grow younger toward the transcontinental arch, where Atokan and Desmoinesan strata cap the oldest preserved surfaces. At least four major paleodrainage basins have been identified, and valley-fill production has been established in three of these. The previously unrecognized age equivalency of these formations provides a new regional sequence stratigraphic interpretation which has hydrocarbon exploration implications in frontier areas of Utah and Colorado. Seismic resolution and an understanding of hydrocarbon migration paths hold the key to developing new exploration trends.

  3. [B chromosome polymorphism of blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae) from the north-western region of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubareva, L A; Petrova, N A

    2006-01-01

    We have studied karyofonds of natural populations and B-chromosome morphology of 8 species of blackflies from the North-Western region of Russia: Odagmia ornata Mg., Hellichiella crassa Rubz., Simulium morsitans Edw., Simulium argyreatum Mg., Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duo-decimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. For this purpose we made slides of squashed blackflies larvae with salivary gland polytene chromosomes stained by aceto-orcein, in addition to similarly stained slides with mitotic chromosomes from gonads and ganglia. Morphology of polytene B-chromosomes of Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duodecimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. has been first described. B-chromosome polymorphism was found in all species, but the number of B chromosomes was conserved within each differences in polytene individual. Stable and distinct interspecific differences in the morphology of polytene B-chromosomes were demonstrated, and these characters are advisable to use to distinguish the species. We have investigated for the first time karyofonds of Od. ornata populations from Arkhangelsk Region (Solovetskie Islands) and Leningrad Region (railway station Sablino), and those of S. argyreatum populations from Murmansk Region (Kandalaksha environs) and Karelia (railway station Chupa). A long term study of Od. ornata and S. argyrestum population from North-Western Russia revealed interspecific and interpopulation dynamics of the occurrence of specimens with B-chromosomes. Some populations showed an increased percentage of individuals with B-chromosomes. It is suggested that B-chromosomes may play a role in adaptation of polulations to severe environmental conditions.

  4. The Dalradian rocks of the northern Grampian Highlands of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, A. Graham; Robertson, Steven; Smith, Martin; Banks, Christopher J.; Mendum, John R.; Stephenson, David

    2013-01-01

    The northern Grampian Highlands are dominated by the outcrop of the Grampian Group, together with infolds and structural outliers of Appin Group strata and inliers of pre-Dalradian ‘basement’, consisting of Badenoch Group metasedimentary rocks. The south-eastern limit of this mountainous region corresponds with the regionally continuous Grampian Group-Appin Group boundary, which in the south is marked by a high-strain zone corresponding to the Boundary Slide of some authors. The more arbitrar...

  5. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  6. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  7. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  8. Resilience, Adaptive Capacity, and the "Lock-in Trap" of the Western Australian Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Allison

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Western Australian (WA agricultural region as an example of a large-scale social-ecological system (SES, this paper applies a framework based on resilience theory to examine the region's resilience and capacity for change and renewal. Despite numerous policies directed at controlling natural resource degradation in this SES, sustainable natural resource management (NRM has not been achieved. Disparities between the scale and complexity of the problem, the design of management policies, and region's history have all contributed to policy resistance. Historically, when considered as an integrated system, changes may be described by two iterations of the adaptive cycle. These cycles are also synchronous with the third and fourth Kondratiev long-wave economic cycles. The WA agricultural region has experienced sequential periods of growth and accumulation followed by reorganization and renewal, and currently is in the backloop (reorganization to exploitation phases of the adaptive cycle. A region's adaptive capacity is achieved by substituting direct reliance on regional factors with institutional intervention and sophisticated technology, often generated at the global scale. This substitution alters the thresholds of the commodity system and gives the perception of an adaptive system. In contrast, however, if resource depletion, environmental pollution, and population decline, also effects of the commodity system, are included within the model then the region may be considered to be in a "Lock-in" pathological trap. We propose that the dynamics of land-use change between 1900-2003 were driven by macroeconomics at the global scale, mediated by institutions at the national and state scale. Also, the SES, which is composed of relatively fast-moving variables, is largely decoupled from the slow-moving ecological variables.

  9. Integrated chronostratigraphy of Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary beds in the western Anabar region, northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Adams, W.

    1996-01-01

    Carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks of the western Anabar region, northern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolutionary and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic/Cambrian boundary. Sedimentologically, the boundary succession can be divided into three sequences representing successive episodes of late transgressive to early highstand deposition; four parasequences are recognized in the sequence corresponding lithostratigraphically to the Manykal Formation. Small shelly fossils are abundant and include many taxa that also occur in standard sections of southeastern Siberia. Despite this coincidence of faunal elements, biostratigraphic correlations between the two regions have been controversial because numerous species that first appear at or immediately above the basal Tommotian boundary in southeastern sections have first appearances scattered through more than thirty metres of section in the western Anabar. Carbon- and Sr-isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at one- to two-metre intervals in a section along the Kotuikan River, favour correlation of the Staraya Reckha Formation and most of the overlying Manykai Formation with sub-Tommotian carbonates in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, isotopic data suggest that the uppermost Manykai Formation and the basal 26 m of the unconformably overlying Medvezhya Formation may have no equivalent in the southeast; they appear to provide a sedimentary and palaeontological record of an evolutionarily significant time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlations with radiometrically dated horizons in the Olenek and Kharaulakh regions of northern Siberia suggest that this interval lasted approximately three to six million years, during which essentially all 'basal Tommotian' small shelly fossils evolved.

  10. Modern epidemiology of hepatitis A in the north-western region of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliakhtenko, L; Plotnikova, V; Levakova, I; Rubis, L; Solovieva, E; Mukomolov, S

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiological features of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were studied in eleven territories located in the north-western region of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of HAV infection in Russia and in the region were evaluated during a 17-year period. The age-specific incidence was calculated and 229 305 patients with acute HAV were identified. The analysed database included HA mixed with other viral hepatitis infections: it included information about 8 809 HAV patients. Special attention has been paid to the sero-epidemiological studies conducted in St Petersburg city. These studies included analysis of age-specific incidence in persons 20 years of age and older during 6 years and testing of blood sera from 1 892 healthy persons for IgG anti-HAV. In general there is a trend to reduction of HAV incidence in Russia, and in the north-western region, high indices were registered in some provinces in different years. It was established three types of age-specific incidence distribution: predominated incidence in 3-14 years of age (first type), 15-29 years of age (second type) and uniform distribution in different age groups (third type). It was shown that decrease of HAV incidence in children and young adults lead to the reduction of sero-positivity level in the groups 20+ years of age. These characteristics should be taken in account to define indications for HAV vaccine prophylaxis. HAV infection in 10-13% of cases mixed with acute or chronic hepatitis B and C in the last 15 years in St Petersburg. In the middle of 1990s, HAV mostly mixed with acute viral hepatitis of different aetiology, but in the modern time predominated type of mixture was presented by HAV and chronic HBV and HCV infections. The obtained results are useful for viral hepatitis surveillance and control.

  11. Climate change and forests: Impacts and adaption. A regional assessment for the Western Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sukumar, R. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deshingkar, P. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Potential climate change over the next 50 to 100 years could have major impacts on tropical forests. Forests, particularly in the tropics, are subjected to anthropogenic pressures leading to degradation and loss of forest ecosystems. Given the significant dependence of local people and economies on forests in tropical and temperate countries, there is a need to assess the possible impacts of climate change and to develop adaption measures. The diversity of forest types in the Western Ghats ranges from wet evergreen and deciduous forest to dry thorn and montane forests with a wide range of annual rainfall regimes (from less than 65 cm to over 300 cm). The study was conducted in two regions of the Western Ghats; the Uttara Kannada district and the Nilgiris. Climate change projections for 2020 and 2050 were used in assessing the possible impacts on forests. In general, the `most likely` projections of climate change were an increase in mean temperature in the range of 0.3-1.0 deg C and an increase in precipitation of 3-8% over the study regions by the year 2050. The `worst case` scenario was an increase in temperature of 1 deg C and a decrease in precipitation by 8% by 2050. To assess the vegetational responses to climate change, a simple model based on present-day correlations between climatic (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and vegetation types for these regions was developed. Likely changes in the areas under different forest types were assessed for `moderate climate` sensitivity and central scaling factor (referred to as the `most likely scenario`) for the years 2020 and 2050, and `high climate` sensitivity and a lower scaling factor (the `worst case scenario`) for 2050 90 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  12. First round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwoon Yong Pok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue surveillance and control. The objective of this programme was to assess dengue diagnostic proficiency among national-level public health laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. Methods: Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 (Module A and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B. A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. Results: All 16 laboratories testing Module A performed reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both RNA and serotype detection. Of these, 15 had correct results for RNA detection and all 16 correctly serotyped the viruses. All nine laboratories performing NS1 antigen detection obtained the correct results. Sixteen of the 18 laboratories using IgM assays in Module B obtained the correct results as did the 13 laboratories that performed IgG assays. Detection of ongoing/recent dengue virus infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 15/19 participating laboratories. Discussion: This first round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics was successfully conducted in national-level public health laboratories in the WHO Western Pacific Region, revealing good proficiency in both molecular and serological testing. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing for dengue virus and other priority pathogens in the Region will be assessed during future rounds.

  13. Malaria in highlands of Ecuador since 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren L; Hunter, Fiona F

    2012-04-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context.

  14. Regional Trends in Large Wildfires and Climate in the Western U.S., 1984-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, P. E.; Brewer, S.; Arnold, J.; Moritz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database provides remote sensing-based maps of fire perimeters for all fires larger than 405 ha (1000 acres) in the Western U.S. The database uniquely permits analysis of large fires on all lands, collected using a uniform methodology, for the 1984-2010 period. We used MTBS data to examine changes in the annual number of large fires, total area burned in large fires, large fire size, and day of year of ignition (DOY) for ten ecoregions across the Western U.S. Fire trends were compared to seasonal trends in maximum temperature, precipitation, and Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (SCPDSI) derived from monthly PRISM data. In a majority of ecoregions, our analysis revealed statistically significant positive trends in the number of large fires and/or total area burned in large fires per year. When all regions were combined, fire occurrence increased at a rate of six large fires per year and total area burned increased at a rate of 274 km2 per year over the 1984-2010 period. Multiple ecoregions demonstrated significant increases in the 90th percentile of large fire size, with trends as high as +3 km2 per year. The 10th percentile of DOY, an indicator of early season large fires, declined in two high elevation ecoregions. This finding agrees with previous research that has observed correlations between earlier snowmelt and increased fire activity at high elevation. Fall maximum temperature trended warmer and SCPDI in all seasons trended drier in the ecoregions with strongest increases in fire activity. At the Western U.S. scale, increases in large fire occurrence and total area burned coincide with increased drought severity over the 1984-2010 period.

  15. Socio-economic vulnerability, adaptation to agro-climatic risk and the potential of user-tailored climate services for the Andean Highlands: The case of quinoa production in the region of Puno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flubacher, Moritz; Sedlmeier, Katrin; Lechthaler, Filippo; Rohrer, Mario; Cristobal, Lizet; Vinogradova, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    In the semi-arid Altiplano in Peru, smallholder farmers are extremely exposed to climatic hazards like drought, frost and hail. These unfavorable weather and climate events can lead to significant crop losses and thereby provoke periods of food insecurity for subsistence farmers. The use of specific climate information can serve as an adaptation strategy to reduce the impact of these natural hazards. In this context, the Climandes project (a project of the Global Framework for Climate Services led by WMO) aims at developing user-tailored seasonal forecast products for the agricultural sector in the Peruvian Andes such as indices on increased frost risk, the occurrence of long dry periods, or the start of the rainy season. In order to develop such user-tailored climate information and link it efficiently to the existing implementation context, it is important to understand the complex interrelation between climate variability and change, socio-economic vulnerability and adaptation limits. Moreover, as it has been widely shown, the process of making climate information useful for end-users, in particular for smallholder farmers in developing countries, remains a considerable challenge due to existing cognitive, cultural and institutional constraints. In this sense, it is necessary to identify these constraints and formulate strategies to overcome them. While there exist different studies about climate change and anomalies in Puno, there is no consolidated evidence on the corresponding socio-economic vulnerabilities in the specific agricultural context of Puno. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a field survey collecting primary data in the Andean highlands based on a representative sample of 726 smallholder farmers in the region of Puno (Peru). The assessment primarily focused on exploring smallholders' agro-climatic risk exposure, socio-economic profiles, existing coping strategies as well as prevailing barriers to utilization of science-based climate

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum IId family: clonal population and dispersal from Western Asia to other geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Axén, Charlotte; Bjorkman, Camilla; Jian, Fuchun; Amer, Said; Liu, Aiqin; Feng, Yaoyu; Li, Guoquan; Lv, Chaochao; Zhao, Zifang; Qi, Meng; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Helei; Sun, Yanru; Ning, Changshen; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-02-27

    In this study, 111 Cryptosporidium parvum IId isolates from several species of animals in China, Sweden, and Egypt were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). One to eleven subtypes were detected at each of the 12 microsatellite, minisatellite, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, forming 25 MLST subtypes. Host-adaptation and significant geographical segregation were both observed in the MLST subtypes. A clonal population structure was seen in C. parvum IId isolates from China and Sweden. Three ancestral lineages and the same RPGR sequence were shared by these isolates examined. Therefore, the present genetic observations including the higher nucleotide diversity of C. parvum IId GP60 sequences in Western Asia, as well as the unique distribution of IId subtypes (almost exclusively found in Asia, Europe, and Egypt) and in combination with the domestication history of cattle, sheep, and goats, indicated that C. parvum IId subtypes were probably dispersed from Western Asia to other geographical regions. More population genetic structure studies involving various C. parvum subtype families using high-resolution tools are needed to better elucidate the origin and dissemination of C. parvum in the world.

  17. Recent trends in incidence of cervical cancer in several regions of south-western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L; Ménégoz, F; Fioretta, G

    1995-01-01

    In recent decades, most Western countries have experienced a decline in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. More recently, a reversal of this trend has been noted in young women, especially in anglo-saxon countries. These trends have been attributed to the beneficial results of cervical cancer screening on the one hand, to the widespread increase of high risk sexual behaviors on the other. Recent trends in Latin European countries have not previously been studied. Time trends of incidence data from 10 regions of South-Western Europe (Geneva, Vaud, Calvados, Doubs, Bas-Rhin, Isère, Ragusa, Varese, Zaragoza and Navarra) were analysed by means of log-linear models. The data were provided for various periods of time between 1970 and 1990. The mean incidence rate varies threefold between Navarra where rates are the lowest to Calvados where they are the highest. The overall decrease rate is of the order of -3% per year but rate changes differ by age group. The reduction seems to concern mostly middle aged women. A definite trend could not be determined among younger women due to low case numbers. Thus, the hypothesis of a rising incidence in young women cannot be confirmed at this time.

  18. Western Region Renewable Energy Markets: Implications for the Bureau of Land Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.; Billman, L.; Gelman, R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) with an overview of renewable energy (RE) generation markets, transmission planning efforts, and the ongoing role of the BLM RE projects in the electricity markets of the 11 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) that comprise the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Region. This analysis focuses on the status of, and projections for, likely development of non-hydroelectric renewable electricity from solar (including photovoltaic [PV] and concentrating solar power [CSP]), wind, biomass and geothermal resources in these states. Absent new policy drivers and without the extension of the DOE loan guarantee program and Treasury's 1603 program, state RPS requirements are likely to remain a primary driver for new RE deployment in the western United States. Assuming no additional policy incentives are implemented, projected RE demand for the WECC states by 2020 is 134,000 GWh. Installed capacity to meet that demand will need to be within the range of 28,000-46,000 MW.

  19. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Seabirds Coastal and Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    From the cold, high Arctic area of Alaska to the warm, tropical Pacific area of Hawai'i, a diverse array of seabird species numbering in the millions of individuals live off the bounty of the Pacific Ocean. Many come to land only to nest and raise their young - these are species supremely adapted for life on the water, whether it be near the coast or hundreds of miles at sea. Those seabirds that reside in the North Pacific year-round are joined each summer by millions of migrant birds that leave the southern hemisphere in winter for better feeding conditions in the north. Seabirds in the Pacific remain one of the great wildlife spectacles on the earth. Yet, seabirds face a number of threats such as oil spills, introduction of predators to their nesting islands, and conflicts with fisheries. State and Federal agencies require increasingly sophisticated information on population dynamics, breeding biology, and feeding ecology to successfully manage these species and their ecosystems. Within the Western Region of the USGS, scientists from the Alaska Science Center (ASC), Western Ecological Research Center (WERC), and Pacific Islands Ecosystems Research Center are leading the way in conducting research on many of these little known species. Their aim is to improve our understanding of seabirds in the Pacific and to provide information to support informed management of the birds and their ecosystems.

  1. Composition of iron ores from Mongolian western region and its applicability for cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Tserenkhand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research were studied the chemical and mineral compositions of some iron ores in Mongolian the western region. Also the study investigated the effect of calcium fluoride on decomposition temperatures of calcite in the raw mix for obtaining cement clinker. The chemical investigation result showed that iron oxide (Fe2O3 content in the western Mongolian iron ores represents in Uvgondatsan (Khovd – 87.23%, Suul Khar (Khovd – 85.00% and Kharganat (Uvs – 89.29%, respectively. Iron ores of Kharganat and Uvgundatsan are mostly contained magnetite (Fe3O4 while iron ore of Suul Khar is mostly contained hematite (Fe2O3. The decomposition temperature of calcite (CaCO3 was reduced by 5°C, 10°C, and 15°C when calcium fluoride (CaF2 in the raw mix for obtaining cement clinker that consists of Shokhoit limestone, Shal clay and Kharganat iron ore was added up 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.204 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p75-79

  2. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  3. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  4. Interactive Development of Regional Climate Web Pages for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, N.; Redmond, K. T.

    2013-12-01

    Weather and climate have a pervasive and significant influence on the western United States, driving a demand for information that is ongoing and constantly increasing. In communications with stakeholders, policy makers, researchers, educators, and the public through formal and informal encounters, three standout challenges face users of weather and climate information in the West. First, the needed information is scattered about the web making it difficult or tedious to access. Second, information is too complex or requires too much background knowledge to be immediately applicable. Third, due to complex terrain, there is high spatial variability in weather, climate, and their associated impacts in the West, warranting information outlets with a region-specific focus. Two web sites, TahoeClim and the Great Basin Weather and Climate Dashboard were developed to overcome these challenges to meeting regional weather and climate information needs. TahoeClim focuses on the Lake Tahoe Basin, a region of critical environmental concern spanning the border of Nevada and California. TahoeClim arose out of the need for researchers, policy makers, and environmental organizations to have access to all available weather and climate information in one place. Additionally, TahoeClim developed tools to both interpret and visualize data for the Tahoe Basin with supporting instructional material. The Great Basin Weather and Climate Dashboard arose from discussions at an informal meeting about Nevada drought organized by the USDA Farm Service Agency. Stakeholders at this meeting expressed a need to take a 'quick glance' at various climate indicators to support their decision making process. Both sites were designed to provide 'one-stop shopping' for weather and climate information in their respective regions and to be intuitive and usable by a diverse audience. An interactive, 'co-development' approach was taken with sites to ensure needs of potential users were met. The sites were

  5. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASPECTS OF HUMAN GRANULOCYTIC ANAPLASMOSIS IN THE WESTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, I I; Biletska, H V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data of complex study of human granulocytic anaplasmosis the human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the western region of Ukraine. Natural HGA foci were identified, where the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in the main vector (I. ricinus) amount to (12.0 +/- 0.7) %, and seroprevalence of HGA among the healthy population--(28.6 +/- 1.6) %. It's shown that A. phagocytophilum is the etiologic agent of (33.7 +/- 4.9) % of undiagnosed cases of seasonal febrile diseases. Principal characteristics of HGA epidemiology: spring-summer scasonality, the prevalence of disease in the age structure of people of active age (45.30 +/- 1.95 years), a significant level combination with (60.4 +/- 2.2) % Lyme-horreliosis and other tick-borne infections (mixed infections), the different level of activity of HGA epidemic process in forest and steppe geographical landscape zones--were revealed.

  6. THE POTENTIAL OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A REGIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ENGINE IN THE WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the objectives, activities, and the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research carried out in the AntrES project (AntrES - Project acronym "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. A new school for women entrepreneurship" – Antreprenoriatul şi egalitatea de şanse. Un nou model de şcoală antreprenorială pentru femei, during the two years of implementation, in the Western Romania referring to the new businesses start up; business development; the motivation and difficulties of female entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; of their perceptions regarding the need for entrepreneurship education, the role of female entrepreneurship promotion and the impact of the successful models on new businesses start up – this paper presents directions of action meant to emphasize and support the potential of the female entrepreneurship in Romania, as a regional growth and development engine.

  7. WHO collaboration in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hisashi [Western Pacific Regional Environmental Health Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Since April 1989 when the World Health Organization`s (WHO`s) activities in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region were presented at the Pacific Basin Conference in Singapore, WHO and its Member States have carried out a number of collaborative activities in hazardous waste management. These activities focused on three main areas: national capacity building in the management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in rapidly industrializing countries, management of clinical or medical waste, and hazardous waste management in Pacific Island countries. This paper summarizes these collaborative activities, identifies the main problems and issues encountered, and discusses future prospects of WHO collaboration with its Member States in the area of hazardous waste management. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Postglacial uplift of the Earth crust in the North-Western part of the Kola region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstobrov D.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new lithological, micropaleontological and chronological data received as a result of studying the lake bottom sediments sequences in a valley of the Tuloma River have been presented. Investigation of lakes situated in different areas of the Tuloma River valley at different elevations and their correlation with position of ancient marine coastal lines and forms has allowed recognizing the character of sedimentation and specific of neotectonic movements of the Earth's crust in the Late Glacial and Holocene in the North-Western part of the Kola region. The equidistant diagram of relative lines of the Earth's crust uplift has been presented for the studied area. The magnitude of the different-age uplift correlated to these lines, and uplift gradient along the valley of the Tuloma River and Kola Bay of the Barents Sea has been estimated

  9. Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hugo, Martin; Doney, Scott C; Ducklow, Hugh W; Fraser, William; Martinson, Douglas; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Schofield, Oscar

    2009-03-13

    The climate of the western shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is undergoing a transition from a cold-dry polar-type climate to a warm-humid sub-Antarctic-type climate. Using three decades of satellite and field data, we document that ocean biological productivity, inferred from chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), has significantly changed along the WAP shelf. Summertime surface Chl a (summer integrated Chl a approximately 63% of annually integrated Chl a) declined by 12% along the WAP over the past 30 years, with the largest decreases equatorward of 63 degrees S and with substantial increases in Chl a occurring farther south. The latitudinal variation in Chl a trends reflects shifting patterns of ice cover, cloud formation, and windiness affecting water-column mixing. Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations.

  10. NEOLITHIC PLANT USE IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE AGRIWESTMED PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Peña-Chocarro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the preliminary results of the AGRIWESTMED project which focuses on the archaeobotanical analyses of early Neolithic sites in the western Mediterranean region (both in Iberia and in northern Morocco. A large number of sites has been studied producing an interesting dataset of plant remains which places the earliest examples of domesticated plants in the second half of the 6th millennium cal BC. Plant diversity is high as it is shown by the large number of species represented: hulled and naked wheats, barley, peas, fava beans, vetches, lentils and grass peas. To more crops, poppy and flax, are also part of the first agricultural crops of the area. Although agriculture seems to occupy a first place in the production of food, gathering is well represented in the Moroccan sites where a large number of species has been identified. 

  11. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2016-12-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  12. Building regional threat-based networks for estuaries in the Western United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Merrifield

    Full Text Available Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S. Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16% have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25% of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography.

  13. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  14. Temporal and Regional Variability in the Skin Microbiome of Humpback Whales along the Western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlich, K C; Miller, Carolyn; DeForce, Emelia; Friedlaender, Ari S; Johnston, David W; Apprill, Amy

    2018-03-01

    The skin is the first line of defense between an animal and its environment, and disruptions in skin-associated microorganisms can be linked to an animal's health and nutritional state. To better understand the skin microbiome of large whales, high-throughput sequencing of partial small subunit rRNA genes was used to study the skin-associated bacteria of 89 seemingly healthy humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) sampled along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) during early (2010) and late (2013) austral summers. Six core groups of bacteria were present in 93% or more of all humpback skin samples. A shift was observed in the average relative abundances of these core bacteria over time, with the emergence of four additional core groups of bacteria that corresponded to a decrease in water temperature, possibly caused by season- or foraging-related changes in skin biochemistry that influenced microbial growth, or other temporal factors. The skin microbiome differed between whales sampled at several regional locations along the WAP, suggesting that environmental factors or population may also influence the whale skin microbiome. Overall, the skin microbiome of humpback whales appears to provide insight into animal- and environment-related factors and may serve as a useful indicator for animal health or ecosystem alterations. IMPORTANCE The microbiomes of wild animals are currently understudied but may provide information about animal health and/or animal-environment interactions. In the largest sampling of any marine mammal microbiome, this study demonstrates conservation in the skin microbiome of 89 seemingly healthy humpback whales sampled in the Western Antarctic Peninsula, with shifts in the bacterial community composition related to temporal and regional variability. This study is important because it suggests that the skin microbiome of humpback whales could provide insight into animal nutritional or seasonal/environment-related factors, which are becoming

  15. Local vs. Regional Groundwater Flow Delineation from Stable Isotopes at Western North America Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E; Boldt, Elizabeth M; Junghans, Katie M

    2017-01-01

    The recharge location for many springs is unknown because they can be sourced from proximal, shallow, atmospheric sources or long-traveled, deep, regional aquifers. The stable isotope (18 O and 2 H) geochemistry of springs water can provide cost-effective indications of relative flow path distance without the expense of drilling boreholes, conducting geophysical studies, or building groundwater flow models. Locally sourced springs generally have an isotopic signature similar to local precipitation for that region and elevation. Springs with a very different isotopic composition than local meteoric inputs likely have non-local recharge, representing a regional source. We tested this local vs. regional flow derived hypothesis with data from a new, large springs isotopic database from studies across Western North America in Arizona, Nevada, and Alberta. The combination of location-specific precipitation data with stable isotopic groundwater data provides an effective method for flow path determination at springs. We found springs in Arizona issue from a mix of regional and local recharge sources. These springs have a weak elevation trend across 1588 m of elevation where higher elevation springs are only slightly more depleted than low elevation springs with a δ18 O variation of 5.9‰. Springs sampled in Nevada showed a strong elevation-isotope relationship with high-elevation sites discharging depleted waters and lower elevation springs issuing enriched waters; only a 2.6‰ difference exists in 18 O values over an elevation range of more than 1500 m. Alberta's springs are mostly sourced from local flow systems and show a moderate elevation trend of 1200 m, but the largest range in δ18 O, 7.1‰. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McCallum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

  17. Land use/cover change patterns in highland ecosystems of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use/cover change patterns in highland ecosystems of Lake Bunyonyi Catchment in western Uganda. C.L. Kizza, M.M. Tenywa, J.G.M. Majaliwa, F Kansiime, M Magunda, B Nakileza, B Barasa, G Gabiri, E Sebuliba, J Nampijja ...

  18. Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in the Western Pacific Region: analysis of 2012 case notification data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hiatt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB control in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region has seen substantial progress in the last decade, with a 33% reduction in prevalent TB cases since 2000. The burden remains immense, however, and national TB programmes must evolve and adapt to build upon these gains. Through routine surveillance, countries and areas in the Region reported 1.4 million TB cases in 2012. The case notification rate increased in the early 2000s, appears to have stabilized in recent years and is in decline for all forms and new smear-positive cases. The age and sex breakdown for smear-positive TB case rates by country shows generally higher rates with increased age and declining rates over time for all age groups. Treatment success remains high in the Region, with 15 countries reaching or maintaining an 85% success rate. HIV testing among TB patients has increased gradually along with a slow decline in the number of HIV-positive patients found. The trend of TB notification is heavily influenced by programmatic improvements in many countries and rapidly changing demographics. It appears that cases are being found earlier as reflected in declining rates of smear-positive TB and steady rates of TB in all forms. WHO estimates depict a decline in TB incidence in the Region. HIV testing, while still low, has increased substantially in recent years, with essential TB/HIV services expanding in many countries. TB surveillance data, within inherent limitations, is an important source of programmatic and epidemiological information. Careful interpretation of these findings can provide useful insight for programmatic decision-making.

  19. Effects of snow persistence on streamflow generation in mountain regions of the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. C.; Kampf, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountain regions, both snowpack trend analyses and modeling studies suggest that streamflow generation is sensitive to loss of snow, yet we still lack understanding of where the most snow-sensitive regions are located. Snow persistence (SP), defined as the fraction of year that an area is snow-covered, is a useful variable for identifying snow-sensitive regions because it is easily observed globally using remote sensing. SP can affect streamflow generation by shifting the timing and magnitude of water input. All other factors being equal, we hypothesize that declining SP decreases the ratio of streamflow to precipitation (runoff ratio), and the magnitude of this effect is greater in arid climates than in humid climates. To evaluate whether streamflow generation declines with decreasing SP, we used the MODSCAG fractional snow cover product and 68 USGS reference catchments across five mountainous regions of the Western U.S. to compute annual and mean annual SP and discharge for water years 2000 to 2011. We used PRISM precipitation to compute the annual and mean annual runoff ratio for each catchment. Results show strong positive relationships between annual SP and annual runoff ratio in the Northern Rockies, Southern Rockies, and Basin and Range, where annual precipitation ranges from 0.25 m at low elevations in the Basin and Range to 2.5 m at high elevations in the Northern Rockies. Mean annual runoff ratios for these regions range from 0.32-0.53, and they also increase with mean annual SP. No relationships between annual SP and runoff ratios are evident in the wetter North Cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges, where annual precipitation ranges from 0.44 m in the low elevation Sierras to 4.8 m in the high elevation Cascades. Mean annual runoff ratios for these regions are 0.53-0.87 and show no clear dependence on SP. These results suggest that streamflow generation in arid regions may be most sensitive to loss of persistent winter snow.

  20. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.

  1. The geological history of the Latimojong region of western Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lloyd T.; Hall, Robert; Armstrong, Richard A.; Barber, Anthony J.; BouDagher Fadel, Marcelle; Baxter, Alan; Wakita, Koji; Manning, Christina; Soesilo, Joko

    2017-05-01

    We present an updated geological map and revised stratigraphy of the Latimojong region of central-western Sulawesi. This work includes new biostratigraphic ages from the Latimojong Metamorphic Complex, Toraja Group, Makale Formation and Enrekang Volcanics, together with whole-rock geochemical data and sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb analyses from zircons extracted from igneous rocks in the region. Previous work on the study region and in other parts of Sulawesi have discussed the age and character of two different rock sequences with similar names, the Latimojong Complex and the Latimojong Formation. One would assume that the type location for these two sequences is in the Latimojong Mountains. However, there is considerable confusion as to the character and location of these sequences. We make a distinction between the Latimojong Formation and the Latimojong Complex, and propose that the Latimojong Complex be renamed the Latimojong Metamorphic Complex to minimise the confusion associated with the current nomenclature. The Latimojong Metamorphic Complex is an accretionary complex of low- to high-grade metamorphic rocks tectonically mixed with cherts and ophiolitic rocks, while the Latimojong Formation consists of Upper Cretaceous weakly deformed, unmetamorphosed sediments or very low-grade metasediments (previously interpreted as flysch or distal turbidites that unconformably overlie older rocks). Our work indicates that the Latimojong Formation must be restricted to isolated, unobserved segments of the Latimojong Mountains, or is otherwise not present in the Latimojong region, meaning the Latimojong Formation would only be found further north in western Sulawesi. Radiolaria extracted from chert samples indicate that the Latimojong Metamorphic Complex was likely assembled during the Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) and was later metamorphosed. Ages obtained from benthic and planktonic foraminifera were used to differentiate and map the Toraja Group

  2. Impact of mining and forest regeneration on small mammal biodiversity in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Ofori, Benjamin Y

    2017-05-01

    Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the region's rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the impact of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western Region of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation). The forest reserves recorded higher species abundance than the mining areas. Majority of the species captured in the forest reserves, including Hylomyscus alleni, Praomys tullbergi, Malacomys cansdalei, and Hybomys trivirgatus, are forest obligate species. Only one individual each of H. alleni and P. tullbergi was captured in the naturally regenerated areas (core areas of mining activities that were allowed to revegetate naturally), while 32 individuals belonging to four species (Lophuromys sikapusi, Mus musculoides, Mastomys erythroleucus, and Crocidura olivieri) were recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Our data suggested negative effects of mining on small mammal diversity and the restoration of species diversity and important ecological processes after rehabilitation of altered habitats. We strongly encourage deliberate conservation efforts, particularly the development of management plans that require the restoration of degraded land resulting from mining activities.

  3. Interannual variability in net community production at the Western Antarctic Peninsula region (1997-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuchuan; Cassar, Nicolas; Huang, Kuan; Ducklow, Hugh; Schofield, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we examined the interannual variability of net community production (NCP) in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) using in situ O2/Ar-NCP estimates (2008-2014) and satellite data (SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua) from 1997 to 2014. We found that NCP generally first peaks offshore and follows sea-ice retreat from offshore to inshore. Annually integrated NCP (ANCP) displays an onshore-to-offshore gradient, with coastal and shelf regions up to 8 times more productive than offshore regions. We examined potential drivers of interannual variability in the ANCP using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The EOF's first mode explains ˜50% of the variance, with high interannual variability observed seaward of the shelf break. The first principal component is significantly correlated with the day of sea-ice retreat (R = -0.58, p Oscillation (ENSO) climate indices in austral spring. Although the most obvious pathway by which the day of sea-ice retreat influences NCP is by controlling light availability early in the growing season, we found that the effect of day of sea-ice retreat on NCP persists throughout the growing season, suggesting that additional controls, such as iron availability, are preconditioned or correlated to the day of sea-ice retreat.

