Sample records for western corn belt

  1. Recent land use change in the Western Corn Belt threatens grasslands and wetlands. (United States)

    Wright, Christopher K; Wimberly, Michael C


    In the US Corn Belt, a recent doubling in commodity prices has created incentives for landowners to convert grassland to corn and soybean cropping. Here, we use land cover data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer to assess grassland conversion from 2006 to 2011 in the Western Corn Belt (WCB): five states including North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Iowa. Our analysis identifies areas with elevated rates of grass-to-corn/soy conversion (1.0-5.4% annually). Across the WCB, we found a net decline in grass-dominated land cover totaling nearly 530,000 ha. With respect to agronomic attributes of lands undergoing grassland conversion, corn/soy production is expanding onto marginal lands characterized by high erosion risk and vulnerability to drought. Grassland conversion is also concentrated in close proximity to wetlands, posing a threat to waterfowl breeding in the Prairie Pothole Region. Longer-term land cover trends from North Dakota and Iowa indicate that recent grassland conversion represents a persistent shift in land use rather than short-term variability in crop rotation patterns. Our results show that the WCB is rapidly moving down a pathway of increased corn and soybean cultivation. As a result, the window of opportunity for realizing the benefits of a biofuel industry based on perennial bioenergy crops, rather than corn ethanol and soy biodiesel, may be closing in the WCB.

  2. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)


    The ultimate economic feasibility of biomass depends on its cost of production and on the cost of competing fuels. The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the production costs of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass for energy use in Iowa. Herbaceous biomass production systems have costs similar to other crop production systems, such as corn, soybean, and forages. Thus, the factors influencing the costs of producing dedicated biomass energy crops include technological factors such as the cultivation system, species, treatments, soil type, and site and economic factors such as input prices and use of fixed resources. In order to investigate how these production alternatives are influenced by soil resources, and climate conditions, two locations in Iowa, Ames and Chariton, with different soil types and slightly different weather patterns were selected for both the agronomic and economic analyses. Nine crops in thirteen cropping systems were grown at the two sites for five years, from 1988 to 1992. Some of the systems had multiple cropping or interplanting, using combinations of cool-season species and warm-season species, in order to meet multiple objectives of maximum biomass, minimal soil loss, reduced nitrogen fertilization or diminished pesticide inputs. Six of the systems use continuous monocropping of herbaceous crops with an emphasis on production. The seven other systems consist of similar crops, but with crop rotation and soil conservation considerations. While the erosion and other off-site effects of these systems is an important consideration in their overall evaluation, this report will concentrate on direct production costs only.

  3. Characterizing major agricultural land change trends in the Western Corn Belt (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Taff, Gregory N.; Ren, Jie; Campbell, James B.


    In this study we developed annual corn/soybean maps for the Western Corn Belt within the United States using multi-temporal MODIS NDVI products from 2001 to 2015 to support long-term cropland change analysis. Based on the availability of training data (cropland data layer from the USDA-NASS), we designed a cross-validation scheme for 2006-2015 MODIS data to examine the spatial generalization capability of a neural network classifier. Training data points were derived from a three-state sub-region consisting of North Dakota, Nebraska, and Iowa. Trained neural networks were applied to the testing sub-region (South Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota, and Missouri) to generate corn/soybean maps. Using a default threshold value (neural network output signal ⩾ 0.5), the neural networks performed well for South Dakota and Minnesota. Overall accuracy was higher than 80% (kappa > 0.55) for all testing years from 2006 to 2015. However, we observed high variation of classification performance for Kansas (overall accuracy: 0.71-0.82) and Missouri (overall accuracy: 0.65-0.77) for various testing years. We developed a threshold-moving method that decreases/increases threshold values of neural network output signals to match MODIS-derived corn/soybean acreage with the NASS acreage statistics. Over 70% of testing states and years showed improved classification performance compared to the use of a default 0.5 threshold. The largest improvement of kappa value was about 0.08. This threshold-moving method was used to generate MODIS-based annual corn/soybean map products for 2001-2015. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was then used to identify areas that showed significant (p North Dakota, South Dakota, and the west portion of Minnesota. The highest annual increase rate for a 5-km moving window was about 6.8%.

  4. Use of the Cropland Data Layer to monitor grassland conversion in the U.S. Western Corn Belt (Invited) (United States)

    Wright, C.; Wimberly, M. C.


    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Cropland Data Layer (CDL) provides new opportunities for monitoring land cover/land use change (LCLUC) related to U.S. agricultural policy, bioenergy development, and recent commodity price increases. We used the CDL to assess the conversion of grasslands to corn/soy cultivation along the western periphery of the U.S. Corn Belt. Here, we find rapid grassland conversion (1-5% annually) as the Corn Belt expands westward and northward into North Dakota and South Dakota. This LCLUC is occurring in close proximity to wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. In most counties in the eastern Dakotas, grassland conversion exceeds declines in land area enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Within the core corn/soy growing area in Iowa and southern Minnesota, LCLUC is occurring on marginal lands characterized by high erosion potential and less-productive soils. In Minnesota, particularly, corn/soy production is increasing on lands previously too wet to farm without an expansion of agricultural drainage practices. Over the period 2006-2011, we estimate a net greenhouse gas impact of grassland conversion in the Western Corn Belt of approximately 4*106 metric tons CO2-equivalent. Although not designed for monitoring grasslands, we suggest that the CDL can be used judiciously to identify grassland conversion at farm- to sub-county scales, and, in conjunction with other national-level datasets (e.g., the National Wetlands Inventory and SSURGO database), to provide timely feedback to policymakers and the public on likely environmental impacts of U.S. agricultural policies and shifting market forces.

  5. Periodicity in tree rings from the corn belt. (United States)

    Meko, D M; Stockton, C W; Blasing, T J


    Previous tree-ring studies indicated that the total area affected by drought in the western United States has rhythmically expanded and contracted over the past 300 years, with a period near the 18.6-year lunar nodal and 22-year double-sunspot cycles. Recently collected tree-ring data from the U.S. Corn Belt for the years 1680 to 1980 were examined for evidence of either of these cycles on a regional scale. Spectral analysis indicated no periodicity in the eastern part of the Corn Belt, but a significant 18.33-year period in the western part. The period length changed from 17.60 to 20.95 years between the first 150 years and the last 151. High-resolution frequency analysis showed that the structure of the 18.33-year spectral peak was complex, with contributions from several frequencies near both the lunar nodal and double-sunspot periods. A t-test of difference of means in reconstructed annual precipitation weakly corroborated a previous finding of an association between drought area and the phase of the double-sunspot cycle. Both the high-resolution frequency analysis and the t-test results indicate that the periodic component of drought near 20 years is too weak and irregular to be of use in drought forecasting for the Corn Belt.

  6. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control. (United States)

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P


    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided.

  7. 4. 1. Response of the North American corn belt to climatic warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Solomon, A.M.


    The climate of the North American corn belt was characterized as part of an effort to estimate the effects of climatic change on that agricultural region. Heat and moisture characteristics of the current corn belt were first identified. Locations of those characteristics were then mapped, based on a climate simulated to result from doubling the amount of atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Such projections of corn-belt location were made both with and without allowance for earlier planting dates under a warmer climate. Because the direct effects of CO/sub 2/ on plants, improvements in farm technology, and plant breeding are not considered, the resulting projections represent an extreme or worst case. Results indicate that even for such a worst case, climatic conditions favoring corn production would not extend very far into Canada. Greatest translocations are projected for the western, or driest, part of the corn belt where other crops such as winter wheat could replace corn. However, this kind of exercise clearly shows that the use of climate-model output requires several highly questionable assumptions about changes in the timing and regional distribution of precipitation accompanying a climatic warming. Increased use of climatic data and improved specification of CO/sub 2/-induced increases in water-use efficiency of corn are suggested for more credible projections of corn belt responses to increasing CO/sub 2/. 12 references, 4 figures.

  8. Oviposition Behaviors in Relation to Rotation Resistance in the Western Corn Rootworm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knolhoff, L.M.; Glas, J.J.; Spencer, J.L.; Berenbaum, M.R.


    Across a large area of the midwestern United States Corn Belt, the western corn rootworm beetle (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) exhibits behavioral resistance to annual crop rotation. Resistant females exhibit increased locomotor activity and frequently lay eggs i

  9. Grassland and Wheat Loss Affected by Corn and Soybean Expansion in the Midwest Corn Belt Region, 2006–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimei Lin


    Full Text Available Increases in agricultural commodity price triggered by ethanol production and other socioeconomic conditions have dramatically affected land uses and agronomic practices in the U.S. This study used crop-specific land cover data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA to analyze agricultural expansion and crop rotation pattern from 2006 to 2013 in the Midwest Corn Belt (MWCB: nine states including Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and South Dakota. We identified a total of 3.9 million acres’ grassland loss between 2007 and 2012. The net loss of grassland occurred mainly along the western MWCB, an area with competing demand for limited water supply. Net conversion of grassland to corn or soybean is likely the result of a resumption of cropping on lands previously enrolled under the USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP, as well as expansion beyond CRP lands. Wheat, small grains, and other crops were also impacted by corn and soybean expansion. The amount of corn planted on corn increased by 23% between 2006 and 2013, whereas the amount of continuous soybean cropping fluctuated over time.

  10. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.


    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  11. HP metamorphic belt of the western Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The understanding of the subduction-related processes benefited by the studies of the high-pressure (HP) meta-morphic rocks from the western Alps. The most stimu-lating information was obtained from the inner part of the western Alpine belt, where most tectonic units show an early Alpine eclogite-facies recrystallisation. This is especially true for the Austroalpine Sesia Zone and the Penninic Dora-Maira massif. From the Sesia zone,which consists of a wide spectrum of continental crust lithologies recrystallised to quartz-eclogite-facies min-eral assemblages, the first finding of a jadeite-bearingmeta-granitoid has been described, supporting evidencethat even continental crust may subduct into the mantle.From the Dora-Maira massif the first occurrence of regional metamorphic coesite has been reported, open-ing the new fertile field of the ultrahigh-pressure meta-morphism (UHPM), which is now becoming the rule in the collisional orogenic belts.

  12. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  13. Impacts of climate change on corn yield and the length of corn growing season in U.S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Niyogi, D.; Liu, X.; Takle, E. S.; Anderson, C.; Andresen, J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Gramig, B. M.; Doering, O.


    This study is a result of a USDA sponsored project titled Useful to Usable (U2U): "Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers". The objective of this project is to improve farm resilience and profitability in the U.S. Corn Belt region by transforming existing meteorological dataset into usable knowledge and tools for the agricultural community. In this study, we conducted the Hybrid-Maize corn growth simulation model at 18 sites across the U.S. Corn Belt with 5 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models. The crop model was running for two time periods: 1981-2010 ('current') and 2041-2070 ('future'). We also developed a "delta" method, which combines the current climate variability with the "mean" model projected climate change. The results indicate that under the 'future' climate, growing degree days (GDD) projected corn growing season (from planting date reach to maturity required GDD) are shortened due to the increasing of mean temperature. Compare to the contemporary simulations, the shorter growing season under "future" scenario brings lower attainable yields if farmers using the same cultivar. This presentation will focus on the details about the model simulations, the interactive process employed in developing the simulations, the implications of the results, the uncertainties, and the lessons learned.

  14. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J


    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  15. Rapid corn and soybean mapping in US Corn Belt and neighboring areas (United States)

    Zhong, Liheng; Yu, Le; Li, Xuecao; Hu, Lina; Gong, Peng


    The goal of this study was to promptly map the extent of corn and soybeans early in the growing season. A classification experiment was conducted for the US Corn Belt and neighboring states, which is the most important production area of corn and soybeans in the world. To improve the timeliness of the classification algorithm, training was completely based on reference data and images from other years, circumventing the need to finish reference data collection in the current season. To account for interannual variability in crop development in the cross-year classification scenario, several innovative strategies were used. A random forest classifier was used in all tests, and MODIS surface reflectance products from the years 2008–2014 were used for training and cross-year validation. It is concluded that the fuzzy classification approach is necessary to achieve satisfactory results with R-squared ~0.9 (compared with the USDA Cropland Data Layer). The year of training data is an important factor, and it is recommended to select a year with similar crop phenology as the mapping year. With this phenology-based and cross-year-training method, in 2015 we mapped the cropping proportion of corn and soybeans around mid-August, when the two crops just reached peak growth.

  16. Watershed regressions for pesticides (WARP) for predicting atrazine concentration in Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.


    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, can be improved for application to the U.S. Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include important watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for predicting annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. All streams used in development of WARP-CB models drain watersheds with atrazine use intensity greater than 17 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2). The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62 percent of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites.

  17. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in re...

  18. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota (United States)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  19. Watershed regressions for pesticides (warp) models for predicting atrazine concentrations in Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.


    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, are improved for application to the United States (U.S.) Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62% of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites. Model predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observed concentration statistic for over 90% of the model-development sites. The WARP-CB residuals and uncertainty are lower than those of the National WARP model for the same sites. Although atrazine-use intensity is the most important explanatory variable in the National WARP models, it is not a significant variable in the WARP-CB models. The WARP-CB models provide improved predictions for Corn Belt streams draining watersheds with atrazine-use intensities of 17 kg/km2 of watershed area or greater.

  20. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin. (United States)

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S


    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies.

  1. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection (United States)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  2. Assessment of soil attributes and crop productivity after diversification of the ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Highly specialized cash-grain production systems based upon corn-soybean rotations under tilled soil management are common in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt. This study, initiated in 1997, was conducted to determine if diversification of this ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation would affect soil char...

  3. Evaluation of Cuphea as a rotation crop for control of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (United States)

    Behle, Robert W; Isbell, Terry A


    The ability to prevent significant root feeding damage to corn, Zea mays L., by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, by crop rotation with soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., has been lost in portions of the Corn Belt because this pest has adapted to laying eggs in soybean fields. Cuphea spp. has been proposed as a new broadleaf crop that may provide an undesirable habitat for rootworm adults because of its sticky surface and therefore may reduce or prevent oviposition in these fields. A 4-yr study (1 yr to establish seven rotation programs followed by 3 yr of evaluation) was conducted to determine whether crop rotation with Cuphea would provide cultural control of corn rootworm. In support of Cuphea as a rotation crop, fewer beetles were captured by sticky traps in plots of Cuphea over the 4 yr of this study compared with traps in corn and soybean, suggesting that fewer eggs may be laid in plots planted to Cuphea. Also, corn grown after Cuphea was significantly taller during vegetative growth, had significantly lower root damage ratings for 2 of 3 yr, and had significantly higher yields for 2 of 3 yr compared with continuous corn plots. In contrast to these benefits, growing Cuphea did not prevent economic damage to subsequent corn crops as indicated by root damage ratings > 3.0 recorded for corn plants in plots rotated from Cuphea, and sticky trap catches that exceeded the threshold of five beetles trap(-1) day(-1). Beetle emergence from corn plots rotated from Cuphea was significantly lower, not different and significantly higher compared with beetle emergence from continuous corn plots for 2002, 2003 and 2004 growing seasons, respectively. A high number of beetles were captured by emergence cages in plots planted to Cuphea, indicating that rootworm larvae may be capable of completing larval development by feeding on roots of Cuphea, although peak emergence lagged approximately 4 wk behind peak emergence from corn. Based on these data

  4. The U2U Corn Growing Degree Day tool: Tracking corn growth across the US Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Angel


    Full Text Available The Corn Growing Degree Day (Corn GDD tool is a web-based product that can provide decision support on a variety of issues throughout the entire growing season by integrating current conditions, historical climate data, and projections of Corn GDD through the end of the growing season based on both National Weather Service computer model forecasts and climatology. The Corn GDD tool can help agricultural producers make a variety of important decisions before and during the growing season. This support can include: assessing the risk of early and late frosts and freezes that can cause crop damage; comparing corn hybrid maturity requirements and Corn GDD projections to select seed varieties and plan activities such as spraying; guiding marketing decisions based on historical and projected Corn GDDs when considering forward crop pricing (i.e., futures market. The Corn GDD tool provides decision support for corn producers in the central U.S. corn-producing states. Survey results, web statistics, and user feedback indicate that this tool is being actively used by decision makers.

  5. Crop and Soil Responses to Using Corn Stover as a Bioenergy Feedstock: Observations from the Northern US Corn Belt

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    Jane M. F. Johnson


    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. stover is a potential bioenergy feedstock, but little is known about the impacts of reducing stover return on yield and soil quality in the Northern US Corn Belt. Our study objectives were to measure the impact of three stover return rates (Full (~7.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1, Moderate (~3.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or Low (~1.5 Mg ha yr−1 Return on corn and soybean (Glycine max. L [Merr.] yields and on soil dynamic properties on a chisel-tilled (Chisel field, and well- (NT1995 or newly- (NT2005 established no-till managed fields. Stover return rate did not affect corn and soybean yields except under NT1995 where Low Return (2.88 Mg ha−1 reduced yields compared with Full and Moderate Return (3.13 Mg ha−1. In NT1995 at 0–5 cm depth, particulate organic matter in Full Return and Moderate Return (14.3 g kg−1 exceeded Low Return (11.3 g kg−1. In NT2005, acid phosphatase activity was reduced about 20% in Low Return compared to Full Return. Also the Low Return had an increase in erodible-sized dry aggregates at the soil surface compared to Full Return. Three or fewer cycles of stover treatments revealed little evidence for short-term impacts on crop yield, but detected subtle soil changes that indicate repeated harvests may have negative consequences if stover removed.

  6. Environmental Impacts of Stover Removal in the Corn Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicia English; Wallace E. Tyner; Juan Sesmero; Phillip Owens; David Muth


    When considering the market for biomass from corn stover resources erosion and soil quality issues are important to consider. Removal of stover can be beneficial in some areas, especially when coordinated with other conservation practices, such as vegetative barrier strips and cover crops. However, benefits are highly dependent on several factors, namely if farmers see costs and benefits associated with erosion and the tradeoffs with the removal of biomass. This paper uses results from an integrated RUSLE2/WEPS model to incorporate six different regime choices, covering management, harvest and conservation, into simple profit maximization model to show these tradeoffs.

  7. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N Meihls

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72% compared with control colonies (33%. For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest.

  8. Investigation of the N2O emission strength in the U. S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Fu, Congsheng; Lee, Xuhui; Griffis, Timothy J.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Andrews, Arlyn E.


    Nitrous oxide (N2O) has a high global warming potential and depletes stratospheric ozone. The U. S. Corn Belt plays an important role in the global anthropogenic N2O budget. To date, studies on local surface N2O emissions and the atmospheric N2O budget have commonly used Lagrangian models. In the present study, we used an Eulerian model - Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model to investigate the relationships between N2O emissions in the Corn Belt and observed atmospheric N2O mixing ratios. We derived a simple equation to relate the emission strengths to atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, and used the derived equation and hourly atmospheric N2O measurements at the KCMP tall tower in Minnesota to constrain agricultural N2O emissions. The modeled spatial patterns of atmospheric N2O were evaluated against discrete observations at multiple tall towers in the NOAA flask network. After optimization of the surface flux, the model reproduced reasonably well the hourly N2O mixing ratios monitored at the KCMP tower. Agricultural N2O emissions in the EDGAR42 database needed to be scaled up by 19.0 to 28.1 fold to represent the true emissions in the Corn Belt for June 1-20, 2010 - a peak emission period. Optimized mean N2O emissions were 3.00-4.38, 1.52-2.08, 0.61-0.81 and 0.56-0.75 nmol m- 2 s- 1 for June 1-20, August 1-20, October 1-20 and December 1-20, 2010, respectively. The simulated spatial patterns of atmospheric N2O mixing ratios after optimization were in good agreement with the NOAA discrete observations during the strong emission peak in June. Such spatial patterns suggest that the underestimate of emissions using IPCC (Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change) inventory methodology is not dependent on tower measurement location.

  9. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations (United States)

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt c...

  10. Management of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev


    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR was registered for the first time in Europe near the Surčininternational airport in Serbia in 1992. The spread of WCR on the territory of Serbia and itspopulation density increased fast. The Serbian territory was entirely populated in the followingfew years, while major damages occurred on corn grown for two or more years inthe same field. Data on damages caused to over 140,000 ha under corn until 1999 were collectedby organized monitoring. After 2000 and 2003, population abundance of D.v. virgifera,as well as the number of damaged corn fields, significantly decreased due to droughtand application of crop rotation. Corn rootworm has one generation per year. It overwintersin the egg stage. Under the climatic conditions of Serbia larvae hatching starts aroundMay 15th. The highest number of larvae on root is observed around June 20th when feedingis most intensive and plants become lodged as they lose roots. First adults emerge bythe end of June. Their abundance increases during July and reaches maximum by the endof the month. From the second decade of August the abundance decreases. Adults arepresent in the field until the first frosts. Larvae are much more harmful and significant thanadults. Larvae feed on roots or into roots by boring. Roots can be entirely destroyed underheavy attack and the host plants lodged already at the end of June. Under our climatic andagrotechnical conditions, adults are sporadic pests. Adults are a threat only when sowing isdone after the optimal sowing date or in case of stubble corn sowing.Crop rotation is an efficient and most widespread means of WCR control. No damageon corn grown in crop rotation has been registered in Serbia for now. In the first year of productioncorn does not require protection from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte larvae.Several insecticides have performed high efficacy by application at sowing and havebeen registered for commercial use. On the other hand, soil

  11. Selection for resistance to mCry3A-expressing transgenic corn in western corn rootworm. (United States)

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Ellersieck, Mark; Hibbard, Bruce E


    To investigate the development of resistance to mCry3A, a laboratory colony of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was established from field survivors of mCry3A-expressing (MIR604) corn, Zea mays L. Feral adults emerging from MIR604 (selected) and isoline (control) field plots were collected and returned to the laboratory. Progeny of each colony was reared one generation on isoline corn and then crossed reciprocally with a nondiapausing colony. The resulting nondiapausing progeny were then reared on greenhouse corn in accordance with the wild type parent's origin (on MIR604 or isoline corn). After four, seven, and 10 total generations of selection, the resistance ratio of the selected colony was 0.5, 4.3, and 15.4 in terms of lethal concentration (LC)50 values in toxicity assays, with the latter two LC50 values being significant. After seven generations of selection in total, selected and control colonies were screened on MIR604 and isoline corn under field conditions. There was a significant colony x corn pedigree interaction in terms of plant damage. There was no significant difference in damage between MIR604 and isoline corn, whereas this difference was significant for the control colony. After 14 generations of selection, a seedling bioassay was performed. Again, there was a significant colony x corn pedigree interaction, this time in terms of the number of larvae recovered. There was no significant difference in the number of larvae recovered from MIR604 and isoline corn for the selected colony, whereas this difference was significant for the control colony, although larval size was greater on isoline corn for both colonies. Resistance has developed in western corn rootworm laboratory colonies to all Bt proteins currently registered for corn rootworm management, which emphasizes the importance of adhering to resistance management plans for maintaining product efficacy.

  12. Breeding drought-tolerant maize hybrids for the US corn-belt: discovery to product. (United States)

    Cooper, Mark; Gho, Carla; Leafgren, Roger; Tang, Tom; Messina, Carlos


    Germplasm, genetics, phenotyping, and selection, combined with a clear definition of product targets, are the foundation of successful hybrid maize breeding. Breeding maize hybrids with superior yield for the drought-prone regions of the US corn-belt involves integration of multiple drought-specific technologies together with all of the other technology components that comprise a successful maize hybrid breeding programme. Managed-environment technologies are used to enable scaling of precision phenotyping in appropriate drought environmental conditions to breeding programme level. Genomics and other molecular technologies are used to study trait genetic architecture. Genetic prediction methodology was used to breed for improved yield performance for drought-prone environments. This was enabled by combining precision phenotyping for drought performance with genetic understanding of the traits contributing to successful hybrids in the target drought-prone environments and the availability of molecular markers distributed across the maize genome. Advances in crop growth modelling methodology are being used to evaluate the integrated effects of multiple traits for their combined effects and evaluate drought hybrid product concepts and guide their development and evaluation. Results to date, lessons learned, and future opportunities for further improving the drought tolerance of maize for the US corn-belt are discussed.

  13. Arable weed flora in the Western Siberian grain belt

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    Kämpf, Immo


    Full Text Available Between Ekaterinburg and Nowosibirsk, in the Western Siberian grain belt, spring wheat is grown on fertile Chernozem soils. Field and farm sizes are large but the land-use intensity per area is low compared to Central Europe. Fertilizers and pesticides are applied only in low to moderate quantities and yields range between 10 and 20 dt ha-1. We studied the arable weed flora in the northern forest steppe zone of Tyumen region using a randomized sampling design. Surprisingly, the species richness was only moderate, on average 9.8 ± 3.8 species per 100 m². Compared to weed communities of Bashkiria (Southern Ural and less intensively used arable land of Central Europe these numbers are rather low. Moreover, most of the recorded species were cosmopolitans or widely distributed throughout the temperate zone. We suggest that the land use intensity was high enough to reduce the density of a number of weed species in a way that they were not registered by our random sampling design. The limited conservational value of the weed vegetation of large grain fields in Tyumen leads to the conclusion that if intensification of land use is unavoidable, it should be directed to arable land and not to ex-arable land or ancient grassland, which is of higher conservation value.

  14. Corn Belt soil carbon and macronutrient budgets with projected sustainable stover harvest (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shu-Guang


    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a prime feedstock for biofuel production in the U.S. Corn Belt because of its perceived abundance and availability, but long-term stover harvest effects on regional nutrient budgets have not been evaluated. We defined the minimum stover requirement (MSR) to maintain current soil organic carbon levels and then estimated current and future soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) budgets for various stover harvest scenarios. Analyses for 2006 through 2010 across the entire Corn Belt indicated that currently, 28 Tg or 1.6 Mg ha−1 of stover could be sustainably harvested from 17.95 million hectares (Mha) with N, P, and K removal of 113, 26, and 47 kg ha−1, respectively, and C removal for that period was estimated to be 4.55 Mg C ha−1. Assuming continued yield increases and a planted area of 26.74 Mha in 2050, 77.4 Tg stover (or 2.4 Mg ha−1) could be sustainably harvested with N, P, and K removal of 177, 37, and 72 kg ha−1, respectively, along with C removal of ∼6.57 Mg C ha−1. Although there would be significant variation across the region, harvesting only the excess over the MSR under current fertilization rates would result in a small depletion of soil N (−5 ± 27 kg ha−1) and K (−20 ± 31 kg ha−1) and a moderate surplus of P (36 ± 18 kg ha−1). Our 2050 projections based on continuing to keep the MSR, but having higher yields indicate that soil N and K deficits would become larger, thus emphasize the importance of balancing soil nutrient supply with crop residue removal.

  15. Growing season temperature and precipitation variability and extremes in the U.S. Corn Belt from 1981 to 2012 (United States)

    Dai, S.; Shulski, M.


    Climate warming and changes in rainfall patterns and increases in extreme events are resulting in higher risks of crop failures. A greater sense of urgency has been induced to understand the impacts of past climate on crop production in the U.S. As one of the most predominant sources of feed grains, corn is also the main source of U.S. ethanol. In the U.S. Corn Belt, region-scale evaluation on temperature and precipitation variability and extremes during the growing season is not well-documented yet. This study is part of the USDA-funded project 'Useful to Usable: Transforming climate variability and change information for cereal crop producers'. The overall goal of our work is to study the characteristics of average growing season conditions and changes in growing season temperature- and precipitation-based indices that are closely correlated with corn grain yield in the U.S. Corn Belt. The research area is the twelve major Corn Belt states, including IL, IN, IA, KS, MI, MN, MO, NE, OH, SD, ND, and WI. Climate data during 1981-2010 from 132 meteorological stations (elevation ranges from 122 m to 1,202 m) are used in this study, including daily minimum, maximum, and mean temperature, and daily precipitation. From 1981 to 2012, beginning date (BD), ending date (ED), and growing season length (GSL) in the climatological corn growing season are studied. Especially, during the agronomic corn growing season, from Apr to Oct, temperature- and precipitation-based indices are analyzed. The temperature-based indices include: number of days with daily mean temperature below 10°C, number of days with daily mean temperature above 30°C, the sum of growing degree days (GDD) between 10°C to 30°C (GDD10,30, growth range for corn), the sum of growing degree days above 30°C (GDD30+, exposure to harmful warming for corn), the sum of growing degree days between 0°C and 44°C (GDD0,44, survival range limits for corn), the sum of growing degree days between 5°C and 35°C (GDD5

  16. Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (United States)

    Entomopathogenic Ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many arthropods, including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium...

  17. Western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) dispersal and adaptation to single-toxin transgenic corn deployed with block or blended refuge. (United States)

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David W; Nowatzki, Timothy M; Stanley, Bruce H; Meinke, Lance J; Flexner, J Lindsey


    A simulation model of the temporal and spatial dynamics and population genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was created to evaluate the use of block refuges and seed blends in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn (Zea mays L.). This Bt corn expresses one transgenic corn event, DAS-59122-7, that produces a binary insecticidal protein toxin (Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and provides host-plant resistance. The model incorporates the latest information about larval and adult behavior. Results of this modeling effort indicate that the seed-blend scenarios in many cases produced equal or greater durability than block refuges that were relocated each year. Resistance evolved in the most likely scenarios in 10-16 yr. Our standard analysis presumed complete adoption of 59122 corn by all farmers in our hypothetical region, no crop rotation, and 100% compliance with Insect Resistant Management (IRM) regulations. As compliance levels declined, resistance evolved faster when block refuges were deployed. Seed treatments that killed the pest when applied to all seeds in a seed blend or just to seeds in Bt corn blocks delayed evolution of resistance. Greater control of the pest population by the seed treatment facilitated longer durability of the transgenic trait. Therefore, data support the concept that pyramiding a transgenic insecticidal trait with a highly efficacious insecticidal seed treatment can delay evolution of resistance.

  18. Cover cropping to reduce nitrate loss through subsurface drainage in the northern U.S. corn belt. (United States)

    Strock, J S; Porter, P M; Russelle, M P


    Despite the use of best management practices for nitrogen (N) application rate and timing, significant losses of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) in drainage discharge continue to occur from row crop cropping systems. Our objective was to determine whether a autumn-seeded winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop following corn (Zea mays L.) would reduce NO3(-)-N losses through subsurface tile drainage in a corn-soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.] cropping system in the northern Corn Belt (USA) in a moderately well-drained soil. Both phases of the corn-soybean rotation, with and without the winter rye cover crop following corn, were established in 1998 in a Normania clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Haplustoll) soil at Lamberton, MN. Cover cropping did not affect subsequent soybean yield, but reduced drainage discharge, flow-weighted mean nitrate concentration (FWMNC), and NO3(-)-N loss relative to winter fallow, although the magnitude of the effect varied considerably with annual precipitation. Three-year average drainage discharge was lower with a winter rye cover crop than without (p = 0.06). Over three years, subsurface tile-drainage discharge was reduced 11% and NO3(-)-N loss was reduced 13% for a corn-soybean cropping system with a rye cover crop following corn than with no rye cover crop. We estimate that establishment of a winter rye cover crop after corn will be successful in one of four years in southwestern Minnesota. Cover cropping with rye has the potential to be an effective management tool for reducing NO3(-)-N loss from subsurface drainage discharge despite challenges to establishment and spring growth in the north-central USA.

  19. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt? (United States)

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W


    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. An Analysis of the Climate Change Mitigation Potential through Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in a Corn Belt Watershed. (United States)

    Bhattarai, Mukesh Dev; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin


    Land-based carbon sequestration constitutes a major low cost and immediately viable option in climate change mitigation. Using downscaled data from eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models for a simulation period between 2015 and 2099, we examine the carbon sequestration potential of alternative agricultural land uses in an intensively farmed Corn Belt watershed and the impact of climate change on crop yields. Our results show that switching from conventional tillage continuous corn to no-till corn-soybean can sequester the equivalent of 192.1 MtCO2 eq of soil organic carbon per hectare with a sequestration rate of 2.26 MtCO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1). Our results also indicate that switchgrass can sequester the equivalent of 310.7 MtCO2 eq of soil organic carbon per hectare with a sequestration rate of 3.65 MtCO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1). Our findings suggest that, unlike for corn and soybean yields, climate change does not have a significant effect on switchgrass yields, possibly due to the carbon fertilization effect.

  1. An Analysis of the Climate Change Mitigation Potential through Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in a Corn Belt Watershed (United States)

    Bhattarai, Mukesh Dev; Secchi, Silvia; Schoof, Justin


    Land-based carbon sequestration constitutes a major low cost and immediately viable option in climate change mitigation. Using downscaled data from eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models for a simulation period between 2015 and 2099, we examine the carbon sequestration potential of alternative agricultural land uses in an intensively farmed Corn Belt watershed and the impact of climate change on crop yields. Our results show that switching from conventional tillage continuous corn to no-till corn-soybean can sequester the equivalent of 192.1 MtCO2 eq of soil organic carbon per hectare with a sequestration rate of 2.26 MtCO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. Our results also indicate that switchgrass can sequester the equivalent of 310.7 MtCO2 eq of soil organic carbon per hectare with a sequestration rate of 3.65 MtCO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. Our findings suggest that, unlike for corn and soybean yields, climate change does not have a significant effect on switchgrass yields, possibly due to the carbon fertilization effect.

  2. Field-evolved resistance by western corn rootworm to multiple Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in transgenic maize. (United States)

    Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Clifton, Eric H; Dunbar, Mike W; Hoffmann, Amanda M; Ingber, David A; Keweshan, Ryan S


    The widespread planting of crops genetically engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) places intense selective pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Western corn rootworm is a key pest of maize, and in continuous maize fields it is often managed through planting of Bt maize. During 2009 and 2010, fields were identified in Iowa in which western corn rootworm imposed severe injury to maize producing Bt toxin Cry3Bb1. Subsequent bioassays revealed Cry3Bb1 resistance in these populations. Here, we report that, during 2011, injury to Bt maize in the field expanded to include mCry3A maize in addition to Cry3Bb1 maize and that laboratory analysis of western corn rootworm from these fields found resistance to Cry3Bb1 and mCry3A and cross-resistance between these toxins. Resistance to Bt maize has persisted in Iowa, with both the number of Bt fields identified with severe root injury and the ability western corn rootworm populations to survive on Cry3Bb1 maize increasing between 2009 and 2011. Additionally, Bt maize targeting western corn rootworm does not produce a high dose of Bt toxin, and the magnitude of resistance associated with feeding injury was less than that seen in a high-dose Bt crop. These first cases of resistance by western corn rootworm highlight the vulnerability of Bt maize to further evolution of resistance from this pest and, more broadly, point to the potential of insects to develop resistance rapidly when Bt crops do not achieve a high dose of Bt toxin.

  3. Trends in Pesticide Concentrations in Corn-Belt Streams, 1996-2006 (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Lorenz, David L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Martin, Jeffrey D.


    Trends in the concentrations of commonly occurring pesticides in the Corn Belt of the United States were assessed, and the performance and application of several statistical methods for trend analysis were evaluated. Trends in the concentrations of 11 pesticides with sufficient data for trend assessment were assessed at up to 31 stream sites for two time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Pesticides included in the trend analyses were atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, alachlor, cyanazine, EPTC, simazine, metribuzin, prometon, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon. The statistical methods applied and compared were (1) a modified version of the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test (SEAKEN), (2) a modified version of the Regional Kendall test, (3) a parametric regression model with seasonal wave (SEAWAVE), and (4) a version of SEAWAVE with adjustment for streamflow (SEAWAVE-Q). The SEAKEN test is a statistical hypothesis test for detecting monotonic trends in seasonal time-series data such as pesticide concentrations at a particular site. Trends across a region, represented by multiple sites, were evaluated using the regional seasonal Kendall test, which computes a test for an overall trend within a region by computing a score for each season at each site and adding the scores to compute the total for the region. The SEAWAVE model is a parametric regression model specifically designed for analyzing seasonal variability and trends in pesticide concentrations. The SEAWAVE-Q model accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic trends from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. There was broad, general agreement between unadjusted trends (no adjustment for streamflow effects) identified by the SEAKEN and SEAWAVE methods, including the regional seasonal Kendall test. Only about 10 percent of the paired comparisons between SEAKEN and SEAWAVE indicated a difference in the direction of trend, and none of these had

  4. Dyke belt in North Western margin of Siberian platform (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor


    The Early Triassic dyke swarm belt is strengthening at about 500 km (50-60 km width) along the northern margin of Siberian platform. Its locations is limited from the north by rift structure of the Yenisei-Khatanga trough, and from the south by Kystyktah-Ayan-Ambardah uprise. From west to east dyke belt is crossing Norilsk, Kamensky and Maimecha-Kotuiskaya province. In this direction the composition of dykes changing from basic rthrough alkali-basic to alkali-ultramafic varieties. The sickness of dykes varies from 0,5-10m up to 90 m and length - from 5-15 m to 140 km. The orientation of the bulk of dykes coincides with the direction of the major structural and tectonic lineaments of the region. Dykes are often refer to the fault planes. The composition of dykes may vary along the stretches. The density of hundreds of basaltic dykes and small intrusions in the dyke swarms is not permanent and sometimes essentially uneven. They form a compact dyke swarms of dykes, stocks and sub layering bodies veins. In dyke package on Huor-Uyallah river here are 20 subparallel dykes of different chemical composition at a distance of 2 km Lack of the evidence of the dykes crossing allows to assume their formation during the same magmatic cycle. Dykes cross cut through the entire incision of basaltic plateau. They did not created the flow effusions and refer to the final stage trap magmatism. Ar/Ar age of the youngest dykes in the province Kamenska 238-247 Ma. the age of lamproite dyke in Norilsk province is 235 Ma. Dykes are represented by dolerites trachydolerites, syenites, minettes, lamprophyres (camptonite, spessartite, vosgesite), avgitites, melanephelinite, alnoites, limburgites alkaline picrites, meimechites. Their content vary widely: SiO2 - 35,7-62,6; TiO2- 0,4-7,5; Al2O3- 4,4-17,5; Fe2O3- 4,6-20,6; MnO- 0,08-0,44; MgO- 0,8-31,5; CaO- 0,7-15,4; Na2O- 0,01-6,5; K2O 0,8-5,3 wt.%; P2O5 0,1-1,2 wt.%. The h Bolsheavamskaya volcanic basin in Kamensky province is most abundant in

  5. La concentración de la agricultura entre 1937 y 1988: El Corn Belt y la pampa maicera argentina

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    Javier Balsa


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo comparamos la evolución del tamaño de las explotaciones agropecuarias y de la superficie que controlaban, en el Corn Belt norteamericano y la zona predominantemente agrícola de la pampa argentina. En primer lugar, cotejamos las estructuras para fines de los años treinta y, luego, analizamos su evolución durante los siguientes cincuenta años. Para ello trabajamos no sólo con la información censal, sino con los informes técnicos de las estaciones experimentales de ambas regiones. Por último, incorporamos algunas hipótesis sobre los diversos factores que pudieron haber incidido sobre el proceso de concentración.This article compares the evolution of farm size and the acreage they occupied in U.S.' Corn Belt and the Agricultural Zone of the Argentine Pampas. The first part devotes to the contrast between both regions in the late thirties. Then, there is an analysis of their evolution during the following fifty years. Along with census data, technical reports of the Agricultural Experiment Stations of both regions were used. Finally, some hypotheses dealing with the factors that could have influenced in the concentration process were introduced.

  6. Analysis of the dynamics of adaptation to transgenic corn and crop rotation by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) using a daily time-step model. (United States)

    Crowder, D W; Onstad, D W; Cray, M E; Pierce, C M F; Hager, A G; Ratcliffe, S T; Steffey, K L


    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has overcome crop rotation in several areas of the north central United States. The effectiveness of crop rotation for management of corn rootworm has begun to fail in many areas of the midwestern United States, thus new management strategies need to be developed to control rotation-resistant populations. Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., effective against western corn rootworm, may be the most effective new technology for control of this pest in areas with or without populations adapted to crop rotation. We expanded a simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of the western corn rootworm for a landscape of corn; soybean, Glycine max (L.); and other crops to study the simultaneous development of resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn. Results indicate that planting transgenic corn to first-year cornfields is a robust strategy to prevent resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn in areas where rotation-resistant populations are currently a problem or may be a problem in the future. In these areas, planting transgenic corn only in continuous cornfields is not an effective strategy to prevent resistance to either trait. In areas without rotation-resistant populations, gene expression of the allele for resistance to transgenic corn, R, is the most important factor affecting the evolution of resistance. If R is recessive, resistance can be delayed longer than 15 yr. If R is dominant, resistance may be difficult to prevent. In a sensitivity analysis, results indicate that density dependence, rotational level in the landscape, and initial allele frequency are the three most important factors affecting the results.

  7. A core set of microsatellite markers for Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population genetics studies (United States)

    Interest in the ecological and population genetics of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has grown rapidly in the last few years in North America and Europe. This interest is a result of a number of converging issues related to increasing difficult...

  8. Synthetic feeding stimulants enhance insecticide activity against western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (United States)

    In behavioral bioassays, the addition of a synthetic feeding stimulant blend improved the efficacy of the insecticide thiamethoxam against neonate western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae. In 4-h bioassays, the concentration of thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality (LC...

  9. Western corn rootworm: Experiments on the improvement of monitoring at low population densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acker, Melanie


    Full Text Available An efficient monitoring of the western corn rootworm (WCR Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, 1868 (Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera is the most important precondition for convenient measures of eradication or containment. This research project aimed to assess the monitoring methods, especially at low population densities as currently observed in Germany. For this purpose, large-scaled field trials were designed in Bavaria and Upper Austria. The studies focused on the catchability, costs and by-catches of the pheromone-trap PAL in comparison to other trap types. In another experiment, different allocations of PAL traps in the corn field were examined. Finally, traps and pheromones often remain unused at the end of a monitoring season. Therefore the catchability of stored PAL traps in the next monitoring period was investigated. PAL traps captured beetles constantly on a high level. In addition to its low costs and reduced by-catches, the trap type PAL is recommended for the monitoring of western corn rootworm in Germany. Changes in locations of PAL traps within the corn field did not result in a higher catchability. At present, traps are placed in the fifth to eighth corn row and the results confirm to maintain this practice. Comparing the catchability of stored PAL traps to the catchability of fresh traps, stored traps resulted in comparable catches than fresh ones. It is concluded that traps and pheromones, which were stored dark and deep-frozen, can be used in the next season.


    Random surveys of 174 headwater streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP) and 110 third-order streams in the Midwest Corn Belt (MCB) were conducted in 2000 and 2004, respectively in two cooperative research studies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geolo...

  11. A refined regional modeling approach for the Corn Belt - Experiences and recommendations for large-scale integrated modeling (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Gassman, Philip W.; Jha, Manoj K.; Kling, Catherine L.; Campbell, Todd; Srinivasan, Raghavan; White, Michael; Arnold, Jeffrey G.


    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. This region is comprised of two large river basins, the intensely row-cropped Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) and Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which are considered the key contributing areas for the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, in this area it is of utmost importance to ensure that intensive agriculture for food, feed and biofuel production can coexist with a healthy water environment. To address these objectives within a river basin management context, an integrated modeling system has been constructed with the hydrologic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, capable of estimating river basin responses to alternative cropping and/or management strategies. To improve modeling performance compared to previous studies and provide a spatially detailed basis for scenario development, this SWAT Corn Belt application incorporates a greatly refined subwatershed structure based on 12-digit hydrologic units or 'subwatersheds' as defined by the US Geological Service. The model setup, calibration and validation are time-demanding and challenging tasks for these large systems, given the scale intensive data requirements, and the need to ensure the reliability of flow and pollutant load predictions at multiple locations. Thus, the objectives of this study are both to comprehensively describe this large-scale modeling approach, providing estimates of pollution and crop production in the region as well as to present strengths and weaknesses of integrated modeling at such a large scale along with how it can be improved on the basis of the current modeling structure and results. The predictions were based on a semi-automatic hydrologic calibration approach for large-scale and spatially detailed modeling studies, with the use of the Sequential

  12. When it Rains, It Pours: Drought, Excess Water, and Agricultural Risk Management in the U.S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Baker, J. M.; Anderson, M. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Kustas, W.; Schultz, N. M.


    Ever since its inception agriculture has been a risky proposition, with yields subject to losses from insects, diseases, weeds, and weather anomalies. The transition from subsistence farming to production agriculture motivated research that eventually provided tools to combat some of the traditional sources of risk, particularly pests. However, weather-related risk remains resistant to mitigation, except in cases where there has been a fundamental alteration of lands otherwise unsuited for agriculture, e.g. - irrigation of arid lands and drainage of swamps. We have undertaken a multi-faceted analysis of potential avenues to reduce weather-related risk in the central U.S. corn belt, focusing on MN, IA, IL, IN, and OH. Mean annual precipitation has increased across the region over the past 60 years, and mean stream flows have increased as much or more, indicating relatively stable ET. The precipitation increase is consistent with changes predicted by GCMs for the region, while the stable (and even decreasing) regional ET primarily reflects changes in farming, particularly an increase in soybean acreage at the expense of permanent pasture. Unfortunately, the observed increases in precipitation are primarily associated with an increase in spatially and temporally isolated high intensity storms, so transient drought remains a problem. Indeed, analysis of crop insurance indemnities in recent years for the region reveals nearly equal yield losses due to drought and excess water, each totaling roughly $3 billion USD between 2000 and 2011, and jointly accounting for more than two thirds of all payments. County level mapping shows that losses from both causes occur throughout the corn belt, often in the same county in the same year. The ALEXI model, which provides continental-scale estimates of ET on a 10 km grid, was used to map ET anomalies across the region for the same time period. Correspondence between ALEXI output and insurance loss data was reasonably good in drought

  13. First-instar western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) response to carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strnad, S.P.; Bergman, M.K.; Fulton, W.C.


    Responses of first-instar western corn rootworm to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ gas gradients were studied in a laboratory test arena. Number of larvae reaching the gas source, number of turns toward and away from the gas source, larval velocity, and number of turns per cm traveled were recorded. Larvae exhibited a positive chemotactic response to CO/sub 2/ but not N/sub 2/ or air. There was no indication that a kinesis of any type was involved because velocities and turning rates were not significantly different among treatments. Results indicate that newly hatched larve may use CO/sub 2/ to locate corn roots.

  14. Western corn rootworm and Bt maize: challenges of pest resistance in the field. (United States)

    Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Keweshan, Ryan S; Dunbar, Mike W


    Crops genetically engineered to produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) manage many key insect pests while reducing the use of conventional insecticides. One of the primary pests targeted by Bt maize in the United States is the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Beginning in 2009, populations of western corn rootworm were identified in Iowa, USA that imposed severe root injury to Cry3Bb1 maize. Subsequent laboratory bioassays revealed that these populations were resistant to Cry3Bb1 maize, with survival on Cry3Bb1 maize that was three times higher than populations not associated with such injury. Here we report the results of research that began in 2010 when western corn rootworm were sampled from 14 fields in Iowa, half of which had root injury to Cry3Bb1 maize of greater than 1 node. Of these samples, sufficient eggs were collected to conduct bioassays on seven populations. Laboratory bioassays revealed that these 2010 populations had survival on Cry3Bb1 maize that was 11 times higher and significantly greater than that of control populations, which were brought into the laboratory prior to the commercialization of Bt maize for control of corn rootworm. Additionally, the developmental delays observed for control populations on Cry3Bb1 maize were greatly diminished for 2010 populations. All 2010 populations evaluated in bioassays came from fields with a history of continuous maize production and between 3 and 7 y of Cry3Bb1 maize cultivation. Resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 maize was not detected and there was no correlation between survival on Cry3Bb1 maize and Cry34/35Ab1 maize, suggesting a lack of cross resistance between these Bt toxins. Effectively dealing with the challenge of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm will require better adherence to the principles of integrated pest management.

  15. Charnockites and UHT metamorphism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt, western Suriname : Evidence for two separate UHT events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Martijn; de Roever, Emond W F; Nanne, Josefine A M; Mason, Paul R D; Davies, Gareth R.


    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt in western Suriname is an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic terrain in the centre of the Paleoproterozoic (Transamazonian) Guiana Shield. Next to the UHT granulites, the belt contains a 30 by 30km body of orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids: the Kabalebo charnockites. T

  16. Linking Resilience Theory and Diffusion of Innovations Theory to Understand the Potential for Perennials in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Atwell


    Full Text Available In the last 200 yr, more than 80% of the land in the U.S. Corn Belt agro-ecosystem has been converted from natural perennial vegetation to intensive agricultural production of row crops. Despite research showing how re-integration of perennial vegetation, e.g., cover crops, pasture, riparian buffers, and restored wetlands, at strategic landscape positions can bolster declining regional ecosystem functions, the amount of land area devoted to row crop production in the Corn Belt continues to increase. As this region enters a time of fast-paced and uncertain reorganization driven by the emerging bioeconomy, changes in land use will continue to take place that will impact the resilience of the Corn Belt's linked social and ecological systems for years to come. Both resilience theory and the diffusion of innovations theory investigate how change is brought about in systems through the adaptation and innovation of social actors. In this paper, we integrate these two frameworks in the analysis of 33 in-depth interviews to improve our understanding of how rural Corn Belt stakeholders make conservation decisions in the midst of an uncertain future. Interview data indicate that the adoption of conservation practices is based not only on immediate profitability but also on the interplay between contextual factors at three distinct levels of the system: compatibility with farm priorities, profitability, practices, and technologies; community-level reinforcement through local social networks, norms, and support structures; and consistent, straightforward, flexible, and well-targeted incentives and regulations issuing from regional institutions. Interviewees suggest that the multiscale drivers that currently support the continued expansion of row crop production could be realigned with conservation objectives in landscapes of the future. Adaptation of social actors through collaborative learning at the community level may be instrumental in brokering the sort

  17. Mortality of western corn rootworm larvae on MIR604 transgenic maize roots: field survivorship has no impact on survivorship of F1 progeny on MIR604 (United States)

    Mortality of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae due to MIR604 transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) expressing the modified Cry3A (mCry3A) protein relative to survivorship on corn with the same genetic background without the gene (isoline corn) was evaluated at three Misso...

  18. Early Detection and Mitigation of Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (United States)

    Andow, David A; Pueppke, Steven G; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Gassmann, Aaron J; Sappington, Thomas W; Meinke, Lance J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hurley, Terrance M; Hellmich, Richard L; Porter, R Pat


    Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting and responding to this resistance has been complicated by a lack of rapid diagnostic bioassays and by regulatory triggers that hinder timely and effective management responses. These failures are of great concern to the scientific and agricultural community. Specific challenges posed by western corn rootworm resistance to Bt maize, and more general concerns around Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose of Bt toxin, have caused uncertainty around current IRM protocols. More than 15 years of experience with IRM has shown that high-dose and refuge-based IRM is not applicable to Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose. Adaptive IRM approaches and pro-active, integrated IRM-pest management strategies are needed and should be in place before release of new technologies that produce less than a high-dose. We suggest changes in IRM strategies to preserve the utility of corn rootworm Bt maize by 1) targeting local resistance management earlier in the sequence of responses to resistance and 2) developing area-wide criteria to address widespread economic losses. We also favor consideration of policies and programs to counteract economic forces that are contributing to rapid resistance evolution.

  19. Selection for Cry3Bb1 resistance in a genetically diverse population of nondiapausing Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (United States)

    Five short-diapause laboratory lines of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) were selected for resistance to MON863, a variety of corn genetically modified with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgene that expresses the Cry3Bb1 endotoxin. Three of the selecte...

  20. Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Gassmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are planted on millions of hectares annually, reducing the use of conventional insecticides and suppressing pests. However, the evolution of resistance could cut short these benefits. A primary pest targeted by Bt maize in the United States is the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that fields identified by farmers as having severe rootworm feeding injury to Bt maize contained populations of western corn rootworm that displayed significantly higher survival on Cry3Bb1 maize in laboratory bioassays than did western corn rootworm from fields not associated with such feeding injury. In all cases, fields experiencing severe rootworm feeding contained Cry3Bb1 maize. Interviews with farmers indicated that Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in those fields for at least three consecutive years. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of years Cry3Bb1 maize had been grown in a field and the survival of rootworm populations on Cry3Bb1 maize in bioassays. However, there was no significant correlation among populations for survival on Cry34/35Ab1 maize and Cry3Bb1 maize, suggesting a lack of cross resistance between these Bt toxins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of field-evolved resistance to a Bt toxin by the western corn rootworm and by any species of Coleoptera. Insufficient planting of refuges and non-recessive inheritance of resistance may have contributed to resistance. These results suggest that improvements in resistance management and a more integrated approach to the use of Bt crops may be necessary.

  1. Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: predictions from the laboratory and effects in the field. (United States)

    Gassmann, Aaron J


    Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide an effective management tool for many key insect pests. However, pest species have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to adapt to management practices. Results from laboratory selection experiments illustrate the capacity of pest species to evolve Bt resistance. Furthermore, resistance has been documented to Bt sprays in the field and greenhouse, and more recently, by some pests to Bt crops in the field. In 2009, fields were discovered in Iowa (USA) with populations of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, that had evolved resistance to maize that produces the Bt toxin Cry3Bb1. Fields with resistant insects in 2009 had been planted to Cry3Bb1 maize for at least three consecutive years and as many as 6years. Computer simulation models predicted that the western corn rootworm might evolve resistance to Bt maize in as few as 3years. Laboratory and field data for interactions between western corn rootworm and Bt maize indicate that currently commercialized products are not high-dose events, which increases the risk of resistance evolution because non-recessive resistance traits may enhance survival on Bt maize. Furthermore, genetic analysis of laboratory strains of western corn rootworm has found non-recessive inheritance of resistance. Field studies conducted in two fields identified as harboring Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm found that survival of western corn rootworm did not differ between Cry3Bb1 maize and non-Bt maize and that root injury to Cry3Bb1 maize was higher than injury to other types of Bt maize or to maize roots protected with a soil insecticide. These first cases of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm provide an early warning and point to the need to apply better integrated pest management practices when using Bt maize to manage western corn rootworm.

  2. Gut bacteria facilitate adaptation to crop rotation in the western corn rootworm. (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Spencer, Joseph L; Curzi, Matías J; Zavala, Jorge A; Seufferheld, Manfredo J


    Insects are constantly adapting to human-driven landscape changes; however, the roles of their gut microbiota in these processes remain largely unknown. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major corn pest that has been controlled via annual rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. This practice selected for a "rotation-resistant" variant (RR-WCR) with reduced ovipositional fidelity to cornfields. When in soybean fields, RR-WCRs also exhibit an elevated tolerance of antiherbivory defenses (i.e., cysteine protease inhibitors) expressed in soybean foliage. Here we show that gut bacterial microbiota is an important factor facilitating this corn specialist's (WCR's) physiological adaptation to brief soybean herbivory. Comparisons of gut microbiota between RR- and wild-type WCR (WT-WCR) revealed concomitant shifts in bacterial community structure with host adaptation to soybean diets. Antibiotic suppression of gut bacteria significantly reduced RR-WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory to the level of WT-WCR, whereas WT-WCR were unaffected. Our findings demonstrate that gut bacteria help to facilitate rapid adaptation of insects in managed ecosystems.

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi in cornfields and their potential to manage larval western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. (United States)

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Jaronski, Stefan T; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Gassmann, Aaron J


    Entomopathogenic ascomycete fungi are ubiquitous in soil and on phylloplanes, and are important natural enemies of many soil-borne arthropods including larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which is a major pest of corn. We measured the prevalence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato in ten cornfields in Iowa, USA by baiting with larval insects. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae s.l. were present in 60% ± 6.3% and 55% ± 6.4% of soil samples, respectively. Subsequent laboratory bioassays found that some M. anisopliae s.l. strains collected from cornfields killed a greater proportion of D.v. virgifera larvae than a standard commercial strain.

  4. Tweak, Adapt, or Transform: Policy Scenarios in Response to Emerging Bioenergy Markets in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M. Westphal


    Full Text Available Emerging bioenergy markets portend both boon and bane for regions of intensive agricultural production worldwide. To understand and guide the effects of bioenergy markets on agricultural landscapes, communities, and economies, we engaged leaders in the Corn Belt state of Iowa in a participatory workshop and follow-up interviews to develop future policy scenarios. Analysis of workshop and interview data, in conjunction with the results of regional social and ecological research, was used to develop a heuristic model outlining interactions between key drivers and outcomes of regional landscape change. Three policy scenarios were built on this framework and included the following approaches: tweak, adapt, and transform. Our results suggest that if macroscale markets, technologies, and federal farm policies are allowed to be the overriding drivers of farm owner and operator decision making, Iowa's agricultural landscapes will likely become highly efficient at row crop production at the cost of other desired outcomes. However, the perspectives of Iowa leaders demonstrate how multifunctional agricultural landscapes can be achieved through a concerted portfolio of change coordinated across local, regional, and national scales.

  5. Estimation of Daily Air Temperature Based on MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products over the Corn Belt in the US

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    Linglin Zeng


    Full Text Available Air temperature (Ta is a key input in a wide range of agroclimatic applications. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Ts (Land Surface Temperature (LST products are widely used to estimate daily Ta. However, only daytime LST (Ts-day or nighttime LST (Ts-night data have been used to estimate Tmax/Tmin (daily maximum or minimum air temperature, respectively. The relationship between Tmax and Ts-night, and the one between Tmin and Ts-day has not been studied. In this study, both the ability of Ts-night data to estimate Tmax and the ability of Ts-day data to estimate Tmin were tested and studied in the Corn Belt during the growing season (May–September from 2008 to 2012, using MODIS daily LST products from both Terra and Aqua. The results show that using Ts-night for estimating Tmax could result in a higher accuracy than using Ts-day for a similar estimate. Combining Ts-day and Ts-night, the estimation of Tmax was improved by 0.19–1.85, 0.37–1.12 and 0.26–0.93 °C for crops, deciduous forest and developed areas, respectively, when compared with using only Ts-day or Ts-night data. The main factors influencing the Ta estimation errors spatially and temporally were analyzed and discussed, such as satellite overpassing time, air masses, irrigation, etc.

  6. Contribution of landfalling tropical system rainfall to the hydroclimate of the eastern U.S. Corn Belt 1981–2012

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    Olivia Kellner


    Landfalling tropical system rainfall accounts for approximately 20% of the observed monthly rainfall during the tropical storm season (June–November across the eastern U.S. Corn Belt (1981–2012. Correlation between the annual number of landfalling tropical systems and annual yield by state results in no relationship, but correlation of August monthly observed rainfall by climate division to crop reporting district annual yields has a weak to moderate, statistically significant correlation in Ohio districts 30–60 and Indiana CRD 90. ANOVA analysis suggests that landfalling tropical rainfall may actually reduce yields in some state's climate divisions/crop reporting districts while increasing yield in others. Results suggest that there is a balance between landfalling tropical storms providing sufficient rainfall or too much rainfall to be of benefit to crops. Findings aim to provide information to producers, crop advisers, risk managers and commodity groups so that seasonal hurricane forecasts can potentially be utilized in planning for above or below normal precipitation during phenologically important portions of the growing season.

  7. Reducing nitrogen export from the corn belt to the Gulf of Mexico: agricultural strategies for remediating hypoxia (United States)

    McLellan, Eileen; Robertson, Dale M.; Schilling, Keith; Tomer, Mark; Kostel, Jill; Smith, Douglas G.; King, Kevin


    SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed models developed for the Upper Midwest were used to help evaluate the nitrogen-load reductions likely to be achieved by a variety of agricultural conservation practices in the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin (UMORB) and to compare these reductions to the 45% nitrogen-load reduction proposed to remediate hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Our results indicate that nitrogen-management practices (improved fertilizer management and cover crops) fall short of achieving this goal, even if adopted on all cropland in the region. The goal of a 45% decrease in loads to the GoM can only be achieved through the coupling of nitrogen-management practices with innovative nitrogen-removal practices such as tile-drainage treatment wetlands, drainage–ditch enhancements, stream-channel restoration, and floodplain reconnection. Combining nitrogen-management practices with nitrogen-removal practices can dramatically reduce nutrient export from agricultural landscapes while minimizing impacts to agricultural production. With this approach, it may be possible to meet the 45% nutrient reduction goal while converting less than 1% of cropland in the UMORB to nitrogen-removal practices. Conservationists, policy makers, and agricultural producers seeking a workable strategy to reduce nitrogen export from the Corn Belt will need to consider a combination of nitrogen-management practices at the field scale and diverse nitrogen-removal practices at the landscape scale.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Marinin


    Full Text Available Structural paragenetic and cataclastic analysis methods were applied to study tectonic fracturing within one of the folds of the southern wing of the North-Western Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt. The object of the study was the Semisamskaya anticline (Fig. 1 and 2 comprising the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogenic layered terrigenic-carbonate sediments that contain various well-developed geological indicators of palaeostresses (Fig. 3, 5, 7, and 9.In the folded structure under study, a paragenesis is revealed which is associated with the effect of sub-horizontal minimum compression (deviator extension stresses of the north-western orientation (NW 320° and traced by detached normal fault systems striking in the north-eastern direction (Fig. 6, 8, 10, 11, and 17. Upthrust-overthrust systems of the north-western strike (NW–SE, which are of importance for the whole folded structure of the North-Western Caucasus, are mainly manifested in the wings of the Semisamskaya anticline (Fig. 6, 12, and 13.The overall field of stresses related to formation of the folded structure is significantly variable as evidenced by the pattern of local parameters of the paleostress field, which are calculated by the cataclastic analysis method (Figure 15, 16, and 17.It is established that the geodynamic regime within the anticline is considerably variable by types (Fig. 18. Areas with horizontal extension in the axial part of the fold are replaced by areas of horizontal compression at its wings (Fig. 19.  

  9. Impact of MON863 transgenic roots is equivalent on western corn rootworm larvae for a wide range of maize phenologies. (United States)

    Hibbard, Bruce E; El Khishen, Ahmed A; Vaughn, Ty T


    The effects of maize, Zea mays L., phenology on establishment, damage, and adult emergence of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, on MON863 transgenic maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein and its isoline was evaluated in field trials in 2002 and 2003. As expected, plant damage, western corn rootworm larval recovery, and adult emergence were significantly lower on MON863 than isoline maize. The average weight of larvae and adults recovered from MON863 and isoline maize was generally not significantly different. If western corn rootworm larvae were able to establish on transgenic rootworm-resistant plants, larval growth was relatively normal. Plant damage, the number of western corn rootworm larvae recovered, and adult emergence from MON863 did not significantly differ between egg hatch times from widely varying phenologies in either year of the study. Although the extractable level of Cry3Bb1 decreased significantly from vegetative (V)4 to V9 maize in previous studies, in the current study, the amount of Cry3Bb1 did not vary from V3 to R3 in a way that affected neonate survival by western corn rootworm larvae in the field.

  10. Methyl Anthranilate as a Repellent for Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Hibbard, B E; Norton, A P; Bjostad, L B


    Methyl anthranilate was identified as the active compound in extracts of maize (Zea mays L.) roots that were shown to be repellent to neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae. A bioassay-driven approach was used to isolate the active material from diethyl ether extracts of roots from germinating maize seeds. Separation of the extract on a Florisil column yielded an active fraction of 90:10 hexane:diethyl ether. Analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified two compounds in the active fraction: indole (2,3-benzopyrrole) and methyl anthranilate (methyl 2-aminobenzoate). When tested in behavioral bioassays, methyl anthranilate elicited a significant (P repellent response at doses of 1, 10, and 100 µg. In subsequent single-choice bioassays, 1, 10, and 100 µg of methyl anthranilate prevented larvae from approaching 10 mmol/mol concentrations of carbon dioxide, which is normally highly attractive to the larvae. Indole, the other compound identified from the active fraction, did not elicit a behavioral response by the larvae. Methyl anthranilate has potential for development as a management tool for western corn rootworm larvae and may be best suited for use in a push-pull control strategy.

  11. Broad-spectrum resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). (United States)

    Jakka, Siva R K; Shrestha, Ram B; Gassmann, Aaron J


    The evolution of resistance and cross-resistance threaten the sustainability of genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of maize and has been managed with Bt maize since 2003. We conducted laboratory bioassays with maize hybrids producing Bt toxins Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, eCry3.1Ab, and Cry34/35Ab1, which represent all commercialized Bt toxins for management of western corn rootworm. We tested populations from fields where severe injury to Cry3Bb1 maize was observed, and populations that had never been exposed to Bt maize. Consistent with past studies, bioassays indicated that field populations were resistant to Cry3Bb1 maize and mCry3A maize, and that cross-resistance was present between these two types of Bt maize. Additionally, bioassays revealed resistance to eCry3.1Ab maize and cross-resistance among Cry3Bb1, mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab. However, no resistance or cross-resistance was detected for Cry34/35Ab1 maize. This broad-spectrum resistance illustrates the potential for insect pests to develop resistance rapidly to multiple Bt toxins when structural similarities are present among toxins, and raises concerns about the long-term durability of Bt crops for management of some insect pests.

  12. Geochemical Analysis for Sedimentary Emerald Mineralization in Western Emerald belt, Colombia (United States)

    Nino Vasquez, Gabriel Felipe; Song, Sheng-Rong


    1Gabriel Felipe Nino Vasquez and 1Sheng-Rong Song 1Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University Colombia hosts a large quantity of mineral resources due to its complex tectonic arrangement, and emerald deposits are one of the most representatives for the country. Emeralds in Colombia occur mainly in black shale, and are located in eastern Andes Cordillera with two parallel belts separated by approximately 130 Km: the Western belt (WB) and the Eastern belt (EB). The geological, mineralogical and tectonic features from these belts are quite similar (Buenaventura 2002). Previous researchers concluded that emeralds in Colombia came from hydrothermal sedimentary processes without any magmatic influence, and suggested that the source of Cr, V and Be (which are important components of the beryl) was the host rock. According to their results, the process which allowed the shale to release these cations was the metasomatism (albitization and carbonization), which was resulted from the interaction between the rocks and the alkaline brines. Fractures and fault planes originated by these tectonic movements were fulfilled by enriched fluids, which they allowed emeralds and the other minerals precipitation with decreasing alkalinity and pressure (Giuliani et al. 1994). However, there were several pitfalls of conclusions drawn from previous researches. Firstly, Cr and V were widely distributed and come from mafic and ultramafic rocks, and Be was mostly found in pegmatites, finding these elements in sedimentary rocks suggest that probably the ultramafic rocks occurred not far from the deposits. Secondly, there was an inconsistency in the estimated temperatures of emeralds formation, i.e. temperature of hydrothermal sedimentary deposits was only 200° C, while laboratory analysis showed that the formation of emeralds was higher than 300° C. Therefore, there might still be an allocthonus influence on emerald formation that significantly increases the temperature. This

  13. Mapping the decision points and climate information use of agricultural producers across the U.S. Corn Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Haigh


    Full Text Available The usefulness of climate information for agricultural risk management hinges on its availability and relevance to the producer when climate-sensitive decisions are being made. Climate information providers are challenged with the task of balancing forecast availability and lead time with acceptable forecast skill, which requires an improved understanding of the timing of agricultural decision making. Achieving a useful balance may also require an expansion of inquiry to include use of non-forecast climate information (i.e. historical climate information in agricultural decision making. Decision calendars have proven valuable for identifying opportunities for using different types of climate information. The extent to which decision-making time periods are localized versus generalized across major commodity-producing regions is yet unknown, though, which has limited their use in climate product development. Based on a 2012 survey of more than 4770 agricultural producers across the U.S. Corn Belt region, we found variation in the timing of decision-making points in the crop year based on geographic variation as well as crop management differences. Many key decisions in the cropping year take place during the preceding fall and winter, months before planting, raising questions about types of climate information that might be best inserted into risk management decisions at that time. We found that historical climate information and long term climate outlooks are less influential in agricultural risk management than current weather, short term forecasts, or monthly climate projections, even though they may, in fact, be more useful to certain types of decision making.

  14. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charles G.


    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  15. crw1--A novel maize mutant highly susceptible to foliar damage by the western corn rootworm beetle.

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    Bala Puchakayala Venkata

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L. in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1. The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest.

  16. Emergence and Abundance of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Bt Cornfields With Structured and Seed Blend Refuges. (United States)

    Hughson, Sarah A; Spencer, Joseph L


    To slow evolution of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) resistance to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) corn hybrids, non-Bt "refuges" must be planted within or adjacent to Bt cornfields, allowing susceptible insects to develop without exposure to Bt toxins. Bt-susceptible adults from refuges are expected to find and mate with resistant adults that have emerged from Bt corn, reducing the likelihood that Bt-resistant offspring are produced. The spatial and temporal distribution of adults in four refuge treatments (20, 5, and 0% structured refuges and 5% seed blend) and adjacent soybean fields was compared from 2010 to 2012. Adult emergence (adults/trap/day) from refuge corn in structured refuge treatments was greater than that from Bt corn, except during the post-pollination period of corn phenology when emergence from refuge and Bt plants was often the same. Abundance of free-moving adults was greatest in and near refuge rows in structured refuge treatments during vegetative and pollination periods. By post-pollination, adult abundance became evenly distributed. In contrast, adult abundance in 5% seed blends and 0% refuges was evenly distributed, or nearly so, across plots throughout the season. The persistent concentration of adults in refuge rows suggests that structured refuge configurations may not facilitate the expected mixing of adults from refuge and Bt corn. Seed blends produce uniform distributions of adults across the field that may facilitate mating between Bt and refuge adults and ultimately delay the evolution of Bt resistance.

  17. Sulfide Mineralization In The Marble Bar Greenstone Belt Around Mount Edger Batholith, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia (United States)

    Kitazono, S.; Nedachi, M.; Taguchi, S.


    Pilbara Craton is one of the most important regions in the world to understand the evolution of early Earth, because the geological history is well preserved through the metamorphism of low grade. Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, consists of two different tectonic components formed 3.6 and 2.8 Ga; an older Archean granite occupying the east Pilbara and greenstone belt. In the east Pilbara, the most conspicuous structures are broad domal granitoid complex separated by narrow synformal greenstone belts, and a model of continuous lithostratigraphy in the greenstones in which the dominant structures were produced by multi-stage granitoid diapirism. The Marble Bar greenstone belt is distributed around the Mount Edgar of granitoid pluton, and numerous hydrothermal gold veins are distributed in the greenstone near the boundary of pluton. Also base-metal veins and volcanogenic sedimentary type deposits are located in the same area. In this study, we examined the hydrothermal mineralization observed in the core samples of the Marble Bar greenstone belt, drilled at the Salgash area by the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). The Salgash drill hole is composed of tuff breccias with numerous fragments of black shale of 100 m in thickness, alternation of sandstone and shale of 40 m in thickness, basaltic lava and tuff of 30 m in thickness, and shale and sandstone of 110m in thickness with some sills of basalt and ultramafic rock. The rocks had been metamorphosed, and the grade is near the boundary between green schist and amphibolite facies. Low REE content (43 to 88 ppm), low La/Yb ratio (6.3 to 14.3), and high Eu/Eu* ratio (0.9 to 1.3) of the volcanic rocks are ordinal as the basaltic rock in Archean greenstone belts. On the other hand, these rocks show extremely high values of Cr (1500ppm), Ni (700ppm), Co (70 ppm), and Zn (600 ppm). The C isotopic ratios of carbonate in the volcanic rocks are around -3.8 permil. The clastic sediment sandstone and black shale show


    A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...

  19. Evaluation of Five Methods for Total DNA Extraction from Western Corn Rootworm Beetles (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Tan, Sek Yee; Wang, Haichuan; Siegfried, Blair D.


    Background DNA extraction is a routine step in many insect molecular studies. A variety of methods have been used to isolate DNA molecules from insects, and many commercial kits are available. Extraction methods need to be evaluated for their efficiency, cost, and side effects such as DNA degradation during extraction. Methodology/Principal Findings From individual western corn rootworm beetles, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, DNA extractions by the SDS method, CTAB method, DNAzol® reagent, Puregene® solutions and DNeasy® column were compared in terms of DNA quantity and quality, cost of materials, and time consumed. Although all five methods resulted in acceptable DNA concentrations and absorbance ratios, the SDS and CTAB methods resulted in higher DNA yield (ng DNA vs. mg tissue) at much lower cost and less degradation as revealed on agarose gels. The DNeasy® kit was most time-efficient but was the costliest among the methods tested. The effects of ethanol volume, temperature and incubation time on precipitation of DNA were also investigated. The DNA samples obtained by the five methods were tested in PCR for six microsatellites located in various positions of the beetle's genome, and all samples showed successful amplifications. Conclusion/Significance These evaluations provide a guide for choosing methods of DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles based on expected DNA yield and quality, extraction time, cost, and waste control. The extraction conditions for this mid-size insect were optimized. The DNA extracted by the five methods was suitable for further molecular applications such as PCR and sequencing by synthesis. PMID:20730102

  20. Evaluation of five methods for total DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles.

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    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA extraction is a routine step in many insect molecular studies. A variety of methods have been used to isolate DNA molecules from insects, and many commercial kits are available. Extraction methods need to be evaluated for their efficiency, cost, and side effects such as DNA degradation during extraction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From individual western corn rootworm beetles, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, DNA extractions by the SDS method, CTAB method, DNAzol reagent, Puregene solutions and DNeasy column were compared in terms of DNA quantity and quality, cost of materials, and time consumed. Although all five methods resulted in acceptable DNA concentrations and absorbance ratios, the SDS and CTAB methods resulted in higher DNA yield (ng DNA vs. mg tissue at much lower cost and less degradation as revealed on agarose gels. The DNeasy kit was most time-efficient but was the costliest among the methods tested. The effects of ethanol volume, temperature and incubation time on precipitation of DNA were also investigated. The DNA samples obtained by the five methods were tested in PCR for six microsatellites located in various positions of the beetle's genome, and all samples showed successful amplifications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These evaluations provide a guide for choosing methods of DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles based on expected DNA yield and quality, extraction time, cost, and waste control. The extraction conditions for this mid-size insect were optimized. The DNA extracted by the five methods was suitable for further molecular applications such as PCR and sequencing by synthesis.

  1. Status of maize stalk rot complex in western belts of Nepal and its integrated management

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    Subash Subedi


    Full Text Available Maize stalk rot complex is becoming a serious threat for maize growing areas of Nepal. A field monitoring for maize stalk rot complex was done during crop season (August, 2016 covering 10 farmers field each of Surkhet, Banke, Dang, Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts. Maize crop showed highly susceptible reaction to the disease at western belts of Dang and susceptible reaction was marked in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts while the disease effect was mild at Banke and Surkhet district. Most of the plant diseases managed successfully through the application of bio-control agents, host resistance, chemicals and other different cultural control methods. The result of field experiment conducted at Dang showed that all the treatments had significant (P≤0.05 effect on percent disease index (PDI and crop yield over farmers practice to control maize stalk rot. The higher percent disease control (52.36% and yield increase (40.29% were recorded from the plot sprayed with streptocyclin @ 2 g L-1 and insecticide (cypermethrin + chloropyrifos @ 2.5 ml L-1 of water during knee height and subsequent spray after 15 days interval as compared to farmers practice. Out of 30 genotypes, Rampur composit, Arun 2, Rampur 34, RamS03F08, TLBRS07F16 and Rampur 24 were found resistant against stalk rot complex with higher yield at Rampur Chitwan.

  2. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

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    Marty R. Schmer


    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  3. Petrogenesis and geodynamic significance of silicic volcanism in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Petrone, C. M.; Ferrari, L.; Orozco, M. A.; Lopez Martinez, M.


    Silicic volcanism in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (WTMVB) was defined a Pliocene ignimbrite flare-up associated with the rifting of the Jalisco block from mainland Mexico (Frey et al., 2007; GSAB). With the integration of new and published geochronologic, geochemical, and isotope data we revise this interpretation and propose a new petrogenetic model. The oldest silicic volcanism consists of large silicic domes and minor pyroclastic flows (~370 km3) emplaced to the north of Guadalajara above a thick succession of ~11 to 8.7 Ma basaltic lavas, which yielded Ar-Ar and obsidian FT ages of ~7.5 to 5 Ma. Shortly after (4.9 to 2.9 Ma) large amount of rhyolitic lavas and ash flow tuffs (~500 km3) were emplaced in a WNW-ESE trending belt from Guadalajara to Compostela. Rhyolitic domes and flows (~430 km3) were emplaced also in the Pleistocene mostly between Tequila and Guadalajara with the late Pleistocene La Primavera caldera (~35 km3) as the sole explosive volcanic episodes. As a whole, silicic volcanism occurred from Late Miocene to the Pleistocene, and was dominated by dome and lava flows. Most rhyolites have high LILE/HFSE values and negative spikes at Nb, P and Ti. They also show the same Ba/Nb and K/Rb values and slightly higher Rb/Sr ratios as the 11-8 Ma basalts. Rhyolite Sr isotope data (87Sr/86Sr init = 0.70371 - 070598) are only slightly more radiogenic than the 11-8 basalts (87Sr/86Sr init = 0.70349-0.70410), whereas Nd isotope ratios are indistinguishable from them. Sr and Nd isotope ratios of the rhyolites are also similar to the crust nearby, indicating that they can be compatible either with fractional crystallization (FC) of basalts or with crust assimilation/melting. However REE contents are too low to be the result of basalt FC. Isotope and REE data can be successfully modelled with an initial crustal melt which subsequently undergone fractional crystallization of feldspar and quartz. Late Miocene slab detachment and subsequent slab rollback

  4. The linkage between fluvial meander-belt morphodynamics and the depositional record improves paleoenvironmental interpretations, Western Interior Basin, Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Durkin, P.; Hubbard, S. M.


    scale, analysis of changes in morphology over time reveal a decrease in channel-belt width/thickness ratio and sinuosity, which we attribute to the landward migration of the paleo-backwater limit due to the oncoming and overlying transgression of the Cretaceous Boreal Sea into the Western Interior Basin.


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    G. Abbate


    Full Text Available Since a large area of Italy is lacking of updated informations about weed flora, we carried out a field survey in wheat and corn crops in western-central Italy (Lazio, by phytosociological approach, to update data, making comparisons and diachronic observations  with literature. Relevés were carried out in 62 wheat crops, 50 corn ones. Totally 149 vascular units and 36 families were recorded; Poaceae and Asteraceae are prevailing. In wheat fields 113 units were observed: Dicots s.l. are 77,88% and Monocots 22,12%; in corn fields 78 units were observed. Floristic composition of relevés is very variable. In both cultivations Therophytes, Mediterranean and wide distribution taxa dominate. Among wheat weeds one alien species was observed; greater (11% was the occurrence of non-native taxa in corn crops. The comparison of the surveys in 1981 and in 2011-2012 showed the prevailing of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, Poaceae, even if in different percentages. A strong increase of Therophytes and Mediterraneaneans is detected. Wheat crops weed flora has a higher value than that in corn crops, because of species richness and mostly native taxa presence. The prevailing of Dicots, not resistent to herbicides, can be considered an indicator of good conservation status of agro-ecosystems.


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    Ivan Brkić


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum allocation of the number of plants sampled per plot and number of locations and years required for screening maize genotypes for reduced root damage caused by western corn rootworm (WCR larvae, major pest of maize in Croatia, Europe and in the USA. Field trials were conducted on two locations Eastern Croatia, a major maize production area with natural WCR occurrence under continuous maize growing conditions. The trials were set as an incomplete lattice block design in two replications in 2007, 2008 and 2009 including 128 genotypes from various maize gene-pools. Our results suggest that the effect of year and respective interactions including year were the most important factors in maize breeding programs for native resistance to WCR. Thus, screening germplasm for WCR resistance should be made in a multi-year experiment, but not necessarily as a multi-location experiment. Resource optimization should be done by reducing number of roots per plot to minimum 4 sampled plants due to small within-plot environmental variance.

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 interactions with western corn rootworm midgut membrane binding sites.

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    Huarong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 are binary insecticidal proteins that are co-expressed in transgenic corn hybrids for control of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Bt crystal (Cry proteins with limited potential for field-relevant cross-resistance are used in combination, along with non-transgenic corn refuges, as a strategy to delay development of resistant rootworm populations. Differences in insect midgut membrane binding site interactions are one line of evidence that Bt protein mechanisms of action differ and that the probability of receptor-mediated cross-resistance is low. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Binding site interactions were investigated between Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and coleopteran active insecticidal proteins Cry3Aa, Cry6Aa, and Cry8Ba on western corn rootworm midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV. Competitive binding of radio-labeled proteins to western corn rootworm BBMV was used as a measure of shared binding sites. Our work shows that (125I-Cry35Ab1 binds to rootworm BBMV, Cry34Ab1 enhances (125I-Cry35Ab1 specific binding, and that (125I-Cry35Ab1 with or without unlabeled Cry34Ab1 does not share binding sites with Cry3Aa, Cry6Aa, or Cry8Ba. Two primary lines of evidence presented here support the lack of shared binding sites between Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and the aforementioned proteins: 1 No competitive binding to rootworm BBMV was observed for competitor proteins when used in excess with (125I-Cry35Ab1 alone or combined with unlabeled Cry34Ab1, and 2 No competitive binding to rootworm BBMV was observed for unlabeled Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1, or a combination of the two, when used in excess with (125I-Cry3Aa, or (125I-Cry8Ba. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combining two or more insecticidal proteins active against the same target pest is one tactic to delay the onset of resistance to either protein. We conclude that Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 are compatible with Cry3Aa, Cry6Aa, or Cry8Ba

  8. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution and concentrated mineralization in Balkhash and West Junggar, western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Chen, Xuanhua; Chen, Zhengle


    The Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is an important area with significant growth of the crust and metallogeny in the Late Paleozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt consists of the Balkhash, the West Junggar, and the East Junggar tectono-metallogenic belts in western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). According to the structural geological relationship, the East Junggar, the West Junggar, and the Balkhash belts are considered to be once a continuous E-W-trending tectono-metallogenic belt in Late Carboniferous. The West Junggar belt is featured with NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faulting tectonic system (WJTS), while the left-lateral strike-slip faults are E-W-trending in the Balkhash belt. The WJTS consists of the Darabut, the Mayile, and the Baerluke faults, and the blocks among them. All these left-lateral strike-slip faults are forming due to the transition of tectonic settings from syn-collisional orogeny to post-collisional extension during the closure of the ocean (the Junggar Sea) in Late Carboniferous, with significant intrusion of batholiths and crust growth occurred in this period. These faults are truncated by the right-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Chingiz-Junggar fault, and the Central Balkhash fault in Mesozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt is important for the occurrence of many well-known super-large and large porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (such as the Kounrad, the Aktogai, the Borly, and the Baogutu deposits), large skarn Cu deposits (in the Sayak ore-filed), large rare metal deposits (such as the East Kounrad, the Zhanet, and the Akshatau deposits), and large gold deposits (such as the Hatu deposit). Zircon U-Pb ages, Re-Os isotopic dating of molybdenites, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of hornblendes, muscovites, biotites, and K-feldspars, and zircon and apatite fission track (FT) and (U-Th)/He dating and thermal history modeling, provide a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the whole

  9. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.


    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  10. Microbial communities associated with the larval gut and eggs of the Western corn rootworm.

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    Flavia Dematheis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western corn rootworm (WCR is one of the economically most important pests of maize. A better understanding of microbial communities associated with guts and eggs of the WCR is required in order to develop new pest control strategies, and to assess the potential role of the WCR in the dissemination of microorganisms, e.g., mycotoxin-producing fungi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total community (TC DNA was extracted from maize rhizosphere, WCR eggs, and guts of larvae feeding on maize roots grown in three different soil types. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR-amplified from TC DNA, were used to investigate the fungal and bacterial communities, respectively. Microorganisms in the WCR gut were not influenced by the soil type. Dominant fungal populations in the gut were affiliated to Fusarium spp., while Wolbachia was the most abundant bacterial genus. Identical ribosomal sequences from gut and egg samples confirmed a transovarial transmission of Wolbachia sp. Betaproteobacterial DGGE indicated a stable association of Herbaspirillum sp. with the WCR gut. Dominant egg-associated microorganisms were the bacterium Wolbachia sp. and the fungus Mortierella gamsii. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The soil type-independent composition of the microbial communities in the WCR gut and the dominance of only a few microbial populations suggested either a highly selective environment in the gut lumen or a high abundance of intracellular microorganisms in the gut epithelium. The dominance of Fusarium species in the guts indicated WCR larvae as vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi. The stable association of Herbaspirillum sp. with WCR gut systems and the absence of corresponding sequences in WCR eggs suggested that this bacterium was postnatally acquired from the environment. The present study provided new insights into the microbial communities associated with larval guts and eggs of

  11. Differential effects of RNAi treatments on field populations of the western corn rootworm. (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Sun, Weilin; Spencer, Joseph L; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Seufferheld, Manfredo J


    RNA interference (RNAi) mediated crop protection against insect pests is a technology that is greatly anticipated by the academic and industrial pest control communities. Prior to commercialization, factors influencing the potential for evolution of insect resistance to RNAi should be evaluated. While mutations in genes encoding the RNAi machinery or the sequences targeted for interference may serve as a prominent mechanism of resistance evolution, differential effects of RNAi on target pests may also facilitate such evolution. However, to date, little is known about how variation of field insect populations could influence the effectiveness of RNAi treatments. To approach this question, we evaluated the effects of RNAi treatments on adults of three western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) populations exhibiting different levels of gut cysteine protease activity, tolerance of soybean herbivory, and immune gene expression; two populations were collected from crop rotation-resistant (RR) problem areas and one from a location where RR was not observed (wild type; WT). Our results demonstrated that RNAi targeting DvRS5 (a highly expressed cysteine protease gene) reduced gut cysteine protease activity in all three WCR populations. However, the proportion of the cysteine protease activity that was inhibited varied across populations. When WCR adults were treated with double-stranded RNA of an immune gene att1, different changes in survival among WT and RR populations on soybean diets occurred. Notably, for both genes, the sequences targeted for RNAi were the same across all populations examined. These findings indicate that the effectiveness of RNAi treatments could vary among field populations depending on their physiological and genetic backgrounds and that the consistency of an RNAi trait's effectiveness on phenotypically different populations should be considered or tested prior to wide deployment. Also, genes that are potentially subjected

  12. Systemic RNAi in western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, does not involve transitive pathways. (United States)

    Li, Huarong; Bowling, Andrew J; Gandra, Premchand; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Pence, Heather E; McEwan, Robert E; Khajuria, Chitvan; Siegfried, Blair D; Narva, Kenneth E


    Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is highly sensitive to orally delivered double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi in WCR is systemic and spreads throughout the insect body. This raises the question whether transitive RNAi is a mechanism that functions in WCR to amplify the RNAi response via production of secondary siRNA. Secondary siRNA production is achieved through RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) activity in other eukaryotic organisms, but RdRP has not been identified in WCR and any other insects. This study visualized the spread of the RNAi-mediated knockdown of Dv v-ATPase C mRNA throughout the WCR gut and other tissues using high-sensitivity branched DNA in situ hybridization. Furthermore, we did not detect either secondary siRNA production or transitive RNAi in WCR through siRNA sequence profile analysis. Nucleotide mismatched sequences introduced into either the sense or antisense strand of v-ATPase C dsRNAs were maintained in siRNAs derived from WCR fed with the mismatched dsRNAs in a strand specific manner. The distribution of all siRNAs was restricted to within the original target sequence regions, which may indicate the lack of new dsRNA synthesis leading to production of secondary siRNA. Thus, the systemic spread of RNAi in WCR may be derived from the original dsRNA molecules taken up from the gut lumen. These results indicate that the initial dsRNA dose is important for a lethal systemic RNAi response in WCR and have implications in developing effective dsRNA traits to control WCR and in resistance management to prolong the durability of RNAi trait technology.

  13. Deformation Characters of the Maowen Fault Belt in Longmenshan,Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zemin; ZHANG Yueqiao; YANG Nong


    The Maowen fault belt is one of important fault belts of the intercontinental orogenic belt of Longmenshan, mainly experienced three stage deformation; they are ductile shearing of thrust napping, brittle thrust napping and sinstral strike-slipping. Although Sc strike of mylonite formed by ductile shearing in early stage was reformed by later two stage brittle deformation, and changed greatly along the strike and inclination, the shear zone, as a whole, strikes NE and inclines NW. The stretching lineation is parallel or nearly parallel to the inclination of the ductile shear zone. According to the development of conjugated joints, the main compressive stress of the two stage brittle deformation is oriented to 306°and 2°, respectively.

  14. Tectonothermal evolution in the core of an arcuate fold and thrust belt: the south-eastern sector of the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt, north-western Spain) (United States)

    Valín, María Luz; García-López, Susana; Brime, Covadonga; Bastida, Fernando; Aller, Jesús


    The tectonothermal evolution of an area located in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (Variscan belt) has been determined by using the conodont colour alteration index (CAI), Kübler index of illite (KI), the Árkai index of chlorite (AI) and the analysis of clay minerals and rock cleavage. The area is part of the Cantabrian Zone (CZ), which represents the foreland fold and thrust belt of the orogen. It has been thrust by several large units of the CZ, what resulted in the generation of a large number of synorogenic Carboniferous sediments. CAI, KI and AI values show an irregular distribution of metamorphic grade, independent of stratigraphic position. Two tectonothermal events have been distinguished in the area. The first one, poorly defined, is mainly located in the northern part. It gave rise to very-low-grade metamorphism in some areas and it was associated with a deformation event that resulted in the emplacement of the last large thrust unit and development of upright folds and associated cleavage (S1). The second tectonothermal event gave rise to low-grade metamorphism and cleavage (S2) crosscutting earlier upright folds in the central, western and southern parts of the study area. The event continued with the intrusion of small igneous rock bodies, which gave rise to contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. This event was linked to an extensional episode due to a gravitational instability at the end of the Variscan deformation. This tectonothermal evolution occurred during the Gzhelian-Sakmarian. Subsequently, several hydrothermal episodes took place and local crenulation cleavage developed during the Alpine deformation.

  15. Differential Tectonic Deformation of the Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt,Western Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liangjie; YANG Keming; JIN Wenzheng; WAN Guime; L(U) Zhizhou; YU Yixin


    Field investigation and seismic section explanation showed that the Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt has obvious differential deformation:zonation,segmentation and stratification.Zonation means that, from NW to NE.the Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt can be divided into the Songpan. foreland depression.Segmentation means that it can be divided into five segments from north to South: the northern segment,the Anxian Transfer Zone,the center segment,the Guanxian Transfer Zone and the southern segment.Stratification means that the detachment layers partition the structural styles in profile.The detachment layers in the Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt can be classified into three categories:the deep-level detachment layers,including the crust-mantle system detachment layer. intracrustaI detachment layer.and Presinian system basal detachment layer;the middle.1evel detachment layers, including Cambrian-Ordovician detachment layer, Silurian detachment layer,etc.: and shallow-level detachment layers,including Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation detachment layer and the Jurassic detachment layers.The multi-level detachment layers have a very important effect on the shaping and evolution of Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt.

  16. Parameters for Successful Parental RNAi as An Insect Pest Management Tool in Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera


    Vélez, Ana M.; Elane Fishilevich; Natalie Matz; Storer, Nicholas P.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Siegfried, Blair D


    Parental RNAi (pRNAi) is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR) via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a succ...

  17. Binary toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis active against the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. (United States)

    Baum, James A; Chu, Chi-Rei; Rupar, Mark; Brown, Gregory R; Donovan, William P; Huesing, Joseph E; Ilagan, Oliver; Malvar, Thomas M; Pleau, Michael; Walters, Matthew; Vaughn, Ty


    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a significant pest of corn in the United States. The development of transgenic corn hybrids resistant to rootworm feeding damage depends on the identification of genes encoding insecticidal proteins toxic to rootworm larvae. In this study, a bioassay screen was used to identify several isolates of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis active against rootworm. These bacterial isolates each produce distinct crystal proteins with approximate molecular masses of 13 to 15 kDa and 44 kDa. Insect bioassays demonstrated that both protein classes are required for insecticidal activity against this rootworm species. The genes encoding these proteins are organized in apparent operons and are associated with other genes encoding crystal proteins of unknown function. The antirootworm proteins produced by B. thuringiensis strains EG5899 and EG9444 closely resemble previously described crystal proteins of the Cry34A and Cry35A classes. The antirootworm proteins produced by strain EG4851, designated Cry34Ba1 and Cry35Ba1, represent a new binary toxin. Genes encoding these proteins could become an important component of a sustainable resistance management strategy against this insect pest.

  18. Discovery of a novel insecticidal protein from Chromobacterium piscinae, with activity against Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. (United States)

    Sampson, Kimberly; Zaitseva, Jelena; Stauffer, Maria; Vande Berg, Brian; Guo, Rong; Tomso, Daniel; McNulty, Brian; Desai, Nalini; Balasubramanian, Deepa


    Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is one of the most significant pests of corn in the United States. Although transgenic solutions exist, increasing resistance concerns make the discovery of novel solutions essential. In order to find a novel protein with high activity and a new mode of action, a large microbial collection was surveyed for toxicity to WCR using in vitro bioassays. Cultures of strain ATX2024, identified as Chromobacterium piscinae, had very high activity against WCR larvae. The biological activity from the strain was purified using chromatographic techniques and fractions were tested against WCR larvae. Proteins in the final active fraction were identified by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing and matched to the genome of ATX2024. A novel 58.9kDa protein, identified by this approach, was expressed in a recombinant expression system and found to have specific activity against WCR. Transgenic corn events containing this gene showed good protection against root damage by WCR, with average scores ranging between 0.01 and 0.04 on the Iowa State node injury scale. Sequence analysis did not reveal homology to any known insecticidal toxin, suggesting that this protein may act in a novel way to control WCR. The new WCR active protein is named GNIP1Aa, for Gram Negative Insecticidal Protein.

  19. Fault Characteristics in Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt,Western Sichuan Foreland Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Guimei; Tang Liangjie; Yang Keming; Jin Wenzheng; LU Zhizhou; Yu Yixin


    Through field geological survey,the authors found that abundant thrust faults developed in the Longmen (龙门) Mountain thrust belt.These faults can be divided into thrust faults and strike-slip faults according to their formation mechanisms and characteristics.Furthermore,these faults can be graded into primary fault,secondary fault,third-level fault,and fourth-level fault according to their scale and role in the tectonic evolution of Longmen Mountain thrust belt.Each thrust fault is composed of several secondary faults,such as Qingchuan (青川)-Maowen (茂汶) fault zone is composed of Qiaozhuang (乔庄) fault,Qingxi (青溪) fault,Maowen fault,Ganyanggou (赶羊沟) fault,etc..The Longmen Mountain thrust belt experienced early Indosinian movement,Anxian (安县) movement,Yanshan (燕山)movement,and Himalayan movement,and the faults formed gradually from north to south.

  20. A Western Corn Rootworm Cadherin-like Protein is not Involved in the Binding and Toxicity of Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Aa Bacillus Thuringiensis Proteins (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important insect pest of corn. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins Cry3Aa (as mCry3A) and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 have been expressed in transgenic corn and are used to control the insect in the U.S. To date, there ...

  1. From folding to transpressional faulting: the Cenozoic Fusha structural belt in front of the Western Kunlun Orogen, northwestern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Cheng, Xiao-Gan; Chen, Han-Lin; Li, Kang; Fan, Xiao-Gen; Wang, Chun-Yang


    Fusha structural belt (FSB) is one of the most important tectonic units in front of the Western Kunlun Orogen, northwestern Tibetan Plateau (NW China), in which the Kekeya oil field was discovered in 1971. However, there is no new oil field discovered since then due to the unclarity of the intense and complex Cenozoic deformation in this area. Based on field investigation, seismic interpretation and Continuous Electromagnetic Profile data, we analyze in detail the Cenozoic deformation history, emphasizing on the spatial and temporal variation of the deformation of the FSB in this paper. The result suggests that the FSB was dominated by two deformation events, (1) early (Miocene-early Pliocene) folding event expressed by anticline, with the western segment E-W orienting, while the eastern segment NWW-SEE orienting and (2) later (since late Pliocene) transpressional faulting event that destroyed and divided the earlier anticline into a number of fault blocks. The transpressional faulting caused dextral strike-slip reverse fault, with the dip angles decreasing eastward from ~90° to reserved. Based on the spatial variation of structural characteristics, we propose that the fault block traps and anticline traps in the eastern segment and fault block traps in western segment are favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation.

  2. Fluxes of dissolved organic matter and mineral weathering products from Corn Belt landscapes dominated by subsurface drainage: large-scale soil and hydrologic change (United States)

    Jelinski, N. A.; Yoo, K.; Strock, J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Finlay, J. C.


    The human alteration of agricultural landscapes is one of the most important factors in pedologic and geomorphic change, and can influence hydrology and aquatic chemistry at large scales. Most of the Midwestern Corn Belt that is currently dominated by subsurface tile drainage (such as southern Minnesota) was historically prairie and wetland which had hydrologic flow-paths through organic-rich surface soil horizons, a condition that favored the export of dissolved organic matter. When hydrology is altered through subsurface drainage, adsorption of organic materials to mineral surfaces and increases in mineral weathering may result because more water is flowing through subsurface mineral soils. We suggest that the alteration of hydrologic flowpaths in agricultural landscapes can dramatically alter the rate of mineral weathering as well as surface export of weathering products and dissolved organic matter. This could be at least one contributing factor to observed increases in Mississippi River alkalinity over the past four decades. Here, we examine trends in dissolved organic carbon, total dissolved nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen, total suspended solids, and indicators of mineral weathering (Si, Ca, Na, K) from subsurface drainage systems located in southwestern MN. Then, using a simple conceptual model, we estimate the effects of subsurface drainage on the regional fluxes of these parameters and present directions for future research.

  3. Comparison of the production, economic returns, and energy intensiveness of corn belt farms that do and do not use inorganic fertilizers and pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockeretz, W.; Klepper, R.; Commoner, B.; Gertler, M.; Fast, S.; O' Leary, D.; Blobaum, R.


    This report compares crop production on a sample of 16 mixed crop-livestock farms in the Corn Belt on which no inorganic fertilizers and almost no pesticides are used, to that of a matched sample that uses conventional fertilization and pest control practices. In the 1974 crop year, the market value of the crops raised per acre was slightly higher on the conventional sample (an average of 8 percent), but this difference was not statistically significant at the 90 percent probability level. There was no difference between the two groups' crop production returns, that is, value of production less operating costs. The operating costs on the conventional farms were greater for fertilization and pest control, but other costs were about equal for the two samples. The energy intensiveness (defined as energy input divided by value of production) on the farms that do not use fertilizers is an average of one-third as much as that of the conventional group. This difference arises almost entirely from the latters' use of energy-intensive fertilizers, primarily anhydrous ammonia and other forms of nitrogen. (auth)

  4. Mortality of western corn rootworm larvae on MIR604 transgenic maize roots: field survivorship has no significant impact on survivorship of F1 progeny on MIR604. (United States)

    Hibbard, Bruce E; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Meihls, Lisa N; El Khishen, Ahmed A; Kaster, Von; Steiner, Henry-York; Kurtz, Ryan


    Mortality of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae due to MIR604 transgenic corn, Zea mays L., expressing the modified Cry3A (mCry3A) protein relative to survivorship on corn with the same genetic background without the gene (isoline corn) was evaluated at three Missouri sites in both 2005 and 2006. We made these comparisons by using wild-type western corn rootworm at three different egg densities (6,000, 3,000, and 1,500 eggs per m) so that the role of density-dependent mortality would be known. The mortality due to the mCry3A protein was 94.88% when averaged across all environments and both years. Fifty percent emergence of beetles was delayed approximately 5.5 d. Beetles were kept alive and their progeny evaluated on MIR604 and isoline corn in the greenhouse to determine whether survivorship on MIR604 in the field for one generation increased survivorship on MIR604 in the greenhouse in the subsequent generation. There was no significant difference in survivorship on MIR604 in greenhouse assays between larvae whose parents survived isoline and larvae whose parents survived MIR604 in the field the previous generation, indicating that many susceptible beetles survived MIR604 in the field the previous season along with any potentially resistant beetles. The data are discussed in terms of rootworm insect resistance management.

  5. The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt, western China: Geology, geophysics, genesis, and hydrothermal system (United States)

    Tang, Xianchun; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhonghe; Hu, Shengbiao; Tian, Jiao; Bao, Shujing


    The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (ETGB), which is located in 98-102°E, 28-32°N, belongs to the eastern part of the Mediterranean-Himalayan geothermal belt. Recently, about 248 natural hot springs have been found in the ETGB. > 60% of these springs have temperatures of > 40 °C, and 11 springs have temperature above the local water boiling point. Using the helium isotopic data, gravity, magnetic and seismic data, we analyzed the thermal structure and the relationship between hydrothermal activity and geothermal dynamics of the ETGB. Results show that: (1) the 248 springs can be divided into three geothermal fields: Kangding-Luhuo geothermal field (KGF), Litang-Ganzi geothermal field (LGF) and Batang-Xiangcheng geothermal field (BGF). The BGF and LGF have hot crust and warm mantle, and are characterized by the higher heat flux (66.26 mW/m2), and higher ratios of crust-derived heat flux to total flux (47.46-60.62%). The KGF has cool crust and hot mantle, and is characterized by the higher heat flux and lower Qc/Qm; (2) there is a relatively 4-6 m higher gravimetric geoid anomaly dome which is corresponding with the ETGB. And in hydrothermal activity areas of the BGF and LGF, there is a northwest - southeast-trending tensile stress area and the upper-middle crust uplift area; (3) an abnormal layer exists in the middle-lower crust at a depth of 13-30 km beneath the ETGB, and this layer is 8-10 km thick and is characterized by lower velocity (Vp 2.5), high conductivity ( 10 Ω·m) and high temperature (850-1000 °C). Finally, based on the heat source and geological and geophysical background, we propose Kangding-type and Batang-type hydrothermal system models in the ETGB.

  6. Devonian to Triassic Successions of the Changning-Menglian Belt,Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiaochi; WANG Yizhao; XIE Guanglian


    Phanerozoic strata are distributed in several north-south trending zones in the central part of the Changning-Menglian Belt. Four types of Devonian to Triassic stratigraphic successions can be identified: (1) clastics with limestonelenses in the mid-section, changing up-section into alternations of fine clastics and cherts; (2) clastics with chertintercalations and limestone lenses, and topped by Permian basic volcanics; (3) clastics-basicvolcanics-carbonates-clastics; and (4) limestones, dolomitic limestones-dark gray thin-bedded limestones, argillaceouslimestones, mudstones and siliceous mudstones. Devonian to Triassic cherts occur in different horizons and differentzones from east to west. These cherts are usually transitional to their neighboring clastics. There is no continuousDevonian to Middle Triassic chert sequence in the central zone of the Changning-Menglian Belt as Liu et al. (1991, 1993)reported. Volcanics and the overlying carbonates described by some workers as "seamount" sequences are more likely tohave formed in a marine environment on continental crust. Succession (4) is newly recognized in the area from Menglai toYong'an in Cangyuan County and further north to Padi of Gengma County. Basalts, cherts and clastics also appear in thisarea. Mid-Triassic (very probably Ladinian) radiolarians extracted from bedded cherts in the Ganzhejidi section indicatethat they are in higher stratigraphic positions. The change from bedded cherts via siltstones to thick-bedded sandstoneswith thin-bedded fine intercalations in the Ganzhejidi section and (some other outcrops along the road from Cangyuan toGengma) suggests a fundamental change of sedimentary environment caused by a rapid increase of a large quantity ofdetritus supply. These siliciclastic sediments are possibly syn-orogenic deposits.

  7. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Šibík


    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and subalpine belts of the Western Carpathians referred to the alliance Pinion mugo Pawłowski in Pawłowski et al. 1928 of the order Junipero-Pinetalia mugo Boşcaiu 1971 and the class Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo Theurillat in Theurillat et al. 1995, into three separate associations: the Cetrario-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, the Homogyno alpinae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 nom. nov., and the Adenostylo alliariae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 Šoltésová 1974. The authors also elucidated the unauthorized name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, which is a younger homonym of the valid name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum montanae Morton 1927 that characterises the acidophilous dwarf pine stands on calcareous bedrocks in the Alps.

  8. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in Bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or Western bean cutworm (United States)

    Field trials were conducted (2007 to 2010) to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against European corn borer and Western bean cutworm (WBC). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) w...

  9. Characterisation of cysteine proteinases responsible for digestive proteolysis in guts of larval Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) by expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bown, D.P.; Wilkinson, H.S.; Jongsma, M.A.; Gatehouse, J.A.


    Cysteine proteinases are the major class of enzymes responsible for digestive proteolysis in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), a serious pest of maize. A larval gut extract hydrolysed typical cathepsin substrates, such as Z-phe-arg-AMC and Z-arg-arg-AMC, and hydrolysis was inhibited by Z

  10. Successful application of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of western corn rootworm larvae in Europe – a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toepfer, Stefan


    Full Text Available 10 years of joint efforts in research and development have led to a nematode-based biological control solution for one of the most destructive maize pests, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Commercially mass-produced Heterorhabditis species of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes are ready to use. They can be applied into the soil during sowing of maize for controlling the subsequently hatching larvae of D. virgifera virgifera thus preventing root feeding and damage to maize. Policy bodies, decision makers and farmers are advised to consider biological control as one of the alternatives to synthetic pesticides in maize production, and according to the EC Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides and implementation of integrated pest management.

  11. Effects of refuges on the evolution of resistance to transgenic corn by western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (United States)

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is a major pest of corn causing millions of dollars of economic loss annually through yield reductions and preventative management practices. Corn producing toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed to help manage D. v. virgifera. Sinc...

  12. Exhumation of the Deylaman fault trend and its effects on the deformation style of the western Alborz belt in Iran (United States)

    Hakimi Asiabar, Saeid; Bagheriyan, Siyamak


    The Alborz range in northern Iran stretches along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Pamir mountains in Afghanistan. Alborz mountain belt is a doubly vergent orogen formed along the northern edge of the Iranian plateau in response to the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean and continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. The south Caspian depression—the Alborz basin of Mesozoic age (with W-E trend) in northern Iran—inverted in response to the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Pre-existing extensional faults of the south Caspian-Alborz system preferentially reactivated as contractional faults because of tectonic inversion. These contractional structures tend to run parallel to the trends of pre-existing extensional faults and acquire W and WNW-ESE orientations across the previous accommodation zones that were imposed by the reactivation of adjacent extensional faults with different directions. The NNE to N dipping faults show evidences of reactivation. The Deylaman fault is one of the important faults of western Alborz in Iran and is an example of inversion tectonic style of deformation in the western Alborz mountain range. The Deylaman fault, with an E-W trend, contains three discontinuous fault segments in the area under investigation. These fault segments have evidence of oblique right-lateral reverse motion and links eastward to the dextral Kandavan thrust. The importance of this fault is due to its effect on sedimentation of several rock units from the Jurassic to Neogene in western Alborz; the rock facies on each side of this fault are very different and illustrate different parts of tectonic history.

  13. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir Kanti; Rosing, Minik Thorleif


    -98)) and pyroxene grains (Mg-numbers = 97-99). Compositional variability on the scale of a single chromite grain occurs in the form of zoning, and it is common in the accessory chromite grains in serpentinite and in the altered grains in chromitite. In the zoned grains, the composition of the core is modified...... has been used to compute the nature of the parental melt. The parental melt calculations indicate derivation from a high-Mg komatiitic basalt that is similar to the composition of the komatiitic rocks reported from the greenstone sequences of the Western Dharwar Craton. Tectonic discrimination...

  14. Andesite petrogenesis in a hybrid arc-rift setting: the Western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Gómez-Tuena, A.; Vázquez-Duarte, A.; Díaz-Bravo, B.; Mori, L.


    The western sector of the Mexican subduction zone is characterized by the steep subduction of one of the youngest slabs on the planet (Rivera plate), and by the existence of a continental rift at ~230 km to the north from the trench (the so-called Tepic-Zacoalco rift, TZR), under which the subducted slab is either extremely deep or even absent (>250 km). The volcanic front is located at ~170 km from the trench and contains abundant potassic-alkaline lamprophyres with strong subduction (Ba/Ta= 1600-6000) and garnet signatures (Gd/Yb= 2-8), that have been recently interpreted as influenced by deep K2O-rich slab melts or supercritical fluids (Gómez-Tuena et al., 2011, GCA). In contrast, the most mafic rocks within the TZR are high-Nb, intraplate-like basalts that appear to derive from low extents of melting of a dryer (Ba/Ta= 800-60) and shallower (Gd/Yb= 2-2.5) mantle source. Even though a simple transition from an arc environment to an extensional tectonic regime is apparent when only the most primitive volcanic rocks are taken into account, the scenario becomes more complicated since at least five stratovolcanoes have been erupting typical arc andesites within the TZR over the last million years (San Juan, Sanganguey, Tepetiltic, Ceboruco and Tequila). Surprisingly, true calc-alkaline basalts that could be parental to andesites have not been found, indicating that andesites may have a direct mantle origin. Indeed, mayor and trace element compositions of volcanic rocks from western Mexico arrange in discrete suites with linear trends that are indicative of mixing, but they form sub-parallel arrays that do not converge to a common primitive basaltic melt, and often follow diverging trends in trace element-ratio plots. Melt-crust interactions likely occurred during magma ascent, since the volcanic rocks frequently include xenoliths and disequilibrium textures, but correlations among isotopic compositions and indexes of fractionation are not clearly observed in the

  15. Geochemistry and tectonic significance of the Gongzhu peridotites in the northern branch of the western Yarlung Zangbo ophiolitic belt, western Tibet (United States)

    Lian, Dongyang; Yang, Jingsui; Liu, Fei; Wu, Weiwei; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Huang, Jian


    The Gongzhu ophiolite is situated in the northern branch of the western Yarlung Zangbo ophiolitic belt. This massif consists of a strongly dismembered ophiolitic sequence dominated by mantle peridotites. The peridotites comprise lherzolite with low- to moderately-depleted mineral and bulk rock compositions. The degree of partial melting deduced from Cr# values of the Gongzhu peridotites varies between 7% and 10%. The mineral and whole rock compositions of the Gongzhu peridotites are comparable to those of abyssal peridotites. The chondrite normalized REE compositions of the peridotites typically display U-shaped or spoon-shaped patterns, and primitive mantle-normalized PGEs patterns show Ir depletion relative to Os and Ru, and Pt enrichment relative to Rh and Pd. On the basis of the petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data, we concluded that the Gongzhu peridotites either formed in the back-arc setting of an intra-oceanic subduction system or the Gongzhu and Dajiweng peridotites both formed in the in the same incipient forearc/proto-forearc environment of an intra-oceanic subduction zone.

  16. Tectonically driven fluid flow and gold mineralisation in active collisional orogenic belts: comparison between New Zealand and western Himalaya (United States)

    Craw, D.; Koons, P. O.; Horton, T.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    Hydrothermal activity and mesothermal-styled gold mineralisation occurs near the main topographic divide of most active or young collisional mountain belts. The Southern Alps of New Zealand is used in this study as a model for the mineralising processes. The collisional tectonics results in a two-sided wedge-shaped orogen into which rock is transported horizontally. Upper crustal rocks pass through the orogen and leave the orogen by erosion, whereas lower crustal rocks are deformed into the mountain roots. High relief drives meteoric water flow to near the brittle-ductile transition. Lower to upper greenschist facies metamorphic reactions, driven by deformation at the crustal decollement and in the root, release water-rich fluids that rise through the orogen. Intimate chemical interaction between fluid and rock results in dissolution and later precipitation of gold, arsenic and sulphur. Fluid flow and mineralisation in the topographic divide region is facilitated by a network of steeply dipping faults and associated rock damage zones where oblique strike-slip faults intersect the thrust faults that strike subparallel to the main mountain range. The Nanga Parbat massif of the western Himalaya is an example of an active collisional zone which hosts hydrothermal activity but no gold mineralisation. The lack of gold mineralisation is due to the following factors: CO 2-dominated rising metamorphic fluid in dehydrated amphibolite-granulite facies metamorphic rocks does not dissolve gold and arsenic; hot (up to 400 °C) meteoric water confined to fractures in the gneiss limits dissolution of gold and arsenic; low density of hot water/dry steam, and low reduced sulphur content of fluid, restrict solubility of gold and arsenic; absence of fracture networks in the core of the massif and the small volumes of circulating fluid limit metal concentration; and lack of reactive rock compositions limits chemically mediated metal deposition.

  17. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Vélez

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2, an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA's and Argonaute 2 (Ago2, an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2 did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA's. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance.

  18. Parameters for Successful Parental RNAi as An Insect Pest Management Tool in Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Vélez


    Full Text Available Parental RNAi (pRNAi is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a successful pRNAi response in WCR for the genes brahma and hunchback. The parameters tested included a concentration response, duration of the dsRNA exposure, timing of the dsRNA exposure with respect to the mating status in WCR females, and the effects of pRNAi on males. Results indicate that all of the above parameters affect the strength of pRNAi phenotype in females. Results are interpreted in terms of how this technology will perform in the field and the potential role for pRNAi in pest and resistance management strategies. More broadly, the described approaches enable examination of the dynamics of RNAi response in insects beyond pRNAi and crop pests.

  19. Parameters for Successful Parental RNAi as An Insect Pest Management Tool in Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. (United States)

    Vélez, Ana M; Fishilevich, Elane; Matz, Natalie; Storer, Nicholas P; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D


    Parental RNAi (pRNAi) is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR) via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a successful pRNAi response in WCR for the genes brahma and hunchback. The parameters tested included a concentration response, duration of the dsRNA exposure, timing of the dsRNA exposure with respect to the mating status in WCR females, and the effects of pRNAi on males. Results indicate that all of the above parameters affect the strength of pRNAi phenotype in females. Results are interpreted in terms of how this technology will perform in the field and the potential role for pRNAi in pest and resistance management strategies. More broadly, the described approaches enable examination of the dynamics of RNAi response in insects beyond pRNAi and crop pests.

  20. Multitrophic interactions among Western Corn Rootworm, Glomus intraradices and microbial communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia eDematheis


    Full Text Available The complex interactions among the maize pest Western Corn Rootworm (WCR, Glomus intraradices (GI - recently renamed Rhizophagus intraradices and the microbial communities in both rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize have been investigated in view of new pest control strategies. In a greenhouse experiment, different maize treatments were established: C (control plants, W (plants inoculated with WCR, G (plants inoculated with GI, GW (plants inoculated with GI and WCR. After 20 days of WCR root feeding, larval fitness was measured. Dominant arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs in soil and maize endorhiza were analysed by cloning of 18S rRNA gene fragments of AMFs, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. Bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ITS and 16S rRNA gene fragments, PCR amplified from total community DNA, respectively. GI reduced significantly WCR larval development and affected the naturally occurring endophytic AMFs and bacteria. WCR root feeding influenced the endophytic bacteria as well.GI can be used in integrated pest management programs, rendering WCR larvae more susceptible to predation by natural enemies. The mechanisms behind the interaction between GI and WCR remain unknown. However, our data suggested that GI might act indirectly via plant-mediated mechanisms influencing the endophytic microbial communities.

  1. Multitrophic interactions among Western Corn Rootworm, Glomus intraradices and microbial communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize. (United States)

    Dematheis, Flavia; Kurtz, Benedikt; Vidal, Stefan; Smalla, Kornelia


    The complex interactions among the maize pest Western Corn Rootworm (WCR), Glomus intraradices (GI-recently renamed Rhizophagus intraradices) and the microbial communities in both rhizosphere and endorhiza of maize have been investigated in view of new pest control strategies. In a greenhouse experiment, different maize treatments were established: C (control plants), W (plants inoculated with WCR), G (plants inoculated with GI), GW (plants inoculated with GI and WCR). After 20 days of WCR root feeding, larval fitness was measured. Dominant arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil and maize endorhiza were analyzed by cloning of 18S rRNA gene fragments of AMF, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. Bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and endorhiza were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR amplified from total community DNA, respectively. GI reduced significantly WCR larval development and affected the naturally occurring endorhiza AMF and bacteria. WCR root feeding influenced the endorhiza bacteria as well. GI can be used in integrated pest management programs, rendering WCR larvae more susceptible to predation by natural enemies. The mechanisms behind the interaction between GI and WCR remain unknown. However, our data suggested that GI might act indirectly via plant-mediated mechanisms influencing the endorhiza microbial communities.

  2. Tectonics Along Western-Central Part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt as Inferred From Palaeomagnetic Data: A Summary (United States)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Goguichaisvilli, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.


    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), one of the largest continental volcanic arcs built on the North America plate, spans about 1000 km and crosses central Mexico from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. The initial stage of the TMVB is marked by widespread Miocene basaltic volcanism, emplaced from the Nayarit state, in the west, to the longitude of Mexico City. This volcanism is characterized by plateau-like structures resulting from the shield volcanoes and fissure lava flows, which have an estimated aggregate volume ranging between 3200 and 6800 km3. The western-central Mexico has been affected by right-lateral transtension within the western TMVB but previous paleomagnetic studies indicate some 15-20° anticlockwise tectonic rotations for the Rio Grande de Santiago canyon and surrounding areas, in accordance with a Miocene left-lateral transtensional tectonic regime. We present a summary of paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of that Miocene volcanic succession from the TMVB. A total of 114 consecutive basaltic lava flows (more than 550 oriented samples) were collected from four localities: Tepic, Guadalajara, Los Altos, and Queretaro which span from 11 to 7.5 Ma. The mean paleodirection obtained for Tepic area is I = 33.7°, D = 358.4°, k = 140, á95 = 3.0°, N = 17. These directions are in perfect agreement with the expected paleodirections for late Miocene time, as derived from reference poles given by Besse and Courtillot (1991) for North America.. The mean paleodirection obtained for Guadalajara is I = 31.1°, D = 354.6°, k = 124, 95 = 2.1°, which corresponds to the mean paleomagnetic pole position Plat = 84°, Plong = 129.8°, k = 29, 95 = 4.4°. These directions are in reasonably good agreement with the expected paleodirections for middle Miocene time. The mean paleomagnetic direction calculated for Los Altos and Queretaro is I = 32.46°, D = 341.2°, k = 7.2 and 95 = 11.6°. Thus, our results suggest that no major block rotation has

  3. Effect of MIR604 transgenic maize at different stages of development on western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in a central Missouri field environment. (United States)

    Frank, Daniel L; Bukowsky, Rebecca; French, B Wade; Hibbard, Bruce E


    The establishment and survival of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was evaluated on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner maize, Zea mays L., expressing the mCry3A protein (MIR604) and non-Bt maize with the same genetic background (isoline maize) at different stages of development in 2007 and 2008. Overall, western corn rootworm larval recovery, root damage, and adult emergence were significantly higher on isoline maize compared with MIR604. The number of larvae and adults collected from MIR604 did not significantly differ among egg hatch dates from each maize developmental stage evaluated in either year. In 2007, damage to isoline maize roots was lower than expected and never exceeded 0.24 nodes of damage. In 2008, over 0.60 nodes of damage occurred on isoline maize roots. The mean weight and head capsule width of larvae and adults recovered from MIR604 and isoline maize were generally not significantly different. Results are discussed in relation to insect resistance management of western corn rootworm.

  4. Assessment of Inheritance and Fitness Costs Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Maize by Western Corn Rootworm

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    Aubrey R. Paolino


    Full Text Available The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.

  5. Effect of Seed Blends and Soil-Insecticide on Western and Northern Corn Rootworm Emergence from mCry3A+eCry3.1Ab Bt Maize. (United States)

    Frank, Daniel L; Kurtz, Ryan; Tinsley, Nicholas A; Gassmann, Aaron J; Meinke, Lance J; Moellenbeck, Daniel; Gray, Michael E; Bledsoe, Larry W; Krupke, Christian H; Estes, Ronald E; Weber, Patrick; Hibbard, Bruce E


    Seed blends containing various ratios of transgenic Bt maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the mCry3A+eCry3.1Ab proteins and non-Bt maize (near-isoline maize) were deployed alone and in combination with a soil applied pyrethroid insecticide (Force CS) to evaluate the emergence of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in a total of nine field environments across the Midwestern United States in 2010 and 2011. Northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence emergence was also evaluated in four of these environments. Both western and northern corn rootworm beetle emergence from all Bt treatments was significantly reduced when compared with beetle emergence from near-isoline treatments. Averaged across all environments, western corn rootworm beetle emergence from 95:5, 90:10, and 80:20 seed blend ratios of mCry3A+eCry3.1Ab: near-isoline were 2.6-, 4.2-, and 6.7-fold greater than that from the 100:0 ratio treatment. Northern corn rootworm emergence from the same seed blend treatments resulted in 2.8-, 3.2-, and 4.2-fold more beetles than from the 100:0 treatment. The addition of Force CS (tefluthrin) significantly reduced western corn rootworm beetle emergence for each of the three treatments to which it was applied. Force CS also significantly delayed the number of days to 50% beetle emergence in western corn rootworms. Time to 50% beetle emergence in the 100% mCry3A+eCry3.1Ab treatment with Force CS was delayed 13.7 d when compared with western corn rootworm beetle emergence on near-isoline corn. These data are discussed in terms of rootworm resistance management.

  6. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls (United States)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.


    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  7. First occurrence of western corn root worm beetles in the federal states Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany, 2011

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    Dicke, Dominik


    Full Text Available In 2011, western corn root worm beetles were detected in the federal states Hesse (Groß-Gerau and Rhineland-Palatinate (Bodenheim for the first time. Control measures based on commission decision 2003/766/EG (Byrne, 2003 were conducted after detection in PAL-traps. Focus and safety zones were established. In Hesse, both focus and safety zones were treated with the insecticide Biscaya, due to the high number of 50 beetles which were detected in the PAL-traps. Since in Rhineland-Palatinate, only one beetle had been captured, only the focus zone was treated with the insecticide. After insecticide treatment, new PAL-traps were arranged like a close grid over the infested areas in both federal states. In each maize field in the focus- and safety zone further traps were placed and checked weekly until September 30th by supporting staff. Until the end of the monitoring in 2011 (September 30th further beetles were detected in the south of the area (district of Groß-Gerau, Hesse, were the first infestation had been discovered. However, in Rhineland-Palatinate no further beetles were detected that year. By the end of the monitoring 354 beetles in Hesse and one beetle in Rhineland-Palatinate had been captured in total. Subsequently the demarked zones in Hesse were extended. Taking into account the local circumstances, the new focus zone was delimited to include all the areas where beetles had been detected as well as the surrounding maize fields. In the focus zones the cultivation of maize was forbidden for the consecutive two years and a crop rotation with at least 50 percent maize was established in the safety zones. In 2012 no further beetles were captured in the infested region.

  8. Multitrophic Interaction in the Rhizosphere of Maize: Root Feeding of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae Alters the Microbial Community Composition (United States)

    Dematheis, Flavia; Zimmerling, Ute; Flocco, Cecilia; Kurtz, Benedikt; Vidal, Stefan; Kropf, Siegfried; Smalla, Kornelia


    Background Larvae of the Western Corn Rootworm (WCR) feeding on maize roots cause heavy economical losses in the US and in Europe. New or adapted pest management strategies urgently require a better understanding of the multitrophic interaction in the rhizosphere. This study aimed to investigate the effect of WCR root feeding on the microbial communities colonizing the maize rhizosphere. Methodology/Principal Findings In a greenhouse experiment, maize lines KWS13, KWS14, KWS15 and MON88017 were grown in three different soil types in presence and in absence of WCR larvae. Bacterial and fungal community structures were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR amplified from the total rhizosphere community DNA. DGGE bands with increased intensity were excised from the gel, cloned and sequenced in order to identify specific bacteria responding to WCR larval feeding. DGGE fingerprints showed that the soil type and the maize line influenced the fungal and bacterial communities inhabiting the maize rhizosphere. WCR larval feeding affected the rhiyosphere microbial populations in a soil type and maize line dependent manner. DGGE band sequencing revealed an increased abundance of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the rhizosphere of several maize lines in all soil types upon WCR larval feeding. Conclusion/Significance The effects of both rhizosphere and WCR larval feeding seemed to be stronger on bacterial communities than on fungi. Bacterial and fungal community shifts in response to larval feeding were most likely due to changes of root exudation patterns. The increased abundance of A. calcoaceticus suggested that phenolic compounds were released upon WCR wounding. PMID:22629377

  9. Histopathological Effects of Bt and TcdA Insecticidal Proteins on the Midgut Epithelium of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

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    Andrew J. Bowling


    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is a major corn pest in the United States, causing annual losses of over $1 billion. One approach to protect against crop loss by this insect is the use of transgenic corn hybrids expressing one or more crystal (Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 together comprise a binary insecticidal toxin with specific activity against WCR. These proteins have been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids resistant to WCR feeding damage. Cry34/35Ab1 is a pore forming toxin, but the specific effects of Cry34/35Ab1 on WCR cells and tissues have not been well characterized microscopically, and the overall histopathology is poorly understood. Using high-resolution resin-based histopathology methods, the effects of Cry34/35Ab1 as well as Cry3Aa1, Cry6Aa1, and the Photorhabdus toxin complex protein TcdA have been directly visualized and documented. Clear symptoms of intoxication were observed for all insecticidal proteins tested, including swelling and sloughing of enterocytes, constriction of midgut circular muscles, stem cell activation, and obstruction of the midgut lumen. These data demonstrate the effects of these insecticidal proteins on WCR midgut cells, and the collective response of the midgut to intoxication. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the insect cell biology and pathology of these insecticidal proteins, which should further the field of insect resistance traits and corn rootworm management.

  10. Assessment of fitness costs in Cry3Bb1 resistant and susceptible western corn rootworm (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) laboratory colonies (United States)

    Maize production in the United States is dominated by plants genetically modified with transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Varieties of Bt maize expressing Cry3Bb endotoxins that specifically target corn rootworms (genus Diabrotica) have proven highly efficacious. Howeve...

  11. Geochemical constraints on komatiite volcanism from Sargur Group Nagamangala greenstone belt, western Dharwar craton, southern India: Implications for Mesoarchean mantle evolution and continental growth

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    Full Text Available We present field, petrographic, major and trace element data for komatiites and komatiite basalts from Sargur Group Nagamangala greenstone belt, western Dharwar craton. Field evidences such as crude pillow structure indicate their eruption in a marine environment whilst spinifex texture reveals their komatiite nature. Petrographic data suggest that the primary mineralogy has been completely altered during post-magmatic processes associated with metamorphism corresponding to greenschist to lower amphibolite facies conditions. The studied komatiites contain serpentine, talc, tremolite, actinolite and chlorite whilst tremolite, actinolite with minor plagioclase in komatiitic basalts. Based on the published Sm-Nd whole rock isochron ages of adjoining Banasandra komatiites (northern extension of Nagamangala belt and further northwest in Nuggihalli belt and Kalyadi belt we speculate ca. 3.2–3.15 Ga for komatiite eruption in Nagamangala belt. Trace element characteristics particularly HFSE and REE patterns suggest that most of the primary geochemical characteristics are preserved with minor influence of post-magmatic alteration and/or contamination. About 1/3 of studied komatiites show Al-depletion whilst remaining komatiites and komatiite basalts are Al-undepleted. Several samples despite high MgO, (Gd/YbN ratios show low CaO/Al2O3 ratios. Such anomalous values could be related to removal of CaO from komatiites during fluid-driven hydrothermal alteration, thus lowering CaO/Al2O3 ratios. The elemental characteristics of Al-depleted komatiites such as higher (Gd/YbN (>1.0, CaO/Al2O3 (>1.0, Al2O3/TiO2 (18 together with higher HREE, Y, Zr suggest their derivation from shallower upper mantle without garnet involvement in residue. The observed chemical characteristics (CaO/Al2O3, Al2O3/TiO2, MgO, Ni, Cr, Nb, Zr, Y, Hf, and REE indicate derivation of the komatiite and komatiite basalt magmas from heterogeneous mantle (depleted to primitive mantle at

  12. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn. (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred


    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  13. Electrical conductivity images across the Namibian passive margin: Implications for tectonic processes along the Kaoko Belt, the western Kongo Craton and the Walvis Ridge (United States)

    Weckmann, Ute; Meqbel, Naser; Kapinos, Gerhard; Jegen-Kulcsar, Marion; Ritter, Oliver


    The Special Priority Programme SAMPLE of the German Science Foundation DFG is focussed on investigating processes related to the breakup of supercontinent Gondwana and the post breakup evolution of the passive continental margins of Africa and South America. Within this framework an amphibian magnetotelluric (MT) experiment was conducted at the Southern African passive continental margin, starting at the Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean and crossing onshore the entire Kaoko Belt and the western boundary of the Kongo Craton in Northern Namibia. High-quality MT data at 167 onshore and xx offshore sites show a strong variability within short distances and indicate complex subsurface structures in parts of the Kaoko Belt and along some of the major thrust and fault zones. To identify the main conductivity features and resolve their properties in more spatial detail we started our modelling procedure with 2D inversion for a sub-set of the data where the 3D effects are less dominant along the amphibian profile. However, to account for 3D effects in the MT data and to assess robustness of conductivity anomalies revealed in the 2D model we used the entire data set for the 3D inversion using ModEM. 2D and 3D inversion models show zones of high electrical conductivity that correlate with surface expressions of prominent faults such as the Purros Mylonite Zone and the Three Palm Mylonite Zone of the Kaoko Belt. Outcropping Etendeka flood basalts in the Western Kaoko Zones are imaged by 10-15km deep reaching zones of high resistivity. Additionally, the inversion models reveal a spatial correlation of resistive zones with the cratonic Northern Platform; however, the geologically defined onset of the Kongo Craton appears as an area of high conductivity. Compared with other craton boundaries in Southern Africa this is very untypical.

  14. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,


    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  15. Origin and tectonic implications of the ∼200 Ma, collision-related Jerai pluton of the Western Granite Belt, Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Jamil, Azmiah; Ghani, Azman A.; Zaw, Khin; Osman, Syamir; Quek, Long Xiang


    Triassic granitoids (∼200-225 Ma) are widespread in the Western Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. The Main Range granite is the biggest batholith in the Western Belt composed of peraluminous to metaluminous granite and granodiorite and displays typical ilmenite-series characteristics. Jerai granitic pluton occurs at the northwestern part of the Main Range granite batholith. The Jerai granite can be divided into three facies: (i) biotite-muscovite granite; (ii) tourmaline granite; and (iii) pegmatite and aplopegmatite. Biotite-muscovite granite accounts for 90% of the Jerai pluton, and the rest is tourmaline granite. Geochemical data reveal that pegmatite and tourmaline granite are more differentiated than biotite-muscovite granite. Both pegmatite and tourmaline granite have a higher SiO2 content (70.95-83.94% versus 69.45-73.35%) and a more pronounced peraluminous character. The U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Jerai granite gave an age ranging from 204 ± 4.3 Ma, 205 ± 4 Ma and 205 ± 2 Ma for pegmatite biotite-muscovite granite and tourmaline granite, respectively. The biotite-muscovite Jerai granites are similar to S-type Main Range granite, but the tourmaline granite has a signature of late-stage hydrothermal fluid interaction such as tourmaline quartz pods, the accumulation of large pegmatitic K-feldspar, pronounced peraluminous character, higher SiO2 content. Age evidence of these two granitic facies suggest that they are from the same magma.

  16. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  17. 玉米根萤叶甲的抗逆性与防治研究进展%Advances in stress resistance and control of the western corn rootworm,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏; Blair D.Siegfried; 陈乃中; 王音


    The western corn rootworm,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte,is the most important pest of corn in the US Com Belt in terms of both yield losses and control costs.The rootworm has remarkable capacity to evolve not only resistance to cyclodiene,organophosphates and carbamates,but also to cultural control practices such as crop rotation.This beetle is also highly invasive.Over the past 60 years,it has spread from the midwest to the eastem coast of the USA,and more recently has invaded Eastern Europe.Therefore,managing and quarantining rootworm populations are extremely difficult.Recently,transgenic corn varieties that express insecticidal proteins(e.g.,Cry3Bb1,Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 or modified Cry3A)derived from the soil bacterium,Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt),have been developed and used as a control method for the rootworm. However,its potential adaptation to Bt corn presents an urgent challenge to sustainable pest management approaches.In this paper,the rootworm life cycle,resistance evolution and control are reviewed and discussed.%玉米根萤叶甲(Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte)在美国是最重要的玉米害虫.它不仅对一些环戊二烯、有机磷类和氨基甲酸盐类化学杀虫剂产生了很强的抗药性,还对玉米-大豆轮作和调整播期等农业防治措施产生了适应性.此外,该虫有较广的适生性和扩展性.在过去的60年内,它从美国中西部传到了东北部沿海地区,并入侵欧洲定殖为害.新近采用的防治方法主要是种植转Bt基因抗虫玉米.表达经生物工程改良并导入的某个Bt毒素基因如Cry3Bb1、Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1或mCry3A的转基因抗虫玉米可毒杀取食的玉米根萤叶甲.但在转Bt基因玉米使用数年后,田间观察和温室筛选研究显示,玉米根萤叶甲具有对转基因玉米的潜在抗性.本文对该叶甲与防治有关的生物学特性、抗逆性及其机制、防治措施做了综述和讨论,旨在对该害虫的检疫防除有所帮助.

  18. Effect of slope failures on river-network pattern: A river piracy case study from the flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Bíl, Michal; Bábek, Ondřej; Smolková, Veronika; Pánek, Tomáš; Macur, Lukáš


    Landslides are important geomorphic agents in various mountainous settings. We document here a case of river piracy from the upper part of the Malá Brodská Valley in the Vsetínské Mts., Czech Republic (Rača Unit of the flysch Magura Group of Nappes, flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians) controlled by mass movement processes. Based on the field geological, geomorphological and geophysical data, we found out that the landslide accumulations pushed the more active river of out of two subparallel river channels with different erosion activity westwards and forced intensive lateral erosion towards the recently abandoned valley. Apart from the landslide processes, the presence of the N-striking fault, accentuated by higher flow rates of the eastern channel as a result of its larger catchment area, were the most critical factors of the river piracy. As a consequence of the river piracy, intensive retrograde erosion in the elbow of capture and also within the upper portion of the western catchment occurred. Deposits of two landslide dams document recent minimum erosion rates to be 18.8 1 in the western (captured) catchment, and 3.6 1 in the eastern catchment respectively. The maximum age of the river piracy is estimated to be of the late Glacial and/or the early Holocene.

  19. Seasonal exposures to triazine and other pesticides in surface waters in the western Highveld corn-production region in South Africa (United States)

    Du Preez, L.H.; Jansen Van Rensburg, P.J.; Jooste, A.M.; Carr, J.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.; Kendall, R.J.; Smith, E.E.; Van Der Kraak, G.; Solomon, K.R.


    The objective of this study was to characterize concentrations of atrazine, terbuthylazine, and other pesticides in amphibian habitats in surface waters of a corn-production area of the western Highveld region (North-West Province) of South Africa. The study was conducted from November 2001 to June 2002, coinciding with the corn-production season. Pesticide residues were measured at regular intervals in surface water from eight ponds, three in a non-corn-growing area (NCGA) and five within the corn-growing area (CGA). Measured atrazine concentrations differed significantly among sites and between samples. In the five CGA sites, the maximum atrazine concentrations measured during the study ranged from 1.2 to 9.3 ??g/L. Although no atrazine was recorded as being applied in the catchment of the three NCGA sites, maximum concentrations from 0.39 to 0.84 ??g/L were measured during the study, possibly as a result of atmospheric transport. Maximum measured concentrations of terbuthylazine ranged from 1.22 to 2.1 ??g/L in the NCGA sites and from 1.04 to 4.1 ??g/L in the CGA sites. The source of terbuthylazine in the NCGA sites may have been in use other than in corn. The triazine degradation products, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA) and diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) were also found in water from both the CGA and NCGA sites. Concentrations of DIA were ??? 1 ??g/L throughout the season, while DEA concentrations were mostly 2 ??g/L in some locations. Concentrations of DACT were highly variable (LOD to 8 ??g/L) both before and after planting and application, suggesting that they resulted from historical use of triazines in the area. Other herbicides such as simazine and acetochlor were only detected infrequently and pesticides such as S-metolachlor, cypermethrin, monocrotophos, and terbuphos, known to be used in the CGA, were not detected in any of the samples. Because of dilution by higher than normal rainfall in the study period, these concentrations may

  20. Electrical conductivity images across the Namibian passive margin: Tectonic implications for the evolution of the Kaoko Belt, the western Kongo Craton and the Walvis Ridge (United States)

    Weckmann, U.; Meqbel, N. M.; Kapinos, G.; Ritter, O.; Jegen, M. D.


    High-quality magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected at 167 sites onshore in Northwestern Namibia within the framework of a project (SAMPLE) to investigate processes related to the breakup of Gondwana. The entire study area extents from the Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean and crosses onshore the Kaoko Belt and the western boundary of the Kongo Craton. The surface expressions of prominent faults such as the Purros Shear Zone and the Three Palm Mylonite Zone of the Kaoko Belt are expressed in 2D models as zones of high electrical conductivity. A region where the Etendeka flood basalts outcrop in the Western Kaoko Zone appears as a 10-15 km deep reaching highly resistive feature. However, dimensionality and strike direction analysis of the data exhibit 3D effects. The 3D inversion models reproduce the main structures obtained by 2D modelling but the spatial coherency of structures is better resolved. The Purros Shear Zone and the Three Palm Mylonite Zone appear in the 3D inversion models as zones of high electrical conductivity striking in NW-SE direction in the middle crust. Where the Walvis Ridge intersects with the continent, an upwelling of resistive structures indicates a modification of the middle crust, which seems be caused by a deeper anomaly which is not resolved with MT. The spatial extent and possible emplacement of the highly resistive material associated with the Etendeka flood basalts is more enigmatic as only a relatively confined region at upper- to mid-crustal levels seems to be affected. Most importantly, these Cretaceous flood basalt events did not affect or alter the high conductivity structures associated with the preexisting Proterozoic shear zones. Compared with other cratonic boundaries in Southern Africa and elsewhere the transition from the Kaoko Belt into the Kongo Craton is unusual as it is associated with an area of high conductivity at upper to mid crustal levels. As MT site coverage in this region is sparse, however, this

  1. Source heterogeneity for the major components of ~3.7 Ga banded iron formations (Isua Greenstone Belt, Western Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Polat, Ali


    We report trace element, samarium (Sm)-neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotopic data for individual micro-and mesobands of the Earth's oldest Banded Iron Formation (BIF) from the  3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB, West Greenland) in an attempt to contribute to the characterization...... low high field strength elements (HFSE) concentrations indicate essentially detritus-free precipitation. Uranogenic Pb isotope data define a correlation line with a slope of 3691 ± 41 Ma, indicating that the uranium (U)-lead (Pb) system remained closed after the formation of this BIF. High 207Pb/204Pb...... relative to 206Pb/204Pb ratios compared to average mantle growth evolution models are a feature shared by BIF, penecontemporaneous basalts and clastic volcanogenic metasediments and are indicative of the ultimate high-µ (238U/204Pb) character of the source region, an essentially mafic Hadean protocrust. Sm...

  2. Detrital zircon provenance constraints on the initial uplift and denudation of the Chinese western Tianshan after the assembly of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Han, Yigui; Zhao, Guochun; Sun, Min; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Hou, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongxing; Wang, Bo


    U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data of detrital zircons from late Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata along the southern flank of the Chinese western Tianshan enable to identify provenance changes and reconstruct early stage uplift and denudation history of the Tianshan range. Detrital zircons from Permian and Early-Middle Triassic siliciclastic rocks show two prominent age populations at 500-390 Ma and 310-260 Ma, and subordinate Precambrian ages at ~ 2.5 Ga, 2.0-1.7 Ga, 1.2-0.9 Ga and 900-600 Ma, with rare ages between 390 and 310 Ma. These characteristics and zircon εHf(t) data consistently suggest a sediment source predominantly from the Tarim Craton, rather than the Central Tianshan-Yili Block. In contrast, Late Triassic to Cretaceous strata additionally contain abundant 390-310 Ma and 260-220 Ma detrital zircons, implying multiple source regions from the Central Tianshan-Yili Block, Tarim Craton, and Western Kunlun Orogen. A significant switch of sedimentary provenances occurred in the mid-Triassic and is consistent with contemporaneous change of paleocurrent directions and the onset of intense tectonothermal events in the broad region of the Chinese western Tianshan and Kyrgyz Tianshan. These data collectively indicate that the significant surface uplift and denudation of the Tianshan range were probably initiated in the mid-Triassic (~ 240 Ma) after the assembly of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. This uplifting event represents an intracontinental orogeny most likely in response to the collision between the Qiangtang Block and southern Eurasia, following the closure of the western part of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  3. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota (United States)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  4. Containment of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica v.virgifera: continued successful management 2008 in southern Switzerland by monitoring and crop rotation. (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Bertossa, M


    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Col.: Chrysomelidae), known as western corn rootworm (WCR) and endemic in North America, invaded Europe about two decades ago. Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to eradicate it from the Old World. Management with a variety of strategies is the option now remaining. WCR management in Southern Switzerland by a unique containment approach has been practiced successfully since 2003 using biotechnical means. Without any chemical pesticides or GMO input, the Swiss government mandated adherence to strict crop rotation. In addition to the economic benefits of this relatively simple approach, the environment was saved a considerable burden of pesticide applications. Other countries are invited to follow this example of sustainable pest management.

  5. Andean Basin Evolution Associated with Hybrid Thick- and Thin-Skinned Deformation in the Malargüe Fold-Thrust Belt, Western Argentina (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.


    Andean deformation and basin evolution in the Malargüe fold-thrust belt of western Argentina (34-36°S) has been dominated by basement faults influenced by pre-existing Mesozoic rift structures of the hydrocarbon-rich Neuquen basin. However, the basement structures diverge from classic inversion structures, and the associated retroarc basin system shows a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of mixed extension and contraction, along with an enigmatic early Cenozoic stratigraphic hiatus. New results from balanced structural cross sections (supported by industry seismic, well data, and surface maps), U-Pb geochronology, and foreland deposystem analyses provide improved resolution to examine the duration and kinematic evolution of Andean mixed-mode deformation. The basement structures form large anticlines with steep forelimbs and up to >5 km of structural relief. Once the propagating tips of the deeper basement faults reached cover strata, they fed slip to shallow thrust systems that were transported in piggyback fashion by newly formed basement structures, producing complex structural relationships. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages for the 5-7 km-thick basin fill succession reveal shifts in sedimentation pathways and accumulation rates consistent with (1) local basement sources during Early-Middle Jurassic back-arc extension, (2) variable cratonic and magmatic arc sources during Late Jurassic-Cretaceous postrift thermal subsidence, and (3) Andean arc and thrust-belt sources during irregular Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic shortening. Although pulses of flexural subsidence can be attributed to periods of fault reactivation (inversion) and geometrically linked thin-skinned thrusting, fully developed foreland basin conditions were only achieved in Late Cretaceous and Neogene time. Separating these two contractional episodes is an Eocene-lower Miocene (roughly 40-20 Ma) depositional hiatus within the Cenozoic succession, potentially signifying forebulge passage or neutral to

  6. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo) in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach


    Jozef Šibík; Milan Valachovič; Ján Kliment


    A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and...

  7. P- T- t constraints on the development of the Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain and implications for the evolution of the western gneiss belt, northern Thailand (United States)

    Macdonald, A. S.; Barr, S. M.; Miller, B. V.; Reynolds, P. H.; Rhodes, B. P.; Yokart, B.


    The western gneiss belt in northern Thailand is exposed within two overlapping Cenozoic structural domains: the extensional Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain located west of the Chiang Mai basin, and the Mae Ping strike-slip fault domain located west of the Tak batholith. New P- T estimates and U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations from the Doi Inthanon domain show that the gneiss there records a complex multi-stage history that can be represented by a clockwise P- T- t path. U-Pb zircon and titanite dating of mylonitic calc-silicate gneiss from the Mae Wang area of the complex indicates that the paragneissic sequence experienced high-grade, medium-pressure metamorphism (M1) in the Late Triassic - Early Jurassic (ca. 210 Ma), in good agreement with previously determined zircon ages from the underlying core orthogneiss exposed on Doi Inthanon. Late Cretaceous monazite ages of 84 and 72 Ma reported previously from the core orthogneiss are attributed to a thermal overprint (M2) to upper-amphibolite facies in the sillimanite field. U-Pb zircon and monazite dating of granitic mylonite from the Doi Suthep area of the complex provides an upper age limit of 40 Ma (Late Eocene) for the early stage(s) of development of the actual core complex, by initially ductile, low-angle extensional shearing under lower amphibolite-facies conditions (M3), accompanied by near-isothermal diapiric rise and decompression melting. 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of muscovite from both Doi Suthep and Doi Inthanon provided Miocene ages of ca. 26-15 Ma, representing cooling through the ca. 350 °C isotherm and marking late-stage development of the core complex by detachment faulting of the cover rocks and isostatic uplift of the sheared core zone and mantling gneisses in the footwall. Similarities in the thermochronology of high-grade gneisses exposed in the core complex and shear zone domains in the western gneiss belt of northern Thailand (and also in northern Vietnam, Laos, Yunnan

  8. Factors affecting self-reported use of seat belt among commercial vehicle drivers in Gusau metropolis Zamfara State north-western Nigeria. (United States)

    Idris, Suleman Hadejia; Nasir Sambo, Mohammed; Gambo, Hilda; Hassan, Amina


    Optimal and adequate prevention of road traffic injuries in developing countries has been hampered by limitations of knowledge and poor attitude towards use of cost effective safety and preventive measures like the seat belt. The objective of the study was to determine the level of self-reported use of seat belt and the factors affecting it among commercial motor vehicle drivers. The study was cross-sectional descriptive, data was obtained using interviewer-administered, structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Knowledge of seat belt was low, (11%), more than half (55.3%) admitted that use of seat belts prevents ejection of vehicle occupants. Less than half (47%) reported use of seat belt always. Age and educational level were significantly associated with use of seat belts (p seat belts coupled with low level of use. Innovative public health education approaches with enforcement could mitigate the low level of use.

  9. Trace-element fingerprints of chromite, magnetite and sulfides from the 3.1 Ga ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Nuggihalli greenstone belt, Western Dharwar craton (India) (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; González-Jiménez, José M.; Griffin, William L.; Pearson, Norman J.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.


    The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli greenstone belt in the Western Dharwar craton is comprised of chromitite-bearing sill-like ultramafic-mafic rocks that are surrounded by metavolcanic schists (compositionally komatiitic to komatiitic basalts) and a suite of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneissic rocks. The sill-like plutonic unit consists of a succession of serpentinite (after dunite)-peridotite-pyroxenite and gabbro with bands of titaniferous magnetite ore. The chromitite ore-bodies (length ≈30-500 m; width ≈2-15 m) are hosted by the serpentinite-peridotite unit. Unaltered chromites from massive chromitites (>80 % modal chromite) of the Byrapur and Bhaktarhalli chromite mines in the greenstone belt are characterized by high Cr# (100Cr/(Cr + Al)) of 78-86 and moderate Mg# (100 Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)) of 45-55. In situ trace-element analysis (LA-ICPMS) of unaltered chromites indicates that the parental magma of the chromitite ore-bodies was a komatiite lacking nickel-sulfide mineralization. In the Ga/Fe3+# versus Ti/Fe3+# diagram, the Byrapur chromites plot in the field of suprasubduction zone (SSZ) chromites while those from Bhaktarhalli lie in the MOR field. The above results corroborate our previous results based on major-element characteristics of the chromites, where the calculated parental melt of the Byrapur chromites was komatiitic to komatiitic basalt, and the Bhaktarhalli chromite was derived from Archean high-Mg basalt. The major-element chromite data hinted at the possibility of a SSZ environment existing in the Archean. Altered and compositionally zoned chromite grains in our study show a decrease in Ga, V, Co, Zn, Mn and enrichments of Ni and Ti in the ferritchromit rims. Trace-element heterogeneity in the altered chromites is attributed to serpentinization. The trace-element patterns of magnetite from the massive magnetite bands in the greenstone belt are similar to those from magmatic Fe-Ti-V-rich magnetite bands in layered intrusions, and magnetites from

  10. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates at the Ahero rice irrigation scheme and the Miwani sugar-belt in western Kenya. (United States)

    Githeko, A K; Service, M W; Mbogo, C M; Atieli, F K; Juma, F O


    Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus were collected by pyrethrum spray sheet collections in houses and by human-bait catches at a village in western Kenya adjacent to the Ahero rice irrigation scheme; and using the same methods, An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus were collected at Miwani, a village in the sugar-cane belt. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates were determined by ELISA. At Ahero the mean sporozoite rates were 1.1% and 4.3% in An. arabiensis and An. funestus, respectively, while at Miwani the rates were 6.0% in An. gambiae s.l. and 4.3% in An. funestus. Entomolgoical inoculation rates (EIR) were derived from both human-bait collections (IR-HBC) and by the proportion of human blood-fed females caught resting indoors (IR-HBF). The IR-HBF appeared to be a more realistic index of EIR. At Ahero and Miwani people were exposed to an average of 416 and 91 infective bites/person/year, respectively. The main vectors were An. funestus at Ahero and An. gambiae s.l. at Miwani. In view of the intense and perennial malaria transmission at Ahero, vector control by insecticides should be considered, while at Miwani, where transmission is seasonal, permethrin-impregnated bed nets could be an alternative to indoor spraying. These measures must be augmented with availability of effective antimalarials.

  11. Hydromorphological parameters of natural channel behavior in conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians on the territory of the Czech Republic (United States)

    Kujanová, Kateřina; Matoušková, Milada; Kliment, Zdeněk


    A fundamental prerequisite for assessing the current ecological status of streams is the establishment of reference conditions for each stream type that serve as a benchmark. The hydromorphological reference conditions reflect the natural channel behavior, which is extremely variable. Significant parameters of natural channel behavior were determined using a combination of four selected statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering, correlation, and regression. Macroscale analyses of data about altitude, stream order, channel slope, valley floor slope, sinuosity, and characteristics of the hydrological regime were conducted for 3197 reaches of major rivers in the Czech Republic with total length of 15,636 km. On the basis of selected significant parameters and their threshold values, channels were classified into groups of river characteristics based on shared behaviors. The channel behavior within these groups was validated using hydromorphological characteristics of natural channels determined during field research at reference sites. Classification of channels into groups confirmed the fundamental differences between channel behavior under conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic and determined a specific group in the flattened high areas of mountains in the Bohemian Massif. Validating confirmed the distinctions between groups of river characteristics and the uniqueness of each one; it also emphasized the benefits of using qualitative data and riparian zone characteristics for describing channel behavior. Channel slope, entrenchment ratio, bed structure, and d50 were determined as quantitative characteristics of natural channel behavior.

  12. Identification of ancient paths within the Late Bronze Age enclosure Corneşti-Iarcuri, western Romania (United States)

    Nykamp, Moritz; Heeb, Bernhard S.; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Knitter, Daniel; Krause, Jan; Krause, Rüdiger; Szentmiklosi, Alexandru; Schütt, Brigitta


    This study applies a landscape archaeological approach, combining geoscientific and archaeological data, to shed light into the Holocene landscape development in the environs of the Late Bronze Age enclosure of Corneşti-Iarcuri, Romania. Corneşti-Iarcuri is located at the eastern edge of the Great Hungarian Plain and represents with its four earth-filled wooden ramparts the largest known prehistoric enclosure in Europe. Late Bronze Age settlements are documented for the two innermost enclosures. However, the settlement history in its environs started already in the Copper Age. The aims of this study are i) to link hydro-morphological relief anomalies to evidences of settlement occurrence and ii) to document the variations of Holocene geomorphic activity and stability in a selected sub-catchment. The spatio-temporal relation between unnaturally bending tributaries and settled areas is uncovered and the involved formation processes are discussed. The morphometric analyses of the tributaries in the built-up area of Iarcuri show a clear tendency: unnaturally bending tributaries most often occur in the central valley and tend to cluster in the central part between the two innermost enclosures. By comparison of the locations of the strongly bending tributaries and the locations of the most densely settled areas it appears that both are related. It is well known that such linear features form in relation to settlements as a consequence of repeated passage of humans. Due to soil compaction along regular footpaths and the resulting reduced infiltration capacity gully erosion tends to occur forming hollow ways. Usually these hollow ways form contemporaneously with or subsequent to the occupation period of the site. As a consequence alluvial fans form at the outlet of the tributaries documenting former settlement and geomorphic activities. A sediment core obtained from the alluvial fan dumped by the tributary sourcing in the densely settled southern part of enclosure II

  13. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.


    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  14. U-Pb Zircon Ages,Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf Isotopic Compositions of Granitoids in Western Songpan-Garze Fold Belt: Petrogenesis and Implication for Tectonic Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hongming; Zhang Hongfei; Xu Wangchun


    Granitoids are widespread in the Songpan-Garze (松潘-甘孜) fold belt,western China.These granitoids provide insight into regional tectono-magmatic events,basement nature and tectonic evolution.However,previous studies mainly focused on the eastern Songpan-Garze fold belt In this article,five granitoid intrusions from the western Songpan-Garze fold belt have been studied.These intrusions are composed of quartz-diorite and granodiorite.Using LA-ICP-MS zircon dating method,the obtained magma crystallization ages are 219±2 Ma for the quartz-diorite and 216±5 Ma for the granodiorite.The ages,combined with regional geological analyses,show that they formed in a post-collisional tectonic setting.The quartz-diorite and granodiorite display co-linear variation in their chemical compositions.REE compositions for both the quartz-diorite and granodiorite show strongly fractionated patterns with (La/Yb)N=5.02-18.34 and Eu/Eu*=0.44-0.89.The quartz-diorites have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (7Sr) of 0.709 29-0.711 97 and εNd(t) values of -8.6 to -6.1 and the granodiorites have Isr values of 0.705 49-0.709 97 and εNd(t) values of -8.3 to -4.3.Zircon Hf isotopic data show εHr(t) values of -3.8 to +1.6 for the quartz-diorites and -1.2 to +3.0 for the granodiorites.Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the quartz-diorites and granodiorites have similar petrogenesis.We suggest that the magmas for the quartz-diorites and granodiorites were derived from partial melting of lower crustal mafic source,resulting from amphibole dehydration melting reaction.The probing of the magma source reveals that the western Songpan-Garze fold belt contains an unexposed continental basement,which is similar to the eastern Songpan-Garze fold belt.Geodynamically,it is proposed that a lithospheric delamination model can account for the magma generation for the quartz-diorites and granodiorites in the western Songpan-Garze fold belt.

  15. Active Extensional Faulting at the Southern Half-Graben Belt of the Tepic-Zacoalco Rift, Western Mexico (United States)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Ferrari, L.; Delgado, M.; Uribe, A.; Valdivia, L.; Castillo, R.


    In the past decade much debate has centered upon the kinematics and the mechanism of continental deformation in western Mexico and the motion of the Jalisco block relative to North America. Two distinct models have been proposed. The first one suggest a NW-motion of the Jalisco block that would implies a right-lateral faulting along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift (TZR). More recently others authors have documented a N-NE extensional tectonics active since late Miocene and suggested that the continental boundaries of the Jalisco block, are older structures reactivated by plate boundary forces. Studies on the crustal seismicity and the kinematics of Quaternary faults provide another constraint on the direction of motion between the Jalisco block and North America. On November 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1995, one month after the October 09, 1995, Manzanillo earthquake (Mw = 8.0), a swarm of small events was felt in the Amatlan de Ca¤as half-graben and recorded by the regional seismic network of Comision Federal de Electricidad. The coda magnitude of the largest event was Mc = 2.5-3.6 and the events were located depth ranging from 6 to 10 km. This seismic activity provoked that people from Pie de la Cuesta and Yerbabuena villages were evacuated. After that a seismic station equipped with an analogic seismograph MEQ-800 at Pie de la Cuesta was installed for three months. During the same time, October, 1995, some houses distributed along a WNW trend in Ameca city underwent severe damages, they are. The digital elevations model of the Ameca city suggest that several structures tectonics are shorter than 2 km are present in the area. The present direction of motion of the Rivera plate relative to North America plate along Middle America Trench has been estimated between N19° E to N48° E (e.g. Bandy et al., 1996). During the October 09, 1995, subduction-related earthquake (Mw = 8.0) a GPS network recorded a SW motion of the Jalisco block which could be associated to an elastic deformation

  16. Tectonic Analysis on Aqia Fault Belt in the Western Tarim Basin%塔里木盆地阿恰构造带断裂构造分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚雷; 齐英敏; 刘云翔; 王月然; 赵岩; 张强; 文磊; 胡秀芳; 李曰俊


    阿恰构造带位于塔里木盆地西部,主要由阿恰断裂和乔来买提断裂组成,构成了塔里木盆地次级构造单元阿瓦提凹陷和巴楚断隆分界线的西北段.通过地震资料解释,将阿恰断裂带分为西段、中段和东段3部分.西段为基底卷入型单断逆冲构造样式,断层倾向巴楚断隆;中段为“Y”字形基底卷入型逆冲构造样式,除倾向巴楚断隆的主冲断层外,还发育倾向相反的反冲断层,开始显现出楔状冲断构造的轮廓;东段为典型的楔状冲断构造,倾向巴楚断隆的主冲断层向上断至中寒武统,其冲断位移量完全被倾向阿瓦提凹陷的反冲断层吸收.同时,在阿恰断裂的西段和中段,断层上盘还发育第四纪正断层,而断裂东段不发育.研究认为阿恰断裂带主要存在两期断裂构造:深部基底卷入型逆冲断裂带和其上叠加的浅部正断层.前者形成于新近纪库车组沉积前,在库车组沉积期间持续活动,并在新近纪晚期定型;后者是本次研究首次发现的,形成于第四纪早中期,且只发育在阿恰断裂带的西段和中段.%The Aqia fault belt, which occurs as the boundary of the Awati Sag and Baehu Fault-Uplift in the western Tarim Basin, is mainly made up of Aqia fault and Qiaolaimaiti fault. Based on seismic interpretation, it can be divided into three parts: the west, the middle and the east sections. The west section is a single basement-involved thrust fault which dips towards the Bachu Fault-Uplift. Comparatively, the middle section has a Y-shape tectonic style and begins to show the wedge-shaped thrust features, which develops not only the main Bachu-inciimng fault mentioned above, but also a recoil fault with a reversed inclination. In the east section, the main Bachu-inclining fault stopped growing at Mid-Cambrian, with the displacement above completely absorbed by the Awati-inclining recoil fault, which finally forms the typical wedge-shaped thrust

  17. Physiological and cellular responses caused by RNAi- mediated suppression of Snf7 orthologue in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathy Ramaseshadri

    Full Text Available Ingestion of double stranded RNA (dsRNA has been previously demonstrated to be effective in triggering RNA interference (RNAi in western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, providing potential novel opportunities for insect pest control. The putative Snf7 homolog of WCR (DvSnf7 has previously been shown to be an effective RNAi target for insect control, as DvSnf7 RNAi leads to lethality of WCR larvae. Snf7 functions as a part of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport pathway which plays a crucial role in cellular housekeeping by internalization, transport, sorting and lysosomal degradation of transmembrane proteins. To understand the effects that lead to death of WCR larvae by DvSnf7 RNAi, we examined some of the distinct cellular processes associated with ESCRT functions such as de-ubiquitination of proteins and autophagy. Our data indicate that ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in DvSnf7 dsRNA-fed larval tissues and that the autophagy process seems to be impaired. These findings suggest that the malfunctioning of these cellular processes in both midgut and fat body tissues triggered by DvSnf7 RNAi were the main effects leading to the death of WCR. This study also illustrates that Snf7 is an essential gene in WCR and its functions are consistent with biological functions described for other eukaryotes.

  18. Use of chromatin remodeling ATPases as RNAi targets for parental control of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) and Neotropical brown stink bug (Euschistus heros). (United States)

    Fishilevich, Elane; Vélez, Ana M; Khajuria, Chitvan; Frey, Meghan L F; Hamm, Ronda L; Wang, Haichuan; Schulenberg, Greg A; Bowling, Andrew J; Pence, Heather E; Gandra, Premchand; Arora, Kanika; Storer, Nicholas P; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D


    RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism that is present in animals and plants and is triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA), depending on the organism. In the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), RNAi can be achieved by feeding rootworms dsRNA added to artificial diet or plant tissues transformed to express dsRNA. The effect of RNAi depends on the targeted gene function and can range from an absence of phenotypic response to readily apparent responses, including lethality. Furthermore, RNAi can directly affect individuals that consume dsRNA or the effect may be transferred to the next generation. Our previous work described the potential use of genes involved in embryonic development as a parental RNAi technology for the control of WCR. In this study, we describe the use of chromatin-remodeling ATPases as target genes to achieve parental gene silencing in two insect pests, a coleopteran, WCR, and a hemipteran, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Our results show that dsRNA targeting chromatin-remodeling ATPase transcripts, brahma, mi-2, and iswi strongly reduced the fecundity of the exposed females in both insect species. Additionally, knockdown of chd1 reduced the fecundity of E. heros.

  19. Cry3Bb1-Resistant Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) Does Not Exhibit Cross-Resistance to DvSnf7 dsRNA (United States)

    Khajuria, Chitvan; Pleau, Michael; Ilagan, Oliver; Chen, Mao; Jiang, Changjian; Price, Paula; McNulty, Brian; Clark, Thomas; Head, Graham


    Background and Methodology There is a continuing need to express new insect control compounds in transgenic maize against western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (WCR). In this study three experiments were conducted to determine cross-resistance between the new insecticidal DvSnf7 dsRNA, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Bb1; used to control WCR since 2003, with field-evolved resistance being reported. Laboratory susceptible and Cry3Bb1-resistant WCR were evaluated against DvSnf7 dsRNA in larval diet-incorporation bioassays. Additionally, the susceptibility of seven field and one field-derived WCR populations to DvSnf7 (and Cry3Bb1) was assessed in larval diet-overlay bioassays. Finally, beetle emergence of laboratory susceptible and Cry3Bb1-resistant WCR was evaluated with maize plants in the greenhouse expressing Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, or DvSnf7 dsRNA singly, or in combination. Principal Findings and Conclusions The Cry3Bb1-resistant colony had slight but significantly (2.7-fold; PIRM tool against WCR that will increase the durability of these Bt proteins. These results also illustrate the importance of using appropriate bioassay methods when characterizing field-evolved resistant WCR populations. PMID:28060922

  20. Wing shape and size of the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is related to sex and resistance to soybean-maize crop rotation. (United States)

    Mikac, K M; Douglas, J; Spencer, J L


    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize in the United States and more recently, Europe. Understanding the dispersal dynamics of this species will provide crucial information for its management. This study used geometric morphometric analysis of hind wing venation based on 13 landmarks in 223 specimens from nine locations in Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, to assess whether wing shape and size differed between rotated and continuously grown maize where crop rotation-resistant and susceptible individuals are found, respectively. Before assessing differences between rotation-resistant and susceptible individuals, sexual dimorphism was investigated. No significant difference in wing (centroid) size was found between males and females; however, females had significantly different shaped (more elongated) wings compared with males. Wing shape and (centroid) size were significantly larger among individuals from rotated maize where crop-rotation resistance was reported; however, cross-validation of these results revealed that collection site resistance status was an only better than average predictor of shape in males and females. This study provides preliminary evidence of wing shape and size differences in D. v. virgifera from rotated versus continuous maize. Further study is needed to confirm whether wing shape and size can be used to track the movement of rotation-resistant individuals and populations as a means to better inform management strategies.

  1. CORN FLAVOR (United States)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  2. Characterizing the mechanism of action of double-stranded RNA activity against western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bolognesi

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi has previously been shown to be effective in western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte larvae via oral delivery of synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA in an artificial diet bioassay, as well as by ingestion of transgenic corn plant tissues engineered to express dsRNA. Although the RNAi machinery components appear to be conserved in Coleopteran insects, the key steps in this process have not been reported for WCR. Here we characterized the sequence of events that result in mortality after ingestion of a dsRNA designed against WCR larvae. We selected the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7 as the target mRNA, which encodes an essential protein involved in intracellular trafficking. Our results showed that dsRNAs greater than or equal to approximately 60 base-pairs (bp are required for biological activity in artificial diet bioassays. Additionally, 240 bp dsRNAs containing a single 21 bp match to the target sequence were also efficacious, whereas 21 bp short interfering (si RNAs matching the target sequence were not. This result was further investigated in WCR midgut tissues: uptake of 240 bp dsRNA was evident in WCR midgut cells while a 21 bp siRNA was not, supporting the size-activity relationship established in diet bioassays. DvSnf7 suppression was observed in a time-dependent manner with suppression at the mRNA level preceding suppression at the protein level when a 240 bp dsRNA was fed to WCR larvae. DvSnf7 suppression was shown to spread to tissues beyond the midgut within 24 h after dsRNA ingestion. These events (dsRNA uptake, target mRNA and protein suppression, systemic spreading, growth inhibition and eventual mortality comprise the overall mechanism of action by which DvSnf7 dsRNA affects WCR via oral delivery and provides insights as to how targeted dsRNAs in general are active against insects.

  3. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations. (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Meihls, Lisa N; Kiss, József; Hibbard, Bruce E


    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; WCR) is a major coleopteran maize pest in North America and the EU, and has traditionally been managed through crop rotation and broad-spectrum soil insecticides. Genetically modified Bt-maize offers an additional management tool for WCR and has been valuable in reducing insecticide use and increasing farm income. A concern is that the widespread, repeated, and exclusive deployment of the same Bt-maize transformation event will result in the rapid evolution of resistance in WCR. This publication explores the potential of WCR to evolve resistance to plant-produced Bt-toxins from the first generation of Diabrotica-active Bt-maize events (MON 863 and MON 88017, DAS-59122-7 and MIR604), and whether currently implemented risk management strategies to delay and monitor resistance evolution are appropriate. In twelve of the twelve artificial selection experiments reported, resistant WCR populations were yielded rapidly. Field-selected resistance of WCR to Cry3Bb1 is documented in some US maize growing areas, where an increasing number of cases of unexpected damage of WCR larvae to Bt-maize MON 88017 has been reported. Currently implemented insect resistance management measures for Bt-crops usually rely on the high dose/refuge (HDR) strategy. Evidence (including laboratory, greenhouse and field data) indicates that several conditions contributing to the success of the HDR strategy may not be met for the first generation of Bt-maize events and WCR: (1) the Bt-toxins are expressed heterogeneously at a low-to-moderate dose in roots; (2) resistance alleles may be present at a higher frequency than initially assumed; (3) WCR may mate in a non-random manner; (4) resistance traits could have non-recessive inheritance; and (5) fitness costs may not necessarily be associated with resistance evolution. However, caution must be exercised when extrapolating laboratory and greenhouse results to field conditions. Model predictions

  4. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt. Final report Part 1: Agronomic aspects, March 1, 1988--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)


    The relative high cost of energy derived from biomass is a major deterrent to greater use of biomass for energy production One of the most important methods of lowering the cost of dedicated biomass production is to increase the yield per unit of land area so that fixed costs can be applied to more tons of forage. For this study, the authors selected grass and legume crops with potential for high biomass yields and those that offer protection from soil erosion. The research reported here was conducted to identify those species and cultural practices that would result in high biomass yields for various land capabilities with acceptable and soil erosion potential. They also conducted research to determine if intercropping sorghum into alfalfa or reed canarygrass could increase biomass yields over alfalfa or reed canarygrass grown alone and still have the advantage for limiting soil erosion.

  5. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong


    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  6. The importance of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in Bavaria – local relevance and economic impact on single farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köhler, Katrin


    Full Text Available The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, holding a quarantine status in the European Union, was first discovered in 2007 in southern Bavaria. In the course of Diabrotica Research Program of Germany and the states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, an economic accompanying research is conducted at single farm level in Bavaria. This aims to evaluate different adaptation measures concerning the eradication and containment strategies economically. The focus of the analysis is mainly the crop rotation and the reduction of the proportion of maize at farm level. InVeKoS-data are analyzed, in order to assess the economic relevance of the pest in Bavaria in a better way. These enable detailed information on the development of maize production and cropping intensity. Subsequently research regions are defined with a high maize density, expecting enhanced damage from the beetle. In these selected areas single farms are selected. For considerations on single farm level, farms with different farm types are chosen by which adaptation measures are evaluated and realistic impact assessment could be made. For the evaluation of the economic impacts a whole-farm simulation has been used to include indirect effects of different adoption strategies. Additional, semi-structured interviews were conducted at selected farms in order to prove the results of the case study, obtain more information about the consequences on farm level and to evaluate the proposed cultivation alternatives for maize. A benefit-cost analysis and the comparative analysis of possible damage caused by the beetle and cost adjustments complete the study.

  7. Different stages of chemical alteration on metabasaltic rocks in the subduction channel: Evidence from the Western Tianshan metamorphic belt, NW China (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Niu, Yaoling; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Dong; Tan, Yulong; Wang, Guodong


    To understand the geochemistry of subduction zone metamorphism, especially the large-scale mass transfer at forearc to subarc depths, we carried out a detailed study of a ∼1.5 m size metabasaltic block with well-preserved pillow structures from the Chinese Western Tianshan high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. This metabasaltic block is characterized by omphacite-rich interiors gradually surrounded by abundant channelized (veins) glaucophane-rich patches toward the rims. The glaucophane-rich rims share the same peak metamorphic conditions with omphacite-rich interiors, but have experienced stronger blueschist-facies overprinting during exhumation. Representative samples from the glaucophane-rich rims and omphacite-rich interiors yield a well-defined Rb-Sr isochron age of 307 ± 23 Ma, likely representing this overprinting event. Both glaucophane-rich rims and omphacite-rich interiors show elevated K-Rb-Cs-Ba-Pb-Sr contents relative to their protolith, reflecting a large-scale enrichment of these elements and formation of abundant phengite during subduction. Compared with the omphacite-rich interiors, the glaucophane-rich rims have gained rare earth elements (REEs, >25%), U-Th (∼75%), Pb-Sr (>100%) and some transition metals like Co and Ni (25-50%), but lost P (∼75%), Na (>25%), Li and Be (∼50%); K-Rb-Cs-Ba show only 10% loss. These chemical changes would be caused by serpentinite-derived fluids during the exhumation in the subduction channel. Therefore, there are two stages of fluid action in the subduction channel. As the formation of phengite stabilizes K-Rb-Cs-Ba at the first stage, the residual fluids released from the phengite-rich metabasaltic rocks would be depleted in these elements, which are unlikely to contribute to elevated contents of these elements in arc magmas if phengite remains stable at subarc depths. In addition, the decrease of U/Pb ratios as the preferred enrichment of Pb over U in the eclogitic rocks during the first stage

  8. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min


    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  9. Evaluation of the ongoing rifting and subduction processes in the geochemistry of magmas from the western part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Pandarinath, Kailasa; Rivera-Gómez, M. Abdelaly


    A compilation of new and published geochemical data for 1512 samples of volcanic rocks from the western part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt was first subdivided according to the age group (136 samples of Miocene and 1376 samples of Pliocene-Holocene). Rocks of the younger group were then subdivided as Rift (1014 samples from the triple-rift system) and No Rift (362 samples outside of the triple-rift system) or Near Trench (937 samples) and Far Trench (439 samples) magmas. These subdivisions were considered separately as basic, intermediate, and acid magmatic rocks. The application of the conventional and multidimensional techniques confirmed the great tectonic and geochemical complexity of this region. The presence of oceanic-type basalts suggested to result from a mantle plume was not confirmed from the tectonomagmatic multidimensional diagrams. The Miocene rocks, which are present at the surface far from the Middle-America Trench, showed a likely continental rift setting in most diagrams for basic rocks and a continental arc setting for intermediate rocks. These differences can be explained in terms of the petrogenetic origin of the magmas. Unlike the current thinking, the triple-rift system seems to have influenced the chemistry of Pliocene-Holocene basic rocks, which indicated a continental rift setting. The Pliocene-Holocene intermediate and acid rocks, however, did not show such an influence. The Pliocene-Holocene basic rocks indicated a continental rift setting, irrespective of the Near Trench and Far Trench subdivision because numerous Near Trench rocks also lie in the triple-rift and graben systems. However, the intermediate rocks having a crustal component in their genesis indicated a continental arc (Near Trench) or a transitional arc to within-plate setting (Far Trench). The acid rocks having a crustal component also suggested a continental arc (Near Trench) or a transitional setting (Far Trench). The application of the tectonomagmatic multidimensional

  10. Geochemical characteristics of aluminum depleted and undepleted komatiites and HREE-enriched low-Ti tholeiites, western Abitibi greenstone belt: A heterogeneous mantle plume-convergent margin environment (United States)

    Fan, J.; Kerrich, R.


    -depleted komatiites in the Abitibi belt. They have absolute concentrations and ratios of most moderately and highly compatible elements comparable to N- MORB (Zr ˜79 vs. 74, Y ˜30 vs. 28, and Zr/Y = 2.4-2.9 vs. 2.6 ), but are relatively less depleted in highly incompatible elements and lack positive Nb or P anomalies. Type II basalts are relatively aluminous (Al 2O 3 ˜ 16 wt%), with high Al 2O 3/TiO 2 (24-28) ratios. They are characterized by low Th, Nb, and LREE contents at eight to ten times chondrite, with slightly convex-up LREE patterns ( La/Smn = 0.86-0.99 ), but strongly fractionated and enriched HREEs, Y, and Sc, where Gd/Ybn = 0.50-0.55 and consistently positive Zr(Hf)/MREEs anomalies. These basalts are tentatively interpreted as low-Ti tholeiites formed in a convergent margin setting with second stage melting, induced by fluids and melts enriched in incompatible elements and Zr(Hf) relative to MREEs, of a mantle source depleted during first stage melting. They are analogous to the Phanerozoic low-Ti tholeiite - boninite association. Accordingly the Tisdale volcanic sequence records a plume-convergent margin interaction. New analyses of Al-undepleted komatiites from the classical locality at Pyke Hill in Munro Township confirm the presence of small positive anomalies of P, Zr, and Hf, with Zr/Hf ratios generally ICP-MS using both HFHNO 3 dissolution and Na 2O 2 sinter. The lack of LREE enrichment with negative Nb, Ta, P, and Ti anomalies in any of the Tisdale or Munro komatiites confirms an intraoceanic setting for the volcanic stage of the Western Abitibi greenstone belt.

  11. Petrology and provenance of the Neogene fluvial succession in Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin) western Pakistan: Implications for sedimentation in peripheral forelands basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Aktar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik;


    FL and QmFLt diagrams show recycled and transitional recycled orogenic source for both the successions. The Dasht Murgha Group is rich in sedimentary and metamorphic lithics and poor in volcanic fragments (Lm35Lv18Ls47). The LmLvLs plot indicate that most of the samples lie in the fields of suture belts...

  12. Influence of Stenocarpella maydis infected corn on the composition of corn kernel and its conversion into ethanol (United States)

    Widespread epidemics of Stenocarpella ear rot (formerly Diplodia ear rot) have occurred throughout the central U.S. Corn Belt in recent years, but the influence of S. maydis infected grain on corn ethanol production is unknown. In this study, S. maydis infected ears of variety 'Heritage 4646' were h...

  13. Xenoliths From Isla Isabel, Nayarit, Mexico: The Nature of the Upper Mantle Underneath the Western Part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Housh, T. B.; Aranda-Gomez, J. J.; Luhr, J. F.


    Isla Isabel is located ~65 km NW of San Blas (Nayarit), off the Pacific coast of central Mexico. The island is a Quaternary (Ar/Ar < 0.7 Ma) volcanic complex built atop attenuated continental crust. Isabel lies on the east side of the mouth of the Gulf of California, near the area previously occupied (early Pliocene) by Los Cabos Block. Southeast of Isabel, on the mainland, is the NW-trending Tepic-Zacoalco rift, a major volcano-tectonic structure in the western part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. On land, the rift is the boundary between the Jalisco and Sierra Madre Occidental blocks, and Isabel lies along its projection. Immediately S of Isabel is the San Blas Trough, a swale that trends NW-SE, co-linear with a gravity lineation parallel to the Tamayo and San Blas fault zones, which are the transform boundaries between the northern Rivera and North American plates. Plio-Quaternary alkaline and calc-alkaline lavas have erupted contemporaneously in the Tepic-Zacoalco rift, but so far no mantle xenoliths have been reported in them. Isabel's rocks are intra-plate type alkaline basalts to trachybasalts, with 5-6%\\ normative Ne. Primary paragenesis in the lavas is: Ol + Pl + Cpx + TMt. Small (< 5 cm) peridotite xenoliths, and xenocrysts derived from them, are ubiquitous in the rocks. Eleven xenoliths were studied comprising 3 dunites, 7 harzburgites (one Pl-bearing), and 1 gabbro. Compared to other Mexican xenolith localities N of the MVB, they are refractory as they are depleted in, or lack, Cpx. Ol crystals in xenoliths are homogenous and their Mg#\\ s range as follows: peridotites (92-88), gabbro (84), and Pl-harzburgite (80). Cores of primary Ol phenocrysts (90.5-86.5) in Isabel's volcanic rocks are significantly higher in Mg#\\ s than in Ol from other Mexican xenolith localities (max. 86) and overlap with the associated peridotite xenoliths. Such overlap has not been reported for other Mexican xenolith localities. Xenolith equilibration temperatures for 5

  14. Belt conveyer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwieczek, A.; Dembinski, C.


    The patented belt conveyor is distinguished by the fact that the rate of motion of the belt changes smoothly depending on the load: the greater the load the higher the rate. This makes it possible to prolong the service life of the belt, i.e., during idling of the conveyor it is exposed to deformation on the drive and tension drums a fewer number of times. The essence of the invention is based on the use for driving the drum of a friction transmission. One of the elements of this transmission is the drive drum of the conveyor, and the other is the drive wheel which is pressed to the inner (or outer) surface of the drum. Change in rotation velocity of the drum is reached by changing the diameter of the drive wheel. The rim of the latter has an elastic tire to which compressed air is fed. The diameter of the drive wheel depends on the quantity of air in the tire. It is set automatically by a regulating system depending on the conveyor load. Variants are patented for the belt conveyor which is distinguished by the design of the friction transmission. It contains 1, 2 or more drive wheels. It can have a cylindrical or conical inner surface of the drive drum, etc.

  15. Transgenic corn for control of the European corn borer and corn rootworms: a survey of Midwestern farmers' practices and perceptions. (United States)

    Wilson, Ted A; Rice, Marlin E; Tollefson, Jon J; Pilcher, Clinton D


    In 2001, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1000 corn, Zea mays L., farmers in each of five states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska) to evaluate their perceptions of transgenic corn designed to control the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. Respondents returned 1,313 surveys (26.2%). Farmers with small acreages planted a greater portion of their corn (54.5%) with transgenic corn for control of European corn borer than farmers with large farms (39.2%). The majority (75.2%) of farmers use crop rotation to control the corn rootworm. Nine insecticides comprised 92.2% of the commercial soil insecticides used for control of corn rootworm larvae. More than one-third of the farmers in Illinois (33.5%) and Indiana (39.4%) treated first-year corn for corn rootworm, primarily due to western corn rootworm egg laying in soybean, Glycine max (L.). When asked whether they would plant transgenic corn protected against the corn rootworm, 35.0% of farmers responded they would, whereas 40.5% said they were unsure. The two greatest farmer concerns about transgenic corn were the ability to sell harvested grain (59.3%) and additional technology fees (54.8%). Respondents indicated that less farmer exposure to insecticide (69.9%) and less insecticide in the environment (68.5%) were the primary benefits of transgenic corn. Farmers who had no concerns about transgenic corn for rootworm control were more likely to purchase the product (46.8%). The most common refuge-planting options farmers favored were adjacent fields (30.9%) and split fields (29.9%). Farmers (21.1%) observed a yield increase (23.7 bu/ha [9.6 bu/acre]) when using transgenic corn for European corn borer control compared with non-transgenic corn. These data can help in understanding farmers' knowledge and concerns regarding transgenic corn. This information may be of value to guide researchers, extension specialists, and policy makers in designing

  16. Tectonic and thermal history of the western Serrania del Interior foreland fold and thrust belt and Guarico Basin, north central Venezuela: Implications of new apatite fission track analysis and seismic interpretation (United States)

    Perez de Armas, Jaime Gonzalo

    Structural analysis, interpretation of seismic reflection lines, and apatite fission-track analysis in the Western Serrania del Interior fold and thrust belt and in the Guarico basin of north-central Venezuela indicate that the area underwent Mesozoic and Tertiary-to-Recent deformation. Mesozoic deformation, related to the breakup of Pangea, resulted in the formation of the Espino graben in the southernmost portion of the Guarico basin and in the formation of the Proto-Caribbean lithosphere between the diverging North and South American plates. The northern margin of Venezuela became a northward facing passive margin. Minor normal faults formed in the Guarico basin. The most intense deformation took place in the Neogene when the Leeward Antilles volcanic island arc collided obliquely with South America. The inception of the basal foredeep unconformity in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene marks the formation of a perisutural basin on top of a buried graben system. It is coeval with minor extension and possible reactivation of Cretaceous normal faults in the Guarico basin. It marks the deepening of the foredeep. Cooling ages derived from apatite fission-tracks suggest that the obduction of the fold and thrust belt in the study area occurred in the Late Oligocene through the Middle Miocene. Field data and seismic interpretations suggest also that contractional deformation began during the Neogene, and specifically during the Miocene. The most surprising results of the detrital apatite fission-track study are the ages acquired in the sedimentary rocks of the easternmost part of the study area in the foreland fold and thrust belt. They indicate an Eocene thermal event. This event may be related to the Eocene NW-SE convergence of the North and South American plates that must have caused the Proto-Caribbean lithosphere to be shortened. This event is not related to the collision of the arc with South America, as the arc was far to the west during the Eocene.

  17. Holocene palaeoenvironmental variability in the western Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt: insights of the source of the actual climatic conditions from a geochemical study of Lake Etzatlán-Magdalena (United States)

    Castro, G. V.; Roy, P. D.; Solis, B.; Smith, S.; Blanco, E.; Lozano-SantaCruz, R.


    Lake sediments have shown through so many examples that are good tool to infer paleoenvironmental conditions of a region. In this study, we extend palaeoenvironmental information of western sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt by using geochemical proxies and magnetic susceptibility in sediments deposited over the Holocene in the Etzatlan-Magdalena Basin. The reconstructed millennial-scale variability of precipitation and aridity were compared with proxy records indicating dynamics of ITCZ and ENSO in order to understand the influence of both these forcings. Paleolake Etzatlán-Magdalena is located in the western sector of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, in the Mexican state of Jalisco. A 122 cm long sequence was analyzed. Sedimentary sequence is characterized by massive strata of dark brown-black color, silty-argillaceous grain size and sedimentation rates between 0.08 and 0.24 mm/yr. An age model for the sedimentary sequence was created from four stratigraphically concordant AMS 14C dates. The age at the bottom of the sequence is 9,600 cal yr BP and the sequence has continuity along the time. To investigate the controlling factors in the sedimentation of the sequence, total organic/inorganic carbon, X ray fluorescence analysis and magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed on the sequence. Proxy data analyzed on these sediments indicate generally wetter conditions during early and late Holocene and arid conditions during middle Holocene. A comparison with other proxy records from different parts of Mexico and records indicating ITCZ and ENSO suggests that variations in hydroclimate during the middle and late Holocene was caused by different amounts of summer precipitation, and at the top of the sequence autumn precipitation through formation of tropical cyclones into the region is inferred.

  18. 滇西哀牢山构造带:结构与演化%The Ailaoshan Belt in Western Yunnan:Tectonic Framework and Tectonic Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊来; 唐渊; 宋志杰; Tran My Dung; 翟云峰; 吴文彬; 陈文


    The Ailaoshan tectonic zone is the most significant lineament in the eastern Tibet (Southeast Asia) , which separates the Yangtze-South China and the Indochina blocks. Information on multi-stage complex tectonic evolution is preserved in the rocks in the tectonic zone. Late Archean Neoproterozoic high grade metamorphic rock series, Cenozoic tectono-magmatic assemblages (shearing deformation structures) , Late Permian - Early Triassic Jinping-Song Da rifting rock sequences and Early Carboniferous-Early Triassic Ailaoshan tectonic melange were well developed from east to west along the Ailaoshan tectonic zone. The various tectonic units of different characteristics are separated by fault structures mainly developed in Cenozoic. Granitic intrusions of various stages which were formed due to allochthonous emplacement or mingmatization are widespread along the tectonic belt. The Ailaoshan tectonic belt has multiple tectonic natures during different geologic history stages. On the whole, it has experienced three important tectonic stages, I. E. Pre-tethys, Tethys, and Cenozoic intracontinental stages. During the Pre-tethys evolution until Early Paleozoic, the major part of the belt (especially along the eastern zone) had affinity to the Yangtze block, and preserved records of Late Archean Neoproterozoic crustal evolution. Since the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic the tectonic belt became a part of the Tethyan domain with the opening of Paleotethys. The belt was evolved into a tectonic domain with different nature from that of the South China-Yangtze plate. Subsequent closure of the Ailaoshan Ocean in from Early Carboniferous and the Jinping-Song Da Ocean since Early Permian resulted in the formation of the paleo-Ailaoshan orogenic belt. The closure of the Tethyan oceans made Yangtze-South China block and Indochina block to become a unified continent. Interaction between the Indian and the Eurasian plates had a sound influence on the Ailaoshan belt. There are Early Cenozoic

  19. Multi-system geochronological and isotopic constraints on age and evolution of the Gaoligongshan metamorphic belt and shear zone system in western Yunnan, China (United States)

    Eroğlu, Sümeyya; Siebel, Wolfgang; Danišík, Martin; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Chen, Fukun


    The Gaoligongshan metamorphic belt, located east of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) in the Yunnan province, southwestern China, is a compelling region in which to determine temporal constrains on crustal dynamic processes related to the Himalayan orogeny. We applied multi-system geo- and thermochronology (900 °C to extrusion of Tibet and crustal movement around the EHS. The final stage of exhumation of the Gaoligongshan occurred between 8 and 5 Ma at an average exhumation rate of ∼3 km/Ma as documented by apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He data. This rapid exhumation was triggered by crustal root delamination and opening of the Andaman sea. Our results clearly show that the complex tectonothermal evolution of the Gaoligongshan was influenced by Tibetan extrusion and escape tectonics associated with lower crustal flow around the EHS and the southeastward movement of Indochina and back-arc extension in response to Andaman seafloor spreading.

  20. Relevance of traditional integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for commercial corn producers in a transgenic agroecosystem: a bygone era? (United States)

    Gray, Michael E


    The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pest management (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to

  1. The lagos La Plata and Fontana fold-and-thrust belt: long-lived orogenesis at the edge of western Patagonia (United States)

    Folguera, Andrés; Iannizzotto, Noelia F.


    Extensive fieldwork carried out in the inner sectors of the Cordillera Patagónica has revealed evidence of alternate of periods of crustal extension and orogen formation since the Jurassic. The Patagonian lithosphere was extended during the Mesozoic and fractured and collapsed into numerous depocenters within the arc and retroarc. The last pulse of extension during this period occurred in the Early Cretaceous, related to a series of Pacific transgressions that formed the embayment of the Rı´o Mayo basin, north of the Austral basin. The Rı´o Mayo basin is part of a widespread Early Cretaceous synrift episode found throughout the Patagonian region between 155 and 140 Ma. The last part of this rifting episode, between 140 and 125 Ma, was spatially more limited, restricted to the arc and inner retroarc. The area of extension can be related to an early Paleozoic suture between the Somuncura Massif and the hanging wall of the Deseado Massif. The correct identification of this suture zone helps delimit distinctive volcanic provinces, as well as metallogenic ore districts. Thermal subsidence ceased as a consequence of a sudden tectonic inversion related to a major lithospheric reorganization at 120 Ma, during the breakup of southern Gondwana. The closure of the small Rı´o Mayo intra-arc-retroarc basin occurred as a result of a fold-and-thrust belt, mainly by tectonic inversion of previous normal faults, and was partially related to thin-skinned deformation. The emplacement of the Eastern Patagonian batholith between 100 and 80 Ma destroyed the inner sectors of the fold-and-thrust belt. During this time, the collapse of the inner sectors allowed for the development of a second, more limited intra-arc basin. The orogenic wedge grew through the inversion of progressively deeper decollements and out-of-sequence thrusts and lasted until the Late Paleogene, with a period of probable quiescence during the highly oblique subduction of the Aluk (Phoenix) Plate in the early

  2. Petrography and chemical evidence for multi-stage emplacement of western Buem volcanic rocks in the Dahomeyide orogenic belt, southeastern Ghana, West Africa (United States)

    Nude, Prosper M.; Kwayisi, Daniel; Taki, Naa A.; Kutu, Jacob M.; Anani, Chris Y.; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Asiedu, Daniel K.


    The volcanic rocks of the Buem Structural Unit in the Dahomeyide orogenic belt of southeastern Ghana, constitute a unique assemblage among the monocyclic sedimentary formations of this structural unit. Representative volcanic rock samples were collected from the Asukawkaw, Bowiri-Odumase and Nkonya areas which form a roughly north-south trend. The volcanic rocks comprise spherulitic, amygdaloidal, vesicular, phyric and aphyric varieties. Whole rock geochemistry shows that these volcanic rocks exhibit both alkaline and subalkaline characteristics. The alkaline varieties are relatively enriched in REE and incompatible trace element concentrations, similar to OIB; the subalkaline varieties show E-MORB and N-MORB REE and incompatible element characteristics. The rocks have low La/Nb (<1), low K/Nb (<450) and high Nb/U (averagely 47.3) values, suggesting no significant effect of crustal contamination. The key characteristics of these volcanic rocks are the distinct petrography and geochemistry, shown from the three separate localities, which may suggest source fractionation at different depths or modes of emplacement. The association of volcanic rocks of OIB, E-MORB and N-MORB affinities, with no significant crustal contamination, may suggest mantle derived magma that may have been related to rifting event and eventual emplacement at the eastern passive margin of the West African Craton.

  3. Structure and climate controls on the evolution of a Mid-Late Jurassic alluvial fan-delta system in the western part of Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt (United States)

    Lin, Chengfa; Liu, Shaofeng; Yao, Xiang; Ma, Pengfei


    The Yanshan fold-thrust belt experienced several significant tectonic events during Mesozoic time and developed thrust fault-bounded intramontane sedimentary basins. However, elaborate works of sedimentology is inadequate in the Yanshan belt, particularly in its western segment, leading to a failure in comprehensively understanding how bounding-faults and climate change influence the basin filling processes. Our detailed sedimentological study of the Middle Jurassic Xiahuayuan Formation and Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Jiulongshan Formation in the Xiahuayuan basin of northern Hebei province, indicates a genetic relationship between the evolution of an alluvial fan-delta system and the tectonic and climate setting. The Xiahuayuan Formation was assigned to a debris flow-dominated Gilbert-type fan-delta composed of topset conglomerates, foreset massive siltstone-fine grained sandstone interbedded with lenticular conglomerate units and bottomset/lake bottom fine-grained deposits, spatially restricted to the northern part of the basin. While the lower Jiulongshan Formation was considered as a relatively small debris flow- and turbidity currents-dominated fan-delta with a single-ramp portrait, prograding into the middle part of the basin. And the upper part of Jiulongshan Formation contributed to the lake bottom component of the delta system during the forming of the Jiulongshan Formation. Our results reveal a transformation of a fan-delta from Gilbert-type to single-ramp type and the basinward migration of this fan-delta during Mid-Late Jurassic in the Xiahuayuan basin. And it is assumed that the activity of a thrust fault along the northern basin margin and the rapid switch of climate conditions from warm and humid to hot and dry triggered the transformation and migration of this fan-delta system.

  4. Application of geophysical prospecting in Nam Co western ophiolite belt for nickel ore%物探在纳木错西部蛇绿岩片带中找镍铁矿的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃龙; 贺淑兰


    Because this area is located in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the ecological environment is extremely fragile. The grass covered vast majority of ground, from protect environment point of view, is not suitable the surface engineering exposure. According to the lithology and mineral features, physical property of Jade Gula ophiolite belt and wall rock, apply scientific geophysical prospecting method to delineate geophysical anomaly, directly using drilling method to disclosed, which in this district has achieved obvious prospecting effect, also provide the precious experience for the delineation of new exploration target region of Nam Co western ophiolite belt, and get out of a new prospecting model of mineral resources exploitation and environmental protection in Qinghai Tibet Plateau.%由于本区地处青藏高原,生态环境极为脆弱,地表绝大部分为草坪覆盖,从保护环境的角度出发不易动用地表工程揭露。根据玉古拉蛇绿岩片带、围岩岩性及矿产特点、物性特征等,确定在本区找矿运用科学的物探方法圈定物探异常后,直接运用钻探揭露的方法,既在本区取得了明显的找矿效果,也为纳木错西部蛇绿岩片带圈定新的勘探靶区提供了宝贵的经验,又在青藏高原走出了一条矿产开发与环境保护的新型找矿模式。

  5. Retrieval of soil erosion relevant parameters in the Western Australian wheat belt region from VNIR-SWIR and TIR spectral signatures


    Andreas Eisele; Sabine Chabrillat; I. Lau; Kobayashi, C.; B. Wheaton; Carter, D.; Kashimura, O.; Kato, M.; Ong, C.; R. Hewson; Cudahy, T.; Hermann Kaufmann


    With the focus on new available hyperspectral imaging sensors sensitive within the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength region, this study is testing the ability of the TIR in deriving soil erosion relevant parameters (e.g. texture, organic carbon content) from soil spectral measurements with the respect to commonly used VNIR-SWIR spectrometers. Therefore a study site was chosen located within an agricultural area in Western Australia, which is suffering from soil loss through wind erosion proce...

  6. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt reminde

  7. Vertical axis rotations in fold and thrust belts: Comparison of AMS and paleomagnetic data in the Western External Sierras (Southern Pyrenees) (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Pueyo, E. L.; Pocoví Juan, A.; Gil Imaz, A.


    Geometry and kinematics of fold-and-thrust belts can be complex settings when oblique structures and vertical-axis rotations (VAR) take place during thrust emplacement. Many techniques can be used to unravel such complex tectonic histories, from classic ones like strain analysis and changes of paleocurrents, to more modern approaches such as paleomagnetism and calcite twin analysis. In this paper, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility is compared to vertical axis rotations deduced from paleomagnetic data along three cross-sections in the External Sierras and the Jaca Basin (southwestern Pyrenees). These data enable us to state that: 1) AMS represents pre-tilting deformation fabrics and magnetic lineation behaves like a passive marker during later deformation; and 2) a primary record of the paleomagnetic field can be found in the area. Therefore, the difference with the paleomagnetic reference is the local VAR. The comparison of the two datasets allows us to draw the following conclusions: A) the changes in both paleomagnetic VAR and magnetic lineation orientation between neighbouring sites are similar; and B) there is a significant linear regression between VAR and trend changes in magnetic lineation. Deviations in magnetic lineation with respect to the expected local magnetic lineation permit vertical axis rotations to be quantified using the AMS dataset. The combined analysis of paleomagnetic and AMS data enables: 1) a quicker comparison of the kinematic evolution in areas with similar AMS patterns; 2) the identification of anomalous orientations of magnetic lineation linked to VARs; and 3) the use of AMS analysis as a homogeneity test for VARs determined from other techniques. AMS is proposed as a suitable preliminary technique to select further sites for paleomagnetic analysis since paleomagnetic laboratory procedures are much more time-consuming than AMS measurements, AMS does not usually modify sample remanence and hence samples can be used for both types of

  8. Geology, Distribution and Classification of Gold Deposits in the Western Qinling Belt, Central China%西秦岭地区造山型与卡林型金矿床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Gold deposits of the western Qinling belt comprising Carlin-typeand orogenic type gold deposits. Carlin-like gold deposits are abundant (1) along a westward extension of the southern zone defined by a window of early Paleozoic clastic rocks extending into the basin to the west and (2) within the easternmost margin of the basinal rocks, south of the extension, and in adjacent cover rocks of the Yangtze craton. Triassic and Early Jurassic synkinematic granitoids are widespread across the central and southern zones, as well as in the Songpan-Ganzi basin and northern margin of the Yangtze craton.Orogenic lode gold deposits sited along brittle-ductile shear zones occur throughout the central zone within greenschist-facies, highly-deformed, Devonian and younger clastic rocks. Mainly coarse-grained gold, along with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and minor base metal sulfides, occur in networks of quartz veinlets, brecciated wallrock, and disseminated in altered wallrock. Isotopic dates suggest that the deposits formed during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic as the leading edge of the Yangtze craton was thrust beneath rocks of the western Qinling belt.Both Carlin-and orogenic types of gold deposits formed during extensional period of post-orogenesis, aged mainly from 210-180 Ma.%西秦岭金矿床分为卡林型和造山型两类。卡林型金矿床麇集于南秦岭和松潘—甘孜造山带的东北部。三叠纪和早侏罗世的同构造花岗闪长岩广泛分布于西秦岭中部和南部、松潘—甘孜盆地以及扬子克拉通边缘。造山型脉状金矿床主要分布于西秦岭造山带中的脆韧性剪切带内。大部分粗粒金主要赋存在网格状石英细脉和角砾状围岩中的黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、毒砂和少量贱金属硫化物中和以分散状分布在蚀变围岩中。同位素资料表明晚三叠世-中侏罗世与扬子克拉通俯冲有关的作用控制了造山型金矿床的形成。

  9. Belt attachment and system (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  10. Neoproterozoic diamictite-bearing sedimentary rocks in the northern Yili Block and their constraints on the Precambrian evolution of microcontinents in the Western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    He, Jingwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Zheng, Bihai; Wu, Hailin; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Yuanzhi


    The origin and tectonic setting of Precambrian sequences in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have been debated due to a lack of high resolution geochronological data. Answering this question is essential for the understanding of the tectonic framework and Precambrian evolution of the blocks within the CAOB. Here we reported LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic data for Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block, an important component of the CAOB, in order to provide information on possible provenance and regional tectonic evolution. A total of 271 concordant U-Pb zircon ages from Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block define three major age populations of 1900-1400 Ma, 1300-1150 Ma and 700-580 Ma, which are quite different from cratons and microcontinents involved in the CAOB. Although it is not completely consistent with the local basement ages, an autochthonous provenance interpretation is more suitable. Some zircon grains show significant old Hf model ages (TDMC; 3.9-2.4 Ga) and reveal continental crust as old as Paleoarchean probably existed. Continuous Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations exhibit large variations in the εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the long-time involvement of both reworked ancient crust and juvenile material. Similar Mesoproterozoic evolution pattern is identified in many continental terranes involved in the CAOB that surround the Tarim Craton. Based on our analysis and published research, we postulate that the northern Yili Block, together with Chinese Central Tianshan, Kyrgyz North Tianshan and some other microcontinents surrounding the Tarim Craton, once constituted the continental margin of the Tarim Craton in the Mesoproterozoic, formed by long-lived accretionary processes. Most of the late Neoproterozoic zircons exhibit significant positive εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the addition of juvenile crust. It is consistent with the tectonic event related to the East Africa

  11. Petrogenesis and ore genesis of the Permian Huangshanxi sulfide ore-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, western China (United States)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Chusi; Xue, Sheng-Chao; Ripley, Edward M.


    The Permian Huangshanxi mafic-ultramafic intrusion hosts one of the two largest magmatic sulfide deposits in the Eastern Tianshan which is situated in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. In this paper we use mineral compositions and whole-rock geochemical data to decipher the genetic relationship between magma evolution and sulfide mineralization. The Huangshanxi intrusion consists of three separate intrusive units. Important sulfide mineralization occurs in the base of the last intrusive unit, an elongated, layered ultramafic body composed of lherzolite at the bottom, olivine websterite in the middle and websterite at the top. Based on olivine-liquid equilibria and mass balance, the MgO and FeO contents in the parental magma for a lherzolite sample are estimated to be 8.71 and 8.36 wt.%, respectively. The Huangshanxi mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks and the estimated "trapped liquids" for several olivine-orthopyroxene cumulate rocks all show light rare earth element enrichments relative to heavy rare earth elements and significant Nb depletions relative to Th and La, which are similar to the characteristics of coeval basalts in the region. The arc-like geochemical features are attributed to pre-Permian mantle metasomatism by slab-derived fluids. Partial melting of the previously-modified mantle is thought to have resulted from heating by upwelling asthenosphere associated with post-subduction lithosphere delamination or by mantle plume activity. The relationship between the Fo and Ni contents of olivine crystals from the Huangshanxi sulfide-poor ultramafic rocks (source mantle. Stratigraphic reversals in olivine Fo contents and bulk sulfide PGE tenors suggest that multiple magma replenishments occurred during the development of the Huangshanxi magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit. The sulfide ore formation can be divided into two stages: a conduit stage during which immiscible sulfide droplets and olivine crystals were brought up by ascending magma

  12. Growth performance of Avicennia officinalis L. and the effect of spacing on growth and yield of trees planted in the Western coastal belt of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Abdul Quddus Miah; Sk. Ahiul Islam; Md. Ahsan Habib; Md. Golam Moula


    A trial of Avicennia officinalis L. with five different spacings was conducted in the newly accreted lands along the western coastline (Patuakhali district) of Bangladesh since 1993 to assess growth perform-ance and the effect of spacing on tree growth. Data on tree density, height, diameter, bole height, crown diameter were recorded and ana-lyzed when the stand was 19 years old. Mean height ranged from 12.89-13.52 m and diameter at breast height (dbh) from 26.57-32.16 cm in plots of different spacings. The mean annual height increment ranged from 0.67-0.71 m, mean annual diameter increment from 1.40-1.69 cm and wood volume from 6.02-10.04 m3⋅ha-1⋅a-1 in different treatments. Significantly greater diameter (32.16 cm) and wood volume (10.04 m3⋅ha-1⋅a-1) were obtained with wider (2.13 m × 2.13 m) spacing than with closer spacings. But tree growth was unaffected by other spacings. Growth data were also recorded from other A. officinalis plantations raised by Forest Department (FD) on different islands in Patuakhali and Bhola districts of Bangladesh. At these sites, mean annual height incre-ment ranged from 0.33-0.62 m, mean annual diameter increment from 0.72-1.37 cm and wood volume from 1.55-5.73 m3⋅ha-1⋅a-1. The growth performance of A. officinalis indicated that the newly accreted lands along the western shoreline may be suitable for raising Avicennia planta-tions for the enrichment of coastal vegetation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhongli; DENG Yongfu; LIAO Guangyu


    The Jinping orogenic belt in Sichuan, China consists mainly of the Jinpingshan intracontinental thrust-nappe belt, foreland thrust-nappe belt and foreland uplift belt. Based on analyses about the characteristics of the structural units in this area, the authors propose in this paper that Chapuzi-Bazhe revival fault belt is the regional boundary fault, and points out that after the formation of the Pre-Sinian basement, the western edge of the Yangtze paraplatform was turned into the passive continental margin in Sinian to Triassic, then into the Mesozoic collision orogenic belt, and finally into the Cenozoic orogenic belt through intracontinental orogeny.

  14. Modifying the University of Missouri corn canopy sensor algorithm using soil and weather information (United States)

    Corn production across the U.S. Corn belt can be often limited by the loss of nitrogen (N) due to leaching, volatilization and denitrification. The use of canopy sensors for making in-season N fertilizer applications has been proven effective in matching plant N requirements with periods of rapid N ...

  15. Ecological risk assessment for DvSnf7 RNA: A plant-incorporated protectant with targeted activity against western corn rootworm. (United States)

    Bachman, Pamela M; Huizinga, Kristin M; Jensen, Peter D; Mueller, Geoffrey; Tan, Jianguo; Uffman, Joshua P; Levine, Steven L


    MON 87411 maize, which expresses DvSnf7 RNA, was developed to provide an additional mode of action to confer protection against corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.). A critical step in the registration of a genetically engineered crop with an insecticidal trait is performing an ecological risk assessment to evaluate the potential for adverse ecological effects. For MON 87411, an assessment plan was developed that met specific protection goals by characterizing the routes and levels of exposure, and testing representative functional taxa that would be directly or indirectly exposed in the environment. The potential for toxicity of DvSnf7 RNA was evaluated with a harmonized battery of non-target organisms (NTOs) that included invertebrate predators, parasitoids, pollinators, soil biota as well as aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate species. Laboratory tests evaluated ecologically relevant endpoints such as survival, growth, development, and reproduction and were of sufficient duration to assess the potential for adverse effects. No adverse effects were observed with any species tested at, or above, the maximum expected environmental concentration (MEEC). All margins of exposure for NTOs were >10-fold the MEEC. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that exposure to DvSnf7 RNA, both directly and indirectly, is safe for NTOs at the expected field exposure levels. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary results on sediment and settlement dynamics in the environs of the fortification enclosure Corneşti-Iarcuri, western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz NYKAMP


    Full Text Available Corneşti-Iarcuri is the largest known fortification enclosure of prehistoric Europe. The site is located in the Romanian Banat, at the southeastern edge of the Mureş alluvial fan (Fig. 1. Four earth filled wooden ramparts with a total length of about 33 km enclose an area of more than 17.2 km². Even today, after centuries of intensive arable farming, these walls represent significant obstacles in the undulating landscape of the Vinga plain. Radiocarbon dates, most recently achieved by ongoing archaeological research date the construction to the Late Bronze Age (Szentmiklosi et al. 2011, Heeb et al. 2008, Micle et al. 2009. The Mureş alluvial fan started to develop in the Pliocene and with its extent of about 10.000 km² it is one of the most extensive landscape features of the eastern Pannonian Basin (Urdea et al. 2012. Extensive parts of the fan are covered with Quaternary loess and loess-like deposits. Thick chernozem or chernozem-like soils have developed in these sediments (Borsy 1990.

  17. Excess Ar in biotites from the Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya: implications for the tectonothermal history of the Mozambique Belt and its Archaean foreland (United States)

    Shibata, K.; Suwa, K.; Uchiumi, S.; Agata, T.


    RbSr whole rock and KAr mineral age determinations were made on rocks from the Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya. Granitic rocks yielded a RbSr whole rock isochron age of 2555 ± 101 Ma with an initial {87Sr}/{86Sr} ratio of 0.70121 ± 0.00038. This age represents the time of granitoid emplacement. KAr mineral ages range from 574 to 3420 Ma, which is very variable with respect to mineral type and locality. Mylonitic granodiorite very close to the Nandi Escarpment gave a KAr age of 916 Ma from biotite, suggesting the time of the activity of the Nandi Fault, which may be an earlier phase of the Pan-African Orogeny. Ages of biotites in a zone between 4 and 6 km northeast of the Nandi Fault are anomalously high compared to those of coexisting hornblende and the RbSr isochron age, confirming the existence of excess 40Ar in biotite. Excess 40Ar was probably introduced into biotite under the appropriate temperature conditions prevailing near the Nandi Fault. Taramite, a rare sodic-calcic amphibole, was found in a cordierite-biotite gneiss of the Kavirondian Supergroup and gave a typical Pan-African KAr age of 574 Ma. The last Pan-African metamorphism occurred in the terrane east of the Surongai Thrust.

  18. Implications of Using Corn Stalks as a Biofuel Source: A Joint ARS and DOE Project (United States)

    Wilhelm, W. W.; Cushman, J.


    Corn stover is a readily source of biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and may provide additional income for growers. Published research shows that residue removal changes the rate of soil physical, chemical, and biological processes, and in turn, crop growth. Building a sustainable cellulosic ethanol industry based on corn residue requires residue management practices that do not reduce long-term productivity. To develop such systems, impacts of stover removal on the soil and subsequent crops must be quantified. The ARS/DOE Biofuel Project is the cooperative endeavor among scientists from six western Corn Belt US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) locations and US Dept. of Energy. The objectives of the project are to determine the influence of stover removal on crop productivity, soil aggregation, quality, carbon content, and seasonal energy balance, and carbon sequestration. When residue is removed soil temperatures fluctuate more and soil water evaporation is greater. Residue removal reduces the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC), but the degree of reduction is highly dependent on degree of tillage, quantity of stover removed, and frequency of stover removal. Of the three cultural factors (stover removal, tillage, and N fertilization) tillage had the greatest effect on amount of corn-derived SOC. No tillage tends to increase the fraction of aggregates in the 2.00 to 0.25 mm size range at all removal rates. Stover harvest reduces corn-derived SOC by 35% compared to retaining stover on the soil averaged over all tillage systems. Corn stover yield has not differed across stover removal treatments in these studies. In the irrigated study, grain yield increased with stover removal. In the rain-fed studies, grain yield has not differed among residue management treatments. Incorporating the biomass ethanol fermentation by-product into a soil with low SOC showed a positive relationship between the amount of lignin added and the subsequent

  19. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation wh

  20. Tectonic analysis on Tumuxiuke fault belt in the western Tarim Basin%塔里木盆地吐木休克构造带断裂构造分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚雷; 文磊; 杨海军; 齐英敏; 胡秀芳; 王月然; 李曰俊; 王海燕; 赵岩; 张强


    吐木休克断裂位于塔里木盆地西部,是一条大型基底卷入型断裂构造带,构成塔里木盆地次级构造单元阿瓦提凹陷和巴楚断隆的分界.根据系统的地震资料解释,可以将吐木休克断裂分为西段、中段和东段3部分,各段构造特征有所差异.西段,为单一的基底卷入型高角度逆冲断层,倾向巴楚断隆;中段,除倾向巴楚断隆的主冲断层外,倾向相反的反冲断层越来越清晰,楔状冲断构造的轮廓逐渐显现出来.同时,在断层上盘还发育第四纪正断层;东段,倾向巴楚断隆的主冲断层,向上断至中寒武统,未断开中寒武统以上的地层,其冲断位移量完全为倾向阿瓦提凹陷的反冲断层所吸收,形成典型的楔状冲断构造.根据地震资料解释,认为吐木休克断裂带主要存在两期断裂构造:深部高角度基底卷入型逆冲断裂带和其上叠加的浅部正断层.前者形成于库车组沉积前,在库车组沉积期间持续活动,并在新近纪晚期定型;后者是本次研究首次发现的,形成于第四纪早中期,仅发育在吐木休克断裂带的中部.%The Tumuxiuke fault belt, which locates in the western Tarim Basin, is a large-scale basement-involved fault zone and forms the boundary between the Awati Sag and Bachu fault-uplift (sub tectonic units of Tarim Basin) . Based on systematic interpretation on seismic data, three sections of different tectonic features can be divided: the west, the middle and the east section. In the west section, there only develops a basement-involved high-angle thrust fault which dips towards the Bachu fault-uplift; while in the middle section, besides the main Bachu-inclining fault mentioned above, a reversed-inclination recoil fault becomes increasingly clear and gradually draws the outline of wedge-shaped thrust structures. Meantime, on the upper plate of the recoil fault,a series of Quaternary normal faults develop; however,in the east section

  1. Late Paleozoic closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean along the Irtysh/Chara shear zone and implications for arc amalgamation and oroclinal bending in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon


    The Irtysh/Chara Shear Zone is one of the largest strike-slip systems in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It records collisional processes of the peri-Siberian orogenic system with the West Junggar-Kazakhstan-Tianshan orogenic system following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean, but the exact timing of these events remains enigmatic. We conducted detailed structural analysis along the Irtysh Shear Zone (NW China), which together with new geochronological data allows us to reconstruct the tectonic evolution during the final closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean. Our results showed that subduction-accretion processes lasted at least until the Late Carboniferous in the Chinese Altai and the East/West Junggar. The subsequent arc amalgamation is characterized by a cycle of crustal thickening, orogenic collapse and transpressional thickening. On a larger scale, the West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system defines a U-shape oroclinal structure (e.g. Xiao et al., 2010). A major phase of oroclinal bending that involved ~110° rotation may have occurred during the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous (Levashova et al., 2012). Previous authors have linked oroclinal bending with the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the western CAOB, and proposed that a quasi-linear West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system was buckled during the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean (in the north) and the South Tianshan Ocean (in the south) (e.g. Abrajevitch et al., 2008). This model, however, is not supported by our new data that constrain the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean to the Late Carboniferous. Alternatively, we propose that oroclinal bending may have involved two phases of bending, with the ~110° rotation in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous possibly associated with trench retreat. Further tightening may have occurred in response to the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons during the Late

  2. Fiscal year 1981 US corn and soybeans pilot preliminary experiment plan, phase 1 (United States)

    Livingston, G. P.; Nedelman, K. S.; Norwood, D. F.; Smith, J. H. (Principal Investigator)


    A draft of the preliminary experiment plan for the foreign commodity production forecasting project fiscal year 1981 is presented. This draft plan includes: definition of the phase 1 and 2 U.S. pilot objectives; the proposed experiment design to evaluate crop calendar, area estimation, and area aggregation components for corn and soybean technologies using 1978/1979 crop-year data; a description of individual sensitivity evaluations of the baseline corn and soybean segment classification procedure; and technology and data assessment in support of the corn and soybean estimation technology for use in the U.S. central corn belt.

  3. Pleistocene sector collapse of Volcán Barú and the evolution of the southeastern termination of the Fila Costeña Thrust Belt in western Panama (United States)

    Morell, K. D.; Gardner, T. W.; Fisher, D. M.; Zellner, H.


    We use new geologic, stratigraphic and geomorphic data along with age constraints to characterize Late Pleistocene to Holocene deposits associated with edifice failure and sector collapse of Volcán Barú (alt. 3374 m) in westernmost Panama. This stratigraphic control provides constraints on the timing of thrusting associated with southeastern termination of the Fila Costeña thrust belt, located in the inner forearc of the Central American convergent margin. The Fila Costeña, which contains at many as five thrust faults that root at the basement-cover contact, is migrating to the southeast coeval with the Panama Triple Junction and the associated variations in subducting plate geometry that occur on either side of the triple junction. Radiocarbon dating of organic material, together with Ar/Ar ages of clasts, identify at least three debris avalanche events (DA1, DA2 and DA3) associated with Barú Volcano, located directly inboard of the triple junction. Preliminary volume estimates for the youngest deposit (DA3) range from a minimum of ~30 km3 to a maximum of ~60 km3, a result that has led to the suggestion that it is the largest Holocene deposit of this type in the western hemisphere. Radiocarbon analysis of wood and other organic material extracted from this debris avalanche (n=3) yields ages that range between 10,345 +/- 225 YBP and 12,845 +/- 55 YBP. DA2 is the least exposed of the three debris avalanches, yet it is distinguished from other units by its brown soil color (7.5 YR), and also, its age. A radiocarbon date of wood within this deposit yields an age of 42,800 +/- 500 YBP. The oldest deposit (DA1) contains a soil profile that appears significantly more developed than younger deposits and yields radiocarbon ages > 44,000 YBP. Ar/Ar dating of plagioclase feldspar crystals extracted from clasts within the DA1 deposit, however, yield dates as young as 231 +/- 32 ka, constraining the lower age boundary. These stratigraphic constraints yield new insights

  4. Seat belt restraint system (United States)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.


    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serga G. V.


    Full Text Available The article demonstrates a possibility of creation of a corn harvester with a sweep frame mounted from individual modules. Such corn harvesters include modules for cutting stalks, snapping modules, conveyor modules for turning, stacking and feeding the stalks in the shredding unit, conveyor modules for supplying corncobs to the cleaning device placed on the sweep frame, leading and managing bridges, power unit, as well as conveyor belt for cobs and auger for discharging the crushed plant matter. The technique for calculating the grinding module drive was shown. The arrangement of the modules on the corn harvester sweep frame was demonstrated. Corn harvesting with the suggested module corn harvester allows not only reducing combine metal consumption and reducing corn ears injuring, but improving maintainability as well

  6. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    Wygant, J. R., et al., “The Electric Field and Waves Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission,” Space Sci. Rev., 179, 2013, pp. 183–220, doi...A. N., Li, X., Kanekal, S. G., Hudson, M. K., and Kress, B. T., “Observations of the Inner Radiation Belt: CRAND and Trapped Solar Protons,” J...1215–1228, doi:10.1002/2014JA020777. [27] Selesnick, R. S., “ Measurement of Inner Radiation Belt Electrons with Kinetic Energy Above 1 MeV,” J

  7. Hydrous parental magmas of Early to Middle Permian gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia, North China: New constraints on deep-Earth fluid cycling in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Yi-Zhi


    The role of fluids in the formation of the Permian-aged Xigedan and Mandula gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia was significant to the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), and the active northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) U-Pb zircon geochronology establishes that the Xigedan gabbroic intrusion in the northern NCC was emplaced at 266 Ma, and is therefore slightly younger than the ca 280 Ma Mandula gabbroic intrusion in the XMOB. Along with their felsic counterparts, the mafic igneous intrusions record extensive bimodal magmatism along the northern NCC and in the XMOB during the Early to Middle Permian. The Mandula gabbroic rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7040-0.7043) and positive εNd(t) (+6.2 to +7.3) and εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +14.5), resembling to those of contemporaneous Mandula basalts. These features, together with the presence of amphibole and the enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE, e.g., Rb, Ba, U and Sr) and depletion of Nb-Ta suggest that the parental magmas of the Mandula mafic igneous rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by water-rich fluids. In contrast, the Xigedan gabbroic rocks are characterised by high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7078-0.7080) and zircon δ18O values (5.84-6.61‰), but low εNd(t) (-9.3 to -10.2) and εHf(t) values (-8.76 to -8.54), indicative of a long-term enriched subcontinental lithosphere mantle source that was metasomatized by recycled, high δ18O crustal materials prior to partial melting. The high water contents (4.6-6.9 wt%) and arc-like geochemical signature (enrichment of fluid-mobile elements and depletion of Nb-Ta) of the parental magmas of the Xigedan gabbroic rocks further establish the existence of a mantle hydration event caused by fluid/melts released from hydrated recycled oceanic crust. Incompatible element modelling shows that 5-10% partial melting of an enriched mantle source by

  8. Actinomycetales from corn. (United States)

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F


    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  9. Acceptability of amaranth grain-based nutritious complementary foods with dagaa fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and edible termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) compared to ‘Corn-Soy-Blend Plus’ among young children/mothers dyads in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konyole, Silvenius O.; Kinyuru, John N.; Owuor, Bethwell O.


    We assessed acceptability of two flours and porridges of complementary foods based on germinated grain amaranth and maize with or without edible termites and dagaa small fish named "Winfood Classic" (WFC) and "Winfood Lite" (WFL), respectively, compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus (CSB+) among mothers...

  10. Acceptability of amaranth grain-based nutritious complementary foods with dagaa fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and edible termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) compared to ‘Corn-Soy-Blend Plus’ among young children/mothers dyads in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konyole, Silvenius O.; Kinyuru, John N.; Owuor, Bethwell O.


    We assessed acceptability of two flours and porridges of complementary foods based on germinated grain amaranth and maize with or without edible termites and dagaa small fish named "Winfood Classic" (WFC) and "Winfood Lite" (WFL), respectively, compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus (CSB+) among mothers...

  11. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui


    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  12. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza


    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or



    Grzegorz DOMEK


    Paper presents the state of the art gear with timing belts. Areas of use pose new challenges for designers gear. It has materials and technologies used in the production. Has been developed algorithm of design timing belts to new applications

  14. Winter triticale response to nitrogen fertilization when grown after corn or soybean (United States)

    Winter triticale (XTriticosecale Wittmack) could be more widely grown as a forage, grain, or cover crop in the U.S. Corn and Soybean Belt, but research needed to establish best management practices is limited. This study was conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer needed to opti...

  15. Corn yield under subirrigation and future climate scenarios in the Maumee river basin (United States)

    Subirrigation has been proposed as a water table management practice to maintain appropriate soil water content during periods of high crop water demand on subsurface drained croplands in the Corn Belt. Subirrigation takes advantage of the subsurface drainage systems already installed on drained agr...

  16. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, ... the surfaces is your tender skin! What's a Blister? A blister is an area of raised skin ...

  17. Corns and calluses (United States)

    ... rowers get calluses on their hands that prevent blisters from forming. People with bunions often develop a callus over the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems. Symptoms ...

  18. Radiation belts of jupiter. (United States)

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S


    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  19. The empty primordial asteroid belt. (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre


    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  20. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance (United States)

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  1. Kuiper Belt Occultation Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W; Kavelaars, JJ; Brown, Michael E; Bianco, Federica B; Boyle, Richard P; Brucker, Melissa J; Hetherington, Nathan; Joner, Michael; Keel, William C; Langill, Phil P; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Russet J; Young, Leslie


    Here we present observations of 7 large Kuiper Belt Objects. From these observations, we extract a point source catalog with $\\sim0.01"$ precision, and astrometry of our target Kuiper Belt Objects with $0.04-0.08"$ precision within that catalog. We have developed a new technique to predict the future occurrence of stellar occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects. The technique makes use of a maximum likelihood approach which determines the best-fit adjustment to cataloged orbital elements of an object. Using simulations of a theoretical object, we discuss the merits and weaknesses of this technique compared to the commonly adopted ephemeris offset approach. We demonstrate that both methods suffer from separate weaknesses, and thus, together provide a fair assessment of the true uncertainty in a particular prediction. We present occultation predictions made by both methods for the 7 tracked objects, with dates as late as 2015. Finally, we discuss observations of three separate close passages of Quaoar to field star...

  2. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  3. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  4. Coronal radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, H S; Frewen, S F N; DeRosa, M L


    The magnetic field of the solar corona has a large-scale dipole character, which maps into the bipolar field in the solar wind. Using standard representations of the coronal field, we show that high-energy ions can be trapped stably in these large-scale closed fields. The drift shells that describe the conservation of the third adiabatic invariant may have complicated geometries. Particles trapped in these zones would resemble the Van Allen Belts and could have detectable consequences. We discuss potential sources of trapped particles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin


    Full Text Available This paper deals with production of ethyl alcohol (biofuel from corn stover acid hydrolysate by yeasts, respectively at Pichia stipitis y-7124 and Pachysolen tannophilus y-2460 and Candida shehatae y-12856. Since moist corn stover (Hybryds 619 is proving to decomposition by phyllospheric microflora. It was (conserved spattered individually by microbicids: Busan-90, Izosan-G and formalin. In form of prismatic bales, it was left in the open air during 6 months (Octobar - March. At the beginning and after 6 months the microbiological control was carried out. The only one unspattered (control and three stover corn bals being individually spattered by microbicids were fragmented and cooked with sulfur acid. The obtained four acid hydrolysates are complex substratums, containing, apart from the sugars (about 11 g dm-3 pentosa and about 5.4 g dm-3 hexose, decomposite components as lignin, caramel sugars and uronic acids. By controlling the activity of the mentioned yeasts it was confirmed that yeasts Pichia stipitis y-7124 obtained best capability of ethyl alcohol production from corn stover acid hydrolysate at 0.23 vol. % to 0.49 vol. %.

  6. Dunlop Enerka Belting supplies and installs Europe's longest conveyor belt at British Coal-Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Dunlop Enerka Belting of Farington, U.K., has supplied a steel cord conveyor belt to the mine complex at Selby in North Yorkshire operated by RJB Mining plc. The new conveyor belt replaces the belt supplied and installed in 1981 by Dunlop Enerka Belting (then BTR Belting Ltd.).

  7. Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothast, R.J.; Schlicher, M.A. [National Corn-To-Ethanol Research Center, Southern Illinois Univ. Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL (United States)


    Ethanol has been utilized as a fuel source in the United States since the turn of the century. However, it has repeatedly faced significant commercial viability obstacles relative to petroleum. Renewed interest exists in ethanol as a fuel source today owing to its positive impact on rural America, the environment and United States energy security. Today, most fuel ethanol is produced by either the dry grind or the wet mill process. Current technologies allow for 2.5 gallons (wet mill process) to 2.8 gallons (dry grind process) of ethanol (1 gallon = 3.7851) per bushel of corn. Valuable co-products, distillers dried grains with solubles (dry grind) and corn gluten meal and feed (wet mill), are also generated in the production of ethanol. While current supplies are generated from both processes, the majority of the growth in the industry is from dry grind plant construction in rural communities across the corn belt. While fuel ethanol production is an energy-efficient process today, additional research is occurring to improve its long-term economic viability. Three of the most significant areas of research are in the production of hybrids with a higher starch content or a higher extractable starch content, in the conversion of the corn kernel fiber fraction to ethanol, and in the identification and development of new and higher-value co-products. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz DOMEK


    Full Text Available Paper presents the state of the art gear with timing belts. Areas of use pose new challenges for designers gear. It has materials and technologies used in the production. Has been developed algorithm of design timing belts to new applications

  9. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  11. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Corn/soybean decision logic development and testing (United States)

    Dailey, C. L.; Abotteen, K. M. (Principal Investigator)


    The development and testing of an analysis procedure which was developed to improve the consistency and objectively of crop identification using Landsat data is described. The procedure was developed to identify corn and soybean crops in the U.S. corn belt region. The procedure consists of a series of decision points arranged in a tree-like structure, the branches of which lead an analyst to crop labels. The specific decision logic is designed to maximize the objectively of the identification process and to promote the possibility of future automation. Significant results are summarized.

  12. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Potential economic losses to the USA corn industry from aflatoxin contamination (United States)

    Mitchell, N.J.; Bowers, E.; Hurburgh, C.; Wu, F.


    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonize food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the United States corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the US and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from $52.1 million to $1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years. PMID:26807606

  15. Potential economic losses to the US corn industry from aflatoxin contamination. (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Bowers, Erin; Hurburgh, Charles; Wu, Felicia


    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the US corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the United States and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses the probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from US$52.1 million to US$1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years.

  16. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents. (United States)

    Schichor, Aric; And Others


    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  17. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  18. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  19. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  20. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović


    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  2. Pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of corn silk extract on human colon cancer cell lines (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Guan, Hong; Yang, Wenqin; Liu, Han; Hou, Huiling; Chen, Xue; Liu, Zhenyan; Zang, Chuangang; Liu, Yuchao; Liu, Jicheng


    Corn silk is an economically and nutritionally significant natural product as it represents a staple food for a large proportion of the world population. This study investigated the anticancer activity of corn silk extract in human colon cancer cells and human gastric cancer cells. Following treatment with corn silk extract, certain apoptosis-related events were observed, including inhibition of cell proliferation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), release of Ca2+ and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Our results revealed that corn silk extract inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells and increased the level of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that corn silk extract upregulated the levels of Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3 and caspase-9, but downregulated the levels of B-cell lymphoma 2. These results suggest that corn silk extract may induce apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  3. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth M. Lenihan


    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique ({alpha} < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (T{sub oG}), narrower range of gelatinization (R{sub G}), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization ({Delta}H{sub G}). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower T{sub oG}, wider R{sub G}, and lower {Delta}H{sub G}. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were studied by using DSC

  4. The Migration Characteristics of Strong Earthquakes on the North-South Seismic Belt and Its Relation with the South Asia Seismic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yipeng; Ma Jin; Li Chuanyou


    Migration of strong earthquakes (M≥7.0) along the North-South Seismic Belt of China since 1500 AD shows three patterns: Approximately equal time and distance interval migration from N to S, varied patterns of migration from S to N and grouped strong earthquake activity in a certain period over the entire seismic belt. Analysis of strong earthquakes in the past hundred years shows that the seismicity on the North-South Seismic Belt is also associated with strong earthquake activities on the South Asia Seismic Belt which extends from Myanmar to Sumatra, Indonesia. Strong earthquakes on the former belt often lag several months or years behind the quakes occurring on the later belt. So, after the occurrence of the December 26, 2004 M8.7 great earthquake off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, the possibility of occurrence of strong earthquakes on the North-South Seismic Belt of China cannot be ignored. The above-mentioned migration characteristics of strong earthquakes are related to the northeastward collision and subduction of the India Plate as well as the interaction between the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and the stable and hard Ordos and Alashan Massifs at its northeastern margin.

  5. Study of southern corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samavia Mubeen


    Full Text Available Southern corn leaf blight is considered the most devastating disease of maize crop, which causes noticeable reduction in crop yield. Inbred lines are useful because they are genotyped, multiple time phenotyping is possible, and genetic uniformity, genetic stability and its vigor make inbred lines suitable to study in diversified environment. In present investigation, 12 maize genotypes viz: NC-2703 (hybrid, NC-2003 (hybrid, SP-3 (inbred line, NCML-73 (inbred line, NRL-6 (inbred line, NRL-4 (inbred line, Soan-3 (variety, Rakaposhi (variety, Margala (variety, EV-1097 (variety, Local-Y (variety, Local-W (variety were tested against southern corn leaf blight under laboratory and field conditions. According to disease severity scale (0–5 inbreds SP-3 and NCML-73 were found highly resistant; Local-W moderately resistance and rest of the genotypes were least resistance in in vitro analysis. In field screening, Margala, NRL-4, EV-1097 showed maximum resistance followed by moderately resistant SP-3, NCML-73, NC-2703, NRL-6 and Local-Y maize genotypes. NC-2003, Rakaposhi and Soan-3 showed least resistance during field evaluation. Cochliobolus heterostrophus showed considerable effects on yield of crop. Significant difference was found in grain yield, plant height, ear height and ear weight while ear placement, ear per plant and infected ear data were non-significant. The results clearly showed the effect on maize genotypes and its yield.

  6. Northern Belt of Jupiter (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere, absorb sunlight. That

  7. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia


    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  8. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract. (United States)


    ... filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol to produce corn silk extract. The extract may be concentrated at... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract....

  9. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  10. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.


    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  11. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D


    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  12. Toroidal, Counter-Toroidal, and Upwelling Flow in the Mantle Wedge of the Rivera and Cocos Plates: Implications for IOB Geochemistry in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Neumann, Florian; Vásquez-Serrano, Alberto; Tolson, Gustavo; Negrete-Aranda, Raquel; Contreras, Juan


    We carried out analog laboratory modeling at a scale 1:4,000,000 and computer rendering of the flow patterns in a simulated western Middle American subduction zone. The scaled model consists of a transparent tank filled with corn syrup and housing two conveyor belts made of polyethylene strips. One of the strips dips 60° and moves at a velocity of 30 mm/min simulating the Rivera plate. The other one dips 45°, moves at 90 mm/min simulating the subduction of the Cocos plate. Our scaled subduction zone also includes a gap between the simulated slabs analogous to a tear recently observed in shear wave tomography studies. An acrylic plate 3 mm thick floats on the syrup in grazing contact with the polyethylene strips and simulates the overriding North America plate. Our experiments reveal a deep toroidal flow of asthenospheric mantle through the Cocos-Rivera separation. The flow is driven by a pressure gradient associated with the down-dip differential-motion of the slabs. Similarly, low pressure generated by the fast-moving Cocos plate creates a shallow counter-toroidal flow in the uppermost 100 km of the mantle wedge. The flow draws mantle beneath the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the Jalisco block, then plunges into the deep mantle by the descending poloidal cell of the Cocos slab. Moreover, our model suggests a hydraulic jump causes an ~250 km asthenosphere upwelling around the area where intra-arc extensional systems converge in western Mexico. The upwelling eventually merges with the shallow counter-toroidal flow describing a motion in 3D space similar to an Archimedes' screw. Our results indicate the differential motion between subducting slabs drives mixing in the mantle wedge of the Rivera plate and allows the slab to steepen and retreat. Model results are in good agreement with seismic anisotropy studies and the geochemistry of lavas erupted in the Jalisco block. The model can explain the eruption of OIB lavas in the vicinity of the City of

  13. Toroidal, Counter-Toroidal, and Upwelling Flow in the Mantle Wedge of the Rivera and Cocos Plates: Implications for IOB Geochemistry in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    Neumann, Florian; Vásquez-Serrano, Alberto; Tolson, Gustavo; Negrete-Aranda, Raquel; Contreras, Juan


    We carried out analog laboratory modeling at a scale 1:4,000,000 and computer rendering of the flow patterns in a simulated western Middle American subduction zone. The scaled model consists of a transparent tank filled with corn syrup and housing two conveyor belts made of polyethylene strips. One of the strips dips 60° and moves at a velocity of 30 mm/min simulating the Rivera plate. The other one dips 45°, moves at 90 mm/min simulating the subduction of the Cocos plate. Our scaled subduction zone also includes a gap between the simulated slabs analogous to a tear recently observed in shear wave tomography studies. An acrylic plate 3 mm thick floats on the syrup in grazing contact with the polyethylene strips and simulates the overriding North America plate. Our experiments reveal a deep toroidal flow of asthenospheric mantle through the Cocos-Rivera separation. The flow is driven by a pressure gradient associated with the down-dip differential-motion of the slabs. Similarly, low pressure generated by the fast-moving Cocos plate creates a shallow counter-toroidal flow in the uppermost 100 km of the mantle wedge. The flow draws mantle beneath the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt to the Jalisco block, then plunges into the deep mantle by the descending poloidal cell of the Cocos slab. Moreover, our model suggests a hydraulic jump causes an ~250 km asthenosphere upwelling around the area where intra-arc extensional systems converge in western Mexico. The upwelling eventually merges with the shallow counter-toroidal flow describing a motion in 3D space similar to an Archimedes' screw. Our results indicate the differential motion between subducting slabs drives mixing in the mantle wedge of the Rivera plate and allows the slab to steepen and retreat. Model results are in good agreement with seismic anisotropy studies and the geochemistry of lavas erupted in the Jalisco block. The model can explain the eruption of OIB lavas in the vicinity of the City of

  14. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J


    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  15. The Comparison of Sugar Components in the Developing Grains of Sweet Corn and Normal Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; WANG Kong-jun; ZHANG Ji-wang


    The sugar components and their dynamic variation in the developing grains of sweet corn(Zeamays L. seccharata Sturt)and normal corn (Zea mays L. indentata Sturt) were compared. There are WSP(water-soluble polysaccharides), sucrose, fructose, glucose, mannitol and sorbitol in both sweet corn and nor-mal corn, but no maltose. Two components with different degrees of polymerization (D. P. N) were detected inthe sweet corn; only one of them was detected in the normal corn 20 days after pollination. With the develop-ment of grains, the total soluble sugar content(TSS)in sweet corn increased, but in normal corn it decreased.The dynamic variation of WSP, sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol and sorbitol in sweet and normal corngrains are different. The contents of sugar components in the sweet corn grains are higher than that in the nor-mal corn. Sweet corn accumulates less starch than normal corn.

  16. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.


    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  17. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation


    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie


    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  18. Modeling evolution of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to transgenic corn with two insecticidal traits. (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Meinke, Lance J


    A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was created to evaluate the use of refuges in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn, Zea mays L., expressing one or two toxin traits. Hypothetical scenarios and a case study of a corn hybrid pyramided with existing toxins are simulated. In the hypothetical situations, results demonstrated that evolution is generally delayed by pyramids compared with deployment of a single-toxin corn hybrid. However, soil insecticide use in the refuge reduced this delay and quickened the evolution of resistance. Results were sensitive to the degree of male beetle dispersal before mating and to the effectiveness of both toxins in the pyramid. Resistance evolved faster as fecundity increased for survivors of insecticidal corn. Thus, effects on fecundity must be measured to predict which resistance management plans will work well. Evolution of resistance also occurred faster if the survival rate due to exposure to the two toxins was not calculated by multiplication of two independent survival rates (one for each insect gene) but was equivalent to the minimum of the two. Furthermore, when single-trait and pyramided corn hybrids were planted within rootworm-dispersal distance of each other, the toxin traits lost efficacy more quickly than they did in scenarios without single-trait corn. For the case study involving transgenic corn expressing Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, the pyramid delayed evolution longer than a single trait corn hybrid and longer than a sequence of toxins based on at least one resistance-allele frequency remaining below 50%. Results are discussed within the context of a changing transgenic corn marketplace and the landscape dynamics of resistance management.

  19. Corn prices and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, W.


    Corn has attracted the most attention as a feedstock for alcohol production. The economics are computed on the basis of fixed costs for labor, taxes, depreciation, heat, and enzymes. Changes in feedstock prices are shown to determine whether corn is used for energy or protein as cattle feed. Comparisons of gasoline refined from imported oil and gasohol are made for a range of prices per bushel and oil prices per barrel. (DCK)

  20. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain


    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  1. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsete Juliana A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation.

  2. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint. (United States)

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck


    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury.

  3. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  4. Kuiper belts around nearby stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, R.; Liseau, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Risacher, C.; Rodmann, J.; Augereau, J-C.; Bergman, P.; Eiroa, C.; Fridlund, M.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.


    Context. The existence of dusty debris disks around a large fraction of solar type main-sequence stars, inferred from excess far-IR and submillimetre emission compared to that expected from stellar photospheres, suggests that leftover planetesimal belts analogous to the asteroid-and comet reservoirs

  5. Soil Hydraulic Properties Influenced by Corn Stover Removal from No-Till Corn in Ohio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Canqui, H.; Lal, Rattan; Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Shipitalo, M. J.


    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for biofuel production and other uses may alter soil hydraulic properties, but site-specific information needed to determine the threshold levels of removal for the U.S. Corn Belt region is limited. We quantified impacts of systematic removal of corn stover on soil hydraulic parameters after one year of stover management under no-till (NT) systems in three soils in Ohio including Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludult) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston. Interrelationships among soil properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) predictions were also studied. Earthworm middens, Ksat, bulk density (ρb), soil-water retention (SWR), pore-size distribution, and air permeability (ka) were determined for six stover treatments including 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200) % of corn stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal reduced the number of middens, Ksat, SWR, and ka at all sites (P<0.01). Complete stover removal reduced earthworm middens by 20-fold across sites, decreased geometric mean Ksat from 6.3 to 0.1 mm h-1 at Coshocton, 3.2 to 0.3 mm h-1 at Hoytville, and 5.8 to 0.6 mm h-1 at Charleston, and increased ρb in the 0- to 10-cm depth by about 15% relative to double stover plots. The SWR for T100 was 1.3 times higher than that for T0 at 0 to -6 kPa. The log ka for T200, T100, and T75 significantly exceeded that under T50, T25, and T0 at Coshocton and Charleston. Measured parameters were strongly correlated, and ka was a potential Ksat predictor. Stover harvesting at rates above 1.25 Mg ha-1 affects soil hydraulic properties and earthworm activity, but further monitoring is needed to ascertain the threshold levels of stover removal.Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for

  6. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US corn and soybeans exploratory experiment (United States)

    Malin, J. T.; Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)


    The U.S. corn and soybeans exploratory experiment is described which consisted of evaluations of two technology components of a production forecasting system: classification procedures (crop labeling and proportion estimation at the level of a sampling unit) and sampling and aggregation procedures. The results from the labeling evaluations indicate that the corn and soybeans labeling procedure works very well in the U.S. corn belt with full season (after tasseling) LANDSAT data. The procedure should be readily adaptable to corn and soybeans labeling required for subsequent exploratory experiments or pilot tests. The machine classification procedures evaluated in this experiment were not effective in improving the proportion estimates. The corn proportions produced by the machine procedures had a large bias when the bias correction was not performed. This bias was caused by the manner in which the machine procedures handled spectrally impure pixels. The simulation test indicated that the weighted aggregation procedure performed quite well. Although further work can be done to improve both the simulation tests and the aggregation procedure, the results of this test show that the procedure should serve as a useful baseline procedure in future exploratory experiments and pilot tests.

  7. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol derived from corn grain via dry milling. (United States)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E


    Life cycle analysis enables to investigate environmental performance of fuel ethanol used in an E10 fueled compact passenger vehicle. Ethanol is derived from corn grain via dry milling. This type of analysis is an important component for identifying practices that will help to ensure that a renewable fuel, such as ethanol, may be produced in a sustainable manner. Based on data from eight counties in seven Corn Belt states as corn farming sites, we show ethanol derived from corn grain as E10 fuel would reduce nonrenewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions, but would increase acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, compared to using gasoline as liquid fuel. The ethanol fuel systems considered in this study offer economic benefits, namely more money returned to society than the investment for producing ethanol. The environmental performance of ethanol fuel system varies significantly with corn farming sites because of different crop management practices, soil properties, and climatic conditions. The dominant factor determining most environmental impacts considered here (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical smog formation) is soil related nitrogen losses (e.g., N2O, NOx, and NO3-). The sources of soil nitrogen include nitrogen fertilizer, crop residues, and air deposition. Nitrogen fertilizer is probably the primary source. Simulations using an agro-ecosystem model predict that planting winter cover crops would reduce soil nitrogen losses and increase soil organic carbon levels, thereby greatly improving the environmental performance of the ethanol fuel system.

  8. Tectonic Evolution of an Early Precambrian High-Pressure Granulite Belt in the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A large-scale high-pressure granulite belt (HPGB), more than 700 km long, is recognized within the metamorphic basement of the North China craton. In the regional tectonic framework, the Hengshan-Chengde HPGB is located in the central collision belt between the western block and eastern block, and represents the deep crustal structural level. The typical high-pressure granulite (HPG) outcrops are distributed in the Hengshan and Chengde areas. HPGs commonly occur as mafic xenoliths within ductile shear zones, and underwent multipile deformations. To the south, the Hengshan-Chengde HPGB is juxtaposed with the Wutai greenstone belt by several strike-slip shear zones. Preliminary isotopic age dating indicates that HPGs from North China were mainly generated at the end of the Neoarchaean, assocaited with tectonic assembly of the western and esatern blocks.

  9. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  10. Seat belt sign and its significance. (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar


    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term "seat belt sign" was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries.

  11. Multicolored sweet-waxy corn variety-Caitiannuo 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Corn, as the third largest grain crop in China, isgrown on approximately 200 million ha per year. With theimprovement of people's living standard, variousrequirements for corn breeding have presented. Nowadays,the aim of corn breeding is not only for increasing yield,but also for higher quality and other special demands, suchas sweet corn, waxy corn, colored corn, oil-rich corn,lysine-rich corn, etc.

  12. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel


    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q.


    Background Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and...

  13. Extensive Admixture and Selective Pressure Across the Sahel Belt. (United States)

    Triska, Petr; Soares, Pedro; Patin, Etienne; Fernandes, Veronica; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luisa


    Genome-wide studies of African populations have the potential to reveal powerful insights into the evolution of our species, as these diverse populations have been exposed to intense selective pressures imposed by infectious diseases, diet, and environmental factors. Within Africa, the Sahel Belt extensively overlaps the geographical center of several endemic infections such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fevers. We screened 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 161 individuals from 13 Sahelian populations, which together with published data cover Western, Central, and Eastern Sahel, and include both nomadic and sedentary groups. We confirmed the role of this Belt as a main corridor for human migrations across the continent. Strong admixture was observed in both Central and Eastern Sahelian populations, with North Africans and Near Eastern/Arabians, respectively, but it was inexistent in Western Sahelian populations. Genome-wide local ancestry inference in admixed Sahelian populations revealed several candidate regions that were significantly enriched for non-autochthonous haplotypes, and many showed to be under positive selection. The DARC gene region in Arabs and Nubians was enriched for African ancestry, whereas the RAB3GAP1/LCT/MCM6 region in Oromo, the TAS2R gene family in Fulani, and the ALMS1/NAT8 in Turkana and Samburu were enriched for non-African ancestry. Signals of positive selection varied in terms of geographic amplitude. Some genomic regions were selected across the Belt, the most striking example being the malaria-related DARC gene. Others were Western-specific (oxytocin, calcium, and heart pathways), Eastern-specific (lipid pathways), or even population-restricted (TAS2R genes in Fulani, which may reflect sexual selection).

  14. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  15. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids. (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John


    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  16. Ring current and radiation belts (United States)

    Williams, D. J.


    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  17. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E


    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  18. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  19. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  20. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components. (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X


    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  1. Intelligent seat belt reminders-do they change driver seat belt use in Europe? (United States)

    Lie, Anders; Krafft, Maria; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes


    Many modern cars have seat belt reminders (SBRs) using loud and clear sound and light signals. These systems have developed over the last few years. This study investigates how these modern systems influence the seat belt use in real-life traffic in built-up areas in some European cities. The data were collected by field observations in major cities in six European countries and in five cities around Sweden. A selection of car models having seat belt reminders (SBR) were compared to a fleet of similar car models without such reminders. A significant difference in seat belt wearing rate was found in the cars with seat belt reminders. For all observations, the total seat belt wearing rate was 97.5% +/- 0.5% in cars with SBR, while it was 85.8% +/- 0.8% in cars without. There were differences in seat belt use in the different observation locations. The lowest seat belt use was found in Brussels/Belgium with a use rate of 92.6 +/- 2.2% in cars with seat belt reminders and 69.6 +/- 3.1% in cars not fitted with reminders. The highest seat belt use was found in Paris/France where 99.8 +/- 0.4% of the drivers used the seat belt in cars with reminders and 96.9 +/-1.1% were belted in cars without reminders. Seat belt reminders fulfilling Euro NCAP's seat belt reminder protocol are increasing the seat belt use in daily traffic significantly. Around 80% (82.2% +/- 8.6%) of the drivers not putting the belt on without a seat belt reminder do so in cars equipped with an SBR that has a light signal and an associated loud and clear sound signal.

  2. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  3. Exhumation Process of the Fangdoushan-Shizhu Fold Belt in Meso-Neozoic and Its Tectonic Significance in Western Hubei-Eastern Chongqing%鄂西渝东方斗山-石柱褶皱带中新生代隆升剥蚀过程及构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红才; 施小斌; 杨小秋; 蒋海燕; 龙幼康


    The exhumation history of Fangdoushan-Shizhu fold belt in the Western Hubei-Eastern Chongqing since Jurassic was modeled by using combined vitrinite reflectance and apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track dating methods. The results show that all samples have experienced the highest paleogeotemperature in the study area during the late Jurassic-the early Cretaceous, and from then on, the study area was always to drop in paleogeotemperature. According to the ages of apatite fission track and Ro, the denudation may be reach 3500 m during the surface of unconformity in Mesozoic-Cenozoic period. Besides, combining with the results of (U-Th)/Hemethod and vitrinite reflectance, we can get a further understanding: three tectonic phases have been revealed in the whole- rapid cooling-slow cooling-fast cooling, during the first phase, the cooling speed is about 0. 75~1. 0 ℃/Ma from the late Jurassic to the late Cretaceous (aboutl30-70Ma). Following a quiet phase with the cooling speed of 0. 33~0. 4 "C/Ma during the late Cretaceous to the end of Eocene (about 70-45 Ma), the final phase reach the maximum cooling speed which is about 0. 9~1. 1℃/Ma lasting from Eocene to nowCabout 45Ma),the three phases are correspondent with the period of three important structural changes since Middle-Trassic in the Middle-upper Yangtze. The test proves an evidence to the analysis of tectonic evolution of orogenic.%利用磷灰石与锆石(U-Th)/He年龄与磷灰石裂变径迹(AFT)、镜质组反射率(Ro)一起模拟了鄂西渝东方斗山-石柱褶皱带侏罗纪以来的构造-热演化特征.结果表明:在约130 Ma(晚侏罗世-早白垩世)研究区达到最高古地温,此后为持续抬升冷却过程.磷灰石裂变径迹与Ro表明自晚侏罗世以来不整合面剥蚀厚度可达3500m.结合(U-Th)/He与Ro数据的反演结果揭示自约130Ma开始抬升冷却后可分为三个构造演化阶段:快速冷却-缓慢冷却-快速冷却,

  4. Improved corn protein based articles (United States)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  5. Compatibility with corn: N credits (United States)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  6. 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database (United States)


    TR-14-18 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. March...the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database”, AFRL-VS-PS-TR- 2006-1079, Air Force Research Laboratory...Roth, B., “Blue Ribbon Panel and Support Work Assessing the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database

  7. Winter annual cover crop has only minor effects on major corn arthropod pests. (United States)

    Davis, Holly N; Currie, Randall S; Klocke, Norman L; Buschman, Lawrent L


    We studied the effects of downy brome, Bromus tectorum L., winter cover crop on several corn, Zea mays L., pests in the summer crop after the cover crop. An experiment was conducted that consisted of two trials with two levels of irrigation, two levels of weed control, and two levels of downy brome. Corn was grown three consecutive years after the downy brome grown during the winter. Banks grass mites, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and predatory mites from the genus Neoseiulus were present in downy brome at the beginning of the growing season. They moved into corn, but their numbers did not differ significantly across the treatments. Larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, feeding on corn roots was evaluated the second and third years of corn, production. Irrigation and herbicide treatments had no significant effects on rootworm injury levels. In one trial, rootworm injury ratings were significantly greater in treatments with a history of high versus low brome, but this effect was not significant in the other trial. Rootworm injury seemed to be similar across plots with different surface soil moistures. This suggests that the use of a winter cover crop such as downy brome will not have a major negative impact the arthropods studied.

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  9. Effect of corn stover compositional variability on minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Templeton, David W; Humbird, David; Aden, Andy


    A techno-economic sensitivity analysis was performed using a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2011 biochemical conversion design model varying feedstock compositions. A total of 496 feedstock near infrared (NIR) compositions from 47 locations in eight US Corn Belt states were used as the inputs to calculate minimum ethanol selling price (MESP), ethanol yield (gallons per dry ton biomass feedstock), ethanol annual production, as well as total installed project cost for each composition. From this study, the calculated MESP is $2.20 ± 0.21 (average ± 3 SD) per gallon ethanol.

  10. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em


    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  11. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere (United States)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.


    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  12. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge (United States)

    Sheppard, Scott


    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  13. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  14. Corning: supplier of multiple optical materials for telescope projects (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Navan, W. David; Edwards, Mary J.


    Corning manufactures several optical materials that can be used as reflective and transmissive optics for telescope optical systems. Corning can manufacture these materials in a large range of sizes and configurations. This paper discusses Corning's portfolio of optical materials and their properties, along with Corning's manufacturing capabilities using these materials. Specific examples of optical blanks that Corning has supplied will be discussed.

  15. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  16. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases. (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  17. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G


    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats.

  18. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  19. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt (United States)

    Anderson, Terry


    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  20. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack o

  1. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system. (United States)

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis


    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  2. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations. (United States)

    Soule, David


    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  3. Seat belt use in cars with air bags. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K


    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  4. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. (Geophysics Lab., Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Physics Dept., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (US))


    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon


    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P generally occurs in soils as the anions H2PO4- or HPO4-2 depending on soil pH. These anions readily react with soil cations such as calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Crop recovery of applied phosphate fertilizer can be quite low during the season of application. In addition, the large amounts of crop residue present in no-tillage production systems can lower soil temperature thus reducing root growth and nutrient uptake of plants even on soils not low in available Phosphorus (P. Specialty Fertilizer Products, Leawood, KS has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of the applied P in available form for plant uptake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of AVAIL treated P-fertilizer on growth, P-uptake and yield of irrigated corn (Zea mays L. grown in a no-tillage production system. A 3-year experiment was conducted from 2001-2003 at the North Central Kansas Experiment Field, located near Scandia, KS, on a Crete silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Pachic Arquistoll. Treatments consisted of three rates of P with or without AVAIL. A no P check plot was also included. When averaged over the years and P rates, the use of AVAIL increased yield of corn by 1.1 Mg ha-1. AVAIL also increased corn dry weight at the six-leaf stage, whole plant P uptake at the six-leaf stage and P concentration at mid-silk. The use of AVAIL proved beneficial in overcoming many of the problems associated with P nutrition in corn. AVAIL consistently increased P uptake and yield in this experiment.

  6. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation. (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li


    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Wanzheng; Yang Yongling


    Deformation measurements such as short-range leveling, short-baseline, continuous cross-fault strain measurement are carried out at different intervals from 1982 to 2001. All these measurement sites are built across the boundary tectonic belts of Yunnan-Sichuan block. On the basis of these deformation data, the annual deformation rates at all sites are calculated and their change curves with time are plotted respectively. With these calculated results, we analyze the vertical and horizontal movements of tectonic belts of Yunnan-Sichuan block, and the relationship to grouped strong earthquakes occurred in the block are discussed as well. These results show that the tectonic activities in the western and southeastern Yunnan are intensive. Along some eastern boundary belts: from Qujiang, Xiaojiang fault belts in the south of Yunnan to Xianshuihe fault belts in northwestern Sichuan, present annual rate of horizontal deformation decreases. Along Xianshuihe, Xiaojiang and Longmenshan fault belts the rates of vertical deformation change are small, but the vertical deformation change rates along Anninghe and Zemuhe fault belts are comparatively large. The comprehensive analysis shows that grouped strong earthquakes will occur probably when the deformation rate changes sharply. Thus we think that sharp changes of deformation rates may be one of the seismic precursors.

  8. Production of ethyl alcohol from corn silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H.J.; Ponitz, H.


    Corn silage may be employed as a raw material for the production of ethyl alcohol when starch is first cracked by pressure cooking and subsequently saccharified by microbial amalyses. Cracking conditions are: pressure increase 1.6 atmosphere within 60 minutes; maximum maintained for 35 minutes. The fermentation is complete after 72 hours. Extract decreases of fermented mashes made from corn silage are less than when dried corn is used. In the most advantageous case the degree of fermentation was -0.2 weight % of the extract. The maximum yields of alcohol were 26.0.1. pure alcohol/100 kg corn silage and 61.2.1. pure alcohol/100 kg starch. The latter is 3.9.1. pure alcohol lower than when dried corn was used. Despite the high bacterial infection of corn silage practically infection-free processing is assured.

  9. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Longmenshan fault belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ErChie


    The giant earthquake(Ms=8.0) in Wenchuan on May 12,2008 was triggered by oblique convergence between the Tibetan Plateau and the South China along the Longmenshan fault belt.The Longmenshan fault belt marks an important component of the tectonic and geomorphological boundary between the eastern and western part of China and has a protracted tectonic history.It was first formed as an intracontinental transfer fault,patitioning the differential deformation between the Pacific and Tethys tectonic domains,initiated in late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic time,then served as the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau to accommodate the growth of the plateau in Cenozoic.Its current geological and geomorphological frameworks are the result of superimposition of these two tectonic events.In Late Triassic,the Longmenshan underwent left-slip oblique NW-SE shortening due to the clockwise rotation of the Yangtze Block,which led to the flexural subsidence of the Sichuan foreland basin,but after that,the subsidence of the Sichuan Basin seems no longer controlled by the tectonic activity of the Longmenshan fault belt.The Meosozoic tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt differs significantly compared with that of the Yangtze Platform,featured by intensive northeast and southwest shortening and resulted in the close of the Paleo-Tethys.Aerial photos taken immediately after main shock of the giant May 12,2008 earthquake have documented extensive rock fall and landslides that represent one of the most destructive aspects of the earthquake.Both rock avalanches and landslides delivered a huge volume of debris into the middle part of the Minjiang River,and formed many dammed lakes.Breaching of these natural dams can be catastrophic,as occurred in the Diexi area along the upstream of the Minjiang River in the year of 1933 that led to devastating floodings.The resultant flood following the breaching of these dams flowed through and out of the Longmenshan belt into the Chengdu Plain

  10. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Longmenshan fault belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ErChie; MENG QingRen


    The giant earthquake (MS=8.0) in Wenchuan on May 12, 2008 was triggered by oblique convergence between the Tibetan Plateau and the South China along the Longmenshan fault belt. The Longmenshan fault belt marks an important component of the tectonic and geomorphological boundary between the eastern and western part of China and has a protracted tectonic history. It was first formed as an intracontinental transfer fault, patitioning the differential deformation between the Pacific and Tethys tectonic domains, initiated in late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic time, then served as the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau to accommodate the growth of the plateau in Cenozoic. Its current geological and geomorphological frameworks are the result of superimposition of these two tectonic events. In Late Triassic, the Longmenshan underwent left-slip oblique NW-SE shortening due to the clockwise rotation of the Yangtze Block, which led to the flexural subsidence of the Sichuan foreland basin, but after that, the subsidence of the Sichuan Basin seems no longer controlled by the tectonic activity of the Longmenshan fault belt. The Meosozoic tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt differs significantly compared with that of the Yangtze Platform, featured by intensive northeast and southwest shortening and resulted in the close of the Paleo-Tethys. Aerial photos taken immediately after main shock of the giant May 12, 2008 earthquake have documented extensive rock fall and landslides that represent one of the most destructive aspects of the earthquake. Both rock avalanches and landslides delivered a huge volume of debris into the middle part of the Minjiang River, and formed many dammed lakes. Breaching of these natural dams can be catastrophic, as occurred in the Diexi area along the upstream of the Minjiang River in the year of 1933 that led to devastating floodings. The resultant flood following the breaching of these dams flowed through and out of the Longmenshan belt

  11. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly...

  12. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production


    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi


    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  13. Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil. (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rod N; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, Robert L


    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly polymorphic in the corn-strain population and that produced four different haplotype subgroups. Comparisons of the frequency distribution of these haplotypes found no seasonal or plant host specificities, but they did demonstrate that the Brazil corn-strain population is different from corn-strain fall armyworm found in Florida. The development of a rapid means of distinguishing fall armyworm populations originating from Brazil versus Florida provides an opportunity for investigating and comparing the genetic complexity and long-range movements of this important agricultural pest.

  14. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) (United States)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  15. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  16. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He


    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  17. Evaluation of elevated dietary corn fiber from corn germ meal in growing female pigs. (United States)

    Weber, T E; Trabue, S L; Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J


    To evaluate the effects of dietary hemicellulose from corn on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n = 48; initial BW 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 d. Increasing the hemicellulose level had no impact on ADG or ADFI, but resulted in a quadratic response (P dietary hemicellulose, blood, colon contents, and tissue samples from the liver and intestine were obtained from a subset (n = 16; 8 pigs/treatment) of pigs fed the least and greatest hemicellulose levels. The abundance of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mitochondrial respiratory protein, cytochrome C oxidase II (COXII) were determined in liver, jejunum, ileum, and colon by Western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of AMPKalpha1, AMPKalpha2, PPAR coactivator 1alpha (PGC1-alpha), PPARgamma2, and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) were determined in liver and intestinal tissues. When compared with pigs fed the control diet, pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet had increased (P pigs consuming the high hemicellulose diet. The high-fiber diet led to a tendency (P pigs fed the high hemicellulose diet, ileal mucosal alkaline phosphatase activity was increased (P pigs consuming the high fiber diet there was a greater (P dietary fiber in liver, jejunum, or ileum tissue. In colon tissue from pigs fed the high fiber diet there was an increase (P < 0.09) in Sirt1 mRNA and a trend (P < 0.12) toward increased of PGC1-alpha mRNA. These data suggest that alterations in metabolism involved in adaptation to a diet high in hemicellulose are associated with increased colonic Sirt1 mRNA and COXII expression, indicating an increased propensity for oxidative metabolism by the intestine.

  18. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  19. An assessment of alternative agricultural management practice impacts on soil carbon in the corn belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, GA (United States)


    This impact of alternative management practices on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and impacts of management practices has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and impacts of management practices are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the impacts of alternative management practices on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural practices, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.

  20. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  1. Computer-aided design of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolewski, B.; Pytel, J.


    Possibilities are discussed for using mathematical models of belt conveyors for development of computer-aided design of conveyors for coal mining. Examples of optimization tasks and methods for their solution using computerized simulation are analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by an algorithm used to design a starter for the drive system of a belt conveyor. Electromagnetic moment and starting current are used as optimization criteria. A simplified model of a belt conveyor is used. The model consists of an equation of motion with variable braking moment and variable moment of inertia. 3 references.

  2. Collisional evolution of the early asteroid belt (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, Ricardo; Brunini, Adrián


    We present numerical results obtained by a simulation of the collisional process between asteroids and scattered comets from the Uranus-Neptune zone. This mechanism allows the use of single exponent incremental size distributions for the initial belt reaching a final distribution that matches the observed population very well. Since the cometary bombardment was extremely efficient removing mass from the primordial asteroid belt in a very short time, we always obtained belts with total masses less than 0.001 M ⊕ after ≈ 2×10 7 yrs. This result allows processes with an important initial mass preserving Vestas basaltic crust.

  3. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt, India: Shear zone pathway and a pull-apart structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharya; Rajib Kar


    The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is bounded by shear zones. The combined effect of movement along these shear zones, is a northeasterly elongated sygmoidal cavity with maximum width along the northwesterly trending Reidel shear. Thus the Koraput alkaline complex can be considered to have been emplaced in a pull-apart structure, developed in the granulitic country rocks. Moreover, in view of the fact that the western margin of the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt bears clear evidence of collisional features, rather than that of rifting or break-up, the rift-valley model for the alkaline magmatism in this high-grade belt appears untenable.

  4. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuMoucheng; ChenXiaoyi


    Three corn varieties,supper-sweet corn(S),standard-sweet corn(M),corn-non corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein,vitamin,total sugar showed as parabola.Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually.Total sugar,protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn.VE and VC were very plentiful,and lysine was high.Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  5. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil. (United States)


    ... corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols.... (b) Specifications. Corn endosperm oil conforms to the following specifications: Total fatty...

  6. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (United States)

    The Western bean cutworm (WBC), Striacosta albicosta, is a destructive insect pest of dry beans within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, starting in the early 1990s, a range expansion of S. albicosta has resulted in damage to corn crops through the Midwest and more...

  7. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Mohammad, E-mail: [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi [Departments of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoramivafa, Mahmud [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha{sup −1}, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ{sup −1}, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO{sub 2,} 31.58 kg N{sub 2}O and 3.82 kg CH{sub 4} per hectare{sub .} Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co{sub 2}eq ha{sup −1} in corn production systems. In terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO{sub 2}, 76% from N{sub 2}O, and 1% from CH{sub 4}. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha{sup −1}. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha{sup −1} and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha{sup -1}, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO{sub 2}eq ha{sup -1} in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel

  8. Paleoproterozoic postcollisional magmatic belt of the southern Siberian craton (United States)

    Salnikova, E. B.; Larin, A. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Levitsky, V. I.; Reznitsky, L. Z.; Kovach, V. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.


    Paleoproterozoic time is characterized by large-scale collisional and postcollisional magmatic activity evidenced in the most of ancient cratons. This global event is related to the Arctic supercontinent assemblage (Rogers, 1996). The formation of postcollisional magmatic belt at 1.9-1.8 Ga within the south-west flanking of the Siberian craton is a remarkable example of these processes happened during overall lithospheric convergence. This belt is extends for about 3000 km from the southern Enisey ridge at the west to the central Aldan shield at the east. Within the central Aldan shield the latest collisional event occurred 1925+/-5 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003) and post-collisional subalkaline S- and I-type granites emplaced at 1916+/-10 Ma (Bibikova et al., 1989), 1901+/-1 Ma (Frost et al., 1998) and 1899+/-6 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003). However at the southern Olekma terrain (western Aldan shield) the syncollisional granites have formed at 1906+/-4 Ma and postcollisional Kodar granitoids were generated at 1876-1873 Ma (Larin et al., 2000). The is a tendency outlined in timing of postcollision processes to the west (in modern coordinates). Ages of postcollisional Kevakta granitoid plutons (1846+/-8 Ma) and volcanics of North-Baikal volcano-plutonic belt (1869+/-6 Ma 1856+/-3 Ma), Baikal folded area, support this tendency. Emplacement of the Primorsky complex postcollisional rapakivi-type granitoids (southern Baikal lake) occurred at 1859+/-16 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2002). New results of U-Pb single zircon and baddeleyite dating demonstrate that formation of late-synkinematic syenite, charnockite and pegmatitic veins (1856±12 Ma, 1853±20 Ma) and calciphyre (1868±2 Ma) within the eastern part of the Sharyzhalgay block (southern Baikal lake) occurred virtually within the same episode. Postcollisional intrusive charnockite of the Shumikha complex from the western Sharyzhalgay block dated at 1861±1 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2001) and 1871±17 Ma (Levitsky et al., 2002). Subalcaline

  9. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  10. Thick-skinned tectonics and basement control on geometry, kinematics and mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts. Insights from some cenozoic belts worldwide (United States)

    Lacombe, Olivier; Bellahsen, Nicolas


    whole belt : belt curvature (Jura, Taiwan), segmentation and along-strike variations of structural styles (Taiwan), sequence of deformation (basement vs shallow thrusting : Jura, western Alps, Zagros), localization of contractional deformation and % of shortening (western Alps), magnitudes of compressional stresses (Taiwan, Zagros, Laramide uplifts), and (2) at the scale of tectonic units : reactivation or non reactivation of inherited basement faults (Laramide, Taiwan, western Alps), basement "folding" (Laramide, western Alps). In (classical, if any) FTBs resulting from inversion of former proximal passive margins, basement thrusting that occurs in a rather localized way in their inner parts requires structural inheritance and/or a hot crustal temperature either inherited from a recent (pre-orogenic) rifting event (Pyrenees, Taiwan) or resulting from syn-orogenic underthrusting and heating (western Alps). Tectonic inversion occurring in the far-foreland, or development of thick-skinned belts within cratons likely require specific boundary conditions (strong interplate coupling (e.g., flat-slab subduction) ensuring efficient transmission of stresses (crustal/lithospheric stress guide) and propagation of deformation in the pro- or retro- foreland by crustal/lithospheric buckling or deep crustal decollement, in addition to local structural and/or possible compositional weakening. Whatever its control(s) (structural inheritance, thermal state, composition), the rheology of the continental lithosphere appears to be central to understand mountain building processes.

  11. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making (United States)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  12. 甜玉米%Growing Good Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ James Bender, in his book How to Talk Well (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1994)relates the story of a farmer who grew awardwinning corn. Each year he entered his corn in the state fair where it won a blue ribbon. One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it.

  13. Corn stalk as a bioenergy resource (United States)

    Haney, Paul E., Jr.

    Waste corn stalk has the potential to help reduce the nation's dependence upon foreign sources of petroleum by becoming a major bioenergy resource. There are many sources of biomass that could also be utilized for this endeavor. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of agricultural waste are produced in the United States alone. This represents a significant source of energy. Through gasification, this waste could be used to generate power, fuels, and/or products. This dissertation shows that the gasification of corn stalk can produce char, heat, synthesis gases (CO and H2), and can also be used for work to dry moist biomass. Through the integration of drying, gasification, and carbon production, waste corn stalk can be used as a significant bioenergy resource. Novel concepts included in this dissertation include: (1) using corn stalk as a gasification fuel, (2) using corn stalk to generate activated carbon, (3) using activated carbon from corn stalk to adsorb organic pollutants, (4) using the gasification of corn stalk in a new process to dry moist biomass, (5) using the "partial" gasification of moist corn stalk in another new process to dry moist biomass in a single step. Each concept could be integrated with existing gasification technology to increase the efficient utilization of energy from biomass.

  14. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  15. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses. (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest


    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  16. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  17. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  18. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.


    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  19. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P


    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  20. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Renu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64,000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that Plummer's (1916) conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution: there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than $\\sim0.1$ and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance: the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modeled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Ra...

  1. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Burkett, Katie M.; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second compo...

  2. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive? (United States)

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D


    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  3. Seat-belt message and the law? (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G


    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  4. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  5. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loinard


    Full Text Available Observaciones que utilizan la interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI por sus siglas en ingl´es pueden proveer la posición de radiofuentes compactas con una precisión del orden de 50 micro-segundos de arco. Esto es suficiente para medir la paralaje trigonométrica y los movimientos propios de cualquier objeto localizado hasta 500 pc del Sol con una precisión mejor que unos porcientos. Por ser magnéticamente activas, las estrellas jóvenes a menudo emiten emisión radio compacta detectable usando técnicas VLBI. Aquí, mostraremos cómo observaciones VLBI ya han restringido la distancia a las regiones de formación estelar cercanas más frecuentemente estudiadas (Tauro, Ofiuco, Orión, etc. y han empezado a revelar su estructura y su cinemática interna. Luego, describiremos un gran proyecto (llamado The Gould's Belt Distance Survey diseñado para proveer una vista detallada de la formación estelar en la vecindad Solar, usando observaciones VLBI.

  7. Decay rate of the second radiation belt. (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liovando Marciano da Costa


    Full Text Available

    western" align="justify">Evoluated agronomic characteristics of corn in six crop sequences (corn-corn, soybean-corn, sunflower-corn, pearl milletcorn, sorghum-corn and pigeon pea-corn under no-tillage for three years, in Rio Verde, Goiás State. Significance was observed by the test F for plant height, 100 grain weight and grain moisture. Pigeon pea, soybean, sunflower and pearl millet, resulted in taller corn plants. No statistical differences were found between crop sequences for corn grain yield and other characteristics.

    western" align="justify">KEY-WORDS: Crop sequences; corn; agronomic characteristics.

    western" align="justify">Avaliaram-se características agronômicas na cultura do milho em seis sucessões de culturas (milho-milho, soja-milho,girassol-milho, milheto-milho, sorgo-milho e guandu milho em plantio direto, durante três anos, em Rio Verde, Goiás. Observou-se significância, pelo teste F, para altura de planta, peso de 100 grãos e umidade dos grãos na colheita. Guandu, soja, girassol e milheto proporcionaram maior altura da planta de milho. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre as sucessões para produtividades de grãos e demais características avaliadas.

    western" align="justify">PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sucessão de culturas; milho; características agronômicas.

  9. Evaluación de aislamientos de baculovirus para el control de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE, plaga clave del maíz en el noroeste argentino Evaluation of baculovirus strains to control the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 (LEP.: NOCTUIDAE, a key corn pest in North Western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta G. Yasem de Romero

    for Spodoptera frugiperda control, a key pest affecting corn crops in North Western Argentina. These insecticides, however, frequently show low effectiveness. The baculoviruses are a biological alternative to control the fall armyworm. The objective of this research was to assess Nucleopolyhedrovirus native and foreign strains as regards their effectiveness in controlling S. frugiperda. The results showed that S. frugiperda larvae death rate rose with increasing viral concentrations, while viral susceptibility of larvae decreased with insect age. LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% of the tested sample of 7.6 x 10(4 and 4.5 x 10(5 polyhedra/ml for three and five day-old larvae, respectively, were determined for the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV isolated in Leales (Tucumán, Argentina. Similar control levels were determined for the NPV isolated in Oliveros (Santa Fe, Argentina, with lethal viral concentrations (LC50 of 8.6 x 10(4 and 4.0 x 10(5 polyhedra/ml, respectively. The Brazilian isolate was characterized by LC50 levels of 5.9 x 10(5 and 1.5 x 10(6 polyhedral/ml for three-day-old and five-day-old larvae, respectively. The local isolate (VPNSf -Tucumán showed the most lethal effect on the native population of young S. frugiperda (three to five-day-old larvae, with an average lifespan of six days at LC50 levels, while the Oliveros and Brazil isolates showed an average lifespan of seven and nine days, respectively. The VPNSf - Leales isolate was therefore selected as the object of study for this research. Moreover, being a native isolate, it was considered the best alternative from the environmental impact standpoint.

  10. Life cycle of the corn-soybean agroecosystem for biobased production. (United States)

    Landis, Amy E; Miller, Shelie A; Theis, Thomas L


    Biobased product life cycle assessments (LCAs) have focused largely on energy (fossil fuel) usage and greenhouse gas emissions during the agriculture and production stages. This paper compiles a more comprehensive life cycle inventory (LCI) for use in future bioproduct LCAs that rely on corn or soybean crops as feedstocks. The inventory includes energy, C, N, P, major pesticides, and U.S. EPA criteria air pollutants that result from processes such as fertilizer production, energy production, and on-farm chemical and equipment use. Agroecosystem material flows were modeled using a combination of GREET (the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model), a linear fractionation model that describes P biogeochemical cycling, and Monte Carlo Analysis. Results show that the dominant air emissions resulted from crop farming, fertilizers, and on-farm nitrogen flows (e.g., N20 and NO). Seed production and irrigation provided no more than 0.002% to any of the inventory emissions or energy flows and may be neglected in future LCAs of corn or soybeans as feedstocks from the U.S. Corn Belt. Lime contributes significantly (17% of total emissions) to air emissions and should not be neglected in bioproduct LCAs.

  11. Evaluation of the compositional and nutritional values of phytase transgenic corn to conventional corn in roosters. (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ma, Q G; Ji, C; Luo, X G; Tang, H F; Wei, Y M


    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the compositional and nutritional values of corn grains [phytase transgenic corn (PTC) and isogenic conventional corn (CC)] and compare the efficacy of corn-based phytase and extraneous microbial phytase for enhancing the utilization of phytate phosphorus (P) in single corn or corn-soybean mixed meals (corn:soybean = 2.5:1, wt:wt) fed to roosters. Following a 48-h fasting period, 16 roosters were given 50 g of each sample via crop intubation and excreta were collected for 48 h. Nitrogen-free and phosphorus-free diets were used to evaluate endogenous amino acid and endogenous P losses, respectively. Chemical composition was not different between PTC and CC, whereas the phytase content for PTC was greater than CC (8,047 vs. 37 FTU/kg of corn, DM basis; P 0.05) between roosters fed PTC and extraneous microbial phytase in equivalent FTU/kg of diets. The results of this study indicated that the chemical composition, TME, and true amino acid availability in PTC are essentially equivalent to that in CC, and the true P utilization for roosters is higher in PTC than in CC. Corn expressing phytase is as efficacious as equivalent microbial phytase when supplemented in corn-soybean diets for chickens.

  12. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture. (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul


    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengWanzheng; YangYongling


    Deformation measurements such as short-range leveling, short-baseline, continuous cross-fault strain measurement are carried out at different intervals from 1982 to 2001. All these measurement sites are built across the boundary tectonic belts of Yunnan-Sichuan block. On the basis of these deformation data, the annual deformation rates at all sites are calculated and their change curves with time are plotted respectively. With these calculated results, we analyze the vertical and horizontal movements of tectonic belts of Yunnan-Sichuan block, and the relationship to grouped strong earthquakes occurred in the block are discussed as well. These results show that the tectonic activities in the western and southeastern Yunnan are intensive. Along some eastern boundary belts: from Qujiang, Xiaojiang fault belts in the south of Yunnan to Xianshuihe fault belts in northwestern Sichuan, present annual rate of horizontal deformation decreases. Along Xianshuihe, Xiaojiang and Longmenshan fault belts the rates of vertical deformation change are small, but the vertical deformation change rates along Anninghe and Zemuhe faul tbelts are comparatively large. The comprehensive analysis shows that grouped strong earthquakes will occur probably when the deformation rate changes sharply. Thus we think that sharp changes of deformation rates may be one of the seismic precursors.

  14. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N


    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  15. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products (United States)

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  16. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan (United States)

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  17. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn (United States)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  18. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  19. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Moucheng; Chen Xiaoyi


    Three corn varieties, supper-sweet corn (S), standard-sweet corn (M), common corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein, vitamin, total sugar showed as parabola. Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually. Total sugar, protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn. VE and Vc were very plentiful, and lysine was high. Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21 ,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  20. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore


    Full Text Available Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE. DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs according to the source of the starch. This is important in defining the application of the maltodextrin, according to its desired function.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SarwarJalaan; M.AN.Russell; S.A.N.Shamim; A.I.Mostafa; Md.AbdulQuaiyyum


    Pulping of corn stalks was studied in soda,soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft and kraft-AQprocesses. The time, temperature and alkaliconcentration were varied in soda process. In respectto kappa number and pulp yield, 1 hour cooking at1400C in 14% alkali were best conditions for cornstalks pulping. Pulp yield was increased by 5.5% andkappa number was reduced by 4.4 points with anaddition of 0.05% AQ in the soda liquor. Breakinglength was better in soda-AQ process than sodaprocess but tear strength was inferior. In the kraftprocess, pulp yield was increased with increasingsulphidity and decreasing active alkali. Theeffectiveness of AQ in the low and high sulphiditykraft process was studied. Results showed that AQwas more effective in low sulphidity than highsulphidity. Strength properties in kraft processeswere better than the soda and soda-AQ processes.

  2. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)


    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  3. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.


    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  4. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran. (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud


    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg Cha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg Cha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Closed depressions in the European loess belt - Natural or anthropogenic origin? (United States)

    Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Renata; Poesen, Jean


    Closed depressions (CDs) are typical geomorphological features of the loess belt in Europe. CDs have been reported in several regions of the European loess belt, where they are described as hollows, mardeles, wymoki, crovuri, bludtsa and zapadiny. The natural and anthropogenic origins of CDs are debated in literature. Moreover, no comprehensive review of the geomorphic properties or the evolution of these depressions exists. Therefore this paper reviews the characteristics of CDs in the European loess belt and attempts to better understand their genesis based on detailed case studies. The main morphometric features as well as sediment deposits within CDs in several sub-regions of Europe were analysed and compared. Morphometric properties of CDs from the West European and East European loess belt were investigated through a comparison of CDs from two representative regions, i.e. East Poland and Central Belgium. In both study areas, CDs under cropland are similar. However, a comparison of morphological features of CDs under forest, revealed clear differences, suggesting a different origin of CDs from both regions. Infilled sediments in CDs show various litho-genetical features in different regions of the European loess belt. The morphometric features, ages and stratigraphy of infillings clearly indicate that both anthropogenic and natural processes have shaped these landforms within the loess belt of Europe. CDs observed in Eastern Europe may have a very different origin than those documented in Western Europe. Detailed analysis of CDs in Poland and in neighbouring regions of East Europe, suggest that CDs are natural landforms: thermokarst, deflation and dissolution of loess are reported as probable genetic processes. In contrast, several studies in Western Europe indicate a dominant anthropogenic origin (i.e. digging of calcareous loess or marls, bomb and mining craters, collapse of underground limestone quarries), although CDs formed by natural processes (i

  6. The effects of Maine's change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neil K; Tison, Julie; Casanova, Tara


    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Belt observations during the day and night were conducted along with awareness surveys in state licensing offices. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77-84%; night 69-81%). Although daytime belt use was generally higher, nighttime belt use showed a greater increase than daytime belt use. Awareness surveys indicated that Maine motorists were clearly aware of the law change and its consequences. Survey respondents also indicated having heard both messages about enforcement and messages encouraging belt use. Primary seat belt laws may have a stronger effect on belt use at night--when risk is higher--than during the day.

  7. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology


    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  8. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover. (United States)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab


    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  9. Ethanol from corn silage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlberg, R.L.


    The corn silage to ethanol process is described. The process feed is corn silage preserved with sulfuric acid. No anaerobic ensilement is necessary since H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ completely prevents microbial growth. The acidified corn silage is heated by steam injection as it is loaded into a batch reactor. The polysaccharides are hydrolyzed to xylose and glucose over a 6 to 8 hour period. Then the sugars are washed from the residual fibers over a 6 to 12 hour period with thin stillage or water. The hot, acidic syrup is then neutralized and cooled for fermentation. After fermentation the ethanol is distilled. The residual fibers containing the thin stillage, corn germ, cellulose, and lignin are unloaded from the reactor and dried with flue gases for animal feed.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup. (United States)


    ... “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  11. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  12. Ionospheric heating for radiation-belt control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, W.J.; Villalon, E.


    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons, as formulated by Kennel and Petschek 1, describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a slot region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. We describe a set of planned, active experiments in which VLF radiation will be injected from ground and space based transmitters in conjunction with the CRRES satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments will measure the intensity of waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves. An ability to reduce the flux of energetic particles trapped in the radiation belts by artificial means could improve the reliability of microelectronic components on earth-observing satellites in middle-altitude orbits.

  13. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia (United States)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny


    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  14. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program


    Loftin, Laurel; Barlament, James; Cotton, Carol; Davidson, Steve M; Burkett, Katie M.; Stephens, James


    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was t...

  15. Development of belt conveyor driving system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jun-qing(付峻青); WANG Cong(王聪); HUO Wei(霍伟)


    A short review for the existing various driving methods for belt conveyor was given, which include the analysis and comparison about the advantages, disadvantages and suitable application range of these methods. Based on this the variable-frequency-control(VFC) method for belt conveyor drive was fully discussed with focus on its application in medium-high voltage range. The principle of Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Three-Level Inverter using high-voltage IGBTs together with the control strategy of rotor field-oriented vector control for induction motor drive were illustrated.

  16. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei


    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  17. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles......, the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  18. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control (United States)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena


    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Ibishi


    Full Text Available In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension mechanization, so forces on the rope passing through pulley there has to dominate the friction coefficient. All this process is related to economy of transportationmechanism.

  20. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots (United States)

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  1. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes (United States)

    King, Kristin


    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  2. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from...

  3. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is...

  4. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  5. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  6. Observed seat belt use in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. (United States)

    Afukaar, Francis K; Damsere-Derry, James; Ackaah, Williams


    We conducted an observational survey of seat belt use to determine the use rate of drivers and front-right passengers of vehicles in Kumasi, Ghana. Unobtrusive observations of seat belt use were made at 41 locations composed of signalized intersections and roundabouts where vehicles come to a halt or slow down considerably. The overall driver seat belt use rate was 17.6% compared to 4.9% for front-right passengers. Driver belt use was 33.2% for private cars, 9.0% for taxis, 8.3% for minibus (trotro), 13.1% for large buses and 9.7% for trucks. Overall seat belt use was higher for female drivers than for male drivers (44.8% versus 16.4%, p seat belt use rate increased with age. Passengers belted more often if drivers were belted, but about three-quarters of male passengers and 70-80% of female passengers were unbelted even when drivers were belted. In conclusion, the seat belt use rate was generally low in Kumasi, Ghana, and it is a function of occupant seating position, gender, vehicle type and usage, age group, and location setting. The results provide important preliminary data about seat belt use, particularly among male drivers and commercial vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests the need to develop effective strategies and programs that address low seat belt use in Ghana.

  7. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion. (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  8. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the r

  9. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  10. Is the Cameron River greenstone belt allochthonous? (United States)

    Kusky, T. M.


    Many tectonic models for the Slave Province, N.W.T., Canada, and for Archean granite - greenstone terranes in general, are implicitly dependent on the assumption that greenstone belt lithologies rest unconformably upon older gneissic basement. Other models require originally large separations between gneissic terranes and greenstone belts. A key question relating to the tectonics of greenstone belts is therefore the original spatial relationship between the volcanic assemblages and presumed-basement gneisses, and how this relationship has been modified by subsequent deformation. What remains unclear in these examples is the significance of the so-called later faulting of the greenstone - gneiss contacts. Where unconformities between gneisses and overlying sediments are indisputable, such as at Point Lake, the significance of faults which occur below the base of the volcanic succession also needs to be evaluated. As part of an on-going investigation aimed at answering these and other questions, the extremely well-exposed Cameron River Greenstone Belt and the Sleepy Dragon Metamorphic Complex in the vicinity of Webb Lake and Sleepy Dragon Lake was mapped.

  11. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt? (United States)

    ... always wear your seat belt even if your car has air bags.Where should I sit if I’m a ... editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Pregnancy and ChildbirthTags: air bag, auto accident, automobile safety, car accident, car safety, fetal injury, patient ...

  12. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  13. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service. (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  14. Economic Valuation of Green Belt: Focusing on the Conservation Value of Green Belt in Greater Seoul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Koo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Young Cheol [Daejin University, Pochon (Korea)


    The purpose of this paper is to measure the benefits of conservation of the green belt in the Greater Seoul area by CVM using dichotomous choice with a follow-up elicitation method. According to the government's plan, part of the green belt in the Greater Seoul area is to be freed from green belt designation. The mean willingness-to-pay(WTP) to conserve the green belt in the current state turns out to be about 7,430 won(95% confidence interval 6,220{approx}8,640 won) per household, which amounts to 308 billion won per year for entire population of Seoul. This WTP figure is found to be significantly influenced by level of education, sex, and the variables related to the perception and attitudes of respondents. (author). 26 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Crustal structure beneath the Songpan-Garze orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王椿镛; 韩渭宾; 吴建平; 楼海; 白志明


    The Benzilan-Tangke deep seismic sounding profile in the western Sichuan region passes through the Songpan-Garze orogenic belt with trend of NNE. Based on the travel times and the related amplitudes of phases in the record sections, the 2-DP-wave crustal structure was ascertained in this paper. The velocity structure has quite strong lateral variation along the profile. The crust is divided into 5 layers, where the first, second and third layer belong to the upper crust, theforth and fifth layer belong to the lower crust. The low velocity anomaly zone generally exists in the central part of the upper crust on the profile, and it integrates into the overlying low velocity basement in the area to the north of Ma.erkang. The crustal structure in the section can be divided into 4 parts: in the south of Garze-Litang fault, between Garze-Litang fault and Xianshuihe fault,between Xianshuihe fault and Longriba fault and in the north of Longriba fault,which are basically coincided with the regional tectonics division. The crustalthickness decreases from southwest to northeast along the profile, that is, from 62 km in the region of the Jinshajiang River to 52 km in the region of the Yellow River. The Moho discontinuity does not obviously change across the Xianshuihe fault based on the PmP phase analysis. The crustal average velocity along the profile is lower, about 6.30 km/s. The Benzilan-Tangke profile reveals that the crust in the study area is orogenic. The Xianshuihe fault belt is located in thecentral part of the profile, and the velocity is positive anomaly on the upper crust, and negative anomaly on the lower crust and upper mantle. It is considered as a deep tectonic setting in favor of strong earthquake's accumulation and occurrence.

  16. Belt fires and mine escape problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, J.G.; Lazzara, C.P. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kravitz, J.H.


    A conveyor belt fire in an underground coal mine is a serious threat to life and property. About 30% of the reportable underground coal mine fires from 1988 through 1992 occurred in belt entries. In one instance, a fire started in the drive area of a belt line, spread rapidly, and resulted in seating of the entire mine. Large-scale studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in an aboveground fire gallery at Lake Lynn Laboratory clearly show the hazards of conveyor belt fires. Mine conveyor belt formulations which passed the current Federal acceptance test for fire-resistant betting were completely consumed by propagating fires or propagated flame, with flame spread rates ranging from 0.3 to 9 m/min. High downstream temperatures and large quantities of smoke and toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, were generated as the belting burned. The smoke and gases can be spread by the mine`s ventilation system and can create significant problems for miners in the process of evacuation, such as reduction in visibility and incapacitation. In the aftermath of a belt fire, the atmosphere inside of the mine can become smoke filled or unbreathable, forcing miners to evacuate while wearing Self-Contained Self-Rescuers (SCSR`s), Sometimes there is confusion about how to regard the rated duration of an MSHA/NIOSH-approved 60-min. SCSR, especially when an SCSR is used in a way which takes it outside of the test conditions under which it was approved. As examples, for a mine escape that takes a miner from the deepest point of penetration in the mine to the surface: How long will a 60-min. SCSR actually last? and How many SCSR`s will a miner need? To answer these kinds of questions, in-mine data being gathered on escape times, distance and heart rates using miners escaping on foot and under oxygen. A model will be developed and validated which predicts how much oxygen is actually needed for a mine escape, and compares oxygen consumption bare faced versus wearing an SCSR.

  17. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar


    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  18. International survey of seat belt use exemptions. (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E


    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  19. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu


    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  20. The Gould Belt, the de Vaucouleurs-Dolidze Belt, and the Orion Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V


    Based on masers with measured trigonometric parallaxes, we have redetermined the spatial orientation parameters of the Local (Orion) arm. Using 23 sources (the Gould Belt objects were excluded), we have found that their spatial distribution can be approximated by a very narrow ellipsoid elongated in the direction L_1=77.1+/-2.9^o whose symmetry plane is inclined to the Galactic plane at an angle of 5.6+/-0.2^o. The longitude of the ascending node of the symmetry plane is l_\\Omega=70+/-3^o. A new estimate for the pitch angle of the Local spiral arm has been obtained by an independent method: i=12.9+/-2.9^o. Previously, a belt of young B stars, the de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt, was pointed out on the celestial sphere with parameters close to such an orientation. We have refined the spatial orientation parameters of this belt based on a homogeneous sample of protostars. The de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt can be identified with the Local arm, with the belt proper as a continuous band on the celestial sphere like the ...

  1. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  2. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn. (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G


    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  3. Carbon, oxygen, sulfur and lead isotope constraints on the ore source and metallogenesis of copper deposits in western Awulale Mountain metallogenic belt, Xinjiang%新疆阿吾拉勒成矿带西段铜矿床碳、氧、硫、铅同位素研究——成矿物质来源及成矿环境探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 张作衡; 刘晓阳; 刘敏; 张贺; 朱维娜


    western Awulale Mountain metallogenic belt include subvolanic rock-related Cu deposits (SVR) situated in the middle and southern area and intermediate-low temperature hydrother-mal vein-type Cu deposits (ILTHV) located in the northern area. This paper reports a detailed C, O, S and Pb isotopic investigation of three SVR deposits (No. 109, Qunjisayi and Qunji) and two ILTHV deposits (Nulasai and Qiongbulake) lying from south to north in the ore field. The sulfur isotopic compositions of the sulfides from the five deposits show distinct differences and systematic variations from south to north. The SVR deposits show small variation of δ34S values from + 3.4%o to +4.4%o (No. 109 deposit) and from - 1.6%o to 0.2%o (Qunjisayi and Qunji deposits). In contrast, the ILTHV deposits have large variation of S^S values from - 18%o to + 8.9%o. The carbon and oxygen isotope variations of the two types have similar sulfur isotope variation features. The SVR deposits show small variation of δ13C values from - 1.44%o to + 0.8%o and relatively large variation of δ18O values from + 11.87‰ to + 16.99‰. The ILTHV deposits have large variation of δ13C values from - 10.1% to -3.2% and relatively large variation of δ18O values from 9.63% to 16.27%. The Pb-isotopic composition of sulfides from ILTHV deposits indicate that they are normal-Pb mainly derived from the mantle. The Pb-isotope of sulfides from felisic SVR deposits is rich in radiogenetic Pb provided by the Precam-brian basement rock. The Pb-isotope of sulfides from basic SVR deposits is the mixed mantle-Pb and crust-Pb. In conclusion, the systematic variations of mineral source and ore-forming process from SVR deposits to ILTHV deposits reveal that the metallogenic environments in southern and northern copper belt are different and this dif-ference was probably related to the Permian rifting evolution. In the process of Permian rifting evolution, the different extents of the stretching structure in southern and northern copper

  4. Kanfenggou UHP Metamorphic Fragment in Eastern Qinling Orogen and Its Relationship to Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong


    In the Central Orogenic Belt, China, two UHP metamorphic belts are discriminated mainly based on a detailed structural analysis of the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment exposed in the eastern Qinling orogen, and together with previous regional structural, petrological and geochronological data at the scale of the orogenic domain. The first one corresponds to the South Altun-North QaidamNorth Qinling UHP metamorphic belt. The other is the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts. The two UHP metamorphic belts are separated by a series of tectonic slices composed by the Qinling rock group, Danfeng rock group and Liuling or Foziling rock group etc. respectively, and are different in age of the peak UHP metamorphism and geodynamic implications for continental deep subduction and collision. Regional field and petrological relationships suggest that the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment that contains a large volume of the coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses is compatible with the structures recognized in the South Altun and North Qaidam UHP metamorphic fragments exposed in the western part of China, thereby forming a large UHP metamorphic belt up to 1 000 km long along the orogen strike. This UHP metamorphic belt represents an intercontinental deep subduction and collision belt between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons, occurred during the Paleozoic. On the other hand, the well-constrained Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts occurred mainly during Triassic time (250-220 Ma), and were produced by the intrucontinental deep subduction and collision within the Yangtze craton. The Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts along the orogen. There is no reason to assume the two UHP metamorphic belts us a single giant deep subduction and collision zone in the Central Orogenic Belt situated between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Therefore, any dynamic model for the orogen must account

  5. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production. (United States)

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin


    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  6. Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin


    Aug 31, 2016 ... The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance mechanisms in 12 corn genotypes (transgenic hybrids: ..... FAW that fed on GM corn genotypes exhibited lower ... preference for other food types, particularly given the.

  7. Effect of corn cobs concentration on xylanase biosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 24, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION. Corn cobs ... like corn cobs, sugar cane bagasse , rice husk, rice straw and oat straw ... Xylanase hydrolyzes the polymer xylan into the xylose monomers. The free ..... using central composite rotary design.

  8. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What is high-fructose corn syrup? What are the health concerns? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. High-fructose corn syrup is a common sweetener in ...

  9. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  10. Heterologous Acidothermus cellulolyticus 1,4-β-Endoglucanase E1 Produced Within the Corn Biomass Converts Corn Stover Into Glucose (United States)

    Ransom, Callista; Balan, Venkatesh; Biswas, Gadab; Dale, Bruce; Crockett, Elaine; Sticklen, Mariam

    Commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires inexpensive bulk production of biologically active cellulase enzymes, which might be achieved through direct production of these enzymes within the biomass crops. Transgenic corn plants containing the catalytic domain of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endo-1,4-β glucanase and the bar bialaphos resistance coding sequences were generated after Biolistic® (BioRad Hercules, CA) bombardment of immature embryo-derived cells. E1 sequences were regulated under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and tobacco mosaic virus translational enhancer, and E1 protein was targeted to the apoplast using the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein to achieve accumulation of this enzyme. The integration, expression, and segregation of E1 and bar transgenes were demonstrated, respectively, through Southern and Western blotting, and progeny analyses. Accumulation of up to 1.13% of transgenic plant total soluble proteins was detected as biologically active E1 by enzymatic activity assay. The corn-produced, heterologous E1 could successfully convert ammonia fiber explosion-pretreated corn stover polysaccharides into glucose as a fermentable sugar for ethanol production, confirming that the E1 enzyme is produced in its active from.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利


    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  12. Ethanol production from corn, corn stover and corncob from the Jilin Province of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, E.; Thomsen, A.B. [Risoe National Lab., Biosystem Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Feng, L. [Jilin Light Industry Design and Reserch Inst., Changchun City (China)


    Among the available agricultural by-products, corn stover is far the most abundant lignocellulosic raw material for fuel ethanol production in China. More than 120 million tons of corn stover is produced annually, representing approximately 40 million tons of ethanol. In this study ethanol was produced from corn and alkaline wet oxidized (WO) corn stover and corncob followed by non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eight different combinations of reaction temperature and time were applied for wet oxidation of corn stover and corncob using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} as catalysts to find the best reaction conditions, resulting in both high glucose and ethanol yield. The best condition (200 deg. C, 8 min, 2g/L Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) increased the enzymatic conversion from cellulose to glucose of corn stover more then four times and resulted in 87% ethanol yield of theoretical, based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover. This was achieved with a substrate concentration of 6% (w/w) dry material at 20 FPU/g DM enzyme loading after 120 h of SSF. The pretreatment with NH{sub 3} at the same conditions resulted slightly lower cellulose conversion to glucose, but also gave promising ethanol yield (75%), demonstrated, that the baker's yeast still could adapt to the WO material and ferment the glucose content to ethanol efficiently. (au)

  13. Corn Heterotic Group and Model in Heilongjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; DONG Ling; YU Tianjiang; LI Yan; GUO Ran


    The concept and research achievements of the heterotic group and model in corn were introduced briefly. The results showed that the domestic corn germplasm could be divided into three main heterotic groups and two main heterotic models. The research on corn germplasm in Heilongjiang Province could be concluded as three main heterotic groups and three main heterotic models. Some new opinions about corn heterotic group and heterotic model in Heilongjiang Province were proposed such as Northeast group and NortheastxLancaster model.

  14. A method for sampling waste corn (United States)

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.


    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  15. Pretreatment of Corn Stalk by Steam Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵自强; 田永生; 谭惠民


    A steam explosion pretreatment, which is one of the best ways of pretreating plant stalk, is applied at various severities to corn stalk. It could effectively modify the super-molecular structure of corn stalk and defibrating corn stalk into individual components. The relationship between yield of reducing sugar and the operating conditions, including temperature, pressure of steam explosion pretreatment and acidity, is also established. Experimental results prove that the steam explosion substantially increases the yield of reducing sugar, and the optimal condition for steam explosion is as follows: the pressure is 2.0 MPa, the pressure-retaining time 300 s, the initial acid concentration 1% and the acid treatment time 24 h.

  16. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn. (United States)

    Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene


    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product.

  17. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  18. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  19. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae) (United States)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  20. Corn texture and particle size in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Benedetti


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn texture and the particle size on broiler performance, carcass yield, nutrient digestibility, and digestive organ morphometrics. In Experiment I, 720 male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting two corn textures (dented and hard and three corn particle sizes, was applied, with four replicates of 30 birds each. Corn particle size was classified according to geometric mean diameter (GMD as fine - 0.46 mm; medium - 0.73 mm, and coarse - 0.87 mm. In Experiment II, 120 broiler chicks were used to evaluate corn digestibility during the periods of 16 to 22 days and 35 to 41 days of age, using the method of total excreta collection. In Experiment I, corn particle size influenced body weight, average weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of 21-day-old birds. Corn texture and particle size did not affect the performance of 42-day-old broilers or carcass traits. In Experiment II, there was no influence of corn texture and particle size on digestive organ weights. Dented corn increased nitrogen excretion in the first trial, and hard corn improved dry matter digestibility in the second metabolic trial. Corn with fine particle size promotes better performance of broilers at 21 days of age. Hard corn results in higher dry matter digestibility and lower nitrogen excretion, and consequently higher production factor in 42-day-old broilers.

  1. Bacterial Diversity in Rhizospheres of Nontransgenic and Transgenic Corn


    Fang, Min; Kremer, Robert J.; Peter P. Motavalli; Davis, Georgia


    Bacterial diversity in transgenic and nontransgenic corn rhizospheres was determined. In greenhouse and field studies, metabolic profiling and molecular analysis of 16S rRNAs differentiated bacterial communities among soil textures but not between corn varieties. We conclude that bacteria in corn rhizospheres are affected more by soil texture than by cultivation of transgenic varieties.

  2. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  3. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover (United States)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  4. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype. (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P


    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  5. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets. (United States)

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A


    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  6. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  7. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  8. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division


    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  9. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  10. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen


    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  11. Bubbles, Bubbles, Tremors & Trouble: The Bayou Corne Sinkhole (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.


    In May 2012, thermogenic methane bubbles were first observed in Bayou Corne in Assumption Parish, Louisiana. As of July 2013, ninety one bubbling sites have been identified. Gas was also found in the top of the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA) about 125 ft below the surface. Vent wells drilled into the MRAA have flared more 16 million SCF of gas. Trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide also have been detected. Bayou Corne flows above the Napoleonville salt dome which has been an active area for oil and gas exploration since the 1920s. The dome is also a site of dissolution salt mining which has produced large caverns with diameters of up to 300 ft and heights of 2000 ft. Some caverns are used for storage of natural gas. Microseismic activity was confirmed by an Earthscope seismic station in White Castle, LA in July 2012. An array of microseismic stations set up in the area recorded more than 60 microseismic events in late July and early August, 2012. These microseismic events were located on the western side of the dome. Estimated focal depths are just above the top of salt. In August 2012, a sinkhole developed overnight just to the northwest of a plugged and abandoned brine filled cavern (see figure below). The sinkhole continues to grow in area to more than 20 acres and has consumed a pipeline right of way. The sinkhole is more than 750 ft deep at its center. Microseismic activity was reduced for several months following the formation of the sinkhole. Microseismic events have reoccurred episodically since then with periods of frequent events preceding slumping of material into the sinkhole or a 'burp' where fluid levels in the sinkhole drop and then rebound followed by a decrease in microseismic activity. Some gas and/or oil may appear at the surface of the sinkhole following a 'burp'. Very long period events also have been observed which are believed to be related to subsurface fluid movement. A relief well drilled into the abandoned brine cavern found that

  12. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn. (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F


    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  13. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community]. (United States)

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun


    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn.

  14. Comparison of haplotype frequencies differentiate fall armyworm (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Florida and Brazil


    Nagoshi, R. N.; Silvie, Pierre; Meagher, R.L.


    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere. Populations can be subdivided into two morphologically identical but genetically distinct strains (corn-strain and rice-strain) that differ in their host plant preferences. These strains can be distinguished by using polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. Additional sequence analysis of this locus identified two sites that were highly p...

  15. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf


    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  16. Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossipium hirsitum L. and corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ávila


    Full Text Available In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia, 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR. These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar

  17. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming


    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  18. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers. (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J


    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  19. Corn processing method in finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed. (United States)

    Scott, T L; Milton, C T; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A


    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of corn processing method on performance and carcass traits in steers fed finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). In Trial 1, 480 steer calves (303 kg initial BW) were fed eight finishing diets: 1) dry-rolled corn (DRC) without; and 2) with 32% (DM basis) WCGF; 3) steam-flaked corn (SFC) without; and 4) with WCGF; 5) a combination of DRC and SFC without WCGF; 6) finely-ground corn (FGC) with WCGF; 7) high-moisture corn (HMC) with WCGF; and 8) whole corn (WC) with WCGF. Feeding WC + WCGF increased (P < 0.10) DMI and decreased gain:feed compared with all other treatments. Feeding DRC + WCGF increased (P < 0.10) DMI and decreased (P < 0.10) gain:feed compared with treatments other than WC + WCGF. Steers on treatments that included WCGF gained similarly, regardless of corn processing method, and at a rate 6% faster (P < 0.10) than steers fed diets that did not include WCGF. Gain:feed did not differ among steers fed SFC, SFC + WCGF, SFC + DRC, and HMC + WCGF. Steers fed SFC or SFC + WCGF were more efficient (P < 0.10) than steers fed DRC or FGC + WCGF. In Trial 2, 288 steer calves (382 kg initial BW) were fed six finishing diets: 1) DRC without; and 2) with 22% (DM basis) WCGF; 3) SFC without; and 4) with WCGF; 5) finely rolled corn (FRC) with WCGF; and 6) HMC corn with WCGF. Steers fed DRC + WCGF or FRC + WCGF consumed more DM (P < 0.10) than steers fed DRC, SFC, or SFC + WCGF. Feed intake did not differ between steers fed SFC + WCGF and HMC + WCGF. All treatment groups receiving WCGF consumed more DM (P < 0.10) feed than steers fed DRC or SFC without WCGF. Steers fed SFC + WCGF gained 8% faster (P < 0.10), and steers fed DRC 9.5% slower (P < 0.10) than steers receiving all other treatments. Daily gains did not differ among other treatment groups. Steers fed SFC or SFC + WCGF gained 10% more (P < 0.10) efficiently than all other treatment groups. Feed efficiency did not differ among steers fed DRC, DRC

  20. An Economic Analysis of Corn-based Ethanol Production


    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.


    A global multi-commodity simulation model was developed to estimate the impact of changes in ethanol production on the U.S. corn industry. Increased ethanol production under the Energy Acts of 2005 and 2007 resulted in a significant increase in the price of corn. However, for corn-based ethanol production, the break-even price of corn is approximately $4.52 per bushel with a federal subsidy of $0.51 per gallon of pure ethanol and $2.50 gasoline. With a corn price of $4.52, the economically de...

  1. The Response of Corn Acreage to Ethanol Plant Siting


    Fatal, Yehushua S.; Thurman, Walter N.


    U.S. ethanol production capacity increased more than threefold between 2002 and 2008. We study the effect of this growth on corn acreage. Connecting annual changes in county-level corn acreage to changes in ethanol plant capacities, we find a positive effect on planted corn. The building of a typical plant is estimated to increase corn in the county by over 500 acres and to increase acreage in surrounding counties up to almost 300 miles away. All ethanol plants are estimated to increase corn ...

  2. Corn Stover Impacts on Near-Surface Soil Properties of No-Till Corn In Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.


    Corn stover is a primary biofuel feedstock and its expanded use could help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and net CO2 emissions. Excessive stover removal may, however, negatively impact near-surface soil properties within a short period after removal. We assessed changes in soil crust strength, bulk density, and water content over a 1-yr period following a systematic removal or addition of stover from three no-till soils under corn in Ohio.

  3. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities. (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff


    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Slobodan; Jankovic


    Three global metallogenic belts were formed in the world during Mesozoic and post-Mesozoic times. Two of them are situated along the western and eastern Pacific margins, and the third one - the Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt (TEMB) is related to the domain of Eurasian plate and flanked on the south by the Afro-Arabian and Indian plates. The general tectonic evolution of the realm where the TEMB was formed is closely connected with the history of Tethys. The emplacement of ore deposits and the development of regional metallogenic units are related to a definitive time interval and to specific tectonic settings such as: (1) Intracontinental rifting along the northern margin of Gondwana and/or fragments already separated; (2) Oceanic environments (i.e. ophiolite complexes and ocean floor sediments) host podiform chromite deposits, volcano-sedimentary cupriferous pyrite deposits (Cyprus type), stratiform manganese deposits, and sporadically PGE deposits; (3) Subduction related settings involve mainly porphyry copper deposits, hydrothermal massive sulphide polymetallic deposits, and epithermal deposits. So far identified mineralization of porphyry copper exceeds in the TEMB over 100 million tons of copper metal; and(4) Collision and post-collision continent-continent setting includes deposits of lead-zinc, antimony, gold, in some sectors tin deposits, as well. The giant deposits of Li-pegmatite occur sporadically.The TEMB is almost a continuously mineralized belt, but within it, some sectors display specific features of tectonic settings, association of elements, minerals and morphogenetic types of mineralization.

  5. Contrasting magmatic signatures in the Rairakhol and Koraput alkaline complexes, Eastern Ghats belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharya; M Basei


    The relation between alkaline magmatism and tectonism has been a contentious issue, particularly for the Precambrian continental regions. Alkaline complexes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt, India, have been interpreted as rift-valley magmatism. However, those complexes occurring in granulite ensemble in the interior segments of the Eastern Ghats belt could not possibly be related to the rift-system, assumed for the western margin of the Eastern Ghats belt. Koraput complex was emplaced in a pull-apart structure, dominated by magmatic fabrics and geochemically similar to a fractionated alkaline complex, compatible with an alkalibasalt series. Rairakhol complex, on the other hand, shows dominantly solid-state deformation fabrics and geochemically similar to a fractionated calc-alkaline suite. Isotopic data for the Koraput complex indicate ca. 917 Ma alkaline magmatism from a depleted mantle source and postcrystalline thermal overprint at ca. 745 Ma, also recorded from sheared metapelitic country rocks. The calc-alkaline magmatism of the Rairakhol complex occurred around 938 Ma, from an enriched mantle source, closely following Grenvillian granulite facies imprint in the charnockitic country rocks.

  6. Risk Zones of Human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean Basin: Correlations between Vector Sand Flies, Bioclimatology and Phytosociology


    Rispail Philippe; Dereure Jacques; Jarry Daniel


    Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical dist...

  7. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol. (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B


    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  8. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL


    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  9. Rock relationships in the Mogok metamorphic belt, Tatkon to Mandalay, central Myanmar (United States)

    Mitchell, A. H. G.; Htay, Myint Thein; Htun, Kyaw Min; Win, Myint Naing; Oo, Thura; Hlaing, Tin


    The Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB), over 1450 km long and up to 40 km wide, consists of regionally metamorphosed rocks including kyanite and sillimanite schists and granites lying along the Western margin of the Shan Plateau in central Myanmar and continuing northwards to the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Exposures in quarries allow correlation of Palaeozoic meta-sedimentary, early Mesozoic meta-igneous and late Mesozoic intrusive rocks within a 230 km long northerly-trending segment of the MMB, from Tatkon to Kyanigan north of Mandalay, and with the Mogok gemstone district 100 km to the northeast. Relationships among the metamorphic and intrusive rocks, with sparse published radiometric age controls, indicate at least two metamorphic events, one before and one after the intrusion of Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous calc-alkaline rocks. These relationships can be explained by either of two possible tectonic histories. One, constrained by correlation of mid-Permian limestones across Myanmar, requires early Permian and early Jurassic regional metamorphic events, prior to an early Tertiary metamorphism, in the western part of but within a Shan-Thai - western Myanmar block. The second, not compatible with a single laterally continuous Permian limestone, requires pre-Upper Jurassic regional metamorphism and orogenic gold mineralization in the Mergui Group and western Myanmar, early Cretaceous collision of an east-facing Mergui-western Myanmar island arc with the Shan Plateau, and early Tertiary metamorphism in the MMB related to reversal in tectonic polarity following the arc-Plateau collision.

  10. Modal analysis of coupled vibration of belt drive systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; CHEN Li-qun


    The modal method is applied to analyze coupled vibration of belt drive systems. A belt drive system is a hybrid system consisting of continuous belts modeled as strings as well as discrete pulleys and a tensioner arm. The characteristic equation of the system is derived from the governing equation. Numerical results demenstrate the effects of the transport speed and the initial tension on natural frequencies.

  11. The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea in Fehmarn Belt: Indications of a new threshold? (United States)

    Feldens, Peter; Schwarzer, Klaus


    The Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea stages of regression and transgression controlled the history of the Baltic Sea since the last glacial period. Many details regarding their development remain unknown, including the question whether the regression of the Ancylus Lake (between 10,700 and 10,200 cal yr BP) took place west of the Darss Sill, or elsewhere. This study addresses whether a drowned river system in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) can be related to the drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The river channel is cut into glacial till in the western part of Fehmarn Belt. Here, the channel reaches an incision depth of up to 12 m at a base level of 40 m b.s.l. (below sea level). Near Mecklenburg Bay, the buried channel is incised down to 60 m b.s.l. and widens rapidly from several hundred meters to more than 1 km, fading towards east. It was mainly shaped as part of a glacial meltwater system at a maximum water level of 30 m b.s.l., and is therefore not related to the Ancylus Lake drainage. During the lowstand of the Baltic Ice Lake, local shallow water bodies covered the study area. A previously reported westward directed drainage of a lake in the eastern Fehmarn Belt could be restricted to a time interval between the highstand of the Ancylus Lake and prior to the Littorina Transgression. Timing, water level and potential water discharge of this event suggest a connection to a partial drainage of the Ancylus Lake. It is concluded that the threshold separating the Ancylus Lake from the North Sea needs to be located west of Fehmarn Belt.

  12. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira


    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  13. Effect of Row Circle Method and Variety of Hybrid Corn on Yield of Corn (Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Use Etica


    Full Text Available Corn yield improved by genetic improving, plant population and fertilizer. The experiment aims to knowing the effect off row circle planting method and hybrid corn variety toward population and yield of corn. The experiment was conducted on August- November 2015 in Siman, Ponorogo, altitude 140 amsl and textured clay grumosol soil types. The experiment was a factorial experiment in a complete block randomized design with two factor and three replications. The first factor was hybrid corn varieties (Bisi-18, NK-7328, Pertiwi-3, and Pioneer-27. The second factor was row circle planting method (single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm; row circle planting method with interval planting of 60x100 cm and 100x50x50 cm. The result showed not significantly interaction between row circle planting method and hybrid corn varieties with respect to population total and corn yield. Row circle planting method with interval planting 100x50x50 cm increased plant population about 164.413 plants/ha and significantly different with single manner with interval planting of 60x40x20 cm (62,881 plants/ha and row circle planting method with interval planting 60x100 cm (136,774 plants/ha. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly increased plant population. Pioneer-27 variety of hybrid corn produced weight of wet corn logs by 17,22 ton/Ha and significantly different with Bisi-18, NK-7328 and Pertiwi-3. Hybrid corn varieties was not significantly affects to increasing produce of dry corn kernels. Variety of Pioneer-27 produced dry corn kernels 7,28 ton/ha and was not significantly different with varieties of Bisi-18, NK-7328, and Pertiwi-3. Variety of NK-7328 had percentage weight of wet corn logs into dry corn kernels as big as 55,38% bigger than varieties of Bisi-18, Pertiwi-3 and Pioneer-27.

  14. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon


    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  15. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea


    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  16. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt (United States)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.


    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  17. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  18. Solar Neutrons and the Earth's Radiation Belts. (United States)

    Lingenfelter, R E; Flamm, E J


    The intensity and spectrum of solar neutrons in the vicinity of the earth are calculated on the assumption that the low-energy protons recently detected in balloon and satellite flights are products of solar neutron decay. The solar-neutron flux thus obtained exceeds the global average cosmic-ray neutron leakage above 10 Mev, indicating that it may be an important source of both the inner and outer radiation belts. Neutron measurements in the atmosphere are reviewed and several features of the data are found to be consistent with the estimated solar neutron spectrum.

  19. Parametric resonances of convection belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-an YANG; Gao-feng LI


    Based on the Coriolis acceleration and the Lagrangian strain formula,a generalized equation for the transverse vibration system of convection belts is derived using Newton's second law.The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations,and an approximate solution of the primary parameter resonance of the system is obtained.The detuning parameter,cross-section area,elastic and viscoelastic parameters,and axial moving speed have a significant influences on the amplitudes of steady-state response and their existence boundaries.Some new dynamical phenomena are revealed.

  20. Orion revisited. III. The Orion Belt population (United States)

    Kubiak, K.; Alves, J.; Bouy, H.; Sarro, L. M.; Ascenso, J.; Burkert, A.; Forbrich, J.; Großschedl, J.; Hacar, A.; Hasenberger, B.; Lombardi, M.; Meingast, S.; Köhler, R.; Teixeira, P. S.


    Aims: This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the ɛ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0 Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. Methods: We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (XMM-Newton) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. Results: We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5 Myr and likely 10 Myr and estimate a total of about 2500 members, assuming a normal IMF. This new population, which we call the Orion Belt population, is essentially extinction-free, disk-free, and its spatial distribution is roughly centered near ɛ Ori, although substructure is clearly present. Conclusions: The Orion Belt population is likely the low-mass counterpart to the Ori OB Ib subgroup. Although our results do not rule out Blaauw's sequential star formation scenario for Orion, we argue that the recently proposed blue streams scenario provides a better framework on which one can explain the Orion star formation region as a whole. We speculate that the Orion Belt population could represent the evolved counterpart of an Orion nebula-like cluster. The catalog (Full Table A.1) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张年梅; 杨桂通


    The chaotic motions of axial compressed nonlinear elastic beam subjected totransverse load were studied. The damping force in the system is nonlinear. Consideringmaterial and geometric nonlinearity, nonlinear governing equation of the system wasderived. By use of nonlinear Galerkin method, differential dynamic system was set up.Melnikov method was used to analyze the characters of the system. The results showed thatchaos may occur in the system when the load parameters P0 and f satisfy some conditions.The zone of chaotic motion was belted. The route from subharmonic bifurcation to chaoswas analyzed. The critical conditions that chaos occurs were determined.

  2. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry


    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  3. Evolution and Dynamics of a Fold-Thrust Belt: The Sulaiman Range of Pakistan (United States)

    Reynolds, K.; Copley, A.; Hussain, E.


    Plan-view curvature of geological structures and range-front topography has long been a recognized and debated feature of both ancient and active fold-thrust belts. As part of the largest active mountain range on Earth, much of the body of work surrounding this topic has focused on the Tibetan Plateau. A lack of published data, extremely limited geodetic coverage and difficulty of access mean there have been relatively few studies of the western part of the India-Asia collision zone, where the Himalaya curve to the southwest into the lobate fold-thrust belts of Pakistan. The widest of these, the Sulaiman Range, forms a strongly curved lobe with ~300km across-strike width. We present observations and models of the Sulaiman Range of western Pakistan that shed new light on the evolution and deformation of fold-thrust belts. Earthquake source inversions show that the seismic deformation in the range is concentrated in the thick pile of sediments overlying the underthrusting lithosphere of the Indian subcontinent. The slip vectors of the earthquakes vary in strike around the margin of the range, in tandem with the shape of the topography, suggesting that gravitational driving forces arising from the topography play an important role in governing the deformation of the region. Numerical models suggest that the active deformation, and extreme plan-view curvature of the range, are governed by the presence of weak sediments in a pre-existing basin on the underthrusting Indian plate. These sediments affect the stress-state in the over-riding mountain range and allow for the rapid propagation of the nose of the range and the development of extreme curvature and laterally-varying surface gradients.

  4. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. (United States)


    ... corn must be planted to be considered fall, winter, or spring-planted sweet corn. Potential production... per acre if you have not produced the minimum amount of production of sweet corn contained in the... only able to harvest 5,627 containers of sweet corn. The net value of all sweet corn production...



    Davis, Todd D.; Gray, Allan W.; Dobbins, Craig L.


    Returns for soybeans, commodity corn and high oil corn under an export and domestic market buyer's-call contract were simulated. High oil corn is competitive with commodity corn when yield drag is two percent and bundling reduces seed cost. Commodity loan rate is important in reducing high oil corn price risk.

  6. Fomation of corn fiber gum-milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization (United States)

    Corn fiber arabinoxylan is hemicellulose B isolated from the fibrous portions (pericarp, tip cap, and endosperm cell wall fractions) of corn kernels and is commonly referred to as corn fiber gum (CFG). Our previous studies showed that CFG isolated from corn bran (a byproduct of corn dry milling) co...

  7. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J


    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants.

  8. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma


    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  9. Distribution of dust from Kuiper belt objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkavyi, N N; Taidakova, T; Mather, J C; Gorkavyi, Nick N.; Ozernoy, Leonid M.; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John C.


    (Abridged) Using an efficient computational approach, we have reconstructed the structure of the dust cloud in the Solar system between 0.5 and 100 AU produced by the Kuiper belt objects. Our simulations offer a 3-D physical model of the `kuiperoidal' dust cloud based on the distribution of 280 dust particle trajectories produced by 100 known Kuiper belt objects ; the resulting 3-D grid consists of $1.9\\times 10^6$ cells containing $1.2\\times 10^{11}$ particle positions. The following processes that influence the dust particle dynamics are taken into account: 1) gravitational scattering on the eight planets (neglecting Pluto); 2) planetary resonances; 3) radiation pressure; and 4) the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) and solar wind drags. We find the dust distribution highly non-uniform: there is a minimum in the kuiperoidal dust between Mars and Jupiter, after which both the column and number densities of kuiperoidal dust sharply increase with heliocentric distance between 5 and 10 AU, and then form a plateau betwee...

  10. Chaotic Diffusion of Resonant Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Tiscareno, Matthew S


    We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the two strongest mean motion resonances of Neptune in the Kuiper belt, the 3:2 (Plutinos) and 2:1 (Twotinos). Our primary results include a computation of the relative volumes of phase space characterized by large- and small-resonance libration amplitudes, and maps of resonance stability measured by mean chaotic diffusion rate. We find that Neptune's 2:1 resonance has weaker overall long-term stability than the 3:2 -- only 15% of Twotinos are projected to survive for 4 Gyr, compared to 28% of Plutinos. We find that Pluto has only a modest effect, causing a ~4% decrease in the Plutino population that survives to 4 Gyr. Given current observational estimates, we conclude that the primordial populations of Plutinos and Twotinos formerly made up more than half the population of the classical and resonant Kuiper Belt. We also conclude that Twotinos were originally nearly as numerous as Plutinos, consistent with models ...

  11. The Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; O'Brien, David P; Minton, David A; Bottke, William F


    The asteroid belt is the leftover of the original planetesimal population in the inner solar system. However, currently the asteroids have orbits with all possible values of eccentricities and inclinations compatible with long-term dynamical stability, whereas the initial planetesimal orbits should have been quasi-circular and almost co-planar. The total mass in the asteroid population is a small fraction of that existing primordially. Also, asteroids with different chemical/mineralogical properties are not ranked in an orderly manner with mean heliocentric distance as one could expect from the existence of a radial gradient of the temperature in the proto-planetary disk, but they are partially mixed. These properties show that the asteroid belt has been severely sculpted by one or a series of processes during its lifetime. This paper reviews the processes that have been proposed so far, discussing the properties that they explain and the problems that they are confronted with. Emphasis is paid to the interpl...

  12. Young Stellar Objects in the Gould Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas; Di Francesco, James; Gutermuth, Robert A; Harvey, Paul M; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M; Matthews, Brenda C; Miller, Jennifer F; Peterson, Dawn E; Young, Kaisa E


    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0+I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background AGB stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40-0.78 Myr for Class 0+I YSOs and 0.26-0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the ado...

  13. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE. (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K


    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov


    -Baikal continent. The base of the Kazakhstan-Baikal continent was formed in the Vend-Cambrian due to subduction of the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, including the Precambrian microcontinents and terrains of the Gondvana group, underneath the south-eastern margin of the Siberian continent (in the current coordinates. Due to subduction followed by collision of the microcontinents with the Kazakhstan-Tuva-Mongolia island arc, the crust had consolidated, and a complex continent was formed. Another major plate is the plate of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by the long-term tectono-magmatic evolution without any involvement of the continental crust and by complex processes of the formation of the continental margins. Its evolution resulted in the formation of the Vend-Paleozoic continental margin complexes of the western segment of the Siberian continent which comprise the Vend-Cambrian Kuznetsk-Altai island arc and a complex of rocks of the Ordovic-Early Devonian passive margin and the Devon-Early Carbonic active margin. In the accretional wedges of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc, abundant are only fragments of the Vend-Early Cambrian oceanic crust including ophiolites and paleo-oceanic uplifts. The contemporary analogue of the Central Asian folded belt is the south-eastern margin of Asia, represented by the junction area of the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates.  

  15. Production of bioethanol from corn meal hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljiljana Mojovic; Svetlana Nikolic; Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology


    The two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of corn meal by commercially available {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase and further ethanol fermentation of the obtained hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was studied. The conditions of starch hydrolysis such as substrate and enzyme concentration and the time required for enzymatic action were optimized taking into account both the effects of hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The corn meal hydrolyzates obtained were good substrates for ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol of more than 80% (w/w) of the theoretical was achieved with a satisfactory volumetric productivity P (g/l h). No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. In this process, the savings in energy by carrying out the saccharification step at lower temperature (32{sup o}C) could be realized, as well as a reduction of the process time for 4 h. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Baby corn, green corn, and dry corn yield of corn cultivars Rendimentos de minimilho, milho verde e de grãos de cultivares de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato S Castro


    Full Text Available In corn, when the first female inflorescence is removed, the plant often produces new female inflorescences. This allows the first ear to be harvested as baby corn (BC and the second as green corn (GC or dry corn (DC, that is, mature corn. The flexibility provided by a variety of harvested products allows the grower to compete with better conditions in the markets. We evaluated BC, GC, and DC yields in corn cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, and BRS 2020, after the first ear was harvested as BC. A random block design with ten replicates was utilized. The yields of MM, MV and MS were higher when these products were individually harvested than when they were harvested in combination with baby corn (BC + GC and BC + DC. Cultivar BRS 2020 was the best for producing BC exclusively, considering the number and weight of marketable unhusked ears and the number (NH of marketable husked ears. Considering weight (WH of BC marketable husked ears, cultivar AG 1051 was the best. Cultivars did not differ in baby corn yield when this product was harvested in combination with MS or MV, except with regard to NH and WH, with AG 1051 being superior. The cultivars did not differ between total number of ears and number of marketable unhusked green ears. However, cultivars AG 1051 and AG 2060 were the best with respect to marketable unhusked green ears and number and weight of marketable husked green ears. Cultivar AG 1051 was the best with regard to kernel yield.No milho, se a primeira inflorescência feminina é removida, existe frequentemente a produção de novas inflorescências femininas. Isso possibilita que a primeira espiga seja colhida como minimilho (MM e a segunda, como milho verde (MV, ou milho seco (MS, isto é, milho maduro. A flexibilidade proporcionada pela colheita de vários produtos permite ao agricultor competir melhor nos mercados. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os rendimentos de MM, MV e MS das cultivares AG 1051, AG 2060 e BRS 2020, ap

  17. Risk zones of human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean basin: correlations between vector sand flies, bioclimatology and phytosociology. (United States)

    Rispail, Philippe; Dereure, Jacques; Jarry, Daniel


    Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical distribution of these diseases in the Western Mediterranean basin and contributes to the determination, in a rational manner, of the high risk zones.

  18. Fungal infections in corn picker hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Tomašev Milana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Hand injuries caused by corn pickers are relatively rare but in most cases extensive, with massive tissue destruction. Severe wounds sustained during agricultural work are contaminated, with high incidence of infection. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of fungal infection in corn picker injuries and their impact on the course and outcome of treatment. Methods. Corn picker hand injuries for the period 2006-2012 were analyzed. After setting up clinical suspicion, direct examination of repeated swabs and histopathological analysis of biopsy material were done in order to detect fungi. Results. From the total number of 60 patients, there was a fungal infection in nine of them (which makes 15% of the total number of patients. Aspergillus spp. was isolated in seven patients, Candida spp. in three, and Mucor spp. in one patient. None of the patients had increased risk factors for developing a fungal infection. In most cases, there was loss of graft and tissue necrosis in previously normally looking wound, after seven or more days. All patients were treated with repeated surgical debridement and concomitant parenteral and topical application of appropriate antifungal agents. There was no need for reamputation in any patient. Conclusion. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are needed for early diagnosis of fungal infection. Confirmation of diagnosis and the initiation of surgical and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for a successful outcome.

  19. Calcium Transport by Corn Mitochondria 1 (United States)

    Silva, Marco Aurelio P.; Carnieri, Eva G. S.; Vercesi, Anibal E.


    Mitochondria from some plant tissues possess the ability to take up Ca2+ by a phosphate-dependent mechanism associated with a decrease in membrane potential, H+ extrusion, and increase in the rate of respiration (AE Vercesi, L Pereira da Silva, IS Martins, CF Bernardes, EGS Carnieri, MM Fagian [1989] In G Fiskum, ed, Cell Calcium Metabolism. Plenum Press, New York, pp 103-111). The present study reexamined the nature of the phosphate requirement in this process. The main observations are: (a) Respiration-coupled Ca2+ uptake by isolated corn (Zea mays var Maya Normal) mitochondria or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone-induced efflux of the cation from such mitochondria are sensitive to mersalyl and cannot be dissociated from the silmultaneous movement of phosphate in the same direction. (b) Ruthenium red-induced efflux is not affected by mersalyl and can occur in the absence of phosphate movement. (c) In Ca2+-loaded corn mitochondria, mersalyl causes net Ca2+ release unrelated to a decrease in membrane potential, probably due to an inhibition of Ca2+ cycling at the level of the influx pathway. It is concluded that corn mitochondria (and probably other plant mitochondria) do possess an electrophoretic influx pathway that appears to be a mersalyl-sensitive Ca2+/inorganic phosphate-symporter and a phosphate-independent efflux pathway possibly similar to the Na2+-independent Ca2+ efflux mechanism of vertebrate mitochondria, because it is not stimulated by Na+. PMID:16668661

  20. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira


    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  1. Modulation of forelimb and hindlimb muscle activity during quadrupedal tied-belt and split-belt locomotion in intact cats. (United States)

    Frigon, A; Thibaudier, Y; Hurteau, M-F


    The modulation of the neural output to forelimb and hindlimb muscles when the left and right sides step at different speeds from one another in quadrupeds was assessed by obtaining electromyography (EMG) in seven intact adult cats during split-belt locomotion. To determine if changes in EMG during split-belt locomotion were modulated according to the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, values were compared to those obtained during tied-belt locomotion (equal left-right speeds) at matched speeds. Cats were chronically implanted for EMG, which was obtained from six muscles: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, sartorius, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. During tied-belt locomotion, cats stepped from 0.4 to 1.0m/s in 0.1m/s increments whereas during split-belt locomotion, cats stepped with left-right speed differences of 0.1 to 0.4m/s in 0.1m/s increments. During tied-belt locomotion, EMG burst durations and mean EMG amplitudes of all muscles respectively decreased and increased with increasing speed. During split-belt locomotion, there was a clear differential modulation of the EMG patterns between flexors and extensors and between the slow and fast sides. Changes in the EMG pattern of some muscles could be explained by the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, while in other muscles there were clear dissociations from tied-belt values at matched speeds. Therefore, results show that EMG patterns during split-belt locomotion are modulated to meet task requirements partly via signals related to the stepping speed of the homonymous limb and from the other limbs.

  2. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.


    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  3. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Abraão


    Full Text Available We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  4. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron


    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  5. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  6. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron


    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  7. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  8. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.


    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  9. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.


    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a differenc

  11. Human neuronal interlimb coordination during split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, V.; Zijlstra, W.G.; Duysens, J.E.J.


    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a differenc

  12. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R


    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  13. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation. (United States)

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong


    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  14. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign. (United States)

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  15. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 23, 2011 ... has been estimated that using seat belts can reduce the risk ... 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage among vehicle occupants in Makurdi, Benue. State ... In Nigeria, the Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) was.

  16. Research and simulation on the rollover system of corn harvester (United States)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun


    The structural characteristics of our country's corn harvester are narrow-track, high centroid and existence of eccentric distance, so rollover accident is easily to occur when driving in mountainous and hilly regions. In order to improve the design quality of corn harvester and enhance the security of operation, it is of great significance to research the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester. Hydro-pneumatic suspension has powerful function of adjusting the balance of automobile body and good shock absorption function. In this paper, hydro-pneumatic suspension is applied to the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester to improve the ability of anti-rollover. At last using ADAMS simulation technology to simulate the roll stability of traditional corn harvester and the corn harvester with hydro pneumatic suspension, then calculating the heeling angle in both cases.

  17. Metamorphic and age constraints on tectono-thermal reworking in the western H.U. Sverdrupfjella: A new crustal evolution model for Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (United States)

    Grosch, Eugene; Frimmel, Hartwig; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Košler, Jan


    Western Dronning Maud Land (WDML) of East Antarctica is argued to consist of two major crustal domains, namely the low-grade Archaean Kalahari-Grunehogna Craton and the high-grade Maud belt (e.g. Grantham et al., 1995; Jacobs et al. 2008). The geodynamic and tectono-thermal crustal evolution histories of these two proposed domains remain a debated topic in Rodinia and Gondwana reconstructions. In this study we conducted a petrological and metamorphic comparison of Mesoproterozoic metabasic rocks on the eastern margin of the Archaean Grunehogna Craton and the adjacent westernmost Maud Belt, across a major structural discontinuity known as the Pencksökket-Jutulstraumen Discontinuity (PJD). As such we evaluate to what extent the two domains of WDML represent independent crustal growth and metamorphic histories. Metamorphic constraints on low-grade rocks on the eastern Grunehogna craton record greenschist facies conditions of T = 340 ± 25oC and P = 2.9 ± 0.8 kbar. The high-grade PT-constraint of T =700 ± 30oC and P = 9.0 ± 2 kbar for the western extreme of the Maud Belt, derived from garnet-hornblende-plagioclase-quartz geothermobarometry and phase diagram modeling in PERPLEX, is very similar to that reported for the eastern Maud Belt and thus, does not support the concept of a westward decreasing metamorphic field gradient within the Maud Belt as previously proposed. Laser-ablation-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of titanite in a hornblende-plagioclase-quartz symplectite (after garnet breakdown), yielded a Pan-African age for high-grade metamorphism in the westernmost Maud belt, which overlaps with the age of tectonic decompression in the eastern Maud Belt. The new U-Pb age data argues against previous models that invoke only late-Mesoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism in the western Maud Belt. The new petrological data indicate that the inferred sub-glacial boundary (PJD) between the Grunehogna Craton and the Maud Belt, represents a major metamorphic hiatus as a Pan

  18. Discovery of Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn intermetallic minerals and its significance for genesis of the Mianning-Dechang REE Metallogenic Belt, Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yuling; HOU Zengqian; XU Jiuhua; YUAN Zhongxin; BAI Ge; LI Xiaoyu


    Mianning-Dechang Himalayan REE Metallogenetic Belt in Sichuan Province lies along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton. We have conducted detailed mineralogical studies on ore minerals collected from Maoniuping and Dalucao, the two largest deposits in the belt. With optical microscope, SEM/EDS, and EPMA, three rare intermetallic minerals, i.e., zinccopperite (Cu2Zn), Sn- bearing native copper, and Cu-bearing jupiter were found to occur in the main ore along with barite, fluorite, apatite, sulfide and bastnaesite. Since the conditions under which zinccopperite and Sn- bearing native copper formed are quite unique, finding of these minerals, for the first time in domestic REE deposits, has significant implications for the genesis of the ore deposits in which they occur. In comparison with Cu-Zn intermetallic minerals in other occurrences, we propose that the formation of this REE metallogenetic belt is associated with fast upwelling of the Himalayan magma from deep source.

  19. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  20. Nonoperative management of pediatric aortic injury with seat belt syndrome. (United States)

    Parrish, Dan W; Barnhorst, Amanda; Trebska-McGowan, Katarzyna; Amendola, Michael; Haynes, Jeffrey H


    "Seat belt syndrome" was first described by Garret and Braunstein in 1962. The syndrome involves skin and abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) intra-abdominal solid organ and visceral injuries, as well as Chance fractures (compression and/or wedging deformity of the anterior portion of the vertebral body with disruption or fracture of the posterior elements, generally at L1-L3). We present a case of a 12-year-old male involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision wearing only a lap belt resulting in seat belt syndrome, with disruption of the abdominal wall, mesenteric avulsion with multiple intestinal perforations, abdominal aortic dissection, and an L2 Chance fracture with cord transection. Intraoperative decision making is outlined with this scenario of complex injuries, and the literature of seat belt syndrome associated with blunt aortic injuries and its management is reviewed.