WorldWideScience

Sample records for western central pacific

  1. 77 FR 8758 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species; High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (Convention). These regulations would implement certain decisions of the Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly... Convention focuses on the conservation and management of HMS and the management of fisheries for HMS. As a...

  2. Lagrangian mixed layer modeling of the western equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Toshiaki; Lukas, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Processes that control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equatorial Pacific are examined using a Lagrangian mixed layer model. The one-dimensional bulk mixed layer model of Garwood (1977) is integrated along the trajectories derived from a nonlinear 1 1/2 layer reduced gravity model forced with actual wind fields. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are used to estimate surface freshwater fluxes for the mixed layer model. The wind stress data which forced the 1 1/2 layer model are used for the mixed layer model. The model was run for the period 1987-1988. This simple model is able to simulate the isothermal layer below the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool and its variation. The subduction mechanism hypothesized by Lukas and Lindstrom (1991) is evident in the model results. During periods of strong South Equatorial Current, the warm and salty mixed layer waters in the central Pacific are subducted below the fresh shallow mixed layer in the western Pacific. However, this subduction mechanism is not evident when upwelling Rossby waves reach the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific due to episodes of strong wind and light precipitation associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Comparison of the results between the Lagrangian mixed layer model and a locally forced Eulerian mixed layer model indicated that horizontal advection of salty waters from the central Pacific strongly affects the upper ocean salinity variation in the western Pacific, and that this advection is necessary to maintain the upper ocean thermohaline structure in this region.

  3. A decadal tropical Pacific condition unfavorable to central Pacific El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenxiu; Zheng, Xiao-Tong; Cai, Wenju

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of central Pacific (CP) El Niño events displays strong decadal variability but the associated dynamics are unclear. The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) are two dominant modes of tropical Pacific decadal variability that can interact with high-frequency activities. Using a 500 year control integration from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, we find that the difference in mean state between the low-frequency and high-frequency CP El Niño periods is similar to the decadal background condition concurrently contributed by a negative IPO and a positive TPDV. This decadal state features strengthened trade winds west of the International Date Line and anomalous cool sea surface temperatures across the central tropical Pacific. As such, positive zonal advection feedback is difficult to be generated over the central to western tropical Pacific during the CP El Niño developing season, resulting in the low CP El Niño frequency.

  4. 77 FR 51709 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Migratory Species; Bigeye Tuna Catch Limit in Longline Fisheries for 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (Pelagics FEP) developed by the Western Pacific Fishery Management... Pelagics FEP. Section 113(a) further directs the Secretary of Commerce, for the purposes of annual...

  5. Decadal fluctuations in the western Pacific recorded by long precipitation records in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Guan, Biing T.

    2018-03-01

    A 110-year precipitation record in Taiwan, located at the western edge of the subtropical North Pacific, depicts a pronounced quasi-decadal oscillation (QDO). The QDO in Taiwan exhibits a fluctuating relationship with the similar decadal variations of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific, known as the Pacific QDO. A regime change was observed around 1960, such that the decadal variation of Taiwan's precipitation became more synchronized with the Pacific QDO's coupled evolutions of SST and atmospheric circulation than before, while the underlying pattern of the Pacific QOD did not change. Using long-term reanalysis data and CMIP5 single-forcing experiments, the presented analysis suggests that increased SST in the subtropical western Pacific and the strengthened western extension of the North Pacific subtropical anticyclone may have collectively enhanced the relationship between the Taiwan precipitation and the Pacific QDO. This finding provides possible clues to similar regime changes in quasi-decadal variability observed around the western Pacific rim.

  6. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelsey; Haynes, David; Talouli, Anthony; Donoghue, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.

  7. Relationship of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation intensity over the tropical western North Pacific to tropical Indo-Pacific SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The present study contrasts interannual variations in the intensity of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the tropical western North Pacific and their factors. A pronounced difference is found in the relationship of the two ISOs to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The 10-20-day ISO intensity is enhanced during El Niño developing summer, whereas the 30-60-day ISO intensity is enhanced during La Niña decaying summer. The above different relationship is interpreted as follows. The equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies modify vertical wind shear, lower-level moisture, and vertical motion in a southeast-northwest oriented band from the equatorial western Pacific to the tropical western North Pacific where the 10-20-day ISOs originate and propagate. These background field changes modulate the amplitude of 10-20-day ISOs. Preceding equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies induce SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean in summer, which in turn modify vertical wind shear and vertical motion over the tropical western North Pacific. The modified background fields influence the amplitude of the 30-60-day ISOs when they reach the tropical western North Pacific from the equatorial region. A feedback of ISO intensity on local SST change is identified in the tropical western North Pacific likely due to a net effect of ISOs on surface heat flux anomalies. This feedback is more prominent from the 10-20-day than the 30-60-day ISO intensity change.

  8. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  9. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  10. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  11. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  12. Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific - University of Guam Skip to main entered the website of the Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific (WERI) at the CNMI and the FSM. Research Programs Weather and Climate Surface Water & Watersheds Groundwater &

  13. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Minjoong J.; Jeong, Jaein I.; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contribute to reducing the precipitation in the western-to-central US through atmospheric teleconnections across the Pacific. Our model experiments show some indications that both the SST forcing and the increase in regional sulphate forcing in China play a similar role in modulating the western-to-central US precipitation, especially its long-term variation. This result indicates that regional air quality regulations in China have important implications for hydrological cycles in East Asia, as well as in the US.

  14. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (F ST = 0.08-0.44, P eastern Pacific Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary "graveyards", serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation.

  15. Can Cooperative Management of Tuna Fisheries in the Western Pacific Solve the Growth Overfishing Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.; Martell, S.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Tuna fisheries in the western and central Pacific Ocean are important globally for both food and economic security. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna stocks in this region are declining, in part due to the juvenile bycatch of these species by the purse seine fishery using floating objects and fish

  16. 76 FR 13604 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    .... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a Western Pacific Stock... councils and NOAA Fisheries to conduct a review and revision of the EFH components of fisheries management... and enhancement of EFH for each Fishery Management Plan. The Act requires that both steps of the...

  17. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang Zhongliang

    2007-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by γ spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137 Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m -3 over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137 Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137 Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137 Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400 ± 30 Bq m -2 to 560 ± 30 Bq m -2 during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 ± 70 Bq m -2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 ± 90 Bq m -2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137 Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137 Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9 ± 0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1 ± 0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137 Cs deposition density in 10 o latitude by 10 deg. longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137 Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137 Cs from

  18. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  19. Decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam modulated by the East Pacific–North Pacific (EP–NP) teleconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R; Wang, S-Y; Gillies, R R; Cho, C; Buckley, B M; Truong, L H

    2015-01-01

    Autumn precipitation over Central Vietnam is associated with an increase in the occurrence of tropical cyclones that lead to frequent flooding and pose a significant threat to lives and property. The present analyses reveal a pronounced decadal oscillation of autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam within the 8–11 year frequency band that is modulated by the East Pacific–North Pacific (EP–NP) teleconnection. The negative phase of the EP–NP pattern is associated with a positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the South China Sea (SCS) that induces low-level convergence, enhances convection, and increases precipitation over Central Vietnam and adjacent islands including Hainan (China) and the Philippines. This circulation feature around the SCS is embedded in a large-scale circulation associated with SST anomalies across the Pacific Ocean—i.e., cooling in the Eastern and Central tropical Pacific sandwiched by warming in the North and South Pacific as well as the Western Pacific Ocean. The positive phase of the EP–NP features opposite SST and circulation anomalies, with the result being reduced rainfall in Central Vietnam. This out-of-phase relationship and shared decadal spectral coherence between the EP–NP index and autumn precipitation in Central Vietnam might be useful for future climate predictions and flood management. (letter)

  20. Interannual Variations in the Synoptic-Scale Disturbances over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingyan; Lu, Riyu

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigates the interannual variation of synoptic disturbance activities over the western North Pacific (WNP) and its relationship with the large-scale circulation and tropical SST during June-November for the period 1958-2014. It is shown that the interannual variability of 850-hPa eddy kinetic energy (EKE) anomalies over the WNP could be well described by its two leading modes of EOF, i.e., northeast pattern and southwest pattern. The high value zone of former is located over the WNP, while latter around the Philippines, which just overlap a broad area of the WNP. Background flows play an important role in the formation of these two patterns, it could induce the cyclonic ( anticyclonic ) anomalies over the variation centers which favors ( disfavors) synoptic eddies to get kinetic energy from the mean flows through barotropic energy conversion. The SST anomalies of the equatorial central and eastern Pacific also contribute to these two patterns. When the SST of equatorial central and eastern Pacific above (below) the normal, a cyclonic (anticyclonic) anomaly appears in the Philippine Sea while an anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly happens in the South China Sea, which will induce positive (negative) EKE anomalies over the WNP but negative (positive) anomalies over the South China Sea and the Philippines.

  1. Theories on formation of an anomalous anticyclone in western North Pacific during El Niño: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tim; Wang, Bin; Wu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun; Chang, Chih-Pei; Zhang, Renhe

    2017-12-01

    The western North Pacific anomalous anticyclone (WNPAC) is an important atmospheric circulation system that conveys El Niño impact on East Asian climate. In this review paper, various theories on the formation and maintenance of the WNPAC, including warm pool atmosphere-ocean interaction, Indian Ocean capacitor, a combination mode that emphasizes nonlinear interaction between ENSO and annual cycle, moist enthalpy advection/Rossby wave modulation, and central Pacific SST forcing, are discussed. It is concluded that local atmosphere-ocean interaction and moist enthalpy advection/Rossby wave modulation mechanisms are essential for the initial development and maintenance of the WNPAC during El Niño mature winter and subsequent spring. The Indian Ocean capacitor mechanism does not contribute to the earlier development but helps maintain the WNPAC in El Niño decaying summer. The cold SST anomaly in the western North Pacific, although damped in the summer, also plays a role. An interbasin atmosphere-ocean interaction across the Indo-Pacific warm pool emerges as a new mechanism in summer. In addition, the central Pacific cold SST anomaly may induce the WNPAC during rapid El Niño decaying/La Niña developing or La Niña persisting summer. The near-annual periods predicted by the combination mode theory are hardly detected from observations and thus do not contribute to the formation of the WNPAC. The tropical Atlantic may have a capacitor effect similar to the tropical Indian Ocean.

  2. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  3. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertical Distribution of Temperature in Transitional Season II and West Monsoon in Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranoto, Hikari A. H.; Kunarso; Soeyanto, Endro

    2018-02-01

    Western Pacific is the water mass intersection from both the Northern Pacific and Southern Pacific ocean. The Western Pacific ocean is warm pool area which formed by several warm surface currents. As a warm pool area and also the water mass intersection, western Pacific ocean becomes an interesting study area. The object of this study is to describe the temperature vertical distribution by mooring buoy and temporally in transitional season II (September - November 2014) and west monsoon (December 2014 - February 2015) in Western Pacific. Vertical temperature and wind speed data that was used in this study was recorded by INA-TRITON mooring instrument and obtained from Laboratory of Marine Survey, BPPT. Supporting data of this study was wind vector data from ECMWF to observe the relation between temperature distribution and monsoon. The quantitative approach was used in this study by processing temperature and wind data from INA-TRITON and interpreted graphically. In the area of study, it was found that in transitional season II the range of sea surface temperature to 500-meter depth was about 8.29 - 29.90 °C while in west monsoon was 8.12 - 29.45 °C. According to the research result, the sea SST of western Pacific ocean was related to monsoonal change with SST and wind speed correlation coefficient was 0.78. While the deep layer temperature was affected by water mass flow which passes through the western Pacific Ocean.

  5. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason B.; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  6. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  7. Western tropical Pacific multidecadal variability forced by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, F.; Sun, C.; Li, J.; Jin, F. F.; Kang, I. S.; Ding, R.

    2017-12-01

    Observational analysis suggests that the western tropical Pacific (WTP) sea surface temperature (SST) shows predominant variability over multidecadal time scales, which is unlikely to be explained by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation. Here we show that this variability is largely explained by the remote Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). A suite of Atlantic Pacemaker experiments successfully reproduces the WTP multidecadal variability and the AMO-WTP SST connection. The AMO warm SST anomaly generates an atmospheric teleconnection to the North Pacific, which weakens the Aleutian low and subtropical North Pacific westerlies. The wind changes induce a subtropical North Pacific SST warming through wind-evaporation-SST effect, and in response to this warming, the surface winds converge towards the subtropical North Pacific from the tropics, leading to anomalous cyclonic circulation and low pressure over the WTP region. The warm SST anomaly further develops due to the SST-sea level pressure-cloud-longwave radiation positive feedback. Our findings suggest that the Atlantic Ocean acts as a key pacemaker for the western Pacific decadal climate variability.

  8. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  9. 77 FR 6786 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... meeting dates and times. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) announces... Merizo Community Meeting 6 p.m.-9 p.m., Wednesday, February 29, 2012 1. Introduction 2. Community Based...

  10. 78 FR 20616 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold meeting of its Pelagics Plan... the Council Pelagics Conference Room to discuss the following agenda items: Tuesday, April 23, 2013, 8...

  11. 77 FR 22286 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Pelagics Plan... pelagics annual report module changes 4. American Samoa annual report module changes 5. Summary of current...

  12. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  13. Spatial δ18Osw-SSS relationship across the western tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Conroy, J. L.; Wyman, A.; Read, D.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic hydroclimate processes across the western tropical Pacific lead to strong spatial and temporal variability in δ18Osw and sea-surface salinity (SSS) across the western Pacific. Corals in this region have therefore provided key information about past SSS variability, as δ18Osw contributes strongly to coral δ18O across this region. However, uncertainties in the δ18Osw-SSS relationship across space and time often limit quantitative SSS reconstructions from such coral records. Recent work demonstrates considerable variability in the δ18Osw-SSS relationship across the Pacific, which may lead to over- or under-estimation of the contribution of SSS to coral δ18O, particularly across the western tropical Pacific (Conroy et al. 2017). Here we assess the spatial δ18Osw-SSS relationship across the dynamic western tropical Pacific, capitalizing on a transit between Subic Bay, Philippines and Townsville, Australia aboard the International Ocean Discovery program's JOIDES Resolution. Water samples and weather conditions were collected 3 times daily (6:00, 12:00, 18:00) en route, resulting in a network of 47 samples spaced at semi-regular 130-260 km intervals across the western Pacific from 14°N to 18°S. The route also crossed near long-term δ18Osw monitoring sites at Papua New Guinea and Palau (Conroy et al. 2017), allowing us to compare the spatial and temporal δ18Osw-SSS relationships at these sites and test the space-for-time assumption. We present the δ18Osw-SSS relationship across this region, compare the relationship across space and time, and discuss the implications of our results for SSS reconstructions from coral δ18O.

  14. Reactive nitrogen over the tropical western Pacific: Influence from lightning and biomass burning during BIBLE A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Nishi, N.; Liu, S. C.; Blake, D.; Ko, M.; Akutagawa, D.; Kawakami, S.; Takegawa, N.; Zhao, Y.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment phase A (BIBLE A) aircraft campaign was carried out over the tropical western Pacific in September and October 1998. During this period, biomass burning activity in Indonesia was quite weak. Mixing ratios of NOx and NOy in air masses that had crossed over the Indonesian islands within 3 days prior to the measurement (Indonesian air masses) were systematically higher than those in air masses originating from the central Pacific (tropical air masses). Sixty percent of the Indonesian air masses at 9-13 km (upper troposphere, UT) originated from the central Pacific. The differences in NOy mixing ratio between these two types of air masses were likely due to processes that occurred while air masses were over the Islands. Evidence presented in this paper suggests convection carries material from the surface, and NO is produced from lightning. At altitudes below 3 km (lower troposphere, LT), typical gradient of NOx and NOy to CO (dNOy/dCO and dNOx/dCO) was smaller than that in the biomass burning plumes and in urban areas, suggesting that neither source has a dominant influence. When the CO-NOx and CO-NOy relationships in the UT are compared to the reference relationships chosen for the LT, the NOx and NOy values are higher by 40-60 pptv (80% of NOx) and 70-100 pptv (50% of NOy). This difference is attributed to in situ production of NO by lightning. Analyses using air mass trajectories and geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS) derived cloud height data show that convection over land, which could be accompanied by lightning activity, increases the NOx values, while convection over the ocean generally lowers the NOx level. These processes are found to have a significant impact on the O3 production rate over the tropical western Pacific.