  4. Recent landscape history in arid western New South Wales, Australia: a model for regional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Patricia C.

    1999-09-01

    Accelerated erosion by wind and water has taken place in arid western New South Wales, Australia, since the introduction of domestic and feral herbivores by Europeans in the nineteenth century. This action led to widespread soil loss by sheetwash, rilling, gullying, and aeolian deflation. Upland creek systems, formerly comprising shallow sinuous channels, are now entrenched into alluvial fills on the valley floor. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal from Aboriginal cooking pits, exposed by this erosion, indicates that the current phase of incision of the valley floor has occurred since grazing of domestic animals began about 140 years ago. Stratigraphic evidence is presented which suggests that this type of incision (gullying or arroyo cutting in the valley floor) may not have occurred before within the 20,000 year sedimentary history of the valley fills studied. Channel enlargement and knickpoint retreat, initiated by these changes, is ongoing, and the implications of this for land and heritage management in the region are discussed. A conceptual model is presented which summarises the hydrogeomorphic changes which have occurred in upland catchments in the region as a result of changes in landcover.

  5. Education, safe drinking practices and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Phillip S; Payne, Jennifer S

    2014-09-01

    There are alarming rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the Kimberley region of Western Australia despite numerous international studies demonstrating the links between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and FASD. The aim of this research was to help determine factors that may be associated with correct knowledge about safe drinking practices during pregnancy, with these factors used to help inform future interventions. Ninety-nine residents (40 males, 59 females, 39% of which self-identified as Indigenous) from the Kimberley region (Broome and smaller remote communities) completed a survey examining knowledge of currently recommended safe drinking practices during pregnancy and knowledge of the outcomes for children with FASD over a period of approximately 2 months. The results revealed that education level (i.e. not completing high school through to completing university) is the biggest predictor (β = 0.44, P education regarding the consequences of alcohol consumption for women of childbearing age should be paramount in this or similar communities. Suggestions for targeted interventions are discussed in light of these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Region-specific genetic heterogeneity of HBB mutation distribution in South-Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachatzopoulou, Adamantia; Kourakli, Alexandra; Stavrou, Eleana F; Fragou, Ekaterini; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Patrinos, George P; Athanassiadou, Aglaia

    2010-01-01

    beta-Thalassemia (beta-thal), is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of beta-globin chains resulting in impaired erythropoiesis. It is the most common single gene defect disease in Greece, with heterozygous rates reaching, on average, 8% in the general population. Here, we performed molecular analyses on 199 unrelated beta-thal and compound beta-thal/sickle cell disease patients, of whom 157 originated from three prefectures of South-Western Greece, namely Achaia, Ilia and Etoloakarnania. Our results indicate that the frequency of specific HBB gene mutations, namely the HBB:c.118C>T (codon 39, C>T), HBB:c.92+6T>C (IVS-I-6, T>C), and HBB:c.20A>T [Hb S, beta6(A3)Glu-->Val, GAG>GTG], present distinct distribution patterns in the Achaia and Ilia prefectures (p HBB gene mutations is useful for genetic counseling in the region, and illustrates that the identification of the HBB gene mutation spectrum in this region is necessary for population carrier screening and for efficient provision of prenatal diagnosis.

  7. Geodiversity action plans for the enhancement of geoheritage in the Piemonte region (north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ferrero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geoethical approach to geodiversity allows better understanding of the value of abiotic nature and enhances its conservation and development. Our basic assumption is that even during an economical crisis, geoheritage sites can serve both public and private interests. A set of nine strategic geothematic areas were chosen to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, north-western Italy, each of which is characterized by great potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreational activities, and economic support to the local communities. Specialized research teams individuated critical aspects to advance our knowledge of the geological history of the Piemonte region, through climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources. The scientific concepts and techniques were coupled with geodiffusion actions and products: not only geosites, but also museum collections, evidence of mining and quarrying activities, science exhibitions, and nature trails. The preliminary results have allowed action plans to be developed with local partners, to assess the geoheritage management requirements. A series of investigations were carried out to improve the visual representation of the geological processes and the evolutionary scenarios. Further outcomes of the project will include didactic tools for educators, schools, and the public in general.

  8. Epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminths in the Western Region of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Henrietta; Sithey, Gyambo; Padmasiri, EA; Montresor, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In May 2003 a survey was conducted in the Western Region of Bhutan to assess the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections after 15 years of school deworming in the country. Five schools were randomly selected in the region and 266 schoolchildren were examined. Stool samples were collected from each child as well as nutritional indicators and general information on each school. The survey found a cumulative prevalence of 16.5% STH (4.8% in schools treated in the last three months and 24% in the untreated schools). An unexpected finding was that tapeworm infection rate of 6.7%. These results indicate a high reinfection rate in this area. WHO recommends a 50% prevalence as the threshold for the establishment of community intervention. However, in our view, Bhutan needs to continue its deworming programme because the present, relatively low, prevalence level was found despite a long period of intervention; an interruption of the control activities will result in a return to very high levels of prevalence and intensity of infection. PMID:15916067

  9. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  10. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  11. Imagery Exercises for Young Highland Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Irene L.; Munroe-Chandler, Krista J.

    2017-01-01

    Scottish Highland Dance (Highland Dance), known for its accompaniment of bagpipe music and traditional wearing of the kilt, has captured the interest of many dancers and spectators worldwide. It requires strength, stamina, coordination, and very controlled movements. Such intricate technique and movements can be difficult to master, especially for…

  12. Highland Medical Research Journal: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highland Medical Research Journal: About this journal. Journal Home > Highland Medical Research Journal: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ...

  13. Onchocerciasis in the Thyolo highlands of Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin snips for 23,373 persons living in the Thyolo highlands showed infection with Onchocerca vol- vulus to be widely but unevenly distributed within the Thyolo highlands. Although 60% of adults in some areas were infected, the intensity of infec- tion was light. Infection with O. volvulus is associ- ated with blindness in the ...

  14. The meandering Dijle River in the western European loess region: an anthropogenic landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broothaerts, Nils; Verstraeten, Gert; Notebaert, Bastiaan; Kasse, Cornelis; Bohncke, Sjoerd; Vandenberghe, Jef

    2013-04-01

    Floodplain deposition rates have increased markedly under influence of human impact throughout the Late Holocene in many Western and Central European catchments. These variations in sedimentation rates have changed the geomorphology and ecology of many floodplains. In this study we discuss the human impact and its influence on floodplain geoecology during the Middle and Late Holocene for the Dijle catchment (760 km²), located in the Belgian part of the western European loess belt. Based on sedimentological and palynological data, the geoecology of the floodplain and the regional vegetation was reconstructed at 6 locations. Age-depth models for each of the studied sequences were obtained through 60 radiocarbon dates. Human impact in the catchment was quantified based on statistical analysis of the pollen data (cluster analysis and correspondence analysis). Our data shows that until ca. 2500 cal BP, human impact was either absent or limited to local disturbances yielding no clear influence on the floodplain geoecology. The river environment was in a stable phase and consisted of a marshy environment were organic material could accumulate, which is interpreted as the natural state of the floodplain. From ca. 2500 cal BP onwards, human impact gradually increased. However, only when human impact in the catchment crossed a threshold, the floodplain geoecology changed with clearing of the Alder carr forest, the dominance of minerogenic overbank sedimentation and the emergence of a single channel meandering river. Spatial and temporal variability in the coupling between increasing human impact and changes in floodplain geoecology can be attributed to differences in hillslope-fluvial system connectivity and local differences in human impact. Overall, this study shed new lights on the indirect effect of anthropogenic forces on floodplain geoecology. It also shows that the contemporary morphology of the Dijle River floodplain contrasts widely with that of the Middle Holocene

  15. A synthesis of lunar highlands compositional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1980-01-01

    Based on compositions of lunar soils and endogeneous highland rocks and mineral phase relationships, a composition for the non-KREEP, mafic portion of the lunar highlands is determined through the use of a mixing model. It is found that the most common materials making up the surface highlands appear to be ferroan anorthosite (FAN) and a material of olivine norite composition (HON, highlands olivine norite) in roughly equal proportions. It is also found that the composition of HON is similar to that of the residual liquid from crystallization of FAN and that the proportion of FAN to HON at the lunar surface appears to be much higher than the phase relations allow for the extent of evolution of HON from a primitive plagioclase-saturated liquid. This is seen as implying an excess of FAN in the upper highlands.

  16. Biogeography and change among regional coral communities across the Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R McClanahan

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are biodiverse ecosystems structured by abiotic and biotic factors operating across many spatial scales. Regional-scale interactions between climate change, biogeography and fisheries management remain poorly understood. Here, we evaluated large-scale patterns of coral communities in the western Indian Ocean after a major coral bleaching event in 1998. We surveyed 291 coral reef sites in 11 countries and over 30° of latitude between 2004 and 2011 to evaluate variations in coral communities post 1998 across gradients in latitude, mainland-island geography and fisheries management. We used linear mixed-effect hierarchical models to assess total coral cover, the abundance of four major coral families (acroporids, faviids, pocilloporids and poritiids, coral genus richness and diversity, and the bleaching susceptibility of the coral communities. We found strong latitudinal and geographic gradients in coral community structure and composition that supports the presence of a high coral cover and diversity area that harbours temperature-sensitive taxa in the northern Mozambique Channel between Tanzania, northern Mozambique and northern Madagascar. Coral communities in the more northern latitudes of Kenya, Seychelles and the Maldives were generally composed of fewer bleaching-tolerant coral taxa and with reduced richness and diversity. There was also evidence for continued declines in the abundance of temperature-sensitive taxa and community change after 2004. While there are limitations of our regional dataset in terms of spatial and temporal replication, these patterns suggest that large-scale interactions between biogeographic factors and strong temperature anomalies influence coral communities while smaller-scale factors, such as the effect of fisheries closures, were weak. The northern Mozambique Channel, while not immune to temperature disturbances, shows continued signs of resistance to climate disturbances and remains a priority for

  17. The Calabrian in the Western Transcaucasian basin (Georgia): Paleomagnetic constraints from the Gurian regional stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscher, U.; Oms, O.; Bruch, A. A.; Shatilova, I.; Chochishvili, G.; Bachtadse, V.

    2017-03-01

    The precise Eurasian chronostratigraphy of the Neogene-Quaternary period is still hampered by the existence of numerous regional stages often lacking independent and absolute age constraints. Therefore, detailed paleoclimatic reconstructions of areas like the Caucasus are still poorly constrained and the influence of climate variability on faunal interchange between Africa and Eurasia in the late Neogene-Quaternary is still difficult to address. During the last decades, Quaternary sections from western Georgia have produced a wealth of paleoclimatic proxy data. Unfortunately, these sections do not have a robust age control. This is especially true for the Gurian stage which has been vaguely defined as being coeval with the lower Pleistocene on the basis of poorly documented bio- and magnetostratigraphic data. In order to constrain the age of the Gurian stage, a detailed magnetostratigraphic study has been carried out. All major sections with known Gurian sediments in the former Rioni bay (a marine restricted area to the southeast of the Major Caucasus) have been studied. Our results confirm for the first time the strict correlation between the Gurian succession and the Calabrian stage. In addition, our data provides further information on the tectonic setting of the Rioni bay during the Calabrian in this region: (1) in the north, Gurian sediments were unconformably deposited on older Meotian sediments in a piggy back basin, (2) in the south, Gurian sediments are conformably overlying Kujalnician (Plio-Pleistocene) strata, (3) magnetostratigraphic correlation among sections indicate drastic changes in sediment accumulation rates within the basin, (4) rock magnetic experiments reveal significant magnetomineralogical differences between Gurian and the underlying Miocene sediments likely documenting a transition related to changes in oxic conditions, supply of terrigenous material and sedimentation rate close to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. These results provide a

  18. Biogeography and Change among Regional Coral Communities across the Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy R.; Ateweberhan, Mebrahtu; Darling, Emily S.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Muthiga, Nyawira A.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are biodiverse ecosystems structured by abiotic and biotic factors operating across many spatial scales. Regional-scale interactions between climate change, biogeography and fisheries management remain poorly understood. Here, we evaluated large-scale patterns of coral communities in the western Indian Ocean after a major coral bleaching event in 1998. We surveyed 291 coral reef sites in 11 countries and over 30° of latitude between 2004 and 2011 to evaluate variations in coral communities post 1998 across gradients in latitude, mainland-island geography and fisheries management. We used linear mixed-effect hierarchical models to assess total coral cover, the abundance of four major coral families (acroporids, faviids, pocilloporids and poritiids), coral genus richness and diversity, and the bleaching susceptibility of the coral communities. We found strong latitudinal and geographic gradients in coral community structure and composition that supports the presence of a high coral cover and diversity area that harbours temperature-sensitive taxa in the northern Mozambique Channel between Tanzania, northern Mozambique and northern Madagascar. Coral communities in the more northern latitudes of Kenya, Seychelles and the Maldives were generally composed of fewer bleaching-tolerant coral taxa and with reduced richness and diversity. There was also evidence for continued declines in the abundance of temperature-sensitive taxa and community change after 2004. While there are limitations of our regional dataset in terms of spatial and temporal replication, these patterns suggest that large-scale interactions between biogeographic factors and strong temperature anomalies influence coral communities while smaller-scale factors, such as the effect of fisheries closures, were weak. The northern Mozambique Channel, while not immune to temperature disturbances, shows continued signs of resistance to climate disturbances and remains a priority for future regional

  19. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  20. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified – one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS. Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.. As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l. and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l., consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three. This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is

  1. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to

  2. highlanders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malignant melanoma is a fatal skin cancer that is curable when detected and treated early. Recent reports ... Methods: The histology records of patients diagnosed as cases of malignant melanoma in the pathology laboratory of Jos .... spontaneous regression of a cutaneous primary lesion, now inapparent. 2,16 ...

  3. The megalithic complex of highland Jambi: An archaeological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Sumatra remain one of the most neglected regions of insular Southeast Asia in terms of history and archaeology. No comprehensive research program incorporating both a survey and excavations within a defined geographical or environmental zone has been carried out there since Van der Hoop (1932 conducted his study of the megaliths on the Pasemah plateau in the 1930s. Meanwhile, Van der Hoop’s investigations and several other archaeological research activities at places such as northwest Lampung (McKinnon 1993, Pasemah (Sukendar and Sukidjo 1983-84; Caldwell 1997; Kusumawati and Sukendar 2000, Kerinci (Laporan 1995a, 1996a, and the Minangkabau heartland (Miksic 1986, 1987, 2004 have placed special emphasis on the megalithic remains. As a result, the megaliths are by far the bestknown archaeological attraction of the Sumatran highlands.

  4. Potential Flooding area for local Tsunami in Nayarit Region (Western Coast of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Gomez, E.; Ortiz, M.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The western coast of Mexico in the region of Jalisco and Nayarit states has a complex tectonics and a high seismic activity. In the last century, four big tsunamis occurred in this area, (three of them in 1932 and one in 1995, that hit the coast of Colima, Jalisco and Nayarit. Three of these tsunamis were generated by earthquakes and one more (22 June 1932) by an underwater landslide. Currently, there is a seismic Gap on the north coast of Jalisco and southern Nayarit. Recent published papers (Urías-Espinosa et al, 2016) and the first results of TsuJal Project (Núñez- Cornú et al, 2016) suggest that subduction regime to the north of Cabo Corrientes changes and the Rivera plate subducts with a very low angle and this structure remains until Maria Madre Island at north of the Marias Islands. The hypothesis of this work is the estimation of the tsunami run up and the flooding zone after a great magnitude earthquake generated by the rupture of the hypothetical subduction structure north of Cabo Corrientes. The possible effects on the coasts of Nayarit, Islas Marias and Banderas Bay (Puerto Vallarta) are proposed in this study.

  5. Performance Analysis of Hybrid PV/Diesel Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbul A. M. Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential implementation of hybrid photovoltaic (PV/diesel energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia is analyzed in this paper. The solar radiation intensity considered in this study is in the range of 4.15–7.17 kWh/m2/day. The HOMER software is used to perform the technical and economical analysis of the system. Three different system configurations, namely, stand-alone diesel system, and hybrid PV/diesel system with and without battery storage element, will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV penetration and battery storage on energy production, cost of energy, number of operational hours of diesel generators, fuel savings, and reduction of carbon emission for the given configurations. The simulation results indicate that the energy cost of the hybrid PV/diesel/battery system with 15% PV penetration, battery storage of 186.96 MWh, and energy demand of 32,962 MWh/day is $0.117/kWh.

  6. Formulary systems and pharmacy and therapeutics committees in the Western Pacific Region: exploring two Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Dechun, Jiang; Moles, Rebekah

    2013-06-01

    The use of formulary systems and pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committees in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) and the factors associated with their use were explored. Minor additions were made to a previously validated survey and reviewed by a WPR advisory committee. The Basel Statements 26 and 27 survey was made available in eight languages and sent electronically to 1989 hospital pharmacy directors through respective hospital pharmacy associations in the WPR. A total of 797 responses (40%) from 34 nations were received. Of these responses, 87% of hospitals (691 of 797) used a formulary. Also, 93% of respondents (619 of 664) indicated that their hospital had a P&T committee. However, only 44% of respondents (274 of 626) reported that more than half of their formulary medicines were linked to standard treatment guidelines. Furthermore, only 41% of hospitals (247 of 601) had a policy for off-label medication use. The pharmacy directors' perceived benefits of formularies were correlated with having more formulary medicines linked to standard treatment guidelines, basing their use on the best available evidence, and having a policy for the use of off-label medicines. A large proportion of hospitals in the WPR have implemented formularies and P&T committees. Although formularies are commonly used, their effectiveness may be limited, as formularies are often not linked to standard treatment guidelines or the best available evidence.

  7. Occurrences of large-magnitude earthquakes in the Kachchh region, Gujarat, western India: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Prosanta Kumar; Mohanty, Sarada Prasad; Sinha, Sushmita; Singh, Dhananjay

    2016-06-01

    Moderate-to-large damaging earthquakes in the peninsular part of the Indian plate do not support the long-standing belief of the seismic stability of this region. The historical record shows that about 15 damaging earthquakes with magnitudes from 5.5 to ~ 8.0 occurred in the Indian peninsula. Most of these events were associated with the old rift systems. Our analysis of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and its 12-year aftershock sequence indicates a seismic zone bound by two linear trends (NNW and NNE) that intersect an E-W-trending graben. The Bouguer gravity values near the epicentre of the Bhuj earthquake are relatively low (~ 2 mgal). The gravity anomaly maps, the distribution of earthquake epicentres, and the crustal strain-rate patterns indicate that the 2001 Bhuj earthquake occurred along a fault within strain-hardened mid-crustal rocks. The collision resistance between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate along the Himalayas and anticlockwise rotation of the Indian plate provide the far-field stresses that concentrate within a fault-bounded block close to the western margin of the Indian plate and is periodically released during earthquakes, such as the 2001 MW 7.7 Bhuj earthquake. We propose that the moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes in the deeper crust in this area occur along faults associated with old rift systems that are reactivated in a strain-hardened environment.

  8. Detection of flea-borne Rickettsia species in the Western Himalayan region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chahota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections by various rickettsial species are frequently reported globally. We investigated a flea-borne rickettsial outbreak infecting 300 people in Western Himalayan region of India. Arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas and animal and human blood samples from affected households were analysed by gltA and ompB genes based polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus samples were found harbouring a Rickettsia sp. Phylogenetic analysis based on gltA gene using PHYLIP revealed that the detected Rickettsia sp. has 100% identity with SE313 and RF2125 strains of Rickettsia sp. of flea origin from Egypt and Thai-Myanmar border, respectively and cf1 and 5 strains from fleas and lice from the USA. But, the nucleotide sequence of genetically variable gene ompB of R14 strain was found closely related to cf9 strain, reported from Ctenocephalides felis fleas. These results highlight the public health importance of such newly discovered or less recognised Rickettsia species/strains, harboured by arthropod vectors like fleas.

  9. Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffelfinger, James D; Li, Xi; Batmunkh, Nyambat; Grabovac, Varja; Diorditsa, Sergey; Liyanage, Jayantha B; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Bahl, Sunil; Vannice, Kirsten S; Hyde, Terri B; Chu, Susan Y; Fox, Kimberley K; Hills, Susan L; Marfin, Anthony A

    2017-06-09

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of JE vaccination into national immunization schedules in all areas where the disease is a public health priority (1). This report updates a previous summary of JE surveillance and immunization programs in Asia and the Western Pacific in 2012 (2). Since 2012, funding for JE immunization has become available through the GAVI Alliance, three JE vaccines have been WHO-prequalified,* and an updated WHO JE vaccine position paper providing guidance on JE vaccines and vaccination strategies has been published (1). Data for this report were obtained from a survey of JE surveillance and immunization practices administered to health officials in countries with JE virus transmission risk, the 2015 WHO/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, notes and reports from JE meetings held during 2014-2016, published literature, and websites. In 2016, 22 (92%) of 24 countries with JE virus transmission risk conducted JE surveillance, an increase from 18 (75%) countries in 2012, and 12 (50%) countries had a JE immunization program, compared with 11 (46%) countries in 2012. Strengthened JE surveillance, continued commitment, and adequate resources for JE vaccination should help maintain progress toward prevention and control of JE.

  10. Modulation of Summer Monsoon Circulation over Peninsular India by Western Ghats- A regional Climate modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanayagam, Lorna; Janardanan, Rajesh; Ram Mohan, H. S.

    The aim of the study is to understand the wind pattern over the Peninsular India with the modification of Orography over the region using Regional climate model. The model used in this study is the recent version (Version III) of the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Climate Model RegCM3. The model integration is done on a horizontal resolution of 60 km. . The planetary boundary layer scheme used is that of Holtslag, cumulus parameterization scheme Emanuel of MIT, SUBEX large scale precipitation scheme and BATS ocean flux parameterization scheme. The model is run from 1st May to 30th September. The first month is taken for the spin up. The next four months are taken to study the monsoon. The simulation has been carried out for the 100%, 90%, 60% and 30% Orography (hereafter 100%o,90%o, 60%o, and 30%o) cases with RegCM3. The Zonal wind pattern for the 100%o and 90%o are similar, whereas the pattern changed for the 60% and 30%o. For the 60% and 30%o cases, the Zonal wind strengthened over the south peninsular India gradually increasing towards north. The Meridional component of the wind has a maximum over the Western Ghats between the latitudes 10o N and 15o N for the 100%o. Similar pattern has been observed for the 90%o also. For the 60%o and 30%o, the core has shifted to the northeast of India. The magnitude has decreased for the 30%o and the magnitude of meridional component is zero over the region south of 10o N. Keywords: Orography, Zonal and Meridional wind. References: Giorgi F, Mon. Wea Rev. 121: 2794 (1993) Giorgi F, Marinucci M R and Bates G T , Mon. Wea Rev. 121: 2794 (1993) K. C. Chow, Timing Liu, Johnny C. L. Chan and Yihui Ding, Int. J. Climatol. 26:1339-1359 (2006) K. C. Chow, Hang-Wai Tong and Johnny C. L. Chan, Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-007- 0301-6

  11. Clay sediment accumulation rates on the monsoon-dominated western continental shelf and slope region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.

    Clay accumulation rates shown in sediment cores from the nearshore to outer continental shelf and slope regions in water depths of 10-1246 m on the western continental margins of India were determined by the 210Pb dating technique. The 210Pb excess...

  12. Tagging reveals limited exchange of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta between regions in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Revelles

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of immature loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta between the northern and southern regions of the western Mediterranean was investigated using data obtained from several Spanish tagging programmes. Tagged turtles ranged in straight carapace length from 23.0 to 74.0 cm. Thirty-six turtles were recaptured after an average interval of 390.5±462.6 days (SD. As the mean dispersal distance (MDD of a turtle population that spreads over the western Mediterranean would stabilize after 117 days (CI 95%: 98 to 149, two analyses were conducted that included data from turtles recaptured after 98 and 149 days respectively. In both analyses, turtles were recaptured more often than expected in the same region where they had been tagged. No difference was found in either of the two regions between the average distance between the capture and recapture locations and the expected MDD if the turtles were to remain in the region where they were first captured. Turtles recaptured after 15 and 25 days respectively were excluded from the analysis to ensure data independence. The overall evidence indicates that immature turtles exhibit strong site fidelity to certain areas and that there is a strong barrier to dispersal between the northern and southern parts of the western Mediterranean. Therefore, loggerhead turtles in the western Mediterranean should be split into at least two management units.

  13. Analysis of measured L-band airborne land clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents backscatter analysis of L-band land clutter data, measured from an airborne platform, over various terrain types encountered in the Western Cape region of South Africa. The data processing steps are described and the backscatter...

  14. Yield and financial performance estimates of four elite loblolly pine seed sources planted in the Western Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; A. Gordon Holley

    2015-01-01

    Eastern seed sources of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) have been planted in the Western Gulf region for nearly three decades because they often have higher growth rates than local seed sources. However, productivity gains for eastern families are sometimes offset by poorer survival rates relative to local families.

  15. Three new genera and nine new species of the subfamily Candoninae (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Podocopida) from the Pilbara region (Western Australia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanovic, Ivana; Marmonier, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Three new ostracod genera: Humphreyscandona n. gen., Pilbaracandona n. gen., and Notacandona n. gen., and nine new species are described from subterranean waters of the Pilbara Region, Western Australia. They belong to the subfamily Candoninae of the order Podocopida, and are characterized by a

  16. Politics in the Western Maya Region (I: Ajawil/Ajawlel and Ch'e'n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. Words such as 7ajawil, 7ajawlel, the kennings built on the base of ch'e7n (cave, pond, the emblem glyphs and titles will be examined in light of what they tell us about the functioning of the political organisation of the Classic Period in a constrained region.En una serie de artículos como éste investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental vinculadas con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. Términos como ajaw'ü I ajawlel, los difrasismos con base ch'e'n (cueva, pozo, los glifos emblemas y los títulos serán examinados tomando en cuenta la información que nos proporcionan sobre el funcionamiento de la organización política de la época Clásica en una región restringida.

  17. Maternal depression and child development: Evidence from São Paulo's Western Region Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentani, Alexandra; Fink, Günther

    2016-09-01

    While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children's early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children's development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798) mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré' region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015. Maternal mental health was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Mothers were classified as "possibly depressed" if their EPDS score was between 10 and 13 and as "likely depressed" if their EPDS score was > 13. The child outcomes analyzed were height, weight, and overall development as assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Height and weight were age-normalized using WHO growth standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ) 2. Adjusted and unadjusted linear regression models were used to assess the associations between Edinburgh scores and child outcomes. No association was found between maternal depression variables and children's height, weight, stunting, and obesity. Positive associations were found between possible depression and ASQ (delta = 0.33; 95CI 0.11-0.54; p-valuechild development in the study setting analyzed. Further research will be needed to understand this lack of association: while it is possible that caregivers' mental health did not affect caregiving behavior, it is possible that the effect of maternal depression can vary according to timing, persistence, and intensity. It is also possible that the EPDS instrument may fail to identify mothers with clinical depression, or that children with depressed mothers get increased support from other family members or public early childhood focused programs.

  18. Iron mineralization at the Songhu deposit, Chinese Western Tianshan: a type locality with regional metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Long; Wang, Yi-Tian; Dong, Lian-Hui; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Evans, Noreen J.; Zhang, Bing; Ren, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Hosted by volcaniclastics of the Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation, the Songhu iron deposit is located in the central segment of the Awulale metallogenic belt, Chinese Western Tianshan. Mineralization and alteration are structurally controlled by orogen-parallel NWW-striking faults. Integrating with mineralogical and stable isotopic analyses based on paragenetic relationships, two types of iron mineralization have been identified. The deuteric mineralization (Type I) represented by brecciated, banded, and disseminated-vein ores juxtaposed with potassic-calcic alteration in the inner zone, which was formed from a magmatic fluid generated during the late stages of regional volcanism. In contrast, the volcanic-hydrothermal mineralization (Type II) is characterized by hydrothermal features occurring in massive and agglomerated ores with abundant sulfides, and was generated from the magmatic fluid with seawater contamination. Two volcaniclastic samples from the hanging and footwall of the main orebody yield zircon U-Pb ages of 327.8 ± 3.1 and 332.0 ± 2.0 Ma, respectively, which indicate Middle Carboniferous volcanism. Timing for iron mineralization can be broadly placed in the same epoch. By reviewing geological, mineralogical, and geochemical features of the primary iron deposits in the Awulale metallogenic belt, we propose that the two types of iron mineralization in the Songhu iron deposit are representative regionally. A summary of available geochronological data reveals Middle-Late Carboniferous polycyclic ore-related volcanism, and nearly contemporaneous iron mineralization along the belt. Furthermore, petro-geochemistry of volcanic-volcaniclastic host rocks indicates that partial melting of a metasomatized mantle wedge under a continental arc setting could have triggered the continuous volcanic activities and associated metallogenesis.

  19. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  20. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las

  1. Orogenic inheritance in Death Valley region, western US Basin and Range: implications for Neogene crustal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Prior, M. G.; Stockli, D. F.; Kelly, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Deformation and temperature evolution during orogenic stages may influence later fabric development, thus controlling large-scale extensional processes that can occur millions of years later. Here, we describe pressure-temperature and fabric evolution from the Death Valley (DV) region and show how inherited fabrics, formed in late orogenic stages during Late Cretaceous time, influenced later Neogene age Basin and Range (BR) extension. The DV region is one of the most extended and thinned regions in the western US BR province, and the two of the ranges that bound the eastern valley expose basement rocks exhumed during the Neogene extension. In the Funeral range, it has been established that older (Precambrian) basement underwent Mesozoic age syn-deformational metamorphism during the Sevier-Laramide orogeny. In contrast, the Black Mountains record widespread tectonic stretching and magmatism of Miocene age on Precambrian basement, and have, overall, been lacking previous evidence of Mesozoic metamorphism and fabric development. In the Funeral Range Late Cretaceous migmatitic fabrics were overprinted by zones of high-strain fabrics formed due to melt-consuming reaction that define an overall P-T cooling path likely during late- to post-orogenesis. These fabrics form interconnected layers of quartz + biotite aggregates, in which individual quartz grains lack evidence of intracrystalline plastic deformation and show consistently random [c]-axis microfabrics. This suggests coupled reaction-diffusion processes that favored diffusion-assisted creep. New geochronometric results of melt products in the Black Mountains show evidence of partial melting of Late Cretaceous age. Contrasting with the neighboring Funeral Range, overprinting by extensional fabrics of Miocene age is widespread, and consists of high-strain, anastomosing foliation composed of retrograde products from preexisting, higher-temperature fabrics. These include interconnected fine-grained chlorite + quartz

  2. Sea level variability influencing coastal flooding in the Swan River region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Matt

    2012-02-01

    Coastal flooding refers to the incidence of high water levels produced by water level fluctuations of marine origin, rather than riverine floods. An understanding of the amplitude and frequency of high water level events is essential to foreshore management and the design of many coastal and estuarine facilities. Coastal flooding events generally determine public perception of sea level phenomena, as they are commonly associated with erosion events. This investigation has explored the nature of coastal flooding events affecting the Swan River Region, Western Australia, considering water level records at four sites in the estuary and lower river, extending from the mouth of the Swan River to 40 km upstream. The analysis examined the significance of tides, storms and mean sea level fluctuations over both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The relative timing of these processes is significant for the enhanced or reduced frequency of coastal flooding. These variations overlie net sea level rise previously reported from the coastal Fremantle record, which is further supported by changes to the distribution of high water level events at an estuarine tidal station. Seasonally, coastal flooding events observed in the Swan River region are largely restricted to the period from May to July due to the relative phases of the annual mean sea fluctuation and biannual tidal cycle. Although significant storm surge events occur outside this period, their impact is normally reduced, as they are superimposed on lower tidal and mean sea level conditions. Over inter-annual time scales tide, storminess and mean sea level produce cycles of enhanced and depressed frequency of coastal flooding. For the Swan River region, the inter-annual tidal variation is regular, dominated by the 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle. Storminess and mean sea level variations are independent and irregular, with cycles from 3 to 10 year duration. Since 1960, these fluctuations have not occurred in phase

  3. Réponse de deux variétés de tournesol (Helianthus sp. à la fertilisation à base de fiente de poule sur un Hapli-Humic Ferralsol du Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden Park (YWHRGP Nkwen-Bamenda, Cameroun, Afrique centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerima, BPK.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of Two Sunflower (Helianthus sp. Varieties to Poultry Manure Fertilization on a Hapli-Humic Ferralsol at the Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden-Park (YWHRGP Nkwen-Bamenda, Cameroon, Central Africa. An experiment on a Hapli-Humic Ferralsol was conducted at the YWHRGP, Nkwen-Bamenda, to evaluate the response of two sunflower varieties (Helianthus sp. to five levels of poultry manure (0; 1.2; 2.8; 4.2 and 5.6 Tons/ha. Italian White and African Giant varieties were used. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three and six replications for African Giant and Italian White varieties, respectively. Poultry manure was analyzed and growth, development and yield parameters were collected. The acid soil (pH≤5.5 showed nutrient deficiencies. The poultry manure (pH=7.8 is rich in essential nutrients and had a significant effect on sunflower growth parameters. The 4.2 Tons/ha manure level maximised growth and yield parameters of the African Giant variety. For the Italian White variety, 5.6 Tons/ha manure level gave a head weight yield (0.74 Tons/ha lower than that of the African Giant (1.33 Tons/ha. Significant differences were also observed between the two varieties. However, the African Giant variety appears to be more adapted for seed production, while the Italian White variety appears to be best indicated for use as an ornamental plant or to produce cut flowers.

  4. Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to record and conserve oral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province, Korea. Our research team interviewed 46 key informants (20 men and 26 women) who have lived over 50 years in the area. The average age of the informants was 74 (with a minimum age of 56 to maximum 84). Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observation using semi-structured questionnaires. Ethnobotanical inventory possessed by the residents included 183 species of plants distributed in 156 genera belonging to 68 families and were used in 626 use-reports. Among them, the medicinal plants were comprised as 42 families, 75 genera, and 83 species in usage in 195 ways. A total of 71 ailments were treated with 222 kinds of remedies using medicinal plants. Parts of plant that were used as treatments total up to 17 and the methods of preparation for medicinal materials add up to 28. Informant consensus factor (ICF) showed that the muscular-skeletal disorders had the highest agreement measure (1.0) followed by cuts and wounds (0.87) and respiratory system disorders (0.77). Overall, 29 plant species showed fidelity level of 100%. This study is noteworthy in that it records rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in a time period of pressing environmental changes with regard to the newly built sea wall, eventually leading more or less to the immigration of the seaside inhabitants and the familiarization of the modern medical systems to the farmland inhabitants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endophthalmitis in the western Sydney region: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsumitkul, S; Myers, P C; O'Rourke, M T; Chandra, J

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for endophthalmitis following routine intraocular surgery. A review was performed of consecutive cases of endophthalmitis from three teaching hospitals in the western Sydney region and matched controls from the same institutions between 1996 and 1998. There were 31 cases and 66 controls. Eighty procedures were phacoemulsification, 15 conventional extracapsular cataract extraction, and two were penetrating keratoplasties. Of the 80 patients who had phacoemulsification surgery, 50 had a clear corneal incision, and 26 had a scleral incision (four were unknown). Logistic regression showed an increased risk of endophthalmitis with surgical complications (P = 0.002) and clear cornea temporal incisions (P = 0.007). Risk of endophthalmitis was reduced with use of subconjunctival injections (P = 0.008). The yield for the Gram stain was 47% and for culture was 67%. Anterior chamber tap in addition to vitreous biopsy alone did not increase the yield for microorganism (P = 0.78). Mean visual acuity on presentation was hand movement with 13 patients (50%) showing visual improvement following intravitreal injections of antibiotics (P = 0.003). Visual prognosis did not correlate with presenting visual acuity but appeared to be better in those who grew Staphylococcus epidermidis or were culture negative. Although this study is unable to draw definite conclusions regarding risk of endophthalmitis in clear corneal temporal cataract surgery, sufficient data suggest the importance of incision type and location. Surgical complication is an important risk factor for endophthalmitis. Use of subconjunctival antibiotic injections at the conclusion of the procedure is recommended.

  6. Gestational trophoblastic disease in the western region of Saudi Arabia (single-institute experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinan, Nisrin; Sait, Khalid; Sait, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in the western region of Saudi Arabia, and to evaluate the success of treatment and the effect of age and risk group on survival. Between January 2001 and December 2010, all patients treated for GTD were identified from the King Abdulaziz University Hospital database. Patients with persistent disease were evaluated according to their clinical treatment outcomes. In total, 122 cases of GTD were identified in the database. Of these, 77 (63%) cases were diagnosed and received initial treatment at the study centre, resulting in an incidence of 1.26 cases per 1000 deliveries. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the study participants was 31.52 ± 10.8 years, mean gestational age at diagnosis was 12.42 ± 3.2 weeks, and mean follow-up for each patient was 24 months. There were 20 cases (26%) of persistent GTD after treatment. The majority of patients with low-risk disease were treated with single-agent methotrexate, with an overall success rate of 83%. The overall 5-year survival rate for all patients was 98%. Using the Wilcoxon (Gehan) test, risk group and age (cut-off 40 years) were not found to be significantly associated with survival (p=0.69). This single-institute study reports the first survival data for GTD for Saudi Arabia. However, the overall incidence of GTD in Saudi Arabia will be defined by establishment of a GTD registry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of migration on rural employment and earnings in the Western Development Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, I P

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the impact of migration on rural employment and income in the Western Development Region of Nepal. Data were obtained from interviews conducted among a sample population among villages in the mountain zone of the north, to the Terai in the south. The study area boundaries are irregular in order to ensure adequate spatial, topographic, and socioeconomic representation. The sample included 1387 hill people, 1248 mountain people, and 96 Terai people. Only 15.8% of the sample had access roads to villages in hill areas. 51% had access to roads in the Terai. There is no history of occupational mobility, but settlements changed over time as an adjustment to conditions. Pioneer models of development that aimed to increase economic opportunity included planned settlements. Presently, migration is comprised of rural to rural, rural to urban, and urban to urban. Rural to rural migration is primarily short distances, while long distances accompany hill to Terai moves. 37.0% of immigrants in hill areas migrate between hill districts. About 33% of hill valley settlers were first generation in-migrants, of which about 60% were migrants from hill settlements. Over 60% of the Terai plains' immigrants were from hill districts. The largest short distance movements were from higher to lower elevations, followed by horizontal movements. Permanent emigration has declined in recent years. At least one member from 34.9% of households was a temporary emigrant seeking employment. 41.5% of households had at least one employee in the Eastern Pokhara Valley. Many hill emigrants travel to foreign countries. Migrants were better educated and more involved in agriculture and salaried jobs. Analysis of variance findings indicates that rural temporary migrants came from households with smaller landholdings and larger family size. Findings support the Todaro hypothesis and findings of House and Rempel (1980) in Kenya, that reflect the benefits from migration.

  8. Groundwater Discharges to Rivers in the Western Canadian Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J.; Jasechko, S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater discharges into rivers impacts the movement and fate of nutrients and contaminants in the environment. Understanding groundwater-surface water interactions is especially important in the western Canadian oil sands, where groundwater contamination risks are elevated and baseline water chemistry data is lacking, leading to substantial uncertainties about anthropogenic influences on local river quality. High salinity groundwater springs sourced from deep aquifers, comprised of Pleistocene-aged glacial meltwater, are known to discharge into many rivers in the oil sands. Understanding connections between deep aquifers and surficial waterways is important in order to determine natural inputs into these rivers and to assess the potential for injected wastewater or oil extraction fluids to enter surface waters. While these springs have been identified, their spatial distribution along rivers has not been fully characterized. Here we present river chemistry data collected along a number of major river corridors in the Canadian oil sands region. We show that saline groundwater springs vary spatially along the course of these rivers and tend to be concentrated where the rivers incise Devonian- or Cretaceous-aged aquifers along an evaporite dissolution front. Our results suggest that water sourced from Devonian aquifers may travel through bitumen-bearing Cretaceous units and discharge into local rivers, implying a strong groundwater-surface water connection in specialized locations. These findings indicate that oil sands process-affected waters that are injected at depth have the potential to move through these aquifers and reach the rivers at the surface at some time in the future. Groundwater-surface water interactions remain key to understanding the risks oil sands activities pose to aquatic ecosystems and downstream communities.

  9. Protracted Regional Dissemination of GIM-1-Producing Serratia marcescens in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Andreas F; Kaase, Martin; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Peter, Silke; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Rieber, Heime; Pfeffer, Klaus; MacKenzie, Colin R; Willmann, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase GIM-1 has been found in various bacterial host species nearly exclusively in western Germany. However, not much is known about the epidemiology of GIM-1-positive Serratia marcescens Here we report on a surprisingly protracted regional dissemination. In-hospital transmission was investigated by using conventional epidemiological tools to identify spatiotemporal links. Strain typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Bayesian phylogeny was used to infer the time axis of the observed occurrence. Thirteen S. marcescens strains from 10 patients from 6 different German hospitals were investigated. Suspected in-hospital transmissions were confirmed by molecular typing at a higher resolution by WGS than by PFGE. A detailed sequence analysis demonstrated the spread of one predominant strain variant but also provided evidence for transfer of the blaGIM-1 gene cassette between different strains. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the most recent common ancestor of the identified clonal cluster could be dated back to April 1993 (95% highest posterior density interval, January 1973 to March 2003) and that this strain might have already harbored the blaGIM-1 at that time and, therewith, years before the first detection of this resistance gene in clinical specimens. This study shows a long-standing clonal and plasmid-mediated expansion of GIM-1-producing S. marcescens that might have gone unnoticed in the absence of a standardized and effective molecular screening for carbapenemases. The systematic and early detection of resistance is thus highly advisable, especially for the prevention of potentially long-term dissemination that may progress beyond control. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. [Hepatitis C virus genotypes in a province of western Black-Sea region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Elif; Ogedey, Esra Deniz; Külah, Canan; Beğendik Cömert, Füsun

    2010-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the significant causes of hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma all throughout the world. There are six genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV. HCV genotyping is of crucial importance in the determination of the treatment protocols and the follow-up of the clinical course since treatment success is low and the duration of treatment is longer in HCV genotype 1 infected cases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HCV genotype profiles of the patients with chronic hepatitis C in Zonguldak, providing the first data about HCV genotypes from western Black-Sea region, Turkey. The HCV genotypes of 44 patients (26 female, 18 male; age range: 29-89 years, mean age: 60.05 ± 10.81 years) with positive anti-HCV antibody and HCV-RNA results, admitted to the hospital between May 2007 and July 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and included in the study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of the patients were between 8-160 IU/L (mean 63.99 ± 37.15 IU/L) and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were between 17-160 IU/L (mean 62.77 ± 36.75 IU/L). HCV antibody was determined by ELISA method (Abbott Laboratories, USA), and HCV-RNA was determined by two commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction systems [Cobas Taqman (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and Rotor-Gene 6000 (Corbett Research, USA)]. The genotyping was performed by a reverse hybridization based method, Versant® HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) 2.0 (Bayer Health Care, Belgium). HCV genotypes could not be determined for 5 (11.4%) patients since HCV-RNA levels were low. Genotyping could be performed for 39 (88.6%) patients and 38 (97.4%) had genotype 1b and one (2.6%) patient had genotype 1a. In conclusion, in concordance with the other studies conducted in our country, genotype 1b was found to be the most prevalent genotype in patients from our region.

  11. G6PD deficiency alleles in a malaria-endemic region in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jamille G; Souza, Rodrigo M; Curry, Jonathan; Hinton, Laura; Silva, Natercia R M; Grignard, Lynn; Gonçalves, Ligia A; Gomes, Ana Rita; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Drakeley, Chris; Huggett, Jim; Clark, Taane G; Campino, Susana; Marinho, Claudio R F

    2017-06-15

    Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria. In Brazil, few studies have reported the frequency of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) present in malaria-endemic areas. This is particularly important, as G6PDd screening is not currently performed before primaquine treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PDd in the region of Alto do Juruá, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, an area characterized by a high prevalence of P. vivax infection. Five-hundred and sixteen male volunteers were screened for G6PDd using the fluorescence spot test (Beutler test) and CareStart™ G6PD Biosensor system. Demographic and clinical-epidemiological data were acquired through an individual interview. To assess the genetic basis of G6PDd, 24 SNPs were genotyped using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR assay. Twenty-three (4.5%) individuals were G6PDd. No association was found between G6PDd and the number of malaria cases. An increased risk of reported haemolysis symptoms and blood transfusions was evident among the G6PDd individuals. Twenty-two individuals had the G6PDd A(-) variant and one the G6PD A(+) variant. The Mediterranean variant was not present. Apart from one polymorphism, almost all SNPs were monomorphic or with low frequencies (0-0.04%). No differences were detected among ethnic groups. The data indicates that ~1/23 males from the Alto do Juruá could be G6PD deficient and at risk of haemolytic anaemia if treated with primaquine. G6PD A(-) is the most frequent deficiency allele in this population. These results concur

  12. Potential Regional Impacts of Global Warming on Precipitation in the Western United States

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

    1997-01-01

    Snow and melting of the snowpack provide the principal supply of water to much of the Western United States. Whether global warming threatens this water supply is the focus of this research. This study builds upon a previous Global Climate Change Response Program investigation. Charts were generated of four geopotential height parameters for a domain covering the eastern North Pacific Ocean and western North America. Out of 131 total winter months (from 1946-89), 35 were selected as analo...

  13. Addressing the military gap in the western Balkans and closing the gap through regional cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    113 of the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline, which will come to the Western Balkans through Turkey, Greece, and Albania will affect energy dependence in the...should be a study of the impact of the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline on the dependence on Russia for energy by the Western Balkans. Trans-Adriatic...Membership Action Plan, Security Environment, European Union, NATO, Joint Enabling Capabilities 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  14. How can we fight against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Gu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The public health community is faced with the global challenge posed by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs-producing enterobacteriaceae. The need to address this issue prompted the focus of World Health Day 2011, which was entitled “Antimicrobial resistance: no action today, no cure tomorrow.”In today’s world of international travel, the globalization of drug-resistant bacteria is a pressing issue for public health professionals. In the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region, as well as other regions in the world, more and more new types of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria have come to the forefront. An important example is New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase 1 (NDM-1-carrying enterobacteriaceae, which attracted attention in Europe in 2010 as imported cases associated with health care contact in India and Bangladesh. Although some NDM-1 cases were reported from Australia and Japan,2 no outbreaks were reported in the Western Pacific Region.In this perspective article, we consider four focus areas for countries in the Western Pacific Region to consider when strategizing their response to antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

  15. Long-range variability and predictability of the Ozark Highlands climate elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won

    Interannual variations and intraannual variation of regional-scale and global-scale climate variables are characterized by principal component analysis (PCA). Climate consistency is detected among the entire United States, the North Central states, and the Ozark Highlands (OZHI). The regional-scale modes of the OZHI climate are classified as the predictands of the statistical climate model. Characteristic patterns and time coefficients are examined in global-scale climate variables as the predictor of the models. Relationships between regional-scale and global-scale climate variables are identified by the month lead cross- correlation analysis. The OZHI temperatures in January and July are highly correlated to lead time global-scale climate variables in the tropical and subtropical Pacific and Atlantic and those of lead time in the eastern subtropical and midlatitude Pacific, respectively. The OZHI precipitation levels in January and May are highly correlated to lead time global-scale climate variables in the western tropical Pacific and in the western tropical Indian, and South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), respectively. From multiple linear regression (MLR) and principal components regression (PCR) analysis, the predictability of OZHI regional temperature and precipitation are discussed with model diagnostics and measurements of forecasting performance. This study suggests that PCR can clearly eliminate the multicollinearity among predictors. For the purpose of building the statistical climate model, the sensitivities of the main predictors (i.e., temperature and precipitation) are investigated, and relatively long-memory and short-memory predictors are uncovered. The sea surface temperatures have a relatively long-memory effect.

  16. Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Theileria equi in team roping horses from central-western region of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Prochno,Hanna Carolina; Scorsin, Lucas Milléo; De Melo, Fatiane Rodrigues; Baldani,Cristiane Divan; Falbo, Margarete Kimie; Aquino,Lucia Cury Thomaz de; Lemos, Karen Regina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi in horses from central western region of Paraná state, Brazil. The presence of antibodies IgG against T. equi was determined in serum samples obtained from 400 team roping horses of the district of Guarapuava by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that 242 (61%) animals were positive which demonstrates that equine piroplasmosis is widespread and therefore it might be a contributing factor for ...

  17. The Dynamic Coordinated Development of a Regional Environment-Tourism-Economy System: A Case Study from Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on regional coordination theory and system theory, the authors constructed an evaluation index system for the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system with a pressure-state-response (PSR model. With a coordinated development model, it further empirically analyzed the coordinated development state of an environment-tourism-economy system in western Hunan from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that, although this environment-tourism-economy system failed to achieve a high benefit index, inter-subsystem coupling extent, and coordinated development index, the three indices presented an increasing overall trend. This outcome suggested that the sub-systems in this system were developing towards their optimal proportions: the development of these sub-systems (environmental, tourism, and economic was unbalanced in western Hunan. The environment therein sees only slow development although provided with a favorable ecological foundation. Economic development, which has long been lagging, acted as the main factor restricting the coordinated development of a regional environment-tourism-economy system. To promote its coordinated development in western Hunan, the following recommendations were proposed: strengthen the prediction and warnings on the evolution of the whole system; optimize the industry’s structure; reinforce environmental management.

  18. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  19. NQO1 C609T polymorphism correlated to colon cancer risk in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiu-Lan; Yan, Mei-Rong; Yang, Ling

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T polymorphism and colon cancer risk in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to analyze NQO1 C609T polymorphism from 160 healthy controls and 76 colon cancer patients. Among the colon cancer patients, the incidence of NQO1 T allele (53.29%) was significantly higher than it in control group (33.75%, Pwestern region of Inner Mongolia.

  20. Signature of ionospheric irregularities under different geophysical conditions on SBAS performance in the western African low-latitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Abe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rate of change of TEC (ROT and its index (ROTI are considered a good proxy to characterize the occurrence of ionospheric plasma irregularities like those observed after sunset at low latitudes. SBASs (satellite-based augmentation systems are civil aviation systems that provide wide-area or regional improvement to single-frequency satellite navigation using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System constellations. Plasma irregularities in the path of the GNSS signal after sunset cause severe phase fluctuations and loss of locks of the signals in GNSS receiver at low-latitude regions. ROTI is used in this paper to characterize plasma density ionospheric irregularities in central–western Africa under nominal and disturbed conditions and identified some days of irregularity inhibition. A specific low-latitude algorithm is used to emulate potential possible SBAS message using real GNSS data in the western African low-latitude region. The performance of a possible SBAS operation in the region under different ionospheric conditions is analysed. These conditions include effects of geomagnetic disturbed periods when SBAS performance appears to be enhanced due to ionospheric irregularity inhibition. The results of this paper could contribute to a feasibility assessment of a European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System-based SBAS in the sub-Saharan African region.

  1. EPAS1 variants in high altitude Tibetan wolves were selectively introgressed into highland dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgett vonHoldt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. Methods Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves. This experimental design represents an expanded sample of Asian dogs and wolves from previous studies. Admixture was inferred using 17,709 publicly available SNP genotypes on canine chromosome 10. We additionally conducted a scan for positive selection in the highland dog genome. Results We find an excess of highland gray wolf ancestry at the EPAS1 locus in highland domestic dogs, suggesting adaptive introgression from wolves to dogs. The signal of admixture is limited in genomic extent to a small region on chromosome 10, indicating that it is the focus of selection in an oxygen-limited environment. Discussion Our results suggest that an adaptive variant of EPAS1 in highland wolves was transferred to highland dogs, carrying linked variants that potentially function in hypoxia response at high elevation. The intertwined history of dogs and wolves ensures a unique evolutionary dynamic where variants that have appeared in the history of either species can be tested for their effects on fitness under natural and artificial selection. Such coupled evolutionary histories may be key to the persistence of wild canines and their domesticated kin given the increasing anthropogenic modifications that characterize the future of both species.

  2. Regional changes and global connections: monitoring climate variability and change in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry F. Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the Western United States are complex and include cold desert biomes, such as those found in Nevada; subpolar biomes found in the upper treeline zone; and tundra ecosystems, occurring above timberline. Many studies (for example, Thompson 2000) suggest that high-elevation environments, comprising glaciers, snow, permafrost, water, and the...

  3. The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

    The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

  4. Occurrence of hymenopterous parasitoids of Diuraphis spp. in the western Rocky Mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species within the genus Diuraphis occur in the western United. The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, an invasive species which was first detected in the United States in the spring of 1986, is the only economically important one of this group. It is the most prevalent species o...

  5. Consumption and perception of processed fruits in the Western Balkan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Cvetkovic, M.; Stojanovic, Z.; Spiroski, I.; Milosevic, J.; Mora, C.; Butigan, R.; Mugosa, B.; Esteve, M.; Pohar, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of the consumption and perception of processed fruits in Western Balkan countries in order to support consumer-oriented product development. In-depth interviews (n = 183) were used to explore the consumption of processed fruits, the motives to

  6. Geological characteristics and ore-forming process of the gold deposits in the western Qinling region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajun; Liu, Chonghao; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Yujie; Mao, Zhihao; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yinhong; Zhang, Jing; Zhai, Degao; Zhang, Huafeng; Shan, Liang; Zhu, Laimin; Lu, Rukui

    2015-05-01

    The western Qinling, belonging to the western part of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen between the North China Block and South China Block, is one of the most important gold regions in China. Isotopic dates suggest that the Mesozoic granitoids in the western Qinling region emplaced during the Middle-Late Triassic, and the deposits formed during the Late Triassic. Almost all gold deposits in the western Qinling region are classified as orogenic, Carlin-type, and Carlin-like gold deposits, and they are the products of Qinling Orogenesis caused by the final collision between the North China Block and the South China Block. The early subduction of the Mian-Lue oceanic crust and the latter collision between South Qinling Terrane and the South China Block along the Mian-Lue suture generated lithosphere-scale thermal anomalies to drive orogen-scale hydrothermal systems. The collision-related magmatism also provided heat source for regional ore-forming fluids in the Carlin-like gold deposits. Orogenic gold deposits such as Huachanggou, Liziyuan, and Baguamiao lie between the Shang-Dan and Mian-Lue sutures and are confined to WNW-trending brittle-ductile shear zones in Devonian and Carboniferous greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks that were highly-deformed and regionally-metamorphosed. These deposits are typical orogenic gold deposits and formed within a Late Triassic age. The deposits show a close relationship between Au and Ag. Ores contain mainly microscopic gold, and minor electrum and visible gold, along with pyrite. The ore-forming fluids were main metamorphic fluids. Intensive tectonic movements caused by orogenesis created fluid-migrating channels for precipitation locations. Although some orogenic gold deposits occur adjacent to granitoids, mineralization is not synchronous with magmatism; that is, the granitoids have no genetic relations to orogenic gold deposits. As ore-forming fluids converged into dilated fractures during the extension stage of orogenesis

  7. A new Hypothesis for the Origin and Redistribution of Sulfates in the Equatorial Region of Western Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Wolff, J. A.; Fairen, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of sulfates on Mars has been under debate since they were identified by several Mars missions starting from the 1970s. We propose that sulfates formed as evaporites in enclosed standing bodies of water in the Valles Marineris area following the early alteration of Martian basaltic crust, were then elevated by the Tharsis uplift, and transported together with rock materials to Meridiani Planum by periodic outbursts of water, where they were deposited as sediments. The proposed model comprehensively addresses all forms of sulfate occurrences near the equator in the western Martian hemisphere and relates it to physiographic processes (volcanic, tectonic and sedimentary) affecting the Martian surface (Fan et al. 2008). Fan, C., Schulze-Makuch, D., Wolff, J.A., and Fairen, A.G. (2008) A new hypothesis for the origin and redistribution of sulfates in the equatorial region of Western Mars. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L06201, doi:10.1029/2007GL033079

  8. Epidemiology of highland malaria in western Kenya | Arness | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative patients for multiple demographic and disease variables, including sex, age, travel history, ethnic origin, borne district transmission risk index and length of residence. Disease characteristics, including parasite types, counts and clinical ...

  9. Identifying malaria hotspots in the western Kenyan highlands | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 juin 2011 ... The Kenya Medical Research Institute led the project, in partnership with the Tanzanian National Institute for Medical Research, the Ugandan Ministry of Health, the IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre, the Walter Reed Army Institute for Research, the International Centre for Insect Physiology ...

  10. Identifying malaria hotspots in the western Kenyan highlands | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... The Kenya Medical Research Institute led the project, in partnership with the Tanzanian National Institute for Medical Research, the Ugandan Ministry of Health, the IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre, the Walter Reed Army Institute for Research, the International Centre for Insect Physiology ...

  11. On compositional modeling of lunar highlands soils, including application to the orbiting gamma-ray experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The compositions of remotely sensed highlands soils are compared with those of acquired highlands soils through the use of a compositional model. This model previously demonstrated its ability to describe compositions of acquired highlands soils with an accuracy approximating the present knowledge of the compositions. The principal question addressed here is whether the compositional end-members used to describe the acquired highlands soils are adequate to describe the remotely sensed ones or whether in some remotely sensed regions volumetrically significant components of different composition are required. Owing to the large analytical uncertainties in the gamma-ray data, only the presence of substantial proportions of significantly different components would be detectable by this (or any other) analysis of those data.

  12. Management of grassy bald communities in the Roan Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Donaldson; N. Schubert; Lisa C. Huff

    2010-01-01

    No place better exemplifies that which is rare and unique within high-elevation communities of the Appalachian Mountains than the highlands of Roan Mountain. The Roan Highlands are protected through a landscape-level conservation initiative originally established by the Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy and the U.S. Forest Service in 1974.

  13. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus), Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), giant knotweed (Polygonum sa- chalinense), and a common hybrid of...include diamond- leaf willow (Salix planifolia), Geyer willow (S. geyerana), mountain willow (S. monticola), and Drum- mond willow (S. drummondiana...intermountain basins, such as areas transi- tional to the Arid West or Great Plains Regions, common riparian-wetland species include narrow- leaf cottonwood

  14. Regional Conflicts in the Western Balkans and the Caucasus Revisited: Comparison of Kosovo to South Ossetia and Abkhazia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Đorđević

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that the Western Balkans and the Caucasus have in common is an extremely challenging legacy of the past. The dissolution of two multinational states – the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1990s – led to ethno-nationalist conflicts on a large scale. While the Yugoslav crisis ended in 1999 after the FRY was bombed by NATO during its Kosovo campaign, the Caucasus still remains a conflict-ridden region where Russian and Western influences keep colliding. The purpose of this article is to present an analytical comparison of the three respective regional conflicts – Kosovo, Georgia and South Ossetia – by enumerating and analyzing similarities and differences between them, as this proves to be one of current and more intriguing issues of the contemporary international political scene. The article aims at providing answers to two different issues: Did Kosovo’s independence influence the establishment of a specific political pattern applicable to other disputed regions; and to what degree are the cases in question comparable to each other?

  15. Climate Change and Highland Malaria: Fresh Air for a Hot Debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves, L.F.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, malaria has become established in zones at the margin of its previous distribution, especially in the highlands of East Africa. Studies in this region have sparked a heated debate over the importance of climate change in the territorial expansion of malaria, where positions range

  16. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal vessel diameters during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Fifteen healthy residents of the greater La Paz region in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were examined thrice over a 72-day period, after having ...

  17. The Nature and Role of Urban Places in the Southern Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Robert E.; Lovingood, Paul E., Jr.

    The major towns and cities of the Southern Highlands are sometimes not categorized as "Appalachian," yet they have considerable impact on the character of the region. This study examines the distribution of selected human activities and quality of life variables in 156 counties in West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North…

  18. Farmers' indicators for soil erosion mapping and crop yield estimation in central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoba, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    The central highlands of Kenya is characterised by abundant rainfall and fertile volcanic soils that support agricultural activities but problems of soil erosion are widespread in the region. Past efforts to control the soil erosion problems were through application of regulations that enforced

  19. Epidemic malaria and warmer temperatures in recent decades in an East African highland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, David; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts on malaria are typically assessed with scenarios for the long-term future. Here we focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a highland region of East Africa. Our analyses rely on a

  20. Malaria in the southern highlands of Tanzania: a review of hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outpatient attendance and inpatient admission records were examined to assess malaria situation in ten hospitals in Mbeya and Iringa Regions in southern highlands of Tanzania for a period of fifteen years from 1986-2000. Generally, records were deficient, some hospitals with entire annual records missing for one or ...

  1. Does meat come from animals? A multispecies approach to classification and belonging in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Guatemalan highlands, distinctions between human and animal are often irrelevant to the treatment of an object as meat. I draw from my ethnographic fieldwork on eating practices in that region to suggest that if the recent social science turn to species is to be a departure from the

  2. Simulation of the diurnal variation of rainfall over the western Maritime Continent using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the performance of the MIT regional climate model (MRCM) in simulating the temporal and spatial structure of the diurnal variation of rainfall over the western Maritime Continent. In order to investigate the effect of model resolution, two identical simulations with 27 and 12 km horizontal resolutions are performed for a 30-year period (1982-2011). The simulated climatological features are compared with the TRMM 3B42 3-h observations. The analysis is focused on the regional characteristics of diurnal variation of rainfall in terms of phase and amplitude, with an emphasis on the difference in behaviors between land and ocean. Systematic modulation of the diurnal cycle over land and ocean characterizes the rainfall pattern over the Maritime Continent. The evening peak with strong amplitude over land and the morning peak with weak amplitude over ocean reflect the contrast in behavior between land and ocean. In general, both simulations are able to capture major features of diurnal rainfall variations with similarity in several aspects to TRMM observation. However, the improvement from increasing resolution is more apparent in the coastal and offshore areas, where rainfall processes are strongly tied with low-level wind that varies diurnally and regionally. A more realistic coastline and a sharp gradient of elevation derived from high resolution boundary conditions enhance the local circulation associated with land-sea breeze and topographic complexity, which in turn induces a favorable condition for the offshore convergence and associated rainfall occurrence. The MRCM with 12 km resolution simulates propagation of rainfall from inland to coastal or offshore areas, such as in the vicinity of western Sumatra, northern Java, and western Borneo Islands. However, further improvements can be gained from even higher resolution models, such as convection-permitting scale.

  3. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, R.; Mcfarlane, D; Varma, S.; W. Dawes; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18 percent are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduce recharge rates b...

  4. Response of herbaceous species to a degradation gradient in the western region of Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.P. Du plessis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation status of 88 sample plots situated in two plant communities in the western region of Etosha National Park was determined. Herbaceous species frequency was correlated by means of an ordination technique with utilisation intensities. Species were categorised in ecological categories (Decreasers and Increasers according to their abundance along a degradation gradient. This more objective approach is compared with an initial subjective grouping of species. The dangers of blindly following the ordinated results are discussed, and it is concluded that ordination results need to be verified by careful ecological interpretation.

  5. New highland distribution records of multiple Anopheles species in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Fiona F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several recent climate change reviews have stressed the possibility of some malaria vectors occupying regions of higher altitudes than previously recorded. Indeed, highland malaria has been observed in several African nations, possibly attributable to changes in land use, vector control and local climate. This study attempts to expand the current knowledge of the distribution of common Anopheles species in Ecuador, with particular attention to highland regions (> 500 m of the Andes. Methods Extensive field collections of larvae were undertaken in 2008, 2009 and 2010 throughout all regions of Ecuador (except the lower-altitude Amazonian plain and compared to historical distribution maps reproduced from the 1940s. Larvae were identified using both a morphological key and sequencing of the 800 bp region of the CO1 mitochondrial gene. In addition, spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Hotspot Analysis: Gi* were used to determine high and low-density clusters of each species in Ecuador. Results Distributions have been updated for five species of Anopheles in Ecuador: Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles eiseni and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l.. Historical maps indicate that An. pseudopunctipennis used to be widespread in highland Andean valleys, while other species were completely restricted to lowland areas. By comparison, updated maps for the other four collected species show higher maximum elevations and/or more widespread distributions in highland regions than previously recorded. Gi* analysis determined some highland hot spots for An. albimanus, but only cold spots for all other species. Conclusions This study documents the establishment of multiple anopheline species in high altitude regions of Ecuador, often in areas where malaria eradication programs are not focused.

  6. Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks Show a Mixed Response to Cattle Grazing in the Intermountain Region of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Harrison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing in the shortgrass steppe of the Intermountain region of British Columbia is predicted to have significant effects on grassland habitats and their associated ground-nesting bird communities. We tested whether grazed and ungrazed sites could be discriminated on the basis of their vegetation communities, whether the abundance of two ground-nesting bird species, Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus and Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, differed between grazed and ungrazed sites, and whether vegetation variables found to differ between grazed and ungrazed plots could be used to predict the abundance of the two bird species at a fine scale. Grazed sites were easily distinguishable from a site that had been ungrazed for >30 years based on the structure and composition of their vegetation communities. However, more detailed grazing categories could not be distinguished on the basis of vegetation characteristics. Despite the existence of grazing effects on vegetation structure and composition, we found no consistent differences in abundance of Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks between the grazed and ungrazed sites. However, there was weak evidence that the abundance of both species was higher at fine-scale plots (100 m radius point count station with less bare ground and taller vegetation. Bare ground cover was lower on grazed plots, but vegetation was taller on ungrazed plots. Combined, our results suggest that low intensity grazing leads to grassland habitat change with both negative and positive effects on Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks, resulting in no net change in their broad-scale abundance.

  7. Strengthening collaboration on chemical hazards in food among food safety authorities and the World Health Organization in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bishop

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to highlight the benefits of sharing information to Western Pacific Region Member States and to identify similarities at the regional level in terms of food safety issues and public health protection. In addition, it aims to propose an improved partnership among regional food safety authorities and WHO on targeted objectives.

  8. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m

  9. Land Degradation Processes in the Humid Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Tebebu, Tigist; Belachew, Meseret; Langendoen, Eddy; Giri, Shree; Tilahun, Seifu

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation after forest clearing forces a distinct pattern on agricultural production starting with high yields just after clearing to poor productivity or even abandonment after 30-40 years. In the humid Ethiopian highlands forest soils have initial a high organic matter content that decreases with time after clearing. When the organic matter becomes less than 3%, aggregates break up, other cementing elements are being leached out and the texture becomes finer. Since settling velocity in water is related to particle size, the finer soil increases sediment concentration in the infiltration water and hardpan formation accelerates restricting deep percolation of water. This in turn affect the hydrology in which an excess water flows more rapidly as lateral flow to valley bottoms which become wetter with gully formation starting to transmit the additional water down slope approximately 10 years after the initial clearing. This degradation pattern occurs in all soils in the Ethiopian highlands, but the severity varies with climate and parent material. Although we do not yet understand to what degree these factors influence the degradation pattern, it is important to recognize the process because it directly affects the effectiveness of imposed management practices. In this presentation, we will highlight the degradation process for two watersheds in the semi humid Ethiopian highlands. We will document how soil properties changes and discuss hardpan formation and gully development. In addition, we will consider the effect of presently implemented governmental sponsored conservation practices and alternative management practices that might be more beneficial. We are looking forward to discussions on combating the effect of soil degradation in tropical monsoonal regions.

  10. Temperature suitability for malaria climbing the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bradfield; Dinku, Tufa; Raman, Anita; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2017-06-01

    While the effect of climate change on the prevalence of malaria in the highlands of Eastern Africa has been the topic of protracted debate, temperature is widely accepted as a fundamentally important environmental factor constraining its transmission. Air temperatures below approximately 18 °C and 15 °C, respectively, prohibit the development of the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites responsible for the majority of malaria cases in Ethiopia. Low temperatures also impede the development rates of the Anopheles mosquito vectors. While locations of sufficiently high elevation have temperatures below these transmission thresholds, a fundamental question is how such temperature ‘threshold elevations’ are changing with time. A lack of high quality, high spatial resolution climate data has previously prohibited a rigorous investigation. Using a newly developed national temperature dataset for Ethiopia that combines numerous in-situ surface observations with downscaled reanalysis data, we here identify statistically significant increases in elevation for both the 18 °C and 15 °C thresholds in highland areas between 1981-2014. Substantial interannual and spatial variations in threshold elevations are identified, the former associated with the El Niño Southern-Oscillation and the latter with the complex climate of the region. The estimated population in locations with an upward trend in the 15 °C threshold elevation is approximately 6.5 million people (2.2 million for 18 °C). While not a direct prediction of the additional population made vulnerable to malaria through a shift to higher temperature, our results underscore a newly acquired ability to investigate climate variability and trends at fine spatial scales across Ethiopia, including changes in a fundamental constraint on malaria transmission in the Ethiopian Highlands.

  11. NOAA tools to support CSC and LCC regional climate science priorities in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. P.; Marcy, D.; Robbins, K.; Shafer, M.; Stiller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an active regional partner with the Department of Interior (DOI) in supplying and supporting the delivery of climate science and services. A primary mechanism for NOAA-DOI coordination at the regional scale is the Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) network, which is supported in part by DOI Climate Science Centers (CSC). Together, the CSCs and LCCs provide a framework to identify landscape-scale science and services priorities for conservation and management. As a key partner of the CSCs and an active member of many LCCs, NOAA is working to ensure its own regional product and service delivery efforts will help address these conservation and management challenges. Two examples of NOAA's regional efforts are highlighted here, with a focus on the coastal and interior geographies of the western Gulf of Mexico where NOAA partners with the South Central CSC and participates as a member of the Gulf Coast Prairie LCC. Along the Texas coastline, a sea level rise and coastal flooding impacts viewer, produced by NOAA's Coastal Services Center and available via its Digital Coast interface, allows constituents to visualize estimates of sea level rise, measures of uncertainty, flood frequencies, and environmental (e.g., marsh migration) and socioeconomic (e.g., tidal flooding of built environments) impacts. In the interior of Texas and Louisiana, NOAA's Southern Regional Climate Center is leading a consortium of partners in the development of a unified source of regional water reservoir information, including current conditions, a historical database, and web-based visualization tools to illustrate spatio-temporal variations in water availability to a broad array of hydrological, agricultural, and other customers. These two examples of NOAA products can, in their existing forms, support regional conservation and management priorities for CSCs and LCCs by informing vulnerability assessments and adaptation

  12. GENOTYPES IN THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight promising bread wheat lines and one standard check cultivar were evaluated for grain yield performance, stability and adaptation across nine environments of the central highlands of Ethiopia. Results of the combined analysis of variance for grain yield showed highly significant effects of genotypes, environments, and ...

  13. VEGETATION OF CHENCHA HIGHLANDS IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: The relationship between environmental factors and plant communities identified using multivariate numerical analyses were investigated in the highlands of southern Ethiopia. Vegetation data were obtained from relevés placed in belt transects along altitudinal gradients on the mountain slopes following the ...

  14. Avian influenza: another influenza pandemic? | Banwat | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB Banwat, MJ Muhammad, DZ Egah, JKA Madaki. Abstract. No Abstract. Highland Medical Research Journal Vol. 4(1) 2006: 1-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  15. Replanting hope in Africa's highlands | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-17

    Nov 17, 2010 ... Increased potato crops and incomes in Uganda; more effective pest control in Ethiopia; added income from vegetable crops in Tanzania; women's collective seed banks in Madagascar. These are a few results of 15 years of research carried out by the African Highlands Initiative in five East African countries, ...

  16. Staking a Claim in Cambodia's Highlands

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Not only is the forest one of their main sources of food and income, it is also essential for their swidden system of agriculture. Moreover, although Highlanders form close to three-quarters of. Ratanakiri's population, they are a minority group in Cambodia as a whole. They had never spoken up for their rights in Cambodia's ...

  17. Molecular embryology & gene therapy | Mador | Highland Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highland Medical Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1-2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  18. OF EAST AFRICAN HIGHLAND BANANA CV ' NAKYETENGU'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    establishment of their embryogénie cell suspensions. The present study was therefore instituted to investigate somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of East African highland bananas using male flowers of cultivar. 'Nakyetengu'. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten male buds ofcv 'Nakyetengu' were harvested.

  19. Highland Medical Research Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The aim of the Highland Medical Research Journal is to publish scientific research in various fields of medical science and to communicate such research findings to the larger world community. It aims to promote cooperation and understanding amoungst workers in various fields of medical science.

  20. Amodiaquine – Induced Thrombocytopenia | Nwauche | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report highlights the probable direct toxic effect of Amodiaquine on bone marrow megakaryocytes and the role of phamacogenomics and pharmacogenetics in identifying the subpopulation at risk of developing untoward reactions to drugs such as Amodiaquine. Highland Medical Research Journal Vol.2(1) 2004: 81-83.

  1. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Mekhlafi, A M; AL-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; Azazy, A A; Fong, M Y

    2011-01-01

    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country’s highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country’s coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ2 = 10·102; P = 0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR) = 13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2·62–69·67; P = 0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR = 4·18; CI = 1·60–10·96; P = 0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR = 4·43; CI = 1·35–14·56; P = 0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI = 1·80–37·45; P = 0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious

  2. Re-ordering the Region? China, Latin America and the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Philips

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available – China in Latin America: The Whats and Wherefores, by R. Evan Ellis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.– Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations beyond the Washington Consensus, edited by Alex E. Fernández Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2010.– The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, by Kevin P. Gallagher and Roberto Porzecanski. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.– China and Latin America: Economic Relations in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Rhys Jenkins and Enrique Dussel Peters. Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik, 2009.– China’s Expansion into the Western Hemisphere: Implications for Latin America and the United States, edited by Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2008.

  3. The energy situation in the Western region; Situacion energetica en el hemisferio occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weintraub, Sidney [Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The Inter-American affairs have never been simple, in fact, they become even more complicated when the energy is the topic. Due to political and economic reasons as well as those provoked by the resources availability, the western countries seem to have the same differences among them. On the other hand, by means of an analysis of 11 nations, there can be found the challenges that American continent confronts with regard to the energy issue. [Spanish] Las relaciones interamericanas nunca han sido faciles. Menos aun cuando se trata de energia. Debido a razones tanto politicas y economicas como a las ocasionadas por la disponibilidad de recursos, los paises del hemisferio occidental parecen no poder reconciliar sus diferencias. Mediante el analisis de 11 naciones se aprecian los desafios que encara el continente americano en materia energetica.

  4. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of magnitude series of seismicity of Kachchh region, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Lovallo, Michele; Khan, P. K.; Rastogi, B. K.; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-05-01

    The sequence of magnitudes of the earthquakes occurred in Kachchh area (Gujarat, Western India) from 2003 to 2012, has been analysed by using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The complete and the aftershock-depleted catalogues with minimum magnitude M3 were investigated. Both seismic catalogues show multifractal characteristics. The aftershock-depleted catalogue is more multifractal and also more persistent than the whole catalogue; this indicates that aftershock magnitudes contribute to increase the homogeneity and the randomness of the magnitude sequence of the whole seismicity. The singularity spectrum of the whole catalogue, however, is more left-skewed than that of the aftershock-depleted one, indicating a stronger dependence of the multifractality on the large magnitude fluctuations.

  5. Genetic analysis of historic western Great Lakes region wolf samples reveals early Canis lupus/lycaon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Tyler; White, Bradley N

    2009-02-23

    The genetic status of wolves in the western Great Lakes region has received increased attention following the decision to remove them from protection under the US Endangered Species Act. A recent study of mitochondrial DNA has suggested that the recovered wolf population is not genetically representative of the historic population. We present microsatellite genotype data on three historic samples and compare them with extant populations, and interpret published genetic data to show that the pre-recovery population was admixed over a century ago by eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) and grey wolf (Canis lupus) hybridization. The DNA profiles of the historic samples are similar to those of extant animals in the region, suggesting that the current Great Lakes wolves are representative of the historic population.

  6. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  7. The influence of land use systems on soil and surface litter fauna in the western region of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Luise Carolina Bartz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the abundance of soil and surface litter fauna in the western region of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, in the following land use systems (LUS: no-tillage crops (NT, integrated crop-livestock (ICL, pasture (PA, Eucalyptus plantation (EP and native forest fragments (NF. Sampling was done in three counties in the western region of Santa Catarina: Xanxerê, Chapecó and São Miguel do Oeste, in two seasons (winter and summer. The evaluation of soil/litter fauna in each LUS was performed by installing nine "pitfall traps" per sampling grid (3 x 3. The counties are true replicas. The soil for the chemical attributes was collected at the same sampling points for soil fauna. Altogether, 17 taxa were identified in the five LUS. The presence of groups of fauna was influenced by the type of soil management used. The LUS NF and EP provide better soil conditions for the development of a higher diversity of soil fauna groups compared to other LUS, which showed varying degrees of human intervention, regardless of the sampling season (winter or summer. However, annual crop systems NT and ICL groups showed greater richness and total abundance when compared to the perennial systems (EP and PA. Principal component analysis is an important tool in the study of biological indicators of sustainability because it allows use of soil attributes (chemical and physical as explanatory environmental variables, which helps in the interpretation of ecological data.

  8. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Edyniesky; Calistri, Paolo; Fonseca, Osvaldo; Ippoliti, Carla; Alfonso, Pastor; Iannetti, Simona; Abeledo, María A; Fernández, Octavio; Percedo, María I; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Although avian influenza (AI) virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI). Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30%) were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  9. Examination of Relationships among Organizational Characteristics and Organizational Commitment of Nurses in Western and Eastern Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A S; Namba, M; Pokharela, T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify relationships between three components of organizational commitment and organizational characteristics of nurses in the western and the eastern region of Nepal. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data from 310 nurses currently working at various hospitals in the eastern and the western region of the country. The questionnaire included three sections namely 1) personal characteristics 2) organizational characteristics and 3) organizational commitments scale. Descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to identify significance in various relationships. Out of the 240 completed questionnaires, 226 were found valid for analysis. The mean age was 27.4 years. For each depended variable affective, continuance and normative commitment, multiple regression analysis was performed with personal Characteristics and organizational characteristics as independent variables. All independent variables were found significantly related to each of the two dependent variables; affective commitment and normative commitment (R2 adjusted=0.24, pcommitment. Both support from boss (β=0.138, pcommitment. On the other hand, satisfaction with training (β=0.191, pcommitment. Since both support from boss and training program were found to be positive and significant with affective commitment, hospitals must encourage supervisors to provide more assistance to the subordinate nurses. Moreover, hospitals should develop more training programs to keep nurses motivated.

  10. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyniesky Ferrer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although avian influenza (AI virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI. Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30% were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  11. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van, G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m temperature, T-ann.max). Linear trends in T-ann.max from historical runs of 14 RCMs driven by atmospheric reanalysis data are compared with trends in gridded station data. The ensemble of RCMs significantly...

  12. Pollen and non-pollen palynomorph indicators of vegetation and highland grazing activities obtained from modern surface and dung datasets in the eastern Pyrenees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ejarque, Ana; Miras, Yannick; Riera Mora, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    .... in the south-eastern Pyrenees. This research aimed to analyse highland pollen and NPP in relation to vegetation and grazing, and to evaluate the local and regional significance of modern pollen deposition...

  13. On the dominant intra-seasonal modes over the East Asia-western North Pacific summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyung-Ja; Oh, Hyoeun

    2017-04-01

    Intra-seasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task due to high impact on 2/3 of world populations' daily life, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intra-seasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): preMeiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. The major modes tend to be dominated by the moisture convergence of the moisture budget equation along the rain-band. The preMeiyu-Baiu mode is strongly linked to both the anomalous low-level convergence and vertical wind shear through baroclinic instability, and the Changma&Meiyu mode has a strengthened tropic-subtropics connection along the western north Pacific subtropical high, which induces vertical destabilization and strong convective instability. The WNPSM and monsoon gyre modes are characterized by anomalous southeasterly flow of warm and moist air from western north Pacific monsoon, and low-level easterly flow, respectively. Prominent difference in response to the ENSO leads to different effects of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific thermal state, and consequently, the distinct moisture supply and instability variations for the EASM intra-seasonal modes. We discuss the major driving forces of sub-seasonal variability over EA-WNPSM regions. Lastly we attempted to determine the predictability sources for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the SST/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the ENSO and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the preMeiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the WNP, which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode

  14. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  15. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  16. Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic bacteria from soil samples from the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Graciela; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Díaz, Manuel; Companionis, Ariamys; Menéndez, Zulema; Gato, René

    2013-06-01

    The use of insect pathogens is a viable alternative for insect control because of their relative specificity and lower environmental impact. The search for wild strains against dipterans could have an impact on mosquito control programs. We have made an extensive screening of soil in western Cuba to find bacteria with larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. A total of 150 soil samples were collected and isolates were identifying using the API 50 CHB gallery. Phenotypic characteristics were analyzed by hierarchical ascending classification. Quantitative bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions following the World Health Organization protocol in order to ascertain the toxicity and efficacy of isolates. The protein profiles of the crystal components were determined by SDS-PAGE. Eight hundred and eighty-one bacterial isolates were obtained, and 13 isolates with entomopathogenic activity were isolated from nine samples. Nine isolates displayed higher entomopathogenic activity against both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti compared with the reference strain 266/2. All toxic isolates showed higher biological potency than the 266/2 strain. These isolates with high entomopathogenic activity displayed a protein pattern similar to the B. thuringiensis var. israelensis IPS-82 and 266/2 strains. These results are a valuable tool for the control of Diptera of medical importance. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  17. General public knowledge, perceptions and practice towards pharmaceutical drug advertisements in the Western region of KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Mahmoud S; Hamam, Fayez; Al-Shakhshir, Sami M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to examine general public knowledge and behavior toward pharmaceutical advertisements in the Western part of KSA. A cross sectional convenience sampling technique was used in this study. A total of 1445 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed using SPSS version 16 at alpha value of 0.05. Majority of respondents were aware of different types of drugs to be advertised and drug advertisements should seek approval from the health authorities. Television and Internet showed the highest effect on consumers. Almost half of the participants preferred an advertised drug over non-advertised one. Most of the respondents indicated that the quality of frequently advertised drugs is not better than those prescribed by the doctors. Majority of participants had positive beliefs toward advertised drugs concerning their role in education and spreading of awareness among the public. Pharmaceutical advertisements harm the doctor-patient relationship as evidenced by one-third of the investigated sample. Moreover, majority of the participants mentioned that they would consult another doctor or even change the current doctor if he/she refused to prescribe an advertised medication. Results of this study could be used to develop awareness programs for the general public and try to enforce the regulations and policies to protect the general public and patients from the business oriented pharmaceutical companies and drug suppliers.

  18. Groundwater characterization and selection of suitable water type for irrigation in the western region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir Rahman, Mirza A. T. M.; Saadat, A. H. M.; Islam, Md. Safiqul; Al-Mansur, Md. Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim

    2017-03-01

    The main source of irrigation water in Bangladesh is groundwater, hence its quality needs to be ensured; otherwise, it can damage soil and reduce crop production. In current research, work by analyzing hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater different water types have been assessed to find out the suitable irrigation water of Godagari upazila in the western zone of Bangladesh. Studied parameters include pH, EC, TDS, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3 - and SO4 2- along with sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSBC), permeability index (PI), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelley's ratio (KR), Mg:Ca and Na:Ca. XLSTAT and AquaChem software were used to perform factor analysis and determine water types of groundwater, respectively. The mean trends of cations and anions of the study area are Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fe2+ and Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2- > NO3 - where silicate-weathered minerals influence the groundwater quality of the study area. Except PI all parameters satisfy irrigation water standards. However, Na-Ca-Mg and Na-Ca-Cl types of water need to be under observation for any future changes since SSP is not satisfied for both of them and considering KR Na-Ca-Cl water type is not suited. Except these two groups, Ca-Na-Mg and Ca-Na-Mg-Cl water types are suitable for irrigation.

  19. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y, E-mail: anna.peregon@nies.go.j [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr{sup -1}. It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  20. Comparative aggressiveness of Mycosphaerella pinodes on peas from different regions in western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Setti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycosphaerella blight caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. et Blox. Vestergr. is now recognized as one of the major problems limiting yield of pea crops in Algeria. The present work was carried out to study the aggressiveness of 75 M. pinodes isolates collected from different pea-growing areas forming four population groups representing four geographic areas in western Algeria. The latent period, incubation period and disease severity were measured in the greenhouse for each isolate × cultivar combination. All three aggressiveness components differed significantly between isolates and between cultivars. No significant interaction however was noted between isolates and cultivars. Both principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA were employed to analyze the variation pattern within and between population groups. Cluster analysis, which summarizes the relationship between isolates according to their distance of similarity, sorted isolates into six distinct aggressiveness groups. Aggressiveness group 1 was the most represented, with 34% of all isolates. Both PCA and cluster analysis revealed that many isolates were closely related irrespective of the geographic area or the host cultivar from which they were collected. At the same time, and based on the same aggressiveness components, the cv. Onward, Lucy and DP were the most susceptible, whereas the cv. Rondo and MK were partially resistant.

  1. Site fidelity in the Sichuan Torrent Frog (Amolops mantzorum in a montane region in western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Bo Liao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I used mark-recapture technique to estimate site fidelity in a subtropical high-elevation torrent frog (Amolops mantzorum during the breeding season in Fengtongzhai National Nature Reserve in western China. I captured, measured, and individually marked 30 males and 15 females in 20 May 2007. I recorded each individual’s initial positions using a Global Positioning System (GPS. For each night from 21 May to 10 June 2007, I recaptured the marked individuals and recorded capture points. The results showed that 16 males and 4 females were never recaptured in the field experiment. Most of the remaining individuals were recaptured only one time. Males and female were recaptured more than 2 and 8 times, respectively. Males and females were recaptured from subsequent positions as far apart as 55 m and 30 m, as close as 0.2 m and 0.1 m. Average neighbor distances on successive capture positions of males recaptured was 10.1 m, and that of females was 4.2 m, suggesting that there were significant difference in site fidelity between females and males. However, there was not significant average activity distance between the sexes. For females, small average activity areas were 10.9 ± 14.9 m2.

  2. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  3. Frequency-Dependent Characteristics of Regional Seismic Phases: Propagation of Pn in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    cratonic regions, such as the Indian shield or the Tarim and Sichuan basins (McNamara et al., 1997; Liang and Song, 2006; Pei et al., 2007). The...between 84°E and 86°E extending from the Ganga foreland basin , over the Lesser and Higher Himalayas, crossing the Indus-Yarlung suture and the

  4. Pathways out of poverty in lagging regions: evidence from rural western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaensen, L.; Pan, L.; Wang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    How to reduce poverty in lagging regions remains much debated and underserved with solid empirical evidence. This study illustrates an empirical methodology to analyze the pathways households followed out of poverty and to explore their potential in the future using 20002004 rural household panel

  5. Ground motion modelling in the Gujarat region of Western India using empirical Green's function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pallabee; Chopra, Sumer; Roy, Ketan Singha; Sharma, Jyoti

    2016-04-01

    In this study, ground motions are estimated for scenario earthquakes of Mw 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0 at 17 sites in Gujarat region using Empirical Green's function technique. The Dholavira earthquake of June 19, 2012 (Mw 5.1) which occurred in the Kachchh region of Gujarat is considered as an element earthquake. We estimated the focal mechanism and source parameters of the element earthquake using standard methodologies. The moment tensor inversion technique is used to determine the fault plane solution (strike = 8°, dip = 51°, and rake = - 7°). The seismic moment and the stress drop are 5.6 × 1016 Nm and 120 bars respectively. The validity of the approach was tested for a smaller earthquake. A few possible directivity scenarios were also tested to find out the effect of directivity on the level of ground motions. Our study reveals that source complexities and site effects play a very important role in deciding the level of ground motions at a site which are difficult to model by GMPEs. Our results shed new light on the expected accelerations in the region and suggest that the Kachchh region can expect maximum acceleration of around 500 cm/s2 at few sites near source and around 200 cm/s2 at most of the sites located within 50 km from the epicentre for a Mw 7.0 earthquake. The estimated ground accelerations can be used by the administrators and planners for providing a guiding framework to undertake mitigation investments and activities in the region.

  6. Association between recent internal travel and malaria in Ugandan highland and highland fringe areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Caroline A; Bruce, Jane; Bhasin, Amit; Roper, Cally; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn A

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between travel (recency of travel, transmission intensity at destination compared to origin and duration of travel) and confirmed malaria in Uganda. Health facility-based case-control study in highland (~2200 m), and highland fringe (~1500 m) areas with adjustment for other covariates. In the highland site, patients who had travelled to areas of higher transmission intensity than their home (origin) areas recently were nearly seven times more likely to have confirmed malaria than those who had not (OR 6.9; P = 0.01, 95% CI: 1.4-33.1). In the highland fringe site, there was also a statistically significant association between travel and malaria (OR 2.1; P = 0.04, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9). For highland areas, or areas of low malaria transmission, health authorities need to consider internal migrants when designing malaria control programs. Control interventions should include information campaigns reminding residents in these areas of the risk of malaria infection through travel and to provide additional mosquito nets for migrants to use during travel. Health authorities may wish to improve diagnosis in health facilities in highland areas by adding travel history to malaria case definitions. Where routine monitoring data are used to evaluate the impact of interventions on the malaria burden in highland areas, health authorities and donors need ensure that only cases from the local area and not 'imported cases' are counted. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Swiss ethnoveterinary knowledge on medicinal plants - a within-country comparison of Italian speaking regions with north-western German speaking regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Maria; Zbinden, Mirjam; Vogl, Christan R; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Meier, Beat; Amorena, Michele; Maeschli, Ariane; Hamburger, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2017-01-03

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Europe may play an important role as a basis for sustainable treatment options for livestock. Aims of our study were (a) to compare the ethnoveterinary practices of two culturally and sociodemographically different regions of Switzerland, (b) to compare results with earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland and in adjacent Italian regions and, (c) to evaluate possible reasons for regional differences in European ethnoveterinary medicine. 25 interviews were conducted in 2014 in all Italian speaking regions (ItR) of Switzerland, and 31 interviews were held in five north-western German speaking Cantons (GeC). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect detailed information regarding plant species, mode of preparation, dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with outcomes of the treatments. A total of 162 homemade remedies in ItR and 219 in GeC were reported, out of which 125 and 145, respectively, were reported to contain only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedy report, HSHR). 44 ItR and 43 GeC plant species were reported to treat livestock, of which only a half were used in both regions. For each HSHR, we classified the treatment intention of all use reports (UR), leading to a total of 205 and 219 UR in ItR and GeC respectively. While cattle were the most often treated livestock species in both study regions, in ItR 40% of UR were administered to small ruminants. Main indications in both regions were gastrointestinal diseases and skin afflictions, but in ItR a high number of URs were reported as antiparasitics. URs were mainly handed down from the past generation, but in GeC the source of knowledge for 20% of URs were from courses. Regarding the used plant species, ItR showed a higher concordance with Swiss than Italian studies, but with some differences to all regions. A total of 22 (14 ItR; 8 GeC) plant species in this study

  8. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  9. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE: DEFI NING U.S. INTERESTS IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testimony analyses the emerging importance of Latin America and the Caribbean relative to the security of the United States. Author highlights that relations between the United States and the region of Latin America are related to the USA’s investments and trade as well as to a whole range of problems such as terrorists, crime and refugees. According to the author there are four fundamental challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean: organized crime, Islamic radicalism, Russia and China. The author examines in detail these challenges and analyses their infl uence in the region on the United States. Furthermore, the author stresses that the USA should take necessary measures and develop further strategy to improve the relations with Latin-American countries.

  10. Crisis Region Western Africa - The cradle of African migration to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kohnert, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades the number of refugees from conflict regions in Africa increased dramatically. West Africa is the cradle of migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe, were most African migrants with overseas destinations live. The European Union shares dual responsibility for the continuing migration pressure: First, because they fostered over decades corrupt and autocratic regimes with dire disregard to principles of "good governance". The aftermath of these regimes is still to be felt...

  11. AGRICULTURE MARKETING: A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVES IN THE FAR WESTERN REGION OF NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Nepal, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Nepal is a developing country with the resources and prospects to flourish in the agricultural sector. Agriculture contributes the largest share of the GDP in Nepal. The effective production and marketing of agricultural products in the various regions of Nepal could bring significant changes to the economic development of the nation. To develop the agricultural sector, many foreign nations and their development agencies are assisting Nepal in various development programs. One of them is the ...

  12. Regional distribution patterns of chemical parameters in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, T.; Naumann, M.; Tauber, F.; Radtke, H.; Friedland, R.; Hiller, A.; Arz, H. W.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents selected results of a sediment geochemical mapping program of German territorial waters in the south-western Baltic Sea. The field work was conducted mainly during the early 2000s. Due to the strong variability of sediment types in the study area, it was decided to separate and analyse the fine fraction (data for the fine fraction alone. Lateral transport from the large Oder River estuary combined with high abundances and activities of benthic fauna on the shallow-water Oder Bank (well sorted fine sand) could be some main causes for hotspots identified in the fine-fraction element distribution. The regional pattern of primary production as the main driver of nutrient element fixation (C, N, P, Si) was found to be only weakly correlated with, for example, the TOC distribution in the fine fraction. This implies that, besides surface sediment dynamics, local conditions (e.g. benthic secondary production) also have strong impacts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no comparable study with geochemical analyses of the fine fraction of marine sediments to this extent (13,600 km2) and coverage (between 600 and 800 data points) in the Baltic Sea. This aspect proved pivotal in confidently pinpointing geochemical "anomalies" in surface sediments of the south-western Baltic Sea.

  13. Palynostratigraphy of the Zorritas Formation, Antofagasta region, Chile: Insights on the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in western Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. Rubinstein

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Member of the Zorritas Formation in the Antofagasta region of northern Chile, yielded terrestrial and marine palynomorph assemblages which span the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary. The assemblages show a clear predominance of terrestrial palynomorphs with 70 miospore species, 18 marine phytoplankton species, two non-marine algae and one chitinozoan species, all coming from 15 productive levels. Palynomorphs are poorly preserved and most of them are reworked. Three palynological associations are recognized based on miospores. These are assigned to the Tournaisian–Visean, Tournaisian and probable latest Famennian. Age assignments are discussed in the frame of the spore zonal schemes established for Euramerica and western Gondwana. The stratigraphical distribution of spores allows the identification of the probable position of the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary within the Zorritas Formation. This system boundary is proposed for the first time in Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks of northern Chile. The presence of Gondwanan typical miospore species indicates affinities with this palaeocontinent even though the Tournaisian and Tournaisian–Visean miospore associations support the cosmopolitanism already suggested for the early Carboniferous flora. The significant number of reworked palynomorphs together with the sedimentological analysis of the studied sections, suggest that these deposits were severely impacted by the climatic change and major sea level fluctuations. Similar conditions were recorded in coeval western Gondwana basins.

  14. Review: Regional groundwater flow modeling in heavily irrigated basins of selected states in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.

    2013-09-01

    Water resources in agriculture-dominated basins of the arid western United States are stressed due to long-term impacts from pumping. A review of 88 regional groundwater-flow modeling applications from seven intensively irrigated western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska and Texas) was conducted to provide hydrogeologists, modelers, water managers, and decision makers insight about past modeling studies that will aid future model development. Groundwater models were classified into three types: resource evaluation models (39 %), which quantify water budgets and act as preliminary models intended to be updated later, or constitute re-calibrations of older models; management/planning models (55 %), used to explore and identify management plans based on the response of the groundwater system to water-development or climate scenarios, sometimes under water-use constraints; and water rights models (7 %), used to make water administration decisions based on model output and to quantify water shortages incurred by water users or climate changes. Results for 27 model characteristics are summarized by state and model type, and important comparisons and contrasts are highlighted. Consideration of modeling uncertainty and the management focus toward sustainability, adaptive management and resilience are discussed, and future modeling recommendations, in light of the reviewed models and other published works, are presented.

  15. Possible future lakes resulting from continued glacier shrinkage in the Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Godio, Alberto; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Aosta Valley (NW-Alps, Italy) is the region with the largest glaciarized area of Italy (133.73 km2). Like the other alpine regions it has shown a significant glacier retreat starting from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1850 AD), by losing about 60% of its glaciarized area. As a direct consequence of glacier shrinkage, within glacially-sculpted landscapes, glacier-bed overdeepenings become exposed, offering suitable conditions for glacier lakes formation. In the Aosta Valley region, about 200 glacier lakes have been recognized in different time periods within LIA maximum extent boundaries, mainly dammed by bedrock landforms. With respect to human activities, glacier lakes represent both opportunities (e.g. Miage lake for tourism) and risks (e.g. outburst flood of the Gran Croux lake above Cogne in August 2016) in such a densely populated and developed region. The objective of this contribution is to assess locations of possible future glacier lakes in the Aosta Valley by using the GlabTop2 model (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2). Understanding where future lakes will appear is of fundamental importance for the identification of potential hazards and the interpretation of conditioning factors and dynamics. We first assessed ice thickness and consequently glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas of the region, by using both glaciers outlines related to 1999 (provided by the GlaRiskAlp project) and the regional DEM of 1990 (provided by the Aosta Valley Region) as input data. We performed several runs by varying different input parameters (e,g.: pixel size and basal shear stress). Then we compared modelled results on selected test glaciers (Rutor and Grand Etrèt) with available GPR data. As a validation, we also carried out a GPR survey during summer 2016 on the central area of Indren Glacier (Monte Rosa massif) where GlabTop2 shows the presence of a possible subglacial overdeepening morphology. We found that ice thickness and consequently the

  16. A Comparison of Dynamical Seasonal Tropical Cyclone Predictions for the Australian and Western Pacific Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kay; Charles, Andrew; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Hendon, Harry; Kuleshov, Yuriy

    2013-04-01

    The Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) issues predictions of tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the Australian and South Pacific regions in the October before the TC season (November to April). Currently, these predictions utilise a statistical model based on the historical relationship between tropical cyclone activity and (i) sea surface temperature anomalies in the Equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) and (ii) the Southern Oscillation Index over the past few decades. Variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-TC relationship that are not contained within the historical record can lead to deficiencies in future predictions. The use of dynamical (physics-based) climate models (GCMs) offers an alternative to statistical TC prediction schemes. Any changes to the environment (whatever their character or cause) are incorporated in the analyses used to initialise a dynamical model. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) Program, BoM is developing dynamically-based seasonal TC predictions for the Australian, South Pacific and North-West Pacific regions. The seasonal TC predictions from two fully-coupled GCMs are evaluated and compared. These models are BoM's Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) and the Japan Meteorological Agency/Meteorological Research Institute Coupled GCM (JMA/MRI-CGCM). The resolution of POAMA's atmospheric component is T42 (~2.5° x 2.5°), while JMA/MRI-CGCM is T95 (~1.8° x 1.8°). Two TC tracking methods are employed and applied to both models to evaluate the influence of model composition and tracking technique on seasonal TC predictions. In the more traditional TC detection scheme TCs are identified where 850-hPa relative vorticity is a maximum (minimum in the Southern Hemisphere) and exceeds a certain threshold. Additionally, the 500-200-hPa thickness and the difference in maximum winds at 850 and 200 hPa are used to differentiate tropical from extratropical

  17. Mineralogy of agricultural soil of selected regions of South Western Karnataka, Peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, P G; Byrappa, K; Ranganathaiah, C

    2015-07-01

    Agricultural soils of selected regions of Southwestern Karnataka, Peninsular India, were subjected to systematic mineralogical characterization along with the study of soil physical properties. Physical properties such as soil texture and micro porosity were studied using particle size analyses and positron annihilation lifetime analysis (PALS) technique, respectively. The latter was used to analyze micro porosity of agricultural soil. Both major and minor minerals were identified and confirmed by some analytical techniques like thin section study, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  18. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alkadi, Nasr [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ma, Ookie [USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) contains triplicate putative control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dankan; Tang, Yunxia; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Fan, Jiaqin

    2012-09-10

    To investigate the features of the control region (CR) and the gene rearrangement in the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Thysanoptera insects, we sequenced the whole mt genome of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). The mt genome is a circular molecule with 14,889 nucleotides and an A+T content of 76.6%, and it has triplicate putative CRs. We propose that tandem duplication and deletion account for the evolution of the CR and the gene translocations. Intramitochondrial recombination is a plausible model for the gene inversions. We discuss the excessive duplicate CR sequences and the transcription of the rRNA genes, which are distant from one another and from the CR. Finally, we address the significance of the complicated mt genomes in Thysanoptera for the evolution of the CR and the gene arrangement of the mt genome. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  1. Desertification and its effect on the erosion of vegetation in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Elhakem, Abeer Hamdy

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in Jazan region of south-western Saudi Arabia. Vegetation cover, frequency, abundance and soil characteristics were analysed at three locations with different quantitative and descriptive vegetation characteristics. Plant species were classified into three primary communities dominated by Salvadora persic, Acacia tortilis and Ziziphus spini-Christi. The results indicated that the distribution of plant species is controlled by soil characteristics. Very limited water resources are also limiting factor in vegetation growth. Among the three studied sites, desert and coastal environments are affected by desertification. Rehabilitation of the degraded lands requires collaborative efforts and support from the different related governmental sectors. Ecological conservation and sustainable development must be adopted as tools of rehabilitation.

  2. Visibility Graph Analysis of the 2003-2012 Earthquake Sequence in the Kachchh Region of Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Aggarwal, S. K.; Khan, P. K.; Rastogi, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    A visibility graph (VG) is a rather novel statistical method in earthquake sequence analysis; it maps a time series into networks or graphs, converting dynamical properties of the time series into topological properties of networks. By using the VG approach, we defined the parameter window mean interval connectivity time , that informs about the mean linkage time between earthquakes. We analysed the time variation of in the aftershock-depleted catalogue of Kachchh Gujarat (Western India) seismicity from 2003 to 2012, and we found that : i) changes through time, indicating that the topological properties of the earthquake network are not stationary; and, ii) appeared to significantly decrease before the largest shock (M5.7) that occurred on March 7, 2006 near the Gedi fault, an active fault in the Kachchh region.

  3. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frassy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d’Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification’s accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified.

  4. Mapping Asbestos-Cement Roofing with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing over a Large Mountain Region of the Italian Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassy, Federico; Candiani, Gabriele; Rusmini, Marco; Maianti, Pieralberto; Marchesi, Andrea; Nodari, Francesco Rota; Via, Giorgio Dalla; Albonico, Carlo; Gianinetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 100 thousand people in the world die every year from asbestos-related cancers and more than 300 thousand European citizens are expected to die from asbestos-related mesothelioma by 2030. Both the European and the Italian legislations have banned the manufacture, importation, processing and distribution in commerce of asbestos-containing products and have recommended action plans for the safe removal of asbestos from public and private buildings. This paper describes the quantitative mapping of asbestos-cement covers over a large mountainous region of Italian Western Alps using the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer sensor. A very large data set made up of 61 airborne transect strips covering 3263 km2 were processed to support the identification of buildings with asbestos-cement roofing, promoted by the Valle d'Aosta Autonomous Region with the support of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed an overall mapping accuracy of 80%, in terms of asbestos-cement surface detected. The influence of topography on the classification's accuracy suggested that even in high relief landscapes, the spatial resolution of data is the major source of errors and the smaller asbestos-cement covers were not detected or misclassified. PMID:25166502

  5. Potential climate change impacts on the water balance of regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses climate change impacts on water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems in south-western Australia, an area that has experienced a marked decline in rainfall since the mid 1970s and is expected to experience further decline due to global warming. Compared with the historical period of 1975 to 2007, reductions in the mean annual rainfall of between 15 and 18 percent are expected under a dry variant of the 2030 climate which will reduce recharge rates by between 33 and 49 percent relative to that under the historical period climate. Relative to the historical climate, reductions of up to 50 percent in groundwater discharge to the ocean and drainage systems are also expected. Sea-water intrusion is likely in the Peel-Harvey Area under the dry future climate and net leakage to confined systems is projected to decrease by up to 35 percent which will cause reduction in pressures in confined systems under current abstraction. The percentage of net annual recharge consumed by groundwater storage, and ocean and drainage discharges is expected to decrease and percentage of net annual recharge consumed by pumping and net leakage to confined systems to increase under median and dry future climates. Climate change is likely to significantly impact various water balance components of the regional unconfined aquifer systems of south-western Australia. We assess the quantitative climate change impact on the different components (the amounts using the most widely used GCMs in combination with dynamically linked recharge and physically distributed groundwater models.

  6. Abnormal cervical cytology risk factors in the Western Black Sea Region and the importance of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sımavli, Serap; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Cukur, Selma; Aksel, Ferda

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytological findings in the Western Black Sea Region and investigate an association between socio-demographic risk factors and the presence of cytological abnormalities. The reports of 11,539 cervical smears diagnosed according to Bethesda System 2001 version in the Pathology Department between January 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively from the hospital records and cytopathology reports. Repeated smear results, unsatisfactory smear results, patients with known gynecologic malignancy history, smear results of patients with hysterectomy and smear results of patients whose socio-demographic information could not be obtained were excluded from the evaluation. The results of 7,740 patients who met the criteria for the study were evaluated. The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities was 1.8 % in general. The prevalence rates for atypical squamous cells with undetermined significance (ASC-US), atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and atypical glandular cells (AGC) were 1.16%, 0.11%, 0.29%, 0.15%, and 0.03% respectively. The prevalence of cytologically diagnosed cervical invasive neoplasia was 0.025%. Advanced age, low education level (primary school or less) and not having health insurance were found as to be risk factors for preinvasive and invasive lesions. Women who had a high school education and previously had a smear test had decreased risk for developing preinvasive and invasive lesions. This study shows prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology findings and associated risk factors in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey. The most important risk factor was identified as not having health insurance.

  7. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of talar morphology in extant gorilla taxa from highland and lowland habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Ryan P; Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Mcnulty, Kieran P

    2015-01-01

    Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are known to climb significantly more often than eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei), a behavioral distinction attributable to major differences in their respective habitats (i.e., highland vs. lowland). Genetic evidence suggests that the lineages leading to these taxa began diverging from one another between approximately 1 and 3 million years ago. Thus, gorillas offer a special opportunity to examine the degree to which morphology of recently diverged taxa may be "fine-tuned" to differing ecological requirements. Using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics, we compared talar morphology in a sample of 87 specimens including western (lowland), mountain (highland), and grauer gorillas (lowland and highland populations). Talar shape was captured with a series of landmarks and semilandmarks superimposed by generalized Procrustes analysis. A between-group principal components analysis of overall talar shape separates gorillas by ecological habitat and by taxon. An analysis of only the trochlea and lateral malleolar facet identifies subtle variations in trochlear shape between western lowland and lowland grauer gorillas, potentially indicative of convergent evolution of arboreal adaptations in the talus. Lastly, talar shape scales differently with centroid size for highland and lowland gorillas, suggesting that ankle morphology may track body-size mediated variation in arboreal behaviors differently depending on ecological setting. Several of the observed shape differences are linked biomechanically to the facilitation of climbing in lowland gorillas and to stability and load-bearing on terrestrial substrates in the highland taxa, providing an important comparative model for studying morphological variation in groups known only from fossils (e.g., early hominins). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  9. Regional and Local Controls on the Distribution of Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, M. F.; Blewitt, G.; Faulds, J. E.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    In the Great Basin (GB) of the western United States, geothermal systems with reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C can be classified into two main categories (magmatic and amagmatic) according to the presence or absence of shallow magmatic heat sources. Magmatic systems are restricted to the margins of the GB where they are closely associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, whereas amagmatic systems occur over a large portion of the Great Basin interior and are not spatially associated with young silicic volcanism. A tabulation of temperature gradients for known geothermal systems in the world confirms research by others indicating that both magmatic and amagmatic systems occur within areas of high temperature gradients and high heat flow. However, high heat flow alone is not sufficient to explain the abundance of high-temperature geothermal activity in the GB interior. While the distribution of favorable host rocks likely plays a role, active crustal tectonics appears instrumental in explaining patterns of geothermal activity. At a detailed scale, Quaternary faults control the location of most geothermal systems in the GB. However, hundreds of Quaternary faults are distributed throughout the GB, and most do not host high-temperature geothermal resources. Spatial statistical analysis demonstrates that high-temperature geothermal systems (more than 150 C) are preferentially associated with NE-striking Quaternary faults, which in turn are oriented roughly perpendicular to the current direction of crustal extension in the western GB. Maps of active crustal extension rates in the GB, derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity measurements and estimated slip rates on Quaternary faults, correlate well with the distribution of high-temperature geothermal systems and help explain why some faults with lower slip rates or unfavorable orientations don't host geothermal activity. Many geothermal systems in the GB occur in a broad transitional region

  10. Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography of Gujarat region, Western India and its implications to mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Mayank; Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, fundamental Rayleigh waves with varying period from 10 to 80 s are used to obtain group velocity maps in the northwest Deccan Volcanic Province of India. About 350 paths are obtained using 53 earthquakes (4.8 ≤ M ≥ 7.9) recorded by the SeisNetG (Seismic Network of Gujarat). Individual dispersion curves of group velocity of Rayleigh wave for each source-station path are estimated using multiple filter technique. These curves are used to determine lateral distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocity by tomographic inversion method. Our estimated Rayleigh group velocity at varying depths showed conspicuous corroboration with three tectonic blocks [Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB), Saurashtra Horst (SH), and Mainland Gujarat (MG)] in the region. The seismically active KRB with a thicker crust is characterized as a low velocity zone at a period varying from 10 to 30 s as indicative of mantle downwarping or sagging of the mantle beneath the KRB, while the SH and MG are found to be associated with higher group velocities, indicating the existence of the reduced crustal thickness. The trend of higher group velocity was found prevailed adjacent to the Narmada and Cambay rift basins that also correspond to the reduced crust, suggesting the processes of mantle upwarping or uplifting due to mantle upwelling. The low velocities at periods longer than 40 s beneath the KRB indicate thicker lithosphere. The known Moho depth correlates well with the observed velocities at a period of about 30 s in the Gujarat region. Our estimates of relatively lower group velocities at periods varying from 70 to 80 s may correspond to the asthenospheric flow beneath the region. It is interesting to image higher group velocity for the thinner crust beneath the Arabian Sea adjacent to the west coast of Gujarat at the period of 40 s that may correspond to the upwarped or upwelled mantle beneath the Arabian Sea. Our results have better resolution estimated by a radius of equivalent

  11. Evaluation of Neonatal Transport in Western Switzerland: A Model of Perinatal Regionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitriona Gilleece McEvoy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal transport is an essential part of regionalization for highly specialized neonatal intensive care. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on neonatal transport activity in a large Swiss perinatal network more than 1 year, aimed to quantify this activity, to identify the needs for staff, and the demands regarding know-how and equipment. Of the 565 admissions to the tertiary neonatology clinic, 176 (31.2% were outborn patients, transported as emergencies to the level III unit. In 71.6% of cases, respiratory insufficiency was one of the reasons for transfer. Circadian and weekly distribution showed increased transport activity on workdays between 8  am and 10  pm , but regular demands for emergency transports regardless of the time frame require a neonatal transport team available 24/7. This study highlights the importance of neonatal transport and unveils several functional and infrastructural insufficiencies, which led to suggestions for improvement.

  12. Remote Sensing of Environmental Change in the Antirio Deltaic Fan Region, Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Vassilakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the westernmost region of the rapidly widening Corinth rift, Greece, extensive development of roads, bridges and other human infrastructure has caused continuous environmental change over the past twenty years. River networks, the land surface and the coastal environment, have been altered, especially in the areas corresponding to deltaic fans. In this paper we use earth observation systems that have captured these environmental changes, particularly medium (Landsat TM and ETM+ and high (Quickbird resolution satellite images, to identify environmental changes between the periods 1992, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Six pseudo-color multi-temporal images in different spectral areas were created in order to detect changes to the terrestrial and coastal environment caused mainly by direct or indirect human impact. This methodology provided new data for quantifying significant alterations in the environment on different scales. In many cases this revealed their sequence during the time of observation.

  13. Variability of atmospheric aerosols at urban, regional and continental backgrounds in the western mediterranean basin

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Lozano, Noemí

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 14 de febrer de 2011 El estudio de los niveles y composición del material particulado atmosférico (PM) medido simultáneamente en diferentes ambientes a escala regional se llevó a cabo en la cuenca del Mediterráneo Occidental con el fin de entender las fuentes y patrones de transformación y transporte de aerosoles en esta zona. Para esto, la medida de niveles y caracterización química de PM10, PM2.5 y PM1 se llevó a cabo en tres estaciones de monitoreo: Montsec (MS...

  14. İstanbul-Atakent region (the western portion the underground investıgation and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Dağ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In study, the prior engineering structures planned to be done later in İstanbul-Atakent region, a modeling study of underground structures has been carried out for the purpose of to be taken against the problems that may arise due to soil properties and ground movements. Material information obtained from drilling wells and line sections are on the Ceylan Formation, Danişmen Formation and Çekmece Formation. Multiple electrode method from geophysical methods and Multi-channel surface wave analysis methods were used in the studies and obtained results were compared with the drilling sections. The resistivity changes obtained from geophysical methods, traces of seismic environments and existing skies of existing topography, it is marked in 2D and 3D graphics. Underground modeling of the examination area was made, after the determination that all the results are in accordance.

  15. Optimal Maintenance Works for the Aborshada Road in the Western Region of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Medhat Abdelrahman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the condition of a road pavement was investigated for the Aborshada Road in the Gharian region of Libya to determine the optimal maintenance works. Previously, a simple engineering judgment was the only procedure followed by the Gharian municipal engineers for evaluating pavements and prioritizing maintenance. The surface condition of the Aborshada Road pavement was investigated using “the Pavement Condition Index (PCI” visual technique. The pavement was inspected to survey the different distresses in each sample unit. Ninteen pavement distresses were classified according to the PCI standards (PCI for roads and parking lots became an ASTM standard in 2007 (D6433-07. It was necessary to know the most common distresses of the Aborshada Road to provide assistance for the decision maker in his evaluation of the pavement and the optimum repair method to be selected.

  16. Living with the Risks of Cyclone Disasters in the South-Western Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishawjit Mallick

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. Cyclone disasters that affect millions of people, destroy homesteads and livelihoods, and trigger migration are common in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The aim of this article is to understand how the coastal communities in Bangladesh deal with the continuous threats of cyclones. As a case study, this study investigates communities that were affected by the Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and Cyclone Aila in 2009, covering 1555 households from 45 coastal villages in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. The survey method incorporated household based questionnaire techniques and community based focus group discussions. The pre-event situation highlights that the affected communities were physically vulnerable due to the strategic locations of the cyclone shelters nearer to those with social supreme status and the location of their houses in relatively low-lying lands. The victims were also socio-economically vulnerable considering the high rate of illiteracy, larger family size, no ownership of land, and extreme poverty. They were mostly day labourers, farmers, and fishermen. Post-event situation reveals that the victims’ houses and livelihoods were severely damaged or destroyed. Most victims were forced to shift their occupations (e.g., from farmers to fishermen, and many became unemployed. They also became heavily dependent on micro-credits and other forms of loans. A significant number of people were displaced and migrated to large urban agglomerations in search of livelihoods to maintain their families back in the affected villages. Migration was primarily undertaken as an adaptation strategy.

  17. Phytoplankton community structure and nitrogen nutrition in Leeuwin Current and coastal waters off the Gascoyne region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Christine E.; Waite, Anya M.; Thompson, Peter A.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Within the coastal waters of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to Western Australia, we tested the hypothesis that regenerated production (and, by inference, the microbial food web) would predominate in oligotrophic Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore (OS) surface waters. Conversely, we expected that new production would be more important within the ˜5 times more productive shelf countercurrents (Ningaloo and Capes Currents; NC&CC) and the LC&OS deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were assessed using both light microscopy and chemotaxonomic methods, and isotopic nitrogen uptake experiments ( 15NO 3-, 15NH 4+) were performed at trace (0.05 μM) and saturating (5.0 μM) levels. Phytoplankton community structure was statistically distinct between LC&OS and countercurrent regions. Picoplankton (unicellular cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) accounted for a mean of 55-65% of pigment biomass in LC&OS waters, with haptophytes as the other primary contributor (21-32%). Conversely, within countercurrent and shelf regions, diatoms (up to 22%) and haptophytes (up to 57%) were more abundant, although cyanobacteria still played an important role (up to 40% of pigment biomass). Absolute NO 3- uptake rates for all samples ranged between 0.5 and 7.1 nmol L -1 h -1, and in countercurrent waters were not significantly different at the surface (3.0±2.1 nmol L -1 h -1; mean±SD) compared to the DCM (2.7±2.3 nmol L -1 h -1). However, in LC&OS waters, rates were significantly lower at the surface (1.2±0.7 nmol L -1 h -1) than the DCM (3.9±2.5 nmol L -1 h -1; p=0.05). These values represent conservative estimates for the region due to methodological difficulties encountered with nitrogen uptake experiments in these oligotrophic waters. In contrast with the distinct community composition between different water types, mean estimates of the f-ratio were similar across sampling depths and water types: 0.17±0.07 at the surface and 0.16±0.06 at

  18. Regional behaviour among late Neanderthal groups in Western Europe: a comparative assessment of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tool variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebens, Karen

    2013-10-01

    Population dynamics between and within Pleistocene groups are vital to understanding wider behavioural processes like social transmission and cultural variation. The late Middle Palaeolithic (MIS 5d-3, ca. 115,000-35,000 BP [years before present]) permits a novel, data-driven assessment of these concepts through a unique record: bifacial tools made by classic Neanderthals. Previously, studies of late Middle Palaeolithic bifacial tools were hampered by a convoluted plethora of competing terms, types and regional entities. This paper presents a large-scale intercomparison of this tool type, and bridges typo-technological and spatio-temporal data from across Western Europe (Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Germany). Results indicate a high level of variation among individual bifacial tools and assemblages. Each bifacial tool concept is correlated with various methods of production, resulting in large degrees of morphological variation. Despite such variation, a distinct three-fold, macro-regional pattern was identified: the Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition (MTA) in the southwest dominated by handaxes, the Keilmessergruppen (KMG) in the northeast typified by backed and leaf-shaped bifacial tools, and, finally a new unit, the Mousterian with Bifacial Tools (MBT), geographically situated between these two major entities, and characterised by a wider variety of bifacial tools. Differing local conditions, such as raw material or function, are not sufficient to explain this observed macro-regional tripartite. Instead, the MTA and KMG can be viewed as two distinct cultural traditions, where the production of a specific bifacial tool concept was passed on over generations. Conversely, the MBT is interpreted as a border zone where highly mobile groups of Neanderthals from both the east (KMG) and west (MTA) interacted. Principally, this study presents an archaeological contribution to behavioural concepts such as regionality, culture, social transmission and

  19. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Role for Earth System Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Simane, Belay; Habib, Shahid; Anderson, Martha C.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, complex topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely dependent on smallholder, low-input agriculture. As a result, these highland zones are highly vulnerable to negative impacts of climate variability. As patterns of variability and precipitation intensity alter under anthropogenic climate change, there is concern that this vulnerability will increase, threatening economic development and food security in the region. In order to overcome these challenges and to enhance sustainable development in the context of climate change, it is necessary to establish climate resilient development strategies that are informed by best-available Earth System Science (ESS) information. This requirement is complicated by the fact that climate projections for the Abay Highlands contain significant and perhaps irreducible uncertainties. A critical challenge for ESS, then, is to generate and to communicate meaningful information for climate resilient development in the context of a highly uncertain climate forecast. Here we report on a framework for applying ESS to climate resilient development in the Abay Highlands, with a focus on the challenge of reducing land degradation. PMID:22470302

  20. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  1. Barriers to adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a regional hospital in Vredenburg, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo N. Azia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa currently runs the largest public antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in the world, with over 80% of people living with HIV and/or AIDS on ART. However, in order to appreciate the benefits of using ART, patients are subject to uncompromising and long-term commitments of taking at least 95% of their treatment as prescribed. Evidence shows that this level of adherence is seldom achieved because of a multilevel and sometimes interwoven myriad of factors. Objective: We described the challenges faced by patients on ART in Vredenburg with regard to ART adherence. Methods: A descriptive qualitative research design was used. Eighteen non-adhering patients on ART in the Vredenburg regional hospital were purposefully selected. Using a semistructured interview guide, we conducted in-depth interviews with the study participants in their mother tongue (Afrikaans. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The data were analysed manually using the thematic content analysis method. Results: Stigma, disclosure, unemployment, lack of transport, insufficient feeding, disability grants and alternative forms of therapy were identified as major barriers to adherence, whereas inadequate follow-ups and lack of patient confidentiality came under major criticisms from the patients. Conclusion: Interventions to address poverty, stigma, discrimination and disclosure should be integrated with group-based ART adherence models in Vredenburg while further quantitative investigations should be carried out to quantify the extent to which these factors impede adherence in the community.

  2. Crustal structure of the western Indian shield: Model based on regional gravity and magnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kilaru

    2013-11-01

    This study probes the geometry of the different crustal units in terms of density and susceptibility variations in order to decipher the imprints of the major tectonic processes the region has undergone. In order to decipher the crustal geometry of the Gadra–Fatehpur profile, two NW–SE gravity and magnetic profile vertical sections (A–A′ in the south and B–B′ in the north are modelled on the basis of the constraints provided from previous seismic models. The crustal model of the Gadra–Fatehpur profile is composed of alluvium, Tertiary sediments, MIS, Marwar Supergroup, low-density layers (LDLs and the middle–lower crustal layers, with a distinct change in configuration from the southwest to northeast. The Moho dips from SW to NE, the MIS in the SW gives way to the thick pile of the Marwar Supergroup to the NE. The evolution of MIS has been suggested to have occurred as a consequence of delamination of the upper mantle. LDLs are incorporated in Gadra–Fatehpur model. In the SW, LDL (2550 kg/m3 lies below the MIS in the NE, another LDL (2604 kg/m3 is depicted below the mid-crustal layer.

  3. Knowledge that Acts: Evaluating the Outcomes of a Knowledge Brokering Intervention in Western Australia's Ningaloo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kelly; Boschetti, Fabio; Fulton, Elizabeth; Horwitz, Pierre; Jones, Tod; Scherrer, Pascal; Syme, Geoff

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge exchange involves a suite of strategies used to bridge the divides between research, policy and practice. The literature is increasingly focused on the notion that knowledge generated by research is more useful when there is significant interaction and knowledge sharing between researchers and research recipients (i.e., stakeholders). This is exemplified by increasing calls for the use of knowledge brokers to facilitate interaction and flow of information between scientists and stakeholder groups, and the integration of scientific and local knowledge. However, most of the environmental management literature focuses on explicit forms of knowledge, leaving unmeasured the tacit relational and reflective forms of knowledge that lead people to change their behaviour. In addition, despite the high transaction costs of knowledge brokering and related stakeholder engagement, there is little research on its effectiveness. We apply Park's Manag Learn 30(2), 141-157 (1999); Knowledge and Participatory Research, London: SAGE Publications (2006) tri-partite knowledge typology as a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of knowledge brokering in the context of a large multi-agency research programme in Australia's Ningaloo coastal region, and for testing the assumption that higher levels of interaction between scientists and stakeholders lead to improved knowledge exchange. While the knowledge brokering intervention substantively increased relational networks between scientists and stakeholders, it did not generate anticipated increases in stakeholder knowledge or research application, indicating that more prolonged stakeholder engagement was required, and/or that there was a flaw in the assumptions underpinning our conceptual framework.

  4. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, George [Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Sub Centre, Kottayam South P.O, Kottayam-686 039, Kerala (India); James, E.J. [Water Institute and Dean (Research), Karunya University, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987) in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow) which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010). The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62% when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  5. Upper soil temperatures in the Kolyma Highland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil temperature and meteorological data for various sampling locations near the Aborigen research station in the Kolyma Highland,...

  6. Farmers' awareness on landslide susceptibility on their plots: a first step towards household resilience in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Lies; Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet

    2016-04-01

    In the mountainous area of the Rwenzori region, western Uganda, landslides frequently destroy houses and plots of farmers living and cultivating on unstable slopes. The impact of these landslides on the local livelihoods depends on the exposure and the resilience of the households. Both the exposure and the resilience can be modified to a certain extent with specific measures, e.g. planting slope stabilizing trees of paying for (informal) insurance. The adoption of such measures and the willingness to accept measures imposed by local governments crucially depends on the local awareness of landslide risk. The aim of this research is to estimate awareness on landslide susceptibility, as a proxy for landslide risk, among household heads in a landslide prone area in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda. The objective is to compare household and plot characteristics between aware and unaware households. This will allow us to identify those households which are less aware of landslide susceptibility and therefore most likely to be less resilient when exposed to landslide risk. We use data from a susceptibility map constructed in 2016 and a structured household survey conducted in the Rwenzori region in 2015. The susceptibility map is based on a SRTM 30m DEM and validated with field observations, while the household survey includes the answers of more than 450 households that have been asked to evaluate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. Simple probit models at plot level are used to compare the estimated landslide susceptibility with the modelled susceptibility. We use this comparison to identify the household characteristics of those households that do not correctly estimate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. We will exploit the fact that landslide susceptibility is very space specific and that households can therefore have plots in both susceptible and unsusceptible areas. The research is currently ongoing, but we hypothesize that younger farmers

  7. Structure of the Western Gulf of Mexico Salt Canopy Surface Imaged by Regional 2D Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, W. W.; Robla, V.; Emmet, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology of the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) shifts going from the smoother offshore Texas (TX) margin to the rugose central Louisiana (LA) offshore. This change is considered a reflection of the structure of mobile Jurassic salt residing within the margin sediment column. To test this hypothesis, the structure of the top of salt across the TX and western LA continental slopes has been imaged and compared to the bathymetry using a regional grid of 2D industry multichannel seismic data. The 2D data, provided by TGS, were analyzed using IHS Kingdom software. Prior studies, regional well data, and satellite gravity data were examined to support and constrain interpretations. Seafloor (SF) and top-of-salt (TOS) time picks from seismic profiles were gridded to make regional time-structure maps of these surfaces. Comparison of SF and TOS contours demonstrates the expected correlation. A closer inspection reveals that the preponderance of SF is coincident with the underlying highs and lows of the TOS and that the study area is characterized by a transition in salt morphology that corresponds to bathymetric expression. The western slope is dominated by large, shallow, circular, isolated salt bodies and the overlying seafloor is smooth with exception of large, circular high relief above nearly all of the interpreted salt structures. The TOS texture gradually changes going eastward where individual salt bodies increase in number and coalesce into large, shallow canopies of increasing rugosity. Again, the outline of the canopies, and many of the crests of the constitute salt bodies, are observable on the SF. Elongate salt structures dominate the north central and northeast study area, while a relatively continuous, highly rugged canopy spans the southern and outer margin of the slope. While some of the northern-most elongate bodies are less correlated with the SF, most are and the undulating relief of the canopy clearly translates to SF

  8. Spatial multi-criteria decision analysis for modelling suitable habitats of Ornithodoros soft ticks in the Western Palearctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, L; Ducheyne, E; Filatov, S; Gerilovych, A; McVey, D S; Sindryakova, I; Morgunov, S; Pérez de León, A A; Kolbasov, D; De Clercq, E M

    2018-01-15

    Ticks are economically and medically important ectoparasites due to the injuries inflicted through their bite, and their ability to transmit pathogens to humans, livestock, and wildlife. Whereas hard ticks have been intensively studied, little is known about soft ticks, even though they can also transmit pathogens, including African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) affecting domestic and wild suids or Borrelia bacteria causing tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in humans. We thus developed a regional model to identify suitable spatial areas for a community of nine Ornithodoros tick species (O. erraticus, O. sonrai, O. alactagalis, O. nereensis, O. tholozani, O. papillipes, O. tartakovskyi, O. asperus, O. verrucosus), which may be of medical and veterinary importance in the Western Palearctic region. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis was used due to the relative scarcity of high-quality occurrence data. After an in-depth literature review on the ecological requirements of the selected tick community, five climate-related factors appeared critical for feeding activity and tick development: (i) a spring temperature exceeding 10°C to induce the end of winter soft tick quiescent period, (ii) a three-months summer temperature above 20°C to allow tick physiological activities, (iii) annual precipitation ranging from 60mm to 750mm and, in very arid areas, (iv) dry seasons interrupted by small rain showers to maintain minimum moisture inside their habitat along the year or (v) residual water provided by perennial rivers near habitats. We deliberately chose not to include biological factors such as host availability or vegetation patterns. A sensitivity analysis was done by performing multiple runs of the model altering the environmental variables, their suitability function, and their attributed weights. To validate the models, we used 355 occurrence data points, complemented by random points within sampled ecoregions. All models indicated suitable areas in the Mediterranean Basin

  9. Geodynamics of the western part of the Mongolia Okhotsk collisional belt, Trans-Baikal region (Russia) and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, Yu. A.

    1999-05-01

    After the western edge of the Mongolian microcontinent joined the Siberian continent in the region of Central Mongolia in the earliest Permian, these two continental blocks remained turned at an angle of about 120° with respect to each other and separated (on greater extent of their present-day boundary) by an enormous gulf of the Paleopacific called the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean. Closure of this ocean at the Early/Middle Jurassic boundary led to the complete collision of Siberia and Mongolia, which by then had already become part of the Mongolia-North China continent. This main collisional episode, which lasted through the Middle and Late Jurassic, involved thrusting, folding and magmatism and produced the Mongolia-Okhotsk belt. The Onon island-arc, which was located in the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean, was squeezed between the two major continents. Inasmuch as the third element (the island arc) was involved in the collision it is reasonable to distinguish two branches of the Mongolia-Okhotsk suture. These branches control the spatial distribution of gold mineralization in the Trans-Baikal region. On the southeastern periphery of Siberia the crust thickened considerably after the collision and a plateau-like uplift formed. In the Early Cretaceous, when compression ceased, the collisional uplift collapsed and the thrusts were transformed into low-angle normal faults, the motions on which were responsible for the formation of rift basins and exhumation of metamorphic core complexes.

  10. Flood Hazard Assessment along the Western Regions of Saudi Arabia using GIS-based Morphometry and Remote Sensing Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Qianwen

    2014-12-01

    Flash flooding, as a result of excessive rainfall in a short period, is considered as one of the worst environmental hazards in arid regions. Areas located in the western provinces of Saudi Arabia have experienced catastrophic floods. Geomorphologic evaluation of hydrographic basins provides necessary information to define basins with flood hazard potential in arid regions, especially where long-term field observations are scarce and limited. Six large basins (from North to South: Yanbu, Rabigh, Khulais, El-Qunfza, Baish and Jizan) were selected for this study because they have large surface areas and they encompass high capacity dams at their downstream areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques were applied to conduct detailed morphometric analysis of these basins. The six basins were further divided into 203 sub-basins based on their drainage density. The morphometric parameters of the six basins and their associated 203 sub-basins were calculated to estimate the degree of flood hazard by combining normalized values of these parameters. Thus, potential flood hazard maps were produced from the estimated hazard degree. Furthermore, peak runoff discharge of the six basins and sub-basins were estimated using the Snyder Unit Hydrograph and three empirical models (Nouh’s model, Farquharson’s model and Al-Subai’s model) developed for Saudi Arabia. Additionally, recommendations for flood mitigation plans and water management schemes along these basins were further discussed.

  11. Long-Term Arctic Peatland Dynamics, Vegetation and Climate History of the Pur-Taz Region, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Andreev, Andrei; Bardeen, William; Mistretta, Francesca

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of peat composition, LOI, pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, and AMS ages are used to reconstruct the peatland, vegetation and climatic dynamics in the Pur-Taz region of western Siberia over 5000 years (9300 - 4500 BP). Section stratigraphy shows many changes from shallow lake sediment to different combinations of forested or open sedge, moss, and Equisetum fen and peatland environments. Macrofossil and pollen data indicate that Larix sibirica and Betula pubescens trees were first to arrive, followed by Picea obovata. The dominance of Picea macrofossils 6000-5000 BP in the Pur-Taz peatland along with regional Picea pollen maxima indicate warmer conditions and movement of the spruce treeline northward at this time. The decline of pollen and macrofossils from all of these tree species in uppermost peats suggests a change in the environment less favorable for their growth, perhaps cooler temperatures and/or less moisture. Of major significance is the evidence for old ages of the uppermost peats in this area of Siberia, suggesting a real lack of peat accumulation in recent millennia or recent oxidation of uppermost peat.

  12. Seasonal fuel consumption, stoves, and end-uses in rural households of the far-western development region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Upadhyay, Basudev; Maharjan, Shovana; Jagoe, Kirstie; Weyant, Cheryl L.; Thompson, Ryan; Uprety, Sital; Johnson, Michael A.; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how fuels and stoves are used to meet a diversity of household needs is an important step in addressing the factors leading to continued reliance on polluting devices, and thereby improving household energy programs. In Nepal and many other countries dependent on solid fuel, efforts to mitigate the impacts of residential solid fuel use have emphasized cooking while focusing less on other solid fuel dependent end-uses. We employed a four-season fuel assessment in a cohort of 110 households residing in two elevation regions of the Far-Western Development Region (Province 7) of Nepal. Household interviews and direct fuel weights were used to assess seasonality in fuel consumption and its association with stoves that met cooking and non-cooking needs. Per-capita fuel consumption in winter was twice that of other measured seasons, on average. This winter increase was attributed to greater prevalence of use and fuel consumption by supplemental stoves, not the main cooking stove. End-use profiles showed that fuel was used in supplemental stoves to meet the majority of non-meal needs in the home, notably water heating and preparation of animal food. This emphasis on fuels, stoves, and the satisfaction of energy needs—rather than just stoves or fuels—leads to a better understanding of the factors leading to device and fuel choice within households.

  13. Using temporarily coherent point interferometric synthetic aperture radar for land subsidence monitoring in a mining region of western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongdong; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Zhongbo; Du, Sen

    2017-04-01

    Yuyang mine is located in the semiarid western region of China where, due to serious land subsidence caused by underground coal exploitation, the local ecological environment has become more fragile. An advanced interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique, temporarily coherent point InSAR, is applied to measure surface movements caused by different mining conditions. Fifteen high-resolution TerraSAR-X images acquired between October 2, 2012, and March 27, 2013, were processed to generate time-series data for ground deformation. The results show that the maximum accumulated values of subsidence and velocity were 86 mm and 162 mm/year, respectively; these measurements were taken above the fully mechanized longwall caving faces. Based on the dynamic land subsidence caused by the exploitation of one working face, the land subsidence range was deduced to have increased 38 m in the mining direction with 11 days' coal extraction. Although some mining faces were ceased in 2009, they could also have contributed to a small residual deformation of overlying strata. Surface subsidence of the backfill mining region was quite small, the maximum only 21 mm, so backfill exploitation is an effective method for reducing the land subsidence while coal is mined.

  14. Imaging of the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai Trough subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-03-01

    We performed 3D seismic tomography of the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai subduction zone, to investigate the relationship of the subducted part of Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) to coseismic rupture propagation, seismicity, and shallow very low frequency earthquakes. Combining active-source and passive-source data recorded both onshore and offshore, we imaged the deep slab from near the trough axis to the coastal area. Our results show the subducted KPR as a low-velocity belt oriented NW-SE extending down the plate boundary to around 30 km depth. At this depth, we suggest that the subducted KPR detaches from the slab and becomes underplated on the overriding continental plate. As the coseismic slip areas of past large earthquakes do not extend into the subducted KPR, we suggest that it may inhibit rupture propagation. The interior of the subducted KPR shows active intraslab seismicity with a wide depth distribution. Shallow very low frequency earthquakes are continuously active above the location of the subducted KPR, whereas they are intermittent to the northeast of the subducted KPR. Thus, the subducted KPR appears to be an important factor in coseismic rupture propagation and seismic phenomena in this region.

  15. Anomalous gold contents in brown coals and peat in the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Maslov, S.G.; Arhipov, V.S.; Belyaeva, A.M. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-02

    One hundred twenty-two samples of Jurassic and Paleogene brown coals and 1254 peat samples from the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform were analyzed for gold by the neutron-activation method. Mean content of Au in Jurassic coals is 30+/-8 ppb, in Paleogene coals is 10.6+/-4.8 ppb, and in peat is 6+/-1.4 ppb. Concentrations of gold as high as 4.4 ppm were found in coal ash and 0.48 ppm in the peat ash. Coal beds with anomalous gold contents were found at Western-Siberian platform for the first time. Negative correlation between gold and ash yield in coals and peat and highest gold concentrations were found in low-ash and ultra-low-ash coals and peat. Primarily this is due to gold's association with organic matter. For the investigation of mode of occurrence of Au in peat the bitumen, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances, humic acids, cellulose and lignin were extracted from it. It was determined that in peat about 95% of gold is combined with organic matter. Forty to sixty percent of Au is contained in humic acids and the same content is in lignin. Bitumens, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances contain no more than 1% of general gold quantity in peat. The conditions of accumulation of high gold concentrations were considered. The authors suggest that Au accumulation in peat and brown coals and the connection between anomalous gold concentrations and organic matter in low-ash coals and peat can explain a biogenic-sorption mechanism of Au accumulation. The sources of formation of Au high concentration were various Au-Sb, Au-Ag Au-As-Sb deposits that are abundant in the Southern and South-Eastern peripheries of the coal basin. (author)

  16. Proximity to mosquito breeding habitat and Ross River virus risk in the Peel region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2015-02-01

    It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately

  17. Unplanned roads impacts assessment in Phewa Lake watershed, Western region, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, Geoffroy; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Penna, Ivanna; Adhikari, Anu; Khanal, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    This work describes current research being conducted in the Phewa Lake watershed, near Pokhara in Nepal's Siwaliks/Middle hills, a moist sub-tropical zone with the highest amount of annual rainfall in Nepal (4,500 - 5,000 mm). The watershed lithology is mainly siltstone, sandstones and intensively weathered rocks, highly prone to erosion and shallow landslides (Agrawala et al., 2003). The main purpose of this study is to focus on the impact of unplanned earthen road construction in the Phewa Lake watershed as part of land use changes over 30 years in one of Nepal's most touristic regions. Over the past three decades, the road network has expanded exponentially and a majority of rural earthen roads are often funded by communities themselves, with some government subsidies. They are usually constructed using a local bulldozer contractor with no technical or geological expertise increasing erosion processes, slope instabilities risk and impacts to settlements, forests, water sources, agriculture lands, and infrastructure. Moreover, these human-induced phenomena are being compounded by increasingly intense monsoon rains, likely due to climate change (Petley, 2010). Research methods were interdisciplinary and based on a combination of remote sensing, field observations and discussions with community members. The study compared 30 year-old aerial photos with current high resolution satellite images to correlate changes in land use with erosion and slope instabilities. Secondly, most of the watershed's roads were surveyed in order to inventory and quantify slope instabilities and soil loss events. Using a failure-characteristics grid, their main features were measured (location, size, type and extension of damage areas, etc.) and a GIS data base was created. We then estimated economic impacts of these events in terms of agriculture lands losses and road maintenance, based on field observations and discussions with affected people. Field work investigations have shown that

  18. Quality of Liver and Kidney Function Tests among Public Medical Laboratories in Western Region of Amhara National Regional State of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Abaynesh; Kibatu, Girma

    2012-03-01

    Medical laboratories play essential roles in measurements of substances in body fluids for the purpose of diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and for greater understanding of the disease process. Thus, data generated from have to be reliable for which strict quality control, management and assurance are maintained. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and precision of clinical chemistry laboratories in western region of Amhara national regional state of Ethiopia in testing liver and kidney functions. Eight laboratories in hospitals and a Regional Health Research Laboratory Center participated in this study from February to March, 2011. Each participant was requested to measure six specimens for six chemistry tests from two control samples. Three hundred twenty four test results to be reported from all participant laboratories, if all measurements can be made, were designed to be collected and statistically evaluated. None of the study subject laboratories could deliver all the six tests for estimation of both liver and renal functions simultaneously during the study period. Only 213 values from the expected 324 values were reported and about 65 % of the 213 values reported fell outside of the allowable limits of errors for the chemistry tests of the control specimen used. This study finding showed that there were lack of accuracy and precision in chemistry measurements. A regular survey on medical laboratories should be conducted questioning the accuracy and precision of their analyses in order to sustain improvements in the quality of services provided by participating laboratories for the benefit of patients. Laboratory Quality Management Systems appreciate the need for regular quality control and quality assessment schemes in medical laboratories.

  19. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Model Broadband Regional Waveforms for Crustal Structure in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Joydeep; Sheehan, Anne F.; Tiampo, Kristy; Rundle, John

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we analyze regional seismograms to obtain the crustal structure in the eastern Great Basin and western Colorado plateau. Adopting a for- ward-modeling approach, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA) based parameter search technique to constrain the one-dimensional crustal structure in these regions. The data are broadband three-component seismograms recorded at the 1994-95 IRIS PASSCAL Colorado Plateau to Great Basin experiment (CPGB) stations and supplemented by data from U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) stations in Utah and Nevada. We use the southwestern Wyoming mine collapse event (M(sub b) = 5.2) that occurred on 3 February 1995 as the seismic source. We model the regional seismograms using a four-layer crustal model with constant layer parameters. Timing of teleseismic receiver functions at CPGB stations are added as an additional constraint in the modeling. GA allows us to efficiently search the model space. A carefully chosen fitness function and a windowing scheme are added to the algorithm to prevent search stagnation. The technique is tested with synthetic data, both with and without random Gaussian noise added to it. Several separate model searches are carried out to estimate the variability of the model parameters. The average Colorado plateau crustal structure is characterized by a 40-km-thick crust with velocity increases at depths of about 10 and 25 km and a fast lower crust while the Great Basin has approximately 35- km-thick crust and a 2.9-km-thick sedimentary layer.

  20. Vertical transmission of HIV-1 in the western region of the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Maria Alves Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vertical HIV-1 transmission in the western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The study analyzed the medical records of HIV-1-infected mothers and infant pairs living in the municipalities of São Paulo Regional Health Departments DRS II (Araçatuba and DRS XI (Presidente Prudente. From March 2001 to March 2006, blood samples were collected and referred to the Molecular Biology Unit of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (ALI, Presidente Prudente. HIV-1-RNA viral load was determined by bDNA assay. RESULTS: The number of births (109/217, 50.2% and vertical HIV-1 transmissions (6/109, 5.5% that occurred in DRS II was similar to births (108/217, 49.8% and vertical transmissions (7/108, 6.5% in DRS XI (p > 0.05. Although 80% (4/5 of the infected children were male in DRS II, while in DRS XI, 75% (6/8 were female, no differences between sex regarding infected and noninfected children in the regions of Araçatuba and Presidente Prudente were verified. The overall vertical HIV-1 transmission rate was 6%. No consistent reduction in the prevalence of vertical HIV-1 transmission occurred over the years. About 20% of mothers did not know the HIV-1 status of their newborns eight months after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, MTCT prevalence rates were about 70% higher than those previously determined in the State of São Paulo, with noreduction throughout the period.Furthermore, a significant number of mothers did not know the HIV-status of their newborns eight months after delivery.

  1. [Correlation Between Nursing Work Environment and Nurse Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention in the Western Region of Mainland China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Meng; Fang, Jin-Bo

    2016-02-01

    Nurse burnout and low job satisfaction are main reasons that cause nurses to leave their current position. Improving the nursing work environment may reduce the severity of job burnout and of job dissatisfaction and thus decrease the turnover intention of nursing staff. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the nursing work environment and the outcome variables of burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in the western region of Mainland China. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Survey data were collected between February and December 2012 from 1,112 clinical nurses working at 83 medical, surgical, and intensive care units in 20 hospitals across the western region of Mainland China. Multistage sampling was conducted on some of the participants. The research instruments that were used included the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Nurse Job Satisfaction Scale, and the self-developed basic information and turnover intention questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0. The level of statistical significance was set at pwork environment, collegial nurse-physician relations earned the most favorable mean scores (3.57±0.68; total=4 points), whereas adequacy of staffing and resources earned the lowest (3.21±0.82). Over half of the participants (58.4%) reported experiencing a high level of emotional exhaustion (EE) burnout, 45.2% reported experiencing a high level of depersonalization (DP) burnout, and 24.6% reported experiencing a high level of personal accomplishment (PA) burnout. About 59% of the participants were satisfied with their work and 3.8% reported intention to leave. Participants in self-reported "favorable" work environments were less likely to report high burnout, less likely to report intention to leave, and more likely to report job satisfaction than their peers in self-reported "poor

  2. Dancing in the Altiplano : K'iche' Maya culture in motion in contemporary highland Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Taube, Rhonda Beth

    2009-01-01

    Nestled deep in the heart of the western highlands, Momostenango, Guatemala, is home to a variety of customary, ritual dance-dramas. These include the Baile de la conquista, the Dance of the Conquest or the Baile de los Mexicanos, the Dance of the Mexicans that are performed during the féria, the public festival dedicated to Santiago Apóstol, the patron saint of the community. Recently, however, new dances have gained considerably in popularity. Locals refer to these dances as convites, "invi...

  3. Ectrodactyly in a West Highland white terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrand, K R

    2004-06-01

    A case of monomelic forelimb ectrodactyly (lobster-claw deformity) in a West Highland white terrier is reported. Clinical and radiographic findings are described. The dog was treated with a soft tissue reconstruction of the cleft. It later developed a slight varus-type deformity at the carpus but remained sound with occasional bouts of mild lameness following vigorous exercise. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported case of canine ectrodactyly treated by simple cleft reconstruction, and only the second report of ectrodactyly in this breed.

  4. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  5. Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands. The Asian Highlands, including the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, are the source of most major rivers in Asia and sustain nearly three billion people living downstream. Global warming and related climatic changes are predicted to impact river flows, soil moisture ...

  6. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa: From Concept to Practice. Book cover Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa: From Concept to. Directeur(s) : Laura German, Jeremias Mowo, Tilahun Amede, and Kenneth Masuki. Maison(s) ...

  7. Prediction of rainfall in the southern highlands of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QBOu50 is also a weak predictor for OND rainfall. It is therefore recommended that IOD, QBou30, OLR, QBOu50 and ENSO should be considered in rainfall forecasting in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Key words: Collinearity, Multicollinearity, PCR model, Rainfall Variability, Southern Highlands of Tanzania ...

  8. Genetic Diversity Among East African Highland Bananas For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 84 distinct cultivars of highland bananas (Musa spp.) in Uganda, grouped in five clone sets and it is not known which among these are female fertile. The objective of the study reported herein was to identify female fertile highland bananas that can be used in a cross breeding program and to determine the ...

  9. prediction of rainfall in the southern highlands of tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    therefore recommended that IOD, QBou30, OLR, QBOu50 and ENSO should be considered in rainfall forecasting in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Key words: Collinearity, Multicollinearity, PCR model, Rainfall Variability, Southern Highlands of Tanzania. INTRODUCTION. Rainfall is an important parameter for crop.

  10. Registration of Ilani and Oda Durum Wheat Varieties for Highlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two durum wheat (Triticum durum desf.) varieties: Ilani (DZ 2234) and Oda (DZ 2227) developed by Sinana Agricultural Research Centers were released for production in highlands of Bale similar agro ecologies. These varieties were selected and evaluated at Sinana on-station and three onfarms in highlands of Bale for ...

  11. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa : From Concept to Practice. Couverture du livre Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa: From Concept. Directeur(s) : Laura German, Jeremias Mowo, Tilahun Amede et Kenneth Masuki.

  12. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  13. Regional and Local Trends in helium isotopes, basin and rangeprovince, western North America: Evidence for deep permeablepathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-07-15

    Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as {approx}6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent with recent and current volcanic activity. Moving away from these areas, helium isotope ratios decrease rapidly to ''background'' values of around 0.6 Ra, and then gradually decrease toward the east to low values of {approx}0.1 Ra at the eastern margin of the Basin and Range. Superimposed on this general regional trend are isolated features with elevated helium isotope ratios (0.8-2.1 Ra) compared to the local background. Spring geochemistry and local geology indicate that these ''He-spikes'' are not related to current or recent magmatic activity, suggesting that the spikes may reflect either localized zones deep mantle melting or deep permeable pathways (faults) with high vertical fluid flowrates. A detailed study of one of the He-spikes (Dixie Valley and the Stillwater Range Front Fault system), indicates that features with high 3He/4He ratios are confined to the range front normal faults characteristic of the extensional regime in the Basin and Range, suggesting that these faults are deep permeable pathways. However, not all range front fault systems transmit fluids with a mantle signature, implying that not all have deep permeable pathways.

  14. Quantifying the Driving Forces of Informal Urbanization in the Western Part of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Osman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the driving forces (DFs of informal urbanization (IU in the greater Cairo metropolitan region (GCMR using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The IU patterns in the GCMR have been extremely influenced by seven DFs: geographical characteristics, availability of life facilities, economic incentives, land demand and supply, population increase, administrative function, and development plans. This research found that these forces vary significantly in how they influence urban growth in the three study sectors, namely, the middle, north, and south areas in the western part of the GCMR. The forces with the highest influence were economic incentives in the middle sector, population increase in the north sector, and the administrative function in the south sector. Due to the lower availability of buildable land in the middle sector, the land demand and supply force had a lesser influence in this sector compared to in the north and south sectors. The development plans force had medium influence in all sectors. The geographical characteristics force had little influence in both the middle and the north sectors, but higher influence than economic incentives, availability of life facilities, and development plans in the south sector. Because of the spatial variances in life facilities organizations in the GCMR, the life facilities availability force had little effect on IU in the south sector.

  15. Genetic relationships between skarn ore deposits and magmatic activity in the Ahar region, Western Alborz, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollai Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleocene to Oligocene tectonic processes in northwest Iran resulted in extensive I-type calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatic activity in the Ahar region. Numerous skarn deposits formed in the contact between Upper Cretaceous impure carbonate rocks and Oligocene-Miocene plutonic rocks. This study presents new field observations of skarns in the western Alborz range and is based on geochemistry of igneous rocks, mineralogy of the important skarn deposits, and electron microprobe analyses of skarn minerals. These data are used to interpret the metasomatism during sequential skarn formation and the geotectonic setting of the skarn ore deposit related igneous rocks. The skarns were classified into exoskarn, endoskarn and ore skarn. Andraditic garnet is the main skarn mineral; the pyroxene belongs to the diopside-hedenbergite series. The skarnification started with pluton emplacement and metamorphism of carbonate rocks followed by prograde metasomatism and the formation of anhydrous minerals like garnet and pyroxene. The next stage resulted in retro gradation of anhydrous minerals along with the formation of oxide minerals (magnetite and hematite followed by the formation of hydrosilicate minerals like epidote, actinolite, chlorite, quartz, sericite and sulfide mineralization. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Cu, along with volatile components such as H2S and CO2 were added to the skarn system. Skarn mineralogy and geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicate an island arc or subduction-related origin of the Fe-Cu skarn deposit.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae, Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae, Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. March. (Burseraceae, as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  17. Epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskelyemen Abdelatti Elmekki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012–2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%. Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively. Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively. Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5% were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%. Few cases (2.5% were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. Conclusion: CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed.

  18. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  19. Inversions for earthquake focal mechanisms and regional stress in the Kachchh Rift Basin, western India: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. P.; Zhao, L.; Kumar, Santsoh; Mishra, Smita

    2016-03-01

    More than a decade after the 2001 MW 7.7 Bhuj earthquake in western India, aftershocks up to MW 5.0 are still continuing around the rupture zone in the Kachchh Rift Basin. Over the years, some surrounding faults in the region have been activated, and a transverse fault generated an MW 5.1 earthquake in 2012. Most of the earthquakes occur in the lower crust at depths between 15 and 35 km. We have determined focal mechanism solutions of 47 earthquakes (MW 3.2-5.1) that were recorded by a 60-station broadband network during 2007-2014 within an area of 50 km radius of the 2001 main shock. South dipping nodal planes in most of the solutions correlate well with the active faults. The earthquakes near the epicenter of the 2001 main shock primarily show reverse-faulting mechanisms. The surrounding earthquakes in the area, however, show predominantly strike-slip mechanisms. The P axes of the earthquakes mostly oriented in north-south, and the T axes in east-west. However, the orientations of the P and T axes exhibit more complexity near the source area of the main shock. Stress field inversion of the solutions yields a dominant north-south compression, which is consistent with the ambient tectonic stress field owing to the northward movement of the Indian Plate with respect to the Eurasian Plate. The geodetic measurements are in reasonable agreement with our results.

  20. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  1. Carbonaceous particles reveal that Late Holocene dust causes the dark region in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, I.G.M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Schwikowski, M.; Zapf, A.; Fahrni, S.; Wacker, L.

    2012-01-01

    A dark region in the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet is caused by outcropping ice layers that contain more dust than the surrounding brighter ice. These higher amounts of dust were deposited in the accumulation zone of the ice sheet and travelled with the ice to the ablation zone.

  2. Potential use of a regional climate model in seasonal tropical cyclone activity predictions in the western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au-Yeung, Andie Y.M.; Chan, Johnny C.L. [City University of Hong Kong, Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre, School of Energy and Environment, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    This study investigates the potential use of a regional climate model in forecasting seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity. A modified version of Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3) is used to examine the ability of the model to simulate TC genesis and landfalling TC tracks for the active TC season in the western North Pacific. In the model, a TC is identified as a vortex satisfying several conditions, including local maximum relative vorticity at 850 hPa with a value {>=}450 x 10{sup -6} s{sup -1}, and the temperature at 300 hPa being 1 C higher than the average temperature within 15 latitude radius from the TC center. Tracks are traced by following these found vortices. Six-month ensemble (8 members each) simulations are performed for each year from 1982 to 2001 so that the climatology of the model can be compared to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) observed best-track dataset. The 20-year ensemble experiments show that the RegCM3 can be used to simulate vortices with a wind structure and temperature profile similar to those of real TCs. The model also reproduces tracks very similar to those observed with features like genesis in the tropics, recurvature at higher latitudes and landfall/decay. The similarity of the 500-hPa geopotential height patterns between RegCM3 and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40 Year Re-analysis (ERA-40) shows that the model can simulate the subtropical high to a large extent. The simulated climatological monthly spatial distributions as well as the interannual variability of TC occurrence are also similar to the JTWC data. These results imply the possibility of producing seasonal forecasts of tropical cyclones using real-time global climate model predictions as boundary conditions for the RegCM3. (orig.)

  3. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  4. Intraspecific variation in body size and shape in an Andean highland anole species, Anolis ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Dactyloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.

  5. Intraspecific variation in body size and shape in an andean highland anole species, Anolis ventrimaculatus (Squamata: Dactyloidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Espinosa, Martha L; Ortega-León, Angela M; Zamora-Abrego, Joan G

    2013-03-01

    Variation in body characteristics related to lizard locomotion has been poorly studied at the intraspecific level in Anolis species. Local adaptation due to habitat heterogeneity has been reported in some island species. However, studies of mainland species are particularly scarce and suggest different patterns: high variability among highland lizards and poorly differentiated populations in one Amazonian species. We characterized inter population variation of body size and shape in the highland Andean Anolis ventrimaculatus, an endemic species from Western Colombia. A total of 15 morphometric variables were measured in specimens from the reptile collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional, Colombia. The study included individuals from seven different highland localities. We found size and shape sexual dimorphism, both of which varied among localities. Patterns of variation in body proportions among populations were different in both males and females, suggesting that either sexual or natural selective factors are different in each locality and between sexes. Since this species exhibits a fragmented distribution in highlands, genetic divergence may also be a causal factor of the observed variation. Ecological, behavioral, additional morphological as well as phylogenetic data, may help to understand the evolutionary processes behind the geographic patterns found in this species.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from the East African highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asfaw, A.; Blair, M.W.; Almekinders, C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The East African highlands are a region of important common bean production and high varietal diversity for the crop. The objective of this study was to uncover the diversity and population structure of 192 landraces from Ethiopia and Kenya together with four genepool control genotypes using

  7. Western U.S.-Canada crossborder case study : activity 2 : task D : conduct regional and local trucking case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This case study examines trucking across the western U.S.-Canada border and how it is influenced by truck size and weight (TS&W) regulations. Western border trucking differs from eastern border trucking in terms of the types of commodities being hand...

  8. Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: a framework for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simane, Belay; Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Mesfin, Desalegn

    2012-02-01

    Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia's low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia's population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands--a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke Mountain study, describes

  9. Landscapes with high geotouristic value and impact from the Benguela-Sumbe region (Western Angola): inventory and geological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luís V.; Segundo, Januário; Gonçalves, Alberto; Cavita, João R.; Lapão, Luís; Bandeira, Manuel; Callapez, Pedro; Meneses, Luís; Prata, Mendonça E.

    2014-05-01

    The natural beauties and wildlife of Austral Africa are worldwide known, and their related touristic and socioeconomic activities have a strong interregional impact. Angola, one of the larger countries from this region of the Southern Hemisphere, shows a high number of natural landscapes, well testified by the recent election of "7 Natural Wonders of Angola". This contest, the first one of this kind carry out in Africa, means the priority of this country in the promotion of geotourism. Despite the large diversity of landscapes, among deserts, mountains, coastal cliffs, waterfalls, and/or caves, resulting from different geomorphological contexts and age (from Archaean to Recent), the geological knowledge of the territory remains poor, through scientific documents, great part of them published before and around the 70's of last century. Based on this concern, the first goal of this work is the inventory and the geological description of several geosites with natural relevance and touristic potential from the Meso-Cenozoic coastal region of Benguela and Sumbe Provinces (Western Angola). This area, particularly materialized by the sedimentary infill of Benguela Basin, with deposits (carbonates, siliciclastics and evaporites) mainly dated from the Cretaceous, has been recently studied and researched by our team in the domains of sedimentary geology, stratigraphy, geological mapping, resources and geoheritage. On the basinal onshore stand out hundreds of outcrops with good exposure, great part of them never studied, representing and recording a large number of sedimentary units deposited on a complex tectonic setting. Besides the geological characterization of Egito-Praia, Sassa Caves and Binga waterfalls (this one located in the eastern boundary of the basin), three of the twenty seven sites proposed for the reported Angola's natural wonders contest, we present and describe several other distinctive natural sites and coastal landscapes of this region such as the cases

  10. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

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    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  11. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  12. Biotype characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products of private production in the western regions of Ukraine

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    M. D. Kukhtyn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of foodborne diseases is a priority for the world health system. In the process of manufacturing milk and dairy products, the most important factor compromising their safety is seeding with a conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria and other microorganisms that reproduce in dairy products without changing their organoleptic properties are a particular danger. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic, conditionally pathogenic microorganism that often contaminates raw milk and dairy products. The aim of the research presented in this article was to determine the dissemination of S. aureus in milk and milk products of household production in the western regions of Ukraine, to identify the biotypes of S. aureus, production of enterotoxins and the presence of methicillin-resistant strains. S. aureus was isolated on BD Baird-Parker Agar. The biotypes of S. aureus were determined according to Meer. The determination of MRSA was carried out on the chromogenic Agar chromID MRSA ("Biomerioux", Russia. The mecA gene was determined using the LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test with LightCycler 2.0 primer (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Germany. To determine staphylococcal enterotoxins, the test system RIDASCREENSET A, B, C, D, E (R-Biopharm AG, Darmstadt, Germany was used. We isolated saprophyte staphylococci from milk of raw and dairy products in western regions of Ukraine in 82.7–97.4% of samples. S. aureus is much more rarely isolated from these dairy products, so it was isolated from sour cream at 62.8 ± 0.9%, from milk at 35.5 ± 1.3% and cottage cheese at 23.0 ± 1.6%. Of the most well known biotypes of S. aureus present in milk of raw and dairy products of domestic production, two ecological types were distinguished: human and cattle. In this case S. aureus var. hominis was isolated more often than in S. aureus var. bovis. This gives grounds to believe that the main source of

  13. Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea and the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico&solCaribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindell, James; Dewey, John F.

    1982-04-01

    A Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea (North America, South America, Africa) is proposed that is characterized by (1) definition of the North Atlantic fit by matching of marginal offsets (fracture zones) along the opposing margins, (2) a South Atlantic fit that is tighter than the BuIlard fit and that is achieved by treating Africa as two plates astride the Benue Trough and related structures during the Cretaceous, (3) complete closure of the Proto-Atlantic Ocean between North and South America, accomplished by placing the Yucatan block between the Ouachita Mountains and Venezuela, (4) a proposed Hercynian suture zone that separates zones of foreland thrusting from zones of arc-related magmatic activity; to the northwest of this suture lie the Chortis block and Mexico and most of North America, and to the southeast lie South America, the Yucatan Block, Florida and Africa, and (5) satisfaction of paleomagmatic data from North America, South America, and Africa. Beginning with the proposed reconstruction, the relative motion history of South America with respect of North America is defined by using the finite difference method. Within the framework provided by the proposed relative motion history, an evolutionary model for the development of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region is outlined in a series of 13 plate boundary reconstructions at time intervals from the Jurassic to the present. The model includes (1) formation of the Gulf of Mexico by 140 Ma, (2) Pacific provenance of the Caribbean plate through the North America-South America gap during Cretaceous time, (3) Paleocene-Early Eocene back arc spreading origin for the Yucatan Basin, whereby Cuba is the frontal arc and the Nicaragua Rise-Jamaica-Southern Hispaniola is the remnant arc, and (4) 1200 km of post-Eocene cumulative offset along both the Northern and Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zones, allowing large-scale eastward migration of the Caribbean plate with respect to the North and

  14. The Prevalence of Occult Celiac Disease among Patients with Functional Dyspepsia: A Study from the Western Region of Iran

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    Ali Asghar Keshavarz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD is high in Iran, and evaluation of CD is not part of the routine screening procedure for dyspeptic patients; therefore, cases of occult CD may be missed. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occult CD among dyspeptic patients who presented at a gastroenterology clinic in the Western region of Iran. Methods. In this descriptive, cross-sectional prospective study, patients who had a history of at least 12 weeks of upper abdominal discomfort were eligible to participate in the study during a 14-month recruitment period. Patients with a clinical or paraclinical data in favor of organic causes were excluded from the study. Enrolled patients were screened for IgA antiendomysium antibody (EMA and IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG. Those who screened positive for EMA/tTG received a confirmatory diagnostic biopsy for Marsh classification of CD. Results. From 225 potential participants with dyspepsia, 55 patients were excluded due to having explainable organic causes. The study sample included 170 patients with “functional dyspepsia.” Mean age of participants was 31 years and 55.8% were female. Twelve patients (7% had positive tests (EMA/tTG, of which 10 were female (83.4%. According to Rome II criteria, all twelve patients with positive tests had “dysmotility type dyspepsia.” Based on Marsh classification, six patients were consistent with “Marsh I,” four with “Marsh II,” and two with the “Marsh III” classification. Conclusions. In this study, the prevalence of CD in dyspeptic patients was high. As a result, this study suggests that screening by serology tests (EMA/tTG is justifiable for the detection of CD among functional dyspeptic patients in the tertiary centers in our country.

  15. Altered rocks of the Onguren carbonatite complex in the Western Tansbaikal Region: Geochemistry and composition of accessory minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, V. B.; Bazarova, E. P.; Sharygin, V. V.; Karmanov, N. S.; Kanakin, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The paper discusses the mineralogy and geochemistry of altered rocks associated with calcite and dolomite-ankerite carbonatites of the Onguren dyke-vein complex in the Western Transbaikal Region. The alteration processes in the Early Proterozoic metamorphic complex and synmetamorphic granite hosting carbonatite are areal microclinization and riebeckitization; carbonates, phlogopite, apatite, and aegirine occur in the near-contact zones of the dolomite-ankerite carbonatite veins; and silicification is displayed within separated zones adjacent to the veins. In aluminosilicate rocks, microclinization was accompanied by an increasing content of K, Fe3+, Ti, Nb (up to 460 ppm), Th, Cu, and REE; Na, Ti, Fe3+, Mg, Nb (up to 1500 ppm), Zr (up to 2800 ppm), Ta, Th, Hf, and REE accumulated in the inner zone of the riebeckitization column. High contents of Ln Ce (up to 11200 ppm), U (23 ppm), Sr (up to 7000 ppm), Li (up to 400 ppm), Zn (up to 600 ppm), and Th (up to 700 ppm) are typical of apatite-phlogopite-riebeckite altered rock; silicified rock contains up to (ppm): 2000 Th, 20 U, 13000 Ln Ce, and 5000 Ba. Ilmenite and later rutile are the major Nb carriers in alkali altered rocks. These minerals contain up to 2 and 7 wt % Nb2O5, respectively. In addition, ferrocolumbite and aeschynite-(Ce) occur in microcline and riebeckite altered rocks. Fluorapatite containing up to 2.7 wt % ( Ln Ce)2O3, monazite-(Ce), cerite-(Ce), ferriallanite-(Ce), and aeschynite-(Ce) are the REE carriers in riebeckite altered rock. Bastnäsite-(Ce), rhabdophane-group minerals, and xenotime-(Y) are typical of silicified rock. Thorite, monazite-(Ce), and rhabdophane-group minerals are the Th carriers.

  16. Underpinning tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region with dynamic slab evolution from 3-D numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertova, M. V.; Spakman, W.; Geenen, T.; van den Berg, A. P.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2014-07-01

    No consensus exists on the tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean since 35 Ma. Three disparate tectonic evolution scenarios are identified, each portraying slab rollback as the driving mechanism but with rollback starting from strongly different subduction geometries. As a critical test for the validity of each tectonic scenario we employ thermomechanical modeling of the 3-D subduction evolution. From each tectonic scenario we configure an initial condition for numerical modeling that mimics the perceived subduction geometry at 35 Ma. We seek to optimize the fit between observed and predicted slab morphology by varying the nonlinear viscoplastic rheology for mantle, slab, and continental margins. From a wide range of experiments we conclude that a tectonic scenario that starts from NW dipping subduction confined to the Balearic margin at 35 Ma is successful in predicting present-day slab morphology. The other two scenarios (initial subduction from Gibraltar to the Baleares and initial subduction under the African margin) lead to mantle structure much different from what is tomographically imaged. The preferred model predicts slab rotation by more than 180°, east-west lithosphere tearing along the north African margin and a resulting steep east dipping slab under the Gibraltar Strait. The preferred subduction model also meets the first-order temporal constraints corresponding to Mid-Miocene ( 16 Ma) thrusting of the Kabylides onto the African margin and nearly stalled subduction under the Rif-Gibraltar-Betic arc since the Tortonian ( 8 Ma). Our modeling also provides constraints on the rheological properties of the mantle and slab, and of continental margins in the region.

  17. Ant-nest ichnofossils in honeycomb calcretes, Neogene Ogallala Formation, High Plains region of western Kansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Platt, B.F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Thomasson, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two new ant-nest trace fossils are described from calcic sandy paleosols of the Neogene Ogallala Formation in western Kansas. The ichnofossils are preserved within and below calcrete beds weathering in positive relief as carbonate-filled casts or as cavities in negative relief. Daimoniobarax ichnogenus nov. is established for burrow systems composed of vertically tiered, horizontally oriented pancake-shaped chambers connected by predominantly vertical and cylindrical shafts ~. 0.8. cm in diameter. Ichnospecies of Daimoniobarax are differentiated based on differences in the plan view outline of chambers, shaft orientation, and junctions between chambers and shafts.Daimoniobarax nephroides ichnospecies nov. is composed of an ~. 24-76. cm long vertical sequence of distinctly lobed chambers (~. 2-20. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) arranged along sinuous to helical shafts. Chamber shape in plan view ranges from small teardrops to larger kidney- and U-shaped forms. Shafts intersect at chamber edges such that chambers appear to bud from the central shafts. Daimoniobarax nephroides is most similar to the nests of extant seed-harvester ants of the New World genus Pogonomyrmex. Such ants are specialized granivores and prefer sandy soils in arid to semi-arid grassland and desert regions.Daimoniobarax tschinkeli ichnospecies nov. is ~. 30-80. cm in vertical extent. Chambers (~. 2-30. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) are circular to elongate or pseudopodial in plan view. Vertical shafts are straight to slightly sinuous and intersect most often toward the center of the chambers. The generalized architecture of D. tschinkeli is similar to that of the nests or nest portions of several extant ant genera, though it does not closely resemble any known modern nest.Ant ichnofossils provide valuable information on hidden biodiversity, paleohydrologic regimes, paleopedogenic processes, and paleoclimate during the time of nest occupation. Depth-related changes in chamber size and vertical spacing

  18. Analysis of macronutrients intake and body mass index in preschool children in the western region of the Republic of Srpska

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    Đermanović Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Childhood obesity is currently considered to be one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues in industrialized countries and some developing countries, including the Republic of Srpska. Objective. Our objective was to determine macronutrients intake in collective diet of preschool children and to estimate the rate of obesity in this population. Methods. Samples of food intended for preschool children diet were collected in a preschool facility in the western region of the Republic of Srpska. In daily portions, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and mineral matter were determined using standard methods. The body mass index was determined on the basis of anthropometric measurements. Results. An average daily meal contained 17.5 g of fats, 19.1 g of proteins and 101.5 g of carbohydrates. The energy value was 676 Kcal. The analysis of the data from the menu showed that the number of consumed servings of fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk and dairy products was less than one portion per day. However, the amount of consumed meat and meat products exceeded one portion per day. Out of the total number of children, 10.0% were undernourished, 16.7% were overweight and 13.3% were obese. Conclusion. Daily portions in the preschool facility are not in accordance with the recommended dietary allowance for energy and carbohydrates intake, and the composition of meals is inadequate. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to expose young children to a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and to balance food intake with the requirements.

  19. The spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire

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    Rufin K. Assaré

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis poses a considerable public health burden in sub- Saharan Africa and a sound understanding of the spatial distribution facilitates to better target control interventions. The objectives of this study were i to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni among school-aged children in four regions of western Côte d’Ivoire; ii to determine demographic, climatic and environmental factors that influence the distribution of S. mansoni; and iii to map and predict the distribution of S. mansoni in non-sampled locations. Parasitological surveys were carried out in 264 schools from June to December 2011. In each school, we aimed to examine 50 children for S. mansoni infection using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Schools were georeferenced using a hand-held global positioning system receiver. Demographic data were obtained from readily available school lists, while climatic and environmental data were extracted from open-access remote sensing databases. Multivariable, binary non-spatial models and a Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression model were used to identify demographic, climatic and environmental risk factors for S. mansoni infection. Risk maps were developed based on observed S. mansoni prevalences and using Bayesian geostatistical models to predict prevalences at non-sampled locations. Overall, 12,462 children provided a sufficiently large stool sample to perform at least one Kato-Katz thick smear. The observed overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 39.9%, ranging from 0 to 100% at the unit of the school. Bayesian geostatistical analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and difference between land surface temperature at day and night were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The S. mansoni risk map presented here is being been used by the national schistosomiasis control programme for spatial targeting of praziquantel and other interventions.

  20. Clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing in the Western Pacific Region based on the FIP Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2015-06-01

    Clinical pharmacy services have been associated with decreased mortality rates, length of stay, medication errors, adverse drug reactions and total cost of care. Such services have recently been introduced to the Western Pacific Region (WPR), particularly in Asia. A survey to measure clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing has been validated in the WPR and can be used to explore the implementation of such services. To explore the implementation of clinical pharmacy services that influence prescribing in the WPR and the barriers and facilitators involved in their implementation. Hospital pharmacies in the WPR. Hospital pharmacy directors in the WPR were emailed a link to the validated survey. Surveys were available in English, Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Lao, Khmer, French and Mongolian. (1) Percentage of hospitals offering clinical pharmacy services. (2) Percentage of in-patients receiving a medication history, review or discharge counselling by a pharmacist. In total, 726 responses were received from 31 countries and nations. Nearly all hospitals, 90.6 % (658/726), stated they provided clinical pharmacy services. On average 28 % of their clinical pharmacists attended medical rounds regularly. The median percentage of inpatients receiving a medication history and discharge counselling by a pharmacist was 40 and 30 % respectively. Higher internal facilitator factor scores significantly increased the likelihood of offering clinical services and having pharmacists attend medical rounds regularly. Internal facilitators included individual pharmacist traits and pharmacy departmental structure/resources. Higher environmental facilitator factor scores and having a higher percentage of pharmacists attend medical rounds regularly significantly increased the likelihood of inpatients receiving a medication history, a medication review and discharge counselling by a pharmacist. Environment facilitators included government support, patient and physician

  1. Analysis of Macronutrients Intake and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children in the Western Region of the Republic of Srpska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djermanović, Mirjana; Miletić, Ivanka; Pavlović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is currently considered to be one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues in industrialized countries and some developing countries, including the Republic of Srpska. Our objective was to determine macronutrients intake in collective diet of preschool children and to estimate the rate of obesity in this population. Samples of food intended for preschool children diet were collected in a preschool facility in the western region of the Republic of Srpska. In daily portions, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and mineral matter were determined using standard methods. The body mass index was determined on the basis of anthropometric measurements. RESULTS An average daily meal contained 17.5 g of fats, 19.1 g of proteins and 101.5 g of carbohydrates. The energy value was 676 Kcal. The analysis of the data from the menu showed that the number of consumed servings of fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk and dairy products was less than one portion per day. However, the amount of consumed meat and meat products exceeded one portion per day. Out of the total number of children, 10.0% were undernourished, 16.7% were overweight and 13.3% were obese. Daily portions in the preschool facility are not in accordance with the recommended dietary allowance for energy and carbohydrates intake, and the composition of meals is inadequate. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to expose young children to a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and to balance food intake with the requirements.

  2. Quality maternal and newborn care to ensure a healthy start for every newborn in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, H; Sobel, H

    2014-09-01

    In the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, the high rates of births attended by skilled health personnel (SHP) do not equal access to quality maternal or newborn care. 'A healthy start for every newborn' for 23 million annual births in the region means that SHP and newborn care providers give quality intrapartum, postpartum and newborn care. WHO and the UNICEF Regional Action Plan for Healthy Newborn Infants provide a platform for countries to scale-up Early Essential Newborn Care (EENC). The plan emphasises the creation of an enabling environment for the practice of EENC; thereby, preventing 50,000 newborn deaths annually. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

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    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  4. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  5. Maternal depression and child development: Evidence from São Paulo’s Western Region Cohort Study

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    Alexandra Brentani

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children’s early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children’s development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Method: Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798 mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré’ region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015. Maternal mental health was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Mothers were classified as “possibly depressed” if their EPDS score was between 10 and 13 and as “likely depressed” if their EPDS score was > 13. The child outcomes analyzed were height, weight, and overall development as assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ. Height and weight were age-normalized using WHO growth standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ 2. Adjusted and unadjusted linear regression models were used to assess the associations between Edinburgh scores and child outcomes. Results: No association was found between maternal depression variables and children’s height, weight, stunting, and obesity. Positive associations were found between possible depression and ASQ (delta = 0.33; 95CI 0.11-0.54; p-value<0.01; no associations were found between likely depression and any of the outcomes analyzed. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that symptoms of maternal depression are not associated with delays in child development in the study setting analyzed. Further research will be needed to understand this lack of association: while it is possible that caregivers’ mental health did not affect caregiving behavior, it is possible that the effect of maternal depression can vary according to timing, persistence, and intensity. It is also possible that

  6. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Hudiburg, T.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980-2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC). For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m-2 yr-1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996-2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr-1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6). The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr-1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha) fire. These results highlight

  7. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshi Mainen J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%, bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%, malaria (14 plants; 28.6%, gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%, gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%, hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%, viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%, chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%, diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%, cancer (2 plants; 4.1%, inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism, HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%. Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0% of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system

  8. Virological evaluation of avian influenza virus persistence in natural and anthropic ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, summer 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP avian influenza viruses (AIVs, congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems.In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118 tested virus isolation (VI-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5% were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%. Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative.We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches to virus molecular evolution and phylogenesis, will be

  9. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbabazi Pamela K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33 plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies. Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species followed by roots (13 species while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further

  10. Virological Evaluation of Avian Influenza Virus Persistence in Natural and Anthropic Ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, Summer 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Maria A.; Delogu, Mauro; Sivay, Mariya; Sharshov, Kirill; Yurlov, Alexander; Cotti, Claudia; Shestopalov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs), congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118) tested virus isolation (VI)-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5%) were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%). Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative. Conclusion/Significance We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches

  11. Classic to postclassic in highland central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, D E; Muller, F

    1972-03-17

    The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of Puebla-Tlax-cala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of red-on-buff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in highland central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the highlands at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause

  12. Coastal flooding impact evaluation using an INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model for Varna region, Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya; Valchev, Nikolay; Prodanov, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The study presents evaluation and comparative analysis of storm induced flooding impacts on different coastal receptors at a scale of Varna region using INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model. The model was developed within the FP7 RISC-KIT project, as a part of Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) consisting of two phases. CRAF Phase 1 is a screening process that evaluates coastal risk at a regional scale by means of coastal indices approach, which helps to identify potentially vulnerable coastal sectors: hot spots (HS). CRAF Phase 2 has the objective to assess and rank identified hotspots by detailed risk analysis done by jointly performing a hazard assessment and an impact evaluation on different categories (population, businesses, ecosystems, transport and utilities) using INDRA model at a regional level. Basically, the model assess the shock of events by estimating the impact on directly exposed to flooding hazard receptors of different vulnerability, as well as the potential ripple effects during an event in order to assess the "indirect" impacts, which occur outside the hazard area and/or continue after the event for all considered categories. The potential impacts are expressed in terms of uniform "Impact Indicators", which independently score the indirect impacts of these categories assessing disruption and recovery of the receptors. The ultimate hotspot ranking is obtained through the use of a Multi Criteria analysis (MCA) incorporated in the model, considering preferences of stakeholders. The case study area - Varna regional coast - is located on the western Black Sea, Bulgaria. The coastline, with a length of about 70 km, stretches from cape Ekrene to cape St. Atanas and includes Varna Bay. After application of CRAF Phase 1 three hotspots were selected for further analysis: Kabakum beach (HS1), Varna Central beach plus Port wall (HS2) and Artificial Island (HS3). For first two hotspots beaches and associated infrastructure are the assets

  13. Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

    2014-05-01

    Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the

  14. Moment Tensor Inversion of Earthquakes in Bartın and Surrounding Cities of Western Black Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, focal mechanism of earthquakes in Bartın and sorroundings are analysed to determine the deformation and stress regime of the Western Black Sea region. The records of the earthquakes are obtained from the broadband seismic stations operated by Boğaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute National Earthquake Monitoring Center. In total 13 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) ranging between 3.5 and 4.8 are used. The source parameters are calculated by CMT (Centroid Moment Tensor) inversion method.The results of this study show that 04.07.1972 M4.1 Saraydüzü-Bartın, 24.07.2013 M3.8 Amasra-Bartın, 24.11.2013 M4.8 Ulumescit-Bolu and 09.08.2008 M4.0 Karadeniz earthquakes indicate the presence of NE-SW directed reverse faulting mechanisms, in addition 28.01.2004 M3.6 Devrek-Zonguldak, 04.10.2005 M3.5 Yenice-Karabük, 12.11.2008 M4.1 Ericek-Bolu, 12.11.2008 M3.8 Aşağıkuzören-Bolu, 20.04.2006 M4.1 Amasra-Bartın, 04.09.2014 M4.0 Kayadibi-Bartın and 20.09.2014 M4.1 Bafra-Samsun earthquakes indicate the presence of NE-SW directed reverse oblique faulting mechanisms around the region. 16.08.2010 M3.9 Kozlu-Bolu, 13.05.2011 M3.9 Kızılağıl-Bolu, 20.12.2009 M3.9 Eskipazar-Karabük, 22.11.2009 M4.5 Daday-Kastamonu and 21.07.2013 M4.2 İhsangazi-Kastamonu earthquakes indicate right-lateral strike-slip faulting mechanism. 03.9.1968 Bartın earthquake is the strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake to occur along the Black Sea margin in the Northwestern Turkey. The focal mechanism solution of Bartın earthquake has been a controversial topic. The primary aim of this study is to shed light on these discussions. The focal mechanism solutions given by Kudo (1983) and Jackson and McKenzie (1984) state strike-slip faulting with reverse component, Şengör et al. (1983) state pure strike-slip faulting, on the other hand the solutions given by Alptekin et al. (1987) states that Bartın earthquake has pure reverse faulting

  15. Local biologies and HIV/AIDS in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    The province of Papua, Indonesia has one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection in Asia. Within volatile political conditions, HIV has reached generalized epidemic status for indigenous Papuans. This article explores the merits of using the concept of local biologies as an analytic tool to assess the range of factors which affect a local pattern of untreated HIV and rapid onset of AIDS. A research team conducted 32 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive indigenous persons and 15 interviews with health care workers in urban and peri-urban sites in the central highlands region. The results show fear of gossip and stigmatization, regional political conditions and gaps in care interweave to create local biological conditions of evasion of care and rapid onset of AIDS. The normative emphasis in contemporary scholarship on stigma as shaping subjective responses to HIV needs to be complemented by a full assessment of the physiological impact of health services, and the ways political conditions trickle down and mediate local biological patterns. The concept of local biologies is highly effective for explaining the full scope of possible factors affecting the intersection of social and physical realms for HIV-positive persons.

  16. Food habits of the stone marten Martes foina in "La Mandria" Regional Park (Piedmont Region, North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina was studied by the analysis of 215 scats gathered during 1990 and 1991 in "La Mandria" Regional Park (north-western Italy. The results were expressed as percentage frequency of occurrence [F% = (number of occurrences of each food/number of scats x 100] and relative percentage of frequency [Fr% = (number of occurrences of each food/total number of prey items x 100]. Mammals were the predominant food category in each season (annual mean in Fr% = 60.5 and were mainly represented by rodents (Fr% = 44.8 and lagomorphs (Fr% = 15.4. Myoxus glis was the most preyed species (Fr% = 15.7 and its use was higher in autumn than in other seasons. Vegetables, mainly Rosaceae and Vitis vinifera fruits, were an important food resource in summer (Fr% = 41.1 and in autumn (Fr% = 17.2. Birds integrated the stone marten's diet mainly in winter (Fr% = 22.6, while insects were scarcely consumed throughout the year (Fr% = 4.3. Riassunto Alimentazione della faina Martes foina nel Parco regionale "La Mandria" (Torino - La dieta della faina (Martes foina è stata studiata analizzando 215 feci raccolte negli anni 1990-91 nel Parco Regionale "La Mandria" (Italia nord occidentale. I risultati ottenuti sono stati espressi come frequenza percentuale [F% = (numero di presenze di una componente alimentare/numero delle feci esaminate x 100] e frequenza relativa percentuale [Fr% = (numero di presenze di una componente alimentare/numero totale di componenti alimentari rinvenute x 100]. I mammiferi, rappresentati soprattutto da roditori (Fr% = 44,8 e lagomorfi (Fr% = 15,4, sono risultati la categoria alimentare più importante in ogni stagione (media annuale della Fr% = 60,5. Myoxus glis è risultata la specie più predata con un consumo più elevato in autunno rispetto alle altre stagioni. I vegetali, rappresentati soprattutto

  17. External quality assessment for arbovirus diagnostics in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, 2013–2016: improving laboratory quality over the years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yazid Abdad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA programme for arbovirus diagnostics. By 2016, it had grown into a global programme with participation of 96 laboratories worldwide, including 25 laboratories from 19 countries, territories and areas in the Region. The test performance of the 25 laboratories in the Region in 2016 was high with 23 (92% reporting correct results in all specimens for dengue and chikungunya viruses. For Zika virus, 18 (72% of the 25 laboratories reported correct results in all specimens, while seven (28% demonstrated at least one error. When comparing iterations of this EQA programme in the Region between 2013 and 2016, the number of participating laboratories increased from 18 to 25. The first round only included dengue virus, while the latest round additionally included chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses. Proficiency for molecular detection of dengue virus remained high (83–94% over the four-year period. The observed proficiency for arbovirus diagnostics between 2013 and 2016 is an indicator of laboratory quality improvement in the Region.

  18. Occurrence and genetic variability of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes ticks from different regions of Western Siberia, Russia and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, Sergey E; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Babkin, Igor V; Livanova, Natalia N; Livanov, Stanislav G; Panov, Victor V; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Tantsev, Alexey K; Taranenko, Dmitrii E; Tikunova, Nina V

    2017-01-01

    Kemerovo virus (KEMV), a member of the Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and can cause aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Recently, this virus was observed in certain provinces of European part of Russia, Ural, and Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the occurrence and genetic diversity of KEMV in Western Siberia remain poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of KEMV in Ixodes ticks from Western Siberia. A total of 1958 Ixodes persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi ticks and their hybrids from Novosibirsk and Omsk provinces, Altai Republic (Russia) and East Kazakhstan province (Kazakhstan) were analyzed for the presence of KEMV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA. It was observed that the KEMV distribution area in Western Siberia was wider than originally thought and included Northern and Northeastern Altai in addition to the Omsk and Novosibirsk provinces. For the first time, this virus was found in Kazakhstan. The occurrence of KEMV was statistically lower than TBEV in most locations in Western Siberia. KEMV was found both in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks and in their hybrids. Notably, KEMV variants observed in the 2010s were genetically different from those isolated in the 1960s, which indicated the ongoing process of evolution of the Kemerovo virus group. Moreover, the possibility of reassortment for KEMV was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accounting practitioners perception over the impact of IFRS implementation on the performance of entities in the construction sector from the western region of Romania

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    Bogdan Oana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper, we want to identify the correlations between the benefits and costs of adopting IFRS standards in construction entities in the Western Region of Romania and their performance, using the Pearson correlation coefficient, which measures and describes the direction, degree and form of the association between two variables, thus obtaining high, reasonable, weak and very weak links between the benefits / costs and the performance of the entity.

  20. Evidencing a prominent Moho topography beneath the Iberian-Western Mediterranean Region, compiled from controlled-source and natural seismic surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, J; Gallart Muset, Josep; Carbonell, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    The complex tectonic interaction processes between the European and African plates at the Western Mediterranean since Mesozoic times have left marked imprints in the present-day crustal architecture of this area, particularly as regarding the lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. The detailed mapping of such variations is essential to understand the regional geodynamics, as it provides major constraints for different seismological, geophysical and geodynamic modeling met...

  1. Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Khan, Imran; Bibi, Fehmida; Baabdullah, Rnda; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim A; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K

    2015-03-14

    Saudi Arabia is mostly barren except the southwestern highlands that are susceptible to environmental changes, a hotspot for biodiversity, but poorly studied for microbial diversity and composition. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region V6 was used to analyze soil bacterial community along elevation gradients of the southwestern highlands. In general, lower percentage of total soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen were detected in the analyzed soil samples. Total 33 different phyla were identified across the samples, including dominant phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Representative OTUs were grouped into 329 and 508 different taxa at family and genus level taxonomic classification, respectively. The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude. Jackknifed principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed, overall differences in the bacterial community were more related to the quantity of specific OTUs than to their diversity among the studied samples. Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients. The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

  2. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Njuguna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]. Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research.

  3. Holt- Oram syndrome: a case report | Ige | Highland Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highland Medical Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. The Geology of the North-west Highlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GEIKIE, ARCH

    1893-01-01

    .... de Lapparent, when alluding to the solution of the problem of the geological structure of the Northwest Highlands, makes no reference to the distinguished part taken in that subject by Prof. Lapworth...

  5. Regional Crustal Structures and Their Relationship to the Distribution of Ore Deposits in the Western United States, Based on Magnetic and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Berger, B.; Jachens, R.C.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Upgraded gravity and magnetic databases and associated filtered-anomaly maps of western United States define regional crustal fractures or faults that may have guided the emplacement of plutonic rocks and large metallic ore deposits. Fractures, igneous intrusions, and hydrothermal circulation tend to be localized along boundaries of crustal blocks, with geophysical expressions that are enhanced here by wavelength filtering. In particular, we explore the utility of regional gravity and magnetic data to aid in understanding the distribution of large Mesozoic and Cenozoic ore deposits, primarily epithermal and porphyry precious and base metal deposits and sediment-hosted gold deposits in the western United States cordillera. On the broadest scale, most ore deposits lie within areas characterized by low magnetic properties. The Mesozoic Mother Lodge gold belt displays characteristic geophysical signatures (regional gravity high, regional low-to-moderate background magnetic field anomaly, and long curvilinear magnetic highs) that might serve as an exploration guide. Geophysical lineaments characterize the Idaho-Montana porphyry belt and the La Caridad-Mineral Park belt (from northern Mexico to western Arizona) and thus indicate a deep-seated control for these mineral belts. Large metal accumulations represented by the giant Bingham porphyry copper and the Butte polymetallic vein and porphyry copper systems lie at intersections of several geophysical lineaments. At a more local scale, geophysical data define deep-rooted faults and magmatic zones that correspond to patterns of epithermal precious metal deposits in western and northern Nevada. Of particular interest is an interpreted dense crustal block with a shape that resembles the elliptical deposit pattern partly formed by the Carlin trend and the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral belt. We support previous studies, which on a local scale, conclude that structural elements work together to localize mineral deposits within

  6. Tectonic controls on the Yamanlar volcano and Yuntdağı volcanic region, western Turkey: Implications for an incremental deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür

    2014-03-01

    Over the past ten years, it has been proposed that the western part of the Menderes Massif was strongly structurally-controlled by the İzmir-Balıkesir transfer zone (İBTZ). Yamanlar volcano is a key area for understanding the deformation of Miocene volcanoes in western Turkey because of its progressive extensional tectonics. Structural analysis provides that this volcano has undergone the incremental tectonic controls in western Turkey since Early Miocene. The volcano experienced deformation and erosional processes associated with activity of intense tectonic regime that resulted in the dissection of the southern flank of the volcano mostly by NE-SW-striking oblique and strike-slip faults together with cross-cutting faults during and after Miocene period. The orientation of volcanic domes, dykes and intrusive bodies indicates successive and reactive tectonic phases that caused incremental complex movements of numerous fault blocks during the destruction area of the Yamanlar volcano.

  7. Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, we are continuing to map seven MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas: a 4-quadrangle area (-20002, -20007, -25002, -25007) and an L-shaped area (-15017, -20017, -20022) within the region [1-5]. This abstract focuses on the geologic units and history from mapping in the 4-quadrangle area, but includes a brief update on the L-shaped map area.

  8. Anthropology of fire in the Ozark Highland region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Jurney

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans are often considered to have exploited available natural resources rather than modifying their environments to maximize yields. As simpler societies evolved into more complex ones, there is a consensus that intensification of habitat modifications also increased. However, landscape scale archeological inventories now show relatively intensive...

  9. Scandian Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphism of Proterozoic Basement Rocks on Fjortoft and Otroy, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carswell, D.A.; van Roermund, H.L.M.; Wiggers de Vries, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral composition data are presented for samples of exsolved and recrystallized garnet websterites within the mantle-derived peridotite bodies and of external orthopyroxene eclogite lenses directly enclosed within the gneisses on the islands of Fjørtoft and Otrøy in the Western

  10. Underpinning tectonic reconstructions of the western Mediterranean region with dynamic slab evolution from 3-D numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chertova, M. V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322943264; Spakman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074103164; Geenen, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837784; Van Den Berg, A. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073350532; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624

    No consensus exists on the tectonic evolution of the western Mediterranean since ~35 Ma. Three disparate tectonic evolution scenarios are identified, each portraying slab rollback as the driving mechanism but with rollback starting from strongly different subduction geometries. As a critical test

  11. Bathymetric highs in the mid-slope region of the western continental margin of India - Structure and mode of origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Paropkari, A.L.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ajay, K.K.; Kodagali, V.N.

    Analysis of the multi- and single beam bathymetric, seismic, magnetic and free-air gravity (ship-borne and satellite derived) data from the western continental margin of India between 12 degrees 40 minutes N and 15 degrees N had revealed...

  12. Regional projections of the likelihood of very large wildland fires under a changing climate in the contiguous Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; John T. Abatzoglou; E. Natasha Stavros; Narasimhan K. Larkin

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the climatic potential for very large wildfires (VLWF >= 50,000 ac~20,234 ha) across the western contiguous United States are projected over the 21st century using generalized linear models and downscaled climate projections for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Significant (p

  13. Frequency and magnitude of selected historical landslide events in the southern Appalachian Highlands of North Carolina and Virginia: relationships to rainfall, geological and ecohydrological controls, and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Wooten; Anne C. Witt; Chelcy F. Miniat; Tristram C. Hales; Jennifer L. Aldred

    2016-01-01

    Landsliding is a recurring process in the southern Appalachian Highlands (SAH) region of the Central Hardwood Region. Debris flows, dominant among landslide processes in the SAH, are triggered when rainfall increases pore-water pressures in steep, soil-mantled slopes. Storms that trigger hundreds of debris flows occur about every 9 years and those that...

  14. Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases. Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, with over 80% citing the use of World Health Organization Hazard Category I pesticides. The suicide rate of 17.1/100 000 and the overall mortality rate of 20.5/100 000 that we found are among the highest reported anywhere in the world. At the exchange rates prevailing at that time, median costs associated with these poisonings were estimated as follows: public and social security health care direct costs of US$ 9.85/case; private health costs of US$ 8.33/case; and lost-time indirect costs of US$ 8.33/ agricultural worker. Each one of those costs was over five times the daily agricultural wage, which was then about US$ 1.50. Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries.

  15. Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia's Silk Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frachetti, Michael D; Smith, C Evan; Traub, Cynthia M; Williams, Tim

    2017-03-08

    There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient 'Silk Roads' across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use 'flow accumulation' modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia. We then compare the locations of known high-elevation Silk Road sites with the geography of these optimized herding flows, and find a significant correspondence in mountainous regions. Thus, we argue that highland Silk Road networks (from 750 m to 4,000 m) emerged slowly in relation to long-established mobility patterns of nomadic herders in the mountains of inner Asia.

  16. Economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in highland Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Cole

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Occupational exposure among agricultural workers was the most common reason for poisoning (32 male workers and 1 female worker, out of a total of 50 cases. Of these 33 cases, 28 of them reported pesticide application as the work task just prior to poisoning, with over 80% citing the use of World Health Organization Hazard Category I pesticides. The suicide rate of 17.1/100 000 and the overall mortality rate of 20.5/100 000 that we found are among the highest reported anywhere in the world. At the exchange rates prevailing at that time, median costs associated with these poisonings were estimated as follows: public and social security health care direct costs of US$ 9.85/case; private health costs of US$ 8.33/case; and lost-time indirect costs of US$ 8.33/ agricultural worker. Each one of those costs was over five times the daily agricultural wage, which was then about US$ 1.50. Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries.

  17. Sedimentary strata in the southern highlands of Noachis Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, L. K.

    2005-12-01

    The sedimentary history of Mars is one of the fundamental problems that needs to be understood in order to determine the role of the atmosphere, climate, and water in sculpting the martian surface. To begin addressing this issue, a number of sedimentary strata, some up to several hundreds of meters thick, have been studied in the southern highlands of Mars using THEMIS VIS and IR (both day and night) images. A sequence of sedimentary units was found in a pit eroded into the floor of Rabe Crater (35° E, 44° S), some of which appear to be shedding dark sand that feeds into the Rabe Crater dune field. The visible and thermal characteristics of these units are similar to other units found across Noachis Terra (which extends from 0°-60° E, 30°-65° S, and includes Rabe Crater), leading to the hypothesis that a series of region-wide depositional events occurred at some point in the martian past, and that these deposits are currently exposed by erosion in pits on crater floors and possibly on the intercrater plains separating the craters. Some of these sedimentary units may consitute a source of sand for the many intracrater dune fields in Noachis Terra, eroding from a widespread source that outcrops locally. Sand-bearing layers that extend across all or part of Noachis Terra are not likely to be dominated by loess or lacustrine deposits; glacial and/or volcanic origins are more plausible.

  18. Phenological Characteristics of the Barred Chicken in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between May and June 2011, the growth performance and phenological characteristics of local barred chicken of the Western Highland Cameroon was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang. The data on body weight, body measurements and carcass characteristics were collected on ...

  19. Phenological Characteristics of Local Barred Chicken in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between May and June 2011, the growth performance and phenological characteristics of local barred chicken of the Western Highland Cameroon was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang. The data on body weight, body measurements and carcass characteristics were collected on ...

  20. The THORPEX-Pacific Asian Regional Campaign and Affiliated Field Campaigns over the Tropical Western North Pacific during August-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, P.

    2008-12-01

    The THORPEX (THe Observing Research and Predictability EXperiment) Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) is a multi-national field campaign that addresses the shorter-range dynamics and forecast skill associated with high-impact weather events of one region (Eastern Asian and the western North Pacific) and their downstream impacts on the medium-range dynamics and forecast skill of another region (in particular, the eastern North Pacific and North America). Although many significant weather events occur over eastern Asia and the western North Pacific, the focus of T-PARC is on various aspects of typhoon activity, which include formation, intensification, structure change, motion, and extratropical transition. Because of the significant impact of typhoon activity on the region of eastern Asia and the western North Pacific, T-PARC is comprised of several affiliated programs. These programs and their national sponsor include: - Tropical Cyclone Structure-2008 (TCS-08) [United States]; - Typhoon Hunter-2008 (TH-08) [Japan]; - Predictability and Observation Experiment (PROBEX) [South Korea]; - Tibetan Plateau Experiment [China]; - The South China Sea Experiment [China]; - Dropsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR) [Taiwan]. In addition to the above list of field campaigns, a significant international component existed via contribution of specific observation platforms. A high-altitude jet aircraft (FALCON) will be operated by the Deutches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). Driftsonde balloon operations will be conducted by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) of France. Although the region of the western North Pacific plays an important and unique role in defining many characteristics of the midlatitude circulation of the Northern Hemisphere, the near-global participation in T-PARC is an indication that the scientific principles being examined with respect to the impacts on downstream weather by significant events

  1. Structural and seismic indications of the elements of recent and present-day stress fields in several epicentral regions of western Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umurzakov, R. A.

    2010-05-01

    This study presents the results of stress field reconstruction for the epicentral zones of large-magnitude earthquakes in some folded-mountain regions of western Tien Shan. Field studies, including geostructural and tectonophysical interpretations, performed for the Talas-Suusamyr, Chatkal-Kurama, Turkestan-Zarafshan, Gissar and Nurata-Kyzylkum regions allow the reconstruction of some regional components of the tectonic stress field. The nearly E-W orientations of the lower-order compressional axes are identified in the Chatkal-Kurama and Turkestan-Zarafshan mountain areas. Detailed structural-dynamical diagrams of several epicentral zones and reconstructions of focal mechanisms of some strong earthquakes are derived from the geostructural data. The coincidence of the present-day stress field manifested in the earthquake sources and the recent stress field derived from the geostructural determinations is revealed. The focal mechanisms of the strong earthquakes in the folded-mountain regions of western Tien Shan relate to the thrust/strike-slip faulting and breakup of large tectonic blocks.

  2. Galileo multispectral imaging of the north polar and eastern limb regions of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.; Klaasen, K.P.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.; Neukum, G.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Heffernan, C.; Breneman, H.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Pilcher, C.B.; Thompson, W.R.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.

  3. Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles - The role of outflow channels in the degradation of the circum-Hellas highlands of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.

    1997-03-01

    Geologic deposits and landforms representative of much of the planet's history are preserved in the southern cratered highlands of Mars. The circum-Hellas highlands to the east of the basin record the effects of volcanism, tectonism, fluvial erosion and deposition, aeolian activity, and masswasting. Mapping studies and geomorphic analyses have provided a general understanding of the evolution of the Hellas region, placed constraints on the styles and timing of volcanic activity associated with Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae, and investigated Dao and Harmakhis Valles and the terminus of Reull Vallis. The present study provides a detailed comparison of Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles, and examines the role of highland outflow channels in the degradation of the region.

  4. Explaining the mechanisms through which regional atmospheric circulation variability drives summer temperatures and glacial melt in western High Mountain Asia (HMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Li, Xiaofeng; Pritchard, David

    2017-04-01

    Comprehension of mechanisms by which atmospheric circulation influences sub-regional temperature and water resources variability in high-elevation mountainous catchments is of great scientific urgency due to the dependency of large downstream populations on the river flows these basins provide. In this work we quantify a regional atmospheric pattern, the Karakoram Zonal Shear (KZS), with a very pronounced annual cycle which we standardise into a dimensionless (seasonal) circulation metric the Karakoram Zonal Index (KZI). Going beyond previous regional circulation metrics such as the "middle-upper tropospheric temperature index" (MUTTI) or the Webster and Yang Monsoonal Index (WYMI) which have focused solely on the South Asian Summer Monsoon (June to September) season, the KZS/KZI provides an indicator which captures the influence and interactions of the westerly jet throughout the entire annual cycle. Use of the KZS and KZI have led us to identify a further regional atmospheric system, the Karakoram Vortex, which propagates "warm high" (anticyclonic postitive temperature anomaly) and "cold low" (cyclonic negative temperature anomaly) patterns across a very broad swath of Central and South Asia in winter but over a much more constrained area of western HMA in summer. The KV exerts this temperature influence through a combination of adiabatic effects and large-scale advection. Quantify KV influence, the KZI shows strong and statistically significantly near surface (2m) air temperatures both across western HMA both as observed through local meteorological stations and as estimated by an ensemble of global meteorological reanalyses. We show that this strong influence on temperature translates to important consequences for meltwater generation from highly glaciated Indus river tributaries which is logical given that previous studies have established the role of air temperature in modulating glacially-derived river flows in western HMA. By improving the understanding of

  5. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Framework for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Simane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia’s low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia’s population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay Highlands—a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke

  6. Trans-Pacific and Regional Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Pesticides in Biomass Burning Emissions to Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan A.; Killin, Robert K.; Woods, Jim; Wilson, Glenn; Schmedding, David; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2014-01-01

    The trans-Pacific and regional North American atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides in biomass burning emissions was measured in air masses from April to September 2003 at two remote sites in western North America. Mary’s Peak Observatory (MPO) is located in Oregon’s Coast Range and Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO) is located on the tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. During this time period, both remote sites were influenced by PAH and pesticide emissions from forest fires in Siberia and regional fires in Oregon and Washington State. Concurrent samples were taken at both sites on June 2 and August 4, 2003. On these dates, CPO had elevated gas phase PAH, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and retene concentrations (ppesticide mass was lost from soil due to burning. These data suggest that the transPacific and regional atmospheric transport of biomass burning emissions results in elevated PAH and pesticide concentrations in western North America. The elevated pesticide concentrations are likely due to re-emission of historically deposited pesticides from the soil and vegetation during the fire event. PMID:19320158

  7. Smoking is the most frequent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in Croatian Western region: findings of the Croatian health survey 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrietta Benčević-Striehl,

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To estimate the prevalence of selected behavioral risk factorsfor cardiovascular diseases in the western region of Croatia and todetermine the differences based on age and gender.Methods A national survey on health status and health behavior ofthe adult population has been conducted. The representative sampleof 10,766 households for six officially defined regions of Croatiahas been determined, and Western region has been included with1,562 inhabitants, aged 18 years and older. The overall responserate of administered face-to-face questionnaire was 85-6%. Prevalencerates per 100 inhabitants (smoking, eating habits, alcoholconsumption, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics,chronic conditions have been determined.Results Nearly half (46.3% of the adults were smokers or hadquit smoking less than 10 years ago. Prevalence of high bloodpressure was high amounting to 40.6% and it was higher in middleaged males (46.7%, p<0.01 and young males (13.7%, p<0.01.Prevalence of obesity was 38.9%, highest in females aged 35-64(51.2%, p<0.001 and 65 and older (73.8%, p<0.01.Almost a quarter of respondents (23.3% has been insufficientlyphysically active, especially young females 22.5%, p<0.01.Conclusion There was a significant difference in the prevalenceof all observed behavioral risk factors according to the gender andage. Moreover, smoking tobacco has been found as the most frequentrisk factor in the observed population.

  8. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the inspiration for Arthur Conan

  9. Implication of World Health Organization growth standards on estimation of malnutrition in young Chinese children: Two examples from rural western China and the Tibet region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how malnutrition rates change in young Chinese children when 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards are used instead of 1978 WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference. Cross-sectional survey data were used from rural western China and the Tibet region. The heights and weights of children of malnutrition between two references differed in magnitude. The scale of change in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight is much greater when 2006 reference was introduced. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Integrating systematic screening for gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health services: results of a baseline study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Cuca, Y

    2002-09-01

    Three Latin American affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Inc. (IPPF/WHR) have begun to integrate gender-based violence screening and services into sexual and reproductive health programs. This paper presents results of a baseline study conducted in the affiliates. Although most staff support integration and many had already begun to address violence in their work, additional sensitization and training, as well as institution-wide changes are needed to provide services effectively and to address needs of women experiencing violence. Copyright 2002 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics

  11. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  12. Factors determining anti-malarial drug use in a peri-urban population from malaria holoendemic region of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watsierah, Carren A; Jura, Walter G Z O; Oyugi, Henry; Abong'o, Benard; Ouma, Collins

    2010-10-26

    Interventions to reverse trends in malaria-related morbidity and mortality in Kenya focus on preventive strategies and drug efficacy. However, the pattern of use of anti-malarials in malaria-endemic populations, such as in western Kenya, is still poorly understood. It is critical to understand the patterns of anti-malarial drug use to ascertain that the currently applied new combination therapy to malaria treatment, will achieve sustained cure rates and protection against parasite resistance. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was designed to determine the patterns of use of anti-malarial drugs in households (n = 397) in peri-urban location of Manyatta-B sub-location in Kisumu in western Kenya. Household factors, associated with the pattern of anti-malarials use, were evaluated. Using clusters, questionnaire was administered to a particular household member who had the most recent malaria episode (within cure. Mothers/caretakers provided information for children aged malaria care and decrease malaria-related morbidity and mortality by increasing drug affordability, ensuring that the recommended anti-malarial drugs are easily available in all government approved drug outlets and educates the local shopkeepers on the symptoms and appropriate treatment of malaria. Following a switch to ACT in national drug policy, education on awareness and behaviour change is recommended, since the efficacy of ACT alone is not sufficient to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malaria.

  13. Beyond the drip-line: a high-resolution open-air Holocene hunter-gatherer sequence from highland Lesotho

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mitchell, P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available the drip-line: a high-resolution open-air Holocene hunter-gatherer sequence from highland Lesotho Peter Mitchell1, Ina Plug2, Geoff Bailey3, Ruth Charles4, Amanda Esterhuysen5, Julia Lee Thorp6, Adrian Parker7 & Stephan Woodborne8 The activities....g. Jerardino & Yates 1997), few open-air sites of Holocene age have attracted serious excavation. In areas like the Karoo, the semi-arid interior of western South Africa, they are often deflated, with bone and macroplants poorly preserved, while elsewhere...

  14. Engima of a thermal anomaly - A TM/AVHRR study of the volcanic Arabian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Masuoka, P. M.

    1987-01-01

    Discovery of a large thermal anomaly in the western Arabian highlands on Landsat TM imagery is reported. The anomaly, 15 C warmer than surroundings, forms a 2-km-wide arc around the southern flank of Jebel Chada, a volcano active in 1256 AD. It is recorded by AVHRR imagery as well, despite the 1.1-km spatial resolution of this sensor. Air photos and geologic maps show no bedrock unit that corresponds to the anomaly. Digital techniques were applied to the TM and AVHRR data, including contrast enhancement, density slicing, principal components analysis, and construction of multiband composite images. It is concluded that the anomaly results from a thin cover of volcanic ash or cinder that is optically indistinguishable from underlying basalt, rather than from internal (volcanic or hydrologic) heat sources.

  15. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Pedersen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    1. Local and regional patterns of plant species richness in tropical rain forests, aswell as their possible drivers, remain largely unexplored. The main hypotheses for local species richness (alpha diversity) are (i) local environmental determinism with species-saturated communities, and (ii......-scale topography. Apart fromgamma diversity, the factormost strongly related to regional alpha diversity was precipitation seasonality, while gamma diversity itself was strongly linked to long-termhabitat stability. These results imply that plant species richness is contingent on both contemporary and historical...... factors with a strong link between local species richness and the regional species pool....

  16. Fire-induced Carbon Emissions and Regrowth Uptake in Western U.S. Forests: Documenting Variation Across Forest Types, Fire Severity, and Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A.; Collatz, George James; Vanderhoof, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The forest area in the western United States that burns annually is increasing with warmer temperatures, more frequent droughts, and higher fuel densities. Studies that examine fire effects for regional carbon balances have tended to either focus on individual fires as examples or adopt generalizations without considering how forest type, fire severity, and regional climate influence carbon legacies. This study provides a more detailed characterization of fire effects and quantifies the full carbon impacts in relation to direct emissions, slow release of fire-killed biomass, and net carbon uptake from forest regrowth. We find important variations in fire-induced mortality and combustion across carbon pools (leaf, live wood, dead wood, litter, and duff) and across low- to high-severity classes. This corresponds to fire-induced direct emissions from 1984 to 2008 averaging 4 TgC/yr and biomass killed averaging 10.5 TgC/yr, with average burn area of 2723 sq km/yr across the western United States. These direct emission and biomass killed rates were 1.4 and 3.7 times higher, respectively, for high-severity fires than those for low-severity fires. The results show that forest regrowth varies greatly by forest type and with severity and that these factors impose a sustained carbon uptake legacy. The western U.S. fires between 1984 and 2008 imposed a net source of 12.3 TgC/yr in 2008, accounting for both direct fire emissions (9.5 TgC/yr) and heterotrophic decomposition of fire-killed biomass (6.1 TgC yr1) as well as contemporary regrowth sinks (3.3 TgC/yr). A sizeable trend exists toward increasing emissions as a larger area burns annually.

  17. Western Regional Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Rulemaking for Small Power Production and Cogeneration Facilities - Exemptions for Geothermal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Jack M.; Nalder, Nan; Berger, Glen

    1981-02-01

    Section 643 of the Energy Security Act of 1980 directed the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to develop rules to further encourage geothermal development by Small Power Production Facilities. This rule amends rules previously established in Dockets No. RM79-54 and 55 under Section 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). The analysis shows that the rules are expected to stimulate the development of up to 1,200 MW of capacity for electrical generation from geothermal facilities by 1995--1,110 MW more than predicted in the original PURPA EIS. This Final Supplemental EIS to the DEIS, issued by FERC in June 1980, forecasts likely near term development and analyzes environmental effects anticipated to occur due to development of geothermal resources in the Western United States as a result of this additional rulemaking.

  18. Characterization of Shigella spp. by antimicrobial resistance and PCR detection of ipa genes in an infantile population from Porto Velho (Western Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Shigella spp. was assessed in 877 infants from the public hospital in Rondônia (Western Amazon region, Brazil where Shigella represents the fourth cause of diarrhea. Twenty-five isolates were identified: 18 were Shigella flexneri, three Shigella sonnei, three Shigella boydii and one Shigella dysenteriae. With the exception of S. dysenteriae, all Shigella spp. isolated from children with diarrhea acquired multiple antibiotic resistances. PCR detection of ipa virulence genes and invasion assays of bloody diarrhea and fever (colitis were compared among 25 patients testing positive for Shigella. The ipaH and ipaBCD genes were detected in almost all isolates and, unsurprisingly, all Shigella isolates associated with colitis were able to invade HeLa cells. This work alerts for multiple antibiotic resistant Shigella in the region and characterizes presence of ipa virulence genes and invasion phenotypesin dysenteric shigellosis.

  19. Regional metamorphic controls on alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Eastern Goldfields province, Western Australia: Implications for the timing and origin of Archean lode-gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, W. K.

    1991-10-01

    Alteration assemblages associated with Archean epigenetic gold mineralization in the Menzies-Kambalda area of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, vary systematically with regional metamorphic grade, up to and including upper amphibolite facies rocks. K-metasomatism is recorded by the presence of muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar at progressively higher metamorphic grades. High metamorphic grades are commonly developed in broad thermal aureoles around fate syntectonic granitic intrusions. Metamorphic recrystallization of alteration assemblages is common in the thermal aureoles. These relations suggest broad contemporaneity among granitoid intrusion, regional metamorphism, and mineralization during the final stages of the tectonic evolution of the granite-greenstone terrain. Late syntectonic granitoids acted as centers of heat and fluid flux in large-scale, synmetamorphic hydrothermal systems that deposited gold, possibly from modified mantle-derived fluids.

  20. Benefit of Regional Energy Balancing Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection of the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2010-10-01

    This analysis indicates the extent to which pooled regional dispatch for matching generation to load mitigates the costs and improves associated reliability, particularly in scenarios with high penetration of variable output resources, such as wind

  1. [Recent progress of international harmonization of crude drugs and medicinal plants--activity of FHH (The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Nobuo

    2011-03-01

    The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH) was established in 2002. The general proposed objective of the FHH is to promote public health by recognizing and developing standards and technical guidelines that aim to improve the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. At a sub-committee meeting of FHH nomenclature and standardization held in Tokyo, all the participants recognized the importance of comparing the descriptions of herbal medicines contained in member countries' pharmacopoeias or monograph standards as the first step in the harmonization of nomenclature and standardization. It was agreed to set up five expert working groups (EWG) to carry out the following specific tasks: 1) Nomenclature, 2) Testing Methods in Monographs, 3) List of Chemical Reference Standards (CRS) and Reference of Medicinal Plant Materials (RMPM), 4) List of Analytically Validated Methods, and 5) Information on General Tests. In this review, we report four topics of FHH activities from 2002-2009 as follows: 1) Comparative study on testing methods and specification values for crude drugs used in monographs among four Western Pacific regional countries (Japan, China, Korea and Vietnam), 2) Comparative study on TLC conditions for identification, chemical assay conditions for component quantification used in monographs among the four countries, 3) Comparative study on general testing methods for crude drugs among the four countries, 4) Comparative study on TLC identification for crude drugs used in monographs among the four countries considering harmonization and clean analysis.

  2. Tandem repeat sequences evolutionarily related to SVA-type retrotransposons are expanded in the centromere region of the western hoolock gibbon, a small ape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Hirai, Yuriko; Jahan, Israt; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2012-12-01

    Hoolock hoolock (the western hoolock gibbon) is a species of the family Hylobatidae (small apes), which constitutes the superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids) together with Hominidae (great apes and human). Here, we report that centromeres or their vicinities in this gibbon species contain tandem repeat sequences that consist of 35-50-bp repeat units, and exhibit a sequence similarity with the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region of the SVA, LAVA and PVA transposons. SVA is a composite retrotransposon thought to have been formed by fusion of three solo elements in the common ancestor of hominoids. LAVA and PVA are recently identified retrotransposons that have the same basic structure as SVA. Thus, the large-scale tandem repeats in the centromere region may have been derived from one or more of SVA-type transposons, including the three mentioned above and other yet unknown elements, or the repeat sequences could have served as a source for such elements. Amplification of VNTR-related sequences in another gibbon species, Hoolock leuconedys (eastern hoolock gibbon), has recently been reported, but it is yet to be examined whether the large-scale tandem repeats observed in the two species originated from a single event that occurred in their common ancestor. The repeat sequences in the western hoolock gibbon are mostly 40 kb or more in length, are present in 28 of the 38 chromosomes of the somatic cells, and are homozygous for chromosomal presence/absence.

  3. Analysis of the use of antibiotics in antibiograms of urine carried out by a clinical laboratory of the central-western region of Colombia

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    Carlos Rodríguez-Salazar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotics are bactericidal/bacteriostatic molecules that control bacterial infections, its misuse favors multidrug or therapeutic failure in the case of naturally resistant bacterial strains, thus generating a health risk. Objective: To analyze the use of antibiotics in urine antibiograms carried out by a clinical laboratory (central-western region, Colombia. Materials and methods: A descriptive-retrospective study was made. Urine and antibiograms data were collected from April 2014 to June 2015 by a clinical laboratory in the central-western region of Colombia. The obtained data was confronted with the protocols described by the National Institute of Health of Colombia. Results: 1815 reports of urine and antibiograms were analyzed, identifying 18 bacterial species. In the 22.3% (403 of cases, antibiotics were evaluated and reported on naturally resistant microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed greater resistance and the antibiotic with the highest resistance was nalidixic acid (66.7%. Conclusion: The study showed that there is a problem in managing, reporting and interpreting antibiograms against naturally resistant microorganisms, which could favor the development of multidrug in sensitive microorganisms of bacterial flora. A review of national and international bibliography showed similar reports; however, no author mentions intrinsic resistances, so the data of antibiotic resistance would be over evaluated.

  4. Find Cancer Early: Evaluation of a Community Education Campaign to Increase Awareness of Cancer Signs and Symptoms in People in Regional Western Australians

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    Emma Jane Croager

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCancer outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas are worse than for those living in urban areas. Although access to and quality of cancer treatment are important determinants of outcomes, delayed presentation has been observed in rural patients.MethodsFormative research with people from rural Western Australia (WA led to the Find Cancer Early campaign. Find Cancer Early was delivered in three regions of WA, with two other regions acting as controls. Staff delivered the campaign using a community engagement approach, including promotion in local media. Television communications were not used to minimize contamination in the control regions. The campaign evaluation was undertaken at 20 months via a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI survey comparing campaign and control regions. The primary outcome variable was knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms.ResultsRecognition and recall of Find Cancer Early and symptom knowledge were higher in the campaign regions. More than a quarter of those who were aware of the campaign reported seeing the GP as a result of their exposure.ConclusionDespite limited use of mass media, Find Cancer Early successfully improved knowledge of cancer symptoms and possibly led to changes in behavior. Social marketing campaigns using community development can raise awareness and knowledge of a health issue in the absence of television advertising.

  5. Species-level phylogeographical history of Myricaria plants in the mountain ranges of western China and the origin of M. laxiflora in the Three Gorges mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yong; Huang, Hongwen

    2009-06-01

    Myricaria species in China occur mostly in the major high-altitude mountain areas in and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The one major exception to this is M. laxiflora which is restricted to the Three Gorges mountain region. In this study, we investigate species-level phylogeographical patterns of Myricaria species in western China and the origin of M. laxiflora. The results show that most chloroplast haplotypes are species-specific, except for one haplotype which is shared by three widespread species. Higher haplotype diversity within the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region supports the hypothesis that the Himalayas are the centre of origin for Myricaria. The phylogeny of Myricaria was geographically structured, and an estimated Bayesian chronology suggested the main divergence events occurred during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene (approximately 1.46-2.30 million years ago). The overall phylogeographical pattern was characterized by vicariance events and regional demographical expansion, reflecting a major influence of geological and climatic events on the evolution of Myricaria species. Our data suggest that M. laxiflora has an ancient origin, but has experienced recent population expansion through the Three Gorges Valley. The origin of M. laxiflora was estimated to be during the Early Pleistocene but its demographical expansion was more recent at about 0.015 million years ago. This highlights the unique phylogeographical history of the Three Gorges mountain region, and the deep imprint of the watercourse connections of the Yangtze River Valley on the phylogeographical structure of the species in this region.

  6. Pollen and plant macrofossils at Lac de Fully (2135 m a.s.l.): Holocene forest dynamics on a highland plateau in the Valais, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finsinger, W.; Tinner, W.

    2007-01-01

    We use pollen, stomata and plant-macrofossil records to infer Holocene timberline fluctuations and changes in forest composition at Lac Supérieur de Fully (2135 m a.s.l.), a small lake located near the modern regional timberline on a highland plateau in the Central Alps. Our records suggest that

  7. Hydrogeology of the Hawkesbury Sandstone in the Southern Highlands of NSW in relation to Mesozoic Horst-Graben tectonics and stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. [Hydroilex, Miranda, NSW (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Systematic borehole geophysical logging, stratigraphic analysis and geological mapping in the Southern Highlands district has revealed a number of significant structural, stratigraphic and hydrogeological findings. These are: identification of a regional uplifted belt coincident with the Mittagong Ranges; stratigraphic differentiation of the Hawksbury Sandstone into three lithofacies; and the identification of the main ground water controls within the Hawkbury sandstone. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Insights into Highland Patera Volcanism using Mars Express HRSC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Greeley, R.; Zuschneid, W.; Werner, S.; Neukum, G.; Gwinner, K.; Hauber, E.; Crown, D. A.; Gregg, T. K.; Raitala, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have used images obtained by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the ESA Mars Express orbiter to assess geologic activity at two of Mars' highland volcanoes: Hadriaca Patera and Tyrrhena Patera. HRSC images cover wide swaths at consistent lighting conditions and resolutions, making them ideal resources for assessing surfaces ages using crater statistics. Additionally, multi-channel HRSC images are processed to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) that are of greater spatial resolution than MOLA-derived DTMs, which are useful to assess regional and local topographic variations. Crater size-frequency analyses and cratering model age estimates show both Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae have complex surfaces shaped by volcanic, fluvial, and eolian processes. These ancient shields were formed early in martian history, 3.7-4.0 Ga. At Hadriaca Patera, the earliest detectable caldera activity occurred at 3.5 Ga, followed by explosive volcanic and fluvial activity on the flanks at 3.3-3.4 Ga. Later caldera activity occurred at 2.2-2.5 Ga and again at 1.1-1.6 Ga. At Tyrrhena Patera, explosive volcanic activity and emplacement of pyroclastic deposits occurred 3.5-3.6 Ga, with later fluvial erosional activity at 1.9-2.0 Ga and again at 1.2-1.5 Ga. Slopes on Tyrrhena Patera are generally shallower (0.09-0.4 degrees) than those on Hadriaca Patera (up to 0.7 degrees). Hadriaca's north flank trends uphill, suggesting that Hadriaca Patera settled due to removal of material during formation of Dao Vallis. Further study is underway to use HRSC topographic data and computer modeling to better understand pyroclastic volcanism at these two volcanoes.

  9. Factors determining anti-malarial drug use in a peri-urban population from malaria holoendemic region of western kenya

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    Abong'o Benard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to reverse trends in malaria-related morbidity and mortality in Kenya focus on preventive strategies and drug efficacy. However, the pattern of use of anti-malarials in malaria-endemic populations, such as in western Kenya, is still poorly understood. It is critical to understand the patterns of anti-malarial drug use to ascertain that the currently applied new combination therapy to malaria treatment, will achieve sustained cure rates and protection against parasite resistance. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was designed to determine the patterns of use of anti-malarial drugs in households (n = 397 in peri-urban location of Manyatta-B sub-location in Kisumu in western Kenya. Methods Household factors, associated with the pattern of anti-malarials use, were evaluated. Using clusters, questionnaire was administered to a particular household member who had the most recent malaria episode (within Results Stratification of the type of anti-malarial drugs taken revealed that 37.0% used sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP, 32.0% artemisinin-based combined therapy (ACT, 11.1% anti-pyretics, 7.3% chloroquine (CQ, 7.1% quinine, 2.5% amodiaquine (AQ, while 3.0% used others which were perceived as anti-malarials (cough syrups and antibiotics. In a regression model, it was demonstrated that age (P = 0.050, household size (P = 0.047, household head (P = 0.049, household source of income (P = 0.015, monthly income (P = 0.020, duration of use (P = 0.029, dosage of drugs taken (P = 0.036, and source of drugs (P = 0.005 significantly influenced anti-malarial drug use. Overall, 38.8% of respondents used drugs as recommended by the Ministry of Health. Conclusion This study demonstrates that consumers require access to correct and comprehensible information associated with use of drugs, including self-prescription. There is potential need by the Kenyan government to improve malaria care and decrease malaria-related morbidity and

  10. Sacral landscape and its influence on the tourism space development in the region (based on the example of Western Pomerania region NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formed through the centuries, cultural landscape of the region includes not only the material realm in the form of numerous historical buildings, monuments and other evidences of local society’s development, but also significant immaterial realm, which manifests itself in the form of spiritual heritage, faith, tradition, customs and language. Interesting, often unique in terms of religious and historical point of view, religious buildings, as well as traditional pilgrimage routes and local shrines are now undeniable qualities, shaping the touristic space of the region. The study of the tourism movement and a detailed valuation analysis of sacred objects showed that the wide ranging cultural tourism (with the significant participation of religious tourism is a great alternative to still popular, although in many places it is already too saturated, leisure tourism. The historical values and a multitude of interesting, often unique objects with proper promotional activity may contribute to the tourist interest of places that often have been overlooked. The main aim of this article is to show the spatial diversity of the phenomenon of religious tourism and valuation of the landscape in terms of its usefulness as an area of cultural tourism in the region, so far perceived through the prism of seaside leisure tourism. Valuation of facilities and pilgrim routes by way of grading point while enhancing statistical information on tourism, led to create an image (a map of the spatial diversity of the religious tourism phenomenon and its juxtaposition with other forms of tourism in the region. Thanks to this type of observations, in the future it will be possible to create a model showing the possibilities of alternative forms of tourism (including religious and cultural tourism to formulate the touristic space. This, for example, will allow to eliminate the problems associated with the seasonality of coastal and leisure tourism, offering a new, often

  11. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of the shrub Cistus ladanifer L. (Cistaceae) in the highly diverse Western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela-Sabarís, C; Vendramin, G G; Castro-Fernández, D; Fraga, M Isabel

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the phylogeographic structure of Cistus ladanifer, in order to locate its Quaternary refugia, reconstruct its recolonisation patterns and assess the role of geographical features (mountain ranges, rivers and the Strait of Gibraltar) as barriers to its seed flow and expansion through the Western Mediterranean. Thirty-eight populations were screened for length variation of polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs). Statistical analyses included estimation of haplotypic diversity, hierarchical analysis of molecular variation (amova) and fixation indices. Mantel tests, SAMOVA and BARRIER analyses were applied to evaluate the geographical partitioning of genetic diversity across the entire species range. Pollen data from bibliography were used to complement molecular inferences. Chlorotype diversity within populations was similar throughout the natural range of C. ladanifer (mean haplotypic diversity=0.32). High differentiation among populations was estimated (G(ST)=0.60). Our data suggest that the barriers of the Strait of Gibraltar and the Betic ranges may have favoured the divergence during glacial periods of four different lineages of populations inferred with SAMOVA. The main northward colonisation of in the Iberian Peninsula occurred from refugia in southwest Iberia. This process may have been influenced by human activities (forest clearance, livestock grazing and even commerce) in the Iberian Peninsula. In contrast, populations in the Betic area have conserved a specific haplotype. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Phylogeography of the land snail genus Circassina (Gastropoda: Hygromiidae) implies multiple Pleistocene refugia in the western Caucasus region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiber, Marco T; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Caucasian land snail genus Circassina was reconstructed using multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Diversification within the group started with a divergence of populations from the western Lesser Caucasus from those of the Greater Caucasus during the late Miocene. Distinct AFLP clusters and major mitochondrial clades separated by long internal branches lend evidence to the hypothesis of separate glacial refuges in the Lesser and Greater Caucasus during the Pleistocene. High genetic distances across low geographic distances and admixture analysis revealed a phylogeographic boundary running through the Colchis lowlands, which may have been established and maintained in part by repeated transgressions of the Black Sea during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Localities in Ciscaucasia were probably colonised through long-distance dispersal across the main ridge of the Greater Caucasus. The phylogeny implies multiple independent losses of accessory genital organs, i.e. dart sac and mucus glands, within Circassina. None of the anatomically defined (sub-) species distinguished so far is monophyletic and there is gene flow between the two main population groups across the Colchis lowlands. Thus, we propose to classify these population groups as subspecies of a single species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric mercury species measurements across the Western Mediterranean region: Behaviour and variability during a 2015 research cruise campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Jessica; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Esposito, Giulio; Pirrone, Nicola; Sprovieri, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of the ongoing MEDOCEANOR measurements program, an oceanographic cruise campaign was carried out during summer 2015 in the Western sector of Mediterranean Sea basin, on-board the research vessel ;Minerva Uno; of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The overall goal was to investigate the dynamic patterns of mercury in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the main factors affecting mercury behaviour at both coastal and offshore locations. The mean concentrations of the recorded Hg species were 1.6 ± 0.5 ngm-3 , 11.8 ± 15.0 pgm-3 , and 2.4 ± 1.1 pgm-3 , respectively for GEM, GOM, and PBM. Moreover, during the measurement period typical fair-weather conditions of the Mediterranean summer were encountered with high levels of solar radiation and temperature that favoured photochemical reactions. Atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides and other meteorological parameters were in addition recorded and jointly discussed with selected mercury events in terms of their spatio-temporal variations. Changes in air pollutant concentrations were also argued in the light of their likely influencing sources, among which, anthropogenic activities, such as the mercury cell chlor-alkali complex in Tuscany, Italy, and natural influence, like volcanic ashes, detected around the Aeolian area and the in-situ production of reactive gaseous mercury within the Marine Boundary Layer.

  14. Comparison of Ocean Dynamics with a Regional Circulation Model and Improved Altimetry in the North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bouffard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal resolution of satellite altimetry is usually sufficient for monitoring the changes of sea surface topography in the open ocean. However, coastal ocean dynamics are much more complex, being characterized by smaller spatial and temporal scales of variability. The quality and availability of satellite-derived products along the coasts have to be improved, with a strategy optimized for coastal targets. Therefore a coastal multi-satellite altimetry dataset (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1; Envisat; GFO at a 10 - 20 Hz sampling rate has been derived from routine geophysical data products using a new processing software dedicated to coastal zone applications. Improved along-track sea level variations with fine space scales are available in the North-western Mediterranean Sea from 2001 to 2003, and are compared with high-resolution numerical model elevations from the eddy-resolving model SYMPHONIE. This preparatory work emphasizes the potential of improved multi-satellite altimetry for validating coastal hydro-dynamical models and could contribute in the future to a better tuning of the boundary conditions of the simulations.

  15. 2001 Bhuj-Kachchh earthquake: surface faulting and its relation with neotectonics and regional structures, Gujarat, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Thakkar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary surface deformation related to the 2001 Bhuj-Kachchh earthquake suggests that thrusting movement took place along an E-W fault near the western extension of the South Wagad Fault, a synthetic fault of the Kachchh Mainland Fault (KMF. Despite early reconnaissance reports that concluded there was no primary surface faulting, we describe an 830 m long, 15-35 cm high, east-west-trending thrust fault scarp near where the seismogenic fault plane would project to the surface, near Bharodiya village (between 23°34.912'N, 70°23.942'E and 23°34.304'N, 70°24.884'E. Along most of the scarp Jurassic bedrock is thrust over Quaternary deposits, but the fault scarp also displaces Holocene alluvium and an earth dam, with dips of 13° to 36° south. Secondary co-seismic features, mainly liquefaction and lateral spreading, dominate the area south of the thrust. Transverse right-lateral movement along the «Manfara Fault» and a parallel fault near Bharodiya suggests segmentation of the E-W master faults. Primary (thrust surface rupture had a length of 0.8 km, maximum displacement of about 35 cm, and average displacement of about 15 cm. Secondary (strike-slip faulting was more extensive, with a total end-to-end length of 15 km, maximum displacement of 35 cm, and average displacement of about 20 cm.

  16. The effect of sea-ice dynamics on Net Community Production (NCP) at the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cassar, N.; Huang, K.; Ducklow, H. W.; Schofield, O.

    2016-02-01

    The WAP in the Southern Ocean has experienced a decrease in sea-ice extent ( 40%) over the last three decades, which has been associated with changes in the ecosystems. In this study, we examined the effect of sea-ice dynamics on the interannual variability of satellite-derived Annually-integrated NCP (ANCP). We derived a time series of NCP (1997-2014) using satellite observations of chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl]) and a regression between in situ [Chl] and O2/Ar-derived NCP measurements. Overall, our results are consistent with sea-ice dynamics influencing interannual ecosystem variability in the WAP region. ANCP displays an onshore to offshore gradient. Coastal/shelf regions and more specifically submarine canyons are up to eight times more productive than offshore regions. NCP peaks around January (November) when sea ice retreats and is consistently high (low) for the rest of the growing season in the shelf (southern and middle Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF)) region. We examined potential drivers of interannual variability in the ANCP through Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The EOF's first mode explains 50% of the variance, with High Temporal Variability (HTV) observed in the southern and middle SACCF regions. The first principal component of ANCP is significantly correlated with the day of sea-ice retreat (R=-0.58, pMode (SAM) (R=0.63, p<0.01, in austral spring) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (R=-0.52, p<0.05, in austral spring). Although the most obvious pathway by which day of sea-ice retreat influences NCP is through alleviation of light limitation, we found that the effect persists throughout the growing season, suggesting additional controls such as the influence of sea ice on stratification or iron availability.

  17. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  18. Conceptualizing the regional hydrology of a complex low relief terrain: Climate - geology interactions on sink-source dynamics of Western Boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, K. J.; Mendoza, C. A.; Petrone, R. M.; Landhäusser, S.; Silins, U.; Qualizza, C.; Gignac, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Western Boreal Plain (WBP) eco-region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedented industrial development for forest, oil and gas resources, stressing the need to assess and understand the sink and source areas of regional water flow. This requires the development of models that can be use to predict and mitigate the impacts of land use changes on water quantity and quality. The WBP is characterized by low relief, hummocky terrain with complexes of forestland and wetlands, especially peatlands. A paired aspen forest harvest experiment (HEAD2) was conducted on adjacent pond-peatland-aspen forestland complexes of a moraine landform, ubiquitous throughout the WBP, to determine the influence of aspen vegetated forestlands and harvesting relative to wetlands on local and regional water cycling. Reductions in transpiration and interception following aspen harvest resulted in some increase in soil moisture. However, excess water was largely absorbed into deep moraine substrates and resulted in groundwater recharge with little or no lateral flow to adjacent wetlands and aquatic systems. As a result of high soil and groundwater storage there was no observable difference in runoff from the harvested catchment compared to the adjacent reference (uncut) catchment confirming that in most years runoff originates from the wetland (peatland) rather than forestland hydrologic units. Furthermore, soil moisture increases were short lived due to rapid redevelopment of leaf area as result of high-density regeneration of aspen through root suckering. Recovery of transpiration and interception to near pre-harvest conditions occurred within 3 years. Climate cycles, primarily inter-annual variation in snow pack, can overwhelm the influence of aspen harvest in the WBP, as during the harvest experiment large water table rises were observed in both the uncut and the harvested forestlands. This study illustrates that forestlands on deep moraine hummocky substrates of the WBP act

  19. External Review and Impact Assessment of the African Highlands ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Since agro-ecosystems are driven by the interactions of ecological, economic, and social variables, INRM research has to work back and forth across all three dimensions. The prevailing serious degradation of the natural resource base in the intensively cultivated and overpopulated highlands of Eastern ...

  20. External review and impact assessment of the African Highlands ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The prevailing serious degradation of the natural resource base in the intensively cultivated and overpopulated highlands of Eastern and Central Africa resulted from poor land management systems associated with traditional farming practices, on the one hand, and the concerted effort to improve agricultural productivity ...