WorldWideScience

Sample records for western countries learn

  1. Gallstone Classification in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In order to compare gallstone disease data from India and Asian countries with Western countries, it is fundamental to follow a common gallstone classification. Gallstone disease has afflicted humans since the time of Egyptian kings, and gallstones have been found during autopsies on mummies. Gallstone prevalence in adult population ranges from 10 to 15 %. Gallstones in Western countries are distinguished into the following classes: cholesterol gallstones that contain more than 50 % of cholesterol (nearly 75 % of gallstones) and pigment gallstones that contain less than 30 % of cholesterol by weight, which can be subdivided into black pigment gallstones and brown pigment gallstones. It has been shown that ultrastructural analysis with scanning electron microscopy is useful in the classification and study of pigment gallstones. Moreover, x-ray diffractometry analysis and infrared spectroscopy of gallstones are of fundamental importance for an accurate stone analysis. An accurate study of gallstones is useful to understand gallstone pathogenesis. In fact, bacteria are not important in cholesterol gallstone nucleation and growth, but they are important in brown pigment gallstone formation. On the contrary, calcium bilirubinate is fundamental in black pigment gallstone formation and probably also plays an important role in cholesterol gallstone nucleation and growth.

  2. Comparison of Marriage and Family style between China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马全海; 卫华

    2008-01-01

    The author gives a brief introduction to the marriage and family styles of China and western countries.and makes some brief comparisons of them.In the comparison of the family styles.we can see the diversity of the culture in different coun tries.To study the cultural difference is of great meaning for language learners,and the more we learn about their culture,the better we learn their language.Learning their family and marriage style can help us a lot in learning the life of westerners and hence help us in the international communication of people from western countries.

  3. Banking Regulation Of Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denada Hafizi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has affected the development of banking system in Western Balkan Countries, including Italy and Greece. These effects are expressed with the contraction of lending, fallen of foreign direct investments, fallen of the volume of remittances and fallen of international trade. The banking system continually faces new challenges in a dynamically changing financial system, and this makes difficult theimplementation of bank regulation and supervision.All the countries have improved their banking regulation in order to avoid the contagion effect among banks and banking system in general, effects that get increased especially when banks are engaged in international banking. The standardization of regulatory requirements provides potential solution to the problems of regulating international banking. So, there is a moving through agreements like Basel Accords.For all these countries will be a comparison of regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and of capital to assets ratio in order to find out how well is capitalized their bankingsystem. The sources of data are the reports of International Monetary Fund for a time series of 2008-2013. In the end there are some conclusions for the main problems that theimplementation of supervision and bank regulation faces.Keywords: Basel Accords, Capital Ratio, Banking Regulation

  4. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  5. Faster Horses...An Analysis of Country-Western Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippard, Paula

    This paper reports on a study of the content of the lyrics of 100 country-western songs. It presents findings concerning the primary subject matter of the songs, female and male roles portrayed, and the value system implicit in the song lyrics. Among the findings were that the single most-valued subject in country-western music is romantic love;…

  6. Facebook use and acculturation: The case of overseas Chinese professionals in Western countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mao, Yuping; Qian, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    ... was regarded as a useful acculturation tool for them to learn about popular social topics in the host countries. Keywords: overseas Chinese, identity management, Facebook, acculturation Introduction Acculturation has long been a challenge for Chinese people living overseas in Western countries. Disconnection from old social networks and lack of n...

  7. Thrombosis and bleeding disorders outside Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, P M

    2007-07-01

    The rapidly developing countries of Asia are witnessing substantial progress in the awareness of bleeding and thrombotic disorders as important health care problems. It has been thought for a long time that venous thromboembolism is very rare in Asia. Recent large studies that involved the majority of Asian countries demonstrated that this is not true, so that the practice of not using thromboprophylaxis in high-risk medical and surgical cases should be abandoned. The management of hemophilia and allied coagulation disorders has also dramatically improved in several Asian countries, due to the increased availability of blood products for replacement therapy coupled with the leadership role exerted by a few charismatic physicians, particularly in India and Thailand. As to the future, countries such as China and India have the capacity and expertise in biotechnology to consider the production of recombinant factors and gene transfer as the best strategies to tackle the management of persons with hemophilia in these densely populated and huge countries.

  8. Mathematics in middle schools in Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrum, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement has conducted a number of cross-national studies in which Western European countries participated. Results from the Second International Mathematics Study regarding the content and outcomes of this study in some Western Euro

  9. Adult Education and Training in Western European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubens, Beatrice G.

    No single system or model of adult education and training describes the actual situation in the countries of Western Europe. Considerable variability exists from nation to nation in regard to scope, characteristics, organization, and financing. The countries, however, share an interest in the deliberate expansion of all phases of adult education.…

  10. Learning language that matters : A pedagogical method to support migrant mothers without formal education experience in their social integration in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Courses for migrants in Europe are mostly aimed at literacy in western languages as a means for participation in society. These curricula are not suitable for migrants without previous basic education, which leaves groups of migrants vulnerable to alienation and without support for socia

  11. Cultural Differences in School Education between China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦娟

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural communication has become a necessary phenomenon,we should introduce some cultural background knowledge in English teaching. This essay is aimed at discussing the cultural differences in school education between China and Western countries in three aspects-the different forms of school education,the different roles of teachers in school education,the different goals of school education.

  12. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  13. The Development of Green Care in Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubenhofer, D.K.; Elings, M.; Hassink, J.; Hine, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different

  14. Labour Market Institutions in the Western Balkan Countries and their Economic Implications: Evidence for Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Anera Alishani

    2013-12-01

    To address this issue, this paper provides a literature review of the notion of flexicurity and then investigates the relevance of flexicurity for the countries of the Western Balkans through its found components (flexible and reliable contractual arrangements, lifelong learning, active employment policies and social security system. Even though flexicurity can be a way out for low performed economies it is considered as highly costly.

  15. Mental Health in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities in Introducing Western Mental Health System in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Katherine Kopinak, MHSc, MSc., RN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite decades of disagreement among mental health practitioners and researchers in the Western world pertaining to the causation, classification and treatment of mental disorders there is an ongoing push to implement western mental health models in developing countries. Little information exists on the adaptability of western mental health models in developing countries. Method: This paper presents a review of the attempt to implement a western-oriented mental health system into a different culture, specifically a developing country such as Uganda. It draws upon an extensive literature review and the author’s work in Uganda to identify the lessons learned as well as the challenges of introducing a western-oriented mental health system in a totally new cultural milieu. Results: There is recognition by the national government that the challenges faced in mental health services poses serious public health and development concerns. Efforts have and are being made to improve services using the Western model to diagnose and treat, frequently with practitioners who are unfamiliar with the language, values and culture. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Uganda can continue to implement the Western mental health practice model which emanates from a different cultural base, based on the medical model and whose tenets are currently being questioned, or establish a model based on their needs with small baseline in-country surveys that focus on values, beliefs, resiliency, health promotion and recovery. The latter approach will lead to a more efficient mental health system with improved care, better outcomes and overall mental health services to Ugandan individuals and communities.

  16. BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT – THE CASE OF WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijad Džafić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and compares development of the Entrepreneurship and Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs sector and different obstacles for development of this sector in the Western Balkan countries (WBCs. Many evidence from the countries of central Europe show that the development of SMEs and entrepreneurship is a key factor for a successful transformation from command to market based economy in WBCs. SMEs create new jobs, products and services, help in restructuring former state enterprises, which is very important for transition countries, and generate government revenues. Also, SMEs stimulate private ownership and entrepreneurial skills and innovations. Aspecial accent in this paper is put on many international reports and datasets relevant to the assessment of business environment in this region. In this paper, the author uses only some such as: The Global Competitiveness Report of World Economic Forum, World Bank’s Doing Business Index, Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom, European Charter for Small Enterprises and Small Business Act of OECD and European Commission (EC and Indicators of Business, Corruption and Crime in WBCs of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC. The author has come to the conclusion that, in respect of SMEs, WBCs lag behind the countries in the European Union. This article aims to analyze the system of regulation and administrative facilitation aspects of doing business in the above - mentioned countries and, whether or not this system stimulates, the development of private SMEs and entrepreneurship.

  17. Country western singer Teresa is congratulated by Daniel Goldin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    After her performance at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, country western recording artist Teresa gets a congratulatory hug from NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. Teresa performed a song, 'Brave New Girls,' written for astronaut Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, mission specialist on STS-93. She entertained participants and attendees of a women's forum held in the center earlier in the day. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  18. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histories of rural social work in China and western countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘兆恩

    2014-01-01

    与西方不同的是,中国的社会工作首先是在农村发展起来的。19世纪20、30年代的农村建设运动其实是中国最早的社区社会工作。这段宝贵的农村社会工作历史值得被今天的社会工作者们所学习和借鉴。简单阐述了这段著名的农村建设运动的四个社会工作案例,分析了西方的农村社会工作的特点,希望能对当今的农村社会工作有所借鉴。%Different from the western countries, Chinese social work was engaged in rural communities at the earliest, which is the popular rural buildingmovement in 1920s and 1930s. This precious history of rural social work must be valued by today's social work-ers. This article simply illustrate this rural building movement and analyze the characteristic of western rural social work, in order to make some.

  20. Perceived impact of socially anxious behaviours on individuals’ lives in Western and East Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Kim, J.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.; Hofmann, S.G.; Chen, J.; Oh, K.Y.; Bögels, S.M.; Arman, S.; Heinrichs, N.; Alden, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical

  1. Mental Health in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities in Introducing Western Mental Health System in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of disagreement among mental health practitioners and researchers in the Western world pertaining to the causation, classification and treatment of mental disorders there is an ongoing push to implement western mental health models in developing countries. Little information exists on the adaptability of western mental health models in developing countries. Method: This paper presents a review of the attempt to implement a western-oriented mental health system ...

  2. Analysis of prospects for advanced nuclear reactors in western countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sapia, R. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Area Energetica; Foskolos, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear energy deployment faces stagnation in western european and north american countries as a result of barriers that have appeared over the years. Such barriers were identified in the domains of economics, public acceptance, energy policy, technology, licensing and regulations as well as environment and waste disposal. It is to the nuclear community and particularly the industry to take the initiative and the leadership role for the most significant approaches to overcome these barriers. These approaches include concetration of efforts, lowering of costs and financial risks and extensive use of the experience accumulated so far; clear setting of priorities and long-term global consideration of the energy issue; encouraging an appropriate, stable regulatory environment and harmonisation of general safety objectives and principles, and adequate, globally consistent and clear information to the public. Also within the prime responsability of the nuclear community belong the safe operation of existing plants; making available all necessary information to the public, the media and the political leaders, supporting the development and execution of national energy polcies; supporting authorities in improving regulatory processes; taking all measures to improve economics of nuclear power; pursuing plans for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. Governments should place energy issues in the appropriate priority level and encourage the establishment of an equally favourable environment for nuclear energy, including a greater consensus among controversial opinion representatives. Finally, authorities should established reasonable, transparent and predictable regulatory enviroments. This paper describes the barriers in a systematic way and proposes appropriate measures to overcame them.

  3. International cooperation in basic space science, Western Asian countries and the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    , thoughts and life knowledge, and music -culture -among themselves and to the "developed" countries. With this transmission of culture, principally among children, a better understanding among the countries could be created and the relationships among them could be very much easier for a sustainable inter-national cooperation in basic aerospace science and technology, and for a sustainable better development and peace states for all Peoples and Nations on Earth. A cultural aspect which can highly increase children's interest in basic space science and technologies is by preparing the `terrain' of their minds, planting seeds of peace on them. It is known that if children live in countries with peace states their learning capacity is much better. So, I also propose (a neces-sity) to reeducate children -by teaching them about peace, showing them about Nations which have peace societies, redirecting children's mind for them to acquire knowledge of peace. So, they will grow into adults with more possibilities of developing science and technology (space research included) for peaceful purposes. We can extend our hands and actually help persons and Peoples with real necessities. By doing this way and keeping it constant we all can greatly grow together socially, and scientific-technologically, and real peace states will be achieved while sustainable space program will develop better -these two matters go 'hands-in-hands'. 4) The PARTICIPATION of the Western Asian countries in already programmed space missions, the participation in the astrobiology research, and in the transference of aerospace-related sci-entific and technical information to them. The better social development of the world (with sustainable space programs) with more union among the Peoples and Nations on Earth, within a protected environment, it is a goal we (a living species Homo sapiens, among others species, on this extremely rare unique special planet Earth) all need to achieve together.

  4. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a

  5. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a

  6. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a

  7. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a s

  8. 知识论视角下西方教师学习研究的变迁及趋势%The Transformation and Trend of Teachers’ Learning Studies in Western Countries from Epistemological Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓蕾

    2015-01-01

    知识论是西方教师学习理论研究和实践探索的立足点。传统的知识论、建构主义的知识论和复杂性理论对知识的认识立场令不同阶段教师学习研究呈现出不同的面貌。从发展趋势看,教师学习对推进教育系统性变革具有重要意义,如何整合“个体—群体(学校组织)—政策”系统是其进一步研讨的重点。%Epistemology is the base of theoretical research and practical exploration on western teach⁃ers’ learning. The standpoint epistemology of traditional epistemology, constructive epistemology and complexity theory offers teachers’ learning research different features. Judging from developing trend, teacher learning studies nowadays should play a very significant role in prompting educational change sys⁃tematically while integrating individual⁃community ( school organization )⁃policy as one unit will be the highlight of future research.

  9. Rheumatology Workforce Planning in Western Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejaco, Christian; Lackner, Angelika; Buttgereit, Frank; Matteson, Eric L; Narath, Markus; Sprenger, Martin

    2016-12-01

    To compare health care planning models forecasting rheumatology workforce requirements in western countries. A systematic literature review was conducted through medical databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library) and the grey literature. All articles reporting a rheumatology workforce model were included. The search yielded 6,508 articles, and 14 publications (on 12 studies) were included. Workforce models were available for the US (n = 3), Canada (n = 3), the US plus Canada (n = 1), Germany (n = 2), Spain (n = 1), and the UK (n = 2). The number of rheumatologists required to serve a population of 100,000 people was calculated, with a range of 0.7 (UK, calculated for 1988) to 3.5 (Spain, calculated for 2021). Most models used a needs-based approach (n = 6); 3 studies each applied a supply- or demand-based method. The following variables were considered by ≥1 model: disease prevalence, patients' referral to rheumatologists, clinical visits/patient/year, population development, factors influencing performance of rheumatologists, patient flow/care sharing, and medical technologies/infrastructure development. Heterogeneity in methods used, the period or calendar years for which the estimates were projected, and heterogeneity of variables evaluated led to disparate estimates, with results ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 rheumatologists per 100,000 population. An international initiative is needed to agree upon a common approach for a reliable estimation of manpower requirements in rheumatology. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Perceived impact of socially anxious behaviors on individuals' lives in Western and East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M; Kim, Jinkwan; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Xinghua; Hofmann, Stefan G; Chen, Junwen; Oh, Kyung Ya; Bögels, Susan M; Arman, Soroor; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn E

    2011-09-01

    The current study compared the predicted social and career impact of socially withdrawn and reticent behaviors among participants from Western and East Asian countries. Three hundred sixty-one college students from 5 Western countries and 455 students from 3 East Asian countries read hypothetical vignettes describing socially withdrawn and shy behaviors versus socially outgoing and confident behaviors. Participants then answered questions following each vignette indicating the extent to which they would expect the subject of the vignette to be socially liked and to succeed in their career. Participants also completed measures of their own social anxiety and quality of life. The results indicated significant vignette-by-country interactions in that the difference in perceived social and career impact between shy and outgoing vignettes was smaller among participants from East Asian countries than from Western countries. In addition, significant negative correlations were shown between personal level of shyness and experienced quality of life for participants from both groups of countries, but the size of this relationship was greater for participants from Western than East Asian countries. The results point to the more negative impact of withdrawn and socially reticent behaviors for people from Western countries relative to those from East Asia. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of capital markets development on economic growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Artor Nuhiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this research paper we have tried to elaborate the issue whether capital market development is an alternative towards economic growth and economic prosperity of developing countries in general, the Western Balkan countries in particular. The focus of the paper is to study the effects of proper functioning of capital markets and their im-pact on increasing the level of savings, capital investments and in locating relevant resources for long-term financing of the economy. The research paper presents positive and negative arguments, linking the establishment and development of a capital market and its impact on economic development of developing countries, particularly Western Balkan countries.

  12. Analysis of the agricultural and rural development policies of the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    BAJRAMOVIĆ Sabahudin; Bogdanov, Natalija; BUTKOVIĆ Jakub; DIMITROVSKI Dragi; Erjavec, Emil; GJECI Grigor; GJOKAJ Ekrem; HOXHA Bekim; STOMENKOVSKA Ivana Janeska; KONJEVIĆ Darko; KOTEVSKA Ana; MARTINOVIĆ Aleksandra; MIFTARI Iliriana; Nacka, Marina; OGNJENOVIĆ Dragana

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared by a team of academic experts from Western Balkan (WB) countries coordinated by the Regional Rural Development Standing Working Group (SWG) in South-East Europe. The study targets EU candidate and potential candidate countries from the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo*). The main objectives of the study is the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural policies in the period 2012-2014 and assessment of the...

  13. Gender inequalities in the education of the second generation in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Kristen, Cornelia; Heath, Anthony F.; Brinbaum, Yaël; Deboosere, Patrick; Granato, Nadia; Jonsson, Jan O.; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Lorenz, Georg; Lutz, Amy C.; Mos, David; Mutarrak, Raya; Phalet, Karen; Rothon, Catherine; Rudolphi, Frida; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on comparative analyses from nine Western countries, we ask whether local-born children from a wide range of immigrant groups show patterns of female advantage in education that are similar to those prevalent in their host Western societies. We consider five outcomes throughout the education

  14. Widening socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in six Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); V. Bos (Vivian); O. Andersen (Otto); M. Cardano; G. Costa (Giuseppe); S. Harding (Seeromanie); A. Reid; O. Hemstrom; T. Valkonen (Tapani); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: During the past decades a widening of the relative gap in death rates between upper and lower socioeconomic groups has been reported for several European countries. Although differential mortality decline for cardiovascular diseases has been suggested as an

  15. Factors affecting the use of prenatal and postnatal care by women of non-western immigrant origin in industrialized western countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Francke, A.L.; Wiegers, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In many industrialized western countries immigrants constitute a substantial part of the population, which is also seen in the prenatal and postnatal care client population. Research in several industrialized western countries has shown that women of non-western immigrant origin make

  16. Factors affecting the use of prenatal and postnatal care by women of non-western immigrant origin in industrialized western countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Francke, A.L.; Wiegers, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In many industrialized western countries immigrants constitute a substantial part of the population, which is also seen in the prenatal and postnatal care client population. Research in several industrialized western countries has shown that women of non-western immigrant origin make ina

  17. Comparison of Wine Culture between China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷婷

    2014-01-01

    With the accelerating pace of globalization, the cultural differences have more impacts and restrictions on the intercom-munication than before. They exist in the total international communication. Therefore, the critical factors whether we can suc-ceed in intercommunication are whether we can eliminate cultural differences or avoid their conflicts. There is no exception for wine culture. As we know, drinking wine plays an important role in public relations as a communicating tool. This essay is to compare Chinese wine culture with the Western one, and try to analyze the factors aroused by the cultural differences, and then provide the solution how to face it.

  18. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Wiegers, Therese A; Manniën, Judith; Francke, Anneke L; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2013-03-27

    Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women's use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women's Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen's healthcare utilization model. Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women's utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors.Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women's native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization.

  19. The effects of class voting in post-war western industrialized countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, P.; Graaf, N.D. de; Ultee, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Classic studies in political sociology argued that differences in countries' patterns of mobility are responsible for variations in levels of class voting in these countries. In this paper the tenability of this classic claim is examined using survey data from 14 long-standing Western democracies ov

  20. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  1. Broadband adoption, digital divide, and the global economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing variation in economic performance between countries is significantly affected by the level, diffusion, and use of different types of information and communication technology. In the last several years economic competitiveness increasingly depends on broadband availability and the adoption, use, and speed of this technology. Broadband access to the internet fosters economic growth and development and increases a country’s global competitiveness. This technology could have a big impact on the competitive advantage of Western Balkan countries because they currently experience a large digital divide, both within countries (between regions, urban and rural areas, different vulnerable groups, etc. and with EU countries. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the current level and dynamics of the digital divide in Western Balkan countries using the Broadband Achievement Index (BAI, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA-based model, the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI, the Corruption Perception Index (CPI, and cross-country methodology. This paper measures and compares Western Balkan countries’ current level of broadband adoption and their position on the evolutionary path towards closing the existing economic and digital gap with EU countries. Comparative analysis of calculated BAI data values, GCI, and CPI shows that Western Balkan countries belong to the ‘laggard’ group regarding their broadband achievement and global economic competitiveness. The values of the calculated BAI sub-indexes in this paper indicate the strong and weak sides of the corresponding aspects of broadband technology implementation and give directions for setting further priorities for political intervention, not only in the building of information society but also in the improvement of the economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries.

  2. Minorities, mother countries, majority on the western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andor Végh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de dominio étnico más importante en Europa en los últimos veinte años es el que se ha dado en los Balcanes Occidentales. Estos cambios han tenido lugar tras los hechos de la Guerra desarrollada entre 1991 y 1995 y sus efectos llegan hasta nuestros días. En este ensayo se presenta la estructura de estos cambios y se analizan estos cambios en nuestros días a través de tres categorías de espacios étnicos: los núcleos de los espacios étnicos, los espacios mixtos y las zonas de contacto. Se presenta, igualmente, un espacio de cambios en el territorio que se modifica de forma simultánea.Palabras clave: Balcanes occidentales, etnicidad, núcleos de áreas étnicas, territorios de etnicidad mixta, zonas de contacto, proceso étnico.________________AbstractThe most significant changes of ethnic territories in Europe have happened on the Western Balkans. The majority of changes are related to wars in former Yugoslavia between 1991 and 1995, but processes that have started around the crisis are lasting ever since. We are trying to outline these changes and reveal some of the weak spots of the issue using three categories of ethnic spaces: core area of an ethnic territory, ethnically mixed territory, contact zones. Furthermore, the article gives a complex overview of the major territorial rearrangements, and the causes leading to them: the parallelly changing identities and ethnic territories.Keywords: West-Balkan, ethnicity, ethnical core areas, ethnicaly mixed territory, contact zones, ethnic processes.

  3. Chinese Culture of Learning from Western Teachers’Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹旭

    2014-01-01

    While more and more teachers from Western culture teach in China, research on the different cultures of learning in China's teaching context and Western teachers’views on the Chinese culture of learning and teaching have been rarely conduct-ed. This essay discusses the implications of cultural differences of learning between China and the West, particularly Western teachers’viewpoint on Chinese culture of learning. The conclusion suggests that it is of great importance to be aware that culture is just one of many factors that determine individual learning, and teachers are supposed to avoid stereotyping and simplistic views with regard to culture of learning, though general trends and patterns may exist among a certain type of culture.

  4. Risk factors for acute care hospital readmission in older persons in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi; Meyer, Gabriele; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    summary and metasynthesis of the quantitative findings was conducted. RESULTS: Based on a review of nine studies from ten Western countries, we found several significant risk factors pertaining to readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge in persons aged 65 years and over....... To allow health professionals to focus more intensively on patients at risk of readmission, there is a need to identify the characteristics of those patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on risk factors for acute care hospital readmission within one month of discharge...... in older persons in Western countries. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Participants were older persons from Western countries, hospitalized and discharged home or to residential care facilities. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: The factors of interest considered generic factors...

  5. The Role of Islamic Leading Organizations for the Promotion of Islamic Finance in Western Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir MS; Rehman AK; Akhtar T

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the literature related to Islamic finance in the Western world is country related. They only examine the role of Islamic finance in a respective country according to its Muslim population. I would like to gather all these studies and give a comprehensive overview of opportunities and challenges, such as assets and liabilities driven, securitization and spread, that Islamic financial institutions face in the world and identify the role of leading Islamic Organizations, such as ...

  6. Learning New Technologies by SMEs in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji; Lal, Kaushalesh

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on new field data, examines the ways in which small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in selected developing countries learn to use and augment their core capabilities with new technologies. This paper presents three findings. First, there is clear evidence of increasing complexity in the adoption and use of ICTs among developing country firms. Second, climbing the technological ladder requires skills upgrading through explicit learning of the new technologies. Third, firm perfo...

  7. Go East: Differences between Poland and Western European countries in the motivational structures underlying seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    in the Netherlands. Despite the variation between Western European countries, a common finding was a much higher consistency between intentions and actual consumption behavior as compared to Poland. The differences are discussed in terms of their implications for supply chain management, product supply...

  8. The Decline in Stroke Mortality Exploration of Future Trends in 7 Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, Anton E.; Amiri, Masoud; Janssen, Fanny

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-This article aims to make projections of future trends in stroke mortality in the Year 2030 based on recent trends in stroke mortality in 7 Western European countries. Methods-Mortality data were obtained from national cause of death registries. Annual rates of decline in stro

  9. Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates : an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G

    1997-01-01

    Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western countr

  10. introduction of cultural differences between western countries and japan in new horizon college english

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由迪思

    2011-01-01

    foreign languages teaching aims at cultivating students with both communication abilities and knowledge about different cultures.thus the introduction of differences between cultures plays a fairly significant role in english teaching.the paper has a review on the texts from new horizon college english that introduce cultural differences between western countries and japan and further analyzes the causes.

  11. Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates : an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G

    Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western

  12. Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates : an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G

    1997-01-01

    Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western countr

  13. Framing the Iraq war: a cross-national comparison of newspaper framing in four Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Schröder, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we compare the newspaper attention for and framing of the Iraq issue in four Western countries (US, UK, Germany and the Netherlands) during the period September 2002 until August 2003. Using computer assisted coding based on wordlists constructed by human coders, we analyzed more than

  14. Intercultural Effectiveness Training in three Western immigrant countries : A cross-cultural evaluation of critical incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, Selma L.; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of material for a new intercultural training instrument. More specifically, we examine the validity of 21 critical incidents used in the training. The training programme is targeted at natives in Western immigrant countries dealing - mostly

  15. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  16. Health workforce planning in Europe: creating learning country clusters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the different dimensions and determinants of health workforce planning (HWF) are investigated to improve context-sensitivity and mutual learning among groups of countries with similar HWF characteristics. A novel approach to scoring countries according to their HFW characteristics a

  17. Transformative learning through study abroad in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad in low-income countries is an emerging trend in nursing education, yet student outcomes vary from positive to negative. Study abroad in low-income countries can be transformative because it has the potential to increase student awareness of socioeconomic relations, structural oppression, and human connectedness. The authors discuss 10 strategies to facilitate transformative learning in students who study abroad.

  18. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The Case of Western Balkan Countries / BKT Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Rashiti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, etc., banking industry is o" en almost the most important area in the financial system. Therefore, this paper will focus on the way the acquisitions and mergers occurred in the banking system, by assuming that many of the conclusions are applicable to the entire financial system in the Western Balkans. This paper will elaborate on this aspect a case study that deals with the acquisition of Banka Kombetare Tregtare (National Commercial Bank in Albania by the Turkish company Calik Holding (Akif Bank.

  19. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Mina; Wheeler, Jeremy; Danesh, John

    About 13 million people are classified as refugees worldwide, and many more former refugees have been granted citizenship in their new countries. However, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, or psychotic illnesses in these individuals is not known. We did a systematic review of surveys about these disorders in general refugee populations in western countries. We searched for psychiatric surveys that were based on interviews of unselected refugee populations and that included current diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, psychotic illnesses, or generalised anxiety disorder. We did computer-assisted searches, scanned reference lists, searched journals, and corresponded with authors to determine prevalence rates of these mental disorders and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity, such as diagnostic criteria, sampling methods, and other characteristics. 20 eligible surveys provided results for 6743 adult refugees from seven countries, with substantial variation in assessment and sampling methods. In the larger studies, 9% (99% CI 8-10%) were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and 5% (4-6%) with major depression, with evidence of much psychiatric comorbidity. Five surveys of 260 refugee children from three countries yielded a prevalence of 11% (7-17%) for post-traumatic stress disorder. Larger and more rigorous surveys reported lower prevalence rates than did studies with less optimum designs, but heterogeneity persisted even in findings from the larger studies. Refugees resettled in western countries could be about ten times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder than age-matched general populations in those countries. Worldwide, tens of thousands of refugees and former refugees resettled in western countries probably have post-traumatic stress disorder.

  20. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities.

  1. Net capital flows to and the real exchange rate of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrisch Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Granger causality tests to assess the linkages between changes in the real exchange rate and net capital inflows using the example of Western Balkan countries, which have suffered from low competitiveness and external imbalances for many years. The real exchange rate is a measure of a country’s price competitiveness, and the paper uses two concepts: relative unit labour cost and relative inflation differential. The sample consists of six Western Balkan countries for the period 1996-2012, relative to the European Union (EU. The main finding is that changes in the net capital flows precede changes in relative unit labour costs and not vice versa. Also, there is evidence that net capital flows affect the inflation differential of countries, although to a less discernible extent. This suggests that the increasing divergence in the unit labour cost between the EU and Western Balkan countries up to the global financial crisis was at least partly the result of net capital inflows. The paper adds to the ongoing debate on improving cost competitiveness through wage restrictions as the main vehicle to avert the accumulation of current account imbalances. It shows the importance of changes in the exchange rate regime, reform of the interaction between the financial and the real sector, and financial supervision and structural change.

  2. Cooperation between Lithuania and western countries on energy sector development issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskinis, V. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2003-07-01

    Lithuania is one of the country candidates making necessary progress in order to become a member of the European Union and seeking an invitation to join NATO as well as to be involved with other western economic and political structures. The country, being in transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy, is experiencing fundamental transformations and facing many problems. Lithuania has inherited an energy sector with a comparatively good technical infrastructure but inappropriate for a small independent state of its size and access to primary energy. The Lithuanian economy constructed since 1990 is energy intensive. In order to meet the requirements of a modern economy many significant changes occurred during this transformation period, including changes to institutional structure, legal framework, modernisation of technologies, etc. Considerable investments were made in all sectors of the economy. It would be impossible to realise all these positive changes without cooperation with developed countries, technical assistance of the EU-PHARE program and a range of other programs. The paper describes the current situation in the Lithuanian economy and energy sector, changes in energy intensity and in foreign direct investments in Lithuania. The paper aims to analyse the country's progress in transition to a free market economy and the positive contribution from cooperation between Lithuania and industrialised countries in several areas: overall modernisation of the national economy and energy sector, implementation of modem western modelling tools for energy planning, energy efficiency and nuclear safety. (author)

  3. The contribution of tourism industry on the GDP growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry records various economic, social, political and others influences and provides itself important position in the overall economic development of many countries. The analysis of the available data of tourist arrivals and number of tourist overnight stays in observed countries of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro led us to conduct research in order to determine tourism contribution to the overall economic growth. Based on the modified methodology used by Brida et al. (2008 for calculating real GDP growth rates and tourism contribution to the overall economic growth, the paper indicates that tourism makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth in the examined countries, regardless of the continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals. The level of tourism contribution to the overall economic growth varies and it is primarily related to diversity and quality of supply (the highest contribution is recorded in Montenegro, while lowest contribution is observed in Macedonia.

  4. Improving estimates of the prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting among migrants in Western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Elisa Ortensi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C is an emerging topic in immigrant countries as a consequence of the increasing proportion of African women in overseas communities. Objective: While the prevalence of FGM/C is routinely measured in practicing countries, the prevalence of the phenomenon in western countries is substantially unknown, as no standardized methods exist yet for immigrant countries. The aim of this paper is to present an improved method of indirect estimation of the prevalence of FGM/C among first generation migrants based on a migrant selection hypothesis. A criterion to assess reliability of indirect estimates is also provided. Methods: The method is based on data from Demographic Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Migrants' Selection Hypothesis is used to correct national prevalence estimates and obtain an improved estimation of prevalence among overseas communities. Results: The application of the selection hypothesis modifies national estimates, usually predicting a lower occurrence of FGM/C among immigrants than in their respective practicing countries. A comparison of direct and indirect estimations confirms that the method correctly predicts the direction of the variation in the expected prevalence and satisfactorily approximates direct estimates. Conclusions: Given its wide applicability, this method would be a useful instrument to estimate FGM/C occurrence among first generation immigrants and provide corresponding support for policies in countries where information from ad hoc surveys is unavailable.

  5. Price dispersion in neighboring countries in the Western Balkans - the case of the Macedonian tomato industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazhe JORDANOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the degree of change in price and co- movement of prices between markets. The distinctiveness of the study is that it introduced a single product (highly perishable product price relationship analysis between a pair of spatially separated markets in the countries of the Western Balkan. This study attempts to comprehend to what extent the Macedonian domestic market is integrated into the regional markets, as well as to understand the relationship between the spatially separated regional markets. The data refer to the domestic Macedonian market and four different regional markets (Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro, as major importers of Macedonian fresh tomatoes. These countries were part of a common market until the 1990s and in the past period transited to a market economy. The method used is common time series analysis through unit root test, co-integration test and causality test. The study showed that the Macedonian economy, especially in terms of the tomato industry, is highly vulnerable and dependant on external markets. Future developments do not only depend upon the advances in the country, but also on developments in the export destinations. This also applies to the other concerned countries in the regions. The main finding is that a small country such as Macedonia is absorbed by developments in other countries in the region. This finding is supported by the results of the study that demonstrated a high level of co-integration between the domestic and regional markets.

  6. Trends in Environmental Education Images of Textbooks from Western and Eastern European Countries and Non-European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Branca Tracana, Rosa; Skujiene, Grita; Turcinaviciene, Jurga

    2011-12-01

    Textbook analysis is seen as a major element for studying environmental education addressing pupils, image analysis being rather relevant when studying textbooks written in 11 languages. We analysed 25 textbooks from 14 countries addressed to 14-16-year-old pupils, focusing on: (1) local and foreign/global images; (2) urban/rural and nature images; (3) negative impact, human management, and the beauty of nature; and (4) men and women in images with negative and positive impact. We distinguished some trends between Western (WEc) and Eastern (EEc) European countries and non-European countries (NEc). In contrast to textbooks from EEc and NEc, which tend to show the beauty of nature with little human influence, WEc textbooks tend to exhibit more images of urban/rural landscape, of human negative impact and of human management, expressing an anthropocentric view of the environment. Men are usually more present in textbook images than women. However, some images exhibiting more women than men could be found in textbooks from WEc and EEc, but never in NEc. In negative impact pictures, men are more often present than women but NEc women are never present in such images. Women are more frequent than men in positive impact images. Results suggest that textbooks from EEc and NEc should give more emphasis to human management and urban/rural images, whereas those from WEc should give more attention to the beauty of nature. A balance in the presence of men and women in images should be a matter of greater concern by all textbooks' authors and publishers.

  7. The Debate on Learning Assessments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Lockheed, Marlaine; Mullis, Ina; Martin, Michael O.; Kanjee, Anil; Gove, Amber; Dowd, Amy Jo

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, international and national education agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than quantity) of education in developing countries. This trend has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality of learning. As…

  8. Transformative Learning Experiences of International Graduate Students from Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi-Yeboah, Alex; James, Waynne

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the transformative learning experiences of international graduate students from Asian countries. Data collection consisted of quantitative and qualitative methods. Participants included international graduate students from Asia, in the Colleges of Arts and Sciences and Engineering. Overall, 82.3% of the participants…

  9. Learning with Mobiles in Developing Countries: Technology, Language, and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, John M.

    2017-01-01

    In the countries of the global South, the challenges of fixed infrastructure and environment, the apparent universality of mobile hardware, software and network technologies and the rhetoric of the global knowledge economy have slowed or impoverished the development of appropriate theoretical discourses to underpin learning with mobiles. This…

  10. The Debate on Learning Assessments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Lockheed, Marlaine; Mullis, Ina; Martin, Michael O.; Kanjee, Anil; Gove, Amber; Dowd, Amy Jo

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, international and national education agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than quantity) of education in developing countries. This trend has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality of learning. As…

  11. Out-of-hours care in western countries: assessment of different organizational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibers, Linda; Giesen, Paul; Wensing, Michel; Grol, Richard

    2009-06-23

    Internationally, different organizational models are used for providing out-of-hours care. The aim of this study was to assess prevailing models in order to identify their potential strengths and weaknesses. An international web-based survey was done in 2007 in a sample of purposefully selected key informants from 25 western countries. The questions concerned prevailing organizational models for out-of-hours care, the most dominant model in each country, perceived weaknesses, and national plans for changes in out-of-hours care. A total of 71 key informants from 25 countries provided answers. In most countries several different models existed alongside each other. The Accident and Emergency department was the organizational model most frequently used. Perceived weaknesses of this model concerned the coordination and continuity of care, its efficiency and accessibility. In about a third of the countries, the rota group was the most dominant organizational model for out-of-hours care. A perceived weakness of this model was lowered job satisfaction of physicians. The GP cooperative existed in a majority of the participating countries; no weaknesses were mentioned with respect to this model. Most of the countries had plans to change the out-of-hours care, mainly toward large scale organizations. GP cooperatives combine size of scale advantages with organizational features of strong primary care, such as high accessibility, continuity and coordination of care. While specific patients require other organizational models, the co-existence of different organizational models for out-of-hours care in a country may be less efficient for health systems.

  12. Health workforce planning in Europe: Creating learning country clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Ronald

    2015-12-01

    In this article, the different dimensions and determinants of health workforce planning (HWF) are investigated to improve context-sensitivity and mutual learning among groups of countries with similar HWF characteristics. A novel approach to scoring countries according to their HFW characteristics and type of planning is introduced using data collected in 2012 by a large European Union project involving 35 European countries (the 'Matrix Study' [8]). HWF planning is measured in terms of three major dimensions: (1) data infrastructure to monitor the capacities and dynamics of health workforces, (2) the institutions involved in defining and implementing labour market regulations, and (3) the availability of models to estimate supply-demand gaps and to forecast imbalances. The result shows that the three dimensions of HWF planning are weakly interrelated, indicating that countries invest in HWF in different ways. Determinant analysis shows that countries with larger health labour markets, National Healthcare Service (NHS), mobility, and strong primary health care score higher on HWF planning dimensions than others. Consequently, the results suggest that clustering countries with similar conditions in terms of HWF planning is a way forward towards mutual and contextual learning.

  13. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano O Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization. Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰, and significantly higher δ(15N (7.8 to 10.3‰ and δ(34S (4.8 to 8.3‰ values than samples from the USA (δ(13C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34S: -1.2 to 9.9‰. Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13C and δ(34S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  14. Learning and Equitable Access in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, David; Soudien, Crain

    2009-01-01

    Silent exclusion, when children register and attend school but learn little, is a critical feature of educational access in South Africa. Several international studies (e.g. TIMMS, SACMEQ) have shown that despite high levels of investment, South African schools perform poorly in relation to other countries at similar levels of income. Equitable…

  15. Language policy and science: Could some African countries learn from some Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-08-01

    This article deals with the fact that most children in Africa are taught in a language neither they nor their teachers master, resulting in poor education outcomes. While there are also donor interests and donor competition involved in retaining ex-colonial languages, as well as an African elite that may profit from this system, one of the main reasons why teaching in ex-colonial languages persists lies in the fact that a large proportion of the general public still believes that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction. By contrast, research studies conducted in Africa, as well as examples from Asian countries such as Sri Lanka and Malaysia, have shown that children actually learn mathematics and science much better in local and familiar languages. Though the recent World Bank Education Strategy policy paper is entitled Learning for All, it does not specify which language learning should take place in. A claim one often hears in countries of so-called Anglophone Africa is that English is the language of science and technology, and that teaching these subjects through English (instead of teaching English as a subject in its own right as a foreign language) is best. The monolingual island of Zanzibar is in fact about to reintroduce English as the language of instruction in maths and science from grade 5 onwards in primary school. The author of this paper suggests that when it comes to language policy, some African and some Asian countries could learn from each other.