  15. The Nova-Canton Trough and the Late Cretaceous evolution of the central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Devorah; Taylor, Brain; Shor, Alexander N.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu

    Free-air gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry data show that the major Pacific fracture zones, from the Pau to Marquesas, are co-polar about an Euler pole located at 150.5°W, 34.6°S for the period preceding chron 33 and including a large portion of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. They also show continuity of the Clipperton Fracture Zone through the Line Islands to the Nova-Canton ridge and trough; this Canton-Clipperton trend is co-polar to the same pole. Sidescan-sonar and bathymetry data in the Nova-Canton Trough region reveal N140°E-striking abyssal hill topography south of the N70°E-striking structures of the Nova-Canton Trough and crustal fabric striking normal to the trough (N160°E) to the north. We conclude that the Nova-Canton Trough is the Middle Cretaceous extension of the Clipperton Fracture Zone. We propose that the anomalous depths (7000-8400 m) of the trough between 167°30'-168°30'W are the result of a complex plate reorganization. Conjugate magnetic anomaly lineations M1-M3 in the Phoenix lineations between the Central Pacific Fracture Zone and the Phoenix Fracture Zone and the absence of lineations younger than anomaly M3 west of the Phoenix Fracture Zone suggest that spreading may have gradually ceased along the Pacific-Phoenix system from west to east. We infer that the remaining active segment of the Pacific-Phoenix spreading system after anomaly M1 time was the easternmost section of the Phoenix lineations. At ˜M0 time, the Pacific-Phoenix spreading axis stretched from lineated bathymetric depressions lying between 180°W and the Phoenix Islands to ˜168°W and included the western deep of the Nova-Canton Trough. We hypothesize that accretion terminated on the Pacific-Phoenix spreading axis shortly after M0 time and that the absence of an M0 isochron in the region between the eastern Phoenix lineations and the Nova-Canton Trough, or along the Nova-Canton Trough itself, may be due to a decrease in spreading rate prior to

  16. Enhanced Influence of the Tropical Atlantic SST on the Western North Pacific Subtropical High after late 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) in boreal summer shows a remarkable enhancement after the late 1970s. Whereas the sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) and the equatorial eastern Pacific (EEP) had been noted to have remarkable local or remote effects on enhancing the WNPSH, the influence of the Atlantic SST, so far, is hardly explored. This article reports a new finding: enhanced relationship between the tropical Atlantic (TA)-SST and the WNPSH after the late 1970s. Regression study suggests that the warm TA-SST produced a zonally overturning circulation anomaly, with descending over the central equatorial Pacific and ascending over the tropical Atlantic/eastern Pacific. The anomalous descending over the central equatorial Pacific likely induced low-level anticyclonic anomaly to the west and therefore enhanced the WNPSH. One implication of this new finding is for predictability. The well-known "spring predictability barrier" (i.e., the influence of El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) falls dramatically during boreal spring) does not apply to the TA-SST/WNPSH relationship. Conversely, the TA-SST shows consistently high correlation starting from boreal spring when the ENSO influence continues declining. The TA-SST pushes the predictability of the WNPSH in boreal summer approximately one season earlier to boreal spring.

  17. 75 FR 2197 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Regulatory Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA..., and Western Pacific Pelagics), and the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that... Section 3507 of the PRA requires that agencies inventory and display a current control number assigned by...

  18. Sub-seasonal prediction of significant wave heights over the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans, part II: The impact of ENSO and MJO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ravi P.; Kinter, James L.; Shin, Chul-Su

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluates the effect of El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) events on 14-day mean significant wave height (SWH) at 3 weeks lead time (Wk34) over the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2). The WAVEWATCH-3 (WW3) model is forced with daily 10m-winds predicted by a modified version of CFSv2 that is initialized with multiple ocean analyses in both January and May for 1979-2008. A significant anomaly correlation of predicted and observed SWH anomalies (SWHA) at Wk34 lead-time is found over portions of the domain, including the central western Pacific, South China Sea (SCS), Bay of Bengal (BOB) and southern Indian Ocean (IO) in January cases, and over BOB, equatorial western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and southern IO in May cases. The model successfully predicts almost all the important features of the observed composite SWHA during El Niño events in January, including negative SWHA in the central IO where westerly wind anomalies act on an easterly mean state, and positive SWHA over the southern Ocean (SO) where westerly wind anomalies act on a westerly mean state. The model successfully predicts the sign and magnitude of SWHA at Wk34 lead-time in May over the BOB and SCS in composites of combined phases-2-3 and phases-6-7 of MJO. The observed leading mode of SWHA in May and the third mode of SWHA in January are influenced by the combined effects of ENSO and MJO. Based on spatial and temporal correlations, the spatial patterns of SWHA in the model at Wk34 in both January and May are in good agreement with the observations over the equatorial western Pacific, equatorial and southern IO, and SO.

  19. Coccolith Assemblages and Primary Productivity Variations in the Central Western Pacific Warm Pool Over the Last 380 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Liu, Chuanlian

    2018-06-01

    Coccolith assemblages in two gravity cores (KX21-2 and KX12-1) from the central Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) have been analyzed with SYRACO. The variations of nutricline and primary productivity ( PP) have been reconstructed based on these assemblages. The results show that the coccolith assemblages were dominated by Florisphaera profunda, Gephyrocapsa and Emiliania huxleyi over the last 380 kyr. Variations of nutricline and primary productivity can be divided into three intervals. Interval I (about 380-300 kyr): PP was high and nutricline was shallow; Interval II (about 300-160 kyr): PP decreased dramatically for a short time after the acme of G. caribbeanica in Mid-Brunhes while nutricline became deeper; Interval III (about 160 kyr-present): PP fluctuated at low levels and nutricline was deep. Variations of each coccolith taxon and PP were highly correlated in the two cores, which means that the geological environment is similar in the two cores. Spectrum analysis is performed for all coccolith taxons and PP, and the 19-kyr cycle is the most prominent. It means that the production of coccolithophores in the WPWP is mainly controlled by precession.

  20. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  1. Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons over the western Pacific between 43° and 4°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quack, Birgit; Suess, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    A spectrum of halogenated hydrocarbon compounds in marine air masses were surveyed over an area in the western Pacific between 43°N, 150°E and 4°N, 113°E in September 1994. The ship's track between northern Japan and Singapore traversed three climatic zones of the northern hemisphere. Recently polluted air, clean marine air derived from the central Pacific Ocean from different latitudes, and marine air from the Indonesian archipelago were collected. Tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene of anthropogenic origin, brominated halocarbons as tribromomethane, dibromochloromethane and bromodichloromethane of anthropogenic and natural sources, and other trace gases were measured in the air samples. Very sparse data on the distribution of these compounds exist for the western Pacific atmosphere. The distribution patterns of the compounds were related to synoptic-scale meteorology, spatial conditions, and origin of the air masses. Anthropogenic and natural sources for both chlorinated and brominated substances were identified. Tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene concentrations and their ratios identify anthropogenic sources. Their mixing ratios were quite low compared to previously published data. They are in agreement with expected low concentrations of photochemically active substances during autumn, with an overall decrease in concentrations toward lower latitudes, and with a decrease of emissions during recent years. Strong evidence for a natural source of trichloroethene was discovered in the tropical region. The concentrations of naturally released brominated species were high compared to other measurements over the Pacific. Gradients toward the coasts and elevated concentrations in air masses influenced by coastal emissions point to significant coastal sources of these compounds. The trace gas composition of anthropogenic and natural compounds clearly identified the air masses which were traversed during the cruise.

  2. Spring Arctic Oscillation-East Asian summer monsoon connection through circulation changes over the western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Yang, Jing; Hu, Miao [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing (China); Kim, Seong-Joong [Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Gao, Yongqi [Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, IAP/CAS, Beijing (China); Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center/Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Guo, Dong [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing (China); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, IAP/CAS, Beijing (China); Zhou, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), IAP/CAS, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-15

    In the present study the links between spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) was investigated with focus on the importance of the North Pacific atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature (SST). To reduce the statistical uncertainty, we analyzed high-pass filtered data with the inter-annual time scales, and excluded the El Nino/Southern Oscillation signals in the climate fields using a linear fitting method. The significant relationship between spring AO and EASM are supported by the changes of multi-monsoon components, including monsoon indices, precipitation, and three-dimensional atmospheric circulations. Following a stronger positive spring AO, an anomalous cyclonic circulation at 850 hPa appears in southeastern Asia and the western North Pacific in summer, with the easterly anomalies spanning from the Pacific to Asian continent along 25 N-30 N and the westerly anomalies south of 15 N. At the same time, the summer western North Pacific subtropical high becomes weaker. Consistently, the positive precipitation anomalies are developed over a broad region south of 30 N stretching from southern China to the western Pacific and the negative precipitation anomalies appear in the lower valley of the Yangtze River and southern Japan. The anomalous cyclone in the western North Pacific persisting from spring to summer plays a key role in modulating EASM and monsoon precipitation by a positive air-sea feedback mechanism. During spring the AO-associated atmospheric circulation change produces warmer SSTs between 150 E-180 near the equator. The anomalous sensible and latent heating, in turn, intensifies the cyclone through a Gill-type response of the atmosphere. Through this positive feedback, the tropical atmosphere and SST patterns sustain their strength from spring to summer, that consequently modifies the monsoon trough and the western North Pacific subtropical high and eventually the EASM precipitation. Moreover, the SST response to

  3. Preliminary study on the characteristics of aerosols over the western pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhaohui; Liu Pingsheng; Liu Shijie; Yao Ying; Feng Guohua

    1996-01-01

    Marine aerosol from the western Pacific were collected by two types of samplers during a cruise from Nanhai of China through the west of Philippines to the equatorial and to the north-eastern of Solomon Archipelago. Collected samples were analyzed by PIXE. The data gave aerosol characteristics over the western Pacific, including concentrations, enrichments and mass size distributions of detected elements, and possible sources of these elements were specially researched. The result indicates that Al, Si and Fe were associated with soil particles; Cl, Br, K, Ca and S showed characteristics of the sea-salt origin; and Cu, Zn, and Pb were due to pollution from long-range transport of continental aerosol. We have also made comparison with data obtained in earlier studies over other regions of the Pacific. (author)

  4. 50 CFR 665.20 - Western Pacific Community Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... western Pacific fisheries and, in recent years, have not had harvesting, processing or marketing... (including existing experimental harvesting, if any) of the target, incidental, and bycatch species. (iii) A... impacts on target and non-target stocks, marine mammals, and threatened or endangered species. (3) Within...

  5. Revisiting the La Nina 1998 phytoplankton blooms in the equatorial Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgues, T.; Menkès, Christophe; Slemons, L.; Aumont, Olivier; Dandonneau, Yves; Radenac, Marie-Hélène; Alvain, S.; Moulin, C.

    2010-01-01

    A biogeochemical model of the tropical Pacific has been used to assess the impact of interannual variability in a western Pacific iron source on the iron-limited ecosystem of the central and eastern Pacific during the 1997-1998 El Nino A reference simulation and two simulations with an iron source in the western Pacific have been performed The two "source" simulations differed only in the temporal variability of the iron source. In the variable source simulation, the iron concentration in the...

  6. Comparaison of last centuries variability in the eastern and central Pacific reconstructed from massive coral geochemical tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Melanie; Corrège, Thierry; Cole, Julie; Le Cornec, Florence; Edwards, Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Charlier, Karine

    2014-05-01

    The tropical Pacific is under the influence of different climate modes (from the seasonal to the decadal scale) and, through teleconnections, affects the global climate. At the seasonal scale the latitudinal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) drive the hydrological dynamic of the tropical zone. The tropical Pacific is also a place of strong and variable zonal gradients due to the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) at the interannual scale. A good amount of data is available in the western and the central part of the Pacific to reconstruct climatic parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) while there is a striking lack of data in the eastern part. To better estimate the zonal gradients in the tropical Pacific and the different climatic processes in the last two centuries, we present geochemical results (Sr/Ca and δ18O) obtained from aragonitic coral skeletons (Porites genus) from Clipperton atoll (10° N, 109° W) and the Marquesas Islands (10° S, 140° W). Clipperton being the only atoll located in the northern part of the ITCZ latitudinal migration area, information about eastern Pacific hydrological cycle and advection can be obtained. On the other hand, the precise chronology of the Clipperton coral and the comparaison with the records from the Marquesas Islands allows us to calculate SST gradients between the eastern and central Pacific. We will discuss about the recent theory of an El Niño-like condition triggered by a slowdown of the equatorial Walker circulation under global warming. We will also discuss about the evolution (frequency and intensity) of the two differents 'flavours' of El Niño (e.g. the canonical eastern El Niño and the central El Niño Modoki) through the 20thcentury. Indeed the canonical El Niño is characterised by a maximum SST anomaly in the eastern Pacific while the El Niño Modoki is characterised by a maximum SST anomaly persisting in the central Pacific. A

  7. Recent Progresses in Impacts of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean on East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the

  8. Impact of surface sensible heating over the Tibetan Plateau on the western Pacific subtropical high: A land-air-sea interaction perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Anmin; Sun, Ruizao; He, Jinhai

    2017-02-01

    The impact of surface sensible heating over the Tibetan Plateau (SHTP) on the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) with and without air-sea interaction was investigated in this study. Data analysis indicated that SHTP acts as a relatively independent factor in modulating the WPSH anomaly compared with ENSO events. Stronger spring SHTP is usually followed by an enhanced and westward extension of the WPSH in summer, and vice versa. Numerical experiments using both an AGCM and a CGCM confirmed that SHTP influences the large-scale circulation anomaly over the Pacific, which features a barotropic anticyclonic response over the northwestern Pacific and a cyclonic response to the south. Owing to different background circulation in spring and summer, such a response facilitates a subdued WPSH in spring but an enhanced WPSH in summer. Moreover, the CGCM results showed that the equatorial low-level westerly at the south edge of the cyclonic anomaly brings about a warm SST anomaly (SSTA) in the equatorial central Pacific via surface warm advection. Subsequently, an atmospheric Rossby wave is stimulated to the northwest of the warm SSTA, which in turn enhances the atmospheric dipole anomalies over the western Pacific. Therefore, the air-sea feedbacks involved tend to reinforce the effect of SHTP on the WPSH anomaly, and the role of SHTP on general circulation needs to be considered in a land-air-sea interaction framework.

  9. The recent extreme hydrological events in the Western Amazon Basin: The role of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, J.; Ronchail, J.; Guyot, J.; Santini, W.; Lavado, W.; Ore-Hybam Observatory

    2013-05-01

    The Peruvian Amazonas River, the main western tributary of the Amazon basin, has a huge drainage (750 000 km2, 50% of which lies in the Andes) and a mean discharge estimated in 32 000 m3/s, which correspond to 15% of the Amazon discharge at the estuary. Recently, in a context of significant discharge diminution during the low-water season (1970-2012), severe hydrological events, as intense droughts and floods, have been reported in the Peruvian Amazonas River. As they have not been always observed in other regions of the Amazon basin and because they have strong impacts on vulnerable riverside residents, we shall focus on the origin and the predictability of the western Amazon extremes, providing a review of the main findings about the climate features during recent extreme hydrological events in western Amazon. While the lowest discharge value was observed in September 2010 (8 300 m3/s) at the hydrological Tamshiyacu station (near to Iquitos city), a rapid transition toward a high discharge was noticed in April 2011 (45 000 m3/s). Finally, in April 2012, during the on going high waters period, the Amazonas River is experimenting its historical highest discharge (55 000 m3/s). Our work is based on several datasets including in-situ discharge and rainfall information from ORE-HYBAM observatory. Extreme droughts (1995, 2005 and 2010) are generally associated with positive SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic and weak trade winds and water vapor transport toward the western Amazon, which, in association with increased subsidence over central and southern Amazon, explain the lack of rainfall and very low discharge values. But, in 1998, toward the end of the 1997-98 El Niño event, the drought has been more likely related to an anomalous divergence of water vapor in the western Amazon that is characteristic of a warm event in the Pacific. The years with a rapid transition form low waters to very high floods (e.g. September 2010 to April 2011) are characterized

  10. 78 FR 32624 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Group B. Allocation C. Subsistence Fisheries Definition D. Cooperative Research Priorities E. National... Associated Cetacean Ecology Survey (PACES) C. Updates on Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal... Histories of Bottomfish: Hawaii and the Western Pacific D. Community Projects, Activities and Issues 1...

  11. 77 FR 34024 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and.... and 4 p.m. on June 28, 2012. Pelagics and International Fisheries is scheduled on the agenda for the...

  12. Long-term (2001-2012) trends of carbonaceous aerosols from a remote island in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Mozammel Haque, M.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports on long-term trends of carbonaceous aerosols in total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected at Chichijima in the western North Pacific during 2001-2012. Seasonal variations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations showed maxima in winter to spring and minima in summer. These seasonal differences in the concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were associated with the outflows of polluted air masses from East Asia, which are clearly distinguishable from pristine air masses from the central Pacific. The higher concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols during winter to spring are associated with long-range atmospheric transport of East Asian continental polluted air masses, whereas lower concentrations may be due to pristine air masses from the central Pacific in summer. The annual trends of OC / EC (+0.46 % yr-1), WSOC (+0.18 % yr-1) and WSOC / OC (+0.08 % yr-1) showed significant (p Asia.

  13. Changes in atmospheric rivers and moisture transport over the Northeast Pacific and western North America in response to ENSO diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Zhou, Yang; Alexander, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    The year-to-year changes in atmospheric rivers (ARs) and moisture transport over the northeast Pacific and western North America are investigated during December to February (DJF) from 1979/80 to 2015/16. Changes in AR frequency, intensity, and landfall characteristics are compared between three ENSO phases: central Pacific El Niño (CPEN), eastern Pacific El Niño (EPEN), and La Niña (NINA). During EPEN events, the subtropical jet extends to the south and east with an anomalous cyclonic flow around a deeper Aleutian Low. More moisture is transported towards North America and AR frequency is increased over western North America. In CPEN events, the Aleutian low shifts further southward relative to its position in EPEN, resulting in an increase in the frequency and intensity of landfalling ARs over the southwestern US. In NINA events, the landfalling AR frequency is reduced associated with anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the eastern North Pacific. We diagnose the contribution of multiple factors to the seasonal mean moisture transport using moisture budgets. During the three ENSO phases, the change in low-frequency circulation (dynamical process) is the leading contributor to the seasonal mean moisture flux divergence, while the contributions of the synoptic anomalies and the change in moisture anomaly (thermodynamic process) are not significant along the west coast of North America.

  14. Lagrangian Observations of the Deep Western Boundary Currents in the North Pacific During KERE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riser, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    .... This study resulted from the observation that numerical model solutions of upper ocean flows in the western Pacific often appear to depend on the state of the deep ocean flow near the western boundary...

  15. Modulation of the intraseasonal Indo-western Pacific convection oscillation to tropical cyclogenesis location and frequency over the Indo-western North Pacific during boreal extended summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyun; Li, Jianping; Li, Yanjie; Zhang, Jingwen

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the intraseasonal Indo-western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO) on the tropical cyclone (TC) genesis location and frequency over the Indo-western North Pacific during the boreal extended summer (May-October) is explored in this paper. Observational analysis shows that the impacts of the intraseasonal IPCO on TCs over the Indo-western North Pacific features in evident "locational phase lock of TC genesis" and distinct differences in TC frequency. In term of the WNP, when the intraseasonal IPCO is positive phase, there tends to be much more TCs, especially in the South China Sea (SCS), and more TCs generate in the west of the WNP and lower latitude (around 5°-20°N); vice versa. At the positive intraseasonal IPCO phase, the atmosphere gains heat through both sea-air interaction and the latent heat release of cumulus convective condensation, and the anomalous cyclonic circulation weakens the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), these conditions do favor the TC genesis. Moreover, the shrinking WPSH, the enhanced heat transfer from sea to air at the lower latitude as well as the westward shifts of heating center and anomalous cyclonic circulation lock TC genesis locations in the west of the WNP and lower latitude. The opposite situation occurs at negative phase. As for the North Indian Ocean (NIO), the TC genesis locations at the positive intraseasonal IPCO phase mainly situate in 13°-20°N and distribute closer to Indian Peninsula, particularly in the Arabian Sea (ARB), in contrast, the spatial distribution is more dispersed at the negative intraseasonal IPCO phase. However, the total TC frequencies at two intraseasonal IPCO phases are similar. These features come largely from the differences in the area featuring conditions between the northern and southern regions of 13°N in the NIO: at the positive intraseasonal IPCO phase, to the northern region of 13°N, the environmental conditions are similar to the case of the WNP except without the

  16. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  17. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  18. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  19. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  20. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Yeh; Rokjin J. Park; Minjoong J. Kim; Jaein I. Jeong; Chang-Keun Song

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contr...

  1. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  2. 78 FR 55062 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... addressed may change. The meetings will run as late as necessary to complete scheduled business. Schedule...-commercial fisheries in the Western Pacific a. Historical overview b. Recreational fishing today 5. Data... 15. Other Business 16. Public Comment 17. Discussion and Recommendations from Day 2 Although non...

  3. Multifaceted intra-seasonal modes over the East Asia-western North Pacific summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K. J.; Oh, H.

    2017-12-01

    Intra-seasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task due to high impact on 2/3 of world populations' daily life, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intra-seasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): preMeiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. The preMeiyu-Baiu mode is strongly linked to both the anomalous low-level convergence and vertical wind shear through baroclinic instability, and the Changma&Meiyu mode has a strengthened tropic-subtropics connection along the western north Pacific subtropical high, which induces vertical destabilization and strong convective instability. The WNPSM and monsoon gyre modes are characterized by anomalous southeasterly flow of warm and moist air from western north Pacific monsoon, and low-level easterly flow, respectively. Prominent difference in response to the ENSO leads to different effects of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific thermal state, and consequently, the distinct moisture supply and instability variations for the EASM intra-seasonal modes. We attempt to determine the predictability sources for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM using physical-empirical model. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the SST/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the ENSO and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the preMeiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the WNP, which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor which is causative of north-south thermal contrast. Since the Changma&Meiyu mode is strongly related to the WNP subtropical high, a major precursor is the persistent SST difference between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The WNPSM mode is mostly affected by the

  4. Variations and controlling factors of the coccolith weight in the Western Pacific Warm Pool over the last 200 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Liu, Chuanlian

    2016-06-01

    Using a coccolith weight analytic software (Particle Analyser), we analyze most abundant coccolith species in a sediment core from the central Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) and calculate coccolith size and weight variations over the last 200 ka. These variations are compared with the trends of sea surface temperature (SST), primary productivity (PP), sea surface salinity (SSS), and insolation. Our results demonstrate that the size and weight of the coccoliths varied in response to variations of these factors, and their average total weight is primarily related to the relative abundance of the dominant species GEO ( Gephyrocapsa oceanica). The variation in weight of EMI ( Emiliania huxleyi) and GEE ( Gephyrocapsa ericsonii) are mainly influenced by nutrients, and the variation of GEM ( G. muellerae conformis) and GEO ( G. oceanica) weight are mainly influenced by SST. For all of the taxa weight, PP and SST present apparent precession or semi-precession cycles, we consider that the mono-coccolith weight of the Equatorial Western Pacific is primarily affected by precession drived thermocline and nutricline variation.

  5. Spatial variation of the zooplankton community in the western tropical Pacific Ocean during the summer of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing; Wang, Xiaocheng; Dai, Luping; Tao, Zhencheng; Ji, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the zooplankton community in the western tropical Pacific Ocean is poor compared to that of the communities in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. The zooplankton composition, abundance, biomass and community structure in the western Pacific Ocean were studied based on data collected during a synoptic cruise (August-September 2014). Four zooplankton communities were determined via cluster analysis, and these four clusters were mainly spatially related to four different currents: the Luzon Current (LC), Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC), North Equatorial Current (NEC) and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). The estimated mean abundance and biomass of the zooplankton for the whole surveyed area were 146.7±178.1 ind/m3 and 36.9±40.3 mg/m3, respectively. The zooplankton abundance was dominated by small copepods, such as Clausocalanus furcatus, C. pergens, Oncaea mediterranea and Oithona plumifera. The zooplankton abundance and biomass values were lowest in the STCC region and highest in the NECC region. BEST analysis based on surface environmental factors showed that chlorophyll a (chl a), pH, temperature and salinity were the environmental variables that best explained the distribution pattern of the zooplankton community (pw=0.372). The zooplankton abundance was higher south of the salinity front at 16°N, in accordance with the relatively higher nutrient and chl a levels. Maximum zooplankton biomass was found in regions on the periphery of the cyclonic Mindanao Eddy (ME) and anticyclonic Halmahera Eddy (HE).

  6. 75 FR 17902 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Components Species for Pelagics Fishery Ecosystem Plan 8. Longline fishery meeting 9. Other business 10.... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold meetings of its Pelagics Plan... requirements for operational-level catch and effort data 5. Catch and bycatch effects of large circle hooks in...

  7. WHO collaboration in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hisashi [Western Pacific Regional Environmental Health Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Since April 1989 when the World Health Organization`s (WHO`s) activities in hazardous waste management in the Western Pacific Region were presented at the Pacific Basin Conference in Singapore, WHO and its Member States have carried out a number of collaborative activities in hazardous waste management. These activities focused on three main areas: national capacity building in the management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes in rapidly industrializing countries, management of clinical or medical waste, and hazardous waste management in Pacific Island countries. This paper summarizes these collaborative activities, identifies the main problems and issues encountered, and discusses future prospects of WHO collaboration with its Member States in the area of hazardous waste management. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Perspective on the northwestward shift of autumn tropical cyclogenesis locations over the western North Pacific from shifting ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundi; Zhang, Chengyang; Yang, Song; Chen, Dake; He, Shengping

    2017-11-01

    During the recent decades of satellite era, more tropical cyclogenesis locations (TCLs) were observed over the northwestern part of the western North Pacific (WNP), relative to the southeastern part, during the boreal autumn. This increase in TCLs over the northwestern WNP is largely attributed to the synergy of shifting El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the 1998 Pacific climate regime shift. Both central Pacific (CP) La Niña and CP El Niño have occurred more frequently since 1998, with only one eastern Pacific El Niño observed in autumn 2015. The change in the mean longitude of TCLs is closely linked to the ENSO diversity, whereas the change in the mean latitude is dominated by the warming of the WNP induced by an interdecadal tendency of CP La Niña-like events. The physical mechanisms responsible for this shifting ENSO-TCL linkage can be potentially explained by the tacit-and-mutual configurations between tropical upper-tropospheric trough and monsoon trough, on both interannual and interdecadal timescales, which is mainly due to the ENSO-related large-scale environment changes in ocean and atmosphere that modulate the WNP TCL.

  9. Shifting Pacific storm tracks as stressors to ecosystems of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P; Wise, Erika K

    2017-11-01

    Much of the precipitation delivered to western North America arrives during the cool season via midlatitude Pacific storm tracks, which may experience future shifts in response to climate change. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the hydroclimate and ecosystems of western North America to the latitudinal position of cool-season Pacific storm tracks. We calculated correlations between storm track variability and three hydroclimatic variables: gridded cool-season standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index, April snow water equivalent, and water year streamflow from a network of USGS stream gauges. To assess how historical storm track variability affected ecosystem processes, we derived forest growth estimates from a large network of tree-ring widths and land surface phenology and wildfire estimates from remote sensing. From 1980 to 2014, cool-season storm tracks entered western North America between approximately 41°N and 53°N. Cool-season moisture supply and snowpack responded strongly to storm track position, with positive correlations to storm track latitude in eastern Alaska and northwestern Canada but negative correlations in the northwestern U.S. Ecosystems of the western United States were greener and more productive following winters with south-shifted storm tracks, while Canadian ecosystems were greener in years when the cool-season storm track was shifted to the north. On average, larger areas of the northwestern United States were burned by moderate to high severity wildfires when storm tracks were displaced north, and the average burn area per fire also tended to be higher in years with north-shifted storm tracks. These results suggest that projected shifts of Pacific storm tracks over the 21st century would likely alter hydroclimatic and ecological regimes in western North America, particularly in the northwestern United States, where moisture supply and ecosystem processes are highly sensitive to the position of cool-season storm tracks.

  10. Decrease of tropical cyclone genesis frequency in the western North Pacific since 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng; Li, Tim; Liu, Jia; Bi, Mingyu; Peng, Melinda

    2018-03-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency in the western North Pacific (WNP) during 1960-2014 shows a step-by-step decrease on interdecadal timescale, in accordance to the phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). The environmental parameters responsible for the interdecadal change of TC genesis frequency were investigated. It was found that vertical wind shear especially the zonal wind shear plays a critical role, while other parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST), vertical velocity, divergence, humidity and maximum potential intensity cannot explain the step-by-step decrease of TC genesis frequency. A further diagnosis shows that the interdecadal change of vertical wind shear is caused by SST and associated rainfall pattern changes across the Indo-Pacific Ocean. A stronger warming in the Indian Ocean/western Pacific from 1960-1976 to 1977-1998 led to enhanced convection over the Maritime Continent and thus strengthened vertical shear over the key TC genesis region in the WNP. A La Nina-like SST pattern change from 1977-1998 to 1999-2014 led to a strengthened Walker circulation in the tropical Pacific, which further enhanced the vertical shear and decreased TC genesis frequency in the WNP.

  11. Epidemiological update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yuzo; Chiew, May; Matsui, Tamano

    2015-01-01

    Dengue has caused a substantial public health burden in the Western Pacific Region. To assess this burden and regional trends, data were collated and summarized from indicator-based surveillance systems on dengue cases and deaths from countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region. In 2012, dengue notifications continued to increase with 356,838 dengue cases reported in the Region (relative to 244,855 cases reported in 2011) of which 1248 died. In the Asia subregion, the notification rate was highest in Cambodia, the Philippines and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (316.2, 198.9 and 162.4 per 100,000 population, respectively), and in the Pacific island countries and areas, the notification rate was highest in Niue, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (8556.0, 337.0 and 265.1 per 100,000 population, respectively). All four serotypes were circulating in the Region in 2012 with considerable variabilitiy in distribution. Regional surveillance provides important information to enhance situational awareness, conduct risk assessments and improve preparedness activities.

  12. Epidemiologic update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Yuzo; Edelstein, Zoe Rebecca; Han, Hwi Kwang; Matsui, Tamano

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia and the Pacific. Official dengue surveillance data for 2011 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on officially reported surveillance data, dengue continued to show sustained activity in the Western Pacific Region. In 2011, Member States reported a total of 244,855 cases of which 839 died for a case fatality rate of 0.34%. More than 1000 cases were reported each from Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Marshall Islands, Singapore and Viet Nam. Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands reported higher activity relative to 2010. There continues to be great variability among the dengue-endemic countries and areas in the Region in the number of cases and serotype distribution. The continued high notification rate and complex dengue epidemiology in the Region highlight the need for information-sharing on a routine and timely basis.

  13. Epidemiologic update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamano Matsui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in Asia and the Pacific. Official dengue surveillance data for 2011 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on officially reported surveillance data, dengue continued to show sustained activity in the Western Pacific Region. In 2011, Member States reported a total of 244 855 cases of which 839 died. More than 1000 cases were reported each from Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Marshall Islands, Singapore and Viet Nam. Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands reported more cases relative to 2010. There continues to be great variability among the dengue-endemic countries and areas in the Region in the number of cases and serotype distribution. The continued high notification rate and complex dengue epidemiology in the Region highlight the need for information-sharing on a routine and timely basis.

  14. Epidemiological update on the dengue situation in the Western Pacific Region, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzo Arima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has caused a substantial public health burden in the Western Pacific Region. To assess this burden and regional trends, data were collated and summarized from indicator-based surveillance systems on dengue cases and deaths from countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region. In 2012, dengue notifications continued to increase with 356 838 dengue cases reported in the Region (relative to 244 855 cases reported in 2011 of which 1248 died. In the Asia subregion, the notification rate was highest in Cambodia, the Philippines and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (316.2, 198.9 and 162.4 per 100 000 population, respectively, and in the Pacific island countries and areas, the notification rate was highest in Niue, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia (8556.0, 337.0 and 265.1 per 100 000 population, respectively. All four serotypes were circulating in the Region in 2012 with considerable variabilitiy in distribution. Regional surveillance provides important information to enhance situational awareness, conduct risk assessments and improve preparedness activities.

  15. Tritium and radiocarbon in the western North Pacific waters: post-Fukushima situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizer, Jakub; Aoyama, Michio; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Molnár, Mihály; Palcsu, László; Povinec, Pavel P

    2018-04-01

    Impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident on tritium ( 3 H) and radiocarbon ( 14 C) levels in the water column of the western North Pacific Ocean in winter 2012 is evaluated and compared with radiocesium ( 134,137 Cs) data collected for the same region. Tritium concentrations in surface seawater, varying between 0.4 and 2.0 TU (47.2-236 Bq m -3 ), follow the Fukushima radiocesium trend, however, some differences in the vertical profiles were observed, namely in depths of 50-400 m. No correlation was visible in the case of 14 C, whose surface Δ 14 C levels raised from negative values (about -40‰) in the northern part of transect, to positive values (∼68‰) near the equator. Homogenously mixed 14 C levels in the subsurface layers were observed at all stations. Sixteen surface (from 30 in total) and 6 water profile (from 7) stations were affected by the Fukushima tritium. Surface and vertical profile data together with the calculated water column inventories indicate that the total amount of the FNPP1-derived tritium deposited to the western North Pacific Ocean was 0.7 ± 0.3 PBq. No clear impact of the Fukushima accident on 14 C levels in the western North Pacific was observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cetacean morbillivirus in coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nahiid; Duignan, Pádraig J; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.

  17. Cetacean Morbillivirus in Coastal Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Nahiid; Duignan, Pádraig J.; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P.; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-01-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.

  18. The enhanced drying effect of Central-Pacific El Niño on US winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jinyi; Zou Yuhao

    2013-01-01

    In what is arguably one of the most dramatic phenomena possibly associated with climate change or natural climate variability, the location of El Niño has shifted more to the central Pacific in recent decades. In this study, we use statistical analyses, numerical model experiments and case studies to show that the Central-Pacific El Niño enhances the drying effect, but weakens the wetting effect, typically produced by traditional Eastern-Pacific El Niño events on the US winter precipitation. As a result, the emerging Central-Pacific El Niño produces an overall drying effect on the US winter, particularly over the Ohio–Mississippi Valley, Pacific Northwest and Southeast. The enhanced drying effect is related to a more southward displacement of tropospheric jet streams that control the movements of winter storms. The results of this study imply that the emergence of the Central-Pacific El Niño in recent decades may be one factor contributing to the recent prevalence of extended droughts in the US. (letter)

  19. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McCallum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

  20. Weak Thermocline Mixing in the North Pacific Low-Latitude Western Boundary Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyu; Lian, Qiang; Zhang, Fangtao; Wang, Lei; Li, Mingming; Bai, Xiaolin; Wang, Jianing; Wang, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Despite its potential importance in the global climate system, mixing properties of the North Pacific low-latitude western boundary current system (LLWBC) remained unsampled until very recently. We report here on the first measurements of turbulence microstructure associated with these currents, made in the western boundary region of the tropical North Pacific east of the Philippines. The results suggest that thermocline mixing in the North Pacific LLWBC is generally weak with the diapycnal diffusivity κρ˜O(10-6) m2 s-1. This is consistent with predictions from internal wave-wave interaction theory that mixing due to internal wave breaking is significantly reduced at low latitudes. Enhanced mixing is found to be associated with a permanent cyclonic eddy, the Mindanao Eddy, but mainly at its south and north flanks. There, κρ is elevated by an order of magnitude due to eddy-induced geostrophic shear. Mixing in the eddy core is at the background level with no indication of enhancement.

  1. 3-D subduction dynamics in the western Pacific: Mantle pressure, plate kinematics, and dynamic topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.; Faccenna, C.

    2017-12-01

    While it is well established that the slab pull of negatively buoyant oceanic plates is the primary driving force of plate tectonics, the dynamic "details" of subduction have proved difficult to pin down. We use the Philippine Sea Plate region of the western Pacific as a site to explore links between kinematic observables (e.g. topography and plate motions) and the dynamics of the subduction system (e.g. mantle flow, mantle pressure). To first order, the Philippine Sea Plate can be considered to be the central plate of a double slab system containing two slabs that dip in the same direction, to the west. This subduction configuration presents the opportunity to explore subduction dynamics in a setting where two closely spaced slabs interact via subduction-induced mantle flow and stresses transmitted through the intervening plate. We use a 3-D numerical approach (e.g. Holt et al., 2017), augmented by semi-analytical models (e.g. Jagoutz et al., 2017), to develop relationships between dynamic processes and kinematic properties, including plate velocities, lithospheric stress state, slab dip angles, and topography. When combined with subduction zone observables, this allows us to isolate the first order dynamic processes that are in operation in the Philippine Sea Plate region. Our results suggest that positive pressure build-up occurs in the asthenosphere between the two slabs (Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Ryukyu-Nankai), and that this is responsible for producing much of the observed kinematic variability in the region, including the steep dip of the Pacific slab at the Izu-Bonin-Mariana trench, as compared to the flat dip of the Pacific slab north of Japan. We then extend our understanding of the role of asthenospheric pressure to examine the forces responsible for the plate kinematics and dynamic topography of the entire Western Pacific subduction margin(s). References:Holt, A. F., Royden, L. H., Becker, T. W., 2017. Geophys. J. Int., 209, 250-265Jagoutz, O., Royden, L

  2. Phylogenetic diversity and ecological pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in the surface sediments of the western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was surveyed in the surface sediments from the northern part of the South China Sea (SCS). The distribution pattern of AOA in the western Pacific was discussed through comparing the SCS with other areas in the western Pacific including Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea where high input of anthropogenic nitrogen was evident, the tropical West Pacific Continental Margins close to the Philippines, the deep-sea methane seep sediments in the Okhotsk Sea, the cold deep sea of Northeastern Japan Sea, and the hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa Trough. These various environments provide a wide spectrum of physical and chemical conditions for a better understanding of the distribution pattern and diversities of AOA in the western Pacific. Under these different conditions, the distinct community composition between shallow and deep-sea sediments was clearly delineated based on the UniFrac PCoA and Jackknife Environmental Cluster analyses. Phylogenetic analyses showed that a few ammonia-oxidizing archaeal subclades in the marine water column/sediment clade and endemic lineages were indicative phylotypes for some environments. Higher phylogenetic diversity was observed in the Philippines while lower diversity in the hydrothermal vent habitat. Water depth and possibly with other environmental factors could be the main driving forces to shape the phylogenetic diversity of AOA observed, not only in the SCS but also in the whole western Pacific. The multivariate regression tree analysis also supported this observation consistently. Moreover, the functions of current and other climate factors were also discussed in comparison of phylogenetic diversity. The information collectively provides important insights into the ecophysiological requirements of uncultured ammonia-oxidizing archaeal lineages in the western Pacific Ocean.

  3. Cetacean Morbillivirus in Coastal Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Pádraig J.; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P.; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-01-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains. PMID:24656203

  4. Nuclear waste disposal: regional options for the Western Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, I.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste is a complex environmental problem involving the technology of containing a radiation hazard and the political problem of finding an acceptable site for a hazardous waste facility. The focus of discussion here is the degree to which Western Pacific countries are committed to nuclear power as an energy source, and the political and economic interdependencies in the region which will influence waste disposal options

  5. 75 FR 8674 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Central Pacific Fisheries Commission D. Protected Species 1. Japan Sea Turtle Community Network 2. False.... ADDRESSES: The CNMI Community Meetings will be held at the Rota Social Hall, Tinian Elementary School...

  6. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal C Squires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84% countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  7. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Raynal C; Konings, Frank

    2016-01-01

    On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84%) countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  8. 75 FR 54044 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Community Development Program Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... western Pacific); (2) Consist of community residents descended from aboriginal people indigenous to the... not had harvesting, processing or marketing capability sufficient to support substantial participation... involvement by the indigenous community members, including the name, address, telephone and other contact...

  9. Will the western Pacific subtropical high constantly intensify in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Huijun

    2016-07-01

    The western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) features lower-level southerlies or southwesterlies at its western and southern edges that transport amount of water vapor into East Asia, and it exerts a large influence on the East Asian summer climate. This paper evaluates the historical (1950-2005) spatial distribution and variability in the summer WPSH at 850 hPa using 28 general circulation models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) relative to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data. To avoid the artificial influence caused by global warming, this study primarily investigates the 850-hPa eddy geopotential height and the horizontal winds. The results show that most of the CMIP5 models reliably reproduce the geographical distribution and spatial variability in the WPSH. Four models (bcc-csm1-1, CESM1-CAM5, GFDL-ESM2G and inmcm4) generally perform well in simulating the eastward-recessed interdecadal variation in the WPSH during 1979-2005 relative to 1950-1978, with a significant cyclone anomaly appearing over the western Pacific and a decreasing trend in the WPSH index. Based on these four models, a multi-model ensemble projects a weaker WPSH during 2026-2070 relative to 2010-2025 and 2071-2100 under the representative concentration pathway 8.5 scenario.

  10. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  11. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  12. Palm harvest impact in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forests in the western Amazon, Andes, and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different...

  13. Genetic species identification and population structure of Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae) from the Western Pacific to the Eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vy X; Detcharoen, Matsapume; Tuntiprapas, Piyalap; Soe-Htun, U; Sidik, Japar B; Harah, Muta Z; Prathep, Anchana; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-04-30

    The Indo-Pacific region has the largest number of seagrass species worldwide and this region is considered as the origin of the Hydrocharitaceae. Halophila ovalis and its closely-related species belonging to the Hydrocharitaceae are well-known as a complex taxonomic challenge mainly due to their high morphological plasticity. The relationship of genetic differentiation and geographic barriers of H. ovalis radiation was not much studied in this region. Are there misidentifications between H. ovalis and its closely related species? Does any taxonomic uncertainty among different populations of H. ovalis persist? Is there any genetic differentiation among populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean, which are separated by the Thai-Malay peninsula? Genetic markers can be used to characterize and identify individuals or species and will be used to answer these questions. Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region based on materials collected from 17 populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed that some specimens identified as H. ovalis belonged to the H. major clade, also supported by morphological data. Evolutionary divergence between the two clades is between 0.033 and 0.038, much higher than the evolutionary divergence among H. ovalis populations. Eight haplotypes were found; none of the haplotypes from the Western Pacific is found in India and vice versa. Analysis of genetic diversity based on microsatellite analysis revealed that the genetic diversity in the Western Pacific is higher than in the Eastern Indian Ocean. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree among 14 populations from the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed six groups. The Mantel test results revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations. Results from band-based and allele frequency-based approaches from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed that all

  14. 75 FR 34088 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Community Development Program Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    .... Consist of community residents descended from aboriginal people indigenous to the western Pacific area who... marketing capability sufficient to support substantial participation in fisheries in the area; and 7... involvement by the indigenous community members including the name, address, telephone and other contact...

  15. Coherent climate anomalies over the Indo-western Pacific in post-El Niño summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.; DU, Y.; Hu, K.; Chowdary, J. S.; Huang, G.

    2016-12-01

    El Niño typically peaks in boreal winter, and the associated equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) signal dissipates before subsequent summer. Its impact, however, outlasts until boreal summer in the Indo-western Pacific, featuring basin-wide Indian Ocean warming and tropical Northwestern Pacific cooling accompanied by the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern with surface anomalous anticyclone (AAC) extending from the Philippine Sea to the northern Indian Ocean. Two formation mechanisms have been proposed for these climate anomalies in post-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) summer. One hypothesis invokes the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback in the tropical Northwestern Pacific, while the other points to inter-basin feedback between the Indian Ocean and tropical Northwestern Pacific. Based on a coupled model experiment, we propose an ocean-atmosphere coupled mode that synthesizes the two mechanisms. This Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) mode evolves seasonally from spring to summer under seasonal migration of background state. In spring, the WES feedback is operative in association with the tropical Northwestern Pacific cooling, while in summer the Indian Ocean warming and the inter-basin interaction maintains the AAC. While the IPOC mode is independent of ENSO in mechanism, ENSO can drive this mode in its decay phase. This excitation, however, has undergone substantial interdecadal modulations, depending on ENSO amplitude and persistence of Indian Ocean warming. The ENSO-IPOC correlation is high after the mid-1970s and at the beginning of the 20th century, but low in between.

  16. Modeling the inorganic bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer over the eastern and western Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Navarro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry burden arising from the degradation of brominated very short-lived organic substances (VSLorg and its partitioning between reactive and reservoir species is needed for a comprehensive assessment of the ozone depletion potential of brominated trace gases. Here we present modeled inorganic bromine abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause based on aircraft observations of VSLorg from two campaigns of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX 2013, carried out over the eastern Pacific, and ATTREX 2014, carried out over the western Pacific and chemistry-climate simulations (along ATTREX flight tracks using the specific meteorology prevailing. Using the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem we model that BrO and Br are the daytime dominant species. Integrated across all ATTREX flights, BrO represents ∼ 43 and 48 % of daytime Bry abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The results also show zones where Br / BrO > 1 depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA, ozone concentration, and temperature. On the other hand, BrCl and BrONO2 were found to be the dominant nighttime species with ∼  61 and 56 % of abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The western-to-eastern differences in the partitioning of inorganic bromine are explained by different abundances of ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, total inorganic chlorine (Cly, and the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions of bromine reservoirs (mostly BrONO2 and HBr occurring on ice crystals.

  17. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E.; Pfister, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide), reactive chemical compounds (ozone, bromine, nitrous oxide), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  18. Drought-triggered western spruce budworm outbreaks in the Interior Pacific Northwest: A multi-century dendrochronological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Flower; D. G. Gavin; E. K. Heyerdahl; R. A. Parsons; G. M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Douglas-fir forests in the interior Pacific Northwest are subject to sporadic outbreaks of the western spruce budworm, a species widely recognized as the most destructive defoliator in western North America. Outbreaks of the western spruce budworm often occur synchronously over broad regions and lead to widespread loss of leaf area and decrease in growth rates in...

  19. Hazardous chemicals in marine mammals from the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, N.; Tanabe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Marine mammals have long-term life and occupy the highest ecological niche in the marine ecosystem. Thus, higher concentration of hazardous chemicals are expected in marine mammals. In the present study, we review contamination of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, etc.), heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) and butyltin (TBT, DBT and MBT) in marine mammals collected from the western North Pacific, and discuss the worldwide contamination of these chemicals

  20. Deglacial Western Equatorial Pacific pCO2 Reconstruction Using Boron Isotopes of Planktonic Foraminiferas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Sagawa, T.; Ikehara, M.; Yamazaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the last deglaciation (ca. 19 - 11 ka), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of the atmosphere increased by 80 μatm. Many paleoceanographers point out that the ocean had played an important role in atmospheric CO2 rise, since the ocean have 60 times larger capacity to store carbon compared to the atmosphere. However, evidence on where carbon was transferred from the ocean to the atmosphere is still lacking, hampering our understanding of global carbon cycles in glacial-interglacial timescales. Boron isotope of skeletons of marine calcifying organisms such as corals and foraminiferas can pin down where CO2 source/sink existed, because boron isotopes of marine calcium carbonates is dependent on seawater pH, from which pCO2 of the past seawater can be reconstructed. In previous studies using the boron isotope teqnique, Martinez-Boti et al. (2015, Nature) and Kubota et al. (2014, Scientific Reports) revealed that central and eastern parts of the equatorial Pacific acted as a CO2 source (i.e., CO2 emission) during the last deglaciation, suggesting the equatorial Pacific's contribution to atmospheric CO2 rise. However, some conflicting results have been confirmed in a marine sediment record from the western part of the equatorial Pacific (Palmer & Pearson, 2003, Science), making the conclusion elusive. In this presentation, we will show new results of Mg/Ca, oxygen isotope, and boron isotope measurements during the last 35 ka on two species of surface dwelling foraminiferas (Globigerinoides ruber and G. sacculifer) which was hand-picked separatedly from a well-dated marine sediment core recovered from the West Caroline Basin (KR05-15 PC01) (Yamazaki et al., 2008, GRL). From the new records, we will discuss how the equatorial Pacific behaved during the last deglaciation and how it related to the global carbon cycles.

  1. Anomalous western Pacific subtropical high during El Niño developing summer in comparison with decaying summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Dong, Xiao; Fan, Fangxing

    2018-03-01

    The anomalous behavior of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) in El Niño developing summer is studied based on the composite results of eight major El Niño events during 1979-2013. It is shown that the WPSH tends to retreat eastwards with weak intensity during the developing summer. The anomaly exhibits an intraseasonal variation with a weaker anomaly in June and July and a stronger anomaly in August, indicating that different underlying physical mechanisms may be responsible for the anomalous WPSH during early and late summer periods. In June and July, owing to the cold advection anomaly characterized as a weak northerly anomaly from high latitudes, geopotential height in East Asia is reduced and the WPSH tends to retreat eastwards slightly. By contrast, enhanced convection over the warm pool in August makes the atmosphere more sensitive to El Niño forcing. Consequently, a cyclonic anomaly in the western Pacific is induced, which is consistent with the seasonal march of atmospheric circulation from July to August. Accordingly, geopotential height in the western Pacific is reduced significantly, and the WPSH tends to retreat eastwards remarkably in August. Different from the developing summer, geopotential height in the decaying summer over East Asia and the western Pacific tends to enhance and extend northwards from June to August consistently, reaching the maximum anomaly in August. Therefore, the seasonal march plays an important role in the WPSH anomaly for both the developing and decaying summer.

  2. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  3. A change in the relationship between tropical central Pacific SST variability and the extratropical atmosphere around 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jin-Yi; Kim, Seon Tae; Lu, Mong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A newly released reanalysis dataset covering the period 1979–2009 is analyzed to show that the sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the tropical central Pacific is more closely related to the SST variability in the tropical eastern Pacific before 1990 but more closely related to sea level pressure (SLP) variations associated with the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) after 1990. Only during the period after 1990 can the NPO excite large SST variability in the tropical central Pacific. Related to this change, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) SST anomalies tend to spread from the eastern to central tropical Pacific before 1990 in a pattern resembling that associated with the Eastern Pacific (EP) type of ENSO, but are more closely connected to SST variability in the subtropical north Pacific after 1990 with a pattern resembling that of the Central Pacific (CP) type of ENSO. This study concludes that the increased influence of the NPO on the tropical Pacific is a likely reason for the increasing occurrence of the CP type of ENSO since 1990. An analysis of the mean atmospheric circulation during these two periods suggests that the increased NPO influence is associated with a strengthening Hadley circulation after 1990. (letter)

  4. Yaws in the Western Pacific Region: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Corinne; Ozaki, Masayo

    2011-01-01

    Until the middle of the 20th century, yaws was highly endemic and considered a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), leading to intensive control efforts in the 1950s–1960s. Since then, little attention has been paid to its reemergence. Its current burden is unknown. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review, focusing on yaws in the South Pacific. Available records suggest that the region remains largely free of yaws except for Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Many clinical cases reported recently were described as “attenuated”; advanced stages are rare. A single intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin is still effective in curing yaws. In the Pacific, yaws may be amenable to elimination if adequate resources are provided and political commitment revived. A mapping of yaws prevalence in PNG, Solomon, and Vanuatu is needed before comprehensive country-tailored strategies towards yaws elimination can be developed. PMID:22235208

  5. Latitudinal distribution of zooplankton communities in the Western Pacific along 160°E during summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-05-01

    A total of 51 mesozooplankton samples collected with a WP2 net from 0 to 200 m depth along 160°E (4°S-46°N) in the Western Pacific from June to July 2014 were analyzed. The latitudinal distribution of mesozooplankton community structure was analyzed. The average biomass and abundance in different provinces generally increased with latitude: the biomass of zooplankton ranged from 1.18 mg DW m- 3 (11°N) to 97.81 mg DW m- 3 (45°N), and the abundance of zooplankton ranged from 45.11 ind. m- 3 (3°S) to 439.84 ind. m- 3 (41°N). The community structure of zooplankton also showed a significant latitudinal variation. At lower latitudes, calanoid copepods were the most abundant group, while cyclopoid copepods were the most abundant group at higher latitudes. Multidimensional scaling analysis of community structure and other physical/chemical/biological characteristics supported five ecological provinces in the northwestern Pacific: the Western Pacific Warm Pool Province (WARM), the North Pacific Tropical Gyre (NPTG), the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPST), the Kuroshio Current Province (KURO) and the Pacific Subarctic Gyres Province (PSAG). The Kuroshio Current Province can be regarded as a transitional zone between the subarctic and northern subtropical area, and this transitional zone corresponds much more closely to the ecocline concept, rather than the ecotone concept.

  6. Rare earth element geochemistry characteristics of seawater and porewater from deep sea in western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinan; Ren, Jiangbo; Guo, Qingjun; Cao, Jun; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Chenhui

    2017-11-28

    Deep-sea sediments contain high concentrations of rare earth element (REE) which have been regarded as a huge potential resource. Understanding the marine REE cycle is important to reveal the mechanism of REE enrichment. In order to determine the geochemistry characteristics and migration processes of REE, seawater, porewater and sediment samples were systematically collected from the western Pacific for REE analysis. The results show a relatively flat REE pattern and the HREE (Heavy REE) enrichment in surface and deep seawater respectively. The HREE enrichment distribution patterns, low concentrations of Mn and Fe and negative Ce anomaly occur in the porewater, and high Mn/Al ratios and low U concentrations were observed in sediment, indicating oxic condition. LREE (Light REE) and MREE (Middle REE) enrichment in upper layer and depletion of MREE in deeper layer were shown in porewater profile. This study suggests that porewater flux in the western Pacific basin is a minor source of REEs to seawater, and abundant REEs are enriched in sediments, which is mainly caused by the extensive oxic condition, low sedimentation rate and strong adsorption capacity of sediments. Hence, the removal of REEs of porewater may result in widespread REE-rich sediments in the western Pacific basin.

  7. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Plicht, Johannes van der; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

    2000-01-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods

  8. DELP Symposium: Tectonics of eastern Asia and western Pacific Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Asia and the western Pacific make up a broad region of active plate tectonic interaction. The area is a natural laboratory for studying the processes involved in the origin and evolution of volcanic island arcs, marginal basins, accretionary prisims, oceanic trenches, accreted terranes, ophiolite emplacement, and intracontinental deformation. Many of our working concepts of plate tectonics and intraplate deformation were developed in this region, even though details of the geology and geophysics there must be considered of a reconnaissance nature.During the past few years researchers have accumulated a vast amount of new and detailed information and have developed a better understanding of the processes that have shaped the tectonic elements in this region. To bring together scientists from many disciplines and to present the wide range of new data and ideas that offer a broader perspective on the interrelations of geological, geochemical, geophysical and geodetic studies, the symposium Tectonics of Eastern Asia and Western Pacific Continental Margin was held December 13-16, 1988, at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan, under the auspicies of DELP (Dynamics and Evolution of the Lithosphere Project).

  9. Vertical distributions of particulate plutonium in the western North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2007-01-01

    We examined the vertical distributions of 239+240 Pu activity and 240 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratio in particles collected by large volume water in-situ pump in the western North Pacific Ocean (off Rokkasho, Japan). This is the first information of vertical distribution of plutonium activity and Plutonium atom ratio in small particle (1-70 μm) and large particle (>70 μm). (author)

  10. Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific Ocean before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Zheng, J.; Aono, T.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides such as Pu-239 (half-life: 24100 yr), Pu-240 (half-life: 6560 yr) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 yr) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. In the North Pacific Ocean, two distinct sources of Pu isotopes can be identified; i.e., the global stratospheric fallout and close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater and marine sediment samples collected in the western North Pacific before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station will provide useful background data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The atom ratios of Pu-240/Pu-239 in water columns from the Yamato and Tsushima Basins in the Japan Sea were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18; however, there were no temporal variation of atom ratios during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the Japan Sea. The total Pu-239+240 inventories in the whole water columns were approximately doubled during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the two basins. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 in surface water from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific Ocean, was 0.224 and showed no notable variation from the surface to the bottom with the mean atom ratio being 0.234. The atom ratios for the Pacific coast, near the Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, were approximately the same as the 0.224 ratio obtained from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific margin. The atom ratios in the surficial sediments from Sagami Bay ranged from 0.229 to 0.247. The mean atom ratio in the sediment columns in the East China Sea ranged from 0.248 for the Changjiang estuary to 0.268 for the shelf edge. The observed atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean

  11. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  12. Interannual Variability of Regional Hadley Circulation Intensity Over Western Pacific During Boreal Winter and Its Climatic Impact Over Asia-Australia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruping; Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Wen; Hu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates interannual variability of boreal winter regional Hadley circulation over western Pacific (WPHC) and its climatic impacts. A WPHC intensity index (WPHCI) is defined as the vertical shear of the divergent meridional winds. It shows that WPHCI correlates well with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To investigate roles of the ENSO-unrelated part of WPHCI (WPHCIres), variables that are linearly related to the Niño-3 index have been removed. It reveals that meridional sea surface temperature gradient over the western Pacific plays an essential role in modulating the WPHCIres. The climatic impacts of WPHCIres are further investigated. Below-normal (above-normal) precipitation appears over south China (North Australia) when WPHCIres is stronger. This is due to the marked convergence (divergence) anomalies at the upper troposphere, divergence (convergence) at the lower troposphere, and the accompanied downward (upward) motion over south China (North Australia), which suppresses (enhances) precipitation there. In addition, a pronounced increase in surface air temperature (SAT) appears over south and central China when WPHCIres is stronger. A temperature diagnostic analysis suggests that the increase in SAT tendency over central China is primarily due to the warm zonal temperature advection and subsidence-induced adiabatic heating. In addition, the increase in SAT tendency over south China is primarily contributed by the warm meridional temperature advection. Further analysis shows that the correlation of WPHCIres with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is weak. Thus, this study may provide additional sources besides EAWM and ENSO to improve understanding of the Asia-Australia climate variability.

  13. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  14. Final Report for UW-Madison Portion of DE-SC0005301, "Collaborative Project: Pacific Decadal Variability and Central Pacific Warming El Niño in a Changing Climate"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimont, Daniel [University of Wisconsin - Madison

    2014-06-13

    This project funded two efforts at understanding the interactions between Central Pacific ENSO events, the mid-latitude atmosphere, and decadal variability in the Pacific. The first was an investigation of conditions that lead to Central Pacific (CP) and East Pacific (EP) ENSO events through the use of linear inverse modeling with defined norms. The second effort was a modeling study that combined output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model (CAM4) with the Battisti (1988) intermediate coupled model. The intent of the second activity was to investigate the relationship between the atmospheric North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), the Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM), and ENSO. These two activities are described herein.

  15. ENSO surface longwave radiation forcing over the tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Pavlakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the spatial and temporal variation of the surface longwave radiation (downwelling and net over a 21-year period in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean (40 S–40 N, 90 E–75 W. The fluxes were computed using a deterministic model for atmospheric radiation transfer, along with satellite data from the ISCCP-D2 database and reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR (acronyms explained in main text, for the key atmospheric and surface input parameters. An excellent correlation was found between the downwelling longwave radiation (DLR anomaly and the Niño-3.4 index time-series, over the Niño-3.4 region located in the central Pacific. A high anti-correlation was also found over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E. There is convincing evidence that the time series of the mean downwelling longwave radiation anomaly in the western Pacific precedes that in the Niño-3.4 region by 3–4 months. Thus, the downwelling longwave radiation anomaly is a complementary index to the SST anomaly for the study of ENSO events and can be used to asses whether or not El Niño or La Niña conditions prevail. Over the Niño-3.4 region, the mean DLR anomaly values range from +20 Wm−2 during El Niño episodes to −20 Wm−2 during La Niña events, while over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E these values range from −15 Wm−2 to +10 Wm−2, respectively. The long- term average (1984–2004 distribution of the net downwelling longwave radiation at the surface over the tropical and subtropical Pacific for the three month period November-December-January shows a net thermal cooling of the ocean surface. When El Niño conditions prevail, the thermal radiative cooling in the central and south-eastern tropical Pacific becomes weaker by 10 Wm−2 south of the equator in the central Pacific (7–0 S, 160–120 W for the three-month period of NDJ, because the DLR increase is larger than the increase in surface thermal emission. In contrast, the

  16. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Zonal Oscillation of Western Pacific Subtropical High in Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W.; Ren, X.; Hu, H.

    2017-12-01

    The zonal oscillation of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) influences the weather and climate over East Asia significantly. This study investigates the features and mechanisms of the zonal oscillation of the WPSH during summer on subseasonal time scales. The zonal oscillation index of the WPSH is defined by normalized subseasonal geopotential height anomaly at 500hPa averaged over the WPSH's western edge (110° - 140°E, 10° - 30°N). The index shows a predominant oscillation with a period of 10-40 days. Large positive index indicates a strong anticyclonic anomaly over East Asia and its coastal region south of 30°N at both 850hPa and 500hPa. The WPSH stretches more westward accompanied by warmer SST anomalies beneath the western edge of the WPSH. Meanwhile, above-normal precipitation is seen over the Yangtze-Huaihe river basin and below-normal precipitation over the south of the Yangtze River. Negative index suggests a more eastward position of WPSH. The anomalies in circulation and SST for negative index are almost the mirror image of those for the positive index. In early summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is affected by both the East Asia/Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern and the Silk road pattern (SRP). The positive (negative) phase of the EAP pattern is characterized by a low-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the subtropical western Pacific, indicating the western extension (eastward retreat) of the WPSH. Comparing with the EAP pattern, the SRP forms an upper-level anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly in mid-latitudes of East Asia, and then leads to the westward (eastward) movement of the WPSH. In late summer, the zonal shift of the WPSH is mainly affected by the EAP pattern, because the EAP pattern in late summer is stronger than that in early summer. The zonal shift of the WPSH is also influenced by the subseasonal air-sea interaction locally. During the early stage of WPSH's westward stretch, the local SST anomaly in late summer is

  17. Coral Records of 20th Century Central Tropical Pacific SST and Salinity: Signatures of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of regional climate changes in many regions of the world largely depend on quantifying anthropogenic trends in tropical Pacific climate against its rich background of interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. However, the strong natural climate variability combined with limited instrumental climate datasets have obscured potential anthropogenic climate signals in the region. Here, we present coral-based sea-surface temperature (SST) and salinity proxy records over the 20th century (1898-1998) from the central tropical Pacific - a region sensitive to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whose variability strongly impacts the global climate. The SST and salinity proxy records are reconstructed via coral Sr/Ca and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18Osw), respectively. On interannual (2-7yr) timescales, the SST proxy record tracks both eastern- and central-Pacific flavors of ENSO variability (R=0.65 and R=0.67, respectively). Interannual-scale salinity variability in our coral record highlights profound differences in precipitation and ocean advections during the two flavors of ENSO. On decadal (8yr-lowpassed) timescales, the central tropical Pacific SST and salinity proxy records are controlled by different sets of dynamics linked to the leading climate modes of North Pacific climate variability. Decadal-scale central tropical Pacific SST is highly correlated to the recently discovered North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO; R=-0.85), reflecting strong dynamical links between the central Pacific warming mode and extratropical decadal climate variability. Whereas decadal-scale salinity variations in the central tropical Pacific are significantly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO; R=0.54), providing a better understanding on low-frequency salinity variability in the region. Having characterized natural climate variability in this region, the coral record shows a +0.5°C warming trend throughout the last century

  18. Identifying role of subtropical southeast Pacific SST anomalies on precipitation dynamics in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, D.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    Central Chile (CC, western South America coasts, 28°S- 38°S) is the heartland of Chile with the highest population and important economic activities. The region is characterized by semiarid Mediterranean climate with a marked precipitation gradient along the coast from north to south, mostly due to the positioning of the South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone and the midlatitude westerlies belt. Although there are several diagnostic studies that focus on the impact of tropical Pacific SST on CC precipitation variability via atmospheric teleconnections, less attention has been placed on impacts of subtropical southeast (SE) Pacific SST on precipitation. The later region is immediately adjacent to CC and it interferes with the overpassing atmospheric systems. In particular we want to assess the impact of a consistent cooling over the SE Pacific during the last 30 years. This study is being tackled by a combination of observational and reanalysis datasets together with numerical simulations. Observational dataset includes gridded dataset of CRU, TRMM and GPCP. Moreover, Reynolds SST data V2 based on AVHRR infrared satellite SST data is used for analyzing spatial and temporal changes in SST. Current modelling experiment includes a control simulation, used as reference, and sensitivity simulation that involves perturbations to SST over subtropical SE Pacific for a normal year austral winter (2001) season. A number of simulations with different initial conditions have been carried out by employing ICTP-RegCM4. The domain for simulations was centered at 82oW and 32oW with 288x288 grid cells on 20 km spatial resolution. Preliminary results indicate that the response of precipitation in CC to SST anomalies in the subtropical SE Pacific exhibits more or less linear behavior. In the colder SST experiments, drier conditions dominate over CC, which is possibly related with the intensification of South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone (SPSA) or a reduction in the available

  19. 78 FR 66683 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... the Western Pacific; Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... special coral reef ecosystem fishing permit. SUMMARY: NMFS issued a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit that authorizes Kampachi Farms, LLC, to culture and harvest a coral reef ecosystem management unit...

  20. Redescription of Paragaleus tengi (Chen, 1963) (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae) and first record of Paragaleus randalli Compagno, Krupp & Carpenter, 1996 from the western North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T; Harris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Paragaleus tengi was previously considered to be the only member of this genus occurring in the Western Pacific, with Paragaleus randalli occurring in the Indian Ocean and allopatric in distribution. Recent molecular and morphological studies showed that P. randalli also occurs in the Western Pacific with records from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia previously mostly incorrectly attributed to P. tengi. This paper provides a redescription of P. tengi and confirms the presence of P. randalli from off Taiwan in the western North Pacific. These two species are morphologically very similar in appearance but differ in meristics, dentition, some coloration attributes and minor morphological characters. The conservation status of these two species needs to be reassessed based on this new information.

  1. 78 FR 48075 - Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures; Correcting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 [Docket No. 121107617-3628-03] RIN 0648-XC351 Western Pacific Fisheries; 2013 Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...-Deep 7 bottomfish fishery is not subject to in-season closure or other in- season accountability...

  2. Predicting bycatch hotspots for endangered leatherback turtles on longlines in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, John H; Morreale, Stephen J; Paladino, Frank V; Shillinger, George L; Benson, Scott R; Eckert, Scott A; Bailey, Helen; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián; Bograd, Steven J; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Dutton, Peter H; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Block, Barbara A; Spotila, James R

    2014-02-22

    Fisheries bycatch is a critical source of mortality for rapidly declining populations of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea. We integrated use-intensity distributions for 135 satellite-tracked adult turtles with longline fishing effort to estimate predicted bycatch risk over space and time in the Pacific Ocean. Areas of predicted bycatch risk did not overlap for eastern and western Pacific nesting populations, warranting their consideration as distinct management units with respect to fisheries bycatch. For western Pacific nesting populations, we identified several areas of high risk in the north and central Pacific, but greatest risk was adjacent to primary nesting beaches in tropical seas of Indo-Pacific islands, largely confined to several exclusive economic zones under the jurisdiction of national authorities. For eastern Pacific nesting populations, we identified moderate risk associated with migrations to nesting beaches, but the greatest risk was in the South Pacific Gyre, a broad pelagic zone outside national waters where management is currently lacking and may prove difficult to implement. Efforts should focus on these predicted hotspots to develop more targeted management approaches to alleviate leatherback bycatch.

  3. 78 FR 49258 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... the Western Pacific; Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit that would authorize Kampachi Farms, LLC, to culture and harvest a coral reef ecosystem management unit fish species in a floating pen moored about 5.5 nm off the west coast of...

  4. Impact of the intraseasonal variability of large-scale circulation over the Western North Pacific on the characteristics of tropical cyclone track

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, T. C.; Wang, Shih-Yu (Simon); Yen, M. C.; Clark, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The life cycle of the Southeast Asian–western North Pacific monsoon circulation is established by the northward migrations of the monsoon trough and the western Pacific subtropical anticyclone, and is reflected by the intraseasonal variations of mo nsoon westerlies and trad e easterlies in the form of an east–west seesaw oscillation. In this paper, an effort is made to disclose the influence of this monsoon circulation on tropical cyclone tracks during its different ph ases using composite ch...

  5. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren

    2006-01-01

    satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. Onthe other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect......A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methodsused to estimate surface wind speeds from...... they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. Fromthis annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution...

  6. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    -262 255 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in the Netherlands Letter Section Submerged Reef Systems on the Central Western Continental Shelf of India K.H. VORA and F. ALMEIDA National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403... 004 (India) (Revision accepted October 26, 1989) Abstract Vora, K.H. and Almeida, F., 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 91: 255-262. Echosounding and sidescan sonar data from the western...

  7. Enhanced or Weakened Western North Pacific Subtropical High under Global Warming?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chao; Zhou, Tianjun; Lin, Ailan; Wu, Bo; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) regulates East Asian climate in summer. Anomalous WNPSH causes floods, droughts and heat waves in China, Japan and Korea. The potential change of the WNPSH under global warming is concerned by Asian people, but whether the WNPSH would be enhanced or weakened remains inconclusive. Based on the multi-model climate change projection from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we show evidences that the WNPSH tends to wea...

  8. Monitoring the deep western boundary current in the western North Pacific by echo intensity measured with lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Kanae; Nagano, Akira

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation of iron and manganese ions is predominant in the oxygen-rich deep western boundary current (DWBC) within the Pacific Ocean. By the faster removal of particulate iron hydroxide and manganese oxide, densities of the particulate matters are considered to be lower in the DWBC than the interior region. To detect the density variation of suspended particles between the DWBC and interior regions, we analyzed echo intensity (EI) measured in the western North Pacific by hydrographic casts with a 300 kHz lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) in a whole water column. At depths greater than 3000 m ( 3000 dbar), EI is almost uniformly low between 12°N and 30°N but peaks sharply from 30°N to 35°N to a maximum north of 35°N. EI is found to be anomalously low in the DWBC compared to the background distribution. The DWBC pathways are identifiable by the low EI and high dissolved oxygen concentration. EI data by LADCPs and other acoustic instruments may be used to observe the temporal variations of the DWBC pathways.

  9. Characteristics of monsoonal circulation over the western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J; Chen, E

    1980-01-01

    In this article the meteorological observations on ships four times daily in the area between 0 to 46/sup 0/N, 90 to 155/sup 0/E has been utilized. The grid 2 x 2 degrees along coastal waters, and 5 x 5 degrees over the open sea have been used. Here the monsoon currents over the western Pacific are calculated and analyzed and a brief discussion is given. The following three criteria were obtained: (1) The monsoon current over the western Pacific between winter and summer changed almost in opposite directions with April and October being the transitional months. In general the wind direction change from summer to winter went from the coastal waters to the open sea. (2) After the discussion about the duration and the prevailing wind directions, the following was determined: during the winter monsoon period, the 25/sup 0/N latitudinal line may be regarded as the boundary from October to March when the winter wind directions inclined N (NW or N) to the north of that line; but to the south of it NE winds prevailed. However, the durations were quite different in different regions, ranging from five to nine months. Owing to the topographic influence of the Taiwan Strait, the duration of the NE wind lasted nine months. The 25/sup 0/N line may also be applied for summer monsoons; over the eastern open ocean from the Gulf of the Bohai Sea and the Japanese islands the southerly winds lasted about nine months, but in the Taiwan Strait they lasted only two months. (3) During the winter monsoon period, the region of strong winds which encircled the continent was over the open ocean to the east of the Japanese islands and the Philippines. However, it was not as near to the shore line as in the winter season, and the frequency of strong winds was somewhat more on the southern side of the 25/sup 0/N line.

  10. 76 FR 13297 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii-Based Shallow-set Longline Fishery; Court Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    .... 100826393-1171-01] RIN 0648-BA19 Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii-Based Shallow-set Longline... allowable incidental interactions that may occur between the Hawaii-based shallow-set pelagic longline... to optimize yield from the Hawaii-based pelagic shallow-set longline fishery without jeopardizing the...

  11. Geomorphic evidence for post-10 Ma uplift of the western flank of the central Andes 18°30'-22°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, NicoláS.; Tomlinson, Andrew J.; Ramezani, Jahandar

    2007-10-01

    The western Andean mountain front forms the western edge of the central Andean Plateau. Between 18.5° and 22°S latitude, the mountain front has ˜3000 m of relief over ˜50 km horizontal distance that has developed in the absence of major local Neogene deformation. Models of the evolution of the plateau, as well as paleoaltimetry estimates, all call for continued large-magnitude uplift of the plateau surface into the late Miocene (i.e., younger than 10 Ma). Longitudinal river profiles from 20 catchments that drain the western Andean mountain front contain several streams with knickpoint-bounded segments that we use to reconstruct the history of post-10 Ma surface uplift of the western flank of the central Andean Plateau. The generation of knickpoints is attributed to tectonic processes and is not a consequence of base level change related to Pacific Ocean capture, eustatic change, or climate change as causes for creating the knickpoint-bounded stream segments observed. Minor valley-filling alluvial gravels intercalated with the 5.4 Ma Carcote ignimbrite suggest uplift related river incision was well under way by 5.4 Ma. The maximum age of river incision is provided by the regionally extensive, approximately 10 Ma El Diablo-Altos de Pica paleosurface. The river profiles reveal that relative surface uplift of at least1 km occurred after 10 Ma.

  12. Long-term monitoring of coral reef fish assemblages in the Western central pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, Adel; Williams, Ivor D; Acoba, Tomoko; DesRochers, Annette; Kosaki, Randall K; Kanemura, Troy; Nadon, Marc O; Brainard, Russell E

    2017-12-05

    Throughout the tropics, coral reef ecosystems, which are critically important to people, have been greatly altered by humans. Differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is essential to effective management. Here we present a dataset from a large-scale monitoring program that surveys coral reef fish assemblages and habitats encompassing the bulk of the US-affiliated tropical Pacific, and spanning wide gradients in both natural drivers and human impact. Currently, this includes >5,500 surveys from 39 islands and atolls in Hawaii (including the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands) and affiliated geo-political regions of American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Remote Islands Areas. The dataset spans 2010-2017, during which time, each region was visited at least every three years, and ~500-1,000 surveys performed annually. This standardised dataset is a powerful resource that can be used to understand how human, environmental and oceanographic conditions influence coral reef fish community structure and function, providing a basis for research to support effective management outcomes.

  13. Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Pacific Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F.

    2000-10-01

    Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations for an 11-yr period. These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and interannual distribution of the North Pacific Ocean total rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most important.To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from passive microwave satellite observations within 444-km radius of the center of those North Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain-rate observations are converted to monthly rainfall amounts and then compared with those for nontropical cyclone systems.The main results of this study indicate that 1) tropical cyclones contribute 7% of the rainfall to the entire domain of the North Pacific during the tropical cyclone season and 12%, 3%, and 4% when the study area is limited to, respectively, the western, central, and eastern third of the ocean; 2) the maximum tropical cyclone rainfall is poleward (5°-10° latitude depending on longitude) of the maximum nontropical cyclone rainfall; 3) tropical cyclones contribute a maximum of 30% northeast of the Philippine Islands and 40% off the lower Baja California coast; 4) in the western North Pacific, the tropical cyclone rainfall lags the total rainfall by approximately two months and shows seasonal latitudinal variation following the Intertropical Convergence Zone; and 5) in general, tropical cyclone rainfall is enhanced during the El Niño years by warm SSTs in the eastern North Pacific and by the monsoon trough in the western and central North Pacific.

  14. Tomography and Dynamics of Western-Pacific Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.

    2012-01-01

    We review the significant recent results of multiscale seismic tomography of the Western-Pacific subduction zones and discuss their implications for seismotectonics, magmatism, and subduction dynamics, with an emphasis on the Japan Islands. Many important new findings are obtained due to technical advances in tomography, such as the handling of complex-shaped velocity discontinuities, the use of various later phases, the joint inversion of local and teleseismic data, tomographic imaging outside a seismic network, and P-wave anisotropy tomography. Prominent low-velocity (low-V) and high-attenuation (low-Q) zones are revealed in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath active arc and back-arc volcanoes and they extend to the deeper portion of the mantle wedge, indicating that the low-V/low-Q zones form the sources of arc magmatism and volcanism, and the arc magmatic system is related to deep processes such as convective circulation in the mantle wedge and dehydration reactions in the subducting slab. Seismic anisotropy seems to exist in all portions of the Northeast Japan subduction zone, including the upper and lower crust, the mantle wedge and the subducting Pacific slab. Multilayer anisotropies with different orientations may have caused the apparently weak shear-wave splitting observed so far, whereas recent results show a greater effect of crustal anisotropy than previously thought. Deep subduction of the Philippine Sea slab and deep dehydration of the Pacific slab are revealed beneath Southwest Japan. Significant structural heterogeneities are imaged in the source areas of large earthquakes in the crust, subducting slab and interplate megathrust zone, which may reflect fluids and/or magma originating from slab dehydration that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. These results suggest that large earthquakes do not strike anywhere, but in only anomalous areas that may be detected with geophysical methods. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under

  15. 76 FR 14367 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-AY93 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability... limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs), adopt the ecosystem component species classification...

  16. An aftereffect of global warming on tropical Pacific decadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Liu, Qinyu; Wang, Chuanyang

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that global warming over the past six decades can weaken the tropical Pacific Walker circulation and maintain the positive phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Based on observations and model simulations, another aftereffect of global warming on IPO is found. After removing linear trends (global warming signals) from observations, however, the tropical Pacific climate still exhibited some obvious differences between two IPO negative phases. The boreal winter (DJF) equatorial central-eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) was colder during the 1999-2014 period (P2) than that during 1961-1976 (P1). This difference may have been a result of global warming nonlinear modulation of precipitation; i.e., in the climatological rainy region, the core area of the tropical Indo-western Pacific warm pool receives more precipitation through the "wet-get-wetter" mechanism. Positive precipitation anomalies in the warm pool during P2 are much stronger than those during P1, even after subtracting the linear trend. Corresponding to the differences of precipitation, the Pacific Walker circulation is stronger in P2 than in P1. Consequent easterly winds over the equatorial Pacific led to a colder equatorial eastern-central Pacific during P2. Therefore, tropical Pacific climate differences between the two negative IPO phases are aftereffects of global warming. These aftereffects are supported by the results of coupled climate model experiments, with and without global warming.

  17. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Hugh J; De Roy, Emma M; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  18. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J MacIsaac

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  19. Dimethylsulphide (DMS emissions from the western Pacific Ocean: a potential marine source for stratospheric sulphur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Marandino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface and atmospheric measurements of dimethylsulphide (DMS were performed during the TransBrom cruise in the western Pacific Ocean between Japan and Australia in October 2009. Air–sea DMS fluxes were computed between 0 and 30 μmol m−2 d−1, which are in agreement with those computed by the current climatology, and peak emissions of marine DMS into the atmosphere were found during the occurrence of tropical storm systems. Atmospheric variability in DMS, however, did not follow that of the computed fluxes and was more related to atmospheric transport processes. The computed emissions were used as input fields for the Lagrangian dispersion model FLEXPART, which was set up with actual meteorological fields from ERA-Interim data and different chemical lifetimes of DMS. A comparison with aircraft in situ data from the adjacent HIPPO2 campaign revealed an overall good agreement between modelled versus observed DMS profiles over the tropical western Pacific Ocean. Based on observed DMS emissions and meteorological fields along the cruise track, the model projected that up to 30 g S per month in the form of DMS, emitted from an area of 6 × 104 m2, can be transported above 17 km. This surprisingly large DMS entrainment into the stratosphere is disproportionate to the regional extent of the area of emissions and mainly due to the high convective activity in this region as simulated by the transport model. Thus, if DMS can cross the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, we suggest that the considerably larger area of the tropical western Pacific Ocean can be a source of sulphur to the stratosphere, which has not been considered as yet.

  20. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  1. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  2. Changes in the influence of the western Pacific subtropical high on Asian summer monsoon rainfall in the late 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Huijun

    2017-10-01

    The Year-to-year variability of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) is primarily controlled by atmosphere-ocean interaction (AOI) between the WPSH and the Indo-Pacific warm pool dipole SST anomalies (AOI mode) and the anomalous SST forcing from the equatorial central Pacific (the CP forcing mode). In this study, we show that the impacts of the WPSH variability on Asian summer monsoon rainfall have changed after the late 1990s. Before the late 1990s (the PRE epoch), the WPSH primarily affects East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and had little influence on Indian summer monsoon (ISM), whereas after the late 1990s (the POST epoch), the WPSH has strengthened its linkage to the ISM while weakened its relationship with the EASM. This epochal change is associated with a change in the leading circulation mode in the Asia-WP region. During the PRE (POST) epoch the WPSH variation is mainly controlled by the AOI (CP forcing) that mainly affects EASM (ISM). The epochal change of the leading mode may be attributed to the change of the ENSO properties in late 1990s: the CP types of El Nino become a leading ENSO mode in the POST epoch. This work provides a new perspective for understanding decadal changes of the ENSO-monsoon relationship through subtropical dynamics.

  3. The Impacts of Bias in Cloud-Radiation-Dynamics Interactions on Central Pacific Seasonal and El Niño Simulations in Contemporary GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.-L. F.; Suhas, E.; Richardson, Mark; Lee, Wei-Liang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Yu, Jia-Yuh; Lee, Tong; Fetzer, Eric; Stephens, Graeme; Shen, Min-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Most of the global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 do not include precipitating ice (aka falling snow) in their radiation calculations. We examine the importance of the radiative effects of precipitating ice on simulated surface wind stress and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in terms of seasonal variation and in the evolution of central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño) events. Using controlled simulations with the CESM1 model, we show that the exclusion of precipitating ice radiative effects generates a persistent excessive upper-level radiative cooling and an increasingly unstable atmosphere over convective regions such as the western Pacific and tropical convergence zones. The invigorated convection leads to persistent anomalous low-level outflows which weaken the easterly trade winds, reducing upper-ocean mixing and leading to a positive SST bias in the model mean state. In CP-El Niño events, this means that outflow from the modeled convection in the central Pacific reduces winds to the east, allowing unrealistic eastward propagation of warm SST anomalies following the peak in CP-El Niño activity. Including the radiative effects of precipitating ice reduces these model biases and improves the simulated life cycle of the CP-El Niño. Improved simulations of present-day tropical seasonal variations and CP-El Niño events would increase the confidence in simulating their future behavior.

  4. 76 FR 17808 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Mechanism for Specifying Annual Catch Limits and Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Limits and Accountability Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... accountability measures (AMs) for western Pacific fisheries. The proposed rule is procedural in nature, and is... more inseason accountability measures to ensure that the ACL is not exceeded. Restrictions may include...

  5. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific : Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoneda, M; Kitagawa, H; van der Plicht, J; Uchida, M; Tanaka, A; Uehiro, T; Shibata, Y; Morita, M; Ohno, T

    2000-01-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as

  6. The phase differences of the interdecadal variabilities of tropical cyclone activity in the peak and late seasons over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Xu, Shibin; Huang, Fei; Zhao, Jinping

    2018-04-01

    This study compares the interdecadal variations in tropical cyclone (TC) activities over the western North Pacific (WNP) basin during the peak season (July-September) and late season (October-December) of 1955-2014 and explores the possible physical mechanisms behind the variations. Both the peak- and late-season tropical storm (TS) days show distinct interdecadal variations, while the late-season TS days lead the peak-season TS days by approximately 4 years on an interdecadal time scale. The late-season TC activity is related to the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The westerly winds induced by the SST gradient can reduce the vertical wind shear and increase the low-level vorticity, which favors TC genesis over the TC genesis region. The peak-season TC activity appears to relate to the SST gradient between the Indian Ocean and the Central Pacific. The westerly wind induced by the SST gradient can reduce the vertical wind shear and increase the mid-level relative humidity, thereby enhancing the TC activity. The full picture of the interdecadal variation in the WNP TC activity during the peak and late seasons revealed in this study provides a new perspective on the seasonal TC forecasts and future projections.

  7. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  8. Emission, Dispersion, Transformation, and Deposition of Asian Particulates Over the Western Pacific Ocean. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, Richard P.

    2005-01-01

    In this project we developed and applied a coupled three-dimensional meteorology/chemistry/microphysics model to study the patterns of aerosol dispersion and deposition in the western Pacific area; carried out a series of detailed regional aerosol simulations to test the ability of models to treat emission, dispersion and removal processes prior to long-range transport; calculated and analyzed trajectories that originate in Asian dust source regions and reach the Pacific Basin; performed detailed simulations of regional and trans-Pacific transport, as well as the microphysical and chemical properties, of aerosols in the Asia-Pacific region to quantify processes that control the emission, dispersion and removal of particles; and assessed the contributions of regional-scale Asian particulate sources to the deposition of pollutants onto surface waters. The transport and deposition of aerosols and vapors were found to be strongly controlled by large and synoptic scale meteorology, convection, turbulence, and precipitation, as well as strong interactions between surface conditions and topographical features. The present analysis suggests that accurate representations of aerosol sources, transport and deposition can be obtained using a comprehensive modeling approach

  9. Mesoscale cyclogenesis over the western north Pacific Ocean during TPARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of mesoscale marine cyclogenesis over the subtropics of the Western Pacific Ocean are investigated. Each case occurred during the THORPEX Pacific Asia Regional Campaign and Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS-08 field phases in 2008. Each cyclone developed from remnants of disturbances that earlier showed potential for tropical cyclogenesis within the tropics. Two of the cyclones produced gale-force surface winds, and one, designated as a tropical cyclone, resulted in a significant coastal storm over eastern Japan. Development was initiated by a burst of organized mesoscale convection that consolidated and intensified the surface cyclonic circulation over a period of 12–24 h. Upper-tropospheric potential vorticity anomalies modulated the vertical wind shear that, in turn, influenced the periods of cyclone intensification and weakening. Weak baroclinicity associated with vertical shear was also deemed important in organizing mesoscale ascent and the convection outbreaks. The remnant tropical disturbances contributed exceptional water vapour content to higher latitudes that led to strong diabatic heating, and the tropical remnants contributed vorticity that was the seed of the development in the subtropics. Predictability of these events more than three days in advance appears to be minimal.

  10. Unstable relationships between tree ring δ18O and climate variables over southwestern China: possible impacts from increasing central Pacific SSTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Wenling; Liu, Xiaohong; Hou, Shugui; Zeng, Xiaomin; Sun, Weizhen; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yu; Xu, Guobao; Ren, Jiawen

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential influence of central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the unstable relationship between earlywood δ18O and climatic factors in the southwestern China from 1902 to 2005. The results show that the strength of the climate signals recorded in the earlywood δ18O series has declined since the late 1970s. This reduction in signal strength may have been caused by the changes in the local hydroclimate, which is associated with the increasing SSTs in the central Pacific Ocean over recent decades. Alongside these increasing SSTs in the central Pacific, southwestern China has experienced more droughts, as well as more severe droughts through the late spring and early summer during the central Pacific (CP) El Niño years than during the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño years in recent decades. This increased drought frequency may have weakened the response of earlywood δ18O to climate variables.

  11. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-11-02

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate.

  12. First record of the Central Indo-Pacific reef coral Oulastrea crispata in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. HOEKSEMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A live colony of a non-indigenous zooxanthellate scleractinian coral was found in shallow water at the west coast of Corsica, western Mediterranean. Its diameter of 6 cm suggests that it has already survived for some years. It was identified as Oulastrea crispata, a species native on near-shore coral reefs in the central Indo-Pacific with a high tolerance for low water temperatures at high latitudes. Based on its morphology it can be distinguished from other zooxanthellate colonial scleractinians in the Mediterranean. O. crispata has a reputation of being a successful colonizer because it is able to settle on a wide variety of substrata and because it utilizes various reproductive strategies as simultaneous hermaphrodite and producer of asexually derived planulae. Owing to its original distribution range in temperate and subtropical waters, it is likely that it will be able to meet a suitable temperature regime in the Mediterranean for further range expansion.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of Babesia poelea from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of avian Babesia with other piroplasms remains unclear, mainly because of a lack of objective criteria such as molecular phylogenetics. In this study, our objective was to sequence the entire 18S, ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 regions of the rRNA gene and partial ß-tubulin gene of B. poelea, first described from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from the central Pacific, and compare them to those of other piroplasms. Phylogenetic analyses of the entire 18S rRNA gene sequence revealed that B. poelea belonged to the clade of piroplasms previously detected in humans, domestic dogs, and wild ungulates in the western United States. The entire ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2, and partial ß-tubulin gene sequence shared conserved regions with previously described Babesia and Theileria species. The intron of the ß-tubulin gene was 45 bp. This is the first molecular characterization of an avian piroplasm.

  14. 50-Ma Initiation of Hawaiian-Emperor Bend Records Major Change in Pacific Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Warren D.; Clague, David A.

    2006-09-01

    The Hawaiian-Emperor bend has played a prominent yet controversial role in deciphering past Pacific plate motions and the tempo of plate motion change. New ages for volcanoes of the central and southern Emperor chain define large changes in volcanic migration rate with little associated change in the chain's trend, which suggests that the bend did not form by slowing of the Hawaiian hot spot. Initiation of the bend near Kimmei seamount about 50 million years ago (MA) was coincident with realignment of Pacific spreading centers and early magmatism in western Pacific arcs, consistent with formation of the bend by changed Pacific plate motion.

  15. Attribution of the variability of typhoon landfalls in China coasts to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Chen, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, D.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The typhoon (TY) landfall activity along China coasts during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variations during 1965-2010. Three typical episodes for TY landfall activities in JAS along the China coasts during 1965-2010 can be identified, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (period I) and 1998-2010 (period III), and less during 1982-1995 (period II). We found that the interdcadal variations might be related to the combined effects of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase change and the sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific (IO-WP). During negative PDO phase of periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP) inducing easterly flow at its north, favoring TY landfall along eastern China coast. Due to Gill-pattern responses, warm SST anomalies over tropical IO-WP induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP, with southeasterly wind dominating in the northern SCS and WNP (10o-20o N), which favors TY reaching along southern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TY landfall during period III than that of period I, which shows SST cooling in tropical IO-WP.

  16. On the unstable ENSO-Western North Pacific Monsoon relation during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Martín, Inmaculada; Gallego Puyol, David; Ribera Rodriguez, Pedro; Gómez Delgado, Francisco de Paula; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The concept of the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon (WNPSM) appeared for the first time in 1987. Unlike the Indian Summer Monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon, the WNPSM is an oceanic monsoon driven essentially by the meridional gradient of sea surface temperature. Its circulation is characterized by a northwest-southeast oriented monsoon trough with intense precipitation and low-level southwesterlies and upper-tropospheric easterlies in the region [100°-130° E, 5°-15°N]. Although this monsoon is mainly oceanic, it modulates the precipitation of densely populated areas such as the Philippines. To date, the WNPSM has been quantified by the so-called Western North Pacific Monsoon Index (WNPMI), an index based on wind anomalies over large domains of the Western Pacific. The requirement of continuous observed wind over remote oceanic areas to compute the WNPMI has limited its availability to the 1949-2014 period. In this work we have extended the index by almost 100 years by using historical observations of wind direction taken aboard ships. Our Western North Pacific Directional Index (WNPDI), is defined as the sum of the persistence of the low-level westerly winds in [5°-15°N, 100°-130°E] and easterly winds in [20°-30°N, 110°-140°E]. The new WNPDI index is highly correlated to the existent WNPMI for the concurrent period (1948-2014). (r=+0.88, p<0.01), indicating that the new approach based in the use of wind direction alone (a variable that can be considered instrumental even before the 20th Century), captures most of the monsoonal signal. Previous studies found that, during the second part of the 20th Century the WNPSM exhibited two basic characteristics: first a large interannual variability and second, a significant relation between the WNPSM and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in a way in which a strong (weak) WNPSM tends to occur during the El Niño (La Niña) developing year or/and La Niña (El Niño) decaying year. The analysis of

  17. Interdecadal variability of the tropospheric biennial oscillation in the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Bin; Lin Ailan; Gu Dejun; Li Chunhui

    2008-01-01

    The observed tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) in the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon region has an interdecadal variability with a period of 40–50 yr. That suggests a weaker effect of the TBO on the East Asia followed by a stronger one. A simple analytic model was designed to investigate the mechanism of the interdecadal variability of the TBO. The results indicated that a local TBO air-sea system not only supports the TBO variability in the WNP monsoon region but also produces an interdecadal variability of the TBO

  18. Marine lake ecosystem dynamics illustrate ENSO variation in the tropical western Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laura E; Dawson, Michael N; Bell, Lori J; Colin, Patrick L

    2005-01-01

    Understanding El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its biological consequences is hindered by a lack of high-resolution, long-term data from the tropical western Pacific. We describe a preliminary, 6 year dataset that shows tightly coupled ENSO-related bio-physical dynamics in a seawater lake in Palau, Micronesia. The lake is more strongly stratified during La Niña than El Niño conditions, temperature anomalies in the lake co-vary strongly with the Niño 3.4 climate index, and the abundance...

  19. The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kucharski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the teleconnections from the tropical Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region from inter-annual to centennial time scales will be reviewed. Identified teleconnections and hypotheses on mechanisms at work are reviewed and further explored in a century-long pacemaker coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation ensemble. There is a substantial impact of the tropical Atlantic on the Pacific region at inter-annual time scales. An Atlantic Niño (Niña event leads to rising (sinking motion in the Atlantic region, which is compensated by sinking (rising motion in the central-western Pacific. The sinking (rising motion in the central-western Pacific induces easterly (westerly surface wind anomalies just to the west, which alter the thermocline. These perturbations propagate eastward as upwelling (downwelling Kelvin-waves, where they increase the probability for a La Niña (El Niño event. Moreover, tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies are also able to lead La Niña/El Niño development. At multidecadal time scales, a positive (negative Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation leads to a cooling (warming of the eastern Pacific and a warming (cooling of the western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The physical mechanism for this impact is similar to that at inter-annual time scales. At centennial time scales, the Atlantic warming induces a substantial reduction of the eastern Pacific warming even under CO2 increase and to a strong subsurface cooling.

  20. [Trophic niche partitioning of pelagic sharks in Central Eastern Pacific inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun Kai; Gao, Xiao di; Wang, Lin Yu; Fang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    As the apex predators of the open ocean ecosystems, pelagic sharks play important roles in stabilizing the marine food web through top-down control. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the feeding ecology. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to trace food source and evaluate the trophic position of marine organisms. In this study, the isotope values of 130 pelagic sharks from 8 species in Central Eastern Pacific were analyzed and their trophic position and niche were calculated to compare the intra/inter-specific resource partitioning in the Central Eastern Pacific ecosystem. The results exhibited significant differences in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values among the shark species. The trophic levels ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 in the Central Eastern Pacific shark community. The trophic niche of blue sharks and shortfin mako sharks showed no overlap with the other shark species, exhibiting unique ecological roles in the open ocean food web. These data highlighted the diverse roles among pelagic sharks, supporting previous findings that this species is not trophically redundant and the trophic niche of pelagic sharks can not be simply replaced by those of other top predator species.

  1. 33 CFR 334.1130 - Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB, Calif.; danger zones. 334.1130 Section 334.1130 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1130 Pacific Ocean, Western Space and Missile Center (WSMC), Vandenberg AFB... (WSMC) at Vandenberg AFB, California. (3) The impacting of missile debris from launch operations will...

  2. A closer look at the central Pacific El Niño and warm pool migration events from 1982 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Autumn; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has been observed that there are different types of El Niño events. The warm events can be divided into two categories: those centered in the central Pacific (CP) and those centered in the eastern Pacific (EP). We examined the variability of western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) horizontal migration and size from January 1982 to December 2011 by applying Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and Hilbert-Huang Spectrum (HHS) to the optimally interpolated sea surface temperature (OISST) data set. The analysis shows that the long-term residual trend of the zonal centroid movement is migrating to the west by 3.78° from the mean location during the past 30 years. The size of the warm pool has also increased 18% during this period. These analysis techniques isolated two separate time series for the migration of the zonal component of the WPWP for both CP and EP events and showed that these two types of El Niño generally operate at different time scales. The EP time series shows the strong traditional EP El Niño and the transition between strong El Niño conditions and La Niña conditions. The CP time series shows that CP El Niños occur more often than EP El Niños. The changes of El Niño type in conjunction with westward drift and increasing warm pool size shows an interesting multidecadal change in the warm pool. Potential mechanisms relating the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to El Niño typologies were also discussed.

  3. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  4. 76 FR 72643 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Closure of the Hawaii Shallow-Set Pelagic Longline Fishery Due...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    .... 080225267-91393-03] RIN 0648-XA370 Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Closure of the Hawaii Shallow- Set...: Temporary rule; fishery closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the shallow-set pelagic longline fishery north of the Equator for all vessels registered under the Hawaii longline limited access program. The shallow-set...

  5. Transport process of Pu isotope in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 036-8564, Aomori (Japan); Zheng, Jian [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Significant quantities of Pu isotopes have been released into the marine environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Most radionuclides globally dispersed in atmospheric nuclear weapons testing were released into the environment during the 1950's and 1960's. In the western North Pacific Ocean, the principal source can be further distinguished as two distinct sources of Pu: close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands and global stratospheric fallout. Since the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is characteristic for the Pu emission source, information on Pu isotopic signature is very useful to better understand the transport process in the oceans and to identify the sources of Pu. The mean atom ratio of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu from the global stratospheric fallout is 0.180 ±0.014 based on soil sample data, whereas that from close-in tropospheric fallout from the PPG is 0.33 - 0.36. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater samples collected in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean will provide important and useful data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The objectives of this study were to measure the {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater from the Sea of Okhotsk, Japan Sea, South China Sea and Sulu Sea and to discuss the transport process of Pu. Large-volume seawater samples (250 L each) were collected from the surface to the bottom in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise. The {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. In

  6. 77 FR 47918 - Chicago Central and Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Central and Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, IL Chicago Central and... North Riverside, Cook County, Ill. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 60546 and... system. A copy of any petition filed with the Board should be sent to CCP's representative: Thomas J...

  7. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalire, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM) in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ) and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC). This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile survival as the

  8. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Philippe; Lalire, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM) in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ) and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC). This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile survival as the

  9. Ventilation changes in the western North Pacific since the last glacial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Okazaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reconstructed the ventilation record of deep water at 2100 m depth in the mid-latitude western North Pacific over the past 25 kyr from radiocarbon measurements of coexisting planktic and benthic foraminiferal shells in sediment with a high sedimentation rate. The 14C data on fragile and robust planktic foraminiferal shells were concordant with each other, ensuring high quality of the reconstructed ventilation record. The radiocarbon activity changes were consistent with the atmospheric record, suggesting that no massive mixing of old carbon from the abyssal reservoir occurred throughout the glacial to deglacial periods.

  10. Reconstruction of Northeast Asian Deformation Integrated with Western Pacific Plate Subduction since 200 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Gurnis, M.; Ma, P.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    The configuration and kinematics of continental deformation and its marginal plate tectonics on the Earth's surface are intrinsic manifestations of plate-mantle coupling. The complex interactions of plate boundary forces result in plate motions that are dominated by slab pull and ridge push forces and the effects of mantle drag; these interactions also result in continental deformation with a complex basin-mountain architecture and evolution. The kinematics and evolution of the western Pacific subduction and northeast Asian continental-margin deformation are a first-order tectonic process whose nature and chronology remains controversial. This paper implements a "deep-time" reconstruction of the western Pacific subduction, continental accretion or collision and basin-mountain deformation in northeast Asia since 200 Ma based on a newly revised global plate model. The results demonstrate a NW-SE-oriented shortening from 200-137 Ma, a NWW-SEE-oriented extension from 136-101 Ma, a nearly N-S-oriented extension and uplift with a short-term NWW-SEE-oriented compressional inversion in northeast China from 100-67 Ma, and a NW-SE- and nearly N-S-oriented extension from 66 Ma to the present day. The western Pacific oceanic plate subducted forward under East Asia along Mudanjiang-Honshu Island during the Jurassic, and the trenches retreated to the Sikhote-Alin, North Shimanto, and South Shimanto zones from ca. 137-128 Ma, ca. 130-90 Ma, and in ca. 60 Ma, respectively. Our time-dependent analysis of plate motion and continental deformation coupling suggests that the multi-plate convergent motion and ocean-continent convergent orogeny were induced by advance subduction during the Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous. Our analysis also indicates that the intra-continent rifting and back-arc extension were triggered by trench retreat during the Cretaceous and that the subduction of oceanic ridge and arc were triggered by trench retreat during the Cenozoic. Therefore, reconstructing

  11. The in vitro evaluation of tigecycline tested against pathogens isolated in eight countries in the Asia-Western Pacific region (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David J; Turnidge, John D; Bell, Jan; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-06-01

    To determine the in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparator common use antimicrobial agents tested against contemporary bacterial pathogens from the Asia-Western Pacific region. As part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, a total of 5759 Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates were collected from 28 medical centers in eight Asia-Western Pacific countries during 2008. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method and interpreted using CLSI breakpoints. United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) breakpoints were used to interpret tigecycline susceptibility. Antimicrobial resistance was found to be widespread and prevalence varied considerably between the eight countries. Against pathogens for which breakpoints were available, >98% of all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Against all Gram-positive isolates, including methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin- and multidrug-resistant pneumococci, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the highest tigecycline MIC found was 1 microg/ml. Against all Enterobacteriaceae, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotypes, tigecycline susceptibility was 97.5%. Tigecycline had good activity against Acinetobacter spp. but was much less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tigecycline demonstrated excellent sustained in vitro activity against a wide spectrum of contemporary Gram-positive and -negative pathogens from Asia-Western Pacific countries. Copyright (c) 2010 The British Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Tepley; F.J. Swanson; T.A. Spies

    2013-01-01

    Forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have strongly influenced concepts and policy concerning old-growth forest conservation. Despite the attention to their old-growth characteristics, a tendency remains to view their disturbance ecology in relatively simple terms, emphasizing infrequent, stand-replacing (SR...

  13. Transport and Thermohaline Structure in the Western Tropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonau, Martha Coakley

    Transport and thermohaline structure of water masses and their respective variability are observed and modeled in the western tropical North Pacific using autonomous underwater gliders, Argo climatology and a numerical ocean state estimate. The North Equatorial Current (NEC) advects subtropical and subpolar water masses into the region that are transported equatorward by the Mindanao Current (MC). Continuous glider observations of these two currents from June 2009 to December 2013 provide absolute geostrophic velocity, water mass structure, and transport. The observations are compared to Argo climatology (Roemmich and Gilson, 2009), wind and precipitation to assess forcing, and annual and interannual variability. Observations are assimilated into a regional ocean state estimate (1/6°) to examine regional transport variability and its relationship to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomena (ENSO). The NEC, described in Chapter 1, is observed along 134.3°E, from 8.5°N to 16.5°N. NEC thermocline transport is relatively constant, with a variable subthermocline transport that is distinguished by countercurrents centered at 9.6°N and 13.1°N. Correlation between thermocline and subthermocline transport is strong. Isopycnals with subducted water masses, the North Pacific Tropical Water and North Pacific Intermediate Water, have the greatest fine-scale thermohaline variance. The NEC advects water masses into the MC, described in Chapter 2, that flows equatorward along the coast of Mindanao. Gliders observed the MC at a mean latitude of 8.5°N. The Mindanao Undercurrent (MUC) persists in the subthermocline offshore of the MC, with a net poleward transport of intermediate water typical of South Pacific origin. The variable subthermocline transport in the MC/MUC has an inverse linear relationship with the Nino 3.4 index and strongly impacts total transport variability. For each the MC and NEC, surface salinity and thermocline depth have a strong relationship with ENSO

  14. 77 FR 34331 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Swordfish Trip Limits in the Hawaii Deep-Set Longline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... long, a minimum of 15 branch lines between any two floats (except basket-style longline gear), no light... be amended as follows: PART 665--FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC 1. The authority citation for part... between any two floats (except basket-style longline gear which may have as few as 10 branch lines between...

  15. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, C.; Faust, E.

    2013-01-01

    The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr - driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980-2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  16. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Welker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The western North Pacific (WNP is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs. However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr – driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower by 14% (9% in the positive (negative phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980–2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  17. Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation Impact on Western North Pacific Typhoons and Rainfall in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-wen Hung; Ho-Jiunn Lin; Pei-ken Kao; Ming-fu Shih; Wei-yi Fong

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) impact on the western North Pacific (WNP) typhoons and the summer rainfall in Taiwan. The real time BSISO1 and BISISO2 indices are created using the first two and the third and fourth principal components of the multivariate empirical orthogonal function analysis, based on outgoing long-wave radiation and zonal wind at 850 hPa from Lee et al. (2013). The results show that heavy rainfall in Taiwan and the associated WNP t...

  18. Predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP CFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jianyin [CMA Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yang, Song; Kumar, Arun [NOAA/NWS/NCEP Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua [George Mason University, Department of Climate Dynamics, Fairfax, VA (United States); Zhang, Zuqiang [CMA National Climate Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    The predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP climate forecast system (CFS) are depicted by applying a maximized signal-to-noise empirical orthogonal function analysis. The CFS captures the two most dominant modes of observed climate patterns. The first most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the onset years of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with strong precipitation signals over the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, Southeast Asia, and tropical Asian monsoon regions including the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The second most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the decay years of ENSO, with weakening signals over the western-central Pacific and strengthening signals over the Indian Ocean. The CFS is capable of predicting the most dominant modes several months in advance. It is also highly skillful in capturing the air-sea interaction processes associated with the precipitation features, as demonstrated in sea surface temperature and wind patterns. (orig.)

  19. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. An initial examination of carbonate production in the western equatorial Pacific: XRF results from the Pliocene-Pleistocene of IODP Site U1490

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Rosenthal, Y.; Holbourn, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 363 sought to determine the nature of and driving forces behind climate variability in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) region throughout the Neogene on millennial, orbital, and geologic timescales. Our research focuses on the Pliocene to recent (4-0 Ma) sediment record from IODP Site U1490 to examine changes in carbonate production and burial in the WPWP as a record of variations in the regional/global carbon cycle. This interval is of particular interest because it spans the Middle Pliocene Warm Period, the initiation of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, and the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. Site U1490 is located on the northern edge of Eauripik Rise at 05°58.95'N, 142°39.27'E in the northern part of the WPWP. At 2341 m water depth, today the site is bathed in Upper Circumpolar Deepwater. Pliocene to recent sediment primarily consists of foraminifer-rich nannofossil ooze, with the sedimentation rate varying between 1.5 and 3 cm/kyr. Initial shipboard measurement of calcium carbonate content shows little variation at low resolution (1 sample every few meters), varying between 90 and 95 wt%. We collected X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data at 2 cm resolution along the composite stratigraphic section to obtain a qualitative measure of the bulk chemistry of the sediment. We will use the weight percent calcium carbonate of discrete samples to calibrate the XRF data to generate a high-resolution carbonate record. We observe cyclical variations in the Ca/Ba, which may reflect variations in productivity and/or dissolution through this interval, although additional work is needed to fully interpret these data. Ultimately our research will allow for comparison between records obtained from these cores located in the western equatorial Pacific to those obtained in the eastern and central Pacific, which will better elucidate the nature of the carbon system during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  1. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otwoma, Levy Michael; Kochzius, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA). A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1) Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani) and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani) and (2) the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03). The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13) in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1) WIO (2) Eastern Indian Ocean (3) IMPA and (4) Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  2. The Value of Higher Education for Individuals and Society in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.; Bethke, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Central to this study is an exploration of the degree to which higher education is perceived as an individual and/or a collective value. Seminal literature supports the notion that colleges and universities are Western institutions. Throughout the Asia Pacific, higher education is expanding in a hybrid form in collectivist societies. This…

  3. Typhoon-Induced Magnetic Disturbances: Cases in the Western Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three typhoons occurred over the western Pacific in September 2008 and were enhanced beyond category 3 as they approached Taiwan. The geomagnetic total intensity field recorded at 2 local monitoring stations in Taiwan and 1 remote station in Japan was utilized to examine the magnetic disturbances induced by these typhoons. Analytical results show that amplitude changes in the frequency domain, which are retrieved from the total intensity data via the Fourier transform, at the monitoring and remote stations were consistent, even though magnetic storms strongly affected the magnetic field. However, obvious discrepancies were repeatedly found in the amplitudes in the frequency band between 0.0025 - 0.007 Hz, when typhoons of category > 3 were the closest to the monitoring stations. The frequency band is different from the induction fields from either oceanic storm waves or swells, and is consistent with that of magnetic pulsations triggered by acoustic waves from upward air motion during typhoons.

  4. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-03-06

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  5. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  6. Cruise and Data Report of USA-PRC Joint Air-Sea Interaction Studies in the Western Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 8700374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USA-PRC Joint Program on Air-Sea Interaction Studies in the Tropical Western Pacific is a component of the Protocol on Cooperation in the Field of Marine and...

  7. A warming tropical central Pacific dries the lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qinghua; Fu, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    The amount of water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere (TLS), which has an important influence on the radiative energy budget of the climate system, is modulated by the temperature variability of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The TTL temperature variability is caused by a complex combination of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), tropospheric convective processes in the tropics, and the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) driven by mid-latitude and subtropical atmospheric waves. In 2000, the TLS water vapor amount exhibited a stepwise transition to a dry phase, apparently caused by a change in the BDC. In this study, we present observational and modeling evidence that the epochal change of water vapor between the periods of 1992-2000 and 2001-2005 was also partly caused by a concurrent sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the tropical central Pacific. This SST warming cools the TTL above by enhancing the equatorial wave-induced upward motion near the tropopause, which consequently reduces the amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere. The QBO affects the TLS water vapor primarily on inter-annual timescales, whereas a classical El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) event has small effect on tropical mean TLS water vapor because its responses are longitudinally out of phase. This study suggests that the tropical central Pacific SST is another driver of TLS water vapor variability on inter-decadal timescales and the tropical SST changes could contribute to about 30% of the step-wise drop of the lower stratospheric water vapor from 1992-2000 to 2001-2005.

  8. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, James D; Poliseno, Angelo; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Central Indo-Pacific (CIP) and the Indonesian Archipelago being a well-known region of coral reef biodiversity, particularly in the 'Coral Triangle', little published information is available on its zoantharians (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia). In order to provide a basis for future research on the Indo-Pacific zoantharian fauna and facilitate comparisons between more well-studied regions such as Japan and the Great Barrier Reef, this report deals with CIP zoantharian specimens in the Naturalis collection in Leiden, the Netherlands; 106 specimens were placed into 24 morpho-species and were supplemented with 88 in situ photographic records from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. At least nine morpho-species are likely to be undescribed species, indicating that the region needs more research in order to properly understand zoantharian diversity within the CIP. The Naturalis' zoantharian specimens are listed by species, as well as all relevant collection information, and in situ images are provided to aid in future studies on zoantharians in the CIP.

  10. Floating Marine Debris in waters of the Mexican Central Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Torres, Evelyn R; Ortega-Ortiz, Christian D; Silva-Iñiguez, Lidia; Nene-Preciado, Alejandro; Orozco, