Helsen, MM; Van de Wal, RSW; Van den Broeke, MR; Van As, D; Meijer, HAJ; Reijmer, CH
This paper presents delta(18)O records from snow pits from four locations in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica that contain at least four annual cycles. The aim of the study was to analyse in detail these records as well as the prevailing temperatures during accumulation in order to infer to what
Full Text Available The water-soluble chemistry and weathering characteristics of tills were studied on three nunataks with differing bedrock characteristics in the Vestfjella and Heimefrontfjella areas of the Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The chemical analyses were performed using ion chromatography and ICP-AES. The relative weathering characteristics of the till surface boulders was assessed in study locations. No colour differences were observed in test pits dug in Basen and Utpostane nunataks at Vestfjella, whereas the till in Mygehenget nunatak at Heimefrontfjella has a pronounced soil profile in which the surface part has a banded rusty brown and light-coloured accumulations. The highest concentrations of readily soluble ions were recorded in the Mygehenget samples characterized by high (SO42- (5800-39000 ppm and Mg concentrations (540-6000 ppm, while the Basen samples had the highest concentrations of Fe2+(23-390 ppm, Al3+ (60-1000 ppm and Si4+ (23-1700 ppm and the Utpostane samples the lowest ones. The SO4/Na+, Na+/CI- and Mg2+/Na+ ratios for the samples differ markedly from those typically encountered in sea water. The presence of the highest concentrations of many of the analysed ions in the Mygehenget soil samples is in line with the advanced weathering of the surface boulders. The high Fe2+ , Si4+ and Al3+ concentrations in the Basen samples may be attributable to the weathering of olivine alteration products.
Harris, Chris; Dreyer, Tanya; le Roux, Petrus
Peralkaline syenite and granite dykes cut the Straumsvola nepheline syenite pluton in Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The average peralkalinity index (PI = molecular Al/[Na + K]) of the dykes is 1.20 ( n = 29) and manifests itself in the presence of the Zr silicates eudialyte, dalyite and vlasovite, and the Na-Ti silicate, narsarsukite. The dykes appear to have intruded during slow cooling of the nepheline syenite pluton, and the petrogenetic relationship of the dykes and the pluton cannot be related to closed-system processes at low pressure, given the thermal divide that exists between silica-undersaturated and oversaturated magmas. Major and trace element variations in the dykes are consistent with a combination of fractional crystallization of parental peralkaline magma of quartz trachyte composition, and internal mineral segregation prior to final solidification. The distribution of accessory minerals is consistent with late-stage crystallization of isolated melt pockets. The dykes give an Rb-Sr isochron age of 171 ± 4.4 Ma, with variable initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.7075 ± 0.0032), and have an average ɛ Nd of - 12.0. Quartz phenocrysts have δ18O values of 8.4-9.2‰, which are generally in O-isotope equilibrium with bulk rock. Differences in the δ18O values of quartz and aegirine (average Δquartz-aegirine = 3.5‰) suggest aegirine formation temperatures around 500 °C, lower than expected for a felsic magma, but consistent with poikilitic aegirine that indicates subsolidus growth. The negative ɛ Nd (values averaging 8.6‰ (assuming Δquartz-magma = 0.6‰) are inconsistent with a magma produced by closed-system fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma. By contrast, the nepheline syenite magma had mantle-like δ18O values and much less negative ɛ Nd (average - 3.1, n = 3). The country rock has similar δ18O values to the granite dykes (average 8.0‰, n = 108); this means that models for the petrogenesis of the granites by
Full Text Available Vestfjella (73-74°S, 13-16°W is a 130 km long nunatak range in western Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica, and its northern and southern ends are situated close to the present ice sheet grounding-line. Striations and lodgement till on nunatak Basen indicate that the northernmost Vestfjella nunataks were formerly covered by a thicker Antarctic ice sheet. Striations on the summit ridge of nunatak Plogen indicate that the minimum change in ice thickness has been 700 m at the present ice sheet grounding-line. The relatively uniform oldest striation direction on different nunatak summits and the altitude of Plogen, which is less than 200 m lower than the highest Vestfjella summits, indicates that the whole of Vestfjella may have been covered by an ice sheet. Oxidation of till surface stones and an increased clay fraction in the upper part of the till layer were the only indications of soil formation on Basen. The unweathered nature of the Basen lodgement till indicate a relatively young age for deglaciation. This conclusion is also supported by age determinations and sedimentological data obtained from Weddell Sea sediments by Norwegian researchers, suggesting that a grounded ice sheet extended to the shelf edge at around 21 ka B.P. However the age of the glaciation which covered Basen and Plogen and the subsequent deglaciation is not based on precise dates and therefore the late Wisconsinan/Weichselian age is only a working hypothesis.
Helsen, MM; Van de Wal, RSW; Van den Broeke, MR; Kerstel, ERT; Masson-Delmotte, [No Value; Meijer, HAJ; Reijmer, CH; Scheele, MP; Jacka, J
We consider a specific accumulation event that occurred in January 2002 in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Snow samples were obtained a few days after accumulation. We combine meteorological analyses and isotopic modelling to describe the isotopic composition of moisture during transport.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Major ion concentration values (Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, NO3, SO4, MSA) were analyzed from a 20-meter ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (location - 65 01'...
Full Text Available The Sor Rondane Mountains field party, part of the summer party of the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50, consisted of five geologists and one field assistant, and conducted geological fieldwork in the western Sr Rondane Mountains, Eastern Dronning Maud Land, as part of a research project of the National Institute of Polar Research (#P-5-1. The field party accessed the mountains using the Dronning Maud Land Air Network (DROMLAN from Cape Town to a runway close to the Belgian base, via the Novolazarevskaya runway. The field party made three campsites (Base Camp, Camp 1, and Camp 3 and stayed on the snowfield for 75 days. Here, we report the detailed operation plans and present a summary of the fieldwork, including information on logistics and weather reports for the western Sor Rondane Mountains.
Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van Meijgaard, E.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32821177X; Horwath, M.; Isaksson, E.
Enhanced snowfall on the East Antarctic ice sheet is projected to significantly mitigate 21st century global sea level rise. In recent years (2009 and 2011), regionally extreme snowfall anomalies in Dronning Maud Land, in the Atlantic sector of East Antarctica, have been observed. It has been
Rao, D.G.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramprasad, T.
A study of the bathymetric and linear magnetic anomalies between Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR) revealed a Mesozoic sequence of linear magnetic anomalies, M0 to M12 (108-126 Ma), a fracture zone offset (is...
Jacobs, Joachim; Andreas, Läufer; Clark, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka; Elburg, Marlina; Ruppel, Antonia; Estrada, Solveig; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried; Riedel, Sven; Lucka, Nicole
East Antarctica probably formed by amalgamation of a number of cratons along distinct Ediacaran mobile belts, including the ca. 600-500 Ma East African-Antarctic Orogen (EAAO) that dissects Dronning Maud Land (DML). New field-work during the international expeditions Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica (GEA) I + II in the austral summers 2010/11 and 2011/12, and first geochronological results from eastern DML reveal a complex tectonic architecture across the belt. In western DML, the EAAO reworks older Mesoproterozoic crust of the Maud Belt; the westernmost boundary of the mobile belt is characterized by a major dextral transpressional shear zone. In central DML, a major magnetic anomaly, the Forster anomaly, was interpreted as a cryptic suture of the EAAO (Riedel et al. 2012). The area where the Forster anomaly crosses the DML mountains is poorly investigated so far, but appears to coincide with a major strike slip shear zone in the southern Kurze Mts. and the occurrence of major Ediacaran granulite bodies. East of the Forster anomaly, the magnetic anomaly pattern changes significantly and typical Maud type crust is not present any longer. GEA II targeted a range of nunataks between Sør Rondane and central DML that had never been visited previously (from Blåklettane and Bergekongen in the E to Urna and Sørsteinen in the W). These nunataks are dominated by medium- to high-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of possibly Neoproterozoic age, including abundant marble and graphite schists. Sør Rondane in eastern DML, is dominated by two distinct blocks separated by the dextral Main Shear Zone. The northwestern block is still part of the eastern EAAO, where new SHRIMP zircon data from metamorphic rims provide ages of ca. 560 Ma. The southeastern block is made up of a TTG terrane, which provides four new SHRIMP zircon dates between 990-980 Ma, interpreted as igneous crystallization ages (oceanic arc). The TTG terrane shows limited tectonic overprint and
Full Text Available Geomorphologic and geodetic field surveys were carried out in the Sor Rondane Mountains, East Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, during the 2011-2012 summer season as part of the 53rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-53. The field party consisted of three geomorphologists, one geodesist, and one field assistant. The expedition was supported by the Belgian Antarctic Research Expedition (BELARE and the International Polar Foundation (IPF. Dronning Maud Land Air Network (DROMLAN provided air transport from Cape Town, South Africa to the Sor Rondane Mountains via Novolazarevskaya Airbase. The survey areas were the central and western parts of the Sor Rondane Mountains. This report summarizes the field expedition in terms of operations, logistics, and weather records.
Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Yuhara, Masaki; Owada, Masaaki; Shimura, Toshiaki; Kamei, Atsushi; Kouchi, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Koshi
The Sør Rondane Mountains (SRM), East Antarctica, lie within the late Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic collision zone related to the formation of the Gondwana supercontinent. Many studies have been carried out in the eastern SRM, whereas fundamental questions on the western SRM remain unanswered, e.g. detail metamorphic history, age, kinematics of sheared rocks and others. This paper describes lithology and structure of the western SRM, and the tectonic implications of a low-angle brittle shear zone within this area, the Kanino-tume Shear Zone (KSZ), is discussed. Rocks of the study area are divided into units 1-3 based on their lithology and structural position. Units 1 and 2 are composed mainly of Neoproterozoic gneiss, and unit 3 consists mainly of ca. 1000-800 Ma metatonalite. Units 2 and 3, both separated by a mylonite/ultramylonite zone formed by dextral shearing (Main Shear Zone: MSZ), tectonically overlie unit 1 with the KSZ. The KSZ, showing top-to-the south sense of shear, cuts MSZ (∼ ca. 530 Ma) and is intruded by mafic dikes (ca. 560-440 Ma). Therefore, units 2 and 3, which had been juxtaposed by the dextral movement along the MSZ, rode together onto unit 1 along the KSZ by top-to-the southward movement at late Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic time. The KSZ gives critical evidence for late Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic movement in the SRM within the East African-Antarctic orogen.
Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Froidevaux, Paul; Reijmer, Carleen H.; Fischer, Hubertus
The link between high precipitation in Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, and the large-scale atmospheric circulation is investigated using ERA-Interim data for 1979-2009. High-precipitation events are analyzed at Halvfarryggen situated in the coastal region of DML and at Kohnen Station located
Schlosser, Elisabeth; Powers, J. G.; Duda, M. G.; Manning, K. W.; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643
An extreme precipitation event that influenced almost the whole polar plateau of Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, is investigated using Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System archive data. For the first time a high-resolution atmospheric model especially adapted for polar regions was used for such a
Full Text Available Earth science-related field activities, involving geology, geomorphology and meteorite searches, were carried out in the Sor Rondane Mountains, Eastern Dronning Maud Land, during the 2009-2010 summer season as a part of the 51st Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-51, in collaboration with the Belgian Antarctic Research Expedition (BELARE. Geology and geomorphology parties accessed the Sor Rondane Mountains using the Dronning Maud Land Air Network (DROMLAN, and the meteoritesearch party to Antarctica on the maiden voyage by the new Japanese icebreaker Shirase. The geology party covered the entire area of the Sor Rondane Mountains, although with an emphasis on the eastern part. The geomorphology party carried out fieldwork in western and central parts of the mountains, and the meteorite search party performed a survey in the eastern part. All field activities were succes fully carried out. Some of the geology members returned to Japan by DROMLAN, while others flew to Syowa Station from the Sor Rondane Mountains by DROMLAN, and then returned to Japan on board Shirase. This report provides a summary of the field operations, including logistics and weather records.
Goel, Vikram; Brown, Joel; Matsuoka, Kenichi
The ice-shelf-fringed coast of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica contains numerous ice rises that influence the dynamics and mass balance of the region. However, only a few of these ice rises have been investigated in detail. Here, we present field measurements of Blåskimen Island, an isle-type ice rise adjacent to Fimbul Ice Shelf. This ice rise is largely dome shaped, with a pronounced ridge extending to the south-west from its summit (410 m a.s.l.). Its bed is mostly flat and about 100 m below the current sea level. Shallow radar-detected isochrones dated with a firn core reveal that the surface mass balance is higher on the south-eastern (upwind) slope than on the north-western (downwind) slope by ˜ 37 %, and this pattern has persisted for at least the past decade. Moreover, arches in radar stratigraphy suggest that the summit of the ice rise has been stable for ˜ 600 years. Ensemble estimates of the mass balance using the input-output method show that this ice rise has thickened by 0.12-0.37 m ice equivalent per year over the past decade.
Isaksson, E.; Kaczmarska, M.; Karlof, L.; Winther, J.-G.; Hofstede, C.; van den Broeke, M.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Gundestrup, N.
In this paper we discuss d18O and accumulation data in terms of temperature and sea ice variability from two different ice cores from Dronning Maud Land. Both ice cores were drilled during NARE 2000/01; one 100 m deep ice core was drilled on the Fimbulisen Ice Shelf and one 160 m deep core was drilled on the polar plateau at 3550 m asl. The coastal core has been dated annually back to 1750 using a combination of DEP, ECM and d18O and the inland core with known volcanic peaks. During the past 250 years the accumulation at the coast appears to have been highest around 1900 and has decreased thereafter. Similar patterns in coastal core data from Syowa station suggest that this may be a regional signal. This could be related to a decreasing sea ice extent as is suggested by the South Orkney sea ice duration record. Also on the polar plateau the accumulation appears to have been somewhat higher in the decades before and after 1900 and a more recent increase is apparent. The low-frequency components in the d18O records are similar between the two cores suggesting the same moisture source despite the difference in elevation. We will investigate possible reasons for the fact that the oxygen isotope record shows an increasing trend during the 1900s while the accumulation seems to have decreased.
Full Text Available To quantify the spatial and temporal variability in the snow pack, field measurements were carried out during four summers in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Data from a 310-km-long transect revealed the largest horizontal gradients in snow density, temperature, and hardness in the escarpment region. On the local scale, day-to-day temporal variability dominated the standard deviation of snow temperature, while the diurnal cycle was of second significance, and horizontal variability on the scale of 0.4 to 10 m was least important. In the uppermost 0.2 m, the snow temperature was correlated with the air temperature over the previous 6–12 h, whereas at the depths of 0.3 to 0.5 m the most important time scale was 3 days. Cloud cover and radiative fluxes affected the snow temperature in the uppermost 0.30 m and the snow density in the uppermost 0.10 m. Both on the intra-pit and transect scales, the ratio of horizontal to temporal variability increased with depth. The horizontal standard deviation of snow density increased rapidly between the scales of 0.4 and 2 m, and more gradually from 10 to 100 m. Inter-annual variations in snow temperature and density were due to inter-annual differences in air temperature and the timing of the precipitation events.
Karlof, Lars; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Gundestrup, Niels; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mulvaney, Robert; Pourchet, Michel; Hofstede, Coen; Lappegard, Gaute; Pettersson, Rickard; Van den Broeke, Michiel; Van De Wal, Roderik S. W.
We investigate and quantify the variability of snow accumulation rate around a medium-depth firn core (1160 m) drilled in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75 degrees 00'S, 15 degrees 00'E; 3470 m h.a.e. (ellipsoidal height)). We present accumulation data from five snow pits and five shallow (20
Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Jones, A. E.; Hutterli, M. A.; Anderson, P. S.; Maxfield, D. J.; Roscoe, H. K.; Wolff, E. W.; Virkkula, A.; Kirkwood, S.; Weller, R.
In sharp contrast with stratospheric ozone, the detailed climatology of tropospheric ozone over Antarctica is relatively understudied, partly due the difficulty in establishing long-term measurements in this remote part of our World. The scarcity of year-round surface ozone data is closely tied to that of manned research stations, often confined to coastal Antarctica, with the exception of the South Pole and more recent Concordia continental stations on the East Antarctic Plateau. Current long-term datasets (eg South Pole, Neumayer, Sanae, Halley) reveal similar annual seasonal behaviour: ~30 ppbv winter maximum, and 10-15 ppbv summer minimum. Coastal stations also show well-recognised Ozone Depletion Events (ODE), phenomena which have been observed both in Arctic and Antarctic regions, when near-zero ozone concentrations are measured during the springtime polar sunrise; this ozone loss process is believed to involve rapid photo-catalytic chemistry of Bromine/Iodine species on aerosols and/or frost flowers over open sea-ice leads. The ozone monitoring network presented in this study was proposed as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) to fill in the gap in our knowledge of the regional and climatological extent of ODE, and to probe the snow pack photochemistry impact on the overlying boundary layer oxidative capacity over the Antarctic Plateau. Between December 2007 and January 2009, a network of ten low-powered autonomous surface ozone monitors was deployed along the Weddell Sea coast and up the Dronning Maud Land (DML) plateau. The study region covers ~800km of the South-eastern Weddell Sea coastline. Four sites were located on ice shelves to study the effect of long fetched ODE. Other sites were deployed on a transect between the ice shelf bound coastal zone and up to 2400 m altitude on the DML Plateau, towards the Kohnen station operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute. This North-to-South transect roughly follows the Stancombe-Wills ice stream, an area
Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Ferraccioli, Fausto
for major Dronning Maud Land ice stream systems, from the grounding lines up to the Recovery Lakes drainage basin, and filled in major data voids in Antarctic data compilations, such as AntGP for gravity data, ADMAP for magnetic data and BEDMAP2 for ice thickness data and the sub-ice topography. We present......Long-range airborne geophysical measurements were carried out in the ICEGRAV campaigns, covering hitherto unexplored parts of interior East Antarctica and part of the Antarctic Peninsula. The airborne surveys provided a regional coverage of gravity, magnetic and ice-penetrating radar measurements...... the first maps of gravity, magnetic and ice thickness data and bedrock topography for the region and show examples of bedrock topography and basal reflectivity patterns. The 2013 Recovery Lakes campaign was carried out with a British Antarctic Survey Twin Otter aircraft operating from the Halley...
Laluraj, C M; Krishnan, K P; Thamban, M; Mohan, R; Naik, S S; D'Souza, W; Ravindra, R; Chaturvedi, A
The scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopic (SEM-EDS) study of selected samples from an ice core collected from Central Dronning Maud Land (CDML), East Antarctica, revealed several microparticles. They are mainly siliceous and carbonaceous particles and have distinct variations in their shape and composition. The morphology and major element chemistry of the particles suggest their origin from either volcanic eruptions or continental dust. The EDS analysis revealed that the volcanic particles are enriched in silica (average SiO2 62%), compared to the continental dust particle (average SiO2 56%). We found that the tephra relating to Agung (1963) and Karkatau (1883) volcanic eruptions, as recorded, in the ice core harbored microbial cells (both coocoid and rods). The occurrence of organic and inorganic particles which bear relation to volcanic eruption and continental dust implies significant environmental changes in the recent past.
Kaspers, K. A.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; de Gouw, J. A.; Hofstede, C. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; van der Veen, C.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; KarlöF, L.; Winther, J.-G.
Firn air was sampled on the Antarctic plateau in Dronning Maud Land (DML), during the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition (NARE) 2000/2001. In this paper, we describe the analyses for methyl chloride and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in these firn air samples. For the first time, the NMHCs ethane, propane, and acetylene have been measured in Antarctic firn air, and concentration profiles for these gases have been derived. A one-dimensional numerical firn air diffusion model was used to interpret the measured profiles and to derive atmospheric concentrations as a function of time. The atmospheric trends we derived for the NMHC and methyl chloride at DML cover the period from 1975 to 2000. Methyl chloride shows a decreasing trend of 1.2 ± 0.6 ppt per year (annual mean concentration 548 ± 32 ppt). For ethane we found an increasing trend of 1.6 ± 0.6 ppt per year (annual mean concentration 241 ± 12 ppt). The concentrations of propane and acetylene appear to be constant over the period 1975-2000, with annual mean concentrations of 30 ± 4 ppt for propane and 24 ± 2 ppt for acetylene.
Kaspers, K. A.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; de Gouw, J. A.; Hofstede, C. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Reijmer, C. H.; van der Veen, C.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; KarlöF, L.; Winther, J.-G.
This paper presents atmospheric concentrations of ethane, propane, acetylene, and methyl chloride, inferred from firn air by using a numerical one-dimensional firn diffusion model. The firn air was collected on the Antarctic plateau in Dronning Maud Land during the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition (NARE) 2000/2001. The influences of seasonal variations in temperature and pressure and the variation in accumulation rate were studied and are not negligible, but appear to cancel each other out if all variability is taken into account. This paper also demonstrates that firn air from the uppermost firn layer (30 m) can be used to derive seasonal cycles of these trace gases, without needing a year-round facility. These cycles display higher atmospheric mixing ratios during the Antarctic winter and lower atmospheric mixing ratios in summer. The cycles for the year 2000 show amplitudes of 140 ± 25 ppt for ethane, 30 ± 10 ppt for propane, 24 ± 6 ppt for acetylene, and 40 ± 20 ppt for methyl chloride. For ethane and propane the amplitudes and months of maximum atmospheric concentration (phase) are in reasonable agreement with year-round measurements at the South Pole and Baring Head (New Zealand). The amplitudes for methyl chloride and acetylene are significantly greater than seen in year-round measurements at the South Pole and at Neumayer (Antarctica), although the phase is in line. While biomass burning and removal by OH radicals can partially explain these large amplitudes, the exact cause still remains unclear for methyl chloride and acetylene.
Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART.
Full Text Available Gravity measurements, replacement of the unmanned magnetometer, and a reconnaissance flight to the Belgica Mountains were carried out in the Sor Rondane Mountains as a part of the 55 th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-55. The field party comprised two geodesists, one geomorphologists, and one magnetospheric scientist. The Belgian Antarctic Research Expedition (BELARE and International Polar Foundation (IPF supported this field expedition. Dronning Maud Land Air Network (DROMLAN provided airborne access from Cape Town, South Africa to the Sor Rondane Mountains via Novolazarevskaya Airbase. The survey areas of this field expedition are the central parts of the Sor Rondane Mountains and the Belgica Mountains. This report summarizes the field expedition in terms of operations, logistics, and weather observations.
Gorodetskaya, Irina; Maahn, Maximilan; Gallée, Hubert; Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Kneifel, Stefan; Crewell, Susanne; Van Lipzig, Nicole
Occasional very intense snowfall events over Dronning Maud Land (DML) region in East Antarctica, contributed significantly to the entire Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) during the last years. The meteorological-cloud-precipitation observatory running at the Princess Elisabeth station (PE) in the DML escarpment zone since 2009 (HYDRANT/AEROCLOUD projects), provides unique opportunity to estimate contribution of precipitation to the local snow accumulation and new data for evaluating precipitation in climate models. Our previous work using PE measurements showed that occasional intense precipitation events determine the total local yearly SMB and account for its large interannual variability. Here we use radar measurements to evaluate precipitation in a regional climate model with a special focus on intense precipitation events together with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics responsible for these events. The coupled snow-atmosphere regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) is used to simulate climate and SMB in DML at 5-km horizontal resolution during 2012 using initial and boundary conditions from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim re-analysis atmospheric and oceanic fields. Two evaluation approaches are used: observations-to-model and model-to-observations. In the first approach, snowfall rate (S) is derived from the MRR (vertically profiling 24-GHz precipitation radar) effective reflectivity factor (Ze) at 400 m agl using various Ze-S relationships for dry snow. The uncertainty in Ze-S relationships is constrained using snow particle size distribution from Snow Video Imager - Precipitation Imaging Package (SVI/PIP) and information about particle shapes. For the second approach we apply the Passive and Active Microwave radiative TRAnsfer model (PAMTRA), which allows direct comparison of the radar-measured and climate model-based vertical profiles of the radar Ze and Doppler velocity. In MAR
Bisnath, Avinash; Frimmel, Hartwig E.
A metamorphic petrological study, in conjunction with recent precise geochronometric data, revealed a complex P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in a hitherto poorly understood sector of the Mesoproterozoic Maud Belt in East Antarctica. The Maud Belt is an extensive high-grade, polydeformed, metamorphic belt, which records two significant tectono-thermal episodes, once towards the end of the Mesoproterozoic and again towards the late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian. In contrast to previous models, most of the metamorphic mineral assemblages are related to a Pan-African tectono-thermal overprint, with only very few relics of late Mesoproterozoic granulite-facies mineral assemblages (M 1) left in strain-protected domains. Petrological and mineral chemical evidence indicates a clockwise P- T- t path for the Pan-African orogeny. Peak metamorphic (M 2b) conditions recorded by most rocks in the area ( T = 709-785 °C and P = 7.0-9.5 kbar) during the Pan-African orogeny were attained subsequent to decompression from probably eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (M 2a). The new data acquired in this study, together with recent geochronological and geochemical data, permit the development of a geodynamic model for the Maud Belt that involves volcanic arc formation during the late Mesoproterozoic followed by extension at 1100 Ma and subsequent high-grade tectono-thermal reworking once during continent-continent collision at the end of the Mesoproterozoic (M 1; 1090-1030 Ma) and again during the Pan-African orogeny (M 2a, M 2b) between 565 and 530 Ma. Post-peak metamorphic K-metasomatism under amphibolite-facies conditions (M 2c) followed and is ascribed to post-orogenic bimodal magmatism between 500 and 480 Ma.
Full Text Available A chronology called EDML1 has been developed for the EPICA ice core from Dronning Maud Land (EDML. EDML1 is closely interlinked with EDC3, the new chronology for the EPICA ice core from Dome-C (EDC through a stratigraphic match between EDML and EDC that consists of 322 volcanic match points over the last 128 ka. The EDC3 chronology comprises a glaciological model at EDC, which is constrained and later selectively tuned using primary dating information from EDC as well as from EDML, the latter being transferred using the tight stratigraphic link between the two cores. Finally, EDML1 was built by exporting EDC3 to EDML. For ages younger than 41 ka BP the new synchronized time scale EDML1/EDC3 is based on dated volcanic events and on a match to the Greenlandic ice core chronology GICC05 via 10Be and methane. The internal consistency between EDML1 and EDC3 is estimated to be typically ~6 years and always less than 450 years over the last 128 ka (always less than 130 years over the last 60 ka, which reflects an unprecedented synchrony of time scales. EDML1 ends at 150 ka BP (2417 m depth because the match between EDML and EDC becomes ambiguous further down. This hints at a complex ice flow history for the deepest 350 m of the EDML ice core.
Karlöf, Lars; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Gundestrup, Niels; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mulvaney, Robert; Pourchet, Michel; Hofstede, Coen; Lappegard, Gaute; Pettersson, Rickard; van den Broeke, Michiel; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.
We investigate and quantify the variability of snow accumulation rate around a medium-depth firn core (160 m) drilled in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75°00‧S, 15°00‧E; 3470 m h.a.e. (ellipsoidal height)). We present accumulation data from five snow pits and five shallow (20 m) firn cores distributed within a 3.5 7 km distance, retrieved during the 2000/01 Nordic EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) traverse. Snow accumulation rates estimated for shorter periods show higher spatial variance than for longer periods. Accumulation variability as recorded from the firn cores and snow pits cannot explain all the variation in the ion and isotope time series; other depositional and post-depositional processes need to be accounted for. Through simple statistical analysis we show that there are differences in sensitivity to these processes between the analyzed species. Oxygen isotopes and sulphate are more conservative in their post-depositional behaviour than the more volatile acids, such as nitrate and to some degree chloride and methanesulphonic acid. We discuss the possible causes for the accumulation variability and the implications for the interpretation of ice-core records.
Medley, B.; McConnell, J. R.; Neumann, T. A.; Reijmer, C. H.; Chellman, N.; Sigl, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.
East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) mass balance is largely driven by snowfall. Recently, increased snowfall in Queen Maud Land led to years of EAIS mass gain. It is difficult to determine whether these years of enhanced snowfall are anomalous or part of a longer-term trend, reducing our ability to assess the mitigating impact of snowfall on sea level rise. We determine that the recent snowfall increases in western Queen Maud Land (QML) are part of a long-term trend (+5.2 ± 3.7% decade-1) and are unprecedented over the past two millennia. Warming between 1998 and 2016 is significant and rapid (+1.1 ± 0.7°C decade-1). Using these observations, we determine that the current accumulation and temperature increases in QML from an ensemble of global climate simulations are too low, which suggests that projections of the QML contribution to sea level rise are potentially overestimated with a reduced mitigating impact of enhanced snowfall in a warming world.
Storm, Rasmus K.
Det er ganske rigtig et af dansk håndbolds mest dramatiske kapitler Dan Philipsen beskriver i sin bog om Anja Andersens eventyr i Slagelse: 'En dronning kom til byen'. Bogen er velskrevet, og er i sin form en velsignet god gang underholdning til natbordet. Problemet er bare, at man kan have svært...
Satellite images obtained in Lützow-Holm Bay (69ºS, 38ºE) have revealed frequent occurrences of ice-breakup events since the 1980s. Such unstable conditions continued for several to ten-odd years till now, and its variability coincides well with the characteristics of snow accumulation patterns on sea ice; in other words, breakups are often observed during periods of less snow. In contrast, during the 1950s 70s, landfast ice seems to have been extremely stable, judging from the appearance of a long glacier tongue (Shirase Glacier) flowing into the fast-ice field. The length of the tongue had reached ~75km as of 1980 just before the breakup and the equivalent time to its elongation has been estimated at about 30 years. Expansion and contraction of the floating ice tongue depends on its surrounding fast-ice condition. Then, the unstable sea-ice condition for the last two decades has shortened the ice tongue. A decrease in the snow cover on sea ice and warm periods of summer autumn led to the weakening of the landfast ice as the melt season progressed; broken floes were then transported offshore by the prevailing southerly winds. This is a possible scenario for the ice- breakup processes. Furthermore, characteristics of coastal ice variation are reflected in the navigation of the icebreaker, which has made a voyage almost at the same season (middle to late December) and in the same sailing route at the bay. The penetration distance by ramming icebreaking has negative correlation with ice/snow thicknesses and is regarded as an index for ice condition. The distances have shown distinct interannual variations; that is, the periods of longer distances coincide with those of frequent occurrence of breakup in mid-1980s and from late- 1990s to now, while short distances appeared in mid-1990s correspond with continuously stable ice condition without breakup.
Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.
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Riesco Rodríguez, Adrián; Verdejo López, José Alberto; Caballero, Rafael; Martí Oliet, Narciso
We introduce a declarative debugger for Maude modules: functional modules correspond to executable specifications in membership equational logic, while system modules correspond to rewrite theories. First we describe the construction of appropriate debugging trees for oriented equational and membership inferences and rewrite rules. These trees are obtained as the result of collapsing in proof trees all those nodes whose correction does not need any justification. We include severa...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MAUDE data represents reports of adverse events involving medical devices. The data consists of all voluntary reports since June, 1993, user facility reports since...
Caballero, Rafael; Martí Oliet, Narciso; Riesco Rodríguez, Adrián; Verdejo López, José Alberto
We introduce a declarative debugger for Maude functional modules, which correspond to executable specifications in membership equational logic. First we describe the construction of appropriate debugging trees for oriented equational and membership inferences. These trees are obtained as the result of collapsing in proof trees all those nodes whose correction does not need any justification. Since Maude supports the reflective features in its underlying logic, it includes a predefined...
Full Text Available In this paper we present the definition of K-dron, new geometrical form discovered by Janusz Kapusta in 1985 in New York, its history and connection between geometry and symmetry of a cube. It is worth to emphasize that the authors have derived new formulae for the surface of K-dron using the Laplaceatransform in order to obtain the solution of the boundary-value problem for the partial differential equation describing the vibration of the string. The formula proved by us in this paper is clearer and understandable in view of this structure. The solution obtained in this paper describes in general manner the surface of K-dron and more general surfaces named by us n-K-drons. The formula for the surface of K-dron was derived by the method of Laplacea transform having clear geometrical and physical interpretation because it is presented in linear combination of the equation of planes with the coefficients of directions described by suitable combinations of Heavisides functions. Also wide range and different applications of K-dron are presented.[b]Słowa kluczowe[/b]: K-dron, Laplace’a transform, partial differential of string equation of vibration, initial-boundary value problems
Leonor Michaelis was an honoured German biochemist and Maud Leonora Menten an honoured. Canadian pathologist, during the nineteenth century. Though Michaelis sustained his interest in enzymology and biochemistry, Menten moved to pathology and became a renowned pathologist later in her career. The research ...
Obbels, D.; Verleyen, P.; Mano, M. J.; Namsaraev, Z.; Sweetlove, M.; Tytgat, B.; Fernandez-Carazo, R.; De Wever, A.; D'hondt, S.; Ertz, D.; Elster, Josef; Sabbe, K.; Willems, A.; Wilmotte, A.; Vyverman, W.
Roč. 92, č. 6 (2016), s. 1-13, č. článku fiw041. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Antarctica * terrestiral biodiversity * eukaryotes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016
Thamban, M.; Laluraj, C.M.; Naik, S.S.; Chaturvedi, A.
with the proxy record of solar activity (sup (10) Be profile from a South Pole ice core), suggesting enhanced NO sub (3) – values during periods of reduced solar activity like the Dalton Minimum (approx. 1790-1830 AD) and Maunder Minimum (approx. 1640- 1710 AD...
Vihma, T.; Pirazzini, R.; Johansson, M.
During two Finnish Antarctic expeditions (summers 2006/07 and 2007/08) radiation, turbulence, and snow properties were measured over a glacier in the vicinity of the Finnish Station Aboa (73Ë 03'S, 13Ë 24'W), in order to quantify the various component of the surface energy budget. The main measurement station, located at ~230 a.s.l. in an area covered by a thick snow pack, was equipped with a weather mast that gave the vertical profile of temperature and wind speed up to 6.5 m, a 3-dimendional sonic anemometer from which the turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum, atmospheric stability parameter, drag coefficient and various statistics of turbulence were calculated, and a set of radiation sensors to measure the upwelling and downwelling longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes. A second measurement station was located at the distance of one kilometer from the main station, over a blue-ice area, and was equipped with a set of radiometers to measure the for components of the surface radiation budget (plus the downward diffuse shortwave radiation during the second campaign). A third measurement station was located on bare, rocky ground on the slope of a nunatak at 480 m a.s.l., at 3 km distance from the main measurement station on the glacier. The wind, air temperature, humidity, incoming solar radiation and, in 2007/2008, the turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum were measured. Snow temperature and density vertical profiles (down to a depth of 0.5m) were measured twice a day (in the first campaign) and twice at each other day (in the second campaign). Occasionally, to quantify the spatial heterogeneity of the snow properties, snow temperature and density in the uppermost layers were measured along horizontal lines several meters long. Vertical profile of snow grain size was obtained from digital photos taken once or twice a day (in the first campaign) or at each other day (in the second campaign). Cloud cover classification was made every two hours except during night time. The preliminary data analysis showed that near-neutral stratification dominated during both measurement campaigns, with some cases of strong surface-based temperature inversions over the glacier. Over the bare ground of the nunatak, the surface was strongly heated, which resulted in upward turbulent heat fluxes, convection and, occasionally during weak winds under clear skies, formation of convective Cumulus humilis clouds. Although the Sun was continuously above the horizon, the surface fluxes, atmospheric surface layer stratification, and the vertical profile of snow temperature had a pronounced diurnal cycle. Occasionally, much higher wind speed was observed at Aboa station compared to the glacier, due to the very stable stratification which prevented the vertical mixing of momentum over the glacier. Momentum flux and drag coefficient over the glacier were clearly affected by the sastrugi: high drag was observed when wind direction differed from the usual, i.e. wind blew perpendicular to the sastrugi. Surface albedo was identical at the snow and blue ice sites as long as snow was uniformly covering the blue ice area. When snow disappeared over the blue ice, the albedo significantly dropped, causing a sharp increase in net shortwave radiation absorbed at the surface. Daily maxima in upwelling longwave radiation were similar over snow and blue-ice, but over blue ice the nocturnal minima in upwelling radiation were much higher than over snow, due to the larger conductive heat flux from the ice/water beneath the surface. We also observed a large small-scale (sastrugi and the non-uniform wind packing.
Panadès Fàbregues, Mireia
La tecnologia dels vehicles aeris no tripulats s’està desenvolupant a passos gegants i conseqüentment ha sorgit la necessitat de crear una normativa adient per aquest avanç tecnològic. Avui en dia trobem una regulació molt restrictiva perquè la resposta a la urgent necessitat va ser limitar de manera dràstica els seus usos, a causa del temor que produeixen els drons pel que fa la possible afectació dels drets fonamentals, tot i així està pendent d’aprovació una nova llei la qual pretén lligar...
Brandt, A.; Bathmann, U.; Brix, S.; Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Franeker, van J.A.
The benthic fauna was investigated during the expedition ANT-XXIV/2 (2007/08) in relation to oceanographic features, biogeochemical properties and sediment characteristics, as well as the pelagic, benthic pelagic and air-breathing fauna. The results document that Maud Rise (MR) differs distinctly
Bae, Kyungmin; Ölveczky, Peter Csaba; Feng, Thomas Huining; Tripakis, Stavros
This paper shows how Ptolemy II discrete-event (DE) models can be formally analyzed using Real-Time Maude. We formalize in Real-Time Maude the semantics of a subset of hierarchical Ptolemy II DE models, and explain how the code generation infrastructure of Ptolemy II has been used to automatically synthesize a Real-Time Maude verification model from a Ptolemy II design model. This enables a model-engineering process that combines the convenience of Ptolemy II DE modeling and simulation with formal verification in Real-Time Maude.
Peter Csaba Ölveczky
Full Text Available This paper extends our Real-Time Maude formalization of the semantics of flat Ptolemy II discrete-event (DE models to hierarchical models, including modal models. This is a challenging task that requires combining synchronous fixed-point computations with hierarchical structure. The synthesis of a Real-Time Maude verification model from a Ptolemy II DE model, and the formal verification of the synthesized model in Real-Time Maude, have been integrated into Ptolemy II, enabling a model-engineering process that combines the convenience of Ptolemy II DE modeling and simulation with formal verification in Real-Time Maude.
Thamban, M.; Naik, S.S.; Laluraj, C.M.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ravindra, R.
records in two cores correspond to changes in low and mid latitude climatic modes like the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The estimated surface air temperatures using the delta sup(18) O profiles of two ice cores...
Naik, S.S.; Thamban, M.; Laluraj, C.M.; Redkar, B.L.; Chaturvedi, A.
to the study area, 5 day back trajectory analyses were carried out at 500 hpa level above the drilling site, at every 6 hour interval during July 1997 (El Niño year) (Fig.5) using the National Institute for Polar Research trajectory model (NITRAM) [Tomikawa... and it is more difficult to extract information of the moisture source conditions from deuterium excess alone. A recent study suggests that the deuterium excess parameter is mainly affected by the altitude of moisture transport trajectory [Helsen et al., 2006...
Jansen, Daniela; Weikusat, Ilka; Kleiner, Thomas; Wilhelms, Frank; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Frenzel, Andreas; Binder, Tobias; Eichler, Jan; Faria, Sergio H.; Sheldon, Simon; Panton, Christian; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Miller, Heinrich
The European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) ice core was drilled between 2001 and 2006 at the Kohnen Station, Antarctica. During the drilling process the borehole was logged repeatedly. Repeated logging of the borehole shape is a means of directly measuring the deformation of the ice sheet not only on the surface but also with depth, and to derive shear strain rates for the lower part, which control the volume of ice transported from the inner continent towards the ocean. The logging system continuously recorded the tilt of the borehole with respect to the vertical (inclination) as well as the heading of the borehole with respect to magnetic north (azimuth) by means of a compass. This dataset provides the basis for a 3-D reconstruction of the borehole shape, which is changing over time according to the predominant deformation modes with depth. The information gained from this analysis can then be evaluated in combination with lattice preferred orientation, grain size and grain shape derived by microstructural analysis of samples from the deep ice core. Additionally, the diameter of the borehole, which was originally circular with a diameter of 10 cm, was measured. As the ice flow velocity at the position of the EDML core is relatively slow (about 0.75 m/a), the changes of borehole shape between the logs during the drilling period were very small and thus difficult to interpret. Thus, the site has been revisited in the Antarctic summer season 2016 and logged again using the same measurement system. The change of the borehole inclination during the time period of 10 years clearly reveals the transition from a pure shear dominated deformation in the upper part of the ice sheet to shear deformation at the base. We will present a detailed analysis of the borehole parameters and the deduced shear strain rates in the lower part of the ice sheet. The results are discussed with respect to ice microstructural data derived from the EDML ice core. Microstructural data directly reflect the deformation conditions, as the ice polycrystal performs the deformation which leads e.g. to characteristic lattice orientation distributions and grain size and shape appearance. Though overprinted by recrystallization (due to the hot environment for the ice) and the slow deformation, analysis of statistically significant grain numbers reveals indications typical for the changing deformation regimes with depth. Additionally we compare our results with strain rates derived from a simulation with a model for large scale ice deformation, the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM).
Obbels, Dagmar; Verleyen, Elie; Mano, Marie-José; Namsaraev, Zorigto; Sweetlove, Maxime; Tytgat, Bjorn; Fernandez-Carazo, Rafael; De Wever, Aaike; D'hondt, Sofie; Ertz, Damien; Elster, Josef; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; Wilmotte, Annick; Vyverman, Wim
The bacterial and microeukaryotic biodiversity were studied using pyrosequencing analysis on a 454 GS FLX+ platform of partial SSU rRNA genes in terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the Sør Rondane Mountains, including soils, on mosses, endolithic communities, cryoconite holes and supraglacial and subglacial meltwater lenses. This inventory was complemented with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis targeting Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. OTUs belonging to the Rotifera, Chlorophyta, Tardigrada, Ciliophora, Cercozoa, Fungi, Bryophyta, Bacillariophyta, Collembola and Nematoda were present with a relative abundance of at least 0.1% in the eukaryotic communities. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, FBP and Actinobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Multivariate analyses of the pyrosequencing data revealed a general lack of differentiation of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes according to habitat type. However, the bacterial community structure in the aquatic habitats was dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya and appeared to be significantly different compared with those in dry soils, on mosses, and in endolithic habitats. A striking feature in all datasets was the detection of a relatively large amount of sequences new to science, which underscores the need for additional biodiversity assessments in Antarctic inland locations. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van der Palen, C.J.N.M.; Reijnders, W N; de Vries, S; Duine, J A; van Spanning, R J
Synthesis of enzymes involved in methylamine oxidation via methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) is encoded by genes present in the mau cluster. Here we describe the sequence of the mauE and mauD genes from Paracoccus denitrificans as well as some properties of mauE and mauD mutants of this organism. The
Full Text Available Meta SOS is a software framework designed to integrate the results from the meta-theory of structural operational semantics (SOS. These results include deriving semantic properties of language constructs just by syntactically analyzing their rule-based definition, as well as automatically deriving sound and ground-complete axiomatizations for languages, when considering a notion of behavioural equivalence. This paper describes the Meta SOS framework by blending aspects from the meta-theory of SOS, details on their implementation in Maude, and running examples.
station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Final comprehensive environmental evaluation report. British Antarctic Survey. 2007. Proposed construction...Troll in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica to a permanent station. PolarPower.org. 2010. Examples: Princess Elisabeth Antarctica Station
Llordés Pavón, Ignasi
Aquest projecte té com a objectiu general trobar una solució a la lentitud a l‟hora de detectar un incendi als boscos. Per fer-ho es dissenya un sistema emprant una tecnologia emergent: els drons. Es realitza un estudi de mercat per conscienciar-se de les infinites possibilitats que ofereix actualment una tecnologia en desenvolupament com són els drons. S‟analitzen el funcionament i les possibilitats de diverses tecnologies per a detectar incendis i es selecciona la més adie...
Peter Csaba Ölveczky
Full Text Available This paper motivates why Real-Time Maude should be well suited to provide a formal semantics and formal analysis capabilities to modeling languages for embedded systems. One can then use the code generation facilities of the tools for the modeling languages to automatically synthesize Real-Time Maude verification models from design models, enabling a formal model engineering process that combines the convenience of modeling using an informal but intuitive modeling language with formal verification. We give a brief overview six fairly different modeling formalisms for which Real-Time Maude has provided the formal semantics and (possibly formal analysis. These models include behavioral subsets of the avionics modeling standard AADL, Ptolemy II discrete-event models, two EMF-based timed model transformation systems, and a modeling language for handset software.
Full Text Available The two levels of data and actions on those data provided by the separation between equations and rules in rewriting logic are completed by a third level of strategies to control the application of those actions. This level is implemented on top of Maude as a strategy language, which has been successfully used in a wide range of applications. First we summarize the Maude strategy language design and review some of its applications; then, we describe a new case study, namely the description of completion procedures as transition rules + control, as proposed by Lescanne.
Helsen, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325802459; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Scheele, M.P.; Werner, M.
The quantitative interpretation of isotope records (d18O, dD, and d excess) in ice cores can benefit from a comparison of observed meteorology with associated isotope variability. For this reason we studied four isotope records from snow pits in western Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, covering
Panagrolaimus magnivulvatus Boström, 1995 is reported from habitats on inland nunataks in western Dronning Maud Land, continental Antarctica. This species was recorded in lithosols of three of the 11 nunataks (Marsteinen, Lorentzenpiggen and Valterkulten) sampled during the 1992-93 summer. In addition, it was ...
Cherry, D.; Dimitrakaki, A.; Perry, L.
This essay considers Maud Sulter (1960-2008) as a curator. Best known as an artist and writer, Sulter curated nearly 20 exhibitions, working in collaboration with the path-breaking artist and curator Lubaina Himid and independently. The essay explores the transnational perspectives of her curating,
Cherry, D.; Meskimmon, M.; Rowe, D.
This essay focuses on a major theme in the art of Maud Sulter (1960-2008), her long-standing interests in Jeanne Duval. Best known as the model, muse and companion of the poet Charles Baudelaire, Duval was a performer in the entertainment industry of mid nineteenth-century Paris, and one of several
Reviewed by: Terry Anderson
Full Text Available I have been waiting for a couple of years now for a work that successfully ties together the emerging social software/ Web 2.0 scene with established theory and practice of distance education. Unfortunately, I did not write it myself. However, Jon Dron has created the first in what I assume will be a series of writing, research, and experimentation (his and the work of many others that helps us harness the affordances of social software for formal and informal learning. Social software makes use of the emerging Semantic Web and Web 2.0 technologies to enhance learning provided through a ubiquitously connected lifelong learning population, an abundance of learning content, and judicious use of agents to make it easy.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1985-86 in the Queen Maud Land region, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil...
Full Text Available Pervasive user-centric applications are systems which are meant to sense the presence, mood, and intentions of users in order to optimize user comfort and performance. Building such applications requires not only state-of-the art techniques from artificial intelligence but also sound software engineering methods for facilitating modular design, runtime adaptation and verification of critical system requirements. In this paper we focus on high-level design and analysis, and use the algebraic rewriting language Real-Time Maude for specifying applications in a real-time setting. We propose a generic component-based approach for modeling pervasive user-centric systems and we show how to analyze and prove crucial properties of the system architecture through model checking and simulation. For proving time-dependent properties we use Metric Temporal Logic (MTL and present analysis algorithms for model checking two subclasses of MTL formulas: time-bounded response and time-bounded safety MTL formulas. The underlying idea is to extend the Real-Time Maude model with suitable clocks, to transform the MTL formulas into LTL formulas over the extended specification, and then to use the LTL model checker of Maude. It is shown that these analyses are sound and complete for maximal time sampling. The approach is illustrated by a simple adaptive advertising scenario in which an adaptive advertisement display can react to actions of the users in front of the display.
Arrahman, Yehia Abd; Andric, Marina; Beggiato, Alessandro
Relaxed memory models offer suitable abstractions of the actual optimizations offered by multi-core architectures and by compilers of concurrent programming languages. Using such abstractions for verification purposes is challenging in part due to their inherent non-determinism which contributes...... to the state space explosion. Several techniques have been proposed to mitigate those problems so to make verification under relaxed memory models feasible. We discuss how to adopt some of those techniques in a Maude-based approach to language prototyping, and suggest the use of other techniques that have been...
Dunin Elsie Ivancich
Full Text Available A fifty-year (1962-2012 period has been shown as a history of ethnochoreology supported by living memories of members of the International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology. Recently uncovered and juxtapositioned correspondence of three predecessors within earlier years of the International Folk Music Council (IFMC broadens the history. This article reveals the emergence of ethnochoreology during the 1950s with publications of the two Janković sisters in Serbia with that of Gertrude Kurath in the United States, alongside correspondence with Maud Karpeles, the unheralded founder of the IFMC.
Kurtakoti, P. K.; Veneziani, C.; Stoessel, A.; Weijer, W.
Processes responsible for preconditioning and formation of Maud Rise Polynyas (MRP) were analyzed within the framework of a high-resolution fully coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulation. Open Ocean Polynyas (OOPs) are large ice-free areas within the winter ice pack. These are regions of deep convection and strong atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction through which they play an important role in the formation of bottom waters. The data analyzed comes from a simulation conducted in a pre-industrial scenario as part of the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project. Within this simulation, persistent winter OOPs were simulated in the Weddell Sea (Weddell Sea Polynya) and over the Maud Rise seamount (Maud Rise Polynya). The sea ice concentration in the Weddell Sea shows that MRP acts as a precondition to Weddell Sea polynyas, which is consistent with mid 1970s observations of a westward expansion of MRP into the Weddell Sea. The OOPs in years 30-40 of the CESM simulation are largely over Maud Rise giving us an opportunity to investigate processes that trigger and maintain the OOP in winter over Maud Rise. The heat content of the Weddell Deep Water (WDW) is seen to be an important factor for MRPs, consistent with previous studies. The first MRP in the 30s coincides with the strongest negative wind stress curl over the Weddell Sea, which implies that this condition is a triggering mechanism for deep convection. The deep convective event associated with the OOP leads to a reduction of deep ocean heat reservoir up to 3000m depth. The simulation captures a westward flow of WDW impinging on Maud Rise seamount. Previous studies suggest Taylor column dynamics to be necessary for MRPs to emerge. We have explored how Taylor column dynamics could contribute to preconditioning and triggering deep open ocean convection over Maud Rise Seamount. We also investigate the importance of resolution of bottom topography for the formation of a strong enough Taylor
Friedman, Diana C W; Lendvay, Thomas S; Hannaford, Blake
Our goal was to analyze reported instances of the da Vinci robotic surgical system instrument failures using the FDA's MAUDE (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience) database. From these data we identified some root causes of failures as well as trends that may assist surgeons and users of the robotic technology. We conducted a survey of the MAUDE database and tallied robotic instrument failures that occurred between January 2009 and December 2010. We categorized failures into five main groups (cautery, shaft, wrist or tool tip, cable, and control housing) based on technical differences in instrument design and function. A total of 565 instrument failures were documented through 528 reports. The majority of failures (285) were of the instrument's wrist or tool tip. Cautery problems comprised 174 failures, 76 were shaft failures, 29 were cable failures, and 7 were control housing failures. Of the reports, 10 had no discernible failure mode and 49 exhibited multiple failures. The data show that a number of robotic instrument failures occurred in a short period of time. In reality, many instrument failures may go unreported, thus a true failure rate cannot be determined from these data. However, education of hospital administrators, operating room staff, surgeons, and patients should be incorporated into discussions regarding the introduction and utilization of robotic technology. We recommend institutions incorporate standard failure reporting policies so that the community of robotic surgery companies and surgeons can improve on existing technologies for optimal patient safety and outcomes.
Andreoli, Jessica M; Lewandowski, Robert J; Vogelzang, Robert L; Ryu, Robert K
To compare the safety of permanent and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters by reviewing the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. The MAUDE database was reviewed from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012. Product class search criteria were "filter, intravascular, cardiovascular." Type of device used and specific adverse events (AEs) were recorded. For the period January 2009-December 2012, 1,606 reported AEs involving 1,057 IVC filters were identified in the MAUDE database . Of reported AEs, 1,394 (86.8%) involved retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCFs), and 212 (13.2%) involved permanent inferior vena cava filters (pIVCFs) (P < .0001). Reported AEs included fracture, migration, limb embolization, tilt, IVC penetration, venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism, IVC thrombus, and malfunctions during placement. Each specific AE was reported with significantly higher frequency in rIVCFs compared with pIVCFs. The most common reported complication with rIVCFs was fracture, whereas the most commonly reported complications with pIVCFs were placement malfunctions. For rIVCFs, the most commonly reported AE varied depending on filter brand. The MAUDE database reveals that complications occur with significantly higher frequency with rIVCFs compared with pIVCFs. This finding suggests that the self-reported complication rate with rIVCFs is significantly higher than the self-reported complication rate with pIVCFs. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tremaine, Anne Marie; Avram, Mathew M
It is essential for physicians to be fully informed regarding adverse events and malfunctions associated with medical devices that occur in routine practice. There is limited information on this important issue in the medical literature, and it is mostly based on initial studies and case reports. More advanced knowledge regarding device adverse events is necessary to guide physicians towards providing safe treatments. The FDA requires that manufacturers and device users submit medical device reports (MDRs) for suspected injuries from device use or malfunction. The database of MDRs, entitled Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) enables the FDA to monitor device performance and identify potential safety issues. We employed the following search strategy to identify reported adverse events. We searched the MAUDE electronic database on the FDA website in December 2013: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfmaude/search.cfm We collected all reported cases between 1991 and December 2013. The search terms utilized included a comprehensive list of device manufacturers, specific product names, and the wavelengths/technology of the devices used in the field of dermatology. Our search yielded 1257 MDRs. Forty-five MDRs were excluded due to insufficient data. The data is broken down into the adverse events observed, such as, but not limited to: blistering, burns, scarring, dyschromia, fat loss, and nerve palsy. The MDRs describe the adverse event and attempt to determine if it was related to device malfunction versus operator error. Radiofrequency devices, diode lasers, and intense pulsed light devices were the most commonly reported devices related to injuries. 1257 MDRs, from a myriad of devices used in dermatology, have been reported to the FDA as of December 2013. Despite the underreporting of adverse events, the MAUDE database is an untapped resource of post-market surveillance of medical devices. The database can offer additional
フルカワ, テルオ; カミヤマ, コキチ; マエノ, ヒデオ; Teruo, Furukawa; Kokichi, Kamiyama; Hideo, MAENO
Frequencies of snow surface features such as sastrugi, dunes and thermal cracks were measured along the traverse route from the coastal region to the summit of the Queen Maud Land ice sheet, Dome Fuji Station, East Antarctica. The study route can be clearly divided into three regions on the basis of the regional characteristics of snow surface features : coastal region, katabatic wind region and inland plateau region. The coastal region is characterized by high frequency of small sastrugi and...
The role of gastric electrical stimulation for patients with refractory symptoms of gastroparesis remains controversial. Open label studies suggest benefit while randomized controlled trials did not demonstrate differences between active and sham intervention. Using a voluntary reporting system of the Federal Drug Administration, we examined the type and frequency of adverse events. We conducted an electronic search of the Manufacturer and User Device Experience (MAUDE) databank using the keyword 'Enterra' for the time between January of 2001 and October of 2015. We abstracted information about the year of stimulator implantation, the year and type of adverse effect, the resulting intervention and outcome if available. A total of 1587 entries described adverse effects related the GES. Only 36 of the reports listed perioperative complications. The vast majority described problems that could be classified as patient concerns, local complications, or system failure. The most common problem related lack or loss of efficacy, followed by pain or complications affecting the pocket site. A subset of 801 reports provided information about the time between system implant and registration of concerns, which gradually declined over time. More than one third (35.7%) of the reported adverse events prompted surgical correction. The number of voluntarily reported adverse events and the high likelihood of repeated surgical interventions clearly demonstrate the potential downside of gastric electrical stimulation. Physicians considering this intervention will need to carefully weigh these risks and include this information when counseling or consenting patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Naumann, R Wendel; Brown, Jubilee
To evaluate adverse events associated with electromechanical morcellation as reported to the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Retrospective analysis of an established database (Canadian Task Force classification III). A search of the MAUDE database for terms associated with commercially available electromechanical morcellation devices was undertaken for events leading to injury or death between 2004 and 2014. Data, including the types of injury, need for conversion to open surgery, type of open surgery, and clinical outcomes, were extracted from the records. Over a 10-year period, 9 events associated with death and 215 events associated with patient injury or significant delay of the surgical procedure were recorded. These involved 137 device failures, 51 organ injuries, and the morcellation of 27 previously undiagnosed malignancies. Of the 9 deaths, 1 was associated with organ injury, and the other 8 were associated with morcellation of cancer. Of the 27 undiagnosed cancers, 5 were reported by the manufacturer, 8 were reported by the patient or family, 9 were reported by medical or news reports, 2 were reported by medical professionals, and 3 were due to litigation. Morcellation of an undiagnosed malignancy was first reported to the database in December 2013. The MAUDE database appears to detect perioperative events, such as device failures and organ injury at the time of surgery, but appears to be poor at detecting late events after surgery, such as the potential spread of cancer. Outcome registries are likely a more efficient means of tracking potential long-term adverse events associated with surgical devices. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fuller, Andrew; Vilos, George A.; Pautler, Stephen E.
Introduction: The da Vinci surgical system requires the use of electrosurgical instruments. The re-use of such instruments creates the potential for stray electrical currents from capacitive coupling and/or insulation failure with subsequent injury. The morbidity of such injuries may negate many of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. We sought to evaluate the rate and nature of electrosurgical injury (ESI) associated with this device. Methods: The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database is administered by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and reports adverse events related to medical devices in the United States. We analyzed all incidents in the context of robotic surgery between January 2001 and June 2011 to identify those related to the use of electrosurgery. Results: In the past decade, a total of 605 reports have been submitted to the FDA with regard to adverse events related to the da Vinci robotic surgical platform. Of these, 24 (3.9%) were related to potential or actual ESI. Nine out of the 24 cases (37.5%) resulted in additional surgical intervention for repair. There were 6 bowel injuries of which only one was recognized and managed intra-operatively. The remainder required laparotomy between 5 and 8 days after the initial robotic procedure. Additionally, there were 3 skin burns. The remaining cases required conservative management or resulted in no harm. Conclusion: ESI in the context of robotic surgery is uncommon but remains under-recognized and under-reported. Surgeons performing robot assisted surgery should be aware that ESI can occur with robotic instruments and vigilance for intra- and post-operative complications is paramount.
Shields, Rosemary; Shields, Linda
Emma Maud McCarthy was one of the most decorated nurses of the First World War. Born in Sydney in 1859, she trained as a nurse at The London Hospital in England. She was one of the first nurses to go to the South African War and in 1914 was one of the first members of Queen Alexandra's Imperial Nursing Service. Maud McCarthy went to France as Matron-in-Chief of British, Colonial and US nursing services until the end of hostilities in 1918. After the First World War she became Matron-in-Chief of the Territorial Army Nursing Service and retired five years later. She was appointed Dame Grand Cross in 1918 and earned awards from Britain, France, Belgium and America. Her influence on nursing was profound. One of the first senior nurses to recognise the impact of war on minds, she set up separate units for men who had self-harmed and she pioneered nurse anaesthetists in the British Armed Forces. Dame Maud McCarthy was an administrator par excellence whose determination to provide the best conditions possible for both her nurses and the men for whom they cared made possible the highest standards of nursing care in the First World War. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hydrographical and hydrochemical observations have been made at a shelf station off Princess Astrid Coast, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and at 11 other stations along a transect from Antarctica to about 30~'S latitude. The shelf station, located...
... Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula ASPA 118‘Cryptogam Ridge’, Mount Melbourne, Victoria Land ASPA...’, Filchner Ice Front, Weddell Sea HSM 44Plaque at Nivlisen Ice Front, Princesse Astrid Kyst, Dronning Maud...
Safety profiles of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure devices: An analysis of the Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database from 2009 to 2016.
Jazayeri, Mohammad-Ali; Vuddanda, Venkat; Turagam, Mohit K; Parikh, Valay; Lavu, Madhav; Atkins, Donita; Earnest, Matthew; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Wilber, David; Reddy, Yeruva Madhu; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R
Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is a viable option for AF patients who are unable to tolerate long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC). We sought to assess the safety of two commonly used percutaneous devices for LAA closure in the United States by analysis of surveillance data from the FDA Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. The MAUDE database was queried between May 1, 2006 and May 1, 2016 for LARIAT® (SentreHEART Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA) and WATCHMAN™ (Boston Scientific Corp., Marlborough, MA, USA) devices. Among 622 retrieved medical device reports, 356 unique and relevant reports were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of safety events was calculated over the study period and compared between the two devices. LAAC was performed with LARIAT in 4,889 cases. WATCHMAN was implanted in 2,027 patients prior to FDA approval in March 2015 and 3,822 patients postapproval. The composite outcome of stroke/TIA, pericardiocentesis, cardiac surgery, and death occurred more frequently with WATCHMAN (cumulative incidence, 1.93% vs. 1.15%; P = 0.001). The same phenomenon was observed when comparing the WATCHMAN pre- and postapproval experiences for the composite outcome, as well as device embolization, cardiac surgery, and myocardial infarction. MAUDE-reported data show that postapproval, new technology adoption is fraught with increased complications. Improved collaboration between operators, device manufacturers, and regulators can better serve patients through increased transparency and practical postmarket training and monitoring mechanisms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....
Kemp, W.J.M. van der; Alderliesten, C.; Borg, K. van der; Holmlund, P.; Jong, A.F.M. de; Karlöf, L.; Lamers, R.A.N.; Oerlemans, J.; Thomassen, M.; Wal, R.S.W. van de
Ice samples from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, were analyzed for 14CO2 and 14CO by accelerator mass spectrometry. Only a small amount (~2%) of in situ produced radiocarbon was detected. The calibrated radiocarbon ages, corrected for in situ produced 14C, are in fair agreement with age estimates
Kaczmarska, M.; Isaksson, E.; Karlöf, L.; Brandt, O.; Winther, J.G.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Johnsen, S.J.
Measurement of light intensity transmission was carried out on an ice core S100 from coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML). Ice lenses were observed in digital pictures of the core and recorded as peaks in the light transmittance record. The frequency of ice layer occurrence was compared with climate
Ice and firn core studies provide one of the most valuable tools for understanding the past climate change. In order to evaluate the temporal isotopic variability recorded in ice and its relevance to environmental changes, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were studied in a firn core from coastal Dronning Maud Land, ...
South Victoria Land and Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and Collie Basin of west Australia point out to their Early Permian (Late Sakmarian–Early Artinskian) age. Palynomorphs such as Botryococcus sp., Tetraporinia sp., Balmeela sp. and Leiosphaeridia sp. are also recorded which suggest that these sediments were ...
In this study, we provide a preliminary evaluation of the temporal isotopic variability from a firn core from coastal region of Dronning. Maud Land (DML) and its relation to the avail- able meteorological records as well as the possible influences from climatic teleconnections related to. ENSO and SAM in this part of Antarctica.
This thesis chiefly addresses a) the use of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) in determining the near-surface climate and heat budget of Antarctica and, specifically, Dronning Maud Land (DML), and b) the determination of source regions of Antarctic moisture with the aid of a trajectory model and an
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 1. Records of climatic changes and volcanic events in an ice core from Central Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) during the past century. V N Nijampurkar D K Rao H B Clausen M K Kaul A Chaturvedi. Volume 111 Issue 1 March 2002 pp 39-49 ...
R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
lation Model - An axample from Arabian Sea and equatorial Pacific. 339. Nayak S R see Prasad J S. 189 see Sarangi R K. 237. Neprochnov Yu P see Krishna K S. 17. Nijampurkar V N. Records of climatic changes and volcanic events in an ice core from Central Dronning Maud Land (East. Antarctica) during the past century.
R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging)1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
accumulation rates. Records of climatic changes and volcanic events in an ice core from Central Dronning Maud Land (East. Antarctica) during the past century. 39. ADEOS-I. Variability of photosynthetic pigments in the Colom- bian Pacific Ocean and its relationship with the wind field using ADEOS-I data. 227. Adriatic Sea.
Influence of climatic teleconnections on the temporal isotopic variability as recorded in a firn core from the coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica · Sushant S Naik Meloth Thamban A Rajakumar Witty D'Souza C M Laluraj Arun Chaturvedi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Ice and firn core studies provide one of the ...
flow deposit in Miocene-sediments of Andaman-Java subduction complex. 19. Antarctica. Influence of climatic teleconnections on the temporal isotopic variability as recorded in a firn core from the coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. 41. Apatite fission track (AFT). Detrital zircon and apatite fission track data in the.
Influence of climatic teleconnections on the temporal isotopic variability as recorded in a firn core from the coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica · Sushant S Naik Meloth Thamban A Rajakumar Witty D'Souza C M Laluraj Arun Chaturvedi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Ice and firn core studies provide one of the ...
Full Text Available One of the most complex forms of relationship in fiction for young adults seems to be the one between mothers and daughters. The Swedish author Maud Reuterswärd (1920−1980 has written several books for young adults in which a relational crisis between a mother and her daughter is the central theme. Throughout Reuterswärd’s trilogy about Elisabet Hof, the mother plays a key role. The trilogy features an emotionally instable and mentally absent mother whose depression eventually leads to her attempting to commit suicide. Through a psychoanalytical lens, this paper highlights and discusses how the mother-daughter relationship in Reuterswärd’s trilogy is mediated through dialogue, point of view and tone. The mother’s voice and the verbal communication between mother and daughter is focused by using Luce Irigaray’s theoretical approach of the maternal function in psychoanalysis and culture. In addition the paper attempts to widen the critical perspectives and provide alternative ways of understanding the mother in Reuterswärd’s trilogy.
Ferraccioli, F.; Forsberg, R.; Aitken, A.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bell, R. E.; Finn, C.; Martos, Y. M.; Armadillo, E.; Jacobs, J.; Ebbing, J.; Eagles, G.; Jokat, W.; Jordan, T. A.; Ruppel, A.; Läufer, A.; Dalziel, I. W. D.
East Antarctica is a keystone in the Gondwana, Rodinia and the Columbia supercontinents. Recent aerogeophysical research, augmented by satellite magnetic, gravity and seismological data is unveiling the crustal architecture of the continent. This is helping comprehend the impact of supercontinental processes such as subduction, accretion, rifting and intraplate tectonics on its evolution. A mosaic of Precambrian basement provinces is apparent in interior East Antarctica (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). A major suture separates the Archean-Neoproterozoic Ruker Province from an inferred Grenvillian-age orogenic Gamburtsev Province with remarkably thick crust (up to 60 km thick) and thick lithosphere (over 200 km thick). The age of the suturing and its linkages with supercontinental assembly is debated with both Rodinia and Gondwana candidates being proposed. Further east, magnetic highs delineate a Paleo to Mesoproterozoic Nimrod-South Pole igneous province (Goodge and Finn, 2010 JGR) that flanks a composite Mawson Continent- including the Gawler Craton of South Australia (Aitken et al., 2014 GRL). An over 1,900 km long magnetic and gravity lineament is imaged along the western flank of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin and is interpreted here as a major Paleoproterozoic suture zone linked to the collision of Laurentia and East Antarctica within Columbia. The proposed suture played a pivotal role helping localise Neoproterozoic Rodinia rifted margin evolution and forming a backstop for the Ross-Delamerian cycle of Gondwana amalgamation. Aeromagnetic and gravity imaging help determine the extent of a Keweenawan-age (ca 1.1 Ga) large igneous province in the Coats Land Block -isotopically tied with the Mid-Continent Rift System of Laurentia (Loewy et al., 2011 Geology). Imprints of Grenvillian magmatic arc accretion link together the Namaqua-Natal and Maud belts in South Africa and Dronning Maud Land within Rodinia. The aeromagnetically distinct Southeast Dronning Maud
Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley
The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.
Golynsky, A.; Bell, R.; Blankenship, D.; Damaske, D.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Golynsky, D.; Ivanov, S.; Jokat, W.; Masolov, V.; Riedel, S.; von Frese, R.; Young, D.
The Antarctic geomagnetics' community remains very active in crustal anomaly mapping. More than 1.5 million line-km of new air- and shipborne data have been acquired over the past decade by the international community in Antarctica. These new data together with surveys that previously were not in the public domain significantly upgrade the ADMAP compilation. Aeromagnetic flights over East Antarctica have been concentrated in the Transantarctic Mountains, the Prince Charles Mountains - Lambert Glacier area, and western Dronning Maud Land (DML) — Coats Land. Additionally, surveys were conducted over Lake Vostok and the western part of Marie Byrd Land by the US Support Office for Aerogeophysical Research projects and over the Amundsen Sea Embayment during the austral summer of 2004/2005 by a collaborative US/UK aerogeophysical campaign. New aeromagnetic data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (120,000 line-km), acquired within the IPY Antarctica's Gamburtsev Province project reveal fundamental geologic features beneath the East Antarctic Ice sheet critical to understanding Precambrian continental growth processes. Roughly 100,000 line-km of magnetic data obtained within the International Collaboration for Exploration of the Cryosphere through Aerogeophysical Profiling promises to shed light on subglacial lithology and identify crustal boundaries for the central Antarctic Plate. Since the 1996/97 season, the Alfred Wegener Institute has collected 90,000 km of aeromagnetic data along a 1200 km long segment of the East Antarctic coast over western DML. Recent cruises by Australian, German, Japanese, Russian, British, and American researchers have contributed to long-standing studies of the Antarctic continental margin. Along the continental margin of East Antarctica west of Maud Rise to the George V Coast of Victoria Land, the Russian Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition and Geoscience Australia obtained 80,000 and 20,000 line-km, respectively, of
Raymond J. Boyd
Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).
Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.
Cameron, R. L.
One of the main tasks of a glaciologist is to determine the mass budget of a glacier; and snow accumulation is the first part of the equation. To do this, a great number of snow pits must be dug to analyze the stratigraphy. A. P. Crary once said “to be a glaciologist one should first of all love to dig snow pits.” Seventy-five snow pits were dug on the SPQMLT traverses. Several experienced glaciologists had difficulty in interpreting the stratigraphic sequences in these pits. Irregular layering, caused by uneven deposition and subsequent erosion, suggested that some of the layers could be missing. However, the fallout of artificial radioactive nuclides released by the first large thermonuclear bomb test, on March 1, 1954, at Castle Bravo on Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, produced a datum horizon over the Antarctic ice sheet. This horizon is the summer of 1954-55 and provides the basis for measuring the average accumulation since 1955. Accumulation varied from 6.7 ± 0.2 g cm-2 yr-1 at South Pole Station to a low of 0.6 ± 0.2 g cm-2 yr-1 in a pit on the second leg of SPQMLT 2. The average accumulation along the entire traverse route was 3.7 g cm-2 yr-1. Temperatures at ten meters (considered an approximate mean annual air temperature) varied from -58.4 degrees Centigrade at Plateau Station (elevation 3620 meters) to -38 degrees Centigrade at the terminus of SPQMLT 3 (elevation 2310 meters). The condition of the ice sheet surface varied considerably. Some surface was quite hard and easy to traverse; while other areas that were smooth and soft were troublesome enough to bog down vehicles and sleds. Sastrugi were sporadic with some as high as a meter. A large crevasse field forced a slight change in course toward the end of the first leg of SPQMLT 2. There the ice thickness changed dramatically from 3060 meters to 1852 meters. At the time the geophysicist said, “The ‘bottom’ came up so fast I thought we would hit a nunatak.”
Rack, W.; Linow, S.; Dierking, W.
Radar backscattering from Antarctic snow shows high variability in dependence of imaging geometry, radar wavelength, and polarization. The azimuthal anisotropy is primarily caused by persistent katabatic winds and the resulting predominant pattern of sastrugi. Incidence angle dependence and magnitude of backscattering is related to snow morphology as a result of the vertical sequence of internal layers due to snow accumulation and subsequent snow metamorphism. We investigate the backscattering properties in X-Band in comparison to C- and L-Band between the coastal areas in Antarctica and the high-elevated plateau. The analysis is based on ScanSAR data from Terra-SAR, Envisat, and ALOS in Dronning Maud Land and the western Ross Sea region. Most of the image data were acquired during the winter season, when the snow also in the percolation zone is frozen. As a reference for the interpretation of satellite data serve field data from snow pits and firn cores, such as accumulation, density profiles, layering, grain size, and hardness. Also available are ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. In Dronning Maud Land, field data are available along several traverse routes and measurement profiles between the German overwintering base Neumayer and the Kohnen Station. In the western Ross Sea Region field data were collected in November 2008 near Scott Base (New Zealand) within ESA's Cryosat Cal/Val program. We apply a normalization procedure with respect to incidence and azimuth angle to the various data sources in order to generate normalized maps of the backscattering coefficient. Maps of backscattering coefficient and incidence angle dependence are used as input to a snow classification algorithm, which are interpreted along with the field data. The most significant differences in the backscattering properties can be understood as a result of variations in penetration depth between the dry snow zone and percolation zone. In the dry snow zone backscattering variations in
Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...
Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...
ヒルタ, シンイチ; オオヤマ, ヨシクニ; Shin-ichi, HIRUTA; Yoshikuni, OHYAMA
As one of the main projects of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, 1989 and 1990 surveys on terrestrial ecology were carried out in the S〓r Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land. During the 1990 survey, one springtail, four mites and some tardigrades and one nematode-species were discovered in the mountain regions. The relation between soil properties and distribution of soil animals is briefly discussed.
Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.
Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.
that industrial Western military culture negatively influenced the ability to wage .... revolution occurred when Western troops started to pay attention to local support for ... The fourth principle is the priority of the fight against the insurgents'.
Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.
The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.
Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.
The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data
L David Mech
Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.
Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K
Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.
This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…
United States Environmental Protection Agency
This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relative positions of Western Balkan countries and to determine the differences or similarities in the results based on survey data (of international institutions: EBRD, World Bank, World Economic Forum, Heritage Foundation, and on based on selected key statistical indicators. Using the sample of countries in same region and by applying the method of “multi-country” statistical analysis, it was attempted to establish relation between results obtained in studies of international institutions, and some actual achieved key economic performances by the first measure of correlation (so-called Spearman's coefficient of correlation. The obtained results differ to a smaller or greater extent according to the experiential test we used in the case of this region. Therefore, our findings reveal that overall economic position of selected country cannot be perceived only by relying on one methodology or type of data. Consequently, we point out that multi-criteria are a must and each methodology can be useful, because it emphasizes different aspects of the economic performances and country position.
This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.
This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.
Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich
along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.
Author considered Western Civilization in the light of present realities and stated his reasons for believing that the course is not suited to the needs of the greatest number of those students who take it. (Author/RK)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...
Malone, T. F.
, and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.
Full Text Available This paper aims to show that two eminent Marxists in the 1930s, the Italian Antonio Gramsci and the Japanese Tosaka Jun, shared three important characteristics of so-called Western Marxism: the methodological development of Marxism, the focus on the superstructure, and the pessimism about the impossibility of immediate revolution. Showing that Gramsci and Tosaka shared these characteristics enables us to revisit the framework of “Western Marxism,” which confusingly consists of both theoretical characteristics and geographical criteria. Looking at Gramsci and Tosaka on the same plane allows us to revisit Marxist thought different from the orthodox Marxism in Soviet Russia, and not strictly as a Western, but as a part of potentially global movement of thought.
Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others
Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…
Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay
This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...
The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...
Politica; Analyst. Munich. The history of the Western Sahara has seen many developments familiar to Africa: • the drawing of artificial boundaries in foreign European capitals at the tum of the century,. • clandestine agreements between colonial and regional powers without proper consultation with the territory's population,.
Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.
In Western countries, it appears to have become ‘fashionable’ for politicians who are engaged in urban issues to argue for more social mix of the population at the neighbourhood level. It is assumed that a concentration of poverty reproduces a lack of social opportunities. Therefore, a more balanced
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...
Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona
The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee p...... policy studies, looking at migration and multiculturalism, the care of young children, and home-based childcare and transnational dynamics.......The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee...
Nielsen, Jakob Isak
The article is written for an issue on the Western genre. By means of a comparative analysis of Winchester '73 (Anthony Mann, 1950) and The Man from Laramie (Anthony Mann, 1955) the article accounts for stylistic, narrative, generic and theoretical implications of the transition from Academy rati...... (1.37: 1) to CinemaScope (2.66, 2.55 og 2.35: 1)....
Clement, G.; Ahlberg, P.E.; Blieck, A.; Blom, H.; Clack, J.A.; Poty, E.; Thorez, J.; Janvier, P.
Several discoveries of Late Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) have been made during the past two decades but each has been confined to one locality. Here we describe a tetrapod jaw of about 365 million years (Myr) old from the Famennian of Belgium, which is the first from western continental Europe. The jaw closely resembles that of Ichthyostega, a Famennian tetrapod hitherto known only from Greenland. The environment of this fossil provides information about the conditions that prevail...
Aich, Tapas Kumar
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!
Vintges, K.; Ennaji, M.
This chapter focuses on recent debates on women and Islam as framed in the Western media. The first section discusses the way these debates are organized through the presentations and self-presentations of Muslim women in the Western media. The second section (titled “The Restyling of Western
Owen P. Cramer
Severity of 1957 fire weather west of the Cascade Range summit in Oregon and Washington was near the average of the previous 10 years. The season (April 1 through October 31) was slightly more severe than 1956 in western Oregon and about the same as 1956 in western Washington. Spring fire weather was near average severity in both western Washington and western Oregon....
Spörlein, Christoph; van Tubergen, Frank
This study examines existing hypotheses on cross-national differences in immigrants' labor market integration. Unlike previous research, which focused on Western countries, we study the occupational status of immigrants in both Western and non-Western countries. We use census data for 45 Western and
Drought adaptation is not just a matter of hydrology and technology. It is at least as much about the way we govern. As John Wesley Powell and others explored and surveyed the territory west of the 100th meridian, they observed that it was distinctive in its aridity and topography. From a water perspective, it might have been better had western state boundaries conformed more closely to the contours of rivers and groundwater basins. Perhaps then the West could have avoided such bitter inters...
Ruth.., Urs; Bigler, Matthias
analysis), elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy at pH 1 and after full acid digestion), and water-insoluble elemental analysis (proton induced X-ray emission). Antarctic ice core samples covering the last deglaciation from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the EPICA Dronning Maud Land......To improve quantitative interpretation of ice core aeolian dust records, a systematic methodological comparison was made. This involved methods for water-insoluble particle counting (Coulter counter and laser-sensing particle detector), soluble ion analysis (ion chromatography and continuous flow...
At the level of formal attempts at conflict resolution, the Western Sahara conflict has been locked in a political stalemate for years. One consequence is that the people of Western Sahara are often overlooked in their own conflict – despite the fact that the very case for decolonization in Western Sahara hinges upon the right of the people of the territory to self-determination. This essay examines how, despite the ongoing formal stalemate, under the radar of formal politics in recent years ...
Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.
colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... and range on the basis of the present material, due to too few and incomparable surveys. Only the Brünnich's guillemot is adequately studied to make conclusions on population trends (Kampp et al. 1994). However, our impressions of trends are given in Tab. 5. Species with decreasing populations are common...... eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...
Full Text Available As China is believed to be the market of the twenty-first century, entering China is not an option but a strategic requirement for many organizations. However, numerous Western managers who are well equipped with technical background know almost nothing about the pioneers who are reshaping the world's second largest economy. Consequently, this cross-sectional analysis explores the managerial implication of the Chinese dialectic logic vs. Western formal logic, particularistic Chinese culture vs. universalistic Western culture. Then it investigates the Chinese socialization vs. Western technical expertise and completes the analysis on the Chinese vs. American pattern of management development including a comparison of their respective MBA.
Daniel K. Rosenberg; Roberta Swift
.... We investigated post-emergence movements and habitat associations of western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) at two study sites in western Oregon using micro-transmitters and harmonic radar methods...
Owen P. Cramer
Fire season severity in 1960 was about average in western Washington but was very high in western Oregon. Severity of the entire season in both States was slightly greater than in 1959. Although spring was less severe, both summer and fall were slightly more severe than comparable parts of the previous fire season. Spring fire danger in western Washington was as low as...
Conclusion: Compared to a regular treatment with western medicine alone, the therapeutic approach that utilizes integration of Chinese with western medicine can effectively improve the clinical efficacy and serum hormone levels in patients with menopausal syndrome. However, the evidence was not very strong due to the ...
Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.
This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and
Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie
The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…
W. B. Critchfield; S. L. Krugman
The results of hybridizing the western pine species by the Institute of Forest Genetics are described and discussed. It has been found that the hard, (yellow) pines can generally be crossed successfully only with similar species native to the same part of the world. In contrast, the soft (white) pines of the Western Hemisphere have been crossed successfully with soft...
Scott Tyler; Sudeep Chandra; Gordon Grant
With the effects of the dramatic western US drought still reverberating through the landscape, researchers gathered in advance of the 20th annual Lake Tahoe Summit to discuss western US water issues in the 21st century. This two-day workshop brought together ~40 researchers from universities and agencies (federal and state) to discuss the prospects that...
The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) provides an avenue for the wide dissemination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, ...
American style skyscrapers with western modern architecture which signifies that they have followed the trend of modernity. Today, many cities in China could boast of city skyline with modern designs for comfort. b) Chinese Weddings: Many Chinese have adopted the western form of white wedding ceremony. They see the.
Purpose: To present the first complete Guide for studying the Western-Ukrainian Dialect and its scientific description of Phonology. Methodology: descriptive, contrastive and analytical methods of defining the peculiarities of the Dialect. Results: the regularities and the laws have been defined as to the specifics of the Western-Ukrainian Dialect…
The author frequently teaches introductory courses in what was once generally called "Western Civilization" and has often been called upon to referee all or parts of the manuscripts of new editions of "Western Civ" textbooks. Through his own reading, he has become aware that much current scholarship on ancient Israel and Judah…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of
Heinonen, Jussi S.; Luttinen, Arto V.; Bohrson, Wendy A.
Continental flood basalts (CFBs) represent large-scale melting events in the Earth's upper mantle and show considerable geochemical heterogeneity that is typically linked to substantial contribution from underlying continental lithosphere. Large-scale partial melting of the cold subcontinental lithospheric mantle and the large amounts of crustal contamination suggested by traditional binary mixing or assimilation-fractional crystallization models are difficult to reconcile with the thermal and compositional characteristics of continental lithosphere, however. The well-exposed CFBs of Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, belong to the Jurassic Karoo large igneous province and provide a prime locality to quantify mass contributions of lithospheric and sublithospheric sources for two reasons: (1) recently discovered CFB dikes show isotopic characteristics akin to mid-ocean ridge basalts, and thus help to constrain asthenospheric parental melt compositions and (2) the well-exposed basaltic lavas have been divided into four different geochemical magma types that exhibit considerable trace element and radiogenic isotope heterogeneity (e.g., initial ɛ Nd from -16 to +2 at 180 Ma). We simulate the geochemical evolution of Vestfjella CFBs using (1) energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization equations that account for heating and partial melting of crustal wall rock and (2) assimilation-fractional crystallization equations for lithospheric mantle contamination by using highly alkaline continental volcanic rocks (i.e., partial melts of mantle lithosphere) as contaminants. Calculations indicate that the different magma types can be produced by just minor (1-15 wt%) contamination of asthenospheric parental magmas by melts from variable lithospheric reservoirs. Our models imply that the role of continental lithosphere as a CFB source component or contaminant may have been overestimated in many cases. Thus, CFBs may represent major juvenile crustal
Carey, Mary; Bower, Caroline; Mylvaganam, Arul; Rouse, Ian
In Western Australia (WA), talipes equinovarus is a notifiable birth defect and, since 1980, has been ascertained by the population-based Birth Defects Registry (BDR). Talipes equinovarus deformities were classified as two distinct and distinguishable types, viz. isolated talipes equinovarus (no other birth defects present) and associated talipes equinovarus (other birth defects present). The birth prevalence of associated talipes in WA between 1980 and 1994 was 0.90 per 1000 births, and of isolated talipes was 1.25 per 1000 births. The rate of the isolated deformity was higher in Aboriginal infants (3.49 per 1000 births) than in Caucasian infants (1.11 per 1000 births) and non-Aboriginal non-Caucasian infants (0.73 per 1000 births). The sex differential in the rate of the isolated deformity was greatest among Aboriginal infants, with the rate in males being almost four times that in females. The birth prevalence of both types of the deformity remained stable over the 15-year study period. The rate of caesarean and breech deliveries and the proportion of bilaterally affected feet was greater among infants with associated talipes equinovarus deformity. An accurate and complete identification of cases of isolated talipes equinovarus in the 1980-94 WA birth cohort provides a basis for furthering the understanding of the epidemiology and hence the aetiology of the deformity.
Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris P.
The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northernmost West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent.
González Ruibal, Alfredo
Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.
Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.
Stothard, J R; Lockyer, A E; Kabatereine, N B; Tukahebwa, E M; Kazibwe, F; Rollinson, D; Fenwick, A
During routine parasitological surveillance and monitoring activities within a National Control Programme for control of human schistosomiasis in Uganda, it was noted that cattle grazing in a water meadow immediately adjacent to Tonya primary school, where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in children was in excess of 90%, were unusually emaciated. To test the hypothesis that there may have been an anthropozoonotic focus of Schistosoma mansoni within the local herd, a young female heifer, clearly emaciated and c. 8 months old, was slaughtered from which schistosome worms were later recovered by dissection. As female worms inspected by microscopy were not gravid, morphological identification proved inconclusive but analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences from these worms identified them as Schistosoma bovis Sonsino, 1876. This is the first substantiated report of S. bovis from Lake Albert, western Uganda. Further epidemiological surveys are needed to clarify the extent of bovine schistosomiasis within this region, particularly so since this lakeside plain has been earmarked as a future game reserve.
Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.
The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.
Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik
BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We......-CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......, making it a valuable tool for clinical epidemiological research....
Mahmood, Tahrin; Yang, Ping-Chang
Western blotting is an important technique used in cell and molecular biology. By using a western blot, researchers are able to identify specific proteins from a complex mixture of proteins extracted from cells. The technique uses three elements to accomplish this task: (1) separation by size, (2) transfer to a solid support, and (3) marking target protein using a proper primary and secondary antibody to visualize. This paper will attempt to explain the technique and theory behind western blot, and offer some ways to troubleshoot.
Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris
The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northern-most West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent. In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that climate change may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than climate-change-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how climate-change-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits due to warming air temperatures, rising irrigation demands, and warming waters in a basin already hobbled by tensions between endangered fisheries
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Western Lale Erie Restoration Assessment (WLERA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research area is located along a transect from 18 deg S to 29 deg S in the Chilean Altiplano, the western part of the high intramontane plateau in the Central...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...
Simonson, Timothy L
... than it is to allow them to fail. After more than two centuries of ethnic violence and a decade and a half of genocide and civil war, the western Balkans remain at risk of becoming failed states...
Colin D. MacLean
A recent Forest Survey inventory of western Oregon has been analyzed to determine the extent of physical opportunities to increase wood production through silvicultural treatment. Results are presented by owner group and by geographic unit.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in Western Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of nesting birds....
Cipriano Di Maggio; Giuliana Madonia; Marco Vattano; Valerio Agnesi; Salvatore Monteleone
This paper proposes a morphoevolutionary model for western Sicily. Sicily is a chain–foredeep–foreland system still being built, with tectonic activity involving uplift which tends to create new relief...
Despres, JP; Burnard, Pamela Anne; Dube, F; Stevance, S
The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice’s aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers’ thinking processes are not yet thoroughly documented. As a result of this gap, our research addresses the following question: What strategies are implement...
Jeong, Dae-Eun; Lee, Yujin; Lee, Seung-Jae V
C. elegans has been widely used as a model organism for basic biological research and is particularly amenable for molecular genetic studies using a broad repertoire of techniques. Biochemical approaches, including Western blot analysis, have emerged as a powerful tool in C. elegans biology for understanding molecular mechanisms that link genotypes to phenotypes. Here, we provide a protocol for Western blot analysis using protein extracts obtained from C. elegans samples.
Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang
The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kristoffersen, Yngve; Hofstede, Coen; Diez, Anja; Blenkner, Richard; Lambrecht, Astrid; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf
The breakup of Gondwana is manifested by coeval early Jurassic Karoo magmatism in South Africa and East Antarctica. In South Africa, the large volumes of volcanic rocks of the adjoining Lebombo and Mwenetzi-Save monoclines represent a volcanic rift margin, and in East Antarctica, a corresponding feature, the Explora Wedge is buried below sediments and floating ice shelves on the continental margin of Dronning Maud Land. We use the seismic vibrator source to explore the sub-ice geology in Antarctica, and the new seismic reflection and available regional aeromagnetic data enable us to outline a dogleg landward extent of the Explora Wedge in Dronning Maud Land. The congruent inboard wedge geometries on the two continents define a high quality constraint, which facilitate for the first time, a geologically consistent and tight reconstruction of Africa relative to East Antarctica within Gondwana. The uncertainties in correlations of major geological features (mobile belts) from one continent to the other may now be of the order of ten's of kilometers rather than hundreds of kilometers.
Severi, M.; Becagli, S.; Castellano, E.
A common time scale for the EPICA ice cores from Dome C (EDC) and Dronning Maud Land (EDML) has been established. Since the EDML core was not drilled on a dome, the development of the EDML1 time scale for the EPICA ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land was based on the creation of a detailed...... stratigraphic link between EDML and EDC, which was dated by a simpler 1D ice-flow model. The synchronisation between the two EPICA ice cores was done through the identification of several common volcanic signatures. This paper describes the rigorous method, using the signature of volcanic sulfate, which.......2 corresponding to an uncertainty of up to 20% in the estimate of the time duration in at least one of the two ice cores. Significant deviations of R up to 1.4-1.5 are observed between 18 and 28 kyr before present (BP), where present is defined as 1950. At this stage our approach does not allow us unequivocally...
Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.
Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen
Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...
Owen P. Cramer
The 1956 fire season will be remembered for the record number of lightning storms in nearly all parts of the area. In other respects, fire-weather severity was slightly below the average of the previous ten years. In western Oregon, fire weather over the entire season (April through October) was slightly less severe than in 1955, while in western Washington it was...
Robbins, Alan S.; And Others
New programs and related activities in ambulatory care and education in the Western Region Veterans' Health Administration and its 11 affiliated medical schools are reported, including advisory activities, innovative projects, and a conference. Future activities in the expanded western region are outlined. (Author/MSE)
Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik
BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... examined the content, data quality, and research potential of the WDHR-CCTR. METHODS: We retrieved 2008-2012 data to examine the 1) content; 2) completeness of procedure registration using the Danish National Patient Registry as reference; 3) completeness of variable registration comparing observed vs...... expected numbers; and 4) positive predictive values as well as negative predictive values of 19 main patient and procedure variables. RESULTS: By December 31, 2012, almost 22,000 cardiac CTs with up to 40 variables for each procedure have been registered. Of these, 87% were coronary CT angiography...
Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.
Full Text Available This paper explains the concept of regional competitiveness and the factors that influence on it. A large number of various authors explain this concept, based on its different aspects, including: productivity, mikroaspekts (firm, quality of human capital, innovation, technology, infrastructure, social capital, etc.. Taking into account complex nature of regional competitiveness, it is difficult to determine a standard definition of this term. The second part of this paper refers to the case of western China. Substantial disparity in regional development is a reality in every geographically large country, and the causes of the disparity are numerous and complex. Regional inequality has been an important issue in China. This paper generally summarized China's Western regions geography, government policies and development situation. The authors put forward some practical strategies on how to help the western regions create a favorable environment to attract national and international investment.
Gee, Jay E; Gulvik, Christopher A; Elrod, Mindy G; Batra, Dhwani; Rowe, Lori A; Sheth, Mili; Hoffmaster, Alex R
The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, which is mainly associated with tropical areas. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among genome sequences from isolates of B. pseudomallei that originated in the Western Hemisphere by comparing them with genome sequences of isolates that originated in the Eastern Hemisphere. Analysis indicated that isolates from the Western Hemisphere form a distinct clade, which supports the hypothesis that these isolates were derived from a constricted seeding event from Africa. Subclades have been resolved that are associated with specific regions within the Western Hemisphere and suggest that isolates might be correlated geographically with cases of melioidosis. One isolate associated with a former World War II prisoner of war was believed to represent illness 62 years after exposure in Southeast Asia. However, analysis suggested the isolate originated in Central or South America.
Full Text Available Financial system supports economic growth, while its regulatory framework provides stability for investors. Develo-ping countries with bank-oriented financial systems are not attractive to investors, so prolonged status quo leads to economic deterioration. This is particularly the case with some of the most underdeveloped areas in Europe: Western Balkans. It is essential the developing countries in this region consider steps towards financial liberalization, which will help open the borders for capital flows and attract new investments. The main goal of this paper is to review and present the available information related to the banking system development in Western Balkans in terms of ownership structure, capital adequacy, loan and asset performance, return on investment and liquidity. These indicators should provide a clearer picture of the current financial systems in Western Balkans economies and their development progress – useful for comparison with other developing regions and financial transformation and liberalization efforts.
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and suggest that global bioethics will succeed only to the extent that it is local. PMID:19593391
La Violette, Paul E.
At a meeting in Palma (on the Mediterranean island of Majorca), on October 20, 1986, ocean scientists affiliated with the Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment (WMCE) met to discuss the completion of their 1-year field experiment. The convenors represented a consortium of 60 scientists from laboratories and institutions in the United States, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The consortium members pooled their talents, instruments, and resources to achieve their common goal: the derivation of the spatial and temporal variability of the circulation of the western Mediterranean Sea.
Full Text Available This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes.
Dr. Daan Andriessen; Marien van den Boom
The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept
Wang, Victor C. X.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine
The authors of this article consider Western teaching and learning alongside Confucian teaching and learning through reviewing the literature. The paper emphasizes that we must teach lower order thinking skills first before we teach higher order thinking skills, and confirms that rote learning and memorization precede critical thinking and…
Paul E. Aho
Descriptions and color photographs of important fungal sporophores (conks), other indicators of cull (wounds), and associated decays in western Oregon conifers are provided to aid timber markers, cruisers, and scalers in identifying them. Cull factors are given for the indicators by tree species.
Based on Erich Maria Remarque's novel "All Quiet on the Western Front" and other war literature, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that works of art about war can call up strong emotions in readers; and that the writing process can be applied to writing poems. The main activity of the lesson involves…
Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced
Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary
This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.
Freek Bucx; Simone de Roos
Original Title: Opvoeden in niet-westerse migrantengezinnen This report describes the parenting of young children in families of non-Western origin. The focus is mainly on parents and children of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean origin. Based on earlier qualitative research and
and other Western agencies are extensively surveying billions of Internet users worldwide, employing a so-called 'collect-it-all' approach. The reaction was protests by a heterogeneity of different actors, however, a movement against surveillance is not to be found. This chapter conducts a ‘test’ of ten...
Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza; Hjarup, Søren
The aim of the paper is to analyse the development of the structure in the Western European mobile services market, based primarily on technological and economic parameters. The focus of the analysis is on the market consolidation process, taking place horizontally, i.e. among the mobile network...
Jean M. Daniels
This study presents results of statistical tests for stumpage market integration on 62 national forests in the Western United States. Quarterly stumpage prices from 1984 to 2007 obtained from cut and sold reports for USDA Forest Service Regions 1, 4, 5, and 6 (Northern, Intermountain, Pacific Southwest, and Pacific Northwest, respectively) were analyzed to establish...
A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methodsused to estimate surface wind speeds from...
R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman
textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross
Pryde, Philip R.
Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)
Objectives. Drug resistance is a serious problem in the treatment of tuberculosis and a threat to successful tuberculosis control programmes. Local health workers have expressed concern that the increasing tuberculosis epidemic in the Western Cape is partly attributable to drug resistance. The aim of this study was to ...
Hooker, Claire; Noonan, Estelle
In this paper we articulate a growing awareness within the field of the ways in which medical humanities could be deemed expressive of Western cultural values. The authors suggest that medical humanities is culturally limited by a pedagogical and scholarly emphasis on Western cultural artefacts, as well as a tendency to enact an uncritical reliance upon foundational concepts (such as 'patient' and 'experience') within Western medicine. Both these tendencies within the field, we suggest, are underpinned by a humanistic emphasis on appreciative or receptive encounters with 'difference' among patients that may unwittingly contribute to the marginalisation of some patients and healthcare workers. While cultural difference should be acknowledged as a central preoccupation of medical humanities, we argue that the discipline must continue to expand its scholarly and critical engagements with processes of Othering in biomedicine. We suggest that such improvements are necessary in order to reflect the cultural diversification of medical humanities students, and the geographical expansion of the discipline within non-Western and/or non-Anglophone locations.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were used to examine how post-fire sedimentation might change in western USA watersheds with future fire from the decade of 2001-10 through 2041-50. The...
First- and second-wave Western European feminists struggled to realize full access to civil rights for women and the creation of a participatory democracy that ensured social solidarity. They consequently stressed the fact that in addition to the struggle for civil rights, women needed to contest
Background: Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of mental disorders in the western world but viewed as an alien method of treatment to Africans. Aim: To review the literature on the effectiveness of psychotherapy in sub- Saharan Africa. Method: A systematic search of Medline, PsychINFO, ...
Indigenous knowledge is often dismissed as 'traditional and outdated', and hence irrelevant to modern ecological assessment. This theoretical paper critically examines the arguments advanced to elevate modern western ecological knowledge over indigenous ecological knowledge, as well as the sources and uses of ...
Morano, Donald V.
From the insights of ancient and modern commentators and historical and psychological research, the author strived to determine briefly: (1) what Thales meant by his statements, (2) how he came to such conclusions, and (3) why such conclusions are now regarded as marking the dawn of Western philosophy. (Author/RK)
The article analyses the further consequences of this conceptual clash between Western military culture and counterinsurgency in the reality of counterinsurgency warfare. It is explained that the contrast between both concepts leads to an ambiguous reality in which soldiers are aware of the specifics of counterinsurgency ...
Donald R. Brewster; J. A. Larsen
In 1912 and 1913, when nursery experiments were started under direction of the then "Priest River'' Forest Experiment Station, at Priest River, Idaho, and elsewhere, western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) was one of the principal species being planted on a large scale in the northern Rocky Mountain region and millions of plants were being raised each year...
of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria and all- cause Morbidity in young children in an area of intense perennial Malaria transmission in western. Kenya: cross-sectional survey, American Journal of. Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 2003; 68(Suppl 4):. | ()()_1()7. Binka FN, Indome F, and Smith T. Impact of spatial.
E.R. te Velde (Egbert); A. Burdorf (Alex); E. Nieschlag (Eberhard); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.A.M. Kremer; N. Roeleveld (Nel); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)
textabstractSince Carlsen and co-workers reported in 1992 that sperm counts have decreased during the second half of the last century in Western societies, there has been widespread anxiety about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human fecundity. The Carlsen report was followed by
Velde, E. te; Burdorf, A.; Nieschlag, E.; Eijkemans, R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Habbema, D.
Since Carlsen and co-workers reported in 1992 that sperm counts have decreased during the second half of the last century in Western societies, there has been widespread anxiety about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human fecundity. The Carlsen report was followed by several
Yersinia enterocolitica, serotype 3, phage type 9a, has been isolated for the first time in the Western Cape. Sera from 59 abattoir workers were investigated for the presence of 0 and H agglutinins. These were present in one sample, suggesting a past infection. Sera from 115 Nama-speaking adults of the Kuboes area.
S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)
textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the
This report is a comprehensive compilation of information on western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn) - its occurrence and abundance; associated plant species; morphology and anatomy; products; medical aspects; diseases; insect, bird, and mammal. pests; genetics; horticulture; physiology; ecology; mensuration; and silviculture. Management...
Braun, Carlos Rodriguez
The economic and institutional analysis of capitalism can be illustrated through John Ford's Westerns. This article focuses on six classics by Ford that show the move toward modern order, the creation of a new society, and the rule of law. Economic features are pervading, from property rights and contracts to markets, money, and trade. Ford has…
Recent historical events have made it increasingly important to strengthen the study of Western Europe in U.S. schools. With full integration of the European Community after 1992, with the unification of the two Germanys, and with the newly democratic states of the old Soviet bloc seeking some form of association with the European Economic…
Gaddy, Gary D.; Tanjong, Enoh
Describes a study to determine the type and quantity of Western news coverage of Third World earthquakes. Finds little evidence of geographical bias in coverage studied, and suggests that care must be taken to examine the underlying news events before bias is alleged. (MS)
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ...
Kogel, de W.J.
Differences in performance on, and preference for, different plant parts were studied on cucumber plants. On these plants thrips are often most abundant on the youngest plant parts. This suggests that the youngest leaves are most suitable for western flower thrips. We assessed if differences in
Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.
The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It
Potter, Abbey S; Banazis, Michael J; Yang, Rongchang; Reid, Simon A; Fenwick, Stan G
We investigated the role of the western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) in the maintenance and transmission of Coxiella burnetii in Western Australia. Sera from 1,017 kangaroos were tested using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The overall antibody prevalence across 12 locations throughout mid- to southwestern Western Australia was 24.1% (95% CI: 21.6-26.8). Feces from 990 of the same animals were tested using PCR to identify active shedding of C. burnetii in excreta. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 4.1% (95% CI: 3.1-5.6) of samples. Our results suggest that kangaroos are reservoirs for C. burnetii in Western Australia and may contribute to transmission of the organism to domestic livestock and humans.
Domingues, Bennett K.
This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have
The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.
Giusberti, L.; Agnini, C.; Backman, J.; Consolaro, C.; Fornaciari, E.; Rio, D.; Tateo, F.; Grandesso, P.
apparently expanded documentation of the PETM. The carbon stable isotope data show the well known late Paleocene (NP7-NP8) δ13C maximum (2,5 ppm), followed in the latest NP9 by a stepped decrease by 1--1,5 ppm. The minimum values (-1,96 ppm) are observed at the base of the CMU, in correspondance with the extinction of at least 22 cosmopolitan species of benthic foraminifera. Above the CMU, in concomitance with the increase of the carbonate contents, there is a gradual exponential return of δ13C to the latest Paleocene values (≈1 ppm). The CIE covers an interval that is ca. 4.3 meters thick, i.e. more expanded than in all other sections we are aware of. The calcareous plankton eco- and biostratigraphy suggest a complete record. The interval containing the CIE is characterized by lithologic (marl-limestone couplets), minero-geochemical (Ca and hematite) and paleontological (radiolaria abundance) cycles. We have preliminary evaluated that the CIE encompasses 10/11 precessional cycles. This finding is in agreement with the recent evaluation of the duration of CIE obtained in the expanded ODP Site 690 at Maud Rise (Antartica). Apparently, the Forada section does represent a useful reference for facing the PETM problems from a central western Tethys perspective.
Guptha, M.V.S.; Mohan, R.; Muralinath, A.S.
A short gravity core from the Western Continental Margin of India has been examined to understand the nature and characteristics of slumping in the area. The present study and also the earlier studies revealed that the slumping on the western...
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: About this journal. Journal Home > Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Zhen, Lin; Hu, Jie; Du, Bingzhen; Liu, Jiyuan; Sun, Chuanzhun; Wu, Ruizi; Long, Xin; Zhang, Qiang
Green development emphasizes co-development between economic and environmental dimensions, and is a peoplecentered sustainable development approach. Western China demands green development, and international experience could provide necessary, unique and important help and support for Western
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Volpato, Gabriele; Waldstein, Anna
Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced radical sociocultural changes, which are reflected in changing explanatory models of eghindi. Older and conservative refugees, attached to traditional Sahrawi culture, have expanded its conceptualization to include new pathogenic factors, while younger and progressive refugees, acculturated with Western culture, began challenging its existence. Eghindi became embodied within a broader process of negotiation of Sahrawi cultural identity. Our findings provide a framework for thinking about the evolution of illness in response to displacement, and highlight that when explanatory models evolve, intracultural tensions can arise within a population.
Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)
In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
The digital-cum-economic crisis facing Western journalism differs in subtle but significant ways from country to country, and fierce struggles play out between different parties over how to interpret the situation and how to confront it. This chapter presents a comparative analysis of how...... journalists, media executives, and media policymakers in six different Western democracies (Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the US) employ three distinctive frameworks to interpret the state of professional journalism in their country. The first is an economic frame that defines the crisis...... of professional journalism in existential terms; the second focuses on the weaknesses of the professional model itself; the third defines the crisis in symbolic terms, as a morally problematic relation among journalists, citizens, and power holders. These three crisis frameworks raise different questions...
Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas
To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population....... Compared with indigenous born women, the pooled risk estimate (RR) was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 1.72, 2.33. Migrant women had a non-significantly higher risk of dying from direct than indirect death causes; pooled RRs of 2.65 CI 1.88, 3.74 and 1.83 CI 1.37, 2.45. This meta......-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality....
Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)
This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)
Lectin-probed western blot analysis, the so-called lectin blot analysis, is a useful method to yield basic information on the glycan structures of glycoproteins, based on the carbohydrate-binding specificities of lectins. By lectin blot analysis, researchers can directly analyze the glycan structures without releasing the glycans from glycoproteins. Here, the author describes protocols for standard analysis, and applies analysis in combination with glycosidase digestion of blot.
Nakagawa, F.; Phillips, A N; Lundgren, J. D.
HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. Th...
Ford, Earl S; Mokdad, Ali H
Obesity has emerged as a global public health challenge. The objective of this review was to examine epidemiological aspects of obesity in the Western Hemisphere. Using PubMed, we searched for publications about obesity (prevalence, trends, correlates, economic costs) in countries in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. To the extent possible, we focused on studies that were primarily population based in design and on four countries in the Western Hemisphere: Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Data compiled by the International Obesity Task Force show a substantial level of obesity in all of or selected areas of the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Chile, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela. Furthermore, countries such as Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States have experienced increases in the prevalence of obesity. In many countries, the prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men and in urban areas than in rural areas. The relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity depends on the stage of economic transition. Early in the transition, the prevalence of obesity is positively related to income whereas at some point during the transition the prevalence becomes inversely related to income. Like other countries in the Western Hemisphere, the four countries that we focused on have experienced a rising tide of obesity. The high and increasing prevalence of obesity and its attendant comorbidities are likely to pose a serious challenge to the public health and medical care systems in these countries.
Bagger, P J
With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy.
Hariharan, Divya; Vellanki, Kavitha; Kramer, Holly
Characteristics of the Western diet that fueled the obesity epidemic may also impact kidney disease incidence and progression. Enlarging portion sizes over the past half century has been accompanied by increased intake of protein, sodium, and processed foods while consumption of fruits and vegetables has declined. Overall dietary patterns play a strong role for chronic disease risk including chronic kidney disease. While dietary patterns high in fresh fruits and vegetables and low in red meats, such as the Mediterranean diet, decrease the risk of chronic diseases, the Western diet, characterized by high intake of red meat, animal fat, sweets, and desserts and low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, increases risk of chronic diseases. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms whereby several key characteristics of the typical Western diet may impact kidney disease incidence and progression. We also discuss a public health policy initiative to improve dietary choices. Reducing protein intake to the recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg/day and increasing intake of fruit and vegetables and fiber may mitigate kidney disease progression and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality.
Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...
Soreghan, G. S.; Soreghan, M. J.; Eble, C. F.; Sweet, D.; Davogustto, O.; Young, R. A.; Elmore, R. D.
The late Paleozoic icehouse is Earth's best-documented pre-Quaternary icehouse, long thought analogous to our modern world wherein glaciation is confined largely to high-latitude regions. However, emerging data from the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, an intraplate orogenic system in western equatorial Pangaea, indicate that glaciation extended to low latitudes as well. Key data exist in the Uncompahgre-uplift - Paradox basin system (western U.S.) in the form of a preserved Permo-Pennsylvanian glacial valley (ancestral Unaweep Canyon) and associated glacial and proglacial strata (proximal Cutler Formation). Within western Colorado, Unaweep Canyon is a deep, enigmatic, Precambrian-cored gorge that orthogonally bisects the western Uncompahgre Plateau, and is occupied by two underfit creeks flowing from a divide in its midst. A Cenozoic origin for the canyon is difficult to reconcile with geologic data; limited outcrop and well data confirm the canyon harbors a thick fill that includes a basal unit of probable late Paleozoic age as inferred by palynomorph, provenance, and preliminary paleomagnetic data. Geomorphologic attributes of the gorge walls together with preliminary results of cross-canyon gravity profiles indicate the canyon shape is best explained by a glacial genesis. Furthermore, the Permo-Pennsylvanian Cutler Formation onlaps Precambrian basement at the western mouth of the gorge, and contains facies of inferred proglacial (glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial) origin, including (1) subaqueous sediment gravity flows, dropstones, and large slump blocks of an ice-contact Gilbert-type lacustrine delta, and (2) large-scale, laterally extensive cross-bedded conglomerates that record high-magnitude, outburst-type floods typical of deglaciation. The Cutler facies represent the proximal part of a system that ultimately extended to sea level in the distal Paradox basin. Maximum reasonable depositional gradients on this system yield maximum elevations of 500-1000 m for the
Bouchard, Josée; Mehta, Ravindra L
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs. The global picture of AKI in LMICs is not as well characterized as in the USA and Europe. In addition, in some LMICs, the epidemiology of AKI may vary depending on the region and socioeconomic status, which contributes to the difficulty of getting a better portrait of the clinical condition. In low-income regions and tropical countries, AKI is frequently attributed to diarrhea, infections, nephrotoxins, as well as obstetric complications. As opposed to the situation in high-income countries, access to basic care in LMICs is limited by economic constraints, and treatment is often delayed due to late presentation and recognition of the condition, which contribute to worse outcomes. In addition, dialysis is often not available or must be paid by patients, which further restricts its use. There are great disparities in the epidemiology of AKI between Western high-income countries and Western LMICs. In LMICs, education and training programs should increase the public awareness of AKI and improve preventive and basic treatments to improve AKI outcomes. (1) More than 90% of the patients recruited in AKI studies using KDIGO-equivalent criteria originate from North America, Europe, or Oceania, although these regions represent less than a fifth of the global population. However, the pooled incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients reaches 20% globally with moderate variance between regions. (2
Silva, Jillian M; McMahon, Martin
The Western blot techniques that were originally established in the late 1970s are still actively utilized today. However, this traditional method of Western blotting has several drawbacks that include low quality resolution, spurious bands, decreased sensitivity, and poor protein integrity. Recent advances have drastically improved numerous aspects of the standard Western blot protocol to produce higher qualitative and quantitative data. The Bis-Tris gel system, an alternative to the conventional Laemmli system, generates better protein separation and resolution, maintains protein integrity, and reduces electrophoresis to a 35 min run time. Moreover, the iBlot dry blotting system, dramatically improves the efficacy and speed of protein transfer to the membrane in 7 min, which is in contrast to the traditional protein transfer methods that are often more inefficient with lengthy transfer times. In combination with these highly innovative modifications, protein detection using infrared fluorescent imaging results in higher-quality, more accurate and consistent data compared to the standard Western blotting technique of chemiluminescence. This technology can simultaneously detect two different antigens on the same membrane by utilizing two-color near-infrared dyes that are visualized in different fluorescent channels. Furthermore, the linearity and broad dynamic range of fluorescent imaging allows for the precise quantification of both strong and weak protein bands. Thus, this protocol describes the key improvements to the classic Western blotting method, in which these advancements significantly increase the quality of data while greatly reducing the performance time of this experiment.
Michael G. Harrington
Western larch is one of the most fire-adapted conifers in western North America. Its historical perpetuation depended upon regular fire disturbances, which creates open stand conditions and mineral seedbeds. A stand of 200- to 500-year-old larch in western Montana with deep duff mounds resulting from an unusually long 150-year fire-free period was mechanically thinned...
The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
Alfaadhel, Talal; Cattran, Daniel
Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults in Western countries. In 2012, the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) working group published guidelines for the management of glomerulonephritis, thus providing a template for the treatment of this condition. While being aware of the impact of the clinicians' acumen and that patients may choose a different therapeutic option due to the risks of specific drugs and also of the evolving guidelines, this review details our approach to the management of patients with IMN in a Western center (Toronto). Based on studies published in Europe and North America, we included recent advances in the diagnosis and management of patients with membranous nephropathy similar to our practice population. We highlight the importance of establishing the idiopathic nature of this condition before initiating immunosuppressive therapy, which should include the screening for secondary causes, especially malignancy in the elderly population. The expected outcomes with and without treatment for patients with different risks of progression will be discussed to help guide clinicians in choosing the appropriate course of treatment. The role of conservative therapy as well as of established immunosuppressive treatment, such as the combination of cyclophosphamide and prednisone, and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), as well as of newer agents such as rituximab will be reviewed. Appropriate assessment is required to exclude secondary conditions causing membranous glomerulonephritis. The role of antibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) in establishing the primary disease is growing, though more data are required. The increase in therapeutic options supports treatment individualization, taking into account the availability, benefits and risks, as well as patient preference. (1) The prevalence of IMN is increasing worldwide, particularly in elderly patients, and has been reported in
Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel
The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.
Mahmoud M. Galander
Full Text Available Abstract: Global communication is widely perceived as an instrument to disseminate Western values in the developing world. The “Wheel of Fortune” and “Who Wants to be a Millionnaire” licensed to Malaysian Television stations, though the language and the word puzzles were localised, carried the same format of the original (American show. They promote consumerism, gambling and the images of usury, the style of wealth accumulation forbidden in Islam. For the Malaysian audience whose priorities are those of contentment, modesty and humility, such emphasis on material desires breeds internal contradictions that may lead the audience to succumb to the new Western values.
Cannon, M.S.; Tabet, C.A.; Eckstein, Y.
A distinct positive anomaly in the temperatures of the shallow (Pleistocene) aquifers along the Cincinnati-Findlay Arch in Western Ohio coincides with a low geothermal gradient. A conceptual model of convective currents associated with a tensional fault and/or fracture system along the crest of the Arch is suggested as an explanation of the anomaly. Hydrochemical information indicates that various quantities of warmer ground water, with the composition characteristics of deep bedrock aquifers, is present as an admixture in the shallow aquifers. This confirms the conceptual model of convection in fractures.
Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those Romania.
Eliopulos, E; Armstrong, B K; Spickett, J T; Heyworth, F
All except 17 (1.7%) of 990 fire fighters employed by the Western Australian Fire Brigade between 1 October 1939 and 31 December 1978 were successfully followed up to 31 December 1978. Mortality from all causes was less than expected (SMR 0.80 with 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.96). There was evidence of the healthy worker effect but none that mortality increased with increasing duration of employment. A small proportional excess of deaths from road traffic accidents ( SPMR 1.66) appeared...
Clément, Gaël; Ahlberg, Per E; Blieck, Alain; Blom, Henning; Clack, Jennifer A; Poty, Edouard; Thorez, Jacques; Janvier, Philippe
Several discoveries of Late Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) have been made during the past two decades, but each has been confined to one locality. Here we describe a tetrapod jaw of about 365 million years (Myr) old from the Famennian of Belgium, which is the first from western continental Europe. The jaw closely resembles that of Ichthyostega, a Famennian tetrapod hitherto known only from Greenland. The environment of this fossil provides information about the conditions that prevailed just before the virtual disappearance of tetrapods from the fossil record for 20 Myr.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify what motivates East Asian work behavior. The research question is: How can a Western manager better understand work behavior and motivation in East Asian cultures? Knowledge about national culture, motivation and the concept of happiness are connected via deductive and comparative methods, while pointing out their new connections and relations. We argue that work motivation in East Asian cultures can be explained using the self-concept-based motivation meta-theory as it corresponds to the East Asian concept of face and that the East Asian self-concept originates with the Eastern concept of happiness.
Catalano, R.; Sulli, A. [Universita di Palermo, Dip. di Geologia e Geodesia, Palermo (Italy); Merlini, S. [ENI-Divisione AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)
Western Sicily is part of the Sicilian chain, a sector of the SE-verging Alpine orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, boreholes and recent inland geological data, have enabled us to assess the deep structural grain. A wedge of flat-lying Mesozoic-Miocene carbonate and terrigenous rocks (pre-Panormide nappes) is superimposed on NW-trending, 7-8 km thick, Mesozoic-Paleogene carbonate thrust ramps (Trapanese units), arranged in two structural levels extending from the Tyrrhenian coast to western offshore Sicily. Upper Miocene to Pleistocene terrigenous strata, often deformed, fill syntectonic basins above the thrust pile. The main tectonic transport of the thrust pile, developing from Early Miocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene times, was towards the east and southeast. Initial stacking and deformation of the pre-Panormide allochthon is bracketed between Early and Late Miocene. The Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene underthrusting of the Trapanese-Saccense units, that acted through more recent deep-seated thrusts in the carbonate platform layer, induced late stage refolding and further shortening in the early emplaced pre-Panormide nappe. Previously formed structures appear to have been dissected or reactivated by a right oblique transpression during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. The geometry of the carbonate bodies opens new potential perspectives on the existence of structural traps, but the uncertainties of source rock occurrence remain. (Author)
Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. © 2014 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Lichen is a symbiotic plant built by the cells of algae and fungi hyphae. Algae are usually presented - green (Chlorophyta or blue green (Cyanophyta, a mushroom commonly found is ascomycetae and sometimes basidiomycetae. Mushrooms receive oxygen and carbohydrates from algae, and they in turn provide water, CO2 and mineral salts. Lichens are often found on trees and rocks in unpolluted environments and can be used as a bioindicator species. In during 2015-2016. was realized a survey of epiphytic lichen flora of the western mountains in environment of Vranje. Sampling was carried out at 4 locations: Borino brdo, Krstilovica, Markovo Kale and Pljačkovica. Based on the collected and determined samples can be concluded that the study implemented of the area of 25 species of lichens of which: 8 as crust, leafy 12 and 5 shrub. The research results indicate that the lichen flora of the western mountains environments Vranje of a rich and diverse as a result of favorable geographic position, geological and soil composition, climate and plant cover that provide opportunities for the development and survival of lichens.
Kamra, A. K.; Nair, A. A.
The effect of the Western Ghats on the lightning activity across the west coast of India around the coastal metropolitan city of Mumbai during the 1998-2012 period is investigated using data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. A land-sea contrast of an order of magnitude in the lightning activity is observed even in a small area across the western coast of India. The shape of a zone of high lightning activity formed almost parallel to the Western Ghats during the onset and withdrawal phases of monsoon, strongly suggests the effect of the Western Ghats in its formation. Seasonal variation of the lightning activity in this area and also in each of its four equal sectors (two each over the Arabian Sea and over land) is bi-annual with one peak each in the onset (May/June) and withdrawal months (September/October) of monsoon and a sharp dip to very low values during the monsoon months (July/August) of maximum seasonal rainfall. The lightning activity in each sector is found to increase over the 1998-2012 period. However, the increase in lightning activity over the sector containing Mumbai is found to be greater during the pre- and post-monsoon periods and smaller during the monsoon period as compared to an identical sector immediately south of it.
Robert J. Cain; Jane L. Hayes
The recent dramatic impacts of bark beetle outbreaks across conifer forests of the West have been mapped and reported by entomology and pathology professionals with Forest Health Protection (FHP), a component of USDA Forest Service's State and Private Forestry, and their state counterparts. These forest conditions set the stage for the formation of the Western...
Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, P.
Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 844-857 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : rock glaciers * inventory * Western and High Tatra Mts * Carpathians * Slovakia * Poland Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016
Owen P. Cramer
In terms of general weather, the 1958 fire season will be classed as one of the hottest on record and as having unusually frequent spring and summer lightning storms. It was also unusual in that spring and most of the summer were less rainy in western Washington than in normally dry southwestern Oregon. Thus, until late August, cumulative fire-season rainfall ranged...
Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.
The western United States faces distinct challenges such as persistent drought, dwindling water resources amidst an expanding population, and climate-sensitive alpine environments. The complex terrain of the region compounds these challenges. The Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC), one of six National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) university-based regional climate centers, has been providing climate services since 1986 that support the unique needs of stakeholders in the mountainous region of the western U.S. This includes meteorological data, tools, and products for thousands of stations across the West, and gridded data products, such as based on PRISM for example, that are used for drought assessment among other needs. WRCC and partners have developed numerous web-based tools and products to support decision-making and research pertinent to the West. Changing climate and variability along with the diverse physical and human geographies of the western U.S. require continuous advancements in climate knowledge and applications development. Examples include the need for tools and model downscaling that support and inform adaptation, mitigation and resiliency planning; web-based analytics that would allow users to interact and explore temporal and spatial data and relationships, and products from new satellite sensors that can provide higher resolution information on soil moisture and vegetation health given the sparseness of in-situ observations for the vastness of the West. This presentation provides an overview of some insights, opportunities and challenges of providing current and future climate services in the West.
Bracero Hernandez, David
En aquest document es presenta un sistema de visió estèreo binocular basat en dues càmeres idèntiques amb lents d'ull de peix de 220 graus. Posicionades respecte un mateix eix vertical, però enfocant en sentits oposats, aquestes càmeres permeten obtenir dos hemisferis de 360 per 220 graus, corresponents a la meitat superior i inferior d'una esfera completa. D'aquesta manera s'obté una regió comuna a ambdues imatges, fet que permet obtenir disparitat entre elles i, per tant, visió estereoscòpi...
Full Text Available Saidah Wright,1 Dominique Earland,1 Swati Sakhuja,1 Anna Junkins,1 Sarah Franklin,1 Luz Padilla,1 Maung Aung,2 Pauline E Jolly1 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Western Region Health Authority, Cornwall Regional Hospital, Ministry of Health, Montego Bay, Jamaica Background: Anemia is one of the most prevalent problems in pregnancy. In 2011, 29.9% of all pregnant women in Jamaica were diagnosed with anemia.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of anemia in pregnancy in Western Jamaica.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 mothers attending post-natal clinics in Western Jamaica. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers, and an abstraction form was used to collect clinical data from the mothers’ records.Results: The prevalence of anemia among the women was 37.6%. Younger mothers (aged 18–24 years were more likely to be anemic compared to those ≥35 years (odds ratio [OR]: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.07–11.06. Mothers who reported not always washing their hands after using the toilet were almost 10 times more likely to be anemic (OR: 9.7, 95% CI: 1.72–54.78 compared to those who reported always washing their hands. Mothers who attended a public facility for antenatal care were 2.3 times more likely to be anemic (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.03–5.18 compared to those who obtained care at a private facility, and mothers who reported being told that they were anemic by a health care provider (HCP were almost six times more likely to be anemic compared with those who were not told (OR: 5.58, 95% CI: 1.73–17.93.Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that early identification and treatment of anemia, especially among younger pregnant women, should be a priority. HCP should ensure that women understand the need to be cured of their anemia and to adhere to preventive hygienic practices. Keywords
De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio
The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar
for the western South Atlantic between 9°S and 36°S latitude and for the entire western South Atlantic by Buscaglia (1971). All these sources...both the Brazil Plain and Argentine Plain. Similar perturbations are also evident along winter cross-section A. As noted by Buscaglia (1971), the top...Duedall and Coote (1972) and throughout the western South Atlantic Ocean by Buscaglia (1971). In the presence of this intermixing, the MIW sound speed
This paper examines functional and compositional relationship between the narthex and the western chapels adjacent to it in middle Byzantine churches The author examines the architectural features, archaeological evidence decorative programs and literary sources related to the western end of middle Byzantine churches and establishes that that the process of integration of the western chapels with the narthex proper, seen in a number of Palaeologan monuments, actually began in middle Byzantine...
Full Text Available This paper examines functional and compositional relationship between the narthex and the western chapels adjacent to it in middle Byzantine churches The author examines the architectural features, archaeological evidence decorative programs and literary sources related to the western end of middle Byzantine churches and establishes that that the process of integration of the western chapels with the narthex proper, seen in a number of Palaeologan monuments, actually began in middle Byzantine times.
Antonio Becerra Bolaños
Full Text Available In principle we could assume which works could be part of a hypothetical Western library, as the Borges’ Library of Babel. However, we may include a series of books excluded by its peripheral condition, as much geographical (like Hispanic America as cultural. These works rarely appeared to be considered in the various canons of Hispanic literature which arose in the XVIIIth century, often by lack of awareness of their existence (with the exception of Menéndez Pelayo. The objective of the present article is to reflect on the criteria used through which the peripheral works have remained on the margins of that library and to propose an alternative canon in accordance with this condition, in so far as necessary reading of a common reality with its own peculiarities.
Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D
living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present......HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...
Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood
The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.
Arun P. Singh
Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies. Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar. Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.
Lakoff, S.; Willoughby, R. (Univ. of California, CA (US))
Strategic defense has again become a major item on the agenda of the Western Alliance. Revived by President Ronald Reagan in his Star Wars speech of March 1983, and implemented in his Strategic Defense Initiative, it has achieved renewed emphasis in military spending, in alliance research efforts, and in arms control negotiations. SDI is packaged in a way that makes it the largest single item in the Department of Defense's annual budget. It engages researchers in industrial and military laboratories on both sides of the Atlantic as well as in Japan and Israel. In the arms control negotiations now under way between the United States and the USSR, the conduct of this research and its implications for the strategic balance and the reduction of offensive weapons are critical considerations. The implications of this largely unexpected development are the subject of this book.
Eliopulos, E; Armstrong, B K; Spickett, J T; Heyworth, F
All except 17 (1.7%) of 990 fire fighters employed by the Western Australian Fire Brigade between 1 October 1939 and 31 December 1978 were successfully followed up to 31 December 1978. Mortality from all causes was less than expected (SMR 0.80 with 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.96). There was evidence of the healthy worker effect but none that mortality increased with increasing duration of employment. A small proportional excess of deaths from road traffic accidents ( SPMR 1.66) appeared to be unrelated to fire service. Deaths from other accidents, poisonings, and violence were significantly less than expected (SMR 0.35 with 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.90) and may indicate an effect of training and experience on accident proneness. There was no evidence of increased mortality from cardiovascular or respiratory disease, or from any other cause.
Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D
HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some regions and urgently need to be addressed.
Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A
Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.
Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D
HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...
Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D
René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.
Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the generic work competences in the staff of the Vice Presidency of Compensation and Development of the Western Bank Discount. Authors were consulted such as Alles (2008, Tobon (2006 and Hay Group (2004, among others. The research is descriptive, non-experimental, transactional and field design. The population consisted of twelve (12 subjects belonging to the vice presidency. It was applied a questionnaire of thirty (30 items, validated by the trial of three (3 experts, with 0.92 reliability by Cronbach alpha coefficient. It is concluded the employees of the vice presidency have a high level of the generic work competences customer focus, teamwork, effective communication, innovation, emotional intelligence and making decisions. It is strength for the institution, because staff with those competences contributes doing the best for the development of the institution.
Feng, Jianju; Jiang, Dechun; Shang, Huiying; Dong, Miao; Wang, Gaini; He, Xinyu; Zhao, Changming; Mao, Kangshan
Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS) among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M), trnG-psbK (G) and psbK-psbI (P), and trnH-psbA (H) and rbcL (R); the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I) is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I), and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in plants, especially for taxonomic groups that have complex evolutionary histories
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M, trnG-psbK (G and psbK-psbI (P, and trnH-psbA (H and rbcL (R; the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I, and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in
Reddy, James E.
Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.
The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.
Christina M Botai; Joel O Botai; Jaco P de Wit; Katlego P Ncongwane; Abiodun M Adeola
.... The present study assessed drought conditions using two categories of drought indicators computed from precipitation data sets measured by weather stations across the Western Cape Province, South...
Full Text Available The Energy politics is today at the center of the Russian and the Western Balkans relations. It is widely known that Russia has been playing significant role in world energy supply. Therefore, Russian energy companies have taken a leading role in the promotion of their businesses in the Western Balkans. The Western Balkans region has become geostrategic partner as a transit route for the integration of Russia into the global energy world market. With regards to the transportation of gas Western Balkans as a transit route is determined to fully realize South Stream project. In contrast to “a buffer zone” role, in the past few decades the Western Balkans gained an attention from Russia and became an important geopolitical bridge towards Western Europe. Such geopolitical and geostrategic planning of Russia is apparent with regards to gas and oil. Due to Russian South Stream gas pipeline project the Western Balkans became an important European energy transforming center. These new geostrategic games over the pipeline have also revived the Russian historical interests in the Balkans. This paper aims to analyze Russian-Western Balkans relations with special emphasis on energy politics and geopolitical and geostrategic interdependence of Russia and the Western Balkans.
Allam, M.; Tafraoui, A. [Faculty of sciences and technology, University of Bechar (Algeria)], email: email@example.com
Silica is gaining increasing importance as it is the base for the production of pure silicon, for which several applications are under development in the electronic and solar energy sectors. The aim of this study is to characterize the sand taken from the Western Erg of Algeria to determine the percentage of silicon it contains. Characterization was done through physical analysis to determine the granulometry of the sand. A chemical analysis was next performed, using diffraction of X-rays and a scanning electron microscope to determine the chemical composition of the sand. Results showed that the sand is mainly made of quartz in the form of rounded and subbarrondis grains and that silicon is prevalent, accounting for 98% of the composition. This study demonstrated that sand from the Western Erg of Algeria is rich in silicon and could be used for silicon production.
Krishna P. Poudel
Full Text Available Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg. and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong. trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass equations was fitted simultaneously with a constrained seemingly unrelated regression. Additionally, a linear model that predicts total aboveground biomass as a function of DBH and height was also fitted. The predicted total biomass was then apportioned to different components according to the predicted proportions from beta, Dirichlet, and multinomial log-linear regressions. Accuracy of these methods differed between species with higher root mean squared error (RMSE being produced in red alder trees. Within species, the accuracy of the equation for bole biomass was better than the equations for other components. None of these methods stood out as a clear winner, but the multinomial log-linear regression produced marginally better results compared to other methods in terms of RMSE, except for Western hemlock bark biomass and red alder bole and branch biomass. The equations based on a seemingly unrelated regression provided lower RMSEs for those species-component combinations.
Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il
Oceanic states over the western North Pacific (WNP), which is surrounded by heavily populated countries, are closely tied to the lives of the people in East Asia in regards to both climate and socioeconomics. As global warming continues, remarkable increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) have been observed in the WNP in recent decades. Here, we show that the SST increase in the western hemisphere warm pool (WHWP), which is the second largest warm pool on the globe, has contributed considerably to the rapid surface warming and sea level rise in the WNP via its remote teleconnection along the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). State-of-the-art climate models strongly support the role of the WHWP not only on interannual time sales but also in long-term climate projections. We expect that understanding the processes initiated by the WHWP-SST could permit better forecasts of western North Pacific climate and the further development of the socioeconomics of East Asia.
Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func
Examines the dissonant and "camp" effect inherent in describing "Johnny Guitar" as a Joan Crawford western. Argues that the film's camp effect depends on its crossing of a female star vehicle with the western, a stereotypically masculine genre. Summarizes Crawford's childhood and rise to fame. Concludes by exploring the lesbian…
Abstract. This study examines the concept of “primitivism” as used in some twentieth century Western art movements. It also aims at highlighting the impact of this art form on Western art styles. The method used to explore its usage is based on the art-historical approach of formalism. Modern African scholars often.
3 Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Community and Health Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. 4 Bennett ... To identify (i) the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Western Cape youth and (ii) the association between use and known risk factors ... having a same-sex partner.
Evelyn L. Bull; Cynthia Carey
Many species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the western toad (Bufo boreas), are declining in-the western United States. The ability of this species to recover from declines depends, in part, on its reproductive success. This study examined the breeding frequency in both sexes of B. borelis in northeastern Oregon compared to...
Donald R. Gedney
This report summarizes and interprets the results of a timber resource inventory of western Oregon made between 1973 and 1976. Detailed tables give land and forest area, timber volume, growth, and mortality for western Oregon and for southwest Oregon, west-central Oregon, and northwest Oregon.
S.I. Mahmood; J. Schonrock-Adema; J.C.C. Borleffs; Dr. M. Heijne-Penninga; S.A. Daim
Background: The importance of medical education research in Saudi Arabia has been acknowledged increasingly and a lot of concepts used have been derived from the Western world. The question arises, however, whether Western concepts and questionnaires are transferable to societies with different
Donald R. Kirby; Rodney G. Lym; John J. Sterling; Carolyn Hull Sieg
The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) is a threatened species of the tallgrass prairie. Invasion by leafy spurge (Euphorbiaes esula L.) is a serious threat to western prairie fringed orchid habitat. The obiectives of this study were to develop a herbicide treatment to control leafy spurge...
Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.
Fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.
Robert E. Keane
Isn't that development new?" is perhaps the phrase most frequently uttered by people who live in the western US. The West, it seems, is sucking Americans into its precious places at a rate that is unparalleled in recent US history. As humans continue to diffuse into the western landscape, they bring their corresponding demands for energy, transportation,...
Over the years Robin Horton has argued for what he refers to as the 'continuity thesis' according to which there are theoretical similarities between African traditional thought and modern Western science. Horton's thesis stands in contrast to the standard Western anthropological appraisal of traditional African thought.
Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai
Posing the question "How diverse is philosophy of education in the West?" this paper responds to two recent defences of African philosophy of education which endorse its communitarianism and oppose individualism in Western philosophy of education. After outlining Thaddeus Metz's argument that Western philosophy of education should become…
The western continental margin and the intraplate Narmada-Tapti rifts are primarily covered by Deccan ﬂood basalts. Three-dimensional gravity modeling of +70 mgal Bouguer gravity highs extending in the north-south direction along the western continental margin rift indicates the presence of a subsurface high density, ...
The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement has conducted a number of cross-national studies in which Western European countries participated. Results from the Second International Mathematics Study regarding the content and outcomes of this study in some Western
This article seeks to adjust Western research techniques to accommodate research in the indigenous realm. Indigenous knowledge systems require a different approach from Western methodologies of collecting data. Indigenous people take pride in sharing their knowledge as they 'live it' because it cannot be contested ...
The aim of this study was to audit the availability of GI facilities in the provincial sector, which provides care for the majority of people in the Western Cape. Method. All hospitals in the Western Cape providing endoscopy were evaluated by means of a hands-on audit, to identify available organisational infrastructure.
Kenneth E. Skog; Robert Rummer; Bryan Jenkins; Nathan Parker; Peter Tittman; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson; Ed Gray; Anneliese Schmidt; Marcia Patton-Mallory; Gordon Gayle
The Western Governors' Association assessment of biofuels potential in western states estimated the location and capacity of biofuels plants that could potentially be built for selected gasoline prices in 2015 using a mixed integer programming model. The model included information on forest biomass supply curves by county (developed using Forest Service FIA data...
Mark E. Fenn; Jill S. Baron; Edith B. Allen; Heather M. Rueth; Koren R. Nydick; Linda Geiser; William D. Bowman; James O. Sickman; Thomas Meixner; Dale W. Johnson; Peter Neitlich
In the western United States vast acreages of land are exposed to low levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, with interspersed hotspots of elevated N deposition downwind of large, expanding metropolitan centers or large agricultural operations. Biological response studies in western North America demonstrate that some aquatic and terrestrial plant and microbial...
Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang
We developed the Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale (CWICSS) to assess relationship standards that may differ between Chinese and Western partners and may challenge intercultural couples. The scale assesses 4 Western-derived relationship standards (demonstrations of love, demonstrations of caring, intimacy expression, and intimacy responsiveness) and 4 Chinese-derived relationship standards (relations with the extended family, relational harmony, face, and gender roles). We administered the CWICSS to 983 Chinese and Western participants living in Australia to assess the psychometric properties of the scores as measures of respondents' relationship standards. The CWICSS has a 2-level factor structure with the items reflecting the 8 predicted standards. The 4 Western derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of couple bond, and the 4 Chinese derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of family responsibility. The scale scores were structurally equivalent across cultures, genders, and 2 independent samples, and good convergent and discriminant validity was found for the interpretation of scale scores as respondents' endorsement of the predicted standards. Scores on the 8 scales and 2 superordinate scales showed high internal consistency and test-retest coefficients. Chinese endorsed all 4 family responsibility standards more strongly than did Westerners, but Chinese and Western participants were similar in endorsement of couple bond standards. Across both cultures, couple bond standards were endorsed more highly than were family responsibility standards. The CWICSS assesses potential areas of conflict in Chinese-Western relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Owen P. Cramer
While fire-weather severity remained low for the third successive year in western Washington, 1955 brought near normal fire weather to western Oregon for the first time since 1952. Temperatures were cooler than normal throughout the season in both half States, with record or near record lows for April, May, and July. April, July, and October were unusually rainy while...
Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
This article examines Western and Chinese discourses of education, sustainable growth and development. Education is increasingly considered as a means to fuel economic growth, especially since the 1980s, when conservative economic values became predominant in Western development thought. Despite a discourse on sustainability favouring ecologically…
The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) is the research publication of the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA). It publishes original research papers or other relevant information in all aspects of marine science and coastal management as original articles, review articles, ...
This book argues against the politicization of literature and presents a guide to the great works and essential writers of the ages, the "Western Canon." The book studies 26 writers and seeks to isolate the qualities that made these authors canonical, that is, authoritative in Western culture. Noting that although originally the…
Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros
The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…
During winter months (December, January, February – DJF), the western Himalayas (WH) receive precipitation from eastward moving extratropical cyclones, called western disturbances (WDs) in Indian parlance. Winter precipitation–moisture convergence–evaporation (P–C–E) cycle is analyzed for a period of 22 years ...
... used to test the hypothesis with the alpha level set at 0.05.The findings of this study show that: HIV risk practices of students in South Western Nigeria tertiary institutions are not favourable and nature of institution has no significant influence on HIV risk practices among students in South Western Nigeria tertiary institutions.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 17, 2013, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-1626, concerning...
Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan
The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…
In the aftermath of Western domination is the trivialization of skin color as significant issue among peoples of African descent. Regrettably, research by psychologists the world over emphasize race in the study of human social conditions. Despite the fact that race is increasingly irrelevant Western psychologists continually ...
The world has been changing due to the growing influence of western cultures and globalization; and as a result of these, many people from different nations come in contact with new ways of life that are totally unfamiliar to them. Western culture and civilization have exerted a lot of influence on the Nigerian and Chinese ...
Theodore S. Woolsey
Western yellow pine is to the Southwest what white pine is to the Northeast, or longleaf pine to the Southeast. The commercial forests of Arizona and New Mexico are three-fourths western yellow pine, which furnishes by far the greater part of the lumber used locally as well as that shipped to outside markets. To describe the characteristics of the species and to...
During winter months (December, January, February – DJF), the western Himalayas (WH) receive pre- cipitation from eastward moving extratropical cyclones, called western disturbances (WDs) in Indian par- lance. Winter precipitation–moisture convergence–evaporation (P–C–E) cycle is analyzed for a period of. 22 years ...
Roer-Strier, Dorit; Ezra, Dina Ben
This article addresses cultural adaptation of Western-Palestinian intermarried couples. Using in-depth interviews, information was gathered from 16 participants, 7 Western women and 9 Palestinian men, living in Palestinian cities in the West Bank. Adaptation strategies are typified by the extent to which each spouse embraces the partner's culture.…
Jean M. Daniels
The production structure of the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington was investigated using a translog cost function with capital. labor, and sawlog inputs. Analyses were performed with a panel data set of biennial observations from 1972 to 2002 on a cross section of 16 western Washington counties. Production structure was examined using Allen and...
This paper reports on a study of the content of the lyrics of 100 country-western songs. It presents findings concerning the primary subject matter of the songs, female and male roles portrayed, and the value system implicit in the song lyrics. Among the findings were that the single most-valued subject in country-western music is romantic love;…
This paper examines the socio-cultural value of salt among the people of the western grasslands of Cameroon from the precolonial era to contemporary times. Salt was andremains an important condiment used in households, marriages, treatment of the sick, initiation and other cultural ceremonies throughout the western ...
Objectives: To study the causes and pattern of major limb amputations in El Obeid Hospital, Western Sudan. Patients and methods: The records of 50 major limb amputations performed in patients admitted to the University Surgical Unit at El Obeid Teaching Hospital, Western Sudan in two years were retrospectively studied.
Camacho, E.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Rodriguez, A.
The Baru volcano in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato volcano that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this volcano occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take place in the surroundings of the volcanic edifice. Theses swarms last several weeks alarming the population who lives near the volcano. The last of these episodes occurred on May 2006 and lasted one and a half months. More than 20,000 people live adjacent to the volcano and any future eruption has the potential to be very dangerous. In June 2007, a digital seismic monitoring network of ten stations, linked via internet, was installed around the volcano in a collaborative project between the University of Panama and the Panamanian Government. The seismic data acquisition at the sites is performed using LINUX-SEISLOG and the events are recorded by four servers at different locations using the Earth Worm system. In this work we analyze the characteristics of the volcano seismicity recorded from May 4th, 2006 to July 31st, 2008 by at least 4 stations and located at about 15 km from the summit. To determine the seismic parameters, we tested several crustal velocity models and used the seismic analysis software package SEISAN. Our final velocity model was determined using seismic data for the first four km obtained from a temporal seismic network deployed in 1981 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of geothermal studies conducted at Cerro Pando, Western Panama Highlands. Our results indicate that all the events recorded in the quadrant 8.6-9.0°N and 82.2-82.7°W are located in the depth range of 0.1 to 8 km. Cross sections show vertical alignments of hypocenters below the summit although most of the seismicity is concentrated in its eastern flank reaching the town of Boquete. All the calculated focal mechanisms are of
J. G. Tanner
Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions
Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.
Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the
Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe reproductive health issues among pregnant women in a rural area of Kenya with a high coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and high prevalence of HIV (15%. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey among rural pregnant women in western Kenya. A medical, obstetric and reproductive history was obtained. Blood was obtained for a malaria smear and haemoglobin level, and stool was examined for geohelminths. Height and weight were measured. Results Of 673 participants, 87% were multigravidae and 50% were in their third trimester; 41% had started antenatal clinic visits at the time of interview and 69% reported ITN-use. Malaria parasitemia and anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusion In this rural area with a high HIV prevalence, the reported use of condoms before pregnancy was extremely low. Pregnancy health was not optimal with a high prevalence of malaria, geohelminth infections, anaemia and underweight. Chances of losing a child after birth were high. Multiple interventions are needed to improve reproductive health in this area.
Vlasenkov, L.A.; Potanina, V.A.; Popova, L.V.; Marcheva, Y.N.; Radchenko, K.A.
The technology of producing white oils was investigated in multistage sulfonization of the initial raw material by oleum or gaseous sulphuranhydride (SO/sub 3/) with subsequent neutralization and contact prepurification. The use of gaseous sulphuranhydride instead of oleum has the advantage of lower consumption of the sulfonating agent, lower volume of acid tar formed and an increase of the yield of sulfonic acids which are used as a raw material to produce sulfonate additives. White oils are used to produce medical vaseline, perfume bases, a solvent of the ethylene polymerization reaction initiator, lubricating oil for high-pressure compressors and as cable lubricant. The technology of producing a variety of white oils based on neutral oil from a mixture of low-sulphur Fergana and Turkemen oils from sulfonate additive production was developed to expand the raw material resources produced from other oil fields. The yield of low-soluble sulfonic acids increases as SO/sub 3/ consumption increases in sulphurization of the fourth oil fraction of Western Siberian oils; yield decreases as SO/sub 3/ consumption increases during sulphurization of neutral oil of first degree of sulphurization, while the yield of acid tar increases. (JMT)
Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic shelf margin limestones and marly limestones of Western France yield quite numerous Nautilida. This record is here described for the first time in detail, nine genera and more than forty species, whose range rarely exceeds one or two ammonite biozones, constitute a rather precise tool to date Middle Jurassic beds. Each taxon is placed in an accurate biostratigraphical chart; a new genus, Pictonautilus nov. gen., is described. The stratigraphical range of Cenoceras, Digonioceras and Gen. B n. ? (sensu Chirat 1997 is extended up to the Middle Callovian. In the Jurassic successions of Poitou, Nautilida always represent a minor part of the fossil record, they are more abundant in four levels: Middle Aalenian, base of Upper Bajocian, Lower Bathonian and top of Middle Bathonian. Dwarf Nautilida (Paracenoceras and species showing more folded septa and a subventral siphuncle (Pseudaganides or strongly ribbed specimens (Cymatonautilus are characteristic of stable open-shelf environments (Callovian, whereas large shelled nautilus would be mostly present during deepening episodes. The geographical extension of many taxa indicates a provincialism that fits with that of ammonites of the same period.
Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Clynne, M.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Wooden, J.L.
The age of the Rockland tephra, which includes an ash-flow tuff south and west of Lassen Peak in northern California and a widespread ash-fall deposit that produced a distinct stratigraphic marker in western North America, is constrained to 565,000 to 610,000 yr by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating. 40Ar/39Ar ages on plagioclase from pumice in the Rockland have a weighted mean age of 609,000 ?? 7000 yr. Isotopic ages of spots on individual zircon crystals, analyzed by the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe, range from ???500,000 to ???800,000 yr; a subpopulation representing crystal rims yielded a weighted-mean age of 573,000 ?? 19,000 yr. Overall stratigraphic constraints on the age are provided by two volcanic units, including the underlying tephra of the Lava Creek Tuff erupted within Yellowstone National Park that has an age of 639,000 ?? 2000 yr. The basaltic andesite of Hootman Ranch stratigraphically overlies the Rockland in the Lassen Peak area and has 40Ar/39Ar ages of 565,000 ?? 29,000 and 565,000 ?? 12,000 yr for plagioclase and groundmass, respectively. Identification of Rockland tephra in ODP core 1018 offshore of central California is an important stratigraphic age that also constrains the eruption age to between 580,000 and 600,000 yr. ?? 2004 Published by University of Washington.
Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided.
Lafferty, Kevin D.
In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.
The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.
Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.
A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.
Chester, David K.; Dibben, Christopher J. L.; Duncan, Angus M.
Volcanology has been in the past and in many respects remains a subject dominated by pure research grounded in the earth sciences. Over the past 30 years a paradigm shift has occurred in hazard assessment which has been aided by significant changes in the social theory of natural hazards and the first-hand experience gained in the 1990s by volcanologists working on projects conceived during the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Today much greater stress is placed on human vulnerability, the potential for marginalisation of disadvantaged individuals and social groups, and the requirement to make applied volcanology sensitive to the characteristics of local demography, economy, culture and politics. During the IDNDR a methodology, broadly similar to environmental impact analysis, has emerged as the preferred method for studying human vulnerability and risk assessment in volcanically active regions. The characteristics of this new methodology are discussed and the progress which has been made in innovating it on the European Union laboratory volcanoes located in western Europe is reviewed. Furnas (São Miguel, Azores) and Vesuvius in Italy are used as detailed case studies.
To evaluate the effectiveness of three different types of glass ionomer restorations placed in children's teeth using the ART technique two years after placement by either dentists or primary health care workers. The rural district of Palpa in western Nepal. An opportunistic non-randomised field study, commenced in April 1997. Three different glass ionomer restorative cements were used: Fuji IX (GC), Dentsply Baseline (DENTSPLY/DeTrey), and S.S. WhiteR (S.S. White). The restorations were assessed two years later by an independent evaluator, who was blind to the type of restorations used and also blind to the operators. Four primary health care workers and two dentists restored 163 primary and permanent teeth using hand instruments. One and two surface restorations were placed in 105 students ranging from 3 to 19 years of age from seven schools. After two years, 79 (75%) of the restorations survived and 27 (25%) failed, while 100% of 21 evaluated single surface restorations placed on permanent molars with Fuji IX survived. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival of the restorations placed by dentists and placed by primary health care workers, which corroborates that both groups are both capable of performing the technique satisfactorily. ART is very effective for one surface permanent molars using improved glass ionomer cements designed for the ART technique.
Eranki, Vivek; Koul, Kongposh; Mendz, George; Dillon, David
Facet joint dislocation is a traumatic injury, which frequently results in devastating clinical outcomes. In Western Australia (WA), Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) provides a statewide Spinal Trauma Service and accepts all referrals from the entirety of the state. The economies of distance in WA mean that there is often a considerable delay between initial presentation at the peripheral hospital and enlocation of the dislocation in Perth. This study aims to identify any prejudicial clinical outcomes as a consequence of this delay. This study retrospectively examines all facet joint dislocations that presented to RPH between in a 46-month period. Data were collected on the demographics of patients, mechanism of injury, neurological assessment at presentation of injury based on the American spinal injury association (ASIA), initial presentation to RPH, post-surgical reduction and post rehabilitation. Over this time there were 23 urban patients and 28 rural patients. In the urban group, 18 patients had a final ASIA score of D or E while 5 patients had a final ASIA score of A, B or C. In the rural group, 17 patients had a final ASIA score of A, B or C while 11 patients had a final ASIA score of D or E. This study confirms the challenges of management of these injuries in a large geographical area, with a centralised spinal trauma service. Generally, facet joint dislocations that had delayed reductions had a poorer outcome. We hope that the proposed protocol would deliver better management of these injuries.
Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.
Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.
Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.
Bane, John M.; He, Ruoying; Muglia, Michael; Lowcher, Caroline F.; Gong, Yanlin; Haines, Sara M.
The kinetic energy in ocean currents, or marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, is a renewable energy resource that can help meet global energy requirements. An ocean circulation model-based census shows that subtropical surface western boundary currents (WBCs) are the only nearshore, large-scale currents swift enough to drive large electricity-generating ocean turbines envisioned for future use. We review several WBCs in the context of kinetic energy extraction. The power density in the Gulf Stream off North Carolina at times reaches several thousand watts per square meter at 75 m below the surface, and the annual average power is approximately 500-1,000 W m-2. Significant fluctuations occur with periods of 3-20 days (Gulf Stream meanders) and weeks to months (Gulf Stream path shifts). Interannual variations in annual average power occur because of year-to-year changes in these WBC motions. No large-scale turbines presently exist, and the road to establishing MHK facilities in WBCs will encounter challenges that are similar in many aspects to those associated with the development of offshore wind power.
Larcos, G.; Lawson-Smith, R. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound
Full text: Recently, 15% of elderly Japanese-American women have been shown to have marked heterogeneity of bone mineral density (BMD) between measured sites. The purposes of this study were to determine (1 ) the prevalence of this finding in an Australian population; and (2) potential association with clinical factors such as age, years since menopause (YSM), alcohol, smoking, family history, exercise, and body mass index. One hundred and fourteen peri-or post- menopausal Caucasian women (mean age 55 + 8.8 years) were referred for osteoporotic (OP) fracture risk assessment. Patients (pts) had no disorders or drugs known to affect BMD and no evidence of scoliosis or arthritic change. Bone densitometry of the lumbar spine (PA), hip and distal radius were measured using a Norland XR-26. According to WHO criteria, 30 pts (26%) were normal (T score > -1) at all sites; no pts (0%) had generalised OP (T score < -2.5); 29 (25%) had OP in one or two sites only (hip = 25, spine = 13, wrist = 1); the remaining 55 pts (48%) were osteogenic (-2.5 < T score < -1) in at least one site. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, only YSM predicted regional OP (odds ratio = 1.14; p
Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, Merlin H.; Tsengeg, Pu
Raptors were observed on a 5200 km expedition from Ulaan Baatar through the Hangay Mountains to the Russian Altay Mountains with return through the Gobi Altay Mountains. The focus of the expedition was on nesting ecology of the Saker (Falco cherrug) and Altay falcons (F. altaicus) (25 eyries were located), but nests were also found for seven other species including more than 30 nests found of the upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius). We conducted 21 day-long counts and 10 more formal raptor road counts. Raptors were concentrated in areas where perches were common and where food was most abundant. Western Mongolia remains a vast undeveloped land where camel trains and yak carts are normal. No developed highway network exists. Raptor work in the interior must be supported by four-wheel drive vehicles traveling cross country. Food and fuel for a research team are difficult to procure, but raptor populations are largely unexploited. Raptors frequently nest on the ground or on very low cliffs and tress, and often nest in close proximity of pairs of their own and other species. Several areas of special significance to raptors are discussed including the Taleen Ulaan (Red Steppe) areas of granite dells which we recommend for status as an international reserve.
James C. Russell
Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.
Full Text Available The seismicity and the earthquake risk in Western Sicily are here
evaluated on the basis of the experimental data referring to the historical
and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in this area (from 1248
up to 1968, which have been thoroughly collected, analyzed, tested and
normalized in order to assure the quasi-stationarity of the series of
The approximated magnitude values — obtained by means of a compared
analysis of the magnitude and epicentral intensity values of the
latest events — have allowed to study the parameters of the frequency-
magnitude relation with both the classical exponential model and
the truncated exponential one previously proposed by the author.
So, the basic parameters, including the maximum possible regional
magnitude, have been estimated by means of different procedures, and
their behaviours have been studied as functions of the threshold magnitude.
West, John B
Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Harriet H. Christensen; Wendy J. McGinnis; Terry L. Raettig; Ellen. Donoghue
This atlas illustrates the dimensions, location, magnitude, and direction of social and economic change since 1989 in western Washington, western Oregon, and northern California that have occurred during a major transition period in natural resource management policy as well as large decreases in timber harvests. The diversity and the social and economic health of the...
Conforti, Alessandro; Budillon, Francesca; Tonielli, Renato; De Falco, Giovanni
A previously unknown submerged volcanic field offshore western Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea), has been identified based on swath bathymetric data collected in 2009, 2010 and 2013, and high-resolution seismic profiles collected in 2011 and 2013. About 40 conical-shaped volcanic edifices (maximum width of about 1600 m and maximum height of about 180 m) and several lava outcrops (up to 1,200 m wide) were recognized at 20 to 150 m water depth over an area of 800 km2. The volcanic edifices are mainly eruptive monogenic vents, mostly isolated with a rather distinct shape, or grouped to form a coalescent volcanic body in which single elements are often still recognizable. High-resolution seismics enabled identifying relationships between the volcanic bodies and continental margin successions. The edifices overlie a major erosional surface related to the margin exposure following the Messinian salinity crisis, and are overlain by or interbedded with an early Pliocene marine unit. This seismo-stratigraphic pattern dates the volcanic activity to the early Pliocene, in agreement with the radiometric age of the Catalano island lavas (4.7 Ma) reported in earlier studies. The morphometry of the volcanic bodies suggests that cone erosion was higher at shallow water depths. Indeed, most of the shallow edifices are strongly eroded and flattened at 125 to 130 m water depth, plausibly explained by recurrent sub-aerial exposure during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, whereas cones in deeper water are much better preserved. Volcanic vents and lava deposits, hereafter named the Catalano volcanic field (CVF), are emplaced along lineaments corresponding to the main directions of the normal fault system, which lowered the Sinis Basin and the western Sardinia continental margin. The CVF represents a volumetrically relevant phase of the late Miocene - Quaternary anorogenic volcanic cycle of Sardinia, which is related to the first stage of the extensional tectonics affecting the island
Eisen, O.; Diez, A.; Hofstede, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Mayer, C.; Miller, H.
Small vibrator sources have been succesfully operated on cold Alpine firn in the last years. Here we present results from first operations on the Antarctic plateau, near Kohnen station, Dronning Maud Land with the electrodynamic vibrator system ELVIS. Because of its light weight, such vibrator sources are especially suitable for air transport, a considerable logistic advantage for operation in remote polar regions. As its peak force is lower than 1000 N, it has also been possible to excite shear waves at the surfaces. The complementation of shear waves with pressure waves allows for the deduction of elastic moduli within the firn and ice column. We provide an overall assessment of the results of recordings made with three-component geophones, including estimates of penetrating depth, capability to image shallow internal layering and comparison with stratigraphy detected with ground-penetrating radars.
Capron, E.; Landais, A.; Chappellaz, J.
Since its discovery in Greenland ice cores, the millennial scale climatic variability of the last glacial period has been increasingly documented at all latitudes with studies focusing mainly on Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 28–60 thousand of years before present, hereafter ka) and characterized...... a succession of abrupt events associated with long Greenland InterStadial phases (GIS) enabling us to highlight a sub-millennial scale climatic variability depicted by (i) short-lived and abrupt warming events preceding some GIS (precursor-type events) and (ii) abrupt warming events at the end of some GIS...... (rebound-type events). The occurrence of these sub-millennial scale events is suggested to be driven by the insolation at high northern latitudes together with the internal forcing of ice sheets. Thanks to a recent NorthGRIP-EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) common timescale over MIS 5, the bipolar sequence...
Full Text Available To interpret new high resolution climate records it becomes more and more important to know about the succession of climate events. Such knowledge is hard to get especially when dealing with different types of climate archives. Even for ice cores a direct synchronization between ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica has not been possible so far due to the lack of time markers occurring in both hemispheres. Fortunately, variations in the time series of global gas records can be used as indirect time markers. Here we discuss in detail the steps that are necessary to synchronize ice cores via global gas records exemplified on the synchronization of the EPICA ice core from Dronning Maud Land to a Greenland record from North GRIP.
C. J. Clarke
Full Text Available Dryland salinity poses a major threat to agricultural production in the wheatbelt of Western Australia and much time and effort is expended on understanding the mechanisms which cause it and on developing techniques to halt or reverse its development. Whilst the location of much dryland salinity can be explained by its topographic position, a significant proportion of it cannot. This study investigated the hypothesis that major faults in the Yilgarn Craton represented in aeromagnetic data by intense curvilinear lows explained the location of areas of dryland salinity not explained by topography. Moreover, the causal mechanisms that might underpin a spatial relationship between major faults and dryland salinity were sought. In one fourth order catchment, nearly 85% of the salinity that was not explained topographically was within 2km of the centre line of a major fault, the remaining 15% being in the other 12km of the catchment. Three groups of similar third order catchments in the western wheatbelt of Western Australia were also investigated; in each case the catchment that was underlain by a major fault had dryland salinity an order of magnitude more than the unfaulted catchment(s. This evidence demonstrates a strong spatial association between major faults and the development of dryland salinity. Other evidence suggests that the underlying mechanism is hydraulic conductivity 5.2 to 2.9 times higher inside the fault zone compared to outside it and shows that geomorphology, salt store, regolith thickness, and degree of clearing are not the underlying mechanisms. In one of the groups of catchments, it has been calculated that an amount of recharge, significant in relation to recharge from rainfall, was entering from an adjacent catchment along a major fault. The paper concludes that geological features such as major faults affect the development of dryland salinity in the wheatbelt of Western Australia because of permeability differences in the
This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.
Full Text Available The major mode conveys positive emotion, whereas the minor mode conveys negative emotion. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the emotions induced by Western music in Western participants. The influence of the musical mode (major or minor on Chinese individuals’ perception of Western music is unclear. In the present experiments, we investigated the effects of musical mode and harmonic complexity on psychological perception among Chinese participants. In Experiment 1, the participants (N = 30 evaluated 24 musical excerpts in five dimensions (pleasure, arousal, dominance, emotional tension, and liking. In Experiment 2, the participants (N = 40 evaluated 48 musical excerpts. Perceptions of the musical excerpts differed significantly according to mode, even if the stimuli were Western musical excerpts. The major-mode music induced greater pleasure and arousal and produced higher liking ratings than the minor-mode music, whereas the minor-mode music induced greater tension than the major-mode music. Mode did not influence the dominance rating. Perception of Western music was not influenced by harmonic complexity. Moreover, preference for musical mode was influenced by previous exposure to Western music. These results confirm the cross-cultural emotion induction effects of musical modes in Western music.
Fang, Lele; Shang, Junchen; Chen, Nan
The major mode conveys positive emotion, whereas the minor mode conveys negative emotion. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the emotions induced by Western music in Western participants. The influence of the musical mode (major or minor) on Chinese individuals' perception of Western music is unclear. In the present experiments, we investigated the effects of musical mode and harmonic complexity on psychological perception among Chinese participants. In Experiment 1, the participants (N = 30) evaluated 24 musical excerpts in five dimensions (pleasure, arousal, dominance, emotional tension, and liking). In Experiment 2, the participants (N = 40) evaluated 48 musical excerpts. Perceptions of the musical excerpts differed significantly according to mode, even if the stimuli were Western musical excerpts. The major-mode music induced greater pleasure and arousal and produced higher liking ratings than the minor-mode music, whereas the minor-mode music induced greater tension than the major-mode music. Mode did not influence the dominance rating. Perception of Western music was not influenced by harmonic complexity. Moreover, preference for musical mode was influenced by previous exposure to Western music. These results confirm the cross-cultural emotion induction effects of musical modes in Western music.
This edition of the WGSP status report summarizes September 1978 progress of the government-sponsored projects directed towards increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Background information is provided in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. The Williston Basin Symposium was held in Billings, Montana, the 24th through the 27th of September 1978. The USGS continued work on characterization and assessment of the resource in the four primary study areas and completed the 1978 field work in the Sand Wash and Green River Basins. CER Corporation is evaluating a Twin Arrow drill site, located on the Douglas Creek Arch for the possibility of obtaining core, and preparations are being made for the Logging Program meeting to be held at the CER offices the latter part of October, 1978. The design phase for the pressure coring system has been completed and work is progressing on the fabrication and testing of the improved system. The National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers continued work on mathematical model development, new tools and instrumentation systems, data analysis techniques and rock mechanics. Work continued on the field tests and demonstrations aspect of the WGSP. Bids sent to several service companies by Mitchell Energy Corporation, for a massive fracture treatment, are due back in October and the treatment is expected to be performed in mid-November. Mobil Research and Development fractured Zone 8 of their PCU 31-13 well, then shut it in due to anticipated winter weather and work was started on Zone 9. Sandia's mineback program involved evaluation of the Hole No. 6 Formation Interface Fracture Experiment.
The Western Gas Sands Project Plan, Project Implementation Plans and Project Plan Document FY 78 are in various stages of preparation. Information gathering by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the initial data base for many of the project activities is nearing completion. Some base maps are complete and field investigations in the principal areas of interest are being conducted. Research and development by Energy Research Centers and National Laboratories were directed toward new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics experiments, mathematical modeling, and data analysis. The Uinta Basin in Utah and Piceance Basin in Colorado have ongoing massive hydraulic fracture (MHF) experiments in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas formations. These are: CER Corporation, MHF 3; Gas Producing Enterprises, Natural Buttes No. 14, 18, 19, 20; Mobil Oil, F-31-13G; and Rio Blanco Natural Gas, 498-4-1. Colorado Interstate Gas Company has been awarded a contract to determine if productivity in low permeability reservoirs can be improved by reducing the interstitialwater saturation. They will be using two wells, the Sprague No. 1 and Miller No. 1, completed in the Dakota J formation in the Wattenberg Field in north central Colorado. All of the massive hydraulic fracture wells, with the exception of the Pacific Transmission well, have been fractured as planned. The Mobil and GPE No. 14, 18, and 20 wells show significant improvement as compared to original flow rates. The Mobil well is being tested for additional MHF treatments. Sandia Laboratories is continuing their research program in hydraulic fracturing at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS).
Ober, W B
Taking into account that marriage, the family as a social unit, and concepts of legitimacy developed to ensure the devolution of property and that, when these concepts apply in a society based on hierarchically organized monarchies, they also involve the devolution of power, this essay furnishes examples of dislocations in such devolutions, in terms of familiar incidents in western European history. That Jane Seymour died in childbirth but her son Edward VI survived long enough to ensure the stability of the Church of England is the first example. The infertility of Mary Tudor, when married to Philip II of Spain, prevented the formation of an Anglo-Spanish dynasty that would have been Roman Catholic is the second example of such a dislocation. Likewise, the infertility of Charles II's wife, Catherine of Braganza, led to the succession of James II, a practicing Roman Catholic, whose attempts to undermine the Church of England led to the Glorious Revolution of 1788 and the preservation of English Protestantism. Another example is the death in 1817 of Princess Charlotte, in childbirth, which led to the scramble of George III's aging sons to marry and beget an heir to the throne. The only success led to the birth of the future Queen Victoria, whose dynastic competence remains unquestionable, but who herself had some passing involvement with obstetrical developments. Finally, the delivery of Kaiser Wilhelm II, who sustained a brachial plexus injury that produced Erb's palsy of the left arm, is considered, and the question of intrapartum fetal hypoxia is raised as a hypothesis, in addition to the mechanical trauma and its effect on his personality.
Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.
The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765
Arun P. Singh
Full Text Available Thirty percent of butterfly species that occur in India are found in the Garhwal region of the western Himalaya, which comprise six districts of Uttarakhand State with five major vegetation types lying between the catchments of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers. The annotated checklist compiled here for this region comprises 407 species and takes into account all the species recorded since 1899, when the first list of 323 species was prepared by Mackinnon & de Nicéville on the ‘butterflies of Mussoorie and its adjacent areas’. Over a 20 year period (1986–1990; 2000–June 2015 the present authors maintained detailed notes and were able personally to record 349 species. This information is presented in a checklist, together with details of the month, year and site of each record, relative abundance, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 (IWPA status, as well as references of earlier records made by other authors in Garhwal for those species that the authors were not able to record themselves. Forty-nine species recorded in the region have been placed under various schedules of IWPA; only one species, the Golden Emperor Dilipa morgiana Westwood, is listed in Schedule I Part IV, the others being mainly included under Schedule II Part II. The paper also discusses new range extensions and significant records (past and present, identifies major biotic factors that threaten butterfly diversity in Garhwal, and suggests the scope for butterfly ecotourism in the state as an option for long term conservation.
Kapnick, Sarah B.; Yang, Xiaosong; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Gudgel, Rich; Malyshev, Sergey; Milly, Paul C.; Shevliakova, Elena; Underwood, Seth; Margulis, Steven A.
Western US snowpack—snow that accumulates on the ground in the mountains—plays a critical role in regional hydroclimate and water supply, with 80% of snowmelt runoff being used for agriculture. While climate projections provide estimates of snowpack loss by the end of th ecentury and weather forecasts provide predictions of weather conditions out to 2 weeks, less progress has been made for snow predictions at seasonal timescales (months to 2 years), crucial for regional agricultural decisions (e.g., plant choice and quantity). Seasonal predictions with climate models first took the form of El Niño predictions 3 decades ago, with hydroclimate predictions emerging more recently. While the field has been focused on single-season predictions (3 months or less), we are now poised to advance our predictions beyond this timeframe. Utilizing observations, climate indices, and a suite of global climate models, we demonstrate the feasibility of seasonal snowpack predictions and quantify the limits of predictive skill 8 month sin advance. This physically based dynamic system outperforms observation-based statistical predictions made on July 1 for March snowpack everywhere except the southern Sierra Nevada, a region where prediction skill is nonexistent for every predictor presently tested. Additionally, in the absence of externally forced negative trends in snowpack, narrow maritime mountain ranges with high hydroclimate variability pose a challenge for seasonal prediction in our present system; natural snowpack variability may inherently be unpredictable at this timescale. This work highlights present prediction system successes and gives cause for optimism for developing seasonal predictions for societal needs.
Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity existing in the country, totaling 20 established species out of 28 introduced species. In the last decade, the non-native fish detection rate (a proxy of introduction rate has been one new species in every two years. Most of the non-native fishes in Portugal are mainly from Central Europe and North America and were illegally introduced for sports fisheries. However, some recent records are also linked with the ornamental trade, from Asia, indicating an increase of this vector in fish introductions. The international drainages exhibit the highest number of non-native fishes due to prevalent invasion routes from Spain, although direct introductions to national drainages in spatially limited areas suggest new invasion routes caused by higher propagule pressure of leading vectors (fisheries and ornamental trade. Management options are presented in order to tackle this growing threat, namely risk assessment, enforcement and environmental education. Only a comprehensive and integrated approach at an Iberian level could reduce the current rate of non-native species arrival to this region and help us to preserve the Iberian freshwater fishes for future generations.
Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: email@example.com; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.
Aggarwal, Sandeep Kumar; Khan, Prosanta Kumar
We propose a novel Lg attenuation tomography model (QLg tomography) for the state of Gujarat, Western India, using earthquake data recorded by the Gujarat Seismic Network, operated by the Institute of Seismological Research in Gandhinagar. The waveform dataset consist of 400 3-component recordings, produced by 60 earthquakes with magnitude (ML) spanning from 3.6 to 5.1, recorded at 60 seismic stations having epicentral distances spanning between 200 and 500 km. Spectral amplitude decays for Lg wave displacement were obtained by generalized inversion at 17 frequencies spanning between 0.9 and 9 Hz. Lg wave propagation efficiency was measured by Lg/Pn spectral ratio categorizing as efficient ratio ≥6 for 86%, intermediate ratio of 3-6 for 10% and inefficient ratio Gujarat. Average power-law attenuation relationship obtained for Gujarat as QLg(f) = 234f0.64, which corresponds to high attenuation in comparison to peninsular India shield region and other several regions around the world. QLg tomography resolves the highly attenuating crust of extremely fractured Saurashtra region and tectonically active Kachchh region. The Gujarat average attenuation is also lying in between them. The low attenuation in Cambay and Narmada rift basins and extremely low attenuation in patch of Surendranagar area is identified. This study is the first attempt and can be utilized as pivotal criteria for scenario hazard assessment, as maximum hazard has been reported in highly attenuating tectonically active Kachchh region and in low attenuating Cambay, Narmada and Surendranagar regions. The site and source terms are also obtained along with the QLg inversion. The estimated site responses are comparable with observed local geological condition and agree with the previously reported site amplifications at the same sites. The source terms are comparable with local magnitude estimated from Network. The Mw (Lg) is nearly equivalent to ML (GSN) and the slight differences are noted for larger
Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe
Taylor, Sean C; Berkelman, Thomas; Yadav, Geetha; Hammond, Matt
Chemiluminescent western blotting has been in common practice for over three decades, but its use as a quantitative method for measuring the relative expression of the target proteins is still debatable. This is mainly due to the various steps, techniques, reagents, and detection methods that are used to obtain the associated data. In order to have confidence in densitometric data from western blots, researchers should be able to demonstrate statistically significant fold differences in protein expression. This entails a necessary evolution of the procedures, controls, and the analysis methods. We describe a methodology to obtain reliable quantitative data from chemiluminescent western blots using standardization procedures coupled with the updated reagents and detection methods.
Va'a, L F
"The history of Samoan migration to New Zealand, a demographic profile of the migrants, and the future of such migration are discussed. Migration became a serious phenomenon after independence in 1962, with primarily young, unskilled workers moving to take up jobs in the agricultural and service sectors. Remaining essentially unchanged since 1962, New Zealand's immigration policy gives preferential treatment to Western Samoans and recognizes their valuable labor contribution. The future of migration to New Zealand is discussed in the context of the costs and benefits to Western Samoa.... The author argues that emigration has been beneficial rather than deleterious to Western Samoa's development...." Data are from official sources. excerpt
This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.
... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds Change in State of Incorporation; Western Bonding Company; Western Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service... Bonding Company (NAIC 13191) and Western Insurance Company (NAIC 10008) have redomesticated from the state...
... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Coporate Headquaters/Hard Drive... for the workers and former workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Corporate Headquarters/Hard Drive Development Division, Lake Forest, California (Western Digital Technologies). The Department's...
Diez, A.; Eisen, O.; Hofstede, C.; Bohlen, T.; Weikusat, I.; Kipfstuhl, S.
It is known from ice core analyses that the crystal orientation fabric (COF) of ice sheets is anisotropic and changes over depth. A better understanding of these anisotropies as well as their remote detection is important to optimize flow models for ice. Here we show how seismic wideangle measurements can be used to determine the COF remotely. We demonstrate the principle formalism how observed seismic traveltimes can be related to COF properties by a forward model and then apply the formalism to field data. The eigenvalues that describe the ice fabric of the ice core EDML (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctca) are set into a relationship with the elasticity tensor. From the elasticity tensor the expected seismic velocities and reflection coefficients are calculated. Additionally we calculate the value eta from the Thomsen-parameters epsilon and delta. The value eta gives a measure of the anisotropy of vertical transverse isotropic (VTI)-media and is an important tool for the NMO-correction of anisotropic data. The approximation of reflection horizons as hyperbolas is not valid anymore in anisotropic media. The calculation of the moveout is therefore performed by a 4th order NMO-correction with the RMS-velocity and the effective eta value as variables. This approach is applied to data from a wideangle survey shot at Halvarryggen, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. From this data we derived RMS-velocities and effective eta values. These values were than recalculated to interval velocities and interval eta values to give a hint on the measure of anisotropy of the different layers. The results give first insight into the anisotropies at Halvfarryggen.
The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.
A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methods used to estimate surface wind speeds from satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. On the other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. From this annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution using a generalization Abild's method that allows for data wind collected from multiple positions. The choice of this method is justified by a Monte Carlo simulation comparing it to two other methods. The principle output is a map showing fifty year winds in the region. The method is tested against observed winds from Philippine synoptic stations and fair agreement is found for observed and predicted 48 year maxima. However, the almost biasfree performance of the model could be fortuitous, since precise definitions of 'windspeed' in terms averaging time, height above ground and assumed surface roughness are not available, neither for best tracks nor for the synoptic data. The work has been carried out under Danish Research Agency grant 2104-04-0005 'Offshore wind power' and it also covers the findings and analysis carried out in connection with task 1.6 of the project 'Feasibility Assessment and Capacity Building for Wind Energy Development in Cambodia, The Philippines and Vietnam' during 2005-06 under contract 125-2004 with EU
Kholmyanskii, Mikhail; Vladimirov, Maksim; Snopova, Ekaterina; Kartashev, Aleksandr
We propose a new original version of the structure of the cryolithozone of west Arctic seas of Russia. In contrast to variants of construction of sections and maps based on thermodynamic modeling, the authors have used electrometric, seismic, and thermal data including their own profile measurements by near-field transient electromagnetic technique and seismic profile observations by reflection method. As a result, we defined the spatial characteristics of cryolithozone and managed to differentiate it to several layers, different both in structure and formation time. We confirmed once again that the spatial boundary of cryolithozone, type and thickness of permafrost, chilled rocks and thawed ground are primarily determined by tectonic and oceanographic regimes of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent land in different geological epochs. Permafrost formed on the land in times of cold weather, turn to submarine during flooding and overlap, in the case of the sea transgression, by marine sediments accumulating in the period of warming. We have been able to establish a clear link between the permafrost thickness and the geomorphological structure of the area. This can be explained by the distribution of thermodynamic flows that change the temperature state of previously formed permafrost rocks. Formation in the outer parts of the shelf which took place at ancient conversion stage can be characterized by the structure: • permafrost table - consists of rocks, where the sea water with a temperature below 0 °C has replaced the melted ice; • middle horizon - composed of undisturbed rocks, and the rocks chilled through the lower sieving underlay; As a result of the interpretation and analysis of all the available data, the authors created a map of types of cryolithozone of the Western Arctic shelf of Russia. The following distribution areas are marked on the map: • single-layer cryolithozone (composed of sediments upper Pleistocene and Holocene); • monosyllabic relict
Berdnikova, Alina; Matskovsky, Vladimir; Kurbanov, Redzhep
Turkmenistan is a very special region in Central Asia where the desert covers 80% of the territory. Water supply is a subject of state importance in Turkmenistan. To understand the mechanisms that affect the amount of precipitation in the region on decadal and centennial time scales long records of atmospheric precipitation are necessary. Unfortunately such records are sparse and short in the region. Tree rings are natural archive that store information about environmental conditions of the past. Previously tree rings have been successfully used for hydroclimate reconstructions covering the last millennium. Such reconstructions uncovered possible climatic causes of many social cataclysms in human history. In arid regions tree rings are especially useful for hydroclimate reconstructions, explaining around 60-80% of variability of instrumental records. Paleogeographic reconstructions for the Late Holocene based on dendroclimatology can reveal the climatic characteristics of periods when Aral Sea basin was connected with the Caspian sea. The other possible perspective of our research is revealing the paleoclimate characteristics for Western Turkmenistan describing evaporation and precipitation - the basic indicators for understanding Caspian sea-level change. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of dendroclimatological method in Turkmenistan for the purpose of hydroclimatological reconstructions. These reconstructions may significantly extend the existing instrumental records of atmospheric precipitation in the region. Study region is situated along the southwestern border of the Turkmenistan, in northern piedmont of the Kopetdag range. We sampled several species: turkman juniper (Juniperus turcomanica), black pine (Pinus nigra), oriental plane (Platanus orientalis), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) and osage orange (Maclura pomifera), but only juniper chronology has been constructed and analyzed so far. Although old trees are rare in Turkmenistan
A pall of smoke and dust largely obscured the nations of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso and southern Mali on January 12, 2004. The poor air quality in the region was a combined result of the hundreds of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been influenced by a Saharan dust storm that occurred several days earlier. These image data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate the abundance of atmospheric particulate matter across the region.The left-hand panels are natural-color views from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) and most obliquely forward-pointing cameras. At the nadir view, the shoreline of the Cote d'Ivoire and many other surface features are apparent, and the haze across the region is noticeable. The distinctive area of dark green vegetation (apparent below and left of image center) is situated in the Cote d'Ivoire, near the border with Ghana, to the east of the Komoe River and southwest of the Comoe National Park. At the oblique view the aerosol appears so thick that the coastline is completely obscured, but this region of dark vegetation and hilly terrain can still be discerned.The right-hand panel is generated through automated processing of data from multiple MISR cameras, and utilizes the change in scene brightness and contrast at different view angles to retrieve aerosol amounts, expressed as optical depth. The aerosol map indicates an optically thick atmosphere by the orange or yellow pixels, and clearer skies are indicated by blue pixels. Places where clouds or other factors precluded an aerosol retrieval are shown in dark gray. Aerosol properties are retrieved at a coarse spatial resolution of 17.6 kilometers.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a
K. A. Ivanova
Full Text Available The philosophy of education is represented by a wide range of concepts and approaches. The basic concepts of the philosophy of education can be divided into 4 groups according to the «pure» philosophical systems: realism, idealism, pragmatism, existentialism. Among the goals of the philosophy of education as an independent science are: stimulation, analysis, ordering, research. The delineation of the concept of education and the notion of school education are an important aspect in formulating the goals of the philosophy of education. A significant place in the process of finding and setting the goals of the philosophy of education is occupied by an alternative: discipline of mind or discipline of knowledge? It is worth paying attention to the goals of the modern Western philosophy of education: training for the formation of character, training for personal growth and success, training for the development and refinement of aesthetic predispositions, etc. Within the frameworks of the American philosophy of education, three main directions were formed: empiricism, rationalism, naturalism. According to the approach of the empiricists, education is the main factor, influencing human existence, which stimulates human activity, forms the person’s abilities and character. Rationalists introduced the idea of «self-alienation» as the most important for the philosophy of education. «Self-alienation» is a transition of a student from one stage of training to another one under the supervision of a teacher, when human mind becomes an object of his own attention. At the last stage of the student’s intellectual development, discovery of universals, laws and principles takes place. According to naturalists’ concept, the conclusions of scientific study of nature should be understood not as a testimony of truth, but as working hypotheses for further investigation. Scientific discoveries should be discoveries for education. Modern educational systems
which the spouse was more highly valued and conjugal relations more amicable. The change in attitude was noted and deplored in contemporary Church writings. It is difficult to believe that ideological or religious currents of thought were solely responsible for the profound modification of France's demographic behavior, but ideology may have been an intervening factor in the postponement of marriage that became an important fertility determinant in much of Western Europe. The relationships between ownership of land and property, inheritance and succession, and marriage and household formation were at the heart of continuing struggles during the period under study. The austerity of late marriage undoubtedly was a reflection of the mental changes involved in early industrialization and capital formation.
Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin
Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real
Shafer, Susanne M.
Maintains that political, technological, and social changes in Western Europe have produced a need for reassessment of the education of women and greater gender equality. Introduces the articles on equal education for women contained in this journal issue. (BSR)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...
Koenig, Matthias; Maliepaard, Mieke; Güveli, Ayse
This paper analyzes the effects of religious participation upon a major socio-economic integration outcome, namely employment, among recent Christian and Muslim newcomers in three Western European destination countries: Germany, the Netherlands, and Great Britain. The paper revisits theoretical
Antimicrobial activity of some actinomycetes from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. Pathalam Ganesan, Appadurai Daniel Reegan, Rajendran Host Antony David, Munusamy Rajiv Gandhi, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu ...
William C. Fischer; Anne F. Bradley
Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types in western Montana. Identifies Fire Groups of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.
Nirnay Kumar Keshree; Suman Kumar; Shriya Basu; Madhushree Chakrabarty; Thomas Kishore
.... Of all the tools available for aphasia diagnosis, the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB; Kertesz, 1982) has proved to be one of the most comprehensive test batteries for describing the aphasia symptom complex...
Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.
This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...
Saadia Izzeldin Malik
Full Text Available This study discusses the compatibility of Islamic theories of ethics with Western theories of ethics regarding the ethics of global journalism. The study examines Western and Islamic approaches and perspectives on ethics and applied ethics in the field of journalism. Central to the discussion are global journalism values of freedom of expression, individual right for privacy, public right to know, and the global clashing values of media ownership vs. freedom, and consumerism values vs. media values of social responsibility. These clashing media values are part of the broader practices of newsgathering and news reporting that encompass many ethical dilemmas in the field of media and journalism. The study concludes by discussing Western perspectives on character education. It also provides an Islamic moral perspective based on character education as an approach compatible with the Western perspective on moral education. This perspective will help reconcile global clashing media values.
Abstract. Book Title: The writings of Mauritania and the western Sahara: Arabic Literature of Africa vol. 5. Book Authors: compiled by Charles C. Stewart with Sidi Ahmed Wuld Ahmed Salim. (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2016), 2 vols ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital elevation model used for the conservation assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and sagebrush habitat conducted by the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife...
Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria: prevalence and ... fasting blood sugar, lipid profiles, insulin resistance and blood pressure was ... Most of the women had low HDL (62.2%) and central obesity elevated (49.8%).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, dolphins, walruses, and Steller sea lions in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A complete set of wells associated with oil, natural gas, and coal bed natural gas development in the western states as of June 2004. This is a static dataset even...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...
California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...
Peters, Michael A.
This paper argues that the bias in Western philosophy is tied to its humanist ideology that pictures itself as central to the natural history of humanity and is historically linked to the emergence of humanism as pedagogy.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...
Christmas tree production has grown in the last 50 years to one of the major farming enterprises in western North Carolina. The history, importance, and challenges to the Christmas tree industry are reviewed.
Full Text Available Most societies in Western World has formulated a premature assumptions toward Islam due to the negative depictions of Islamic world doing by Western media which focused mainly on the issues of terrorism, intolerance, poverty, conflicts, fanaticism, horrible disease, low life qualities among Islamic countries, backwardness and lack of progress. This article explores and describes some statements made by Western media (as well as Western journalists, along with events as the setting of such comments. In order to overcome such situations, media monitoring must be professional and constant. Those who concern with the misleading information toward Islam must provide clear, short, and well-written press releases at regular intervals. Another suggestion is by drawing attention of ethnic youth toward journalism as noble profession and good trade.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To better understand the distribution of key breeding areas for the declining western population of monarch butterflies, the USFWS, in collaboration with the Xerces...
DeSousa, S.N.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Reddy, C.V.G.
Distribution of phosphates and nitrates in relation to some physico-chemical features of the western Bay of Bengal during August-September 1976 indicated marked regional variations. The mixed surface layer which was associated with high oxygen...
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Dalbergia hepperi from Western Africa is described and illustrated. The combination of glabrous ovaries, flat and glabrous fruits and ovate to obovate leaflets with a conspicuous acuminate apex is not known from any other Dalbergia species from this region.
Sipsma, Heather L; Chen, Peggy G; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Ilozumba, Ukwuoma O; Karfo, Kapouné; Bradley, Elizabeth H
...) practices and beliefs in western Africa. Data from women who responded to the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys between 2005 and 2007 were used to estimate the frequencies of ever having been circumcised, having had a daughter circumcised...
Full Text Available The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae were collected.
Ghahari H.; Arzanov Y.G.
The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae) were collected.
Impressions of the first Westerners in Japan in the 1860s are presented through photographs of popular woodcuts of the period. A short narrative reports the importance of this unusual news form. (1 reference) (Author)
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data have been collected from an Arctic desert site (latitude 78o57'29N, longitude 12o27'42E), Broeggerhalvoya in western Spitsbergen, 10 km NW from Ny...
Rivera, George, Jr.; Mejia, Juventino
Examining Chicanos who live in western New York, the study distinguished between native types of Chicano residents and compared these along several areas of concern: demographic variables, intermarriage and the family, and self-identification and perceptions of discrimination. (NQ)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains data for wet and dry nitrogen-species deposition for the United States and Western Europe. Deposition data were acquired directly from...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing inland linear hydrography features used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western...
Kartika Sari K.A.
Full Text Available Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.
Saadia Izzeldin Malik
This study discusses the compatibility of Islamic theories of ethics with Western theories of ethics regarding the ethics of global journalism. The study examines Western and Islamic approaches and perspectives on ethics and applied ethics in the field of journalism. Central to the discussion are global journalism values of freedom of expression, individual right for privacy, public right to know, and the global clashing values of media ownership vs. freedom, and consumerism values vs. media ...
The thesis focused differences in intercultural communication from Western and Asian perspective. The goal of this thesis was to find the differences and similarities in business communication between Western and Asian culture. The theoretical part of this thesis was titled as intercultural communication. Definition of intercultural communication, culture’s influence on perception, obstacles in intercultural communication and inter-cultural communication competences were covered in this...
Barjolle, Dominique; Brecic, Ruzica; Cerjak, Marija; Giraud, Georges
Te aim of this paper is to explore consumers' perceptions and habits regarding traditional food in the Western Balkan Countries. In each Western Balkan country, two focus groups were carried-out (total twelve focus groups; eight to ten participants per each – total sample of 104 participants). Results of this study show that consumer motives for the choice of traditional products pertain to higher health, safety, sensory and increasingly also sustainability beliefs and expectation. Results of...
Schultz, D R; Barthal, J S; Garrett, G
A patient with confirmed western equine encephalitis had the rapid onset of postencephalitic parkinsonian sequelae. This observation corroborates similar previous but rare reports. Response to therapy with levodopa, dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, and trihexyphenidyl was dramatic. However, remission maintained for 12 months without medication suggests that the parkinsonism would have remitted spontaneously. In either case, this has not previously been reported with the western equine togavirus.
Wurzer, Dominik; Qin, Yumeng
Newswire and Social Media are the major sources of information in our time. While the topical demographic of Western Media was subjects of studies in the past, less is known about Chinese Media. In this paper, we apply event detection and tracking technology to examine the information overlap and differences between Chinese and Western - Traditional Media and Social Media. Our experiments reveal a biased interest of China towards the West, which becomes particularly apparent when comparing th...
The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.
Mamboya, F. A.; Pratap, H. B.; Björk, M.
Western Indian Ocean Coast has many potential marine ecosystems such as mangrove, seagrass meadows, macroalgae, and coral reefs. It is largely unspoiled environment however, tourism and population growth in coastal urban centres, industrialization, are presenting a risk of pollutants input to the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. Mining, shipping and agricultural activities also input contaminants into the marine environment via runoff, vessel operations and accidental spillage. Heavy metals are among the pollutants that are expected to increase in the marine environment of the Western Indian Ocean. The increase in heavy metal pollution can pose a serious health problem to marine organism and human through food chain. This paper reviews studies on heavy metal contamination in the Western Indian Ocean. It covers heavy metal studies in the sediments, biota, particulates and seawater collected in different sites. In comparison to other regions, only few studies have been conducted in the Western Indian Ocean and are localized in some certain areas. Most of these studies were conducted in Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts while few of them were conducted in Mauritius, Somalia and Reunion. No standard or common method has been reported for the analysis or monitoring of heavy metals in the Western Indian Ocean.
Sean C. Taylor
Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.
Taylor, Sean C; Posch, Anton
Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013) and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.
, suggesting that direct temperature stress might be a factor in some species. Since warm growing seasons are also typically dry growing seasons, direct temperature stress and moisture stress could occur simultaneously. For example, 2004 was the warmest summer in over 200 years in boreal Alaska (Barber et al 2004) but it was also during a drought with less than 50 mm of summer precipitation recorded in Fairbanks. In Fairbanks, the length of the growing season, as defined as the period above freezing, has increased by 45 per cent over the past 100 years, with no significant increase in precipitation (Wendler and Shulski 2009). Regional winter runoff has increased, likely associated with permafrost thawing (Brabets and Walvoord 2009), while surface water has decreased, likely associated with increased evapotranspiration (Riordan et al 2006, Anderson et al 2007, Berg et al 2009). The mean annual air temperature in boreal Alaska has increased by over 1.5 °C during the past 50 years (Stafford et al 2000), and is projected to increase by 3-7 °C by end of this century (Walsh et al 2008). Thus, it would be surprising if a declining NDVI trend was not occurring in the western boreal region of North America as the climate continues to warm. Insects and disease in the North American boreal forest may also affect the NDVI browning trends (Malmström and Raffa 2000), as the life histories of damaging insects may be linked to a warming boreal climate. For example, warmer temperatures contributed to the spruce beetle outbreaks in Alaska with a reduction in the beetle life cycle from two years to one year (Berg et al 2006). Thus, as the boreal climate continues to warm, tree growth reduction and mortality from insects and diseases may become more substantial. In boreal Alaska, recent alder dieback and mortality is likely to be related to alder's susceptibility to a canker-causing fungus in drought years (Ruess et al 2009). Recent widespread and prolonged outbreaks of aspen leaf miner and a
ibtissam, Chouikri; Mandour Abdennabi, El; Mohammed, Jeffal; Mahjoub, Himi; Rochdane, Samia; Karroum, Morad; Elgettafi, Mohammed; Casas, Albert
The Western Haouz plain and the Mejjate plain constitute a vast alluvial plain of about 2800 km2. The area is located between 30 and 80 km south-west of Marrakech city and it is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The morphology of the plain is known by a flat topography, monotone and it is drained by three wadis: Nfis wadi, Assif El Mal wadi and Chichaoua wadi. The compilation of Geological, Geophysical and hydrogeological data shows that the Western Haouz plain is divided into two parts, it is a synclinal form separated by Marmouta horst and Guemassa horst. In the southern part, the Mejjate syncline is subsiding and shows a several formations from the shales of the Paleozoic to the alluvium of the quaternary. In the northern part, the syncline is less developed and it is formed by the conglomerates of the Mio-Pliocene and the alluvium of the Quaternary. The gravity map established shows positive anomalies due to the outcrop of the basement, and negative anomalies in the subsiding basins. Hydrogeologically, the geometry of the reservoirs and the groundwater circulation are controlled by geology (Rifts, flexure, anticline and syncline). The southern part of the plain between the Marmouta anticline and the piedmont of the High Atlas Mountains shows two aquifers; the unconfined aquifer housed in thick formations of Quaternary and Mio-Pliocene; and the confined aquifer housed in dolomitic limestones of the Cenomanian-Turonian. The confined aquifer is fed at the northern flank of the High Atlas showing karts morphology and high cliff of limestone slab of the Turonian. The outlet of the deep confined aquifer is shown by Abainou source with a variation between 300 and 600 l/s south of the Marmouta anticline and constitutes a barrier for the deep waters flow circulations.
Christina M. Botai
Full Text Available Drought is a creeping phenomenon whose effects evolve with time, yet the start and end is often only clear in the hindsight. The present study assessed drought conditions using two categories of drought indicators computed from precipitation data sets measured by weather stations across the Western Cape Province, South Africa for the period 1985 to 2016. The first category was the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI accumulated over 3-, 6- and 12-months (hereafter of SPI-3, SPI-6 and SPI-12 respectively. The second category consists of the four Drought Monitoring Indicators (DMI i.e., Drought Duration (DD, Severity (DS, Intensity (DI and Frequency (DF. Firstly, analysis of SPI-3, SPI-6 and SPI-12 illustrate that between 1985 and 2016, the Western Cape Province experienced recurrent mild drought conditions. This suggests that the drought conditions experienced during 2015/2016 hydrological year (hereafter current in the Western Cape Province is a manifestation of past drought conditions. Secondly, analysis of trends in DMI series depict a noticeable spatial-temporal dependence wherein the southern and western regions experienced more severe droughts compared to the eastern and northern regions of the Western Cape Province. Results also show that the DMI trends exhibit up to ~8% variability over the past decade. Overall, the current drought conditions in the Western Cape Province continues to adversely affect agricultural production while the water reservoirs are at below 30% capacity implying that the socio-economic impacts of these droughts will continue to reverberate for many months to come. Though the on-going drought conditions in the Western Cape Province is a regular part of nature’s cycle, analysis of historical drought characteristics based on drought indicators is an important first step towards placing the current drought conditions into perspective, and contribute to triggering action and response thereof. All these lay the
OrtizBevia, M.J.; Alvarez-Garcia, F.J.; Ruiz de Elvira, A.M.; Liguori, G.; Carretero, J.H. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Fisica, Madrid (Spain)
The anomalous climatic variability of the Western Mediterranean in summer, its relationships with the large scale climatic teleconnection modes and its feedbacks from some of these modes are the targets of this study. The most important trait of this variability is the recurrence of warm and cold episodes, that take place at 2-4 year intervals, and which are monitored in the Western Mediterranean Index. We find that the Western Mediterranean events are part of a basin scale mode, and are related to the previous spring atmospheric anomalies. These anomalies are related mainly to the Pacific North America teleconnection pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation, but also to a number of other climatic modes, connected with the previous two, as the Southern Oscillation, the Indian Core Monsoon and the Scandinavian teleconnection pattern. We identify the main spatial and temporal traits of the Western Mediterranean summer variability, the physical mechanisms at play in the generation of the events and their impacts. Considering the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean events influence the sea surface temperature in the southeastern part of the North Atlantic Gyre. Additionally, they are significantly related to summer precipitation anomalies of the opposite sign in the Baltic basin (Central Germany and Poland) and near the Black Sea. We then estimate the mutual influence that the anomalous previous state of the Western Mediterranean, of the Pacific North America teleconnection pattern and of the North Atlantic Oscillation have on their summer conditions using a simple stochastic model. As the summer Western Mediterranean events have an influence on a part of the Baltic basin, we propose a second stochastic model in order to investigate if thereafter the Baltic basin variability will feedback on the Western Mediterranean sea surface temperature anomalies. Among the variables included in the second model are, in addition to the Western Mediterranean previous state, that of
Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge
This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.
Mavin, S; McDonagh, S; Evans, R; Milner, R M; Chatterton, J M W; Ho-Yen, D O
This study reviews the Lyme borreliosis Western blot interpretation process, including what bands are classed as specific, the number of bands needed for a positive result, the role of band intensity and the use of clinical information. In 2008, 3688 patients (4223 serum samples) were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), with 832 patients tested by confirmatory in-house IgG Western blot: 272 patients were Western blot-positive, 170 were weak positive, 156 were equivocal and 234 were negative. These results were assessed, and a review of interpretation criteria from both the USA and Europe was carried out. New interpretation criteria and a testing algorithm were developed. The revised criteria changed the results in 109/3688 (3%) patients and produced significantly more Western blot-positive and weak-positive patients than with the current criteria (485 vs. 442, P blot interpretation and improved the sensitivity and robustness of their Western blot method. Using a protocol tailored to patients that incorporates clinical characteristics means that the entire process will be easier and will aid the management of patients.
Pletka, R.; Finn, J.
This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.
This paper examines the democratisation agenda laid out by Western governments for the North African region vis-à-vis their Realpolitik conflict containment approach towards the Western Sahara conflict. Western policymakers conceive the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara as a safety net that ...
The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) was initiated in 2002 by the National Park Service to determine if airborne contaminants were having an impact on remote western ecosystems. Multiple sample media (snow, water, sediment, fish and terrestrial vegetation...
Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr
The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.
Hutchinson, R. [Goldfields Gas Transmission Joint Venture, West Perth, WA (Australia)
A $A400 million project to pipe gas from fields in the Carnarvon Basin to iron ore mining areas in the Pilbara and the gold and nickel mines around Kalgoorlie is described in this article. It aims to provide a cheaper source of power generation to the industries along its route. Goldfields Gas Transmission joint venture, comprising Western Mining Corporation, BHP Minerals and Normandy Poseidon, were given approval to construct the pipeline by the Western Australian Government. On completion the pipeline will extend from Yarraloola in north west of Western Australia to Kalgoorlie in the Eastern Goldfields to the south, a total of 620 km. It is believed that it could be several years before the joint venturers receive a return on their investment but is expected to become a catalyst for lower cost energy and general development along the pipeline route. 2 figs., 5 photos.
Full Text Available The Italian Western, Johnny Hamlet (1968, directed by Enzo G. Castellari, draws on the revenge story of Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet for plot and characterization. While international distributors of the film downplayed its connection to highbrow Shakespeare, they emphasized the movie’s violent content and action-packed revenge narrative, which was typical of the western all’italiana. Johnny Hamlet shares similarities with the brutally violent Django (1966, directed by Sergio Corbucci, whose avenging angel protagonist epitomizes the Spaghetti Western antihero. Although the filmmakers of Johnny Hamlet characterized Johnny as a vindicator, they also sought to develop the “broody” aspect of this gunfighter, one based on Shakespeare’s famously ruminating hero. Using innovative film techniques, Johnny Hamlet shows Johnny as a contemplative pistolero.
Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina; Reeder, Francelyn M; Hsu, Min-Tao; Cheng, Su-Fen
The purpose of this article is to reveal Chinese-rooted meanings present within the Western nursing metaparadigm and to illustrate some similarities with Rogers's Science of Unitary Human Beings. Confucian and Taoist beliefs have the potential to illuminate the basic constructs inherent in holistic nursing. The Western nursing metaparadigm of four concepts--person, nursing, health, and environment--was explored through the lens of a Chinese worldview and led to the presentation of a broadened view for an integrated model of nursing. Asian and Western worldviews of human beings and health are not mutually exclusive. The Chinese holistic worldview of Taoism and Confucianism resonates theoretically and cosmically with the dynamic nature of the human-environment mutual relationship basic to Rogers' unitary view. This strong, theoretical link, when elaborated for its similarities and implications, can broaden the knowledge base to guide contemporary nursing practice, education, and research, particularly relevant for holistic nursing.
Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.
such as tectonism, climate and climate change. Western Scandinavia, the northern British Isles and the Faeroe-Shetland Platform were significant sediment sources during the Paleocene, which is well founded in tectonic causes related to the opening of the North Atlantic. From the Eocene and onward, variations...... in the sediment flux from western Scandinavia correlate better with climate and climate change. During the Eocene, sediment production was low. From the late Eocene onward, increased seasonality may have contributed to stimulating the sediment flux. Significant climatic cooling episodes correlate with Oligocene......The significance of variations in the sediment flux from western Scandinavia during the Cenozoic has been a matter of debate for decades. Here we compile the sediment flux using seismic data, boreholes and results from other publications and discuss the relative importance of causal agents...
ガルシア マエストロ ピエトロ, フアン ダニエル
■発表会名:第1回交流研究発表会 ■主催者名:大東文化大学大学院文学研究科 ■開催場所:大東文化大学 ■発表年月:2013年12月2日 This paper studies the differences between the basic elements of beauty in Western aesthetics and Japanese calligraphy, through the analysis of Kukai's “Fushinjo". In Western tradition, rationalistic thought made Western art and calligraphy turn even more rational, searching for a stable, immutable, and universal form of expression. However, in Japanese calligraphy, ideas such as “time", "process" and "change" are fundamental...
Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne
Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid.
Burda, Jolanta; Gawęda, Aleksandra; Klötzli, Urs
In the Variscan Western Tatra granites hybridization phenomena such as mixing and mingling can be observed at the contact of mafic precursors of dioritic composition and more felsic granitic host rocks. The textural evidence of hybridization include: plagioclase-K-feldspar-sphene ocelli, hornblende- and biotite-rimmed quartz ocelli, plagioclase with Ca-rich spike zonation, inversely zoned K-feldspar crystals, mafic clots, poikilitic plagioclase and quartz crystals, mixed apatite morphologies, zoned K-feldspar phenocrysts. The apparent pressure range of the magma hybridization event was calculated at 6.1 kbar to 4.6 kbar, while the temperature, calculated by independent methods, is in the range of 810°C-770°C. U-Pb age data of the hybrid rocks were obtained by in-situ LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis of zircon. The oscillatory zoned zircon crystals yield a concordia age of 368 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 1.1), interpreted as the age of magma hybridization and timing of formation of the magmatic precursors. It is the oldest Variscan magmatic event in that part of the Tatra Mountains.
Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A
Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.
Full Text Available The automatic analysis of large musical corpora by means of computational models overcomes some limitations of manual analysis, and the unavailability of scores for most existing music makes necessary to work with audio recordings. Until now, research on this area has focused on music from the Western tradition. Nevertheless, we might ask if the available methods are suitable when analyzing music from other cultures. We present an empirical approach to the comparative analysis of audio recordings, focusing on tonal features and data mining techniques. Tonal features are related to the pitch class distribution, pitch range and employed scale, gamut and tuning system. We provide our initial but promising results obtained when trying to automatically distinguish music from Western and non- Western traditions; we analyze which descriptors are most relevant and study their distribution over 1500 pieces from different traditions and styles. As a result, some feature distributions differ for Western and non-Western music, and the obtained classification accuracy is higher than 80% for different classification algorithms and an independent test set. These results show that automatic description of audio signals together with data mining techniques provide means to characterize huge music collections from different traditions and complement musicological manual analyses.
Stigler, Melissa; Dhavan, Poonam; Van Dusen, Duncan; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K S; Perry, Cheryl L
Few studies have explored the relationship between acculturation and health in non-immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between "westernization" and tobacco use among adolescents living in Delhi, India. A bi-dimensional model of acculturation was adapted for use in this study to examine (a) whether young people's identification with Western culture in this setting is related to tobacco use, and (b) whether their maintenance of more traditional Indian ways of living is related to tobacco use. Multiple types of tobacco commonly used in India (e.g., cigarettes, bidis, chewing tobacco) were considered. Socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and grade level were examined as potential effect modifiers of the relationship between "westernization" and tobacco use. The study was cross-sectional by design and included 3512 students in eighth and tenth grades who were enrolled in 14 Private (higher SES) and Government (lower SES) schools in Delhi, India. A self-report survey was used to collect information on tobacco use and "westernization." The results suggest that young people's identification with Western influences may increase their risk for tobacco use, while their maintenance of traditional Indian ways of living confers some protection. Importantly, these effects were independent of one another. Boys benefitted more from protective effects than girls, and tenth graders gained more consistent benefits than eighth graders in this regard, too. Negative effects associated with identification with Western ways of living were, in contrast, consistent across gender and grade level. The positive and negative effects of acculturation on adolescent tobacco use held for all tobacco products considered here. Future interventions designed to curb youth tobacco use in India may benefit by paying closer attention to cultural preferences of these young consumers. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Na, Sang-Jun; Kim, Won-Joo; Kim, Seung Min; Lee, Kee Ook; Yoon, Bora; Choi, Young-Chul
Dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophies (dystrophinopathies) are the most common form of muscular dystrophy, with variable clinical phenotypes ranging from the severe Duchenne (DMD) to the milder Becker (BMD) forms. In this study, we investigated the relationship between clinical characteristics, findings at immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot, and the pattern of exon deletions in 24 male patients with dystrophinopathies. We retrospectively reviewed findings from clinical and laboratory examinations, IHC for dystrophin of muscle biopsy tissue, Western blot analysis, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of genomic DNA. All tests were performed in every patient. PCR examination revealed exon deletions in 13 patients (54.2%). At Western blot analysis, 15 patients (62.5%) were negative at all three dystrophin domains. Most of these patients had a clinical presentation consistent with the DMD phenotype. Nine (37.5%) others were weakly positive at one or more domains. Most of these patients presented clinically as BMD phenotype. One patient whose clinical presentation was consistent with BMD phenotype had normal findings at IHC and was weakly positive at all three domains on Western blot analysis; however, with the exception of this patient, the findings at IHC and Western blot were consistent for individual patients. Based on these findings, we conclude that Western blot analysis appears useful for confirmation of dystrophinopathy in BMD patients with normal staining on IHC. Exon deletion analysis by multiplex PCR using peripheral blood is also a simple and useful test for the diagnosis of dystrophinopathy, although it has limited sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taskent, Recep Ozgur; Alioglu, Duha; Fer, Evrim; Donertas, Handan Melike; Somel, Mehmet; Gokcumen, Omer
Neanderthals contributed genetic material to modern humans via multiple admixture events. Initial admixture events presumably occurred in Western Asia shortly after humans migrated out-of-Africa. Despite being a focal point of admixture, earlier studies indicate lower Neanderthal introgression rates in some Western Asian populations as compared to other Eurasian populations. To better understand the genome-wide and phenotypic impact of Neanderthal introgression in the region, we sequenced whole genomes of 10 present-day Europeans, Africans, and the Western Asian Druze at high depth, and analyzed available whole genome data from various other populations, including 16 genomes from present-day Turkey. Our results confirmed previous observations that contemporary Western Asian populations, on average, have lower levels of Neanderthal-introgressed DNA relative to other Eurasian populations. Modern Western Asians also show comparatively high variability in Neanderthal ancestry, which may be attributed to the complex demographic history of the region. We further replicated the previously described depletion of putatively functional sequences among Neanderthal-introgressed haplotypes. Still, we find dozens of common Neanderthal-introgressed haplotypes in the Turkish sample associated with human phenotypes, including anthropometric and metabolic traits, as well as the immune response. One of these haplotypes is unusually long and harbors variants that affect the expression of members of the CCR gene family and are associated with celiac disease. Overall, our results paint a complex first picture of the genomic impact of Neanderthal introgression in the Western Asian populations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...
Islam has been under intensive ongoing crusade for centuries. It has been made into what might be called the cause of all the problems and ills that afflict the world. Every Westerner with a political axe to grind is being given centre stage to pontificate on Islam. Western political leaders have also adopted an apocalyptic discourse to ratchet up their rhetoric so as to talk in God’s name of the holy struggle against evil: Islam. Attacks have, therefore, been carried out against Arabs and Mu...
Full Text Available This paper argues for a deeper understanding of the challenges posed to undergraduate western music history by an increasingly globalised higher education system. Reflecting on the experience of delivering programmes at a music conservatory in Chennai, India, I suggest how curriculum can be adapted to explore the social history of cross-cultural musical practices. A brief case study surveys the role of western music in colonial and post-colonial south India to illustrate how we might foster critical approaches to music history at a global level.
Incarcerated women are a vulnerable group with complex needs in pregnancy, birth and early parenting; and this is further complicated with a drug and/or alcohol addiction. Prior to the establishment of an antenatal outreach clinic in a Western Australian prison for women, pregnant inmates received fragmented antenatal care. Some of the women did not disclose drug and alcohol issues for fear of involvement of child protection services, and some refused to be transported for care to maternity hospitals for antenatal appointments. This is the first antenatal care clinic for pregnant women to be established within a prison population in Western Australia.
Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.
A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.
Patrick D. SHAW
Full Text Available The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels, industry (e.g., oil and gas and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin, Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides a valuable benchmark for future studies across the region and points the way forward for 'acid rain' policies in western Canada.
Full Text Available The multi-proxy evidence from Lake Zeribar indicates the possible impact of the Younger Dryas on Western Iran. By the end of this episode, the region was affected by rising temperatures and ensuing environmental enrichment, which could have resulted in changes in the settlement pattern from mobility to more sedentism c. 9500 BC. It is proposed that semi-sedentism led to population growth and ensuing food management in the region, which finally encouraged people to domesticate plants and animals around 8000 BC. This paper will briefly discuss the three ‘why’, ‘how’ and ‘when’ questions in investigating the Neolithisation process in western Iran.
Bakshi, Rashmi; Mathur, Devendra Raj
Histopathologic analysis of 73 cases of mycetoma occurring in western Rajasthan was done from January 2001 to December 2005. Maduromycotic mycetoma remains commonest in this region as compared to actinomycotic mycetoma, which is more common in the southern part of Rajasthan. The incidence of actinomycotic mycetoma has increased during the last five years in this part of Rajasthan due to changes in climatic conditions, like heavy rainfall, increased irrigation by Rajasthan Canal, urbanization of villages, and modification in agriculture. The ratio of prevalence of maduromycotic mycetoma to the prevalence of actinomycotic mycetoma has decreased from 4:1 to 1.91:1 during the last five years in western Rajasthan.
Full Text Available A generalized least squares regression model was developed to estimate local harvest of the Western Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd. This model provides herd and community level harvest based on community size, proximity of the herd to the village. The model utilizes community harvest survey information from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Subsistence Division and cooperation from the nonprofit organizations Maniliq and Kawerak. The model will assist in an annual selection of communities to survey. The predicted local resident harvest of the Western Arctic caribou herd is 14 700 with 95% lower and upper confidence limits of 10 100 and 19 700 respectively.
Full Text Available Russia plunged into a deep leadership crisis after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The attempt to implement western leadership models only deepened the crisis. With the take over of power by Vladimir Putin a new leadership theory evolved, which looked critically at western models. Totalitarianism, contextuality, cultural sensibility and pragmatism are issues being investigated with respect to leadership. This article includes these themes whilst reflecting on the critical dialogue between the American leadership expert Stephen R. Covey and his Russian critic Vladimir Tarassenko.
Potter, Abbey; Johansen, Cheryl A; Fenwick, Stan; Reid, Simon A; Lindsay, Michael D A
A serosurvey was undertaken in 15 locations in the midwest to southwest of Western Australia (WA) to investigate the seroprevalence of Ross River virus (RRV) neutralizing antibodies and factors associated with infection in western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). The estimated seroprevalence in 2632 kangaroo samples, using a serum neutralization test, was 43.9% (95% CI 42.0, 45.8). Location was significantly associated with seroprevalence (pkangaroos was significantly higher than in subadult kangaroos (pkangaroos (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that kangaroos in WA are regularly infected with RRV and may be involved in the maintenance and transmission of RRV.
Burke, Lydia E. Carol-Ann
An expanding body of research explores the social, political, cultural and personal challenges presented by the Western emphasis of curricula around the world. The aim of my study is to advance this field of inquiry by gaining insight into perceptions of Western modern science presented by students, teachers and administrators in a given Caribbean setting. Through this study I asked how my research participants described the nature of scientific knowledge, how they related scientific knowledge to other culturally-valued knowledges and the meanings they attached to the geographic origins of science teachers. Situating this work firmly within the practice of Foucauldian critical discourse analysis, I have utilised a conceptual framework defined by the power/knowledge and complicity/resistance themes of post-colonial theory to support my interpretation of participant commentary in an overall quest that is concerned about the ways in which Western modern science might be exerting a colonising influence. Fourteen students, nine teachers (both expatriate and local) and three administrators participated in the study. I combined a semi-structured question and answer interview format with a card sort activity. I used a procedure based on my own adaptation of Stephenson's Q methodology, where the respondents placed 24 statements hierarchically along a continuum of increasing strength of agreement, presenting their rationalisations, personal stories and illustrations as they sorted. I used an inverse factor analysis, in combination with the interview transcripts, to assist me in the identification of three discourse positions described by my research participants: The truth value of scientific knowledge, The pragmatic use of science to promote progress, and The priority of cultural preservation. The interview transcripts were also analysed for emergent themes, providing an additional layer of data interpretation. The research findings raise concerns regarding the hegemonic
Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Nalliah, Romesh; Lee, Min Kyeong; Rampa, Sankeerth; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar
The objectives of this study were to examine adverse clinical events after the use of the Invisalign system and to provide an overview of the actions taken by the manufacturer to address these events. A retrospective analysis of the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database of the United States Food and Drug Administration was used. All medical device reports reported to the United States Food and Drug Administration pertaining to products of Align Technology from November 1, 2006, to November 30, 2016, were analyzed. Qualitative content analysis was conducted of event descriptions and manufacturer narrative reports. A total of 173 medical device reports were reported in the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database: 169 (97.7%) were designated as adverse event reports, and 45 (26%) were deemed by the treating doctor to be serious or life threatening. The most medical device reports that reported a serious or life-threatening event were in 2014 (50%). The most frequently reported adverse event was difficulty breathing (56 events) followed by sore throat (35 events), swollen throat (34 events), swollen tongue (31 events), hives and itchiness (31 events), anaphylaxis (30 events), swollen lips (27 events), and feeling of throat closing/tight airway/airway obstruction/laryngospasm (24 events). Serious or life-threatening events could be associated with use of Invisalign systems. Health care providers should be aware of these events and know how to handle them if they arise in their practices. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramaiah, N.; Kodagali, J.; Nair, S.; Sheelu, G.; Chandramohan, D.
Microbiological studies from the marine, limnetic, terrestrial and glacial ecosystems were carried out during the Ninth Indian Expedition (1989-90) to estimate the bacterial numbers, to characterise the generic types and also to estimate the uptake...
Pathak, M.C.; Kotnala, K.L.; Prabaharan, N; Walker, G.A.
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Maud, L. T.; Moore, T. J. T.; Lumsden, S. L.; Mottram, J. C.; Urquhart, J. S.; Hoare, M. G.
The observations were undertaken using the JCMT in 2007 and 2008 as part of projects 07AU08, 07BU16, 08AU19 and 08BU18. The full-width half-maximum (FWHM) beam size at ~345GHz for the 12CO (J=3-2) transition is ~14.5arcsec. (4 data files).
12 avr. 2013 ... L'atelier (3,5 jours – 20 au 23 juin) est offert tant aux professionnels qu'aux praticiens et aux étudiants et des cycles supérieurs. L'école d'été ( 11 jours INCLUANT ... canadienne reconnue OU être citoyen canadien ou détenir un statut de résident permanent au Canada. • avoir un projet de recherche ou ...
Background: Acute abdominal pain is the presenting complaint in emergency departments of all hospitals worldwide, resulting in a huge drain of human and non-human resources. Objectives: To study the pattern, causes and management outcomes of patients presenting with acute abdomen to El Obeid Hospital, Western ...
Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch
Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...
Facing changes and instability in electoral behavior across Western Europe, traditional party identification and social cleavages performed increasingly poorly in understanding and explaining the way in which voters made their voting choices. On the one hand, the increasing number of people who were
Finer, Matt; Babbitt, Bruce; Novoa, Sidney; Ferrarese, Francesco; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; De Marchi, Massimo; Saucedo, Maria; Kumar, Anjali
The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km2, an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions.
In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...
Bruce R. Hartsough; Bryce J. Stokes; Joseph F. McNeel; William F. Watson
A significant percentage of the forested area in the western United States is comprised of stands that have been altered over time by human activities, especially fire suppression, and are now being damaged by droughts, insect attacks, and wildfires. These stands should be returned to a condition where "biotic and abiotic influences do not threaten resource...
K.A. Sheehan; W.P. Kemp; J.J. Colbert; N.L. Crookston
The Budworm Model predicts the amounts of foliage destroyed annually by the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, in a forest stand. The model may be used independently, or it may be linked to the Stand Prognosis Model to simulate the dynamics of forest stands. Many processes that affect budworm population dynamics are...
Vinod, S; Delaney, G; Bauman, A; Barton, M
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in New South Wales (NSW). There is a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer in the South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS) than the NSW average. The aim of this study was to document patterns of lung cancer care for SWSAHS residents.
Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson
The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...
Bevins, S.N.; Tracey, J.A.; Franklin, S.P.; Schmit, V.L.; MacMillan, M.L.; Gage, K.L.; Schriefer, M.E.; Logan, K.A.; Sweanor, L.L.; Alldredge, M.W.; Krumm, C.; Boyce, W.M.; Vickers, W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Roelke, M.E.; Salman, M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.
Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission.
Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd
Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....
Background. Objective: To describe our experience with the feasibility and acceptance of home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBCT) in two large, rural, administrative divisions of western Kenya. Design: Setting: Results: Conclusion. : Home-based HIV counselling and testing was feasible among this rural population ...
The western margin of northern Afar Depression constitutes various rock units of Neoproterozoic basement complex. Major oxide data of metavolcanic and granitoid rock samples from basement complex indicate significant variation in the concentration of major oxides (e.g. Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MgO). Metavolcanic rocks of ...
Constance A. Harrington; Stephen H. Schoenholtz
In August 20-23, 2004, a conference was held in Kamilche, WA, with the title âProductivity of Western Forests: A Forest Products Focus.â The meeting brought together researchers and practitioners interested in discussing the economic and biological factors influencing wood production and value. One of the underlying assumptions of the meeting organizers was that...
Raju, G.R.K.; Rajendran, A.; Reddy, C.V.G.
Low concentration of iodate at surface (Ca. 0.2 mu M) and an increase in deeper waters (Ca, 0.55 mu M) were observed in south western Bay of Bengal. A nutrient like behaviour of iodate was also found and phosphate showed that biota plays a major...
The western margin of northern Afar Depression constitutes various rock units of Neoproterozoic basement complex, Paleozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary successions and the Oligocene to present volcano-sedimentary sequences. As part of a reconnaissance survey for mineral resources in selected districts of Afar region, ...
In order to study agrichemical safety practices in a rural farming area in the western Cape, an audit of 45 randomly sampled farms was performed over 3 months in 1992. A response rate of 87% was achieved, and the survey results suggest that approximately 9% of permanent and 14% of seasonal farm workers are ...
This paper discusses sustained approaches, programmes and strategies for human capital development in the defunct Western Region of Nigeria. Three broad approaches were vigorously pursued, namely, education, technical skills development and agriculture. The most enduring legacy was human capital development ...
Oehlke, Betsy M.; Dolliver, Holly A. S.
The majority of soils in the western Wisconsin have developed from glacial sediments deposited during the Quaternary Period (2.6 million years before present). In many regions, multiple advances and retreats have left a complex landscape of diverse glacial sediments and landforms. The soils that have developed on these deposits reflect the nature…
Linking traditional and modern forecasting in Western Kenya. April 21, 2011. Image. Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. In many parts of rural Africa, there are elders who hold seemingly mystical powers of weather forecasting. In some communities they are known as 'rainmakers' as some believe they not only foretell ...
Jeffrey J. Morrell; D.J. Miller; Stan T. Lebow
Incised and non-incised Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and ponderosa pine L- joints were treated with ammoniacal-based pentachlorophenol, chromated zinc chloride, thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMBT) or TCMTB plus methylenebisthiocyanate or 3 iodo-2-propynyl carbamate with or without chlorpyrifos to retentions between 0.8 and 6.4 kg/m3 and exposed, uncoated, above...
The relationships between tree density and indices of pasture and soil condition were examined in Western Transvaal grasslands where Acacia karroo had increased following disturbance. The correlation between tree density and pasture condition was not linear, indicating a threshold in condition below which dramatic ...
Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan
In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...
Total magnetic intensity and bathymetric surveys were carried out in the offshore area of Ratnagiri on the western continental shelf of India and an isomagnetic anomalies map at a contour interval of 50 nT was prepared which reveals N-S trends...
Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta
Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...
Christopher Topik; Nancy M. Halverson; Dale G. Brockway
This guide presents the plant association classification for the western hemlock zone of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. The bulk of the forest below about 3000 feet in elevation is included in this zone, comprising about one half of the entire landbase. Much of this area is blanketed with productive stands of Douglas-fir.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 1. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted margin, and its significance for understanding the Panvel flexure. Hrishikesh Samant Ashwin Pundalik Joseph D'souza Hetu Sheth Keegan Carmo Lobo Kyle D'souza Vanit Patel. Volume ...
Mullaney, Marie Marmo
Discusses the importance of historical study within general education. Reviews the rise and fall of the Western Civilization course as the core of general education in the humanities. Suggests ways a revised version of this course can be restored to a central place in the curriculum. (AYC)
Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria. K Abdullahi, U Abubakar, T Adamu, AI Daneji, RU Aliyu, N Jiya, MTO Ibraheem, SU Nata'ala. Abstract. Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among children under the age of five years; it is endemic throughout Nigeria with seasonal variation in different geographic zones of the ...
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2015. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South-. Western Nigeria: Implications for Rural Economy. *Adeola, R. G. And Adetunbi, S. I.. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development,. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, ...
Canada's similar conception of equality and India's influence on South African constitutionalism and shared experience with massive equality gaps make these jurisdictions instructive. Keywords: disability; Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa; substantive equality; ...