  16. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  17. Impact of unemployment variations on suicide mortality in Western European countries (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanani, Moussa; Ghosn, Walid; Jougla, Eric; Rey, Grégoire

    2015-02-01

    A scientific debate is currently taking place on whether the 2008 economic crisis caused an increase in suicide rates. Our main objective was to assess the impact of unemployment rate on suicide rate in Western European countries between 2000 and 2010. We then tried to estimate the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment during the 2008-2010 economic crisis. The yearly suicide rates were modelled using a quasi-Poisson model, controlling for sex, age, country and a linear time trend. For each country, the unemployment-suicide association was assessed, and the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed, notably in order to evaluate whether the unemployment-suicide association found was biased by a confounding context effect ('crisis effect'). A significant 0.3% overall increase in suicide rate for a 10% increase in unemployment rate (95% CI 0.1% to 0.5%) was highlighted. This association was significant in three countries: 0.7% (95% CI 0.0% to 1.4%) in the Netherlands, 1.0% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.8%) in the UK and 1.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 2.9%) in France, with a significant excess number of suicides attributable to unemployment variations between 2008 and 2010 (respectively 57, 456 and 564). The association was modified inconsistently when adding a 'crisis effect' into the model. Unemployment and suicide rates are globally statistically associated in the investigated countries. However, this association is weak, and its amplitude and sensitivity to the 'crisis effect' vary across countries. This inconsistency provides arguments against its causal interpretation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. M-Learning Adoption: A Perspective from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Iqbal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available M-learning is the style of learning for the new millennium. Decreases in cost and increases in capabilities of mobile devices have made this medium attractive for the dissemination of knowledge. Mobile engineers, software developers, and educationists represent the supply side of this technology, whereas students represent the demand side. In order to further develop and improve this medium of learning it is imperative to find out students’ perceptions about m-learning adoption. To achieve this objective a survey was conducted among the students of 10 chartered universities operating in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The results indicate that perceived usefulness, ease of use, and facilitating conditions significantly affect the students’ intention to adopt m-learning, whereas perceived playfulness is found to have less influence. Social influence is found to have a negative impact on adoption of m-learning. The findings of this study are useful in providing guidance to developers and educators for designing m-learning courses specifically in the context of developing countries.

  19. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazyura Natalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all spheres of life of that country. In many countries where it is an official language and language of instruction, as most communication outside school is in the local languages it is taught as language to learn other disciplines. These are two contrasting contexts for enhancing the English language skills. In both settings there are concerns about students’ difficulties in developing adequate English proficiency to successfully learn content through that language. This paper analyzes the influence of sociocultural factors on the students’ motivation to learn English in different countries, reveals main problems and difficulties in oral English teaching practice, illustrates the relationship between oral English teaching and cross-cultural communication competence. On the one hand, cross-cultural communication plays an essential role in oral English teaching; besides, oral English teaching promotes cross-cultural communication competence. On the other hand, in some countries English is not the prerequisite of future successful career. But anyway the author insists on consistency of English teaching concept with that of the world. Improving the students’ cross-cultural oral communication ability is impossible without laying equal stress on cross-cultural communication competence and oral English teaching.

  20. Accessibility, standards and challenges of electroconvulsive therapy in Western industrialized countries: a German example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Nico; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Sheldrick, Abigail Jane; Grözinger, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to document the present situation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Germany, compare its handling with regard to other industrialized countries and with regard to a survey 12 years ago. A questionnaire on the frequency and type of administration of ECT in 2008 was sent electronically to 423 psychiatric hospitals. As needed, up to five reminders were carried out by telephone. On this occasion, the question of whether ECT is administered, could be clarified for each hospital. A total of 43% (183/423) of hospitals declared to administer ECT; 63% (115/183) reported nearly 20,000 treatments. A total incidence of 30,000 treatments performed on 2800 individual patients was estimated. This means that 3.4 patients per 10(5) inhabitants, 0.4‰ of all depressed patients, and about 1% of depressed inpatients, are treated with ECT in Germany. The frequency of application has increased during the last 12 years by a factor of more than 2.5 in Germany. In Western industrialized countries, numbers vary by a factor of more than 10 amongst the countries with a slow trend of equalization. The mode of implementation and the areas of conflict in which the therapy stands seem to be similar.

  1. Do GCI indicators predict SME creation? A Western Balkans cross-country comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fëllënza Lushaku

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In early stages SMEs were seen as insignificant supplement to large business supply, whereas today they have a very important social and economic role, because of their contribution to job creation. These contributions are very valuable in times of crises and rising unemployment. In Kosovo and the Western Balkan countries, including countries such as Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the development of SMEs can contribute in facing many challenges, effects of inequality, high level of unemployment and demographic challenges. In addition, SME development can contribute to strengthening the competitiveness and productivity, while also promoting the growth of income per capita. Besides the positive perception the creation of small and medium enterprises has, it is also indispensable to consider their extinction rate, being the most affected category of businesses, especially in the initial stages. It is proved that the net SME creation and cross-country differences in the relationship between new businesses and extinct businesses, can serve as a recommendation for policy makers in order to create a favorable climate for small and medium enterprises. GCI indicators that measures global competitiveness are used to determine if the climate of competitiveness predicts the development of SMEs.

  2. The Present State and Future Trends of Blended Learning in Workplace Learning Settings across Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Bonk, Curtis; Teng, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    This article reports survey findings related to the current status and future trends of blended learning in workplace learning settings from diverse cultures. This particular survey was conducted of 674 training and human resource development professionals from five different countries, mostly from the Asia-Pacific region (i.e., China, South…

  3. Product availability from delivery aspect: Evidence from retailers in selected Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that it represents one of the main preconditions of sales, product availability is the key task of retail companies and their delivery systems. This paper analyses its levels from the aspect of centralized and DSD systems. The research is conducted in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, including 84 stores and more than 70 FMCG products per each store. Thereby, the comparisons in product availability levels between alternative delivery systems are carried out within different trading formats and within different product categories. Unlike the results of similar studies and ongoing changes on retail markets, this research shows that at retailers in these Western Balkan countries, availability levels are higher in the case of DSD system.

  4. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    In this paper we analyse how different welfare state regimes affect popular support for redistribution across 15 Western European countries. We suggest that the main reasons why previous studies have not been able to connect welfare state regimes and popular attitudes towards the welfare state...... Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... at: http://www.sfi.dk/s%c3%b8geresultat-10668.aspx?Action=1&NewsId=248&PID=32427#sthash.ISdYS6vF.dpuf...

  5. Distinguishing characteristics of urothelial carcinoma in kidney transplant recipients between China and Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G M; Fang, Q; Ma, H S; Sun, G; Wang, X C

    2013-01-01

    To identify significant distinctive characteristics of urothelial carcinoma (UC) in kidney transplant recipients between China and Western countries and investigate probable tumor screening and treatment factors contributing to these differences. Renal transplant recipients from 1998 to 2011 in our institution diagnosed with UC were included in this study. Our data on tumor incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared with literature reports. Among 2572 renal transplant recipients identified, 24 (0.93%) experienced UC, including 10 men and 14 women of overall mean age of 49.3 ± 11.6 years at transplantation and 53.5 ± 9.5 years at tumor detection. The Chinese traditional herbal intake mainly focused on 2 preparations: Aristolochic acid and rhubarb (the latter was mainly used in patients with chronic renal impairment) in 20 people. There were 21 (87.5%) cases of upper (UTUC) 5 cases of bilateral, and 13 cases of multifocal urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Four subjects died owing to tumor progression at 4-63 months postoperatively. UC in renal transplant recipients shared notable characteristics in China with widespread herb intake: UTUC predominance; multifocal and bilateral organ involvement; high rates of recurrence, progression, and dissemination, in contrast with bladder tumor dominance in Western countries. As a consequence, we suggest that bilateral nephroureterectomy should be performed prophylactically in high-risk patients, especially those with a long history of Chinese herb intake. The relationship of rhubarb consumption to UC in renal transplant recipients should be noted and evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teachers’ perspectives on professional learning communities in some Arab countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser F. Alhendawi Al-Mahdy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the perceptions of public school teachers in three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia & Oman based on the dimensions of Professional Learning Communities (PLCs and related attributes. A quantitative approach is implemented using the Professional Learning Communities Assessment–Revised (PLCA-R questionnaire developed by (Olivier; Hipp, & Huffman, 2010. The measure is administered to public school teachers in Egypt, KSA, and Oman. The PLCA-R utilizes a four-point, forced Likert Scale. A sample of (1486 subjects is selected during 2014-2015 school years. The data is analyzed through descriptive statistics. The research concluded that both Saudi and Omani teachers showed positive perceptions regarding the degree to which their schools function as PLCs; whereas Egyptians showed negative perceptions, and there were significant differences between male and female teachers regarding their perceptions of the degree to which their schools function as PLCs in favor of female teachers.

  7. The Exploration of Mars and the Improvement of Living Conditions in Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Space is the new frontier. The exploration of a new world, Mars, has been giving people on Earth valuable comparative information about climatic and geological processes occurring here on our home planet. With the Viking 1 and 2, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, etc., spacecrafts, which explored the Red Planet we obtained a great deal information about the extremely arid soil and dry air of Mars in the present, and its watery condition in the distant past. Now there is a decade-long, program of robotic exploration of the martian atmosphere and soil - the 'Mars Surveyor Program', which is a series of small, cheap and fast spacecrafts, carrying very few scientific instruments, to be launched about every two years. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we comment on this new phase of Mars exploration under development, which began in 1996, and its benefits to living conditions in developing countries with desert regions. A peaceful regular research of the arid Mars, will help us to understand much better the dynamics of formation of dry regions here on Earth. We suggest that, if the developing countries participate in that program, they will achieve the scientific understanding to create a practical technology, with which they will acquire ways to future transform their arid areas into a more humid places, and to slow the process of desertification of other regions. This, using their own natural resources and own scientific personnel. That would strongly benefit the living conditions in Western Asian countries, which have many desert regions.

  8. The incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome in Western industrialised and tropical countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Tom

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of efforts to control Japanese encephalitis (JE, the World Health Organization is producing a set of standards for JE surveillance, which require the identification of patients with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES. This review aims to provide information to determine what minimum annual incidence of AES should be reported to show that the surveillance programme is active. Methods A total of 12,436 articles were retrieved from 3 databases; these were screened by title search and duplicates removed to give 1,083 papers which were screened by abstract (or full paper if no abstract available to give 87 papers. These 87 were reviewed and 25 papers identified which met the inclusion criteria. Results Case definitions and diagnostic criteria, aetiologies, study types and reliability varied among the studies reviewed. Amongst prospective studies reviewed from Western industrialised settings, the range of incidences of AES one can expect was 10.5–13.8 per 100,000 for children. For adults only, the minimum incidence from the most robust prospective study from a Western setting gave an incidence of 2.2 per 100,000. The incidence from the two prospective studies for all age groups was 6.34 and 7.4 per 100,000 from a tropical and a Western setting, respectively. However, both studies included arboviral encephalitis, which may have given higher rather than given higher] incidence levels. Conclusion In the most robust, prospective studies conducted in Western industrialised countries, a minimum incidence of 10.5 per 100,000 AES cases was reported for children and 2.2 per 100,000 for adults. The minimum incidence for all ages was 6.34 per 100,000 from a tropical setting. On this basis, for ease of use in protocols and for future WHO surveillance standards, a minimum incidence of 10 per 100,000 AES cases is suggested as an appropriate target for studies of children alone and 2 per 100,000 for adults and 6 per 100,000 for all age

  9. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  10. Parenting and globalization in western countries: explaining differences in parent-child interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevoo, Mariëlle Jl; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S

    2017-06-01

    We review research on intra-cultural differences in parenting, and the sources of those differences. Ethnic-minority parents differ from majority parents in parenting values, childrearing goals and resources-differences that affect parenting practices and children's development. Within-country comparisons indicate less sensitivity, more authoritarian discipline, less child-focused communications, and less engagement in learning activities in ethnic-minority compared to ethnic-majority parents, which help account for disparities in children. Despite group differences in parenting, associations between parenting and child development generalize across cultures, with rare exceptions. However, a focus on intra-cultural differences is based on comparisons of group 'averages', which masks the enormous variation within ethnic-minority samples. Within-group variation can be partly explained by stressors associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), acculturation and discrimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher Education Co-operation and Western Dominance of Knowledge Creation and Flows in Third World Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Viswanathan

    1988-01-01

    Third World adoption of the Western university and the accompanying Eurocentric system of information flow is criticized as sometimes being counterproductive and alien to developing nations. The potential for a self-reliant, interdependent higher education system among Third World countries is discussed. (MSE)

  12. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a

  13. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a radic

  14. On cooperation and competition: a comparative analysis of national policies for internationalisation of higher education in seven Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten-Lub, Anneke; Wende, van der Marijk; Huisman, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this article is on a comparison of the national policies for internationalisation in seven Western European countries (Austria, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom). In this comparison, it will be shown that the trend suggested in previous research

  15. Defining the Epidemiology and Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Among Infants and Children in Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, Louis; Checchia, Paul A; Fauroux, Brigitte; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Manzoni, Paolo; Paes, Bosco; Simões, Eric A F; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV [respiratory syncytial virus] Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provides a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of RSV in Western countries over the last 20 years. This first of seven publications covers the epidemiology and

  16. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a radic

  17. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Saada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality (IM and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA and Western Europe (WE, by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours. To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE and income inequality (USA as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world.

  18. Challenging the Western Stereotype: Do Chinese International Foundation Students Learn by Rote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Jinhua; Bruce, Megan; Newton, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    The dissonance between Eastern and Western learning approaches is regarded as an obstacle for Chinese students in adjusting to Western education environments, and one of the reasons is the lack of an understanding of Chinese learning approaches, that is, Chinese learners are uncritically perceived as rote learners. This paper investigates Chinese…

  19. Immigrant Children's Educational Achievement in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels, Mark; Dronkers, Jaap; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which macro-level characteristics of destination countries, origin countries, and immigrant communities help explain differences in immigrant children's educational achievement. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, we analyze the mathematical performance of 7,403 pupils from 35 different origin countries in 13…

  20. Examining Culture's Impact on the Learning Behaviors of International Students from Confucius Culture Studying in Western Online Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…

  1. WBL to Promote Lifelong Learning among Farmers from Developing Countries: Key Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    In times of liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG), countries are looking to establish effective systems of lifelong learning to prepare farmers for changing agricultural sector. But offering lifelong learning to farmers in developing countries) is a vital challenge as majority of them are residing in remote and rural areas and have…

  2. Determinants of the sustainability of farming on leased agricultural land in Poland in comparison with selected Western European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majchrzak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In Western Europe the lease is the dominant form of land management in agriculture. This is not only due to the tradition of this institution, but also to the scope of the regulations that guarantee the stability of the legal relationship and ensure the independence of the lessee in production process based on the subject of the lease. This article attempts to assess the instruments for the protection of farming on leased agricultural land in Poland in comparison with solutions applicable in after countries of Western Europe. In this paper, a review of regulations relating to the length of the lease, the obligation to care for the preservation of the quality of the resource, as well as the criteria for determining the amount of the rent, is examines . On this basis, it has been shown that the regulations determining the stability of the lease in Poland deviate far from the norms provided in most Western European countries. This implies that the legal position of a lessee in Poland is weaker than it is in the rest of Western Europe, which is a negative assessment from point of view the of agrarian structure in Poland.

  3. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies: distinct differences in clinical phenotype between Western countries and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ichiro; Morita, Hideaki; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies, including food-protein-induced enterocolitis, enteropathy, proctocolitis and allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis, seem to be increasing in several regions in the world. However, unlike the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, development of diagnostic laboratory tests and our understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies lag. Although the clinical entities in Western countries have been well established, the clinical phenotypes might differ somewhat among the human races and geographical regions. In Japan, non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies have increased sharply since the late 1990s, and clinicians have sometimes experienced confusion because of differences in the clinical phenotypes from those seen in Western countries. Aiming to solve this problem, we performed clinical research and determined a useful method for dividing patients into four clusters with distinctive clinical symptoms. We are confident this method will help in diagnosing and treating these patients. We also tried to clarify the differences between these patients in Japan and Western countries.

  4. A review of the evidence to support influenza vaccine introduction in countries and areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Samaan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a public health priority, (b disease burden, (c efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d other inventions, (e economic and financial issues, (f vaccine presentation, (g supply availability and (h programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90% coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34, vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27 and public health priority (n = 27 were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%, in the elderly (24% and in children (17%. Few studies (2% addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies should

  5. Immigrant Children's Educational Achievement in Western Countries : Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Mark; Dronkers, Jaap; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2008-01-01

    ICS Radboud University Nijmegen This article explores the extent to which macro-level characteristics of destination countries, origin countries, and immigrant communities help explain differences in immigrant children’s educational achievement. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, we analyze the m

  6. Honesty, trust and economic growth - A cross-cultural comparison of western industrialized countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D; van der Vegt, G

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates cross-country differences in economic growth rates from a psychological perspective. Based on social capital theory it is argued that 1) financial honesty and trust are positively correlated with each other when they are aggregated on a country level and that 2) a high leve

  7. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all spheres of life of that country. In many countries where it is an official l...

  8. WHAT CAN TANZANIA'S HEALTH CARE SYSTEM LEARN FROM OECD COUNTRIES?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Healthcare systems around the world have different shapes that are largely affected by socio-economic and political situations of a particular country. It is essential for the population to have better health services which requires the country to have better health policies, enough funding for health care sector, and a well structured delivery system. Tanzania like any other developing countries continue to face different challenges in healthcare sector greatly influenced by poor ec...

  9. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all spheres of life of that country. In many countries where it is an official l...

  10. The Economic Returns to Lifelong Learning in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Addison, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Examines recent returns to schooling and vocational and occupational training in OECD countries. Provides estimates of short-cut, Mincer-type, and internal rates of return to schooling and alternative estimates of returns to formal and informal post-school training investments. High-return countries include Austria, Canada, France, Mexico,…

  11. Peer victimization and subjective health among students reporting disability or chronic illness in 11 Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gavin, Aoife; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare the strength of the association between peer victimization at school and subjective health according to the disability or chronic illness (D/CI) status of students across countries. METHODS: This study used data from 55 030 students aged 11, 13 and 15 years from 11 countries...... victimization and poor subjective health according to the D/CI status. RESULTS: Overall, 13.5% of the students reported having been bullied at least two or three times a month. The percentage of victims was significantly higher among those reporting D/CI than among others in all countries studied. Victims...... of bullying were more likely to report poor self-rated health, low life satisfaction and multiple health complaints. However, there were no differences in the associations between peer victimization and subjective health indicators according to the D/CI status. CONCLUSIONS: In all countries studied, students...

  12. Knowledge and practice among dietitians in four Western European countries regarding malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Lies ter; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Slinde, Frode; Orrevall, Ylva; Henriksen, Christine; Johansson, Madelene; Vereecken, Carine; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2015-01-01

    Adequate distinction between malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia is important in clinical care. Despite the overlap in physical characteristics, differences in etiology have therapeutical and prognostic implications. We aimed to determine whether dietitians in selected European countri

  13. Pharmacological treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: functional outcomes in children and adolescents from non-Western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Altin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Functional outcomes were measured over a 12-month period in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD after they received monotherapy. Design: Prospective, observational, noninterventional study. Setting: Conducted in six non-Western countries. Participants: Outpatients 6 to 17 years of age with a verified diagnosis of ADHD in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR, together with their physicians, decided to initiate or switch treatment for ADHD. Patients were prescribed pharmacological monotherapy: methylphenidate (n=221, nootropic agents (n=91, or atomoxetine (n=234. Measurements: Patients were followed for changes in their functional status and quality of life, which were assessed with the Child Health and Illness Profile–Child Edition (CHIPCE Achievement domain. Results: At the end of the study, a mean improvement on the CHIP-CE Achievement domain score was observed for all countries and therapies except in Taiwan, where patients received atomoxetine, and in Lebanon, where patients received methylphenidate. No patient experienced a serious adverse event during the study. Four patients discontinued due to a treatment-emergent adverse event. Conclusion: After 12 months of treatment, clinical and functional outcomes were improved in children and adolescents from non-Western countries who initiated and remained on their prescribed pharmacological monotherapy.

  14. From Tegucigalpa to Teheran: Brazil's diplomacy as an emerging Western country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quirino Steiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Brazil's pursuit for international insertion by: discussing its search for new partners; presenting an overview of the historical, cultural, and political features that render it the most Western of the emerging nations; and analyzing its participation in the management of two major international crises, the Honduran constitutional crisis and the Iranian nuclear crisis.

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study on Consumption of Luxury Goods in China and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economy, China has become the world’s second largest consumer of luxury goods surpass⁃ing U.S. .This research is an attempt to examine the cultural factors that lie behind this phenomenon, and based on distinctions between Chinese and Western societies, explores how the people’s practice of luxury consumption differs in these two different cultures.

  16. M-Learning Adoption: A Perspective from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shakeel; Qureshi, Ijaz A.

    2012-01-01

    M-learning is the style of learning for the new millennium. Decreases in cost and increases in capabilities of mobile devices have made this medium attractive for the dissemination of knowledge. Mobile engineers, software developers, and educationists represent the supply side of this technology, whereas students represent the demand side. In…

  17. Alternative Approaches to Financing Lifelong Learning. Country Report: Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzburg, Gregory

    One of the main strategies for achieving lifelong learning objectives in Denmark has been to steadily shore up and improve the efficiency of the institutional arrangements for adult learning and to progressively strengthen the arrangements for financing it. Because there has been no attempt to create totally new structures or programs, the trends…

  18. Age – specific incidence rate change at breast Cancer and its different histopathologic subtypes in Iran and Western countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Maryam Sadat; Arab, Maliheh; Nemati Honar, Behzad; Noghabaei, Giti; Safaei, Nazanin; Ghasemi, Tahereh; Farzaneh, Farah; Ashraf Ganjoie, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and age-specific incidence rate of different histopathologic subtypes of breast cancer in Iran, and compare it to neighboring and Western countries and to discuss the probable effective main factors. Methods: National data from cancer registry for 6265 female breast cancer patients were studied in 10 histopathologic groups. Results: The most common tumor was ductal carcinoma (89%). The peak age – specific incidence rate of breast cancer in total, and for epithelial, non-epithelial and ductal carcinomas were all 50-59 years, and it decreased in older age. It is in contrast to US SEER report which shows the incidence increases in higher age. Conclusion: Three main factors including younger age of Iranian patients, probable more ERN tumors and different histopathological profile of breast cancer in Iran might be considered and studied to explain different slope of breast cancer after menopause compared to other countries. PMID:24550952

  19. Prostitution Legislation Reforms in Western Australia: What Indonesia Can Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Sari K.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.

  20. Western-Style Fast Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in an Eastern Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Andrew O.; Koh, Woon Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Western-style fast food contributes to a dietary pattern portending poor cardiometabolic health in the United States. With globalization, this way of eating is becoming more common in developing and recently developed populations. Methods and Results We examined the association of Western-style fast food intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality in Chinese Singaporeans. This analysis included men and women 45 to 74 years of age who enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998. For CHD mortality, 52 584 participants were included and 1397 deaths were identified through December 31, 2009, via registry linkage. For type 2 diabetes mellitus, 43 176 participants were included and 2252 cases were identified during the follow-up interview (1999 –2004) and validated. Hazard ratios for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease mortality were estimated with thorough adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.54) and dying of coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 –2.06) relative to their peers with little or no reported intake. These associations were not materially altered by adjustments for overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and body mass index. Conclusions Western-style fast food intake is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and of coronary heart disease mortality in an Eastern population. These findings suggest the need for further attention to global dietary acculturation in the context of ongoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions. PMID:22753304

  1. Indigenizing Student-Centred Learning: A Western Approach in an Indigenous Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chona Pineda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the alignment of the teaching and learning practices with a student-centred learning approach in an indigenous educational institution. The findings indicated that when a western concept is applied in the classroom, it is vital for it to be culturally relevant and appropriate to the cultural beliefs and values of the…

  2. Indigenizing Student-Centred Learning: A Western Approach in an Indigenous Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chona Pineda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the alignment of the teaching and learning practices with a student-centred learning approach in an indigenous educational institution. The findings indicated that when a western concept is applied in the classroom, it is vital for it to be culturally relevant and appropriate to the cultural beliefs and values of the…

  3. Depression and inflammatory arthritis are associated in both Western and Non-Western countries: Findings from the World Health Survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian; Brandstetter, Susanne; Herr, Raphael; Ehrenstein, Boris; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked arthritis to depression. However, it remains unclear to what degree the association between arthritis and depression extends to low income countries and whether it can be replicated for inflammatory arthritis (IA). We aimed to address these knowledge gaps based on a large multi-national sample. Cross-sectional data was drawn from the 2002 World Health Survey. IA was defined as reports of either a diagnosis or treatment of arthritis and morning stiffness for >30min. Self-reported depression was defined as positive if participants reported its prior diagnosis or treatment or if they were classified as suffering from a major depressive episode by a seven-item screening instrument. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the entire sample and stratified by sex and continent. The odds of IA was 2.6-fold increased in those with depression compared to those without (OR=2.64, 95% CI 2.18-3.21) in the entire sample. This association was observed in both men (OR=3.06, 95% CI 2.19-4.27) and women (OR=2.50, 95% CI 1.95-3.21). Similar associations were found on the continent level, but were generally stronger for the Americas and Asia compared to Africa and Europe. Although our definition of IA was limited by the use of self-reported morning stiffness, this study suggests that there is a positive association between inflammatory arthritis and depression in Western and Non-Western countries, suggesting that this relationship represents a universal phenomenon. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Contextual explanations for numeracy and literacy skill disparities between native and foreign-born adults in western countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Using new direct measures of numeracy and literacy skills among 85,875 adults in 17 Western countries, we find that foreign-born adults have lower mean skills than native-born adults of the same age (16 to 64) in all of the examined countries. The gaps are small, and vary substantially between countries. Multilevel models reveal that immigrant populations’ demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, employment, and language proficiency explain about half of the cross-national variance of numeracy and literacy skills gaps. Differences in origin countries’ average education level also account for variation in the size of the immigrant-native skills gap. The more protective labor markets in immigrant-receiving countries are, the less well immigrants are skilled in numeracy and literacy compared to natives. For those who migrate before their teens (the 1.5 generation), access to an education system that accommodates migrants’ special needs is crucial. The 1 and 1.5 generation have smaller numeracy and literacy skills gaps in more ethnically diverse societies. PMID:28301541

  5. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  6. Interethnic contacts : a dynamic analysis of interaction between immigrants and natives in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, B.

    2010-01-01

    This book studies social integration of immigrants (i.e. contacts between immigrants and natives in leisure time) from a dynamic perspective. The central objective is to examine how such interethnic contacts change during the immigrants’ stay in the host country (do they increase, stagnate or decrea

  7. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate t

  8. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  9. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  10. Can Lifelong Learning Be the Post-2015 Agenda for the Least Developed Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses what approaches to "lifelong learning" should guide the post-2015 education agenda for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) which refers to a group of 49 countries that are off-track in achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All goals. Reports prepared by major consultation…

  11. The Yearning Words-A Mirror of Culture between Chinese and Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Rui

    2013-01-01

    During the long-term human development, the formation of the language has its own national characteristics. Lan-guage is a human specific symbol system, cultural ruby and one of the most important carriers of culture. The production, eco-nomic life, geography, religion, and so on are reflected in the language. Love is eternal topic and love words have very deep rich cultural implication. For thousands of years, people praise beautiful love and affection . This paper will take love words for exam-ple to look into Chinese and Western cultural characteristics.

  12. The fractal research on several large stock market in China and western country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Bo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The R/S method of the fractal theory was used in analysis the most influential stock markets in China ( Shanghai Composite Index-SSEC, the Shenzhen Composite Index-SZCI and Hang Seng Index-HSI in HongKong and the most impact foreign stock markets ( the Dow Jones, the Nasdaq and the S&P 500 in recent 10 years ( 2002-2011 stock index to study their differences. The Hurst exponent for the logarithmic rate of monthly return for Chinese stock markets were around 0.74,while the Hurst exponent for the western were around 0.77. The average cycle for Chinese stock markets were around 600 days,while westerns were around 1150 days. The price of the Dow Jones index had a greater influence on the price of SSEC than other markets, and HSI had a greater influence on SSCI than SSEC. Chinese and foreign markets had higher kurtosis than normal distribution, and during the first one or two cycle, the price data presented a right-skewed,peak and fat-tailed distribution characteristics. The data presented a left-skewed,peak and fat-tailed distribution afterwards. At the same time, the foreign data is much closer to normal distribution. This research is a good guidance for stock researcher understanding and studying the foreign stock markets.

  13. Influence of Sociocultural Context on Language Learning in Foreign Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyura, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Professional foreign language training is offered to cultivate the ability to master cross-cultural communication in the sphere of future professional activity. By means of intercultural competence of foreign language we are raising professional competence, too. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other…

  14. Lessons Learned from the Energy Policies of IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This information paper provides policy makers and managers, facing tough energy policy challenges, with a wider perspective of how the same issues are being addressed by different IEA member countries. The topics included are: Government structures for co-ordinating energy and climate policies; The use of long-term energy forecasts and scenarios; and Progress in the delivery of key energy security policies.

  15. What can be learned from the history of developed countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  16. Learning for a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Jeff, Ed.; Talbot, Christopher, Ed.; Cipollone, Daiana B., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the product of research conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The papers, which were presented at a 2001 workshop, "Refugee Education in Developing Countries: Policy and Practice," are: "Education in Emergencies" (Margaret Sinclair), which reviews the rationale for…

  17. India's People, Country, and Great Religions: Two Instructional Learning Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Largo Ann

    Divided into two parts, this slide narration covers India's history, people, religions, geography, and architecture. The first part, "Introduction: Country, People, and History," covers the general history of India and its people. The history is presented through: (1) the architecture, including the Palace of Winds, the Amber Fort, the Taj Mahal,…

  18. Who's in Control? Teachers from Five Countries Share Perspectives on Power Dynamics in the Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovorn, Michael; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois McFadyen; Sunal, Dennis W.; Shwery, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article explores perspectives and strands of thought among teachers from five countries about power dynamics in learning environments, perspectives on power of dominant cultures and impacts of power on concepts of citizenship and social justice. Discourses revealed teachers have some understanding of how power impacts teaching and learning,…

  19. A Framework for the Integration of E-Learning in Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kituyi, Geoffrey; Tusubira, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to design a framework for integrating e-learning in Higher Education Institutions in developing countries. Data were collected from 266 university students and staff of five universities in Uganda using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The requirements for e-learning integration were…

  20. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  1. Authentic e-Learning in a Multicultural Context: Virtual Benchmarking Cases from Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppisaari, Irja; Herrington, Jan; Vainio, Leena; Im, Yeonwook

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of authentic learning elements at education institutions in five countries, eight online courses in total, is examined in this paper. The International Virtual Benchmarking Project (2009-2010) applied the elements of authentic learning developed by Herrington and Oliver (2000) as criteria to evaluate authenticity. Twelve…

  2. What founders in developing countries learn about organizing microenterprise growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    organizational failure. In this regard, we find that only those founders that rapidly make sense of ineffective processes, gain management knowledge from different sources, and devote time and energy to managerial tasks, manage to sustain organizational growth by learning to make ‘fixes’ for internal problems...... of microenterprise growth in Tanzania, this study therefore investigates what microenterprise founders learn about effective resource orchestration (RO) from organizational process experience. Our findings suggest that they first learn to orchestrate relatively simple and informal ‘micro-programs’ for gathering...... resources. Only upon organizational growth, they experience an internal ‘organizing shock’ that draws their attention to more effective RO. However, due to environmental conditions, this experience can take place comparably late in the growth process, thereby increasing the chances of unnecessary and costly...

  3. Country western singer Teresa entertains at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, country music recording artist Teresa performs a song, 'Brave New Girls,' written for astronaut Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, mission specialist on STS-93. She entertains participants and attendees of a women's forum held in the center. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS- 93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  4. The Cultural Differences of Non-verbal Communication between Western Countries and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月

    2013-01-01

      Communication behavior consists of verbal and nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication between human beings has drawn great attention to its study and research nowadays. The paper tries to show the culture differences in non-verbal communication through body language, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve such kinds of awareness and get a better understanding of cultural differences among different countries in the aspect of nonverbal communication so as to help smooth our communication barriers with people of different culture background.

  5. Questionnaire-based survey on the distribution and incidence of canine babesiosis in countries of Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Lebert, Isabelle; Abrial, David; Danlois, Fabien; Garzik, Karin; Rodes, Daniel; Schillmeier, Monika; Ducrot, Christian; Guillot, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of canine babesiosis may vary considerably from one country to another depending on the distribution of the causative parasite species and their specific vectors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in European veterinary clinics and propose an updated map of the disease distribution in Western Europe. Questionnaires were sent to companion animal veterinary clinics in Spain, France, Benelux, Germany and Austria. The annual number of babesiosis cases in 2010, the number of practitioners in the clinic and the location of the clinic were recorded. The total numbers of dogs and practitioners in each country were used for definition of the reference populations and the annual incidence of canine babesiosis was calculated by dividing the total number of reported babesiosis cases by the total number of dogs in the veterinary practices involved in the study. Data were georeferenced for distribution map construction. The overall annual incidence of clinical babesiosis amongst the investigated dog population was 0.7%, with significant variations amongst countries and regions. Three epidemiological situations were described: (i) Spain, with co-existence of several species of piroplasms and patchy distribution of babesiosis, (ii) France, with overall presence of babesiosis due to Babesia canis and local variations and (iii) Benelux, Germany and Austria, with overall low prevalence of the disease associated with localised description related either to imported cases or to small autochthonous foci of B. canis infection.

  6. Questionnaire-based survey on the distribution and incidence of canine babesiosis in countries of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halos Lénaïg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of canine babesiosis may vary considerably from one country to another depending on the distribution of the causative parasite species and their specific vectors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical occurrence of canine babesiosis diagnosed in European veterinary clinics and propose an updated map of the disease distribution in Western Europe. Questionnaires were sent to companion animal veterinary clinics in Spain, France, Benelux, Germany and Austria. The annual number of babesiosis cases in 2010, the number of practitioners in the clinic and the location of the clinic were recorded. The total numbers of dogs and practitioners in each country were used for definition of the reference populations and the annual incidence of canine babesiosis was calculated by dividing the total number of reported babesiosis cases by the total number of dogs in the veterinary practices involved in the study. Data were georeferenced for distribution map construction. The overall annual incidence of clinical babesiosis amongst the investigated dog population was 0.7%, with significant variations amongst countries and regions. Three epidemiological situations were described: (i Spain, with co-existence of several species of piroplasms and patchy distribution of babesiosis, (ii France, with overall presence of babesiosis due to Babesia canis and local variations and (iii Benelux, Germany and Austria, with overall low prevalence of the disease associated with localised description related either to imported cases or to small autochthonous foci of B. canis infection.

  7. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education support services directed to learners are referred to as learning .... and four high schools were involved in the study with the principals of these ..... their classroom participation and instructor as a function of gender and context. The.

  8. Endoscopic submucosal dissection training with pig models in a Western country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolfo; Parra-Blanco; María; Rosa; Arnau; David; Nicolás-Pérez; Antonio; Z; Gimeno-García; Nicolás; González; Juan; A; Díaz-Acosta; Alejandro; Jiménez; Enrique; Quintero

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To test a strategy for endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) training in animal models designed to overcome the initial learning curve.METHODS:ESD was attempted in ex vivo and in vivo pig models.Thirty ESD procedures were attempted in the esophagus(n=9) or the stomach(n=21).The ex vivo model was used until initial competence was achieved.In the in vivo model,several ESD procedures were performed in up to 3 sessions.The following variables were analyzed:specimen size,complete and en bloc resection rate,t...

  9. Long-term monitoring of western aspen--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, E K; Bunting, S C; Starcevich, L A; Nahorniak, M T; Dicus, G; Garrett, L K

    2015-08-01

    Aspen woodland is an important ecosystem in the western United States. Aspen is currently declining in western mountains; stressors include conifer expansion due to fire suppression, drought, disease, heavy wildlife and livestock use, and human development. Forecasting of tree species distributions under future climate scenarios predicts severe losses of western aspen within the next 50 years. As a result, aspen has been selected as one of 14 vital signs for long-term monitoring by the National Park Service Upper Columbia Basin Network. This article describes the development of a monitoring protocol for aspen including inventory mapping, selection of sampling locations, statistical considerations, a method for accounting for spatial dependence, field sampling strategies, and data management. We emphasize the importance of collecting pilot data for use in statistical power analysis and semi-variogram analysis prior to protocol implementation. Given the spatial and temporal variability within aspen stem size classes, we recommend implementing permanent plots that are distributed spatially within and among stands. Because of our careful statistical design, we were able to detect change between sampling periods with desired confidence and power. Engaging a protocol development and implementation team with necessary and complementary knowledge and skills is critical for success. Besides the project leader, we engaged field sampling personnel, GIS specialists, statisticians, and a data management specialist. We underline the importance of frequent communication with park personnel and network coordinators.

  10. Building Sustainable Industrial Areas: Experience and Perspectives from the Mediterranean and Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Preka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An EU research project (Mediterranean Eco-Industrial Development, (MEID whichinvolves different actors from Mediterranean and Western Balkans region, is currently inprogress. Its general objective is to provide innovative management figures and a decisionsupport tool (model to plan, build and manage more competitive Sustainable IndustrialAreas (SIA in the involved region.In order to correspond to a coherent solution, an accurate research has been performed.The methodology implemented to detect the main issues under survey has been a SWOTanalysis of several target IAs.Following its results, there have been defined the most relevant aspects aiming atsustainability of IAs in the area. The model introduces or encourages the continuousimprovement of environmental performances of the Mediterranean industrial areas in thefollowing fields: integrating production and dismissal of solid wastes, energy saving anduse of renewable energies, reducing water consumption, better viability and avoid thedeposit of dangerous material. Thanks to this “green approach”, SMEs will be the finalbeneficiaries, fostered to eco-innovation, competitiveness and transnational cooperation.This paper presents the general context and results of the MEID project.

  11. Severe Anemia with Hemoperitoneum as a First Presentation for Multinodular Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Rare Event in Western Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thein Swe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma is a life-threatening and rare condition in western countries with an incidence of less than 3% because of early detection of cirrhosis and neoplasm. Here, we describe a case of a 66-year-old male patient with altered mental status with hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography scan of abdomen revealed hemoperitoneum and mass in liver. Patient underwent resection of liver tumor and biopsy revealed multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma. A high degree of suspicion is required where severe anemia and hemoperitoneum can be a first presentation for hepatocellular carcinoma especially in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Early diagnosis is crucial since mortality rates remain high for untreated cases.

  12. Thyrotoxic Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (THPP: a challenge for the Emergency Medicine physician in Western countries. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP is an endocrine emergency with sudden onset of acute muscle hypo-asthenia associated with severe hypokalemia and normal acid-base balance, due to thyrotoxicosis. It may develop in patients of Asian and Native American descent, but it is very rare and undiagnosed in Western countries. Standard treatment includes β-blockers and thyrostatic drugs, but hypokalemia should not be treated with high potassium doses due to the risk of hyperkalemic rebound. Since early diagnosis and correct treatment can prevent life-threatening cardio-pulmonary complications, the emergency physician should keep in mind this rare possibility. We report a case of a 43 year old Caucasian man presenting at ED with tetraparesis as the first symptom of thyrotoxicosis with no other remarkable symptoms or signs.

  13. E-LEARNING INITIATIVE CAPACITY BUILDING FOR HEALTHCARE WORKFORCE OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhizam Safie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explicate the strategic utilisation of e-learning is of upmost significance as e-learning plays a pivotal role in the improvement of healthcare learning and knowledge transfer, especially in developing countries and in pursuing of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Rapid technology changes in the learning and knowledge transfer landscape markedly, the swift pace of e-learning leaving healthcare providers no choice if they want to remain competitive. Human capital, an important element in contemporary employee relations scenario, has become the most significant competitive advantage in healthcare delivery systems. As such, healthcare providers need a new strategy for learning and training of their employees. Besides, the knowledge and competencies of healthcare providers are not only vital component but also essential to the quality of care and health of the society. Thus, these rationales exert that today’s healthcare providers are embracing e-learning. The benefits of e-learning are extremely compelling. They include a reduction in costs associated with employee travelling; reduction in time spent away from the patients and reduced learning times. Also, this study describes the United Nations University International Institute for Global Health (UNU-IIGH strategies, best practices and experiences in delivering e-learning to healthcare workforce of developing countries.

  14. The moral code in Islam and organ donation in Western countries: reinterpreting religious scriptures to meet utilitarian medical objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2014-06-02

    End-of-life organ donation is controversial in Islam. The controversy stems from: (1) scientifically flawed medical criteria of death determination; (2) invasive perimortem procedures for preserving transplantable organs; and (3) incomplete disclosure of information to consenting donors and families. Data from a survey of Muslims residing in Western countries have shown that the interpretation of religious scriptures and advice of faith leaders were major barriers to willingness for organ donation. Transplant advocates have proposed corrective interventions: (1) reinterpreting religious scriptures, (2) reeducating faith leaders, and (3) utilizing media campaigns to overcome religious barriers in Muslim communities. This proposal disregards the intensifying scientific, legal, and ethical controversies in Western societies about the medical criteria of death determination in donors. It would also violate the dignity and inviolability of human life which are pertinent values incorporated in the Islamic moral code. Reinterpreting religious scriptures to serve the utilitarian objectives of a controversial end-of-life practice, perceived to be socially desirable, transgresses the Islamic moral code. It may also have deleterious practical consequences, as donors can suffer harm before death. The negative normative consequences of utilitarian secular moral reasoning reset the Islamic moral code upholding the sanctity and dignity of human life.

  15. Teleconsultation with a Developing Country: Student Reported Outcomes of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Foti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the benefits of implementing (international teleconsultation in a Master of Science in Occupational Therapy (MSOT curriculum. Twenty-one students provided supervised teleconsultative services to individuals with disabilities in Guatemala and were responsible for completing assessments, setting goals, and providing resources to address goals and improve quality of life.  Data were collected through student presentations and coded for relevant themes. Analysis revealed new learning in the areas of the occupational therapy process, cultural awareness, and technology. Three themes emerged:  Increased Understanding of Awareness of and Challenges to Working with People of Different Culture; Need for Adaptability and Flexibility as Practicing Clinicians; Emerging Role of Technology in Occupational Therapy. Based on results from this study, occupational therapy academicians should consider implementing similar programs into curricula and conduct related research in order to promote not only student learning, but also to advance the use of technology in occupational therapy practice.          

  16. Immigrant Integration policies and perceived Group Threat: A Multilevel Study of 27 Western and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Elmar; Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad

    2013-05-01

    Although immigrant integration policies have long been hypothesized to be associated with majority members' anti-immigrant sentiments, systematic empirical research exploring this relationship is largely absent. To address this gap in the literature, the present research takes a cross-national perspective. Drawing from theory and research on group conflict and intergroup norms, we conduct two studies to examine whether preexisting integration policies that are more permissive promote or impede majority group members' subsequent negative attitudes regarding immigrants. For several Western and Eastern European countries, we link country-level information on immigrant integration policies from 2006 with individual-level survey data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 collected in 2009 (Study 1) and from the fourth wave of the European Value Study collected between 2008 and 2009 (Study 2). For both studies, the results from multilevel regression models demonstrate that immigrant integration policies that are more permissive are associated with decreased perceptions of group threat from immigrants. These findings suggest that immigrant integration policies are of key importance in improving majority members' attitudes regarding immigrants, which is widely considered desirable in modern immigrant-receiving societies.

  17. Learning from vocational education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    are interrelated, and how four Nordic VET-systems have coped with the contradictory requirements and policy aims. In addition, the chapter explores what consequences the different ways of managing these challenges have on social equality, inclusion and the esteem of vocational education. By comparing strengths......The challenges for initial vocational education, VET, have been growing. Policy makers and stakeholders have assigned VET an increasing number of diverse and even contradictory obligations and responsibilities. The aim of this chapter is to examine how some of the key challenges and policies...... and weaknesses of the four VET-systems in relation to specific challenges and dilemmas, the aim is to encourage transnational policy learning in the field of vocational education and training....

  18. Attitudes of medical students toward communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S; Alsaeedi, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    To explore medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills.   In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students' attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%.  The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group.   Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age.

  19. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  20. Wild Country Hall: Children’s learning at a residential outdoor education centre.

    OpenAIRE

    Rea, Anthony Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about learning at a residential outdoor education centre [pseudonym:- Wild County Hall]. It poses and answers three questions: • How useful might discursive positioning be as a perspective on learning? • What are the discourses at Wild Country Hall and how are they different to schooling discourses? • How might neo-Liberal discursive practices, including performativity and current schooling orthodoxies have affected the pedagogic practices at t...

  1. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-10-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal developments differed dramatically between countries. Existing comparative studies on abortion laws in Western-European countries lack detail, usually focus either on first-trimester abortions or second trimester abortions, cover a limited time-span and are sometimes inconsistent with one another. Combining information from various primary and secondary sources, we show how and when the conditions for legally obtaining abortion during the entire gestation period in 20 major Western-European countries have changed between 1960 and 2010. We also construct a cross-nationally comparable classification of procedural barriers that limit abortion access. Our cross-national comparison shows that Western-Europe witnessed a general trend towards decreased restrictiveness of abortion laws. However, legal approaches to regulating abortion are highly different in detail. Abortion access remains limited, sometimes even in countries where abortion is legally available without restrictions relating to reasons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Learning Strategies for Mathematics Achievement in Turkey with Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Serpil; Cene, Erhan; Demir, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning strategies accounted for mathematics achievement across Turkey and neighboring countries. Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Israel, Serbia, Romania and Jordan were involved in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009) study. Since other neighbors of Turkey…

  3. What Makes the Finnish Different in Science? Assessing and Comparing Students' Science Learning in Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Cornelia; Neumann, Knut; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed…

  4. Symposium: Narrative exploration of learning and career decisions across 7 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvey, Rachel; Brown, Alan; Bimrose, Jenny

    meaning around learning and skills development in relation to work and employment. All participants were interviewed individually, then a full transcript of the interview was produced. Each country research team analysed these interviews to identify themes. Some themes were born out of the particular...

  5. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  6. Improving Learning in Primary Schools of Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    I gathered 77 randomized experiments (with 111 treatment arms) that evaluated the effects of school-based interventions on learning in developing-country primary schools. On average, monetary grants and deworming treatments had mean effect sizes that were close to zero and not statistically significant. Nutritional treatments, treatments that…

  7. National, Regional and International Learning Assessments: Trends among Developing Countries, 1960-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.; Benavot, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines annual changes in the participation of developing countries in three kinds of learning assessment activity over the past three decades. It specifically highlights, and provides initial explanations for, the worldwide spread of national and regional assessments since the mid-1990s. The paper argues that national learning…

  8. 西方国家关于国家风险与FDI关系的研究综述与启示%The Research on the Relationship between Country Risk and FDI in Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 姜磊

    2012-01-01

    Country risk is a new type of risk associated with FDI and an important factor affecting FDI,especially in the recent political situation and international economic and financial turbulence,the impact of country risk on FDI has become increasingly evident.In this paper,we consolidate the latest research results about relationship between country risk FDI,including the definition of country risk content,country risk assessment and investment decisions as well as country risk and FDI relationship.We found that:the research of Western scholars about FDI and country risk analysis are lack of theoretical basis,ignoring the dual nature of country risk,and give less sufficient attention to the reality that developing countries have became the more important home countries.Last,we propose the focus of future research direction that western vesearchers have not paid due attertion to the double national risks,a especialy little study has been dome on the direct international investment of developing countries.%本文对近些年来国家风险与FDI关系的最新研究成果进行了整理,主要包括国家风险内涵的界定、国家风险的评估与投资决策以及国家风险与FDI关系的研究文献三个方面。通过整理分析发现:西方学者对于国家风险与FDI的分析缺乏理论基础,忽视了国家风险的双重性质,同时也没有对发展中国家的对外直接投资的现实给予足够重视,这些都是未来研究的重点方向。

  9. Trends and patterns of antidepressant use in children and adolescents from five western countries, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Christian J; Aagaard, Lise; Burcu, Mehmet; Glaeske, Gerd; Kalverdijk, Luuk J; Petersen, Irene; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C M; Wijlaars, Linda; Zito, Julie M; Hoffmann, Falk

    2016-03-01

    Following the FDA black box warning in 2004, substantial reductions in antidepressant (ATD) use were observed within 2 years in children and adolescents in several countries. However, whether these reductions were sustained is not known. The objective of this study was to assess more recent trends in ATD use in youth (0-19 years) for the calendar years 2005/6-2012 using data extracted from regional or national databases of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US). In a repeated cross-sectional design, the annual prevalence of ATD use was calculated and stratified by age, sex, and according to subclass and specific drug. Across the years, the prevalence of ATD use increased from 1.3% to 1.6% in the US data (+26.1%); 0.7% to 1.1% in the UK data (+54.4%); 0.6% to 1.0% in Denmark data (+60.5%); 0.5% to 0.6% in the Netherlands data (+17.6%); and 0.3% to 0.5% in Germany data (+49.2%). The relative growth was greatest for 15-19 year olds in Denmark, Germany and UK cohorts, and for 10-14 year olds in Netherlands and US cohorts. While SSRIs were the most commonly used ATDs, particularly in Denmark (81.8% of all ATDs), Germany and the UK still displayed notable proportions of tricyclic antidepressant use (23.0% and 19.5%, respectively). Despite the sudden decline in ATD use in the wake of government warnings, this trend did not persist, and by contrast, in recent years, ATD use in children and adolescents has increased substantially in youth cohorts from five Western countries.

  10. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries: A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, M.; Sluiter, R.; Need, A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal d

  11. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal d

  12. Prevalence and clinical implications of epstein-barr virus infection in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ok, Chi Young; Li, Ling; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV(+)) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is a variant of DLBCL with worse outcome that occurs most often in East-Asian countries and is uncommon in the Western hemisphere. We studied the largest cohort of EBV(+) DLBCL, independent of age, ...

  13. The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability of Social Comparison Processes over Two Age Cohorts from Western, Asian, and Middle Eastern Islamic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive support for the seemingly paradoxical negative effects of school- and class-average achievement on academic self-concept (ASC)-the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE)--is based largely on secondary students in Western countries or on cross-cultural Program for International Student Assessment studies. There is little research testing the…

  14. The Media as a Dual Mediator of the Political Agenda–Setting Effect of Protest : A Longitudinal Study in Six Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.; Wouters, R.; Hutter, S.; Jennings, W.; Gava, R.; Tresh, A.; Varone, F.; Grossman, E.; Breunig, C.; Brouard, S.; Chaques-Bonafont, L.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the impact of media coverage of protest on issue attention in parliament (questions) in six Western European countries. Integrating several data sets on protest, media, and political agendas, we demonstrate that media coverage of protest affects parliamentary agendas: the more

  15. Recent findings of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) contrasting studies in Western countries to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekikawa, Akira; Doyle, Margaret F; Kuller, Lewis H

    2015-11-01

    Recent long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on coronary heart disease (CHD) among high-risk patients conducted in Western countries all failed to show their clinical benefits. In striking contrast, an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on CHD conducted in Japan, which is a combination of secondary and primary prevention, showed a significant 19% reduction. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are large differences in doses of LCn-3 PUFAs administered (300-900 mg/day in Western countries vs. 1800 mg/day in Japan) and background dietary intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (1000 mg/day in Japan). These observations suggest that higher doses of LCn-3 PUFAs than examined in RCTs in Western countries may be cardio-protective. Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of CHD. Recent observational studies and an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis in Japan show that LCn-3 PUFAs are anti-atherogenic. In this brief review, we focus on recent epidemiological and clinical findings of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis and CHD, contrasting studies in Western countries to those in Japan. We also discuss mechanisms of high-dose LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis.

  16. A Comparison of Food Supply from 1984 to 2009 and Degree of Dietary Westernization in Taiwan with Asian Countries and World Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheau-Jane Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply from 1984 to 2009 and degree of food westernization in Taiwan with Asian countries and world continents by using food balance data. Methods. We compiled data from food balance sheets of Taiwan and Food and Agriculture Organization, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and Southeastern Asia over the period 1984–2009. Quantity of food supply per capita was referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes. Findings. Taiwan’s food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries. Conclusion. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems and high tendency of diet westernization.

  17. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries: A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, M.; Sluiter, R.; Need, A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal

  18. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal

  19. A review of abortion laws in Western-European countries. A cross-national comparison of legal developments between 1960 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Mark; Sluiter, Roderick; Need, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which women have had access to legal abortions has changed dramatically in Western-Europe between 1960 and 2010. In most countries, abortion laws developed from completely banning abortion to allowing its availability on request. Both the timing and the substance of the various legal d

  20. Cultural Differences between Chinese and Western Countries in Advertisements%从广告语看中西文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石成蓉

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference can be found in many aspects, this paper deals with the differences between Chinese culture and English culture in the perspective of advertisements. Advertising is an important part of people's life. Advertisements in a certain country attract certain consumers, so they reflect the unique culture in the given country. This paper will focus on four aspects to illustrate the cultural difference between China and Western countries found in advertising creation and advertising language aimed to help people understand cultural difference in the trend of globalization and accelerate the cross-cultural communication.

  1. Hyper-longevity, a late-modern paradigm for understanding longevity, ageing and their complexities in Western developed globalised countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzetta, Roberto; Cesario, Alfredo; Fini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    If longevity is a biological and demographic indicator to determine human lifetime extension, hyper-longevity notion can represent a heuristic tool to better disentangle the complex bio-psycho-social implications of ageing and elderly in Western developed globalised countries. Departing from the assumption of a holistic approach to human condition understanding, it is possible to reveal the grounds and patterns of a multilayered and multidimensional structuring of longevity and ageing in our societies that would lead to a form of hyper-longevity. Socio-cultural processes, underlying hyper-longevity notion, rise the question of transition from modern/ latemodern societies to post-modern ones and it offers room for a cultural analysis of concepts, such as space time compression, digital capitalism, knowledge and mass information society. These are relevant ideas that can contribute to reshape and rethink the boundaries and traits of ageing experience in 21(st) century societies. To better catch the point emerging social category of Baby Boomers is presented and used to provide a concrete context related example on how hyper-longevity can better explain complex social evidences in many cultural respects and social domains. As a conclusive step some preliminary reflections, largely centered on the relation between Baby Boomers, hyper-longevity and bio-medical sciences are presented and discussed to provide a starting point for further future analyses within a trans and inter-disciplinary framework.

  2. Trends in Daily and Extreme Temperature and Precipitation Indices for the Countries of the Western Indian Ocean, 1975-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Enric; Vincent, Lucie A.

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the project "Renforcement des Capacités des Pays de la COI dans le Domaine de l'Adaptation au Changement Climatique (ACCLIMATE)" (Comission de l'Ocean Indien, COI), a workshop on homogenization of climate data and climate change indices analysis was held in Mauritius in October 2009, using the successful format prepared by the CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices. Scientists from the five countries in Western Indian Ocean brought daily climatological data from their region for a meticulous assessment of the data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices which can be used for analyses of changes in climate extremes. Although the period of analysis is very short, it represents a seminal step for the compilation of longer data set and allows us to examine the evolution of climate extremes in the area during the time period identified as the decades where anthropogenic warming es larger than natural forcings. This study first presents some results of the homogeneity assessment using the software package RHtestV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) which has been developed for the detection of changepoints in climatological datasets. Indices based on homogenized daily temperatures and precipitations were also prepared for the analysis of trends at more than 50 stations across the region. The results show an increase in the percentage of warm days and warm nights over 1975-2008 while changes in extreme precipitations are not as consistent.

  3. Place-Names with Biblical Associations in England and Other Countries of Western Europe: A Chronology and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Alpatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to classification and description of place-names with Biblical associations from the Old and New Testament. The analysis is mainly based on English toponymy, however, frequent parallels are drawn from Germany and France, also, to a lesser degree, from Belgium, Holland, Scandinavian countries and Russia. This approach allows to define the chief groups of name-givers and the basic motivations for the transference of names in Western Europe. The author distinguishes between two broad periods in this process: prior to the Reformation and posterior to it. In the first period, the strongest impetus to the transference of Biblical names is given by the Crusades, Biblical names are then bestowed on monasteries, private residences of nobility and parts of the Orders’ property. The second period is determined by the new Scriptural mindset of Protestantism, especially Calvinistic and other Nonconformist movements. As contrasted to the first period, Biblical names are then mostly used for churches, charities, private residences of pastors and religious landowners. The author discusses the evolution of names transference from the 7–9th centuries to the present time, establishing peaks of Biblical place names attestation frequency (13–14th and 18–19th centuries and groups of names which dominated in different periods. Particular attention is paid to some specific ways of naming and the description of toponymic microsystems. The author consolidates a large number of language data scattered in different publications and suggests new explanations for some place names.

  4. Lifelong Learning and Employability in the Danube Region Countries: Influences and Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Nicoleta Bodea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A continuous challenge for education and lifelong learning is to assist individuals in acquiring skills and knowledge for successful work life, especially after the financial crisis which influenced negatively the employment growth in all European Union countries. The paper focuses on finding correlations between employability and lifelong learning in the Danube Region countries of the European Union and more explicitly in the ex-communist ones of this region. As research instruments, two online questionnaires were built based on a thorough literature review and a set of structured interviews and filled in by 390 IT students and 55 IT professors. The surveys’ results revealed a clear positive correlation between the level of education and the opinion about the importance of obtaining a job as a result of the educational endeavors. A special attention in the survey was given to social networks, which were acknowledged as modern facilitators of lifelong learning activities. The conclusions of the current study are particularly important in the Romanian context, as the employment rate of recent graduates is in a decreasing trend, but also for all the Danube Region ex-communist countries, which have to boost their employment rates as well, to assure their economical growth. Identification of factors stimulating employment of young people according with their education contributes at the sustainable economic growth of these countries, at the growth of graduates insertion in the labor market and at the diminution of labor migration.

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of Dupuytren disease in the general population of Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanting, Rosanne; Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Werker, Paul M N; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2014-03-01

    Dupuytren disease is a fibroproliferative disease of palmar fascia of the hand. Its prevalence has been the subject of several reviews; however, an accurate description of the prevalence range in the general population--and of the relation between age and disease--is lacking. Embase and PubMed were searched using database-specific Medical Subject Headings; titles and abstracts were searched for the words "Dupuytren," "incidence," and "prevalence." Two reviewers independently assessed the articles using inclusion and exclusion criteria, and rated the included studies with a quality assessment instrument. In a meta-analysis, the median prevalence, as a function of age by sex, was estimated, accompanied by 95 percent prediction intervals. The observed heterogeneity in prevalence was investigated with respect to study quality and geographic location. Twenty-three of 199 unique identified articles were included. The number of participants ranged from 37 to 97,537, and age ranged from 18 to 100 years. Prevalence varied from 0.6 to 31.6 percent. The quality of studies differed but could not explain the heterogeneity among studies. Mean prevalence was estimated as 12, 21, and 29 percent at ages 55, 65, and 75 years, respectively, based on the relation between age and prevalence determined from 10 studies. The authors describe a prevalence range of Dupuytren disease in the general population of Western countries. The relation between age and prevalence of Dupuytren disease is given according to sex, including 95 percent prediction intervals. It is possible to determine disease prevalence at a certain age for the total population, and for men and women separately.

  6. Intra-organizational dynamics as drivers of entrepreneurship among physicians and managers in hospitals of western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelewijn, Wout T; Ehrenhard, Michel L; Groen, Aard J; van Harten, Wim H

    2012-09-01

    During the past decade, entrepreneurship in the healthcare sector has become increasingly important. The aging society, the continuous stream of innovative technologies and the growth of chronic illnesses are jeopardizing the sustainability of healthcare systems. In response, many European governments started to reform healthcare during the 1990s, replacing the traditional logic of medical professionalism with business-like logics. This trend is expected to continue as many governments will have to reduce their healthcare spending in response to the current growing budget deficits. In the process, entrepreneurship is being stimulated, yet little is known about intra-hospital dynamics leading to entrepreneurial behavior. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature concerning the influence of intra-organizational dynamics on entrepreneurship among physicians and managers in hospitals of Western countries. Therefore, we conducted a theory-led, systematic review of how intra-organizational dynamics among hospital managers and physicians can influence entrepreneurship. We designed our review using the neo-institutional framework of Greenwood and Hinings (1996). We analyze these dynamics in terms of power dependencies, interest dissatisfaction and value commitments. Our search revealed that physicians' dependence on hospital management has increased along with healthcare reforms and the resulting emphasis on business logics. This has induced various types of responses by physicians. Physicians can be pushed to adopt an entrepreneurial attitude as part of a defensive value commitment toward the business-like healthcare logic, to defend their traditionally dominant position and professional autonomy. In contrast, physicians holding a transformative attitude toward traditional medical professionalism seem more prone to adopt the entrepreneurial elements of business-like healthcare, encouraged by the prospect of increased autonomy and income. Interest

  7. Challenges for work-based learning in vocational education and training in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2015-01-01

    Dual systems of vocational education and training that build on the tradition of apprenticeship, have many attractive qualities, seen from a political perspective. VET systems that comprise a significant amount of work-based training, provide a valuable alternative for young people who chose...... not to pursue an academic career. Countries with strong apprenticeship systems tend to have less youth unemployment and a smoother transition to the labour market than others. Furthermore, from a learning perspective, the outcomes of work-based training and informal learning are enhanced when they are combined...

  8. Self-directed learning of hospital pharmacy residents in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, J W

    1983-01-01

    The extent of self-directed learning among hospital pharmacy residents in western Canada was studied. A preresidency questionnaire and a postresidency group interview with a set of questionnaires were used. The residents were asked to list learning projects conducted in their residency programs; these learning projects were categorized as self-directed, mutual-agreement, and preceptor-directed. A postinterview questionnaire was used to obtain postresidency measurements of self-directedness and resident autonomy. Twenty-four residents provided data on 164 learning projects. Projects with the most meaningfulness, high achievement contribution, positive motivation, and relevance corresponded with the self-directed approach. Residents who had more meaningful learning entered their residencies with no more self-directedness than other residents, but they did have more autonomy in their residencies. No particular type of project, with respect to learner autonomy, was found to be more problematic than the others. Facilitation of learner autonomy in a hospital pharmacy residency may increase the value of self-directed learning projects in general and improve the resident's self-directedness. Self-directed learning should continue to be part of residency programs.

  9. 中西方精神病学史比较及启发%Preliminary Study of Psychiatry History in China and the Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志华

    2013-01-01

      精神残疾人数量的大幅增长,已成为现代社会不容忽视的重大公共卫生与社会问题。本文以精神病学史视角,从精神病病理研究发展、治疗与诊断更新、社会对待精神病态度的变化等方面,对比中西方精神医学发展。初步探讨了当前我国精神残疾预防及康复工作相对落后的历史原因,并就问题的解决提出设想。建议立足于我国历史与文化基础,借鉴与学习国际先进经验,积极推进我国精神病学的发展。%The significant growing trend of intellectual disability has become a major public health and social issue in modern society. This paper compared psychiatry history between China and the western countries from the aspect of pathology, diagnoses, treatment, and the social attitude. It then discussed the historical reason why mental disability work is relatively left behind in China and how to solve this problem. It proposed to promote psychiatry study and practice in China through learning experience from international community, based on China’s culture and history.

  10. Critical Success Factors for E-Learning in Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis between ICT Experts and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuasiri, Wannasiri; Xaymoungkhoun, Oudone; Zo, Hangjung; Rho, Jae Jeung; Ciganek, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the critical success factors that influence the acceptance of e-learning systems in developing countries. E-learning is a popular mode of delivering educational materials in higher education by universities throughout the world. This study identifies multiple factors that influence the success of e-learning systems from the…

  11. Laws, Costs, Norms, and Learning: Improving Working Conditions in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Drusilla; Dehejia, Rajeev; Robertson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions in developing countries, such as those associated with the 2013 Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh, remain stubbornly low despite strict laws regulating hours, pay practices and occupational safety and health. Recent theoretic and empirical work suggests that norms and learning may play a significant role in determining conditions. We exploit the natural experiment of Cambodia's 15-year experience with the Better Factories Cambodia program to identify variation that reveals ...

  12. Challenges to web-based learning in pharmacy education in Arabic language speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez M Alkoudmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based learning and web 2.0 tools which include new online educational technologies (EdTech and social media websites like Facebook® are playing crucial roles nowadays in pharmacy and medical education among millennial learners. Podcasting, webinars, and online learning management systems like Moodle® and other web 2.0 tools have been used in pharmacy and medical education to interactively share knowledge with peers and students. Learners can use laptops, iPads, iPhones, or tablet devices with a stable and good Internet connection to enroll in many online courses. Implementation of novel online EdTech in pharmacy and medical curricula has been noticed in developed countries such as European countries, the US, Canada, and Australia. However, these trends are scarce in the majority of Arabic language speaking countries (ALSC, where traditional and didactic educational methods are still being used with some exceptions seen in Palestine, Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE, and Qatar. Although these new trends are promising to push pharmacy and medical education forward, major barriers regarding adaptation of E-learning and new online EdTech in Arab states have been reported such as higher connectivity costs, information communication technology (ICT problems, language barriers, wars and political conflicts, poor education, financial problems, and lack of qualified ICT-savvy educators. More research efforts are encouraged to study the effectiveness and proper use of web-based learning and emerging online EdTech in pharmacy education not only in ALSC but also in developing and developed countries.

  13. Impact of ICTs on Open and Distance Learning in a Developing Country Setting: The Philippine experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda dela Pena Bandalaria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the information and communication technologies (ICTs in open and distance learning (ODL in a developing country, the Philippines, is critically evaluated in this paper. Specifically, this paper examines how ICTs have influenced or shaped the development of ODL in this country. Also examined are the different stages or generations of distance education (DE in the Philippines, which are characterized mainly by the dominant technology used for the delivery of instructional content and student support services. The different ICTs being used in ODL and their specific applications to the various facets of this mode of delivery are also described. Also included is an examination on how quality of education is ensured in a technology-driven system of teaching and learning, which includes, among others, the employment of the ‘quality circle approach’ in the development of courses and learning packages, and the provision of appropriate technologies to perform academic processes and achieve institutional goals. Experiences of the various universities in the Philippines are also cited in this paper. Lessons have been drawn from the ODL experience to guide educators from other developing countries.

  14. Influence of culture is on development of corporations (on the example of corporations of the USA, Japan, countries of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stoyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of features of elements of economic culture of the USA, Japan, countries of Western Europe is given. Generalized experience of different countries and different companies from making of ethics of внутріфірмових and міжфірмових business relationships in the контектсі use of experience for the Ukrainian enterprises

  15. 西方发达国家的家庭政策及对我国的启示%Family Policies in Western Countries and Their Implications for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛亦男; 杨文庄

    2012-01-01

    西方国家早期的家庭政策是通过普适性的福利性手段减少家庭贫困,全面提高公民的福利水平。20世纪60、70年代,西方国家完成人口转变之后,家庭的发展进入后现代化时期,家庭模式发生了巨大转变。为达到国家的人口战略目标,西方国家的家庭政策从覆盖全民的福利性保障,逐渐转为在保证福利的同时,更加注重鼓励生育。当前西方国家在家庭政策的实施中所采取的主要政策工具包括家庭补贴和税收优惠政策,产假、生育补贴和工作保护,以及儿童看护和教育政策。依据西方发达国家家庭政策的已有经验,我国家庭政策体系可以采取“保基本、广覆盖、福利与调控人口并重”的政策路线。%In achieving universal welfare, early family policies in the Western countries were to re- duce family poverty, and to enhance the welfare of their citizens. The Western countries completed the demographic transition in the 1950s to 1970s and family patterns changed dramatically. In order to ac- complish their population and development strategy, family policies which oriented to universal welfare covering all citizens gradually changed into ensuring family welfare as well as encouraging population growth. The main policy instruments of the family policies in Western countries include family allowance and family tax reduction, maternity leave, child - raising allowance and job protection, child care facili- ties and education policy. Learning from policy experiences in Western countries and addressing the re- quirements of family development capability construction in China's twelfth five - year plan period, this paper proposes a basic policy approach, that is ' Ensure the basic needs, extend the coverage to all families, and integrate welfare into population regulation. '

  16. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Raspopovic1, 1, 1, and 2

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, DeLone and McLean’s updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for e-Learning evaluation are expanded by providing several systems for quantifying the given success metrics. The results presented in this paper are based on courses that were taught both online and traditionally in three different subject areas: graphic design, information technology, and management. Of particular interest were success metrics which can be determined using quantifiable data from the e-Learning system itself, in order to evaluate and find the relationship between students’ academic achievement, usage of learning materials, and students’ satisfaction. The results from different courses were used to illustrate the implementation and evaluation of these success metrics for both online and traditional students.

  17. EBM E-learning: Feasible and Effective for Occupational Physicians in Different Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Nathalie Ir; Sluiter, Judith K; van Dijk, Frank Jh; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Although evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a useful method for integrating evidence into the decision-making process of occupational physicians, occupational physicians lack EBM knowledge and skills, and do not have the time to learn the EBM method. In order to enable them to educate themselves at the time and place they prefer, we designed an electronic EBM course. We studied the feasibility and utility of the course as well as its effectiveness in increasing EBM knowledge, skills, and behaviour. Occupational physicians from various countries were included in a within-subjects study. Measurements were conducted on participants' EBM knowledge, skills, behaviour, and determinants of behaviour at baseline, directly after finishing the course and 2 months later (n = 36). The feasibility and utility of the course were evaluated directly after the course (n = 42). The course is applicable as an introductory course on EBM for occupational physicians in various countries. The course is effective in enhancing EBM knowledge and self-efficacy in practising EBM. No significant effect was found on EBM skills, behaviour, and determinants of behaviour. After the course, more occupational physicians use the international journals to solve a case. An electronic introductory EBM course is suitable for occupational physicians. Although it is an effective method for increasing EBM knowledge, it does not seem effective in improving skills and behaviour. We recommend integrating e-learning courses with blended learning, where it can be used side by side with other educational methods that are effective in changing behaviour.

  18. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  19. How are countries in the Western Pacific Region tracking the HIV epidemic? Results from a 2011 survey of ministries of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Teodora; Calleja, Jesus Garcia

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, as part of the World Health Organization global reporting tool to collect data on the progress of improving the health sector response to HIV/AIDS towards universal access, a questionnaire was sent to ministries of health of Western Pacific Region Member States on the scope and functioning of their HIV surveillance systems. Of the 17 countries that responded, 13 were low- to middle-income countries and four were high-income countries. Regular serosurveillance surveys are conducted with female sex workers in all lower- and middle-income countries that responded to the survey but less so with people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men. Furthermore, there are no surveillance activities of the key populations in most of the Pacific island countries. It is recommended that estimations of high-risk populations be conducted in priority Pacific island countries and tailored surveillance systems be designed. Efforts should also be made to gather and accumulate data from sufficient geographic coverage to allow the HIV epidemic to continue to be monitored. PMID:23971003

  20. Integration of International Service Learning in Developing Countries within Occupational Therapy Education: Process and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    International service learning (ISL) is included in an increasing number of courses at post-secondary levels of education, including programs which educate future occupational therapy practitioners. There is a limited amount of literature and research concerning best practices for course-based occupational therapy education featuring ISL experiences, in particular within developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to (a) to review key literature on ISL, (b) explicate key elements which can help design course-based ISL experiences; and (c) suggest areas for further research and development of course-based ISL. The seven elements of focus that provide a base to guide occupational therapy educators who create ISL courses with an immersion component in a country with a developing economy are discussed, as well as future challenges and possibilities when providing occupational therapy services to a global society.

  1. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  2. Destination-Language Proficiency in Cross-National Perspective : A Study of Immigrant Groups in Nine Western Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Kalmijn, Mathijs

    2005-01-01

    Immigrants’ destination-language proficiency has been typically studied from a microperspective in a single country. In this article, the authors examine the role of macrofactors in a cross-national perspective. They argue that three groups of macrolevel factors are important: the country immigrants

  3. THE FLAT TAX EFFECTS a€“ THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Aura Carmen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a close look at the advantages and disadvantages of the flat tax and looks at its proven benefits and failings in some European countries which adopted it and its theoretical or possible effects on the economies of other European countrie

  4. 西方国家社区依恋研究%Community Attachment Studies in Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常江; 谢涤湘; 黄健文

    2015-01-01

    Based on the literature review of community attachment studies in western countries, this paper 1) compared the concepts of community attachment and place attachment, 2) introduced three research stages including linear-development model, systemic model and multi-model of community attachment research, and 3) summarized the research methods and predictors of community attachment. Specifically, research methods included qualitative methods, such as in-depth interview, discursive analysis and pictorial methods, as well as quantitative methods, such as survey method, scale development and statistical analysis. In addition, some studies combined the above two types of methods. Predictors of community attachment included socio-demographic predictors, social predictors and physical-environmental predictors. Conclusions suggested that research of community attachment in China should explore theories and methods adapted to China’s own conditions, combine qualitative and quantitative methods, conduct research that focuses on various community forms and predictors with Chinese characteristics, so as to provide basis for government’s policy formulation in China.%文章对西方国家的“社区依恋”研究进行了回顾总结,首先将社区依恋和地方依恋2个概念进行了对比,之后分为线性发展模型、系统模型和多因素模型等3个发展阶段介绍了社区依恋的研究阶段,并总结了社区依恋的研究方法和影响因素。研究方法主要有以深度访谈、话语分析和图形法等为主的质性研究方法和以问卷调查、测量量表和统计分析为主的量性研究方法,亦有将两者相结合的综合研究方法;影响因素则主要集中在3个方面:人口统计学因素、社会因素和物质环境因素。最后指出,中国的社区依恋研究应充分考虑中国国情,探索适合自身的理论与方法,综合质性与量性研究方法,针对中国丰富多样的社区类型

  5. Connecting vocational education with work based learning in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Tønder, Anna Hagen

    This paper examines how the different systems of vocational education and training (VET-systems) in four Nordic countries connect to the labour market and how they provide access to employment and work-based learning for the students. The VET-system at upper secondary level includes youth as well...... they have developed. Next, the role of employment protection is examined and some recent initiatives to connect upper secondary VET closer to the labour market are presented. A special interest is taken in attempts to revive and strengthen apprenticeship programmes. The conclusion summarises the strengths...

  6. Are national quality standards for traditional Chinese herbal medicine sufficient? Current governmental regulations for traditional Chinese herbal medicine in certain Western countries and China as the Eastern origin country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, G J; Tan, L; Cohen, M H; McIntyre, M; Bauer, R; Li, X; Bensoussan, A

    2005-09-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal Medicine (TCHM) has been gaining interest and acceptance world wide. TCHM provides on the one side promising perspective of scientific interest and on the other side possible health risks if TCHM drugs are not controlled with respect to quality standards or if practitioners for TCHM are not well trained. This paper outlines an introduction to the scientific aspects and potential risks of TCHM therapy followed by a brief, exploratory overview of the current status of TCHM regulations in certain Western countries like the USA, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and in China as the Eastern origin country of TCHM. Legal foundations to establish quality and safety standards for TCHM crude drugs and ready-made formulas exist in some countries on a local basis but in practice are poorly enforced, where this products have no drug status. In addition practitioners treating patients with TCHM should be well versed in the pharmacology, side effects, and interactions of these substances with Western medicines and should be certified on a regular basis.

  7. Western Countries “Political Marketing” Theory%西方国家“政治营销”的理论渊源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘桂媚

    2014-01-01

    In late twentieth Century, political marketing theory emerged in western political circles. It has its profound historical origin, has a close relationship with the political tradition of western countries and the modern economy in the field of marketing theory, has its unique connotation. " Political marketing" has become an integral part of the presidential election, political parties in the western countries in the competition, and play an important role in the political life of the western countries with its unique pattern. By analyzing the theoretical origin and connotation of political marketing in western countries, that political marketing theory provides a new theoretical perspective for the development and research of political science, provides a new idea for the formation and development of technical means and democratic world democracy and civil society.%20世纪中后期,政治营销理论兴起于西方政治学界。它的产生有着深刻的历史渊源,与西方国家政治传统和现代经济领域中的营销理论有着密切的关系,有着独特的内涵。“政治营销”已成为西方国家总统选举、政党竞争中不可或缺的部分,并以其独特的模式在西方国家政治生活中扮演重着要的角色。本文通过分析西方国家政治营销的理论渊源及其内涵,认为政治营销理论为政治学的发展与研究提供了一个新的理论视角,为世界民主政治的发展以及公民社会的形成提供了一种新的技术手段和民主理念。

  8. 西方国家碳税政策实践的比较及启示*%Carbon Tax Policy Practice in Western Countries:A Comparative Study and Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉

    2013-01-01

    在我国开征碳税既有利于树立国际形象,也有利于缓解环境压力,改变粗放的经济增长方式。西方发达国家尤其是北欧国家在碳税的推行上积累了丰富的经验,通过对这些国家碳税政策特征进行比较,从征税范围、税率、税收收入使用和优惠政策四方面借鉴其成功经验。最后得出我国应循序渐进地推行适合我国国情的碳税政策的几点启示。%The levying of carbon tax in China will help the country to set up a good international image,re-duce the burden of environment,and change the existing mode of economic growth.Western developed countries,especially the Nordic countries,have accumulated rich experience in carbon tax practice.By comparing the characteristics of carbon tax policies in these countries,this paper points out that we should learn from their experience in terms of the scope of taxation,tax rate,tax service and their preferential policies.On such a basis,it summarizes the enlightening points in carrying out a carbon tax policy suitable for the situation of our country.

  9. Blended Learning Possibilities in Enhancing Education, Training and Development in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Graphic Design Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Atef

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning is not a new concept; recently, there has been a renewed focus on this learning strategy, both in the education and corporate sectors. Although the definition of blended learning is somewhat inchoate, it is generally described as an environment that includes the use of different modes of teaching and learning. Blended learning holds particular promise for developing countries because it can make availability of resources, regional, and international educational institutions. The perspective we adopt in this paper, where we aim to take a realistic look at the potential of blended learning in developing countries, giving consideration to the various possibilities and most importantly, to the accessibility of technology both today and in the future.

  10. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  11. Age- and Sex-Specific Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to 5 Major and Modifiable Risk Factors in 10 Asian Countries of the Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Wang, Xin; Peters, Sanne A E; Mamun, Abdullah; Woodward, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 18 million deaths annually. Much of the burden of CVD resides in lower- and middle-income countries, particularly those Asian countries comprising the Western Pacific Region. Epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that up to 90% of all CVD can be explained by a small number of modifiable risk factors, including blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, total cholesterol and excess body weight. However, the relationship between these risk factors and coronary artery disease and stroke often differ by age and sex, and yet these differences are often overlooked in burden of disease estimations. As such, that can result in either an over- or under-estimation of the disease burden in specific population subgroups, which may affect resource allocation of healthcare. In this review, we derive the most reliable and previously unpublished estimates of the age- and sex-specific burden of vascular disease attributable to the aforementioned risk factors for 10 of the most populous Asian countries in the Western Pacific Region. Understanding how the burden of vascular disease is distributed within and between populations is crucial for developing appropriate health policies and effective treatment strategies, particularly in resource-poor settings.

  12. Contextualizing Western guidelines for stroke and low back pain to a developing country (Philippines: an innovative approach to putting evidence into practice efficiently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Suarez CB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Consuelo Gonzalez-Suarez,1,2,3 Karen Grimmer-Somers,1 Janine Margarita Dizon,1 Ellena King,1 Sylvan Lorenzo,2 Carolina Valdecanas,2 Ephraim Gambito,2 Belinda Fidel2,31International Center for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; 2Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine, Quezon City, Philippines; 3University of Santo Tomas, Manila, PhillipinesBackground: High-quality evidence-based clinical guidelines are widely available for many diseases. Clinical guidelines support evidence-based care decisions and improved health outcomes. Most clinical practice guidelines have been developed in the Western world and reflect a developed country’s health systems and services, disease epidemiology, and workforce. Such guidelines are therefore not immediately relevant or generalizable to developing countries. Guidelines are expensive to produce, and it is more resource efficient for developing countries to contextualize available Western guidelines, rather than develop their own. This paper describes a leadership initiative by the Philippines Association of Rehabilitation Medicine to contextualize high-quality relevant Western guidelines for local management of stroke and low back pain.Methods: Twenty-one steps were developed, covering initial training and establishing the framework within which recommendations were contextualized; then guideline searching, critiquing, and including; and then contextualization, review, and implementation. A writing guide assisted the group to endorse recommendations in a standard manner, relevant to a “typical” patient journey, and to contextualize recommendations for local settings.Results: Recommendations were extracted from eight low back pain and five stroke clinical guidelines. Philippines Association of Rehabilitation Medicine endorsements were made, reflecting summarized recommendations and underpinning strength of the evidence body. Philippines Association of

  13. The impact of Pavlov on the psychology of learning in English-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Robert A

    2003-11-01

    The translation of Pavlov's lectures (Pavlov, 1927) provided English-speaking psychologists with access to the full scope of Pavlov's research and theoretical ideas. The impact this had on their study of the psychology of learning can be assessed by examining influential books in this area. This reveals that Watson (1924) had been highly effective in promoting the misleading idea that Pavlov was a fellow S-R theorist. This assumption was not questioned by Tolman (1932), Hilgard and Marquis (1940) or by Hull (1943). However, this mistake was not made by Skinner (1938), who also provided the strongest arguments against Pavlov's belief that behavioral effects required explanation in terms of physiological processes. Post-1927 most learning research in the English-speaking countries continued to use instrumental, rather than Pavlovian, conditioning procedures. Nevertheless, many of the issues addressed by this research were ones that Pavlov had been the first to raise, so that his major influence can be seen as that of defining a research program for subsequent students of learning.

  14. Do community medicine residency trainees learn through journal club? An experience from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Muhammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal clubs are an internationally recognized teaching tool in many postgraduate medical education fields. In developing countries lack of funds for current print materials may have limited journal club use. But with advancing information technology trainees in developing countries increasingly have more access to high quality journals online. However, we are aware of no studies describing journal club existence and effectiveness in postgraduate medical training in Pakistan. Also we have found no published effectiveness studies of this teaching modality in Community Medicine (Public Health in any country. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Community Medicine (Public Health Resident Journal Club (CMR-JC in Aga Khan University, Pakistan using international criteria for successful journal clubs (2 years continuous existence and more than 50% attendance and examining resident and alumni satisfaction. Methods Journal club effectiveness criteria were searched using electronic search databases. Departmental records were reviewed from September1999–September 2005. Ninety percent of residents and alumni of Community Medicine Residency Programme participated voluntarily in a confidential survey. Results The CMR-JC was regularly conducted. More than 95% of residents attended. (Total residents in the CMR-Programme: 32. Twenty-seven out of 29 current residents/alumni responded to the anonymous questionnaire. Acquisition of critical appraisal skills (23 respondents and keeping up with current literature (18 respondents were the two most important objectives achieved. Respondents recommended improved faculty participation and incorporating a structured checklist for article review. Conclusion CMR-JC fulfils criteria for effective journal clubs. Residents and alumni agree CMR-JC meets its objectives. Incorporating suggested recommendations will further improve standards. The journal club learning modality should be included in

  15. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, M.; Dijk, L. van; Groenewegen, P.P.; Francke, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A growing number of countries are introducing some form of nurse prescribing. However, international reviews concerning nurse prescribing are scarce and lack a systematic and theoretical approach. The aim of this review was twofold: firstly, to gain insight into the scientific and profes

  16. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, M.; Dijk, L. van; Groenewegen, P.P.; Francke, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing number of countries are introducing some form of nurse prescribing. However, international reviews concerning nurse prescribing are scarce and lack a systematic and theoretical approach. The aim of this review was twofold: firstly, to gain insight into the scientific and profes

  17. Building multi-country collaboration on watershed management: lessons on linking environment and public health from the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community-based watershed resilience programs that bridge public health and environmental outcomes often require cross-boundary, multi-country collaboration. The CRESSIDA project, led by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) and supported by the U...

  18. (No) News from the Western Front: The Weekly Press of the Low Countries and the Making of Atlantic News

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Groesen

    2013-01-01

    News from the Atlantic world was a key ingredient in early printed European newspapers. This article investigates the rhythm of Atlantic reporting in two weekly corantos from the Low Countries, one produced in Amsterdam, the other in Antwerp. It studies the serial production, dissemination, and rece

  19. English in Product Advertisements in Non-English-Speaking Countries in Western Europe: Product Image and Comprehension of the Text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M.; Nickerson, C.; Hooft, A.P.J.V. van; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Nederstigt, U.; Starren, M.B.P.; Crijns, R.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Although English has been shown to be the most frequently used foreign language in product advertisements in countries where it is not the native language, little is known about its effects. This article examines the response to advertisements in English compared to the response to the same ad in th

  20. Student Perceptions of Teacher-Student Interpersonal Behaviour and Classroom Learning Environment in Metropolitan and Country Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Bruce G.; Fisher, Darrell L.

    2000-01-01

    The newly developed Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ) and other measures were administered to 2,023 secondary students in 39 urban, provincial, rural, and mining-town schools in Western Australia. Rural students were least likely to perceive positive teacher-student interpersonal behaviors. Certain CLEQ scales were related to…

  1. The prevalence of mental disorders among the homeless in western countries: systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Seena Fazel; Vivek Khosla; Helen Doll; John Geddes

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. In 2007, it was estimated that there were more than 1 million homeless people worldwide. The true magnitude of the problem is difficult to estimate with no internationally agreed definition for homelessness and with the different approaches taken by countries and organizations in counting homeless people. What we do know is that this is a diverse group of people who have poorer physical and mental health than the general population, leading to premature death. We ...

  2. From e-Learning 1.0 to e-Learning 2.0:Threats & Opportunities for Higher Education Institutions in the Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kundi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effective use of information and communication technologies (ICTs in highereducation institutions (HEIs is a global issue for individual researchers, institutions,governments and societies as a whole. New technologies offer opportunities for thedeveloping countries to resolve their long standing problems of national/internationalisolation and mass-education. Researchers are posting reports of positive results of e-Learning applications around the world; however, using digital gadgets for teaching,learning and education management is neither automatic nor devoid of challenges andproblems. There are both development and use problems for the developers, users andinstitution. Broadly there are three e-Learning systems available to the HEIs: traditionalcomputer-based learning, blended learning and virtual learning with relative merits anddemerits but their choice is based on the availability of resources and professionalism.Most of the developing countries (DCs have started experimenting with traditional andblended systems while developed world is practicing and researching the virtual systems.This paper is an effort to portray a picturesque of the same evolution of e-Learning frome-Learning 1.0 to e-Learning 2.0 in the HEIs of developing states like Pakistan. Criticalanalyses and argumentation were the research tools used for examination and analysis andto interpret the results of the analysis. Keywords: HEI, ICTs, Traditional, Blended, and Virtual e-Learning, e-Teachers, e-Students e-Administrators. 

  3. Using reference nutrient density goals with food balance sheet data to identify likely micronutrient deficits for fortification planning in countries in the Western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Collection of nationwide food consumption data at the individual level is the preferred option for planning fortification programs. However, such data are seldom collected in low-income countries. In contrast, Food Balance Sheets (FBS), published annually for approximately 180 countries, may provide a source of national data for program planning. To explore the use of micronutrient densities from FBS data to identify likely deficits for eight micronutrients in national diets. Micronutrient densities in the daily available food supply per capita were calculated from the micronutrient contents of 95 food commodities in 17 Western Pacific Region countries. Densities were compared with reference nutrient density goals developed to ensure that at least 95% of individuals, irrespective of life-stage group, are likely to have adequate intakes. Of the eight micronutrients, Cambodia and Korea D.P.R. had likely deficits for six; China, Fiji, Kiribati, Korea Republic, Lao P.D.R., Philippines, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Viet Nam had likely deficits for five; Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea had likely deficits for four; and New Caledonia had likely deficits for three. The most frequent deficits were for iron, zinc, and calcium (all countries), followed by vitamin B2 and vitamin A (n = 13), vitamin B1 (n = 2), and vitamin B12 (n = 1). The nutrient density approach could be applied to FBS data for ranking countries according to likely micronutrient deficits, but it provides no information on distribution of nutrient supply for fortification program planning. The approach described here could be applied to data from Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) to characterize households at greatest risk.

  4. Eastward Expansion of Western Learning: A Study of Westernisation of China's Modern Education by Chinese Government Overseas-Study Scholarships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ren-Jie Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to trace back the history of how Chinese Government attempted to strengthen its national power by learning from the USA, Western Europe and Japan since the mid-nineteenth century, as well as to analyse the influences Westernisation had on the development of China's modern education. In this process, the Chinese Government…

  5. Food category consumption and obesity prevalence across countries: an application of Machine Learning method to big data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Jocelyn; Fallah-Fini, Saeideh; Nau, Claudia; Glass, Thomas; Global Obesity Prevention Center Team

    The applications of sophisticated mathematical and numerical tools in public health has been demonstrated to be useful in predicting the outcome of public intervention as well as to study, for example, the main causes of obesity without doing experiments with the population. In this project we aim to understand which kind of food consumed in different countries over time best defines the rate of obesity in those countries. The use of Machine Learning is particularly useful because we do not need to create a hypothesis and test it with the data, but instead we learn from the data to find the groups of food that best describe the prevalence of obesity.

  6. The European Struggle to Educate and Include Roma People: A Critique of Differences in Policy and Practice in Western and Eastern EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Hanlon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism is an established feature of the UK and other European States since the establishment of the Treaty of Rome in 1959. Enlargement has brought EU membership from six (1952 to twenty eight members since its foundation, and allowed free migration across its borders. However, many countries, in spite of agreements to adhere to ‘democratic’ practices, deny minority citizens their full rights, particularly in education contexts. Some recent accession EU States have education systems that are less adaptive to expected policy responsibilities. It is a more unstable aspect of Eastern Europe because of the failure of many of these countries to reduce social and educational inequalities and to establish rights for minority groups, particularly the Roma. An educational focus is used as a platform to highlight issues re the segregation, and discrimination against, Roma children in Europe, typically through the use of special education, which is not suitable for them. Europe generally, both East and West has failed to fully integrate the Roma. Often, institutional blame is placed on Roma communities, rather than situate them socially and economically due to ingrained structural inequalities. Stereotyped categories are often used to ‘label’ them. Countries with high Roma populations, four in Western and five in Eastern Europe are evaluated and compared in relation to the education of Roma children.

  7. Operational lessons learned in conducting a multi-country collaboration for vaccine safety signal verification and hypothesis testing: The global vaccine safety multi country collaboration initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard-Maure, Christine; Elango, Varalakshmi; Black, Steven; Perez-Vilar, Silvia; Castro, Jose Luis; Bravo-Alcántara, Pamela; Molina-León, Helvert Felipe; Weibel, Daniel; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick L F

    2017-08-02

    Timely and effective evaluation of vaccine safety signals for newly developed vaccines introduced in low and middle- income countries (LMICs) is essential. The study tested the development of a global network of hospital-based sentinel sites for vaccine safety signal verification and hypothesis testing. Twenty-six sentinel sites in sixteen countries across all WHO regions participated, and 65% of the sites were from LMIC. We describe the process for the establishment and operationalization of such a network and the lessons learned in conducting a multi-country collaborative initiative. 24 out of the 26 sites successfully contributed data for the global analysis using standardised tools and procedures. Our study successfully confirmed the well-known risk estimates for the outcomes of interest. The main challenges faced by investigators were lack of adequate information in the medical records for case ascertainment and classification, and access to immunization data. The results suggest that sentinel hospitals intending to participate in vaccine safety studies strengthen their systems for discharge diagnosis coding, medical records and linkage to vaccination data. Our study confirms that a multi-country hospital-based network initiative for vaccine safety monitoring is feasible and demonstrates the validity and utility of large collaborative international studies to monitor the safety of new vaccines introduced in LMICs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Self-management Following a Cardiac Event in People of Chinese Ethnicity Living in Western Countries: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Gallagher, Robyn; Ding, Ding; Neubeck, Lis

    2017-04-13

    Health outcomes and impact of cardiovascular disease vary between populations, where ethnic minorities and immigrant groups are more likely to be disadvantaged. Compared with the majority residents, health outcomes, especially short-term mortality from coronary heart disease event are worse in people of Chinese ethnicity, potentially due to poor self-management and experiences with the healthcare system in host countries. A scoping review was conducted. Four overarching themes were found: (1) understanding of heart disease, risk factors and symptom recognition, (2) adherence to medication and lifestyle modification, (3) health service/information choice, and (4) family role in disease self-management and decision making. All themes were greatly influenced by English language proficiency and cultural practices. English language proficiency and cultural practices should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services for people of Chinese ethnicity, as it plays an important role in self-management and experiences with the healthcare system.

  9. Implementing preventive iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in some Western Pacific countries: possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitasiri, Suttilak; Solon, Florentino S

    2005-12-01

    Lack of effective implementation mechanisms is identified as a major obstacle in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. This paper discusses experiences gained from implementing iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The understanding of contextual elements is proposed as a foundation for planning interventions. Moreover, it is suggested that a social marketing framework should provide a way of thinking about how to influence related behaviors. The application of a social marketing framework applied using a "5 P's" approach: public relations and collaboration, product, price, place, and promotion, is described, as well as enabling factors (possibilities) and inhibiting factors (challenges) of this approach. Although a program to improve iron nutrition among women of reproductive age may not be simple to implement, it is essential to enhancing health, human development, and economic advancement in developing countries.

  10. Experimental study of hybrid-knife endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD versus standard ESD in a Western country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín de-la Peña

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is an effective but time-consuming treatment for early neoplasia that requires a high level of expertise. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and learning curve of gastric ESD with a hybrid knife with high-pressure water jet and to compare with standard ESD. Material and methods: We performed a prospective non-survival animal study comparing hybrid-knife and standard gastric ESD. Variables recorded were: Number of en-bloc ESD, number of ESD with all marks included (R0, size of specimens, time and speed of dissection and adverse events. Ten endoscopists performed a total of 50 gastric ESD (30 hybrid-knife and 20 standard. Results: Forty-six (92% ESD were en-bloc and 25 (50% R0 (hybrid-knife: n = 13, 44%; standard: n = 16, 80%; p = 0.04. Hybrid-knife ESD was faster than standard (time: 44.6 ± 21.4 minutes vs. 68.7 ± 33.5 minutes; p = 0.009 and velocity: 20.8 ± 9.2 mm²/min vs. 14.3 ± 9.3 mm²/min (p = 0.079. Adverse events were not different. There was no change in speed with any of two techniques (hybrid-knife: From 20.33 ± 15.68 to 28.18 ± 20.07 mm²/min; p = 0.615 and standard: From 6.4 ± 0.3 to 19.48 ± 19.21 mm²/min; p = 0.607. The learning curve showed a significant improvement in R0 rate in the hybrid-knife group (from 30% to 100%. Conclusion: despite the initial performance of hybrid-knife ESD is worse than standard ESD, the learning curve with hybrid-knife ESD is short and is associated with a rapid improvement. The introduction of new tools to facilitate ESD should be implemented with caution in order to avoid a negative impact on the results.

  11. Oil in the North Yemen. Impact of petroleum discoveries in western Arabia on the development of the country and the global economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, E.F.

    1988-09-01

    The oil deposits found in the North Yemen and especially the export pipeline to the Red Sea are important not only for the Yemen's economy, but for the world economy, too. They mitigate the dependence on war-threatened gulf oil. Pressure on the bottle-neck of world oil supply, the Straight of Hormuz, is relieved. Together with the new pipelines from the oil province of the Persian-Arabic Gulf to the Mediterranean and Red Sea, they have begun to form a new important factor in the endangered region of the Middle East - development largely unnoticed by the world. The Straight of Hormuz is losing in importance; the western world is becoming much less susceptible to blackmail. Of course, the oil deposits carry great weight for North Yemen. In autumn 1987, a new chapter began in the long history of this ancient civilized country.

  12. The privateering war with the Western Muslim Countries during the first years of the reign of James II (1291-1309

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer i Mallol, María Teresa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to some instances of privateering and piracy between the Catalan subjects of the Crown of Aragon and the subjects of the Western Muslim Countries, the Magrib and Granada, in the context of relations with the latter in both peace and war, during the brief period from 1291 to 1309. The paper points out how difficult it was to make the privateers and merchants observe any peace treaty or truce.

    L’article presenta incidents de cors i pirateria entre catalans súbdits de la Corona d’Aragó i els països musulmans occidentals del Magrib i Granada dins el context de les relacions de pau o guerra amb aquests països, en un període breu de temps entre 1291 i 1309. Assenyala la dificultat de fer observar els tractats de pau o de treva a corsaris i mercaders.

  13. Features and Development of Academic Freedom in Universities of Western Countries%西方大学学术自由的发展与特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘法虎

    2011-01-01

    学术自由理念对大学的存续至关重要。本文通过对西方大学学术自由发展历程的分析,发现西方大学的学术自由既有边界的不确定性,同时其在对象、适用范围、发源地与社会责任等方面也呈现出一些相对确定性的特征。%The idea of academic freedom is necessary to the existence and development of universities. The boundary of academic freedom was indefinite throughout the analysis of its evolution in universities of western countries; however, some relatively definite features could still be found in its object, scope, birthplace and social responsibility.

  14. Challenges of Learning English in Australia towards Students Coming from Selected Southeast Asian Countries: Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Thanh

    2011-01-01

    The paper will explore the challenges students from selected South East Asian countries (Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia) face while studying English in Australia before entering into Australian University courses. These students must contend not only with different styles of teaching and learning, but also with the challenge of adapting to a new…

  15. Learning-by-Exporting Versus Self-Selection: New Evidence for 19 Sub-Saharan African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster-McGregor, N.; Isaksson, A.; Kaulich, F.

    2015-01-01

    We examine learning-by-exporting effects of manufacturing and services firms in 19 sub-Saharan African countries. Comparing several outlier-robust estimators, our results provide evidence for positive effects in the manufacturing sector when using the MM estimator, but not in the services sector.

  16. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  17. One Country, Two Cultures--A Multi-Perspective View on Israeli Chemistry Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hugerat, Muhamad; Kortam, Naji; Dkeidek, Iyad; Hofstein, Avi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study focusing on differences in Israeli Jewish and Arab chemistry teachers' beliefs regarding teaching and learning of chemistry in the upper secondary schools. Israel is a country experiencing the problems of diverse cultural orientation of its inhabitants but applying the same educational system to its diverse cultural…

  18. One Country, Two Cultures--A Multi-Perspective View on Israeli Chemistry Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markic, Silvija; Eilks, Ingo; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hugerat, Muhamad; Kortam, Naji; Dkeidek, Iyad; Hofstein, Avi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study focusing on differences in Israeli Jewish and Arab chemistry teachers' beliefs regarding teaching and learning of chemistry in the upper secondary schools. Israel is a country experiencing the problems of diverse cultural orientation of its inhabitants but applying the same educational system to its diverse cultural…

  19. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  20. Nothing Succeeds Like Success? Equity, Student Outcomes, and Opportunity to Learn in High- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Lucrecia; Fagioli, Loris

    2016-01-01

    A strong relationship between article background and educational outcomes fuels a negative inequality cycle. This paper explores the interplay between student socioeconomic status and educational outcomes, and the mediating role of Opportunity-to-Learn (OTL) in high- and middle-income countries. Using data from PISA 2012, we find that the…

  1. A Cultural Analysis of the Difference of Vegetarian Concept between China and Western countries%中西素食观念异同的文化探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武保勤

    2016-01-01

    Many social phenomena can be dug out the deep reason from the perspective of culture. Vegetarianism is an important revolution in human diet field. Chinese and Western vegetarianism show different forms and characteristics influenced by geographical environment, production mode, historical and cultural factors. Based on the differences of vegetarian concept between China and Western countries, this thesis tries to view the deep reasons of it from the perspective of religion, moralities, health care so as to know the social phenomenon and at the same time promote the mutual understanding between these two cultures.%很多社会现象都可以从文化角度发掘出其深层次原因。素食是人类饮食领域的一场重大变革,受地理环境、生产方式、历史文化等因素影响,中西方素食呈现出不同的表现形式及特点。文章以中西素食观念差异为立足点,试从宗教、道德、养生三个方面管窥中西素食观念异同的深层次原因,在了解这种社会现象的同时增进两种文化的相互理解。

  2. The relationship between the traditional and contemporary elements in the church architecture of the Western Christian countries in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Božidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Church architecture has been developing continually within Western Christianity since the 4th century, It gradually becomes less important from the end of the Middle Ages, especially with the advent of the ideas of Reformation and Enlightment, going almost out of the focus of contemporary architecture with the advent of modernism in the 20th century. The most important factors for the development of this building type in the 20th century, were the emergence of modernism in architecture and strengthening of the movements of liturgical renewal. It was a time in which the diametrically opposed concepts - radically modernizing and conservatively traditional - were expressed to the extreme, with many transitional forms, Striving to active participation of believers can lead to completely different results - strengthening the liturgical assembly, on one hand, and radical desacralisation of worship, on the other. There is a large number of architectural solutions, some of which share common characteristics concerning spatial organization and the distribution of laity and clergy, but with a great diversity of other architectural characteristics and different relations of traditional and contemporary elements. The experiences of Western Christian countries can be of use, to some extent, in the research of contemporary Orthodox church architecture.

  3. Analysis on the Status of Patients' Rights of Autonomy in Western Countries%西方国家病人自主权概况及浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明兰; 崔伟; 黄议; 伍彩红; 万霞; 邓仁丽

    2012-01-01

    Based on the current medical laws and regulations about patients' rights of autonomy in western countries such as America, England, Holland and Finland, etc. , this article summarizes the current implementation situation of patients' rights of informed consent, refusing medical treatment, the medical decision of minors, and people's cognition situation. At the same time, it analyzes briefly reasons led to the present situation from the western traditional culture, religion, economic and political system four aspects.%以美国、英国、荷兰、芬兰等西方国家有关病人自主权的法律法规为基础,综述当前西方国家针对病人知情同意权、知情拒绝权、未成年人医疗决定权利的实施现状及人们对病人自主权的认识现状,并从西方的传统文化、宗教、经济及政治制度四个方面对导致该现状的原因进行简要分析.

  4. The prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa, Turkey (A western city from a country bridging Asia and Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Aysin; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Dinc, Gonul; Yuksel, Hasan; Celik, Pinar; Dagyildizi, Lale; Coskun, Evsen; Kaya, Ece; Ozyurt, Beyhan; Ozcan, Cemil

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa city center, Turkey, to evaluate the determinants effective on those values, and to review the prevalence rates reported from different parts of the country. Data were collected from 610 households and complete interviews were conducted with 1,336 adults over 18 years of age by using European Community Respiratory Health Survey-ECRHS questionnaire. The prevalences of current asthma, cumulative asthma and asthma-like symptoms were found in 1.2, 1.0 and 25.0%, respectively, of the 20-44 years age group and the prevalences of allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and family atopy were found in 14.5, 10.9, and 15.2%, respectively, in all age group. Wheezing with breathlessness, wheezing without cold, woken up with shortness of breath and woken up with cold were reported by 9.1%, 6.9%, 6% and 16.1% of the study population, respectively. Gender, age, active or passive smoking, family atopy and home condition effect on prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms. In this study prevalence of asthma correlated with the studies reporting low prevalence rates of Turkey.

  5. Review of Research on Environmental Discourse in Western Countries%国外环境话语研究回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋军

    2015-01-01

    Discourse plays an important role in the fields of politics, economy and social life as many activities are realized by discourse. Environmental discourse makes its appearance with more attention given to environmental problems and it has aroused the interests of multiple disciplines. The paper tends to review the related research on environmental discourse in west ̄ern countries over 40 years, including the definitions of environmental discourse, its genres, its research methods, its research fields and important publications, hoping to help Chinese scholars understand better environmental discourse and environmental communication.%话语在人类的政治、经济和社会生活中都起着重要的作用,因为人类的很多活动是通过话语才得以实现。环境话语伴随着人们对环境问题的日益关注而诞生,它引起了很多学科的学者的研究兴趣。文章欲从环境话语的定义、体裁、研究方法、研究内容、相关出版物等方面对西方学者在过去近40年时间内的环境话语研究做较为全面的梳理,以期对国内的环境话语以及环境传播研究有一定的启发和思考。

  6. The Happening Mechanism of Volunteering in Western Country and China%中西方志愿者运动发生机制的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝云

    2012-01-01

    从组织动员角度看,西方国家并没有专门的政府机构负责志愿者活动,志愿者运动是建立在自发秩序基础上的,社团、社区和慈善组织是志愿活动的发动者、组织者和实施者,而政府的角色仅仅是辅助性的引导者和因势利导的推动者,现在发达国家志愿者的参与人数普遍达到了人口总数的一半左右;中国正相反,不仅有正式组织负责,而且投入了大量人力、物力和财力,但是民众加入志愿者队伍的积极性并不高,即使在奥运会即将召开的大背景下,参加志愿者的公民人数依然远远少于发达国家的平均水平。本文从中西方国家志愿者活动的发生机制入手,比较分析这两种不同的运行机制对志愿者活动发展的影响。%In contrasting with the ongoing volunteerism in Western country, the situation in China is not so roseate, though China government contributes a lot of more sources than the Western. Why? This article holds that the main reason is the different happening mechanism between China and the Western. In my opinion, the volunteerism in developed countries comes from the spontaneous order, in which the thousands of private community groups, individuals, nonprofit corporation and philan- thropy act the most important roles. By contrast, the key parts in China are public sectors which be- long to government organizations.

  7. Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management in Developing Countries: Learning from Experiences in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giupponi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision support system (DSS tools are rather popular in the literature on water resources management. The European Project “Splash” conducted a survey of the literature and of DSS implementation in developing countries with specific reference on Africa. Experts in the field were consulted through an ad hoc questionnaire and interviews. The results of the survey indicate that the exchange of experiences amongst projects with similar objectives or even the same case study is very limited, with a tendency towards restarting every time from scratch. As a consequence, it seems that DSS developments have produced only limited positive impacts. Most experts contacted shared either the frustration deriving from the limited impacts on intended end-users, who rarely used the tool after the project end, or in the case of ongoing projects, the preoccupation for future maintenance. Responses from the questionnaires indicate that priority efforts should not focus on developing the tools, but rather on improving the effectiveness and applicability of integrated water resource management legislative and planning frameworks, training and capacity building, networking and cooperation, harmonization of transnational data infrastructures and, very importantly, learning from past experiences and adopting enhanced protocols for DSS development.

  8. 人文视野下的中西方管理思想比较%Comparison of Management Ideas in China and Western Countries From Humanistic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章迪诚; 张星伍

    2012-01-01

    在承认管理理论具有超越地域文化的普适性基础上,以中西方管理思想的比较为逻辑起点,通过比较中西方在管理视角、管理基点、管理方法、管理行为和管理原则等方面存在诸多的差异,力图为管理理论在中国的学科建设中建立不同于西方的测量维度,提供可资观察和应用的理论工具.%Agreeing with the fact that management is certainly beyond geographical and cultural content of the universal basis, this article analyzes the differences between management in China and west countries from the aspects of managerial perspectives, foundations, methods, behaviors and principles based upon managerial idea comparison. It is expected to provide theoretical tools for establishing measurement dimensions for management discipline development, which are different from those in western countries.

  9. Screening for depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants living in Western countries: The use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoping; Haralambous, Betty; Pachana, Nancy A; Bryant, Christina; LoGiudice, Dina; Goh, Anita; Dow, Briony

    2016-03-01

    Depression and anxiety are two common mental health problems among older people. There is evidence that using well-validated screening tools can improve detection of depression and anxiety among this group. The review explored the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) for screening depression and anxiety among older Chinese immigrants, one of the largest and fastest growing groups of older immigrants in Western society. It focused on the GDS and GAI because both are designed specifically for older people. Online literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. A narrative approach was used to review included papers. A total of 21 articles were included. There were limited data on anxiety among older Chinese immigrants, with only one unpublished report identified. There were 13 studies (20 articles) using the GDS with this group. Results of these studies indicated that the GDS is a reliable tool in this population; however, there was limited validity data. Two versions of the GDS-15 have been used with older Chinese immigrants, including the standard GDS-15 and Mui's GDS-15. Prevalence of depression ranged between 20% and 30% in most reviewed studies. Results of this review have practical implications for clinicians in their use of these tools with older Chinese immigrants in Western countries, such as the different GDS versions. It also suggests a number of directions for future research, such as the inclusion of clinical samples and consideration of the diversity within this group. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Creating a connected community: lessons learned from the Western new york beacon community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Nancy; Heider, Arvela R; Rockwood, Amy; Singh, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    Secure exchange of clinical data among providers has the potential to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and reduce duplication. Many communities are experiencing challenges in building effective health information exchanges (HIEs). Previous studies have focused on financial and technical issues regarding HIE development. This paper describes the Western New York (WNY) HIE growth and lessons learned about accelerating progress to become a highly connected community. HEALTHeLINK, with funding from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) under the Beacon Community Program, expanded HIE usage in eight counties. The communitywide transformation process used three main drivers: (1) a communitywide Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption program; (2) clinical transformation partners; and (3) HIE outreach and infrastructure development. ONC Beacon Community funding allowed WNY to achieve a new level in the use of interoperable HIE. Electronic delivery of results into the EHR expanded from 23 practices in 2010 to 222 practices in 2013, a tenfold increase. There were more than 12.5 million results delivered electronically (HL7 messages) to 222 practices' EHRs via the HIE in 2013. Use of a secure portal and Virtual Health Record (VHR) to access reports (those not delivered directly to the EHR) also increased significantly, from 13,344 report views in 2010 to over 600,000 in 2013. The WNY Beacon successfully expanded the sharing of clinical information among different sources of data and providers, creating a highly connected community to improve the quality and continuity of care. Technical, organizational, and community lessons described in this paper should prove beneficial to others as they pursue efforts to create connected communities.

  11. Evaluation of regional project to strengthen national health research systems in four countries in West Africa: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issiaka; Aidam, Jude; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2017-07-12

    Since the Commission on Health Research for Development (COHRED) published its flagship report, more attention has been focused on strengthening national health research systems (NHRS). This paper evaluates the contribution of a regional project that used a participatory approach to strengthen NHRS in four post-conflict West African countries - Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. The data from the situation analysis conducted at the start of the project was compared to data from the project's final evaluation, using a hybrid conceptual framework built around four key areas identified through the analysis of existing frameworks. The four areas are governance and management, capacities, funding, and dissemination/use of research findings. The project helped improve the countries' governance and management mechanisms without strengthening the entire NHRS. In the four countries, at least one policy, plan or research agenda was developed. One country put in place a national health research ethics committee, while all four countries could adopt a research information management system. The participatory approach and support from the West African Health Organisation and COHRED were all determining factors. The lessons learned from this project show that the fragile context of these countries requires long-term engagement and that support from a regional institution is needed to address existing challenges and successfully strengthen the entire NHRS.

  12. Using Multilingual Analytics to Explore the Usage of a Learning Portal in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protonotarios, Vassilis; Stoitsis, Giannis; Kastrantas, Kostas; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics is a domain that has been constantly evolving throughout recent years due to the acknowledgement of its importance by those using intelligent data, learner-produced data, and analysis models to discover information and social connections for predicting and advising people's learning [1]. Learning analytics may be applied in a…

  13. Learning in Developing Countries: Implications for Workforce Training and Development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur-Mensah, Nana; Shuck, Brad

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of e-learning as a strategy has risen exponentially over the last 20 years as more adults use this medium to enhance their skills and acquire knowledge. The utilization of technology offers significant advantages to both learners and organizations in terms of cost, time and rich learning content. E-learning has been widely…

  14. The Debate on the Regulations of Homeschool in Contemporary Western Countries%当代西方国家“家庭学校”监管之争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of homeschool in contemporary western countries,it turns to be imperative to discuss how to regulate it. Generally,the views could be divided into three generas according to the different positions and attitude,including "rigorous regulation" , "relaxed regulation" and "moderate regulation". Scholars with different views debate vehemently on the issues of educational authority,the qualification of homeschool's teachers, the effects of homeschool on students" academic achievements,the cultivation of citizenship, etc..%随着“家庭学校”在西方国家的迅猛发展,如何对“家庭学校”进行监管逐渐成为一个焦点议题。根据不同的立场和态度,大体可分为“严格监管”论、“放松监管”论、“适度监管”论三类观点。持不同观点的学者们展开了激烈的争论,具体涉及教育权归属、“家庭学校”的教师资质、“家庭学校”对学生学业成就的影响、公民素质养成等诸多方面。

  15. 西方国家学校效能运动发展评析%A Review on the Development of School Effectiveness Movement in the Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳国辉

    2012-01-01

    Educational equity and educational quality is the topics of the basic education reform all over the world. The school effectiveness movement originated for the requirement regarding equality of opportunity in the western country in the 1960s. Over the past four decades there has been a great deal of development,from the effective school movement to school improvement movement. The school effectiveness movement is currently making a pervasive influence on education policy makers and practitioners.%教育公平与卓越是当今世界基础教育改革的重要主题。西方国家学校效能运动源于20世纪60年代关于教育机会均等问题的探讨,经过40多年的演进,学校效能运动从关注有效学校发展到学校效能与学校改进相结合。伴随学校效能研究领域的拓展与深入,其对教育决策者和教育实践者的影响也日趋深远。

  16. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

  17. Analyzing the Role of Multi-level Learning in Implementing computerized HIS in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2008-01-01

    and implementation of computerised HIS in Ethiopia, the paper analyses the learning mechanisms, learning outcomes and obstacles for learning at individual, group, and organizational levels. Empirical data on two distinct phases of software development and customization (District health Information Software (DHIS......) versions 1.3 and 2.0) are contrasted. More specifically, we tried to show the dynamics of learning and the specific learning mechanisms by analysing and contrasting the interaction between IS developers and public health care domain experts, technological capacity at individual, group, and organizational......This paper presents a perspective for looking at the development and implementation of large scale computerised HIS as a multi-level learning process. Drawing on the empirical evidences from the ongoing Health Information systems program ( HISP) initiatives on the development, customization...

  18. Analyzing the Role of Multi-level Learning in Implementing computerized HIS in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective for looking at the development and implementation of large scale computerised HIS as a multi-level learning process. Drawing on the empirical evidences from the ongoing Health Information systems program ( HISP) initiatives on the development, customization...... and implementation of computerised HIS in Ethiopia, the paper analyses the learning mechanisms, learning outcomes and obstacles for learning at individual, group, and organizational levels. Empirical data on two distinct phases of software development and customization (District health Information Software (DHIS......) versions 1.3 and 2.0) are contrasted. More specifically, we tried to show the dynamics of learning and the specific learning mechanisms by analysing and contrasting the interaction between IS developers and public health care domain experts, technological capacity at individual, group, and organizational...

  19. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) seedings in Western Colorado: What can we learn?

    OpenAIRE

    James Dollerschell; Anna Lincoln; Amanda Clements; M. Nikki Grant-Hoffman

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species have been widely transported, becoming components of ecosystems worldwide. In some cases this can change thestructure and function of an ecosystem. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, Agropyron spp.) was introduced into the Western U.S. inthe late 18th and early 19th centuries. Since introduction, it has been planted in western rangelands currently occupying millions of acres.Crested wheatgrass causes significant changes in areas where it dominates the vegetation, and ...

  20. Service Learning in a Master of Business Administration (MBA) Integrative Project Course: An Experience in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Betty S.; Wang, Jia

    2006-01-01

    Service learning is a teaching method used by business faculty to link the learning goals and objectives of an academic course with meaningful community service. Although service learning has been advanced in business education in the United States and other Western countries, little has been reported on its use outside the Western context. In…

  1. Rethinking Teacher Education: Synchronizing Eastern and Western Views of Teaching and Learning to Promote 21st Century Skills and Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith; Hu, Ran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to share findings with educators across disciplines of how to incorporate an eastern and western blended philosophy of teaching and learning to promote 21st century skills and global perspectives. Drawing from a previous self-study of their views of teaching and learning between Chinese and American cultures, the two…

  2. Followers of Confucianism or a New Generation? Learning Culture of Mainland Chinese: In Pursuit of Western-Based Business Education Away from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    The mainland Chinese learning culture has evolved due to the rapid changes in the economic, political, cultural and demographic demands. The changing characteristics of the Chinese students' learning behavioral styles and preferences, as well as the challenges faced in pursuit of Western-based education, are discussed with suggested…

  3. Collaborative, Comparative Inquiry and Transformative Cross-Cultural Adult Learning and Teaching: A Western Educator Metanarrative and Inspiring a Global Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, Joellen E.

    2013-01-01

    Intentionally designing international perspectives into adult educator preparation programs is a step toward developing instructors' social and instructional cache of understandings about learning, knowledge, and facilitative methodologies that transcend their own Western cultural influences. In a class offered through an MA in adult learning and…

  4. Mobile Learning Environment with Short Messaging Service: Application to a Campus Environment in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, H. K. Salinda; Meegama, R. Gayan N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how to integrate secure, open-source and mobile-based system with the Moodle learning management system (MLMS) then describe the implementation of a campus-wide mobile learning environment with short messaging system (SMS) and how this platform is incorporated with the student's learning…

  5. Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Constraints, Comparability and Policy in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Castillo, Nathan M.

    2014-01-01

    United Nations development goals have consistently placed a high priority on the quality of education--and of learning. This has led to substantive increases in international development assistance to education, and also to broader attention, worldwide, to the importance of children's learning. Yet, such goals are mainly normative: they tend…

  6. Lifelong Learning in Public Libraries in 12 European Union Countries: Issues in Monitoring and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziola, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Public libraries in Europe have supported lifelong learning for the past 500 years. Since the Lisbon Strategy emphasized the role of lifelong learning in economic policy, public libraries have been repositioning their services to respond to this new context. In some cases, these roles are undertaken with limited legislative or strategic changes…

  7. Lifelong Learning in Public Libraries in 12 European Union Countries: Issues in Monitoring and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziola, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Public libraries in Europe have supported lifelong learning for the past 500 years. Since the Lisbon Strategy emphasized the role of lifelong learning in economic policy, public libraries have been repositioning their services to respond to this new context. In some cases, these roles are undertaken with limited legislative or strategic changes…

  8. Vocationalism Varies (A Lot): A 12-Country Multivariate Analysis of Participation in Formal Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen; Holford, John

    2016-01-01

    To encourage adult participation in education and training, contemporary policy makers typically encourage education and training provision to have a strongly vocational (employment-related) character, while also stressing individuals' responsibility for developing their own learning. Adults' motivation to learn is not, however, purely…

  9. The Influence of Country of Origin and Academic Level on Asian Students' Gains of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The author examines whether gains of learning of Asian students are the same or different if they are from (a) East Asia, (b) South and Central Asia, or (c) Southeast Asia at undergraduate and graduate levels. Results indicated that East Asian students' gains of learning in personal development, science and development, general education,…

  10. Curriculum Issues: Teaching and Learning for Sustainable Development in Developing Countries--Zimbabwe Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambudzo, Ignatius Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate curriculum issues, teaching and learning for sustainable development in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education by integrating principles, values, practices and needs in all forms of learning. Literature has documented the importance of…

  11. National greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. Learning from experiences in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This report reviews national approaches to preparing baseline scenarios of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. It does so by describing and comparing in non-technical language existing practices and choices made by ten developing countries - Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam. The review focuses on a number of key elements, including model choices, transparency considerations, choices about underlying assumptions and challenges associated with data management. The aim is to improve overall understanding of baseline scenarios and facilitate their use for policy-making in developing countries more broadly. The findings are based on the results of a collaborative project involving a number of activities undertaken by the Danish Energy Agency, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the UNEP Risoe Centre (URC), including a series of workshops on the subject. The ten contributing countries account for approximately 40% of current global GHG emissions - a share that is expected to increase in the future. The breakdown of emissions by sector varies widely among these countries. In some countries, the energy sector is the leading source of emissions; for others, the land-use sector and/or agricultural sector dominate emissions. The report underscores some common technical and financial capacity gaps faced by developing countries when preparing baseline scenarios. It does not endeavour to propose guidelines for preparing baseline scenarios. Rather, it is hoped that the report will inform any future attempts at preparing such kind of guidelines. (Author)

  12. The Differences on Face Value between China and Western Countries in Terms of Guasha Treatment%从电影《刮痧》透视中西方面子观的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠胤

    2013-01-01

    《刮痧》是一部颇具代表性的反映中西文化差异的影片,片中充分展现了中西文化的冲突和融合。通过用Goffman的面子定义和Stella Ting -Toomey的面子协商理论分析了影片中表现出来的中西方面子观的差异,并进一步分析了因对面子观的不同理解而造成的交际障碍和文化隔阂,希望能为促进中西文化交流提供借鉴。%Guasha Treatment ,as a representative movie to demonstrate the differences between Chinese and western cultures ,fully displays cultural conflicts and cultural integration between China and western countries .Aimed at furthering the cultural exchanges between China and western countries ,this paper applies face definition presented by Goffman and face -negotiation theory by Ting -Toomey to the analysis of the differences on face value between China and western countries and miscommunication and cultural gap caused by different understand-ings of face value .

  13. How to set up an effective national primary angioplasty network: lessons learned from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knot, Jiri; Widimsky, Petr; Wijns, William

    2009-01-01

    of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to describe the experience of countries with successful nationwide implementation of PCI in STEMI, and to provide general recommendations for other countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: The European Association of Percutaneous...... and the logistics of ACS treatment was studied. Public campaigns improved patient access to acute PCI. Regional networks involving emergency medical services (EMS), non-PCI hospitals and PCI centres are useful in providing access to acute PCI for most patients. Direct transfer from the first medical contact site...... (after thrombolysis). The highest risk non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction patients should undergo emergency coronary angiography within two hours of hospital admission, i.e. similar to STEMI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Three realistic goals for other countries were defined based on these experiences...

  14. FL Vocabulary Learning of Undergraduate English Majors in Western China: Perspective, Strategy Use and Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    The present study, by use of questionnaire and vocabulary tests, has investigated the foreign language vocabulary learning situation of 481 undergraduates in terms of their perspective of vocabulary learning, strategy use and vocabulary size. Based on the questionnaire investigation and vocabulary level tests, the characteristics of the subjects'…

  15. Learning about knowledge management for improving environmental impact assessment in a government agency: the Western Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Luis Enrique; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2011-09-01

    How does knowledge management (KM) by a government agency responsible for environmental impact assessment (EIA) potentially contribute to better environmental assessment and management practice? Staff members at government agencies in charge of the EIA process are knowledge workers who perform judgement-oriented tasks highly reliant on individual expertise, but also grounded on the agency's knowledge accumulated over the years. Part of an agency's knowledge can be codified and stored in an organizational memory, but is subject to decay or loss if not properly managed. The EIA agency operating in Western Australia was used as a case study. Its KM initiatives were reviewed, knowledge repositories were identified and staff surveyed to gauge the utilisation and effectiveness of such repositories in enabling them to perform EIA tasks. Key elements of KM are the preparation of substantive guidance and spatial information management. It was found that treatment of cumulative impacts on the environment is very limited and information derived from project follow-up is not properly captured and stored, thus not used to create new knowledge and to improve practice and effectiveness. Other opportunities for improving organizational learning include the use of after-action reviews. The learning about knowledge management in EIA practice gained from Western Australian experience should be of value to agencies worldwide seeking to understand where best to direct their resources for their own knowledge repositories and environmental management practice.

  16. Agricultural Extension Services and Market Regulation: Learning from a Comparison of Six EU Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Catherine; Cerf, Marianne; Labarthe, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    If farmers are to meet the new challenges facing agriculture (environment, rural development, etc.), appropriate knowledge has to be produced. But observations in six EU countries (France, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) show that unexpected problems arise when technical support for agriculture is linked to market regulation,…

  17. Third-Country National Students and Trainees in the EU: Caught between Learning and Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. de Lange

    2015-01-01

    Foreign students and trainees are welcomed by the EU for study purposes. Member States must ensure that during their studies third-country national (TCN) students can legally work for at least ten hours a week, whereas trainees may not. This article deals with these often overlooked TCN students and

  18. Effects of "Sesame Street": A Meta-Analysis of Children's Learning in 15 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Marie-Louise; Pan, Zhongdang

    2013-01-01

    "Sesame Street" is broadcast to millions of children globally, including in some of the world's poorest regions. This meta-analysis examines the effects of children's exposure to international co-productions of "Sesame Street", synthesizing the results of 24 studies, conducted with over 10,000 children in 15 countries. The results indicated…

  19. Social Justice or Status Quo? Blended Learning in a Western Canadian Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable pre-service teacher education is needed to encourage academic success for under-represented populations, through both culturally responsive and alternative programming options (Carr-Stewart, Balzer, & Cottrell, 2013). In 2013, the Western Canadian University that served as the basis for this case study, implemented a blended…

  20. Western Kentucky University: Documentation of the Teachers for a New Era Learning Network. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Academy for Educational Development (AED) sent a research team to Western Kentucky University (WKU) on June 19-20, 2008 to conduct interviews with individuals who play important roles in the university's teacher preparation program (see Appendix A). These interviews, along with additional documentation provided by WKU and identified by the AED…

  1. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  2. What can developing economies learn from health system reforms of developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines some general lessons developing nations can draw from the health system reform experiences of developed nations. Using the experiences of developed countries, developing countries should be better able to anticipate socio-economic changes and choose an optimal path for their health systems development to accompany those changes. Most developed countries have adopted rather common objectives and principles in their health systems because of market failure in health care; developing countries may start adopting those principles because they do not have market conditions in the first place. It is suggested that developing countries strengthen what is probably the most fundamental initial systemic asset they have: public finance. They should do so by attracting democratically, possibly through earmarked taxes, resources otherwise channelled through the private sector, competing with public finance for limited real resources. This effort can be promoted by giving consumers, mainly of high income groups and in urban areas, more say (through institutions performing the OMCC function) in the nature of care these groups have access to under auspices of public finance. Where feasible, private insurance as a major source of finance should be seen as a transitional phenomenon, giving way to the emergence of OMCC institutions which require similar financial and managerial market infrastructure. Private and competitive provision of care may be unrealistic in many developing areas because of both scarcity of real resources, mainly manpower, and health needs. The challenge of government is, as resources grow, to divest itself from the provision of care and stay involved in activities and facilities that are of 'public nature'--under specific circumstances--that foster private competitive provision. In general, the government should play an enabling role also by investing in health promotions and management skills for health systems.

  3. From an “Internationalist Woman” to “Just another Asian Immigrant”: Transformation of Japanese Women’s Self-Image before and after Permanent Settlement in a Western Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko KAWAKAMI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Young middle class Japanese women who speak English identify themselves as career-oriented “internationalist women.” They hold positive self-images; however, their self-images become convoluted with negative images as they experience changes in their lives. When they marry white males and become permanent residents in Western countries, their self-identities transform into “just another Asian immigrant” out of many. Many Japanese wives of white husbands deny their association with their compatriots when they actually do associate with other Japanese immigrant women. They also deny racial factors in their attraction to their white husbands. I argue that these behaviors are harnessed to redevelop a self-identity by renouncing the stereotypical images of Eurocentric Japanese women. This paper will describe the transformation of Japanese women’s self-images before and after permanent settlement in a Western country and the process of their redevelopment of self-identity.

  4. Implementing ERP Systems Globally: Challenges and Lessons Learned for Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hawking

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Improved communication technology has seen growth in a convergence of global corporate activities. In an effort to improve their global operations many companies are implementing global information systems in particular Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems. Companies are faced with a number of complexities when implementing these systems in a single country and considerable research has been conducted on the critical success factors associated with ERP implementations. However very little research has been conducted on the issues associated with global implementations of ERP systems and in particular implementations within the Asian region. This research utilises industry presentations to identify challenges and best practice for global implementations from the Asian region. The challenges have been classified as either technological or cultural pertaining to particular countries. The identified factors provide a foundation for further investigation.

  5. Introducere in Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    In these years action learning has become an increasing aspect of qualifying in service training of teachers in Western European countries. In this article the model of action learning which has been developed by teachers at VIA University College and introduced to the teachers at the SCAN...... in service program will be described and the interaction and the learning aspects in the model will be analyzed....

  6. Determinant of Mobile Devices Acceptance for Learning among Students in Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Shittu Ahmed; Basha, Madarsha Kamal; Michael, Fakomogbon O.; Mukthar, Alhaji Liman

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand the determinant of mobile devices for learning among students in the developing world. A sample of 247 undergraduate students from Malaysia and Nigeria were involved in the study. An adapted but modified survey instrument was used to gather the data of the study. The variable of the study are perceived…

  7. Adult Learning and Vocational Training in the Informal Sector in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke-Seeck, Sigvor; And Others

    Because a growing proportion of the world's working population is in the informal sector (in work areas generally outside the sphere of state protection), planners of vocational training for adults must pay closer attention to those concepts of teaching and learning that have relevance for the informal sector, and they must develop strategies for…

  8. Learning Financial Accounting in a Tertiary Institution of a Developing Country. An Investigation into Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2011-01-01

    This study examines three instructional methods (traditional, interactive, and group case-based study), and student opinions on their preference for learning financial accounting in large classes at a metropolitan university in Sri Lanka. It analyses the results of a survey questionnaire of students, using quantitative techniques to determine the…

  9. How Much Is Learning Measurement Worth? Assessment Costs in Low-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Babson, Andrew; Murphy, Katie M.

    2011-01-01

    Timely and credible data on student learning has become a global issue in the ongoing effort to improve educational outcomes. With the potential to serve as a powerful diagnostic tool to gauge the overall health and well-being of an educational system, educational assessments have received increasing attention among specialists and the media.…

  10. Transforming Education with Self-Directed Project-Based Learning: The Minnesota New Country School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sinem; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Thomas, Dee

    2014-01-01

    To achieve truly learner-centered instruction and assessment, Reigeluth (1994) and Reigeluth and Karnopp (2013) pointed out the importance of schools providing a caring environment. They indicated that such an environment could be ensured with better interaction and relationships among students and teachers in a small learning community. How can a…

  11. Distance Learning in Indian Country: Becoming the Spider on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, John; Stuckey, Mary E.; Morris, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Examines potential uses of distance learning for maintaining and sustaining American-Indian tribal communities within the United States while allowing access to the information and skills needed for employment in the dominant society. Examines distance education in general, traditional education in tribal contexts, tribal uses of…

  12. Lifelong Learning in Public Libraries in 12 European Union Countries: Policy and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziola, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Public libraries have traditionally provided key inputs to support lifelong learning. More recently, significant social and technological changes have challenged this sector to redefine their role in this field. For most public libraries in Europe this has meant continuing their role as providers of information and advice while increasing services…

  13. Lifelong Learning in Public Libraries in 12 European Union Countries: Policy and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziola, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Public libraries have traditionally provided key inputs to support lifelong learning. More recently, significant social and technological changes have challenged this sector to redefine their role in this field. For most public libraries in Europe this has meant continuing their role as providers of information and advice while increasing services…

  14. English Learning Styles of Students from East Asian Countries: A Focus on Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been done to investigate the influence of cultural differences on students' second/foreign language learning styles, with a focus on comparing between East and West classroom cultures. This study investigates the differences that East Asian students may encounter when studying in the English-medium academic environment. By…

  15. Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and trilingualism in the Basque Country

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Mújika, José Francisco; Santiago Etxeberría, Karlos; Etxeberría Murgiondo, Juan

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing the learning of Basque, Spanish and English languages by school pupils, the Federation of Ikastolas (i.e. cooperative of private schools grant-aided by the Basque Government) created the IKASYS Programme for incorporating persona 0.603 JCR (2012) Q4, 62/65 Psychology, developmental, 42/51 Psychology, educational

  16. A Giant Step for Developing Countries, Lessons Learned from Feasibility Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Youp [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Gon [Sanamyung Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency, hereinafter 'IAEA') research, the booming trend of nuclear renaissance among developing countries have initiated to investigate economic feasibility studies regarding future electricity demand and supply for the introduction of nuclear power generation in massive volume. Although the ambitious dream of public servants in the third nations who desperately want to instill nuclear power generation capacity promising generation abundance in their homeland, it is not easy to calculate economic benefits and its related costs where lots of blurred areas could not defined in plain terminology. For this reason, IAEA urges the new entrant countries should prepare carefully and design cautiously not to deter large lump sum nuclear power plant construction project. Nuclear power generation in civil area can be seen as righteous peaceful usage of nuclear energy in appropriate manner, although the advanced technology, capital intensive characteristics would hinder for the developing countries to implement proper scheduled ambitious nuclear power projects in timely course. In particular, the complicated economic feasibility studies are major tasks for poverty struck sovereigns to fulfill their ambitions. Thus further detailed design might be requested in order to relieve international concerns on possible military usage. This article is exploring to gauge multiple aspects of peaceful usage of nuclear energy and its economic benefits which allow power huger nations to achieve sustainable development and make significant advancement.

  17. Factors affecting learning and teaching for medicines supply management training in Pacific Island Countries--a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew N; Ward-Panckhurst, Liane; Cooper, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Limited human resources are a major impediment to achieving the UN health-related Millennium Development Goals in a number of Pacific Island Countries (PICs). Lack of education capacity to support competency development in medicine supply management is one of the main issues affecting workforce development in this region, which is characterised by disparate service delivery due to the range of environments in which supply occurs (ie urban, rural and remote), geographical challenges and cultural practices associated with teaching and learning. The supply of medicines, and an adequate pharmacy workforce with appropriate competencies is crucial to ensuring a well-functioning pharmaceutical system. In this region approximately 80% of patients access healthcare in rural areas without a pharmacist, thus local health personnel must be competent in pharmaceutical management relevant to the local context and culture. A new approach involves a partnership between the UN Population Fund Suva Sub-Regional Office, University of Canberra, Ministry of Health officials and the heath personnel within identified PICs, starting with the need to understand local culture and its impact on learning and teaching, and the mapping of competency requirements and an understanding of currently available information and materials. This information will be used to develop and trial new pedagogical approaches to training health personnel involved in essential medicines supply management, to improve medicines availability for patients in their own environment. The focus of this review was to determine what cultural and learning factors need to be considered when developing a curriculum for South Pacific pharmaceutical health personnel who work across a range of practice environments. A 'realist methodology' consisting of a systematic investigation of the published literature and a targeted review of the 'grey' literature was used. All relevant literature was retrieved and coded manually using

  18. USE OF E-LEARNING TOOLS TO SOLVE GROUP WORK PROBLEMS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF GULF COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HABIB ULLAH KHAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a role of heart in all kinds of educational interactions, with the popularization of computer technology for home and office use, teaching methods have changed communication styles from plain lectures to multimedia presentations. These new trends in education are in their infancy, online learning or E-learning, and are quickly becoming an important aspect of education in our future around the world. In spite of easy availability of new multimedia support, still the uses of technological tools of communication in the educational fields are in their initial stages, in the under developing countries like Oman. We have yet to fully experience the transformative effects of these mediums, particularly on web based learning. Group work activities are another main point or task in the high education. Switzer and Shriner [20] were of the view that students are the most obvious party who benefit from group work among students, faculty members, and the community. According to them there are four overlapping types of benefits for students. These are: 1 immediate educational benefits, 2 immediate social benefits, 3 critical thinking benefits, and 4 long-term career benefits. Different researchers were of the opinion that face to face communication will not solve the empowerment problems in group work activities. As, through FTF interaction male dominant role can be produced due to identity of speaker, eye contact, nodding, moving the hands , and facial expressions etc. In this situation suitable adoption of technology can be consider as an alternative mode of communication, where there is a chance of discrimination. This case study will be a further step in addition to the previous technological tools & group work related researches. In this researcher will try to explore that how suitable technological tools can play a role to overcome the group work problems and to increase the performance of the students in the developing countries like

  19. Developing and Validating a Survival Prediction Model for NSCLC Patients Through Distributed Learning Across 3 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Arthur; Deist, Timo M; El Naqa, Issam; Kessler, Marc; Mayo, Chuck; Reeves, Jackson; Jolly, Shruti; Matuszak, Martha; Ten Haken, Randall; van Soest, Johan; Oberije, Cary; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Price, Gareth; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre

    2017-10-01

    Tools for survival prediction for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with chemoradiation or radiation therapy are of limited quality. In this work, we developed a predictive model of survival at 2 years. The model is based on a large volume of historical patient data and serves as a proof of concept to demonstrate the distributed learning approach. Clinical data from 698 lung cancer patients, treated with curative intent with chemoradiation or radiation therapy alone, were collected and stored at 2 different cancer institutes (559 patients at Maastro clinic (Netherlands) and 139 at Michigan university [United States]). The model was further validated on 196 patients originating from The Christie (United Kingdon). A Bayesian network model was adapted for distributed learning (the animation can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZDJFOxpwqEA). Two-year posttreatment survival was chosen as the endpoint. The Maastro clinic cohort data are publicly available at https://www.cancerdata.org/publication/developing-and-validating-survival-prediction-model-nsclc-patients-through-distributed, and the developed models can be found at www.predictcancer.org. Variables included in the final model were T and N category, age, performance status, and total tumor dose. The model has an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.66 on the external validation set and an AUC of 0.62 on a 5-fold cross validation. A model based on the T and N category performed with an AUC of 0.47 on the validation set, significantly worse than our model (P<.001). Learning the model in a centralized or distributed fashion yields a minor difference on the probabilities of the conditional probability tables (0.6%); the discriminative performance of the models on the validation set is similar (P=.26). Distributed learning from federated databases allows learning of predictive models on data originating from multiple institutions while avoiding many of the data-sharing barriers. We believe

  20. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  1. Korean Student's Online Learning Preferences and Issues: Cultural Sensitivity for Western Course Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Earlene

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: While online courses offer educational solutions, they are not academically suited for everyone. International students find distractions in online courses constructed with American philosophy, epistemology, values, and cultures as compared to experiences in their home country. Learner's culture, value system, learning…

  2. How Can Pricing and Reimbursement Policies Improve Affordable Access to Medicines? Lessons Learned from European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Paris, Valérie; Ferrario, Alessandra; Wirtz, Veronika J; de Joncheere, Kees; Schneider, Peter; Pedersen, Hanne Bak; Dedet, Guillaume; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-01-06

    This article discusses pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in European countries with regard to their ability to ensure affordable access to medicines. A frequently applied pricing policy is external price referencing. While it provides some benchmark for policy-makers and has been shown to be able to generate savings, it may also contribute to delay in product launch in countries where medicine prices are low. Value-based pricing has been proposed as a policy that promotes access while rewarding useful innovation; however, implementing it has proven quite challenging. For high-priced medicines, managed-entry agreements are increasingly used. These agreements allow policy-makers to manage uncertainty and obtain lower prices. They can also facilitate earlier market access in case of limited evidence about added therapeutic value of the medicine. However, these agreements raise transparency concerns due to the confidentiality clause. Tendering as used in the hospital and offpatent outpatient sectors has been proven to reduce medicine prices but it requires a robust framework and appropriate design with clear strategic goals in order to prevent shortages. These pricing and reimbursement policies are supplemented by the widespread use of Health Technology Assessment to inform decision-making, and by strategies to improve the uptake of generics, and also biosimilars. While European countries have been implementing a set of policy options, there is a lack of thorough impact assessments of several pricing and reimbursement policies on affordable access. Increased cooperation between authorities, experience sharing and improving transparency on price information, including the disclosure of confidential discounts, are opportunities to address current challenges.

  3. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  4. Health Promotion Development in the Spa Treatment. Perspectives for the European Countries Learned from Poland's Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Romaniuk, Piotr; Holecki, Tomasz; Frączkiewicz-Wronka, Aldona; Jaruga, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to outline the perspective for future developments of the spa treatment in light of demographic transitions characterized by the increasing number of seniors, as well as changing expectations and health needs of younger population. We made a systematic review of literature referring to the experience of Poland, and similar experiences of other countries in Central Europe. Based on the existing knowledge we conclude that spa treatment should become one of the preferred directions of development of health systems in European countries. Moreover, we state that a desirable direction to modify the therapeutic paradigm used in spa treatment is to put a far-reaching greater emphasis on the provision of innovative health promotion, which is justified by both its effectiveness, and strongly good foundation for its provision in spas. For this purpose it is necessary to extend the specialized health sector personnel with qualified health educators, which will enable an effective implementation of health promotion actions and their proper alignment to the specific target groups. Developing this category of specialists will also enable other professionals to concentrate on therapeutic activity fitting their competence.

  5. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum seedings in Western Colorado: What can we learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dollerschell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species have been widely transported, becoming components of ecosystems worldwide. In some cases this can change thestructure and function of an ecosystem. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum, Agropyron spp. was introduced into the Western U.S. inthe late 18th and early 19th centuries. Since introduction, it has been planted in western rangelands currently occupying millions of acres.Crested wheatgrass causes significant changes in areas where it dominates the vegetation, and restoring rangelands planted with crested wheatgrass to higher plant diversity and ecosystem function has been met with limited success. Here we revisit historical frequency monitoring data collected in western Colorado on public lands that were planted with crested wheatgrass between 1940 and 1980. We also monitored vegetation before and after mechanical treatment (removal of vegetation with the use of a dixie harrow pulled behind a tractor and re-seeding of desirable species in three areas dominated by crested wheatgrass. We looked for increasing or decreasing trends in plant species, and for plant species that persist with crested wheatgrass. We found that crested wheatgrass increased significantly (p=0.09 over time, we also found five species of grasses, two shrub species, and one forb species that were persistent in areas planted with crested wheatgrass. We found that in mechanically treated areas, the only significant trend was a reduction of native grasses (p<0.05. Our findings suggest that in areas planted with crested wheatgrass, frequency of crested wheatgrass can increase over time. Further, mechanical treatments coupled with seeding were not effective at reducing crested wheatgrass cover, or at increasing native and desirable species. These sites may have experienced a shift to a stable state.

  6. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  7. The Role of Learner Subjectivity in Second Language Sociolinguistic Competency: Western Women Learning Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Meryl

    1996-01-01

    Examines the intersection of learner identity, social position, and second-language acquisition. The article, which focuses on a case study of a white woman learning Japanese in Japan, presents a conversation between the learner and her professor to show the dynamic coconstruction of identity and sociolinguistic proficiency within conversational…

  8. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  9. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? - studies from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases...... of green economy of different sectors and approaches from five European countries and identify factors that have had critical importance for the success or failure of the cases. Our paper reveals similarities across small and large scale cases and different approaches for implementing green economy. We...... negotiation between potential trade-offs among multiple goals, and interests of various stakeholders. The mutual benefits can be communicated through valid impact assessments and the integration of R&D into the practical implementation. Securing the continuity of funding and leadership is crucial...

  10. Public health in the Republic of Palau: what we can learn from a small island country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerler, Timothy S; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2007-03-01

    The Republic of Palau has a well-run public health system despite being a small, relatively isolated island country with limited resources and limited funds. Using interviews with key informants, participant observation in clinics throughout Palau, and a review of available reports, we identified themes locally regarded as central to the success of Palau's public health programs. These include a comprehensive definition of "health," a sense of community-ownership, creative efforts to identify effective behavioral modification techniques, efforts to improve internal training and infrastructure, quality assurance, the importance of leading by example, and a general willingness to collaborate and compromise. We suggest that recognition and application of these concepts would improve not only the public health systems and primary care settings of other Micronesian nations, but also help correct the increasingly dysfunctional healthcare of the United States.

  11. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? - studies from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils;

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases...... of green economy of different sectors and approaches from five European countries and identify factors that have had critical importance for the success or failure of the cases. Our paper reveals similarities across small and large scale cases and different approaches for implementing green economy. We...... identified critical factors related to economic viability, public funding, technological development, impact assessments, public policies and regulation, social capital, leadership and coordination as well as public acceptability and image. According to our results, transition to green economies requires...

  12. How to set up an effective national primary angioplasty network: lessons learned from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knot, Jiri; Widimsky, Petr; Wijns, William

    2009-01-01

    (after thrombolysis). The highest risk non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction patients should undergo emergency coronary angiography within two hours of hospital admission, i.e. similar to STEMI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Three realistic goals for other countries were defined based on these experiences......AIMS: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are used to treat acute and chronic forms of coronary artery disease. While in chronic forms the main goal of PCI is to improve the quality of life, in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) timely PCI is a life-saving procedure - especially in the setting...... and the logistics of ACS treatment was studied. Public campaigns improved patient access to acute PCI. Regional networks involving emergency medical services (EMS), non-PCI hospitals and PCI centres are useful in providing access to acute PCI for most patients. Direct transfer from the first medical contact site...

  13. Strategic management of the health workforce in developing countries: what have we learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzen Scott A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of the health workforce has gained in prominence in recent years, as the dynamic interconnections between human resource issues and health system effectiveness have come into sharper focus. This paper reviews lessons relating to strategic management challenges emerging from the growing literature in this area. Workforce issues are strategic: they affect overall system performance as well as the feasibility and sustainability of health reforms. Viewing workforce issues strategically forces health authorities to confront the yawning gaps between policy and implementation in many developing countries. Lessons emerge in four areas. One concerns imbalances in workforce structure, whether from a functional specialization, geographical or facility lens. These imbalances pose a strategic challenge in that authorities must attempt to steer workforce distribution over time using a limited range of policy tools. A second group of lessons concerns the difficulties of central-level steering of the health workforce, often critically weak due to the lack of proper information systems and the complexities of public sector decentralization and service commercialization trends affecting the grassroots. A third cluster examines worker capacity and motivation, often shaped in developing countries as much by the informal norms and incentives as by formal attempts to support workers or to hold them accountable. Finally, a range of reforms centering on service contracting and improvements to human resource management are emerging. Since these have as a necessary (but not sufficient condition some flexibility in personnel practices, recent trends towards the sharing of such functions with local authorities are promising. The paper identifies a number of current lines of productive research, focusing on the relationship between health policy reforms and the local institutional environments in which the workforce, both public and private, is deployed.

  14. Why children differ in motivation to learn: Insights from over 13,000 twins from 6 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovas, Yulia; Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert; Malykh, Sergey B; Spinath, Frank; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko; Bogdanova, Olga Y; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Galajinsky, Eduard V; Gottschling, Juliana; Guay, Frédéric; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Logan, Jessica A R; Yamagata, Shinji; Shikishima, Chizuru; Spinath, Birgit; Thompson, Lee A; Tikhomirova, Tatiana N; Tosto, Maria G; Tremblay, Richard; Vitaro, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about why people differ in their levels of academic motivation. This study explored the etiology of individual differences in enjoyment and self-perceived ability for several school subjects in nearly 13,000 twins aged 9-16 from 6 countries. The results showed a striking consistency across ages, school subjects, and cultures. Contrary to common belief, enjoyment of learning and children's perceptions of their competence were no less heritable than cognitive ability. Genetic factors explained approximately 40% of the variance and all of the observed twins' similarity in academic motivation. Shared environmental factors, such as home or classroom, did not contribute to the twin's similarity in academic motivation. Environmental influences stemmed entirely from individual specific experiences.

  15. Interprofessional Education for Whom? — Challenges and Lessons Learned from Its Implementation in Developed Countries and Their Application to Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Hinthong, Woranich; Jimba, Masamine; Yasuoka, Junko

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries. Methods We searched for literatures on IPE in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases. We examined challenges or barriers and initiatives to overcome them so as to suggest methods to solve the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We could not conduct a meta-analysis because of the qualitative nature of the research question and the data; instead we conducted a meta-narrative of evidence. Results A total of 40 out of 2,146 articles were eligible for analyses in the current review. Only two articles were available from developing countries. Despite the known benefits of IPE, a total of ten challenges or barriers were common based on the retrieved evidence. They included curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Out of ten, three had already been reported in developing countries: IPE curriculum, resource limitations, and stereotypes. Conclusion This study found ten important challenges on implementing IPE. They are curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes, students' diversity, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Although only three of them are already experienced in developing countries, the remaining seven are potentially important for developing countries, too. By knowing these challenges and barriers in

  16. Interprofessional education for whom? --challenges and lessons learned from its implementation in developed countries and their application to developing countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F Sunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is available on the potential efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE to foster interprofessional cooperation, improve professional satisfaction, and improve patient care. While the intention of the World Health Organization (WHO is to implement IPE in all countries, evidence comes from developed countries about its efficiency, challenges, and barriers to planning and implementing IPE. We therefore conducted this review to examine challenges of implementing IPE to suggest possible pathways to overcome the anticipated challenges in developing countries. METHODS: We searched for literatures on IPE in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases. We examined challenges or barriers and initiatives to overcome them so as to suggest methods to solve the anticipated challenges in developing countries. We could not conduct a meta-analysis because of the qualitative nature of the research question and the data; instead we conducted a meta-narrative of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 40 out of 2,146 articles were eligible for analyses in the current review. Only two articles were available from developing countries. Despite the known benefits of IPE, a total of ten challenges or barriers were common based on the retrieved evidence. They included curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Out of ten, three had already been reported in developing countries: IPE curriculum, resource limitations, and stereotypes. CONCLUSION: This study found ten important challenges on implementing IPE. They are curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes, students' diversity, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargons, and accreditation. Although only three of them are already experienced in developing countries, the remaining seven are potentially important for developing countries, too. By knowing these

  17. What do we learn from extensional tectonics in the Western Alps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, C.; Champagnac, J.-D.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Alps' active tectonics are characterized by ongoing widespread extension in the highest parts of the belt and transpressive/compressive tectonics along its borders (Sue et al., 1999; Delacou et al., 2004). We examine these contrasting tectonic regimes, as well as the role of erosional processes, using a multidisciplinary approach including seismotectonics, numerical modelling, GPS, morphotectonics, fieldwork, and brittle deformation analysis. Extension appears to be the dominant process in the present-day tectonic activity in the Western Alps, affecting its internal areas all along the arc. Shortening, in contrast, is limited to small areas located along at the outer borders of the chain. Strike-slip is observed throughout the Alpine realm and in the foreland. The stress-orientation pattern is radial for σ3 in the inner, extensional zones, and for σ1 in the outer, transcurrent/tranpressional ones. Extensional areas can be correlated with the parts of the belt with the thickest crust. Quantification of seismic strain in tectonically homogeneous areas shows that only 10 to 20% of the geodesy-documented deformation can be explained by the Alpine seismicity. We show that Alpine active tectonics are ruled by buoyancy forces rather than ongoing shortening along the Alpine Europe/Adria collision zone. Numerical modeling corroborates this interpretation. The Neogene extensional structures in the Alps formed under increasingly brittle conditions. A synthesis of paleostress tensors for the internal parts of the West-Alpine arc documents major orogen-parallel extension with a continuous change in σ3 directions from ENE-WSW in the Simplon area, to N-S in the Vanoise area and to NNW-SSE in the Briançon area (Champagnac et al., 2006). Minor orogen-perpendicular extension increases from N to S. This second signal correlates with present-day geodynamics as revealed by focal-plane mechanisms analysis. The orogen-parallel extension could be related to the opening of

  18. Key Issues and Policy Considerations in Promoting Lifelong Learning in Selected African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda and Tanzania. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Shirley; Yang, Jim; Roslander, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study focuses on key issues and policy considerations in promoting lifelong learning in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, and Tanzania (the five African countries that took part in a pilot workshop on "Developing Capacity for Establishing Lifelong Learning Systems in UNESCO Member States: at the UNESCO Institute for…

  19. Working Out the Value Proposition of Vocational Education in Our Country by Analyzing the Career Characteristics of Western Community Education%从西方社区教育的生涯性特征看我国职业教育的价值定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁辉; 陈明昆

    2015-01-01

    西方社区教育是西方高等教育的主要形式之一,它从各个方面展现出来对人的生涯性的尊重是其最主要的优势和特色。关注人、重视人、发展人、提升人的品质是西方社区教育的核心思想,也应该成为我国职业教育追求的目标之一。当前,我国职业教育的发展驶入了"正规",职业教育的价值定位于"人"已经成为共识,但总体来看,职业教育在人的生涯发展方面所具有的重要作用没有受到应有的重视,职业教育应该追求人的生涯性发展,职业教育应该重视终身学习,职业教育应该追求个人品质的提升,职业教育应该追求为成人学习服务。%Western Community Education is one of the main forms in Western Higher Education,whose superiority and characteristic is to reveal the respecting on personal career in all aspects.The core concept of Western Community Education which should become one of the goals for our country's vocational education is to focus on people,to pay attention to people,to develop people and to promote the quality of people.Currently,the development of vocational education in our country has entered normalization.It has become a consensus that the value orientation of vocational education is on “people”.However,it arose less attention on the significance of personal career development in our country's vocational education.For vocational education,it should aim to personal career development,attach importance to lifelong learning, and be bent on the promotion of personal quality and servicing for adult learning.

  20. Lessons Learned on Health Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences Across Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L; Otmani Del Barrio, Mariam

    2017-06-20

    There is limited published evidence of the effectiveness of adaptation in managing the health risks of climate variability and change in low- and middle-income countries. To document lessons learned and good practice examples from health adaptation pilot projects in low- and middle-income countries to facilitate assessing and overcoming barriers to implementation and to scaling up. We evaluated project reports and related materials from the first five years of implementation (2008-2013) of multinational health adaptation projects in Albania, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. We also collected qualitative data through a focus group consultation and 19 key informant interviews. Our recommendations include that national health plans, policies, and budget processes need to explicitly incorporate the risks of current and projected climate variability and change. Increasing resilience is likely to be achieved through longer-term, multifaceted, and collaborative approaches, with supporting activities (and funding) for capacity building, communication, and institutionalized monitoring and evaluation. Projects should be encouraged to focus not just on shorter-term outputs to address climate variability, but also on establishing processes to address longer-term climate change challenges. Opportunities for capacity development should be created, identified, and reinforced. Our analyses highlight that, irrespective of resource constraints, ministries of health and other institutions working on climate-related health issues in low- and middle-income countries need to continue to prepare themselves to prevent additional health burdens in the context of a changing climate and socioeconomic development patterns. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP405.

  1. Speech at the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instruction on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Respected leaders, distinguished guests, venerable seniors and comrades, Today, the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instructions on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine was inaugurated by the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine, and it is also an important occasion to review the past and look forward to the future.

  2. [Development and implementation of the Chronicity Strategy for the Basque Country (Spain): lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño-Solinís, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    Public healthcare in the Basque Country (Spain) faces high rates of ageing and chronicity, which stress the sustainability of the system. In response to this situation, the Basque Chronicity Strategy was launched in 2010. This large-scale and far-reaching transformation initiative focused on changing the healthcare provision model towards integrated care of chronicity. Developed in the context of economic and financial crisis, strong political opposition and resistance or passivity of many relevant stakeholders, the design and implementation of the Strategy introduced some noteworthy elements, such as: a narrative of change different to the austerity discourse, which was the dominant narrative at that time; a strategic approach supported by an evidence base and solid theoretical references; and an implementation strategy that favoured local innovation and the "bottom up" approach. In spite of this, it was not possible to overcome the political barriers or bureaucratic immobility, which limited the implementation and scope of the changes, especially those related to the scalability of successful local innovations. However, some changes in the healthcare integration culture at clinical and managerial level have been introduced as a result of the Strategy, as well as organisational progression towards a chronicity-targeted healthcare model. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing effective partnerships for waste-to-resource initiatives: Lessons learned from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Donovan; Santucci, Lorenzo; Fraser, Rowan; Aleluia, Joao; Chomchuen, Laksiri

    2015-12-01

    Cities in developing countries across Asia-Pacific are struggling to effectively manage municipal solid waste (MSW). This is especially the case in secondary cities and small towns, which often face a lack of resources and know-how. Because the waste stream in these cities is usually high in organic content (50-80%) and recyclable materials (10-20%), waste-to-resource initiatives are viable options for sustainable MSW management. Waste-to-resource initiatives that are low-cost, low-tech, decentralised and community-based offer municipalities useful solutions for managing their MSW. However, the sustainability of such solutions depends on a number of key factors, such as the separation of waste at source, the effective engagement of communities and steady and predictable sources of revenue. Using quantitative data and qualitative information derived from field experience, this paper concludes that effective partnerships between a diverse range of stakeholders must be designed and fostered in order to achieve sustainability. The paper provides an analysis of stakeholder roles for the establishment of effective partnerships in four case study cities of Matale and Ratnapura (Sri Lanka) and Kon Tum and Quy Nhon (Viet Nam), where waste-to-resource facilities have been established, and explores the resources of stakeholders and how these can be mobilised to support waste-to-resource initiatives for revenue generation and long-term sustainability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Let's Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrinan, Hannah; Firth, Sonja; Hipgrave, David; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-06-27

    In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT) has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  5. New Communication Technologies and Their Impact on Western Industrialized Countries. Communication Manual. Summary Report of a Colloquium (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, December 17-19, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Reinhard, Ed.

    This publication presents the papers and discussion highlights of an international colloquium on new communications technologies which was held to provide a forum for debate on economic, political and social impacts of new communication technologies by western representatives from media, academia, politics, and industry. The following papers were…

  6. Moving Beyond On Home Country: Developing Global Citizenship through International Learning in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimah Muhammad Nor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization causes increasing competition in facing future challenges become more intense. Students as new generation the future need to improve their ability and talents in term of foreign language proficiency, knowledge, intercultural competency to remain viable. Students mobility to abroad as platform to build student’s knowledge, skills and character and the experience become more reflective to the workforce needs of today. This paper examine the impact of study abroad program among Malaysian students (N=245 who studying in Japan. Quantitative analysis of the data revealed that strongest influenced study abroad participation that (a enhanced their tolerance towards people who different culture, (b enhanced their awareness about cultural difference, (c influenced their awareness of the importance of diplomatic relations between Malaysia and Japan and (d increased their desire to engage in employment sector organization or international company and enhanced their Japanese language skills. The result gives an insight that study abroad program will give them opportunity to get out from their own culture and society to explore new worlds, build their own identity and competencies, and challenge ourselves to work or living together with people who have different cultural background. Study abroad program will provide first-hand learning experience to students.

  7. Sustainability of smallholder tea production in developing countries: Learning experiences from farmer field schools in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Onduru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the impacts of farmers field schools (FFS on smallholders’ adoption of good agricultural practices in tea and to assess sustainability of smallholder tea production was conducted in the highlands of Kenya. Input-output data on tea management and on sustainability indicators (score 0-10 were collected from a sample of 120 FFS participants at the beginning of the study and from 60 randomly selected FFS participants and a comparison group of 60 non-FFS participants at the end of the study, 18 months later. The study showed that the smallholder tea systems are moving towards social sustainability and economic returns were positive. Sustainability indicator scores, for FFS members, increased by 4% from the base period. The FFS participants also attained a significantly higher level of farm sustainability, knowledge gains on good agricultural practices (GAP and higher yields and farm and tea income than their non-FFS counterparts. These findings indicate that FFS methodology had a positive contribution to enhancing farmer learning and adoption of good agricultural practices in tea and improved farmers’ livelihoods.

  8. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is…

  9. A Regional Comparative Study of Distance Learning MBA Programmes in Selected Asian Countries%几个亚洲国家的远程MBA教学项目的区域性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建儒; 赵平

    2002-01-01

    Distance learning MBA programmes have increased tremendously in the past decade in selected Asian countries. This paper uses a stakeholders approach to conduct research on distance learning MBA programmes in Asian. Conclusions of the research are then given.

  10. A Brief Research on the Difference between Chinese and Western Rite in Communication Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓霞

    2014-01-01

    In this new century, China is being engaged in many affairs with western countries. In order to make our country be-come more and more developed, Chinese people have been learning from western countries, including their culture, their econo-my, their education, their life style, and so on. Rite is one of these important aspects. Because of different culture, there are a lot of difference between western rites and Chinese rites. This paper is written to illustrate it from one aspect: communication lan-guage rite.Literature review:Many scholars have written many books and articles to discuss it. They had a brief review about the importance of western rites and Chinese rites, and they did some comparison. Through these comparisons, they suggest that peo-ple should absorb advantages of Chinese rites and western rites and abandon their disadvantages.

  11. Learning from Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegård, Iann

    2015-01-01

    Today an increasing number of countries around the world have acquired almost the same metaphorical speech about teaching and learning. These theories grown in the Western world are largely produced within the framework of psychology and individualistic oriented educational philosophy and fits with the ever-expanding financial growth paradigm.…

  12. Learning from Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegård, Iann

    2015-01-01

    Today an increasing number of countries around the world have acquired almost the same metaphorical speech about teaching and learning. These theories grown in the Western world are largely produced within the framework of psychology and individualistic oriented educational philosophy and fits with the ever-expanding financial growth paradigm.…

  13. Flexible learning: Evaluation of an international distance education programme designed to build the learning and teaching capacity of nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Tutticci, Naomi F; Douglas, Clint; Gray, Genevieve; Osborne, Yvonne; Evans, Katie; Nielson, Catherine M

    2016-11-01

    The professional development of nurse academics has been high on the agenda in many of the Asia-Pacific's developing countries including Vietnam. In collaboration with the Vietnamese Nurses Association, an Australian university designed and delivered a distance learning programme (DLP). The DLP sought to build academic capacity with a specific focus on the skills required to develop, implement and deliver a new national nursing curriculum. This paper will describe the design and delivery of the DLP as well as report on programme evaluation survey findings. Of the 175 surveys administered 112 were returned yielding a response rate of 64%. The majority of Vietnamese nurse academics identified all DLP modules as 'very well' designed and easy to learn from (range 63.9%-84.2%). Predominantly, academics also found the module content to be 'of great use' to their professional practice (range 73%-89.5%). Asked specifically about the benefit of the DLP online discussions, 106 (95.5%) participants stated they found the online discussions to be of use. An explanatory comment was also requested to explore this question and responses yielded three themes: 'networking and collaboration'; 'acquiring new knowledge'; and 'improving English'. When asked if they had changed their academic practice as a result of DLP participation, 105 (94.6%) academics stated they had - change was focussed on student centred learning and building a staff community of practice. While these study results indicate the DLP to be successful, it will be how Vietnamese academics utilise and build these skills which will measure the real success of the programme in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling seasonal farm labour demand: What can we learn from rural Kakamega district, western Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Canwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of agricultural activities causes fluctuation in the quantity of labour consumed by these activities, and yet many rural labour studies in developing countries still treat labour demand in agriculture as if it is the same across different farm operations. To unearth the amount of information hidden by this aggregated analysis, labour demand for specific farm operations was estimated based on data collected from Kakamega District. This analysis shows that increasing household size increases labour demand for planting, weeding and harvesting. Increasing the share of elderly household members has a negligible effect on labour demand for farm activities except for land preparation, with which it is positively related. Participation of primary school-going children in farm activities is the highest in planting and harvesting. Participation in off-farm employment seems to increase labour demand only during peak seasons. The area planted appears to have an insignificant effect on labour demand for land preparation. Planting sugar cane appears to reduce labour demand for weeding and primary processing, but planting tea increases labour demand for planting. Mechanising land preparation only reduces labour demand for land preparation, but it seems to be offset by other labour-intensive farm operations. The distance from water source is positively related to labour demand for land preparation, but the distance to the market is negatively related to labour demand for weeding and harvesting. These observations point to the need for supporting and investing in technological and organisational innovations in agriculture.

  15. Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian…

  16. Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Western Washington: Landowner Learning Methods and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Clare M.

    2009-06-01

    States, territories, and tribes identify nonpoint source pollution as responsible for more than half of the Nation’s existing and threatened water quality impairments, making it the principal remaining cause of water quality problems across the United States. Combinations of education, technical and financial assistance, and regulatory measures are used to inform landowners about nonpoint source pollution issues, and to stimulate the use of best management practices. A mail survey of non-commercial riparian landowners investigated how they learn about best management practices, the efficacy of different educational techniques, and what motivates them to implement land management activities. Landowners experience a variety of educational techniques, and rank those that include direct personal contact as more effective than brochures, advertisements, radio, internet, or television. The most important motivations for implementing best management practices were linked with elements of a personal stewardship ethic, accountability, personal commitment, and feasibility. Nonpoint source education and social marketing campaigns should include direct interpersonal contacts, and appeal to landowner motivations of caring, responsibility, and personal commitment.

  17. Filling the gap: a learning network for health an human rights in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Fick, Nicole; Tram, Khai Hoan; Stuttaford, Maria

    2012-06-15

    We draw on the experience of a Learning Network for Health and Human Rights (LN) involving collaboration between academic institutions and civil society organizations in the Western Cape, South Africa, aimed at identifying and disseminating best practice related to the right to health. The LN's work in materials development, participatory research, training and capacity-building for action, and advocacy for intervention illustrates important lessons for human rights practice. These include (i) the importance of active translation of knowledge and awareness into action for rights to be made real; (ii) the potential tension arising from civil society action, which might relieve the state of its obligations by delivering services that should be the state's responsibility-and hence the importance of emphasizing civil society's role in holding services accountable in terms of the right to health; (iii) the role of civil society organizations in filling a gap related to obligations to promote rights; (iv) the critical importance of networking and solidarity for building civil society capacity to act for health rights. Evidence from evaluation of the LN is presented to support the argument that civil society can play a key role in bridging a gap between formal state commitment to creating a human rights culture and realizing services and policies that enable the most vulnerable members of society to advance their health. Through access to information and the creation of spaces, both for participation and as a safe environment in which learning can be turned into practice, the agency of those most affected by rights violations can be redressed. We argue that civil society agency is critical to such action. Copyright © 2012 London, Fick, Tram, and Stuttaford.

  18. Exploring Students Acceptance of E-Learning Using Technology Acceptance Model in Jordanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adwan, Amer; Al-Adwan, Ahmad; Smedley, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Today's rapid changing world highlights the influence and impact of technology in all aspects of learning life. Higher Education institutions in developed Western countries believe that these developments offer rich opportunities to embed technological innovations within the learning environment. This places developing countries, striving to be…

  19. Zhang Dongsun’s Research on the Cultural Differences Betwee n China and Western Countries%张东荪对中西文化差异性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张殿兴

    2001-01-01

    张东荪认为,中西文化不仅存在明显的“古今之异”(时代性差异 ),而且还存在着“中外之别”(民族性差异),“古今之异”在于“社会组织与经济状态”,“中外之别”在于“思想方面”。他对中西思想上的不同进行比较研究,主要是通过构成文化要素之一的中西哲学上的差异来进行的。%In Zhang Dongsun’s view, there are difference s betw een Chinese and western cultures not only in ancient and modern times but also i n China and western countries. He holds that difference of times lies in the sta te of social organization, and difference of nationalities in thoughts. He carri ed out his comparative research work by way of comparing the differences between Chinese and western philosophy which is one of the factors of culture.

  20. Micro-energy systems in low-income countries. Learning to articulate the solar home system niche in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryrne, Rob [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Business, Management and Economics

    2011-07-01

    Despite multiple efforts over two decades in Tanzania to apply a solar home system (SHS) diffusion ''model'' generated in Kenya, it is only in recent years that a Tanzanian SHS market has begun to grow. Why is it that the Kenyan ''model'' seemed to fail in Tanzania, even as the SHS market grow rapidly in Kenya; and why has the Tanzanian market grown rapidly since the early 2000s? The objective of this paper is to explain the evolution of the Tanzanian SHS market. It applies the strategic niche management approach to the Tanzanian photovoltaic (PV) ''niche'' - the empirically identified set of actors, technologies and practices concerned with household electricity services using PV. By focusing primarily on the learning stimulated by a number of events, processes and projects, the research traces the dynamics of the socio-technical trajectory of the Tanzanian PV niche. This then enables reflection on the Kenyan SHS market and about the diffusion of sustainable energy technologies in poor developing countries more generally. (orig.)

  1. Ghetto poverty and pollution in Egypt: a deadly threat for western countries caused by new and infectious mutants. A cultural, social and microbiological synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassili, J H; Baradaeus, Cyril

    2012-10-01

    Egypt, whose soil germinated the first civilization, monotheism, refined ethics and culture of sharing the abundance of extracted natural resources among its populace became the crucible proliferating de-novo genotypes of organic and moral maladies. The enigma is these mutations are synchronized by several factors, namely; failing medical health, if there is any, abundant filth, cultural bankruptcy, over population, dogmatic militarism, societal deprivation and characterization, etc. These domineering ingredients fossilized Egypt as of 1952 coup in an irrevocable national apoptosis, together with the crippled social justice and imbalanced distribution of wealth among Egyptians, rates of bacterial and viral evolution to second generation resistant to known medical interventions are expected to exponentially accelerate. Therefore, it deemed essential to elaborate on pollution and psychosis-induced inflammations and grievous crimes evoked by dogmatic cults at the breeding source, e.g., ghettos and sporadic locations of the homeless in Cairo, Alexandria and Upper Egyptian villages. While this second generation of viral and bacterial diseases could labor plagues threatening the precariously maintained so-called social fabric of Middle Eastern countries, that are uniquely segregating its populace according to their dogmatic affiliations and soaked into intolerance, it would definitely compromise the integrity of the expensively managed medical care system of developed countries.

  2. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  3. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Julie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Service-learning (SL is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines.Objectives: This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN at the University of the Western Cape (UWC.Method: Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas.Results: The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation.Conclusion: The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  4. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hester

    2015-11-13

    Service-learning (SL) is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs) in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN) at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  5. Utilisation of psychiatrists and psychologists in private practice among non-Western labour immigrants, immigrants from refugee-generating countries and ethnic Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Kreiner, Svend

    2015-01-01

    and psychologists in labour immigrants, immigrants from refugee-generating countries (RGC), and ethnic Danes could be fully explained by mental health status. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey in 2007 with 3,573 individuals aged 18-66 comprising ethnic Danes, labour immigrants (Pakistan and Turkey......), and immigrants from RGC (Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Somalia). Survey data was linked to healthcare utilisation registries. Using Poisson regression, contacts with private practising psychiatrists and psychologists were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for socioeconomic factors and mental health status. RESULTS......: Overall, 2.2 % among ethnic Danes, 1.4 % among labour immigrants and 6.5 % among immigrants from RGC consulted a psychiatrist or psychologist. In adjusted analyses, for psychiatrists, compared with ethnic Danes, labour-immigrant women (multiplicative effect = 1.78), and immigrant women from RGC...

  6. Nuclear Energy in Western Europe: At the End of its Business Cycle? A review of policies in selected West European countries and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Kristian

    1997-12-31

    A series of seminars were held in Norway in 1995-97 focusing on nuclear energy policies, mainly in Europe. The key questions were: (1) What are the major driving forces behind the development of the nuclear industry?, and (2) Are we seeing the end of the nuclear energy era, or will we actually discover that the nuclear energy is moving towards its second blossom? This report summarizes the discussions at the seminars and discusses the above questions. The nature of the driving forces depends on the country in question. In France and Russia the nuclear sectors are large and prestigious and the course is difficult to change. In Germany and Sweden, political parties have adopted an anti-nuclear attitude and the issue is controversial, involving arguments both pro and con. The British nuclear sector has come to the end of the road. The main driving force has been the deregulation of the electricity market. In all countries, climate issues, independence from energy import, prestige and low costs have been arguments against close-downs. Massive expansion of nuclear power in Europe is unlikely. However, new plants might appear in Finland, Turkey or France. It is likely that technological development of the nuclear power sector, if any, will come in Asia. It is unclear whether this sector will benefit from climate issues. Renewable energy could become an important competitor if enough electricity could be produced. A state has been reached in which nuclear energy is both difficult to expand and to phase out. The nuclear energy issues are unlikely to affect the European gas market significantly. 53 refs., 10 refs., 13 tabs.

  7. 西方职业指导教育的人本思想及其启示%The Humanistic Ideology and Enlightenment of Vocational Guidance Education in Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳志成; 李奇伟; 邹国球

    2011-01-01

    Influenced by humanistic psychology and based on the differences of people at the beginning, the vocational guidance education in western countries proclaimed the ideology of self-awareness, vocation awareness and people-post matching which makes people become the focus of vocational guidance. Then with the influence of career development ideology, the vocational guidance has developed into a consistent part throughout the whole career process. In view of the humanism of the vocational guidance education in western countries, the vocational guidance education in China should be consistently aimed at the perfection of people. It also should aim at developing the vocational guidance education, rebuilding the guidance relationship, establishing a good interactive mechanism, and impelling the sustainable development of people.%西方职业指导教育在人本主义心理学影响下,最早以人的差异性为基础,提出认识自我、认识职业、人职匹配的主张,使人成为职业指导的重心。随后在生涯发展思想影响下,职业指导发展为一个连续的贯穿整个生涯的过程。借鉴吸收西方职业指导教育中的人本思想,促进我国职业指导教育能够始终以人的完善为目的,推动职业指导教育发展,并重构指导关系,确立互动的良性机制,最终推动人的可持续发展。

  8. Study on Inter-Ministerial Coordination Mechanism of the Central Government in Western Countries and Its Enlightenment%西方国家中央政府部际协调机制研究及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽媛

    2011-01-01

    Both inter-ministerial coordination mechanism and super-ministry system are important ways to enhance government integration. But compared to super-ministry system, inter-ministerial coordination mechanism of the central government is in theory and practice lagging behind. Mechanism is the general term of means, methods, techniques and instruments. This paper analyzes the main ways of building inter-ministerial coordination mechanism in western countries from the following aspects: the structural techniques for coordination, the procedural techniques for coordination and the civil servant system. On that basis, it summarizes the basic experience of building inter-ministerial coordination mechanism in western countries and its enlightenment on China' s reform of the administrative system.%部际协调机制与大部门体制都是加大政府机构整合力度的重要途径。但是相较于大部门体制,我国中央政府部际协调机制的构建在理论和实践上都相对滞后。机制是方式、方法、技术和工具的总称。文章从政府的结构协调技术、程序协调技术和公务员制度等方面分析总结了西方国家中央政府构建部际协调机制的主要做法、基本经验及其对我国行政管理体制改革的启示。

  9. Adult Learners' Learning Environment Perceptions and Satisfaction in Formal Education--Case Study of Four East-European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovan, Marko; Makovec, Danijela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore attitudes towards learning and perceptions of the learning environment. Our theoretical examination is based on the social-cognitive theory of motivation and research that emphasizes the connections between an individual's perceptions of the learning environment and his/her motivation, interest, attitudes…

  10. Comparative Study on Chinese and Western Traditional Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小凌

    2015-01-01

    This essay compares and analysis the main traditional festivals in Chinese and Western countries and discusses the cultural meaning,similarities and differences.The traditional festivals are the outstanding cultural heritage of a nation,and the precious spiritual wealth of mankind,so different festivals can reflect different cultures.As we all know,Chinese and Western traditional festivals are two different cultural forms evolved from comparatively independent cultural systems,which possess peculiar characteristics and varied manifestation.The comparison of festival cultures between China and western countries can not only help us learn English,but also make us know more about our cultures and promote the cultural communication of China and the West.

  11. Swiss ethnoveterinary knowledge on medicinal plants - a within-country comparison of Italian speaking regions with north-western German speaking regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Maria; Zbinden, Mirjam; Vogl, Christan R; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Meier, Beat; Amorena, Michele; Maeschli, Ariane; Hamburger, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2017-01-03

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Europe may play an important role as a basis for sustainable treatment options for livestock. Aims of our study were (a) to compare the ethnoveterinary practices of two culturally and sociodemographically different regions of Switzerland, (b) to compare results with earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland and in adjacent Italian regions and, (c) to evaluate possible reasons for regional differences in European ethnoveterinary medicine. 25 interviews were conducted in 2014 in all Italian speaking regions (ItR) of Switzerland, and 31 interviews were held in five north-western German speaking Cantons (GeC). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect detailed information regarding plant species, mode of preparation, dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with outcomes of the treatments. A total of 162 homemade remedies in ItR and 219 in GeC were reported, out of which 125 and 145, respectively, were reported to contain only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedy report, HSHR). 44 ItR and 43 GeC plant species were reported to treat livestock, of which only a half were used in both regions. For each HSHR, we classified the treatment intention of all use reports (UR), leading to a total of 205 and 219 UR in ItR and GeC respectively. While cattle were the most often treated livestock species in both study regions, in ItR 40% of UR were administered to small ruminants. Main indications in both regions were gastrointestinal diseases and skin afflictions, but in ItR a high number of URs were reported as antiparasitics. URs were mainly handed down from the past generation, but in GeC the source of knowledge for 20% of URs were from courses. Regarding the used plant species, ItR showed a higher concordance with Swiss than Italian studies, but with some differences to all regions. A total of 22 (14 ItR; 8 GeC) plant species in this study

  12. Importing budget systems from other countries: what can we learn from the German drug budget and the British GP fundholding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.; Brenner, G.

    2000-01-01

    The rising costs of pharmaceutical expenditures are a common problem for policy makers in most European countries. In two countries, budget systems for pharmaceutical spending exist(ed). In Great Britain, between 1991 and 1999 GP fundholders were responsible for prescribing costs, and in Germany an

  13. Teaching and Learning 24/7 Using Twitter in a University Classroom: Experiences from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawinga, Winner Dominic

    2016-01-01

    It is understood that microblogging (tweeting) which is a form of Web 2.0, has been a centre of attraction in some institutions of higher education. However, despite its hype and pomp as reported by some scholars in developed countries, integration of Twitter in a classroom environment in developing countries is just beginning to flourish. In…

  14. A Comparative Study between Chinese and Western Food Culture in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦体霞

    2014-01-01

    The differences of food culture play an important role in cross-cultural communication. Learn the cultural rooted causes of food culture between Chinese and Western countries, will promote mutual understanding between people and enjoy different feelings different foods brings, enhance cultural exchange, complement and integration.

  15. The Exploration of Differences on Politeness Between Western and Western and Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper discisses the cultural diffefences on politeness between western and Chinese by means of contrast.in-dicating that due to different culmral background,historic background,traditional customs and so on.there are many differ-ences on politeness in daily communication Today.etiquette becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's poll-tics,economy,culture in people's social contact.And it includes the principal and moral that people should obey in daily life.So it is important for us to legrn western culture.This paper also will discuss how to leam wcsrtem culture.There are many ways for learning western culture.Therefore.It is practically useful to know and study the differences.thus promoting the cultural communication.

  16. 西方主要发达国家老年人体育发展现状与政策规划研究%Current Development Situation of Elderly Sports and Policy Planning in Major Western Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪颖

    2016-01-01

    人口老龄化已成为一个日益严重的全球性问题。目前威胁老年人健康的主要疾病都与生活方式和行为习惯密切相关,这些都可以通过规律的体育锻炼来预防和改善。本文对西方主要发达国家老年人体育的发展现状和政策规划进行对比分析,旨在为我国制定老年人体育发展战略提供参考。研究结果表明,在较早进入老龄社会的西方国家中,老年人体育发展呈现出如下特点:基本都出台了老年人体育运动指南;各国跨部门、跨领域制定老年人体育规划;大力促进民间组织参与活动组织;跨国开展老年人体育活动;积极培养老年体育指导员等。%Population ageing has become an increasingly serious global problem.At present,major diseases that threaten elderly health are all closely related with life style and behavioral habits.All this can be prevented and promoted through regular physical exercise.Through a comparative analysis on current development situation of elderly sports and policy planning in major western developed countries,the paper aims to provide reference for making elderly sports development strategy in China.Results indicate that in those western countries that entered earlier into ageing society,elderly sports development demonstrates the following features:have generally all issued guidance for elderly sports;cross -department and cross -field plan -making for elderly sports are common in these countries;vigorously promoting folk organizations to participate in organizing activities;hold multinational elderly sports activities;actively develop elderly sports instructors.

  17. Research on the Quality Assurance System for Adult Learning in EU Countries%欧盟国家成人学习质量保障体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳忠明; 韩晶晶; 肖菲

    2014-01-01

    In the field of lifelong learning, the quality assurance for adult learning is always the focus of the national policy-making in many countries. Since the 21st century, the European Union has issued policies about adult learning quality assurance. Many EU countries have been clear about the implementation target and the running process of the quality assurance system, and then made a relatively detailed assessment indicators system. In this period, the relevance of design concept, the rationality of system design, the transparency of operation process and the diversity of assessment subjects, promote the EU countries to develop quality assurance system for adult learning in a right direction. However, the EU countries lack a comprehensive quality assurance system. The special elements of adult learning are difficult to reveal. Adult learning professionals have difficulties in continuing their professional development and there is also a lack of monitoring information and data. Such situations impede the quality guarantee system to strive for the further development. The practice of the European Union countries undoubtedly broadens the vision to develop the quality assurance system for our country's adult learning. On the overall framework design, the principle of combining the comprehensiveness and particularity should be followed;the operating philosophy should be changed from the "technology" to "culture"; the focus should be put on the professions of adult learning professionals;and for feedback control, the resources sharing of the quality information should be realized.%在终身学习领域,成人学习质量保障一直是各国政策中的行动焦点。21世纪以来,欧盟先后出台了有关成人学习质量保障的政策,诸多国家明确了质量保障体系的实施目标、运行流程,制定了较为细化的评估指标体系。其中,设计理念的相关性、体系设计的科学性、运行进程的透明性以及评估主体的

  18. Collaborating on Climate: The Signs of the Land Camp as a Model for Meaningful Learning Between Indigenous Communities and Western Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, M.; Brunacini, J.; Sparrow, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    As interest in Indigenous Knowledge (IK) grows, how can researchers ensure that collaboration is meaningful, relevant, and valuable for those involved? The Signs of the Land: Reaching Arctic Communities Facing Climate Change Camp is a collaborative project developed by the Association for Interior Native Educators (AINE), the International Arctic Research Center (IARC), and the PoLAR Partnership. Modeled on AINE's Elder Academy and supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, the camp facilitates in-depth dialogue about climate change and explores causes, impacts, and solutions through the cultural lens of Alaska Native communities. The project integrates local observations, IK, and western climate science. Participants engage with Alaska Native Elders, local climate researchers, and learn about climate communication tools and resources for responding. Following camps in 2014 and 2016, project partners identified a variety of questions about the challenges and opportunities of the collaboration that will be discussed in this presentation. For instance, what does it mean to equitably integrate IK, and in what ways are Native communities able to participate in research project design, delivery, and evaluation? How are decisions made and consensus built within cultural practices, project goals, and funding expectations? How do opportunities available to Indigenous communities to engage with western climate science broaden understanding and response? And, how does the ability to connect with and learn from Alaska Native Elders affect motivation, engagement, and community action? Finally, what is the effect of learning about climate change in a cultural camp setting?

  19. Reading across Workplace Learning Research to Build Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The field of workplace learning scholarship in Western countries is reviewed. First, the emergence of workplace learning scholarship is discussed historically for its relation to the emergence and ongoing development of capitalism beginning from early thought on markets and productivity, 20th century scientific management, industrialism and…

  20. Designing eLearning courses to meet the digital literacy needs of healthcare workers in lower- and middle-income countries: Experiences from the Knowledge for Health Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali J. Limaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional conceptualizations of knowledge management fail to incorporate the social aspects in which knowledge management work operates. Social knowledge management places people at the center of all knowledge management, including placing the end user at the center when developing eLearning packages, particularly within the context of digital health literacy. As many health professionals working in lower-resource settings face the digital divide, or experience unequal patterns of access and usage capabilities from computer-based information and communication technologies (ICTs, ensuring that eLearning packages are tailored for their specific needs is critical. Grounded in our conceptualization of social knowledge management, we outline two of our experiences with developing eLearning packages for health professionals working primarily in lower- and middle-income countries. The Global Health eLearning Center provides eLearning courses to health professionals primarily working in the lower- and middle-income country context. The courses have robust and exhaustive mechanisms in place to ensure that issues related to digital health literacy are not barriers to taking the courses and subsequently, applying the course material in practice. In Bangladesh, we developed a digital health package for frontline community fieldworkers that was loaded on netbook computers. To develop this package, community fieldworkers were provided support during the implementation phase to ensure that they were able to use the netbooks correctly with their clients. As new digital technologies proliferate, guaranteeing that global health workers have the prerequisite skills to utilize and apply digital health tools is essential for improving health care.

  1. A Survey on Patterns of Citizenship Education for Immigrants in Western Countries during Globalization Process%全球化进程中西方国家移民公民教育模式梗概

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2011-01-01

    经济全球化已成为当代人类社会生活中最重要的现象与变量之一,在它的猛烈冲击下,西方国家的社会结构发生了深刻的变迁。在公民教育层面,随着经济全球化的不断推进,外来移民大量涌入。西方国家在针对外来族群的公民教育实践中,相应地形成了以排斥型、融合型、多元文化型、跨民族国家型等为主要代表的移民公民教育模式。必须强调的是,上述四种移民公民教育模式并不存在明显的孰优孰劣,在一定程度上它们都是与各自国家的文化传统和历史背景密切相关的。%Economic globalization has been one of the most important phenomena and variables, the social structure in western countries has undergone profound changes under its violent impact. On the level of citizenship education,with the progress of economic globalization and large influx of immigrants,western countries have accordingly formed exclusive type,inclusive type, multi-cultural type and cross-nation type as the main representative migration patterns of citizenship education in the practice of citizenship education which is aimed at the foreign groups. It must be emphasized that,the four migration patterns of citizenship education mentioned above is not obvious which one is better. To a certain extent, they are all closely related with their national cultural traditions and historical background.

  2. Western Food in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    AS the Chinese saying goes, "Ask for local custom when you enter a foreign country." Western food’s first introduction to China in the 17th century was accompanied with its adoption to Chinese dining habits. Western food was introduced into China in large scale during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. However, as early as the 17th century Western missionaries and envoys were introducing food from their homeland to upper-class Chinese as a means of paying tribute or

  3. The Political Network Marketing Strategies of Islamic State towards Western Countries%“伊斯兰国”对西方国家的网络政治营销策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍雨

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist organization “Islamic State”has demonstrated its masterly political propaganda by using the social media as typical of network instruments in achieving a successful political marketing on the Western public and employing a great deal of ‘Jihadists’from Western countries.Its political marketing strategies take advantage of the psychology of worship,fear and conformity,etc.Furthermore,the strategies are targeted for‘viral marketing’.However great their white-washing ability may be,the nature of Islamic State is still anti-humanity or even anti-religion.In the process of information dissemination,it has been clearly disclosed that Islamic State is in a contradictory status because of its hatred towards as well dependence on Western civilization and globalization.%恐怖主义组织“伊斯兰国”以其高超的政治宣传能力,通过对以社交媒体为代表的网络工具的利用,对西方国家民众进行了成功的政治营销,招募了相当数量的西方圣战分子。其政治营销策略表现为对崇拜、恐惧、从众等心理的利用,且长于“病毒营销”的方法与手段。但是,无论“伊斯兰国”拥有着怎样出众的粉饰能力,也不能掩盖其反人类甚至是反宗教的实质;在信息传播的过程中,“伊斯兰国”也暴露了自身对西方文明和全球化既仇恨又依赖的矛盾状态。

  4. Enablers and constrainers to participation: Has policy in Nordic countries reached its limit for raising participation in adult learning among certain groups? Paper presented (with R. Desjardins) at the II Nordic conference on Adult Learning, Linköping, Sweden, 17-19 April

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Desjardins, Richard

    accentuated. The Nordic countries have a long shared history of supporting and fostering a rich adult learning culture. Although various historical, social and cultural factors are behind this, Nordic countries also share a strong record of public policy that aims to: promote adult learning, target various...

  5. A Comparison between Chinese and Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ting-ting

    2015-01-01

    Different countries have different cultures. Understanding the differences between Chinese and western culture will help us to communicate with each other better. From three aspects, this paper mainly compares the differences between Chinese and western culture.

  6. International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E

    2015-07-02

    Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also

  7. A four-day Western-style dietary intervention causes reductions in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and interoceptive sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuquayefio, Tuki; Stevenson, Richard J.; Oaten, Megan J.; Francis, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    In animals, a Western style diet–high in saturated fat and added sugar–causes impairments in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (HDLM) and perception of internal bodily state (interoception). In humans, while there is correlational support for a link between Western-style diet, HDLM, and interoception, there is as yet no causal data. Here, healthy individuals were randomly assigned to consume either a breakfast high in saturated fat and added sugar (Experimental condition) or a healthier breakfast (Control condition), over four consecutive days. Tests of HDLM, interoception and biological measures were administered before and after breakfast on the days one and four, and participants completed food diaries before and during the study. At the end of the study, the Experimental condition showed significant reductions in HDLM and reduced interoceptive sensitivity to hunger and fullness, relative to the Control condition. The Experimental condition also showed a markedly different blood glucose and triglyceride responses to their breakfast, relative to Controls, with larger changes in blood glucose across breakfast being associated with greater reductions in HDLM. The Experimental condition compensated for their energy-dense breakfast by reducing carbohydrate intake, while saturated fat intake remained consistently higher than Controls. This is the first experimental study in humans to demonstrate that a Western-style diet impacts HDLM following a relatively short exposure–just as in animals. The link between diet-induced HDLM changes and blood glucose suggests one pathway by which diet impacts HDLM in humans. PMID:28231304

  8. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Di; Wang Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries, so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  9. Clinical education and training of student nurses in four moderately new European Union countries: Assessment of students' satisfaction with the learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antohe, Ileana; Riklikiene, Olga; Tichelaar, Erna; Saarikoski, Mikko

    2016-03-01

    Nurses underwent different models of education during various historical periods. The recent decade in Europe has been marked with educational transitions for the nursing profession related to Bologna Declaration and enlargement of the European Union. This paper aims to explore the situation of clinical placements for student nurses and assess students' satisfaction with the learning environment in four relatively new member states of European Union: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Romania. The data for cross-sectional quantitative study were collected during the exploratory phase of EmpNURS Project via a web based questionnaire which utilized a part of Clinical Learning Environment scale (CLES + T). The students evaluated their clinical learning environment mainly positively. The students' utter satisfaction with their clinical placements reached a high level and strongly correlated with the supervisory model. Although the commonest model for supervision was traditional group supervision, the most satisfied students had the experience of individualised supervision. The study gives a picture of the satisfaction of students with the learning environment and, moreover, with clinical placement education of student nurses in four EU countries. The results highlight the individualized supervision model as a crucial factor of students' total satisfaction during their clinical training periods.

  10. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, Eduardo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Simonato, Pierluigi; Singh, Darshan; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Piazzon, Giulia; Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Farkas, Judit; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon. PMID:26640804

  11. Following "the Roots" of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, Eduardo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Simonato, Pierluigi; Singh, Darshan; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Piazzon, Giulia; Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Farkas, Judit; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon.

  12. Contemporary Progress in the Experimental Studies of Neuro-aesthetics in Western Countries%当代西方的神经美学实证研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宁; 丁峻

    2014-01-01

    当代西方的神经美学实证研究借助神经成像术、脑电地形图及脑磁图描记术,初步揭示了人脑认知视觉艺术、音乐艺术、舞蹈影视艺术和日常生活审美化等方面的神经科学机理,检验了人类审美的情感期待-情感回报体验及其相应的大脑奖赏回路、神经递质构成、脑电活动特征和神经网络协同共振模式,为人们深入理解审美的心脑奥秘提供了客观基础。%Interdisciplinary scholars on experiments of Neuro-aesthetics in Western countries have achieved important pro-gress in experiments of neuro-aesthetics since 2000.They elucidated the relevant structure, space orientation, neuro-physio-logical character changes of ERP and neurotransmitters in human cerebrum and sub-cortex during aesthetic activities, etc. These experimental results will enable academicians to make headway in future.

  13. 歐美公共圖書館地方文獻之徵集及其服務型態探討 | Acquisition and Services of Local Documents in Public Libraries of Western Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳昭珍 Chao-Chen Chen

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:57-64

    本文主要在介紹歐美公共圖書館地方文獻收集的範圍、方法、居民使用情形及網站服務現況,以供國內公共圖書館之參考。

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce acquisition method, usage and web services of local document in public libraries of western countries.

  14. An analysis of investment and management models of enterprises for public utilities in western countries%西方国家公用事业企业投资及管理模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心丹

    2000-01-01

    Public utilities are the foundation of a national economy. The products of public utilities are merit goods and have the characteristics of huge investment and long return terms. So it is a worldwide hot issue to probe ways to establish effective investment and management systems and models for the enterprises of public utilities. This article introduces some advanced invest ment and management models of public utilities enterprises in some western countries. According to the theory of comparative analysis and considering the Chinese situation, the author puts forward some suggestions on how to reform the investment and management system for public utilities enterprises.%公用事业是一国经济发展的基础。由于公用事业企业产品具有公益性,而且投资额巨大、投资回收期长,因而对该类企业的管理及投资模式一直是各个国家积极探索的问题。本文介绍了西方国家管理、投资公用事业企业的先进模式,通过比较分析,结合国情,笔者提出我国公用事业企业管理和投资改革方向及几点有益的启示。

  15. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa: The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cinosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom, a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon.

  16. Parents Helping Their Children Learn to Read: The Effectiveness of Paired Reading and Hearing Reading in a Developing Country Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Wundenberg, Mihika; Wyse, Dominic; Chaplain, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports research that investigated parental support for children's reading of English in an inner-city school in the developing country context of an Indian city, Ahmedabad. Children had oral proficiency in the regional language but were beginning to acquire conventional forms of literacy in English. Sociocultural mediation theory…

  17. LoColms: an innovative approach of enhancing traditional classroom form of education by promoting web-based distance learning in the poorer countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGARAMBEDonart; 潘云鹤; 陈德人

    2003-01-01

    There have been numerous attempts recently to promote technology based education (Shrestha, 1997) in the poorer third world countries, but so far all these have not provided a sustainable solution as they are either centered and controlled from abroad and relying solely on foreign donors for their sustenance or they are not web-based, which make distribution problematic, and some are not affordable by most of the local population in these places. In this paper we discuss an application, the Local College Learning Management System (LoColms) , which we are developing, that is both sustainable and economical to suit the situation inthese countries. The application is a web-based system, and aims at improving the traditional form of education by empowering the local universities. Its economicability comes from the fact that it is supported by traditional communication technology, the public switching telephone network system, PSTN, which eliminates the need for packet switched or dedicated private virtual networks (PVN) usually required in similar situations. At a later stage, we shall incorporate ontology and paging tools to improve resource sharability and storage optimization in the Proxy Caches (ProCa) and LoColms servers. The system is based on the client/server paradigm and its infrastructure consists of the PSTN, ProCa, with the learning centers accessing the universities by means of point-to-point protocol (PPP) .

  18. LoColms: an innovative approach of enhancing traditional classroom form of education by promoting web-based distance learning in the poorer countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGARAMBE Donart; PAN Yun-he(潘云鹤); CHEN De-ren(陈德人)

    2003-01-01

    There have been numerous attempts recently to promote technology based education (Shrestha, 1997) in the poorer third world countries, but so far all these have not provided a sustainable solution as they are either centered and controlled from abroad and relying solely on foreign donors for their sustenance or they are not web-based, which make distribution problematic, and some are not affordable by most of the local population in these places. In this paper we discuss an application, the Local College Learning Management System (LoColms), which we are developing, that is both sustainable and economical to suit the situation in these countries. The application is a web-based system, and aims at improving the traditional form of education by empowering the local universities. Its economicability comes from the fact that it is supported by traditional communication technology, the public switching telephone network system, PSTN, which eliminates the need for packet switched or dedicated private virtual networks (PVN) usually required in similar situations. At a later stage, we shall incorporate ontology and paging tools to improve resource sharability and storage optimization in the Proxy Caches (ProCa) and LoColms servers. The system is based on the client/server paradigm and its infrastructure consists of the PSTN, ProCa, with the learning centers accessing the universities by means of point-to-point protocol (PPP).

  19. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  20. Student's Plagiarisms in Higher Learning Institutions in the Era of Improved Internet Access: Case Study of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anney, Vicent Naano; Mosha, Mary Atanas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' plagiarism practices in Tanzania higher learning institutions by involving two universities-one public and one private university as a case study. The universities involved have honour code and policies for plagiarism detection however they do not employ software for checking students' plagiarism. The study…

  1. Participation in Non-Formal Learning in EU-15 and EU-8 Countries: Demand and Supply Side Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of participation in non-formal learning in different European Union member states. The paper also seeks to extend analysis of the training gap by pursuing the distinction between the supply and the demand for skills. We use aggregate data from the Adult Education Survey (Eurostat)…

  2. Participating in Non-Formal Learning: Patterns of Inequality in EU-15 and the New EU-8 Member Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmaa, Eve-Liis; Saar, Ellu

    2010-01-01

    We concentrate on the following research questions: (1) Do the structure of the educational system and its interaction with the labour market affect the training gap between low-skilled blue collar workers and high-skilled white collar workers? and (2) Do the ways that institutional systems shape opportunities for lifelong learning differ between…

  3. Learning lessons from operational research in infectious diseases: can the same model be used for noncommunicable diseases in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosu WK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available William K Bosu Department of Epidemics and Disease Control, West African Health Organisation, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Abstract: About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. Keywords: infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, operational research, developing countries, integration

  4. The current status and future perspectives of organ donation in Japan: learning from the systems in other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The revised Organ Transplant Law came into effect in Japan in July 2010. The law allows for organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent from subjects who had not previously rejected organ donation. Nevertheless, the number of cadaveric organ donations has not increased as expected. The Spanish Model is widely known as the most successful system in the field of organ donation. The system includes an earlier referral of possible donors to the transplant coordination teams, a new family-based approach and care methods, and the development of additional training courses aimed at specific groups of professionals, which are supported by their corresponding societies. South Korea, a country which neighbors Japan, has recently succeeded in increasing the rates of organ donation by introducing several systems, such as incentive programs, an organ procurement organization, a donor registry, and a system to facilitate potential donor referral. In this review, we present the current status of organ donation in Japan and also explore various factors that may help to improve the country's low donation rate based on the experiences of other developed countries.

  5. 论洋务运动指导思想“中学为体,西学为用”的合理性%On the Rationality of "Western Learning for Practical Application, Chinese Learning as A Base" by Westernization Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楚楚

    2012-01-01

    “中学为体,西学为用”作为洋务运动的指导思想,本是为抵御外侮、匡救时弊。其中,“西学为用”是洋务派官员总结自身经历和向他国学习的产物,且因当时儒家政治文化占统治地位以及洋务派官员的地主阶级属性,故“中学为体”的提出也是势所必然。而且,“中学为体”也减少了变革的阻力,使洋务运动得以在较长时间内进行,并取得重大成就,带动了中国资本主义的起步。洋务运动最后失败,根本原因不是它的指导思想,而是包括洋务派在内的统治阶级的腐朽与自私。%"School for the body, Western learning for Westernization Movement"as guiding icleology ,this is to resist foreign aggression, set things right. Among them, "terms of use" is the Westernization of official summary experiences and learning from others' product, and the political culture of Confucianism dominated and westernization of officials of the landlord class attributes, so the "school for the body" put forward is also inevitable. But," secondary school also reduced the resistance to change, make the Westernization Movement is in a relatively long time, and has made significant achievements, has led the Chinese capitalist started. Westernization Movement ended in failure, prime cause is its guiding ideology, but including the Westernization Movement, the ruling class of decay and selfish.

  6. Lessons learned from the application of a participatory evaluation methodology to healthy municipalities, cities and communities initiatives in selected countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marilyn; Franceschini, Maria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion has made significant strides in the past few decades in the Americas. Creating a healthy and supportive setting, also known as the settings approach, continues to be one of the most widely used health promotion strategies. Interest in evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies has been increasing greatly in the past few years. Participatory evaluation holds great promise for helping to generate this evidence and promote understanding of the factors that affect, positively or negatively, the advances of health promotion in the Region. During 2004-2006, a Participatory Evaluation methodology was introduced into several countries in the Americas through formal trainings conducted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in collaboration with country partners. This article summarizes the main lessons learned from the application of the participatory evaluation methodology in various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Factors affecting the evaluation of the initiatives were identified at multiple levels (individual, community, organizational, political, economic, etc.). Specific issues that were addressed included the political context, turnover of personnel in key institutions, concerns related to the effectiveness of participatory processes, and the existence of strong and sustained leadership at the country level. These factors are intertwined and affect each other in very complex ways, a fact that was reflected in the municipalities' experiences with participatory evaluation. Challenges included the ability to secure resources for the evaluation, the time needed to conclude the process, and working in an intersectoral manner. However, participating municipalities reported that the process of implementing a participatory evaluation and working with various stakeholders had an empowering effect: communities and stakeholders were more willing and interested in participating in health promotion initiatives in a sustained manner

  7. 企业环境责任在西方国家的发展及伦理依据%The Development and Ethical Foundation of Corporate Environmental Responsibility in Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭旻果; 方秋明

    2015-01-01

    企业环境责任概念与实施的时代背景和发展脉络,最初起源于企业社会责任(CSR)概念的发展,在西方得到制度化的实践。环境协同论、环境正义论与责任伦理学可以为企业环境责任寻求理论基础,它们令人信服地论证了为什么要对大自然和人类自身及其遥远的后代负责这个问题,从而使企业环境责任有了深厚坚实的伦理学基础,同时西方环境责任的实践也推动着环境伦理向纵深和广阔的维度发展。%The historical background and developmental history of the conception and execution of corporate environmental responsibility have originated from the development of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and then experienced institutional practice in western countries. The article explores theoretical foundation for corporate environmental responsibility by use of the theories of environmental coordination, environmental justice and the ethics of responsibility, indicating that they have persuasively demonstrated why we should be responsible for the nature, human beings and their offspring, and therefore laid a deep and sound foundation;in the meanwhile, that the practice of corporate environmental responsibility also promotes the further development of the whole environmental ethics.

  8. 当代西方公共服务社会化的民主政治理据探析%Analysis of Democracy Motivation to the Socialization of Public Services in Contemporary Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩东

    2011-01-01

    The socialization of public services(SPS) is main target of public management innovation in contemporary western countries.The democracy motivation to the SPS includes pluralist democracy,as well as participatory democracy.Corresponding to each democracy motivation,there are two different patterns of the SPS.The pattern corresponding to pluralist democracy is called bourgeois-socialization,in which participate to public services is only regarded as tool for keeping self-concern.The pattern corresponding to participatory democracy is called citizen socialization,in which participate to public services is regarded as a training for enhancing virtue.%公共服务社会化是当代西方国家公共管理改革的重要目标模式。推动公共服务社会化发展的民主政治理据既包括多元民主理论,又包括参与民主理论。与两种民主政治理据分别对应的公共服务社会化其实具有不同的内涵。与多元民主相对应的是公共服务的市民社会化,这种模式中的人是利己的原子化个体,对公共服务的参与被视为保持自私自利的工具;与参与民主对应的是公共服务的公民社会化,这种模式中的人是具有合群天性的"政治人",对公共服务的参与则被视为提升公民美德的教育训练。

  9. Translation and Adaptation of Tests: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Countries Participating in timss, pisa and other International Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Solano-Flores

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a conceptual model and methodology for the review of translated tests in the context of such international comparisons as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA. We also present the results of an investigation into the quality of the Mexican translation of the TIMSS-1995 into the Spanish language. We identified translation errors in a significant percentage of the items, as well as relatively high correlations between the severity of translation errors and the items’ p-values. These findings indicate that our error-coding system is highly sensitive to test-translation error. The results underscore the need for improved translation and translation-review procedures in international comparisons. In our opinion, to implement the guidelines properly for test translation in international comparisons, each participating country needs to have internal procedures that would ensure a rigorous review of its own translations. The article concludes with four recommendations for countries participating in international comparisons. These recommendations relate to: (a the characteristics of the individuals in charge of translating instruments; (b the use of review, not simply at the end of the process, but during the process of test translation; (c the minimum time needed for various translation review iterations to take place; and (d the need for proper documentation of the entire process of test translation.

  10. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  11. Effect of HIV/AIDS on Children's Attitudes toward Learning: Voices of Teachers and Caregivers in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepkemboi, Grace; Aldridge, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS is often significantly compromised, as they are prone to discrimination, victimization, and exclusion from social and familial structures. The present study examines the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's attitudes toward learning, as perceived by teachers and caregivers. Teachers and caregivers from…

  12. Cooperative Learning in a Hong Kong Primary School: Perceptions, Problems and Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kam Wing

    2014-01-01

    Some educators may see cooperative learning as a Western pedagogy that is difficult to use in Eastern countries with a Confucian Heritage, while others argue that the philosophy of Confucius parallels the elements of cooperative learning. This article reports the key findings of a 2-year longitudinal study that investigated the perceptions of…

  13. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  14. Venezuela, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    relations with all 17 western hemisphere nations including Cuba , and joined the Adean Common Market. Internally Caldera permitted communist and other...mounted from within the country and by communist supported ( Cuba ) small units conducting guerrilla activities with the intent of producing a military...1973), pp. 14-26. 25Blutstein, op.cit., pp. 39-41. 26Ibid. pp. 41-44. 27Philip B. Taylor, Jr., The Venezuelan Golpe de Estado of 1958: The Fall of

  15. Is Student-Centred Learning a Western Concept? Lessons from an Academic Development Programme to Support Student-Centred Learning in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, L.; Bovill, C.; Othman, S. M.; Saleh, A. M.; Shabila, N. P.; Watters, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that student-centred learning (SCL) is a concept and an approach that is internationally useful and transferable to a range of higher education settings. We present details of a British Council funded collaborative project between Hawler Medical University (HMU), in Erbil in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq and…

  16. Anatomy curriculum for medical students: what can be learned for future curricula from evaluations and questionnaires completed by students, anatomists and clinicians in different countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Reinhard

    2009-12-01

    In recent years an international debate has culminated in the questions "How much anatomy is necessary in the medical curriculum?" and "Should dissection be replaced by prosection or computer-aided learning?". This article will deal with data published on evaluations of the anatomical knowledge of students, on experience with different teaching forms documented by anatomists, and on the assessment of the anatomical knowledge of young doctors by clinicians responsible for residency programmes. Due to the great variability in the number of teaching hours, type of teaching methods, previous qualifications of medical students, number and qualification of demonstrators and several other parameters it is impossible to assume experiences in one institute and/or country to be valid for another. However, there is an urgent need to fund research programmes evaluating the anatomy curriculum including long-term studies, as the aim of the medical curriculum is the well-trained medical doctor. No convincing data have been published on the advantages or disadvantages of problem-based learning curricula. Congresses of anatomical associations/societies should include sessions on teaching aspects, and the decision makers in medical faculties should be informed about internationally documented pro and cons of anatomy, not only for the undergraduates but also for the specialization of physicians.

  17. Let’s Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Marrinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  18. A cross-sectional survey to compare the competence of learners registered for the Baccalaureus Curationis programme using different learning approaches at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Z. le Roux

    2011-09-01

    exposure of the first-year learners to real life clinical situations. The outcome of this study recommends that more studies are conducted, in the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape (UWC, to explore teaching and learning approaches that fully maximise the clinical and theoretical competencies of the learners. The outcome further recommends that learner-centred teaching approaches, such as Case-based method, are applied to all year levels of study in the B.Cur programme, due to its proven value when it was applied to first-year learners. The Case-based clinical reasoning approach to learning, that has been implemented at the school, promotes competence and self confidence in learners and has enhanced their sense of responsibility to be actively involved in their own learning.

  19. Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers: A Collaboration Between the Earthquake Country Alliance and Free-Choice Learning Institutions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroot, R. M.; Springer, K.; Brooks, C. J.; Schuman, L.; Dalton, D.; Benthien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    In 1999 the Southern California Earthquake Center initiated an effort to expand its reach to multiple target audiences through the development of an interpretive trail on the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek and an earthquake exhibit at Fingerprints Youth Museum in Hemet. These projects and involvement with the San Bernardino County Museum in Redlands beginning in 2007 led to the creation of Earthquake Education and Public Information Centers (EPIcenters) in 2008. The impetus for the development of the network was to broaden participation in The Great Southern California ShakeOut. In 2009 it has grown to be more comprehensive in its scope including its evolution into a statewide network. EPIcenters constitute a variety of free-choice learning institutions, representing museums, science centers, libraries, universities, parks, and other places visited by a variety of audiences including families, seniors, and school groups. They share a commitment to demonstrating and encouraging earthquake preparedness. EPIcenters coordinate Earthquake Country Alliance activities in their county or region, lead presentations or organize events in their communities, or in other ways demonstrate leadership in earthquake education and risk reduction. The San Bernardino County Museum (Southern California) and The Tech Museum of Innovation (Northern California) serve as EPIcenter regional coordinating institutions. They interact with over thirty institutional partners who have implemented a variety of activities from displays and talks to earthquake exhibitions. While many activities are focused on the time leading up to and just after the ShakeOut, most EPIcenter members conduct activities year round. Network members at Kidspace Museum in Pasadena and San Diego Natural History Museum have formed EPIcenter focus groups on early childhood education and safety and security. This presentation highlights the development of the EPIcenter network, synergistic activities resulting from this

  20. 中西方思想政治教育理论基础比较探析%The Comparison and Analysis about the Ideological and Political Education Theoretical Principle Between China and the Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠哲

    2013-01-01

    The difference of Historical and cultural tradition and social system make wide difference on the ideological and politi-cal education theoretical principle between China and the western countries. The origin of ancient China’s ideological and political edu-cation is an exploration about kismet, humanity, droit and obligation. The origin of new China is Marx theory; In west ,the ideological and political education theoretical principle is very massive and complex, but the system is distinct, reflecting the concept of citizenship, republic spirit, freedom and equality, theology, the theory of natural rights ,social contract theory and so on. Comparing and analyzing the theoretical principle is very important to ascertain the primary coverage and foster objective.%  历史文化传统与社会制度的不同,使中西方国家思想政治教育在理论基础上表现出巨大差异。中国古代思想政治教育理论基础根源于中国古代哲人对天命论、人性论和义利观的探究;新中国的思想政治教育理论基础来源于马克思主义理论学说;西方思想政治教育理论,基础内容庞杂,但体系明显,体现在公民观念、共和精神、自由平等思想、神学思想,以及“天赋人权论”和“社会契约论”等学说中。比较与探析中西方思想政治教育理论基础,对明确思想政治教育的培养目标,确定思想政治教育主要内容具有重要指导意义。

  1. Investigation about the Status of Middle Country Teachers' Everyday Learning%农村中小学数学教师日常学习现状的调查及其思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李渺; 徐新斌; 舒翔

    2015-01-01

    通过调查,发现大多数农村中小学数学教师比较注重日常学习,其学习内容比较广泛,学习方式比较多样,但学习效果有待进一步提高.为此,在日常学习中,农村中小学数学教师需要关注学习观念、学习资源、知识转化等方面的问题.%Through an investigation about the middle country teachers, there were some findings: most teachers paid attention to everyday learning, their learning content were extensive, their learning way were diversity. But their learning effect should be improved. So, learning conception, learning sources and knowledge translation should be noticed.

  2. Ethanol-induced effects on sting extension response and punishment learning in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Giannoni-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Acute ethanol administration is associated with sedation and analgesia as well as behavioral disinhibition and memory loss but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. During the past decade, insects have emerged as important model systems to understand the neural and genetic bases of alcohol effects. However, novel assays to assess ethanol's effects on complex behaviors in social or isolated contexts are necessary. Here we used the honey bee as an especially relevant model system since bees are typically exposed to ethanol in nature when collecting standing nectar crop of flowers, and there is recent evidence for independent biological significance of this exposure for social behavior. Bee's inhibitory control of the sting extension response (SER and a conditioned-place aversion assay were used to study ethanol effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition, and associative learning. Our findings indicate that although ethanol, in a dose-dependent manner, increases SER thresholds (analgesic effects, it disrupts the ability of honey bees to inhibit SER and to associate aversive stimuli with their environment. These results suggest that ethanol's effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition and associative learning are common across vertebrates and invertebrates. These results add to the use of honey bees as an ethanol model to understand ethanol's effects on complex, socially relevant behaviors.

  3. Ethanol-Induced Effects on Sting Extension Response and Punishment Learning in the Western Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni-Guzmán, Manuel A.; Giray, Tugrul; Agosto-Rivera, Jose Luis; Stevison, Blake K.; Freeman, Brett; Ricci, Paige; Brown, Erika A.; Abramson, Charles I.

    2014-01-01

    Acute ethanol administration is associated with sedation and analgesia as well as behavioral disinhibition and memory loss but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. During the past decade, insects have emerged as important model systems to understand the neural and genetic bases of alcohol effects. However, novel assays to assess ethanol's effects on complex behaviors in social or isolated contexts are necessary. Here we used the honey bee as an especially relevant model system since bees are typically exposed to ethanol in nature when collecting standing nectar crop of flowers, and there is recent evidence for independent biological significance of this exposure for social behavior. Bee's inhibitory control of the sting extension response (SER) and a conditioned-place aversion assay were used to study ethanol effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition, and associative learning. Our findings indicate that although ethanol, in a dose-dependent manner, increases SER thresholds (analgesic effects), it disrupts the ability of honey bees to inhibit SER and to associate aversive stimuli with their environment. These results suggest that ethanol's effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition and associative learning are common across vertebrates and invertebrates. These results add to the use of honey bees as an ethanol model to understand ethanol's effects on complex, socially relevant behaviors. PMID:24988309

  4. Veterinary public health in a problem-based learning curriculum at the Western University of Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peggy L; Trevejo, Rosalie T; Tkalcic, Suzana

    2008-01-01

    As detailed in the Association of Schools of Public Health / Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges 2007 Joint Symposium on Veterinary Public Health, veterinary public health (VPH) can no longer be viewed as a unique sub-specialty of veterinary medicine. Rather, its practice pervades nearly every aspect of the veterinary profession, regardless of whether the practitioner is engaged in small-animal, large-animal, research, corporate, or military practice. In congruence with the practice of VPH, the teaching of VPH should also pervade nearly every aspect of veterinary education. Accordingly, at Western University of Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (WU-CVM), public health is not simply taught as an individual course but, rather, is interwoven into almost every aspect of the curriculum, continually emphasizing the relevance of this discipline to the practice of veterinary medicine. This article outlines the teaching philosophy of WU-CVM, provides an overview of the curriculum, and describes the integral nature of public health throughout all four years of the educational program.

  5. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  6. Developing community-based intervention strategies to save newborn lives: lessons learned from formative research in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from formative research conducted in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Mali and Nepal to inform the development of newborn health interventions, mostly in the context of field trials. Current practices, constraints to the adoption of optimal practices and implications for implementing inventions to improve newborn survival are discussed for: optimal care during pregnancy; skilled care at birth; optimal delivery and newborn care practices; special care of low birth weight babies; and timely and appropriate care seeking for newborn illness. General lessons concerning target audiences and intervention strategy are also drawn. In brief, interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to start during pregnancy not only to promote birth preparedness and institutional delivery, but also to start the process of change concerning early newborn care practices. Their target audience should not only be pregnant or recently delivered women, but also include the main gatekeepers, particularly traditional birth attendants, grandmothers and other family members. Health providers' opinions also matter as care practices are less likely to change if families receive conflicting messages from different sources. Interventions are more likely to succeed if they are not simply message based, but include problem solving approaches, and a behavior change component to address community norms. Although antenatal care (ANC) is theoretically a good channel for newborn interventions, capitalising on its potential is not straightforward, and will require considerable investment and intervention development in its own right in order to improve ANC counselling, which will need to extend beyond training and tackle the many working day constraints encountered by ANC providers. Removing or subsidising the cost of deliveries may be a necessary action to increase institutional deliveries, but it is unlikely to be sufficient; measures will need to be put in place to ensure

  7. Innovative health service delivery models in low and middle income countries - what can we learn from the private sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poor in low and middle income countries have limited access to health services due to limited purchasing power, residence in underserved areas, and inadequate health literacy. This produces significant gaps in health care delivery among a population that has a disproportionately large burden of disease. They frequently use the private health sector, due to perceived or actual gaps in public services. A subset of private health organizations, some called social enterprises, have developed novel approaches to increase the availability, affordability and quality of health care services to the poor through innovative health service delivery models. This study aims to characterize these models and identify areas of innovation that have led to effective provision of care for the poor. Methods An environmental scan of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to select exemplars of innovation. A case series of organizations was then purposively sampled to maximize variation. These cases were examined using content analysis and constant comparison to characterize their strategies, focusing on business processes. Results After an initial sample of 46 studies, 10 case studies of exemplars were developed spanning different geography, disease areas and health service delivery models. These ten organizations had innovations in their marketing, financing, and operating strategies. These included approaches such a social marketing, cross-subsidy, high-volume, low cost models, and process reengineering. They tended to have a narrow clinical focus, which facilitates standardizing processes of care, and experimentation with novel delivery models. Despite being well-known, information on the social impact of these organizations was variable, with more data on availability and affordability and less on quality of care. Conclusions These private sector organizations demonstrate a range of innovations in health service delivery that have

  8. Simulating hydrology with an isotopic land surface model in western Siberia: what do we learn from water isotopes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guglielmo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the evaluation of land surface models would translate into more reliable predictions of future climate changes, as significant uncertainties persist in the quantification and representation of the relative contributions of soil and vegetation to the water and energy cycles. In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of water stable isotopes in land surface models studying land surface processes. To achieve this, we implemented 18O and 2H and the computation of the oxygen (δ18O and deuterium (δD stable isotope composition of soil and leaf water pools in a~recent version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE. We performed point-wise simulations with this new model and evaluated its performance on vertical profiles of soil water isotope ratios measured in summer 2012 at four experimental sites located in a boreal region of the Artic zone of western Siberia. The model performed relatively well in simulating some features of the δ18O soil profiles, but poorly reproduced the d-excess profiles, at all four stations. The response of the simulated δ18O profiles to variations in key hydrological parameters revealed the importance of the choice of a correct infiltration pathway in ORCHIDEE. Our results show also that the strength of the evaporative enrichment signal plays a role in shaping the profiles, too and, therefore, the relevance of the vegetation and bare soil characterization. We investigated furthermore to which extent we are able to determine the relative contribution of the evaporation to the evapotranspiration. This study's results confirm that the use of water stable isotopes measurements helps constrain the representation of key land surface processes in land surface models.

  9. Problem-based learning as an effective learning tool in community medicine: Initiative in a private medical college of a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of community medicine is essential for health care professionals to function as efficient primary health care physicians. Medical students learning Community Medicine as a subject are expected to be competent in critical thinking and generic skills so as to analyze community health problems better. However, current teaching by didactic lectures fails to develop these essential skills. Problem-based learning (PBL could be an effective strategy in this respect. This study was hence done to compare the academic performance of students who were taught Community Medicine by the PBL method with that of students taught by traditional methods, to assess the generic skills of students taught in a PBL environment and to assess the perception of students toward PBL methodology. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among seventh-semester final-year medical students between June and November 2014. PBL was introduced to a randomly chosen group of students, and their performance in an assessment exam at the end of postings was compared with that of the remaining students. Generic skills and perception toward PBL were also assessed using standardized questionnaires. Results: A total of 77 students took part in the brainstorming session of PBL. The correlation between self-assigned scores of the participants and those assigned by the tutor in the brainstorming session of PBL was significant (r = 0.266, P = 0.05. Out of 54 students who took part in the presentation session, almost all 53 (98.1% had good perception toward PBL. Demotivational scores were found to be significantly higher among males (P = 0.024. The academic performance of students (P < 0.001 and success rates (P = 0.05 in the examination were higher among students who took part in PBL compared to controls. Conclusion: PBL helped improve knowledge of students in comparison to those exposed only to didactic lectures. As PBL enabled students to identify the gaps in

  10. Work and Learning in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises. A Comparative Study on the Relationship between Technological and Organisational Developments and Training Activities in Micro Car-Repair Enterprises in Four European Countries. Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaart, Harry; van den Berg, Sjaak; Warmerdam, John

    Work and learning in microenterprises in the car repair industries of four European Community (EC) countries were examined through 21 case studies of firms with 10 or fewer employees (6 firms in Ireland and 5 each in Greece, the Netherlands, and Spain). Structured interviews were conducted with each firm's owner and 60 motor vehicle mechanics at…

  11. Learning Curve in a Western Training Center of the Circumferential En Bloc Esophageal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in an In Vivo Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Miguel A.; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Fujita, Rikiya; Santillan-Doherty, Patricio; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Chable-Montero, Fredy; Martin-del-Campo, Luis A.; Vasquez, Lucia; Bravo-Reyna, Carlos; Villanueva, Octavio; Villalobos, Jose J.; Uribe, Misael; Valdovinos, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. Evaluate the feasibility to overcome the learning curve in a western training center of the en bloc circumferential esophageal (ECE-) ESD in an in vivo animal model. Methods. ECE-ESD was performed on ten canine models under general anesthesia on artificial lesions at the esophagus marked with coagulation points. After the ESD each canine model was euthanized and surgical resection of the esophagus and stomach was carried out according to “the Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, Russel and Burch.” The specimen was fixed with needles on cork submerged in formalin with the esophagus and stomach then delivered to the pathology department to be analyzed. Results. ECE-ESD was completed without complications in the last 3/10 animal models. Mean duration for the procedures was 192 ± 35 minutes (range 140–235 minutes). All the procedures were done at the animal lab surgery room with cardio pulmonary monitoring and artificial ventilation by staff surgery members and a staff member of the Gastroenterology department trained during 1999–2001 at the Fujigaoka hospital of the Showa U. in Yokohama, Japan, length (range 15–18 mm) and 51 ± 6.99 width (range 40–60 mm). Conclusion. ECE-ESD training is feasible in canine models for postgraduate endoscopy fellows. PMID:21976950

  12. Contrastive Studies Between the Chinese and the Western Cultures of Learning%中国与西方学习文化的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志英

    2007-01-01

    Chinese and Western students bring different behaviors and cultures into their clsssrooms.Such difference is orislnated from and influenced by their different cultures of learning as well as the traditional Chinese philosophies,i.e.Confucianism and Taoim.This paper argues that to develop Chinese students'intercultural awareness and introduce culture teaching is an integral part of English language education.%中国学生有着与西方学生不同的课堂行为和文化.这种差异源于他们不同的学习文化背景,同时,中国学生也受到来自中国传统哲学思想儒家和道教的影响.笔者在分析中西文化盖异的基础上认为,要避免跨文化交际失败,教师应注重培养学生的跨文化意识,文化教学应成为外语教学必不可少的部分.

  13. Learning Curve in a Western Training Center of the Circumferential En Bloc Esophageal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in an In Vivo Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Tanimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Evaluate the feasibility to overcome the learning curve in a western training center of the en bloc circumferential esophageal (ECE- ESD in an in vivo animal model. Methods. ECE-ESD was performed on ten canine models under general anesthesia on artificial lesions at the esophagus marked with coagulation points. After the ESD each canine model was euthanized and surgical resection of the esophagus and stomach was carried out according to “the Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, Russel and Burch.” The specimen was fixed with needles on cork submerged in formalin with the esophagus and stomach then delivered to the pathology department to be analyzed. Results. ECE-ESD was completed without complications in the last 3/10 animal models. Mean duration for the procedures was 192±35 minutes (range 140–235 minutes. All the procedures were done at the animal lab surgery room with cardio pulmonary monitoring and artificial ventilation by staff surgery members and a staff member of the Gastroenterology department trained during 1999–2001 at the Fujigaoka hospital of the Showa U. in Yokohama, Japan, length (range 15–18 mm and 51±6.99 width (range 40–60 mm. Conclusion. ECE-ESD training is feasible in canine models for postgraduate endoscopy fellows.

  14. Creating organizational innovations in countries in transition using Finnish change laboratory: A case study from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrožić Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish Change Laboratory intervention method has been used in several Western countries to support innovation and learning within organizations. This study explored the applicability of the Change Laboratory method to work activities in Eastern European transition economies. The case of a Change Laboratory project at a Serbian publishing house was examined and discussed. The Change Laboratory led to a clear break from previous models and resulted in a new, much more efficient model of work organization based on teams. The studied publishing house can be characterized as an innovator within a relatively laggard industry. This characteristic increased the Serbian publisher’s potential for developing “learning partnerships” with publishing activities in EU Member States. These “learning partnerships” enabled appropriate Western concepts to be found that could be used as stimuli to develop a new model of work for the publishing house during the Change Laboratory.

  15. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  16. The Effect of Asian Origin, Culture and Learning Beliefs on High School Students' Physical Science Learning Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have been recognized as the "model minority" in the United States since the 1960s. Students from Asian countries are winning in international competitions, especially in science and mathematics. Modern Western scholars working within the constructivist learning theory advocate malleable intelligence and effort, which…

  17. Communicating with Westerners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; Callicott

    2007-01-01

    <正>The majority response from my students when asked "what do you want to learn from my class?" is "How do I communicate better with westerners?" My students also have other questions such as "How do I improve my oral English?" and "How is America different from China?" These questions can be answered in many different ways, but hopefully I will give you a couple of ideas to get you started.

  18. 东道国网络关系、 网络学习与企业国际营销能力%Host Country Network Relation, Network Learning and International Marketing Ability of Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖灏; 张春

    2016-01-01

    Based on the classification of network learning which is competitive learning and cooperative learning, this paper discusses the mechanism of the host country network relation influencing enterprise′s international marketing capa-bilities through the network learning, and makes an empirical study on the data of 113 Chinese mainland manufacture en-terprises.Results show:the host country network relationship breadth, relationship quality have a significantly positive impact on the competitive learning and cooperative learning, and the host country network relationship durability has a significantly positive impact on the cooperative learning; the competitive learning has a significantly positive impact on the international product development and management, the cooperative learning has a significantly positive impact on the international product development and management, international supply chain management and international customer relationship management; the relationship between the host country network relation and the network learning is partly moderated by cultural distance and market turbulence.%本文在将网络学习分为竞争性学习和合作性学习的基础上, 探讨了东道国网络关系通过网络学习影响企业国际营销能力的作用机理, 并利用中国大陆113家制造型国际化企业的问卷调查数据进行了实证研究, 结果表明: 东道国网络关系广度、 关系质量对竞争性学习和合作性学习有显著正向影响, 东道国网络关系持久度对合作性学习有显著正向影响; 竞争性学习对国际产品开发管理有显著正向影响, 合作性学习对国际产品开发管理、 国际供应链管理以及国际顾客关系管理有显著正向影响; 文化距离、 市场动荡性会部分调节东道国网络关系同网络学习之间的作用关系.

  19. 'I could never have learned this in a lecture': transformative learning in rural health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, Sarah; Lin, Ivan; Nattabi, Barbara; Green, Charmaine

    2014-05-01

    Health indicators for rural populations in Australia continue to lag behind those of urban populations and particularly for Indigenous populations who make up a large proportion of people living in rural and remote Australia. Preparation of health practitioners who are adequately prepared to face the 'messy swamps' of rural health practice is a growing challenge. This paper examines the process of learning among health science students from several health disciplines from five Western Australian universities during 'Country Week': a one-week intensive experiential interprofessional education program in rural Western Australia. The paper weaves together strands of transformative theory of learning with findings from staff and student reflections from Country Week to explore how facilitated learning in situ can work to produce practitioners better prepared for rural health practice.

  20. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  1. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rosefielde

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  2. Developing a communitywide electronic health record disease registry in primary care practices: lessons learned from the Western new york beacon community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Arvela R; Maloney, Nancy A; Satchidanand, Nikhil; Allen, Geoffrey M; Mueller, Raymond; Gangloff, Steven; Singh, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    Disease registries, as part of electronic health records (EHRs), have shown promise in improving care and outcomes. However, little is known about how best to implement them across communities, especially in communities that are not highly integrated. The Western New York (WNY) primary care community consists largely of independent practices using at least 20 different EHR products. This paper discusses the processes undertaken to develop a communitywide EHR disease registry in WNY, improvements it engendered, barriers overcome, and the lessons learned. HEALTHeLINK, under the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology Beacon Community Initiative, reached out to 98 primary care practices in the WNY region to establish EHR-based diabetes registries. Working with practices, community partners, and vendors, registry specifications were created. The registry was piloted with practices using one local vendor's EHR product and then rolled out to other practices, including five other EHR products. Using identified and de-identified registry datasets, quality benchmarking within and between practices and population health management were undertaken. From 2011 to 2013, the WNY Beacon Community assisted 98 practices (344 providers) serving over 50,000 adult diabetic patients. A major focus was on EHR registry development across diverse systems, and overcoming the challenges this presented. The Beacon diabetes registry was implemented at 85 of the 98 targeted practices. Of these registries, 65 met the criteria described in a later section for quality benchmarking and population health management purposes. Practices received quarterly benchmark reports summarizing their performance on key diabetes quality metrics and were compared to community practice averages. Practices used their registries for population health management by identifying and targeting patients in need of follow-up or specific diabetes-related care. The creation of the registry

  3. Vowel Production in the Speech of Western Armenian Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether the age at which English becomes dominant for Western Armenian bilinguals in the United States affects their vowel production in Western Armenian. Participating in the study were ten Western-Armenian bilinguals who learned English before age 8, ten bilinguals who did not learn English until adulthood, and one…

  4. 西方国家工业污染场地管理经验及其对中国的借鉴%Management experience of industrial contaminated sites in western countries and its implications for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乙敏; 李义纯; 肖荣波

    2013-01-01

    主体是一个重要的尝试。其次,构建污染场地健康风险评估系统。我国城市工业污染场地涉及诸多工业行业、污染类型繁多复杂。因此,在全国范围内对城市工业污染场地进行排查、建立优先污染场地名录是构建污染场地风险评估系统的重要内容。此外,我国现有的土壤质量标准和场地评估规范仍存在诸多缺陷,无法满足当前国家城市工业污染场地的管理需要。所以,完善场地评估的技术规范和相关标准将为污染场地风险评估系统的构建提供基础性保障。本文的论述和观点可为我国工业企业关停或搬迁遗留地的决策管理和污染场地管理体系的建立提供有意义的参考和借鉴。%In recent years some industrial sites have been abandoned and are subject to relocating because of the implementation of governmental policy known as“Withdraw from Cities, Move towards Industrial Parks”and“Industrial Transfer”. On the one hand, most of the industrial sites are contaminated by heavy metal and organic pollutants, posing various threats to human health and local ecosystem. On the other hand, the delayed re-exploitation of the contaminated sites is likely to deteriorate the residential environment, reduce the employment opportunity, and then damage the stability of the society. Therefore, the contaminated sites are threatening the safety of urban residential environment, affecting the public health, and preventing the society development. National and local governments have responded positively in environmental management, remediation and re-exploitation of these sites. However, at present, due to variety of the types of contaminated sites and interdisciplinary nature of environmental management, much work on the environmental management of contaminated sites is still in infancy and needs to be improved. Western countries such as USA, UK and Canada have accumulated rich experience and

  5. Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2007-01-01

    Festivals are precious cultural heritage of different countries,so differentfestivals can reflect different cultures. This article discusses cultural differences in Chinese and western festivals, aiming to promote cross-culture communication.

  6. The influence of educational context on science learning: a cross-national analysis of PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Dahsah, Chanyah; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2010-04-01

    The literature is replete with studies about the importance of context in relation to teaching and learning. Major international studies such as PISA, among others, attempt to develop an understanding of achievement in science learning in a variety of educational contexts. Here we explore the influence of educational context itself on science learning as measured by PISA. Comparison is made between two countries: one developed or 'western' nation, New Zealand, and one non-western developing nation from southeast Asia, Thailand. In this work the authors seek to establish links between the nature of the educational context (based on Lave's notion of situated cognition) and achievement in the PISA science evaluation exercise.

  7. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  8. Western Opera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    “ALTHOUGH the road islong and leads far,I’llsearch hard for truth.″Ithink these lines by Qu Yuan(c.340-278 B.C.)are most appropriatein describing Western opera inChina.Opera originated from musicaldrama in Italy.From Dafne by Flo-rentine composer Jacopo Peri in1597,opera has a history of nearly400 years,if we do not count folk,church or court music and danceor song dramas in Europe.Afterspreading from Italy to Austria,France,Germany,Britain,northernEuropean countries and Russia,op-era has developed many national

  9. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSLIM LAW AND ITS MAIN SOURCES, INFLUENCE OF WESTERNIZATION ON LEGAL SYSTEMS OF MUSLIM COUNTRIES AND ISLAMIZATION OF ROMANGERMANIC AND ANGLO-SAXON LEGAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the Genesis of Islam and its role in the development of Muslim law family, highlights the main sources of Muslim law legal families. It is noted an important role of standards in Islamic law developed by the theologians of the activities in the process of interpretation in filling gaps in the law. All this has led to the emergence of different schools or sects, which contributed to the creation of many ideologically warring with each other Muslim sects. The followers of these movements convince their supporters that the rest courses are false. The article notes that currently, in general, the Muslim law has not lost its position. Modern Islamic community of the world has about a billion and a half followers. The Muslim law has not only maintained its position, but also extends its sphere of influence. Islam – the youngest world religion - enters the countries whose people earlier professed Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc., the Followers of Islam, moving to other countries, almost do not assimilate. So, the Islamic community in Europe is practically not subjected to European influence. Some of the legal institutions in a number of non-Muslim countries are subjected to Islamization. In some countries, Islamic law is not considered as legally valid, but it works in fact. This happens in the Muslim enclaves of Europe, it is happening in Russia, particularly in the republics of the North Caucasus

  10. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  11. Better Outcomes through Learning, Data, Engagement, and Research (BOLDER – a system for improving evidence and clinical practice in low and middle income countries [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLDER Research Group

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many thousands of research studies published every year, evidence for making clinical decisions is often lacking. The main problem is that the evidence available is generated in conditions very different from those that prevail in routine clinical practice and with patients who are different. This is particularly a problem for low and middle income countries as most evidence is generated in high income countries. A group of clinicians, researchers, and policy makers met at Bellagio in Italy to consider how more relevant evidence might be generated. One answer is to conduct more pragmatic trials—those undertaken in routine clinical practice. The group thought that this might best be achieved by developing “learning health systems” in low and middle income countries. Learning health systems develop in communities that include clinicians, patients, researchers, improvement specialists, information technology specialists, managers, and policy makers and have a governance system that gives a voice to all those in the community. The systems focus on improving outcomes for patients, use a common dataset, and promote quality improvement and pragmatic research. Plans have been developed to create at least two learning systems in Africa.

  12. Chinese nursing students' culture-related learning styles and behaviours: A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Chunfeng Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation requires that nursing education focuses on culturally competent care. International students studying in Australia present a valuable resource for cultural learning, yet internationalisation presents opportunities and challenges for both lecturers and students. This paper explores Chinese nursing students, the single largest group of international students in Australia, their communication behaviour, patterns and learning styles at Australian universities from cultural and psychosocial perspectives. Our aim is to provide insight for educators in Western countries to better understand this particular ethnic group and help Chinese nursing students overcome learning difficulties and develop their potential learning capabilities. We further recommend coping strategies to help international Chinese nursing students' learning.

  13. Food science in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-01

    suck salt-rich earth to avoid salt depletion symptoms after arduous exertion in tropical heat long before "modern science" learned why (20). The enumeration of examples could go on, but this was not meant to be an essay in folklore. The point is that all so-called primitive societies developed technologies, techniques, and a store of practical knowledge of a wide range of sophistication, by what must be admitted to be the scientific method, and neither their accomplishments and skills nor those of societies "en voie de développement" should be ignored or discounted. We are confident that modern food science and technology has much to contribute to helping the food-deficit nations eat adequately. First, we must find a way of using the best of Western technology without losing sight of the reality of the situation in the third world and without failing to take into account, better than we have done so far, the secondary and tertiary implications of the changes suggested. Second, we must encourage the examination of local problems in terms of the use and improvement of local technologies which are often quite sophisticated and the result of centuries of development. And third, we must inject a greater component of cultural awareness in the education of students to make them more creative in their application of scientific knowledge to local problems and more adaptable to the conditions that exist in developing countries. We should not lose sight of the fact that because of the precarious nature of their food supply, very often developing countries have much more rigid rules governing the production, preparation, and consumption of food than usually is the case in food-surplus societies, and disturbing these rules is a very serious matter. The time is past when "West is best" can be taken for granted; "adapt and adopt" is surely less offensively arrogant and much more to the point.

  14. Implementing the Xpert® MTB/RIF Diagnostic Test for Tuberculosis and Rifampicin Resistance: Outcomes and Lessons Learned in 18 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ardizzoni

    Full Text Available The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert is an automated molecular test for simultaneous detection of tuberculosis (TB and rifampicin resistance, recommended by the World Health Organization as the preferred diagnostic method for individuals presumed to have multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB or HIV-associated TB. We describe the performance of Xpert and key lessons learned during two years of implementation under routine conditions in 33 projects located in 18 countries supported by Médecins Sans Frontières across varied geographic, epidemiological and clinical settings.Xpert was used following three strategies: the first being as the initial test, with microscopy in parallel, for all presumptive TB cases; the second being only for patients at risk of MDR-TB, or with HIV- associated TB, or presumptive paediatric TB; and the third being as the initial test for these high-risk patients plus as an add-on test to microscopy in others. Routine laboratory data were collected, using laboratory registers. Qualitative data such as logistic aspects, human resources, and tool acceptance were collected using a questionnaire.In total, 52,863 samples underwent Xpert testing from April 2011 to December 2012. The average MTB detection rate was 18.5%, 22.3%, and 11.6% for the three different strategies respectively. Analysis of the results on samples tested in parallel showed that using Xpert as add-on test to microscopy would have increased laboratory TB confirmation by 49.7%, versus 42.3% for Xpert replacing microscopy. The main limitation of the test was the high rate of inconclusive results, which correlated with factors such as defective modules, cartridge version (G3 vs. G4 and staff experience. Operational and logistical hurdles included infrastructure renovation, basic computer training, regular instrument troubleshooting and maintenance, all of which required substantial and continuous support.The implementation of Xpert was feasible and significantly increased TB

  15. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat), terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties–sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen–in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models–multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest regression (RFR), support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB)–were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June) were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices of

  16. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkuor, Gerald; Hounkpatin, Ozias K L; Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat), terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties-sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen-in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models-multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest regression (RFR), support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB)-were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June) were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices of redness

  17. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  18. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  19. Issues to Consider when Implementing Student-Centred Learning Practices at Asian Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2011-01-01

    A large number of failures in learning reforms at Asian universities have been documented recently in the literature. The main reason is that reformers often import Western-developed practices to Asian classrooms without a careful examination of their appropriateness within the socio-cultural context of these countries. This approach faces a high…

  20. A Phenomenographic Study of Lecturers' Conceptions of Using Learning Technology in a Pakistani Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Vivien; Shah, Uzair

    2017-01-01

    While there are many studies exploring the phenomenon of lecturers' use of learning technology within teaching practices in western higher education contexts, currently we know little about this phenomenon within less developed countries. In the paper, we discuss the findings from a phenomenographic study of lecturers' conceptions of using…

  1. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...

  2. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  3. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Di; Wang; Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries,so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  4. [Comparison between transmission of modern western medicine in China and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Ming

    2009-05-01

    In the middle period of the 16th century, western medicine had been introduced successively into China and Japan by the medium of Catholic missionaries. The transmission mode of western medicine in the two countries differed dramatically from each other due to the political, economic and social cultural differences of that time. In China, the transmission of western medicine focused on the theory first and transferred to the practical use later; while in Japan, it began with clinical treatment, then rose from the technology to the theory. As a result, the cognition to the western medical knowledge and medical system as well as the transplanting and localization in China and Japan were significantly different. The local western medical groups emerged earlier in Japan than in China, and the attitude toward western medicine was also more positive and a national health system was quickly established. The corresponding situation in China obviously lagged behind the one in Japan, and China learned from the successful experiences of Japan for a time.

  5. Country-of-origin effect and consumer brand perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andreea

    This dissertation investigates the impact of country of origin on the brand perception of consumers from developed and emerging countries. Particularly, the aim is to explore the impact of the country of origin on the Western consumers’ brand perception of high involvement products with multiple...... countries of origin and the Central Eastern European consumers’ brand perception of low involvement products from developed countries. It comprises a summary report, consisting of an introduction, a methodology chapter, a conclusions chapter and four research papers....

  6. WESTERN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Meddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion by rain and surface runoff is an important problem in the Mediterranean countries. The study of the relationship between erosion and sediment transport with hydrological and climatic factors have b een conducted in many countries around the world. The aim of this work is to show ra infall impact on the variability of spatial and temporal concentration in twelve drainage basins in the west of Algeria. We will also seek to find a representative parameter of rainfall erosive potential on a Time and spatial scale. When studying sediment transport in twelve drainage basins of the Centre and the west of Algeria, we have found that the modified Fournier index Which explains much of the specific degradation comp ared to the Fournier index. The study of the temporal variability of the annual rain fall series, modified Fournier index and concentration of the precipitation in the year for a series from 1930 to 2007 showed a negative trend of the two variables. The a nnual rainfall and modified Fournier index have declined by more than 20%. This de cline is more significant in inland areas.

  7. The fractal research on several large stock market in China and western country%中外几大股票市场差异的分形研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿波; 欧荣军; 何慧; 王翔; 阎梦玲

    2012-01-01

    The R/S method of the fractal theory was used in analysis the most influential stock markets in China ( Shanghai Composite Index-SSEC, the Shenzhen Composite Index-SZCI and Hang Seng Index-HIS in HongKong) and the most impact foreign stock markets (the Dow Jones,the Nasdaq and the S&P 500) in recent 10 years (2002-2011) stock index to study their differences. The Hurst exponent for the logarithmic rate of monthly return for Chinese stock markets were around 0. 74,while the Hurst exponent for the western were around 0. 77. The average cycle for Chinese stock markets were around 600 days, while westerns were around 1150 days. The price of the Dow Jones index had a greater influence on the price of SSEC than other markets,and HIS had a greater influence on SSCI than SSEC. Chinese and foreign markets had higher kurtosis than normal distribution, and during the first one or two cycle, the price data presented a right-skewed, peak and fat-tailed distribution characteristics. The data presented a left-skewed,peak and fat-tailed distribution afterwards. At the same time,the foreign data is much closer to normal distribution. This research is a good guidance for stock researcher understanding and studying the foreign stock markets.%运用了分形理论中的R/S分析法对中国的三大股市(上证,深证和香港的恒生指数)以及欧美的三大股市(道琼斯、纳斯达克以及标普500指数)的近10年(2002 ~ 2011)的股票指数作了差别研究.我国股市的月对数收益率的Hurst指数为0.74左右;而国外的则在0.77左右.国内三大股市的平均循环周期在600 d左右,而国外三大股市在1150 d左右.道琼斯指数对上证指数价格变化影响较大;恒生指数对深证指数的价格波动影响要比上证指数的价格波动影响大.中外股指均具有比正态分布更高的峰度,且在最初的一到两个周期内,数据呈现右偏尖峰后尾的分布特征,之后则呈现左偏尖峰后尾的分布特征.而

  8. Domestic policy frameworks for adaptation to climate change in the water sector. Part 2. Non-Annex I Countries. Lessons Learned from Mexico, India, Argentina and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levina, E.; Adams, H.

    2006-10-15

    This paper represents Part II of the analysis of the roles that domestic policy frameworks can play in adaptation to climate change in the water sector, conducted under the auspices of the Annex I Expert Group. Part I focused on Annex I countries and synthesised experiences of four case study countries: Canada, Finland, UK and the US. This paper focuses on non-Annex I countries and is based on four case studies in non-Annex I countries: Argentina, India, Mexico, and Zimbabwe. As in the previous paper, the water sector is defined as water resources (surface water and groundwater), their use (e.g. irrigation, public water supply, environmental needs) and their governance and management (legal and institutional issues, abstraction permitting, water infrastructure, water policies). Water quality issues are touched upon, as water quality and quantity issues cannot be looked at in isolation, but are not specifically analysed. The paper is based on four developing country case studies developed by local consultants. It is structured around the selected four elements that construct policy frameworks: (1) legislation, (2) institutional arrangements, (3) water management and policies, and (4) information availability and use in decisionmaking. Section 2 briefly examines current and projected future climatic conditions that necessitate adaptation. Section 3 focuses on domestic and international legal issues and informal rules that govern the water sector while Section 4 identifies institutions and key players in the water sector who should also become the key actors in adaptation. Section 5 examines water management approaches and policies and analyses how adaptation could be incorporated into the everyday management of water. Section 6 evaluates information needs and existing mechanisms for information sharing and dissemination that would be instrumental for successful adaptation. The paper concludes with a summary of key findings. The comparison with Annex I countries is

  9. 中西女性主义翻译对比下译者主体性探析%Subjectivity of Translator under Feminist Translation Comparison Between Western Countries and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金华

    2012-01-01

      With the “cultural turn” of translation studies, feminist translators mark an intensification of their subjectivity in translation based on the interaction between feminism and translation and guide the translation practice from a unique radical perspective. Compared with the radical western feminists, the Chinese female translators with gender consciousness have shown their subjectivity and creativity in their translation to some extent, but they adopt comparatively moderate translation strategies because of lack of application and development of the theory.%  随着翻译研究的“文化转向”,译者主体性问题引起了研究人员的关注。西方女性主义与翻译相结合,女性主义译者从独特的视角体验并指导着翻译实践,彰显出西方女性主义激进的译者主体性。与西方激进的女性主义翻译相比,中国尚缺乏对西方女性主义翻译理论的本土运用,国内某些具有女性主义意识的女译者在翻译中虽能发挥其主动性和能动性,但均采用了具有中式色彩的、比较温和的翻译策略

  10. The Review of Research on Student Engagement in Teaching Activities and Its Inspiration in Western Countries%西方学生教学参与研究进展述评及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海荣

    2016-01-01

    西方学校学生教学参与研究的兴起与关注学校教育质量有关。三十多年来,西方学生参与研究在以下几个方面取得了较大成绩:一是厘定了学生参与的概念;二是揭示了学生参与和学业成就之间的关系;三是探究出学生参与的影响因素;四是编制了数量繁多的用以测量学生参与的问卷;五是为提高学生参与提供了可操作的策略。从现有的研究状况来看,学生参与研究在取得很大成就的同时,也存在不少需要进一步深化的问题。%The rise of student engagement in teaching activities research related to the concern about school ed-ucation quality in the West. Over the past thirty years,it has made great achievements. Based on reviewing plentiful literatures,the paper summarizes the western school students engagement from the following aspects:concept defini-tion,the relationship between student engagement and academic achievement,the effect,the research tool,the action-able strategies of improving student engagement. From the current research of view,it has been made great progress, while there are still many problems need further study.

  11. 澳大利亚、欧美国家应对网络欺凌的策略及启示%Strategies for Coping with Cyberbullying in Australia and Western Countries and the Enlightenments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海清

    2013-01-01

      计算机和网络信息技术的发展,使得传统的校园欺凌问题向虚拟空间发展,未成年人网络欺凌已成为世界性的“公害”问题。近年来,澳大利亚、欧洲国家和美国结合本国实际情况,针对网络欺凌开展相关研究,探索、采取了一系列预防和干预措施。澳大利亚着重于为学校开发各类网络安全教育课程,从源头防范网络欺凌的发生;欧洲国家在开展网络欺凌研究上采取的态度是通力合作、共同防范,在预防教育上下大力气;而美国则主要是通过制定一系列相关法律来遏制日益蔓延的网络欺凌现象,用立法来保护未成年人的网络安全。%The development of computer and network technology has made the traditional school bullying problem expand to virtual space. Minor cyber-bullying has become the problem of global public nuisance. In recent years, based on various researches about cyber-bullying, Australia, European countries and United States have taken a series of precautions and interventions according to their own actual situation. Australia took focus on developing any kind of network security education courses to prevent cyber-bullying from the source;the European countries conduct their studies on cyber-bullying with the attitude of united strength and common defense, taking more focus on preventive education;and America keeps down the increasing spreading phenomenon of cyber-bullying mainly through making laws to protect the network security of minors.

  12. Learning from metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegård, Iann

    2015-09-01

    Today an increasing number of countries around the world have acquired almost the same metaphorical speech about teaching and learning. These theories grown in the Western world are largely produced within the framework of psychology and individualistic oriented educational philosophy and fits with the ever-expanding financial growth paradigm. This article gives a brief reference to an exchange that in the early 1900's took place between two different ways to go in American educational philosophy. Then selects John Dewey's route choice, which took a step away from attempts to create a rationalistic ultimate definition of teaching and learning. Instead, a couple of different metaphors for education are demonstrated that can be used as a basis for pragmatically organizing teaching toward specific purposes and consequences in relation to different cultural traditions.

  13. 透過PISA與TIMSS評比研究檢視西方與亞洲學生數學的相對強項 Using PISA and TIMSS Mathematics Assessments to Identify the Relative Strengths of Students in Western and Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張立民 Margaret Wu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wu(2009)的研究曾將2003 年「國際學生能力評量計畫」(Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA)的數學表現,與「國際數學與科學教育成就趨勢調查」(Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, TIMSS)八年級學生的數學表現做一比較,結果發現,西方國家在PISA 的表現大致上比在TIMSS的表現為佳。本研究則將TIMSS公開的題目分為兩組,一組與PISA 的架構相符,另一組則不相符。其中,TIMSS評比有很多幾何與代數的題目是屬於「純粹的數學」題(即未以真實生活情境作為背景的數學題),而這些題目並未出現在PISA 評比之中。本研究檢視六個國家在這兩組題目表現上的差異,藉此反映出西方與亞洲國家的相對強項與弱點,接著再將這些強項與弱點連結到PISA與TIMSS評比的內容上。有證據顯示,西方與亞洲國家在PISA 與TIMSS的差異表現可歸因於兩評比題目種類的不同。 A study was carried out that compared Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2003 Mathematics results with Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics results (Wu, 2009. It was found that Western countries generally performed better in PISA than in TIMSS, and Eastern European and Asian countries generally performed better in TIMSS than in PISA. In this paper, TIMSS released items are divided into two sets: one that fits the PISA framework and one that does not. In particular, many geometry and algebra items in TIMSS are “inner mathematics” (mathematics without a real-life context, and such items do not appear in the PISA test. Differential performances of six countries on each set of items are examined. In this way, the relative strengths and weaknesses of Western and Asian countries are identified. These strengths and weaknesses are then linked back to the contents of the PISA and TIMSS

  14. Characteristics of food safety inspection and supervision in western countries and their implications for China%欧美国家食品安全检验检测与监管的特点与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚水琼

    2011-01-01

    近年来,欧美主要发达国家和地区围绕着高标准的食品安全要求,已经逐步建立起统一高效的食品安全检验检测与监管体系,同时,还灵活运用各种手段提高食品安全水平.欧美发达国家和地区食品安全检验检测与监管的经验对加强中国食品安全检测检验与监管体系的建设具有重要的借鉴作用.%The problem of food safety has attracted worldwide attention in recent years. According to the high standards of food safety requirements in Europe and America, an efficient system of food safety inspection and supervision have been constructed in those developed countries which also adopt flexible means to improve their level of food safety. The Characteristics of food safety inspection and supervision in Europe and America have many implications for China. The paper would be based on their experiences and lessons to offer some proposes to food safety improvement in China.

  15. BRICS COUNTRIES IN GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lunev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization remains the crucial trend of global development, and it is especially evident in economic sphere. Apart from it, political, informational and cultural globalizations are actively discussed. The rapid development of global market, initiated by the West, paradoxically, fostered redistribution of economic influence towards the non-Western countries and primarily to Asia. Therefore, the record of participation of BRICS states (China and India, primarily in global processes is instructive. These two countries achieve significant developmental successes due to their integration in world economy without abandoning active participation of their government in regulation of economic and social activities. Analysis of the strategies adopted of other BRICS countries could appear quite useful for Russia. 

  16. What Should Educational Reform in Indonesia Look Like?--Learning from the PISA Science Scores of East-Asian Countries and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapto, Nadi

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia always continually failed international assessments even though many efforts have been made. The results of PISA 2012 put Indonesian students in the worst position. In contrast, East Asian countries' performance well in mathematics, reading, and science. Indeed, Singapore has the best performance in the Southeast Asia region even in the…

  17. Supporting the Contribution of Higher Education to Regional Development: Lessons Learned from an OECD Review of 14 Regions throughout 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo, Francisco; Puukka, Jaana

    2006-01-01

    Following decades of expansion in higher education, policy attention in OECD countries has begun to focus on the outcomes of higher education including how universities and other higher education institutions contribute to regional development. With the processes of globalisation and localisation, the local availability of knowledge and skills and…

  18. 西方公共管理理论比较研究——兼论其在我国的适用性价值%A Comparative Research into Theory of the Western Public Management and its Feasible Value in our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of development framework of the theory of the Western public management is researched into from conventional public administration,to modern public management,and to full governance,intending to explore general principle and value in the field of public management.Considering present developing state of our country,the rational bureaucracy of the traditional public administration,the key part of market-orientate of the modern public management,cooperation of full governance and the integrative concept combine to make the system reform of the administrative management of our country with the function of reference and revelation.%对西方公共管理理论的发展脉络从传统公共行政到新公共管理再到整体性治理进行了比较分析,寻找公共管理领域的一般性原则与价值。结合我国的发展现状,传统公共行政的理性官僚制、新公共管理的市场导向核心、整体性治理的协同与整合理念都对我国的行政管理体制改革具有借鉴与启示作用。

  19. Preeclampsia in low and middle income countries-health services lessons learned from the PRE-EMPT (PRE-Eclampsia-Eclampsia Monitoring, Prevention and Treatment) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dadelszen, Peter; Firoz, Tabassum; Donnay, France; Gordon, Rebecca; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Lalani, Shifana; Payne, Beth A; Roberts, James M; Teela, Katherine C; Vidler, Marianne; Sawchuck, Diane; Magee, Laura A

    2012-10-01

    The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in particular preeclampsia, matter because adverse events occur in women with preeclampsia and, to a lesser extent, in women with the other hypertensive disorders. These adverse events are maternal, perinatal, and neonatal and can alter the life trajectory of each individual, should that life not be ended by complications. In this review we discuss a number of priorities and dilemmas that we perceive to be facing health services in low and middle income countries as they try to prioritize interventions to reduce the health burden related to preeclampsia. These priorities and dilemmas relate to calcium for preeclampsia prevention, risk stratification, antihypertensive and magnesium sulphate therapy, and mobile health. Significant progress has been and is being made to reduce the impact of preeclampsia in low and middle income countries, but it remains a priority focus as we attempt to achieve Millennium Development Goal 5.

  20. Innovations for the Integration of Low-Skilled Workers into Lifelong Learning and the Labour Market: Case Studies from Six European Countries. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Roland

    This report presents innovative vocational training (VT) initiatives to improve integration of low-skilled workers into lifelong learning and the labor market. Chapter 1 describes study structure and methodology. Chapter 2 addresses the theoretical basis for observing innovations. It analyzes the definition and significance of innovation in system…

  1. A Country in Focus: Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in Germany--A Review of Empirical Research Literature from 2005 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Claudia; Olson, Agnes Madeleine; Friedrich, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on foreign language (FL) learning and teaching published between 2005 and 2010 in Germany. It focuses on the empirical studies that have attracted the greatest interest among researchers during this period of time. These include research on educational standards, teacher education, early FL…

  2. Flipping The Classroom: How Reversing Teaching-Learning Process Can Improve Learner’s Comprehension in Learning Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishnoebroto Wishnoebroto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flipping a classroom is not only recording classroom lesson into a video and bringing homework into the classroom. It is a whole new method with a lot better result compared to the traditional method. In western countries such as the US, flipping a classroom is already becoming a new method adopted by many different schools and universities. This paper tries to explore the possibility of flipping a classroom for learning foreign language at BINUS University by comparing it with the recent practices and findings in the western countries. After the analysis it can be concluded that this method can be applied at BINUS University but on several conditions such as the improvement of infrastructures, and the teacher’s awareness and understanding to optimize their understanding about flipped learning

  3. Bridging the gap between data analysis and data collection in FIA and forest monitoring globally: successes, research findings, and lessons learned from the Western US and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif. Mortenson

    2015-01-01

    Globally, national forest inventories (NFI) require a large work force typically consisting of multiple teams spread across multiple locations in order to successfully capture a given nation’s forest resources. This is true of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program in the US and in many inventories in developing countries that are supported by USFS...

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Bahrami

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly known medical entity with high prevalence, about 1 0 to 24 percent in general population and up to 74% in obese population[1]. The prevalence of the disease is expected to increase worldwide, as we are encountering the global obesity epidemic and the trend in developing countries toward the Western lifestyles. However, it looks that there are some differences between the demographic and epidemiologic features of NAFLD in developing and developed countries.

  5. Acceptance Factors and Current Level of Use of Web 2.0 Technologies for Learning in Higher Education: a Case Study of Two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razep Echeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Web 2.0 technology tools or social media in educational context is being emphasized in recent times in different parts of the world and this has brought about a significant increase in the number of educational institutions who are aware of their usefulness when either implementing them as a separate system or incorporating them into their learning management systems. However, there is little research on the acceptance and how much these tools are currently being used for learning hence the need for more empirical studies to investigate factors that would influence acceptance and increase the use of these technologies. The study developed hypotheses and a research model which was operationalized into a questionnaire administered to academics and students in Scotland and Nigeria. 317 responses were received from Nigeria and 279 from Scotland. Analysed data was used to validate the research model that is aimed at explaining acceptance and present level of use of Web 2.0 technology tools in learning environments.

  6. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  7. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  8. Scaling up specialist training in developing countries: lessons learned from the first 12 years of regional postgraduate training in Fiji – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman Kimberly

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12 years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P coup d’etat in 2000. By 2005, interviews suggested a dynamic of political instability initially leading to resignations, leading to even heavier workloads, compounded by academic studies that seemed unlikely to lead to career benefit. This was associated with loss of hope and downward spirals of further resignations. After 2006, however, Master’s graduates generally returned from overseas placements, had variable success in career progression, and were able to engage in limited private practice. Enrolments and retention stabilized and increased. Discussion and evaluation Over time, all specialties have had years when the viability and future of the programs were in question, but all have recovered to varying degrees, and the programs continue to evolve and strengthen. Prospective clarification of expected career outcomes for graduates, establishment of career pathways for diploma-only graduates, and balancing desires for academic excellence with workloads that trainees were able to bear may have lessened ongoing losses of trainees and graduates. Conclusions Despite early losses of trainees, the establishment of regional postgraduate training in Fiji is

  9. Bilingual asynchronous online discussion groups: design and delivery of an eLearning distance study module for nurse academics in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Peter A; Mai, Van Anh Thi; Gray, Genevieve

    2012-04-01

    The advent of eLearning has seen online discussion forums widely used in both undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education. This paper reports an Australian university experience of design, delivery and redevelopment of a distance education module developed for Vietnamese nurse academics. The teaching experience of Vietnamese nurse academics is mixed and frequently limited. It was decided that the distance module should attempt to utilise the experience of senior Vietnamese nurse academics - asynchronous online discussion groups were used to facilitate this. Online discussion occurred in both Vietnamese and English and was moderated by an Australian academic working alongside a Vietnamese translator. This paper will discuss the design of an online learning environment for foreign correspondents, the resources and translation required to maximise the success of asynchronous online discussion groups, as well as the rationale of delivering complex content in a foreign language. While specifically addressing the first iteration of the first distance module designed, this paper will also address subsequent changes made for the second iteration of the module and comment on their success. While a translator is clearly a key component of success, the elements of simplicity and clarity combined with supportive online moderation must not be overlooked.

  10. Could lectures be stimulating? An approach to encourage active learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakoush O

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical education is the cornerstone of building an effective health care system. Newly qualified doctors have to be equipped with knowledge, skills and attitudes to face the challenges of treating patients. Therefore the majority of medical schools in Western countries adopted, to varying degrees, the Problem Based Learning (PBL approach. However the PBL is an expensive approach as it is based on small group teaching with a maximum of 8-10 students per group. This makes it difficult to apply in countries like Libya where the medical schools enrol larger numbers of students, often without appropriate resources. Hence the majority of the teaching is based on didactic lectures.

  11. Learning Outcomes: Common Framework--Different Approaches to Evaluation Learning Outcomes in the Nordic Countries. Joint Nordic Project 2007-2008, by the Nordic Quality Assurance Network for Higher Education (NOQA). ENQA Occasional Papers 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavara, G.; Hreinsson, E.; Kajaste, M.; Lindesjoo, E.; Solvhjelm, C.; Sorskar, A. K.; Zadeh, M. Sedigh

    2008-01-01

    The adoption of the Bologna process has influenced the development of quality assurance across many countries in Europe. In particular, the implementation of the Framework for Qualifications in the European Higher Education Area has stimulated discussion about the three cycle model, which uses generic descriptors for each cycle based on learning…

  12. Critical thinking dispositions and learning styles of baccalaureate nursing students from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie

    2008-09-01

    Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles.

  13. A study abroad experience in Guatemala: learning first-hand about health, education, and social welfare in a low-resource country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lynda; Malone, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of the United States are rapidly changing as the nation becomes more culturally, racially, and ethnically diverse. In light of these changes, it is increasingly important that health care professionals develop cultural competence and understanding. Study abroad experiences can help students learn first-hand about other cultures and can promote the development of enhanced cultural sensitivity and competence. Although there are many advantages and benefits of study-abroad experiences, these experiences also present unique challenges for both students and faculty. This article presents a description of a 3-credit elective study abroad course that was offered for graduate or undergraduate credit in the summer of 2003 in Guatemala, including a description of course objectives, the process of planning and implementing the course from the faculty's perspective, and one student's perceptions of her study abroad experience.

  14. Optics 󈨚: Four Western European Countries Review Recent Achievements,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-27

    rincip!e, the universal applicability. processor, and many extensions cin Se , More d-etails of this research effort imagined. But T think that the way...recently in all aspects of digital I n , n .. .. .mage processing. Design techniques have J matured to a point which permits the (Note that, unlike the...34murphoog ical." The the zero and first-order Taylor co- speaker illustrated how a median filter- efficients). Thus, In a sense, triple ing proceso ! can

  15. Non-governmental Organizations in the Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuKening

    2004-01-01

    Human society is now undergoing profound changes against the backdrop of rapid development of world multi-polarization, economic globalization and information technology revolution. The present-day era is featured by a worldwide emer-

  16. Country Image and Brand Perception of Hybrid Products from Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andrea Ioana

    in the evaluation of unknown brand. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was administered to 243 students at Aalborg University. The results show that the student respondents do find the country of origins important when forming their brand perception or assessing the product; and they also ranked...... the emerging market economies suffer liabilities of negative country image. The present study seeks to empirically test whether the country-of-origin sub-components: country-of-design, country-of-assembly, and country-of-parts, of a product with Western and non-Western countries-of-origin is important...

  17. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  18. The impact of HIV treatment as prevention in the presence of other prevention strategies: lessons learned from a review of mathematical models set in resource-rich countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Dana; Schanzer, Dena; Guo, Hongbin; Gale-Rowe, Margaret; Wong, Tom

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess the potential prevention benefits of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) in resource-rich countries and examine the potential interactions between TasP and other prevention strategies by reviewing mathematical models of TasP. Multiple databases were searched for mathematical models published in the previous 5 years (from July 2007 to July 2012). The nine models located were set in Canada, Australia and the United States. These models' predictions suggested that the impact of expanding treatment rates on expected new infections could range widely, from no decrease to a decrease of 76%, depending on the time horizon, assumptions and the form of TasP modeled. Increased testing, reducing sexually transmitted infections and reducing risky practices were also predicted to be important strategies for decreasing expected new infections. Sensitivity analysis suggests that current uncertainties such as the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy outside of heterosexual transmission, less than ideal adherence, and risk compensation, could impact on the success of TasP at the population level. The results from large scale pilots and community randomized controlled trials will be useful in demonstrating how well this prevention approach works in real world settings, and in identifying the factors that are needed to support its effectiveness. © 2013.

  19. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people l...

  20. Service offshoring and productivity in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Crinò

    2008-01-01

    Using comparable data for nine Western European countries, this paper finds that service offshoring exerts positive and economically large effects on domestic productivity. A one percentage point increase in service offshoring is found to raise Total Factor Productivity by 0.5-0.6 percent.

  1. Differences between Chinese and Western Family Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严文利

    2015-01-01

    Family education is elementary and important for children.Because of different culture,China and other western countries have different family education.This paper mainly analyzes these differences in three aspects:values of family education,ways of family education and influences of family education.In the end,it provides some suggestions for improving Chinese family education.

  2. Adaptive Management and Social Learning in Collaborative and Community-Based Monitoring: a Study of Five Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative and community-based monitoring are becoming more frequent, yet few studies have examined the process and outcomes of these monitoring approaches. We studied 18 collaborative or community-based ecological assessment or monitoring projects undertaken by five community-based forestry organizations (CBFs, to investigate the objectives, process, and outcomes of collaborative ecological monitoring by CBF organizations. We found that collaborative monitoring can lead to shared ecological understanding among diverse participants, build trust internally and credibility externally, foster social learning and community-building, and advance adaptive management. The CBFs experienced challenges in recruiting and sustaining community participation in monitoring, building needed technical capacity for monitoring, and communicating monitoring results back to the broader community. Our results suggest that involving diverse and sometimes adversarial interests at key points in the monitoring process can help resolve conflicts and advance social learning, while also strengthening the link between social and ecological systems by improving the information base for management and increasing collective awareness of the interdependence of human and natural forest communities.

  3. Talking about the Difference between Chinese and Western Rite in Food and Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓霞

    2014-01-01

    In recent days, with more and more frequent exchanges and communications between China and western countries, their different culture, including different rites is involved in each other. Some people think that western things are definitely much better than Chinese things, so they imitate them from every aspect. It is not good for them to do so because some western things fit for westerners more than for Chinese people. This paper endeavors to illustrate that Chinese people should properly ab-sorb western culture through briefly introducing food and cloth culture in China and Western countries.

  4. Financial system development progress in Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kozarević

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial system supports economic growth, while its regulatory framework provides stability for investors. Develo-ping countries with bank-oriented financial systems are not attractive to investors, so prolonged status quo leads to economic deterioration. This is particularly the case with some of the most underdeveloped areas in Europe: Western Balkans. It is essential the developing countries in this region consider steps towards financial liberalization, which will help open the borders for capital flows and attract new investments. The main goal of this paper is to review and present the available information related to the banking system development in Western Balkans in terms of ownership structure, capital adequacy, loan and asset performance, return on investment and liquidity. These indicators should provide a clearer picture of the current financial systems in Western Balkans economies and their development progress – useful for comparison with other developing regions and financial transformation and liberalization efforts.

  5. Learning from doing the EquitAble project: Content, context, process, and impact of a multi-country research project on vulnerable populations in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac MacLachlan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘EquitAble’ project carried out content analyses of policies and collected and analysed qualitative and quantitative data concerning access to health services in Sudan, Malawi, Namibia and South Africa. Our particular concern was to address the situation of people with disabilities, although not in isolation from other marginalised or vulnerable groups.Objectives: This article reports on the content, context, process and impact of project EquitAble, funded by the European Commission Seventh Research Framework Programme, which brought together researchers from Ireland, Norway, South Africa, Namibia, Sudan and Malawi.Method: After the 4-year project ended in February 2013, all members of the consortium were asked to anonymously complete a bespoke questionnaire designed by the coordinating team. The purpose of the questionnaire was to capture the views of those who collaborated on the research project in relation to issues of content, context, process and impact of the EquitAble project.Results: Our results indicated some of the successes and challenges encountered by our consortium.Conclusion: We identified contextual and process learning points, factors often not discussed in papers, which typically focus on the reporting of the ‘content’ of results.

  6. Impact evaluation of domains of learning on Universal Work Precautions (UWP amongst nursing staff in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Second key strategy of National AIDS Control Program (NACP IV is comprehensive care and support by providing quality services through zero stigma and discrimination. Quality of services can be improved by eliminating stigma and discrimination and making health care provider aware of associated occupational hazards. Nursing staff play crucial role and are more at risk therefore their understanding, perception and skill must be assessed in different domains of learning to improve the contents and methodology of trainings. Material and Methods: Total 85 nursing staff underwent 1 day training in 3 batches focusing on Universal Work Precautions (UWP, Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP and sensitization of the participants towards PLHA (People living with HIV/AIDS. Their learning was evaluated under different domains (cognitive, psychomotor and affective using structured questionnaire. Results: In pretest evaluation scores showed minor and statistically not significant variations in terms of participant′s gender, age, designation work experience and status of having received any similar training in the past. Impact of the training was visible as overall mean scores increased from 10.6 ± 2.7 to 13.8 ± 5.8; gain being statistically highly significant (P value < 0.001. Gain was highest in cognitive (from 58% to 77% followed by psychomotor (from 48% to 62% and minimal in affective domain (from 75% to 76%. Conclusions: After undergoing the training, participants were benefitted more in cognitive domain than psychomotor and affective domain. Acquired knowledge, skill and communication skill if evaluated as done in this study will improve the methodology of such trainings making them more effective.

  7. Attitude to plagiarism in different European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is an important and frequently discussed issue, which may have severe financial impacts for higher education institutions across Europe. However, there are different attitudes to this topic in different countries. Whereas ECTS aims to provide an objective measurement of student effort allowing students to spend part of their studies at different institutions and even different countries, the penalties for plagiarism and other types of cheating may be different. Even the definition of plagiarism may be understood differently in particular European countries. One of the aims of the project IPPHEAE is to identify these differences and try to find common solutions for related problems.The aim of the paper is to present results of research focused on attitudes to plagiarism in Great Britain, Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and Bulgaria. A questionnaire survey was conducted in these countries among students and teachers. The results are interesting and inspiring and show huge differences in attitude to plagiarism between western and post-communist countries, surprisingly including the Czech Republic in the group of western countries.

  8. 西方发达国家老年人家庭照顾者政策支持的经验及对中国的启示%Family Carer SuPPort Policy Strategy for the Elderly:the ExPerience of Western DeveloPed Countries and its InsPiration for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱浩

    2014-01-01

    ABstract:With adjustment of western welfare state and reconsideration of informal care,supporting family carer by public policy has become the important content of care for the elderly. The paper states the content of family care support policy of western developed countries and complicated relations be revealed in formal care and informal care,public services and family personal services,labor market and family care. Based on this,we finds some implications for China as below:service policy for the elderly not only puts attention to the elderly individuals ,but also includes the family of the elderly;social services for the elderly should not to separate the relations of formal care and informal care;government should promulgate specific laws and regulations or establish relevant departments for collaborative management of family welfare;enterprises should be encouraged to fulfill their social responsibilities,which requires to provide grants or make more flexible work schedule for family caregivers.%随着西方福利国家的调整以及对非正式照顾网络的重新认识,通过公共政策支持家庭照顾者正成为老年照顾的重要内容。本文对西方国家老年人的家庭照顾者支持的政策内容进行了阐述,展示了正式照顾和非正式照顾、公共服务和家庭个人服务以及劳动力市场和家庭照顾之间的复杂关系,并发现对中国有如下启示:老年服务政策不仅应该针对老年人个体也应该包括老年人的家庭,同时社会化养老服务不应该割裂正式照顾和非正式照顾之间的关系;政府应该出台专门的法律法规或成立相应的部门来协同管理家庭福利,还需要鼓励企业履行社会责任,为家庭照顾者提供津贴或制定比较灵活的工作计划。

  9. The Sex Difference in Depression across 29 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.; Bradley, Dana Burr

    2007-01-01

    The sex difference in depression is well documented in westernized, developed societies, although there has been little quantitative cross-cultural research on the topic. In this study, we use multilevel logit models to examine sex differences in depression across 29 countries using data from the World Values Survey. We find that in no country are…

  10. Senior citizens: Digital immigrants in their own country?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.

    2012-01-01

    Populations are aging at a rapid pace in the majority of western countries. At the same time, these countries are increasingly becoming more digitalized and information is supplied to a growing extent in digital form. To what extent is there an actual problem for senior citizens who are looking for

  11. Senior citizens: Digital immigrants in their own country?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, E.F.

    2012-01-01

    Populations are ageing at a rapid pace in the majority of western countries. At the same time, these countries are increasingly becoming more digitised and information is supplied to a growing extent in digital form. To what extent is there an actual problem for senior citizens who are looking for a

  12. Difference and similarity of interpretation thoughts in China and western countries in classical texts from perspective of “Tao produced”and “God said”:a case of Tao Te Ching and Bible%从“道生”与“神说”看中西经典诠释思想之异同∗--以《道德经》和《圣经》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骏

    2015-01-01

    在西方诠释传统中,《圣经》作为一种神圣文本是中世纪诠释学的焦点所在,对神圣文本的理解与解释具有代表性意义;而中国古代《道德经》中的诠释思想则是中国诠释传统的典型。以《圣经》中的“神说”与《道德经》中的“道生”作为两部经典中的核心线索,对比分析两者的相通性和差异性,进而揭示中西经典诠释思想的异同,有助于厘清中西诠释思想不同的发展方向。%In western hermeneutics tradition, Bible is the focus of hermeneutics in medieval era as a sacred text, of which the understanding and interpretation have representative significance;while in ancient China, the interpretation thoughts in Tao Te Ching are the equivalence as a typical sample of Chinese hermeneutical tradition. Taking “God said” in Bible and “Tao produced” in Tao Te Ching as key clues of the two classics, the similarities and differences of them are compared and analyzed, the differences and similarities of interpretation thoughts in China and western countries in classics are revealed, which can help to clarify the different development directions of interpretation thoughts in China and western countries.

  13. Assessment methods as effective tools for learning outcomes of students in senior secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamidi W.A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of assessment on the students learning outcomes in Agricultural Science at five different secondary schools in Ila-Orangun, Osun State were studied. An arm of a class was used for each test; Continuous Assessment (CA and Conventional Method (CM were used for each arm. Students were taught during their normal school times for the maximum time of forty minutes thrice a week. There were ten objective questions weekly for each assessment of the students in the CA method for six weeks. The same questions were used throughout for all the schools, done simultaneously for CA. Also, sixty questions at once at the end of the sixth week for CM. Standard deviation and regression equations for the mean values were used in the analysis. The results show that CA could be adjudged to be better off than the CM because of its higher mean values in all the schools than the CM. The higher R2 values of 0.99 and 0.88 revealed stronger correlation between different methods of assessment and the targeted learners. The CA test should be used instead of CM; the CM does not make learners to gain much cognitive knowledge when compare with what CA does to students.

  14. 从电影《推手》看中西文化价值观的冲突%The Conflicts of Values Between China and Western Countries Seen Through the Movie Pushing Hands:from the Per-spective of Kluckhohn’s Value Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊瑶

    2014-01-01

    电影《推手》是跨文化交际的一个典型范例,它主要体现了中西方跨文化交际中的种种冲突,而这些冲突又可以从价值观的角度来分析和解释。从克拉克洪的文化价值观维度来看,影片中的价值观冲突主要可以分为人的本性、人与自然的关系、时间观念、活动、社会关系五类。然而,跨文化交际中的价值观冲突并非不可调和。正如电影结尾所说明的,只要来自不同文化背景的人们能够相互包容和沟通,这些冲突便都可能化解。%As a typical exemplification of intercultural communication, the movie Pushing Hands mainly reflects the conflicts in the process of intercultural communication between China and western countries, and these conflicts could be analyzed and ex-plained from the perspective of cultural values. Analyzed in terms of Kluckhohn’s value dimensions, the main conflicts of values in the movie can be divided into five types, namely, Human Nature, Relationship to Nature, Sense of Time, Activity, and Social Relationships. However, these conflicts in the process of intercultural communication can also be mediated. Just like what is re-flected at the end of the movie, these conflicts are likely to be resolved as long as people from different cultural backgrounds can accept and communicate with each other.

  15. 中西方绅士化研究进展及其对我国城市规划的启示%The Research Progress of Gentrification in Western Countries and China with the lmplications for China' s Urban Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄幸; 杨永春

    2012-01-01

    As a new urban social geographical phenomenon, gentrification has been developing for decades in Western countries. And the concept of gentrification has changed with globalization and other aspects mixing in this geographical phenomenon. In this paper, we first describe the concept development of gentrification, pointing out that the contemporary concept of gentrification has changed from the original view, and classify different gentrification phenomena which have emerged in the third stage of the progress; then, we review the China' s progress in gentrification research and the achievements; and finally, considering the positive and negative effects which gentrification caused, we give some effective suggestions for urban planning in China.%绅士化是1960年代产生的一种城市社会地理现象,经过几十年的发展,绅士化研究为城市发展提供了很多借鉴.本文首先时西方绅士化的概念及其发展进行了描述,指出西方绅士化的概念已经在最初的基础上有了改进,并且对西方目前存在的各种绅士化现象进行了分类;其次回顾了我国时绅士化研究的进展和所取得的成果;最后,分析了绅士化运动对我国城市建设带来的正负两方面的影响,并据此对我国城市规划建设和发展提出了建议.

  16. Work and Learning in Micro-enterprises in the Printing Industry. A Comparative Research Study into the Relationship between Technological and Organisational Developments and Training Activities in Micro-enterprises in the Printing Industry in Four European Countries. Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaart, Harry; van den Berg, Sjaak; Warmerdam, John

    Work and learning in microenterprises in the printing industries of four European Community (EC) countries were examined through 17 case studies of firms with 10 or fewer employees (5 firms in Finland and 4 each in Ireland, the Netherlands, and Spain). Structured interviews were conducted with each firm's owner and a total of 90 staff at the 17…

  17. The Spirit of Western Business Ethics and Its Revelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi wei

    2008-01-01

    The development of socialist market economy needs the power support provided by western business ethics. To build the culture ofmodern business ethics in our country, we need absorb the useful spirit of business ethics from western business culture and use for reference. Basedon the analysis of the main spirit of Western business ethics, this paper puts forward that we must stress the role of business, establish an appropriateattitude towards profits, and mold a 'rational spirit of modem business in the process of building modem business culture in our country.

  18. Cooperation and Conflict: Faction Problem of Western Medicine Group in Modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeongeun

    2016-08-01

    After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government. In addition, they formed a faction by the country where they studied or the language they learned. The factions included the Britain - America faction(yingmeipai) consisting of the Britain - America studied doctors or graduates from Protestant missions based medical schools, and the Germany - Japan faction(deripai), graduates from medical schools by Japanese or German government and the Chinese government. In 1915, they founded the National Medical Association of China mainly consisting of the Britain - America faction and the National Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of China led by the Germany - Japan faction. Initially, exchanges were active so most of eminent doctors belonged the two associations at the same time. They had a consciousness of a common occupation group as a doctor who had learned Western medicine. Thus, they actively cooperated to keep their profits against Chinese medicine and enjoy their reputation. Their cooperation emitted light particularly in translation of medical terms and unified works. Thanks to cooperation, the two associations selected medical terminologies by properly using the cases of the West and Japan. Additionally, medical schools of the Britain - America faction and the Germany - Japan faction produced various levels of the Western Medicine Group doctors

  19. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  20. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.

    2011-11-01

    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.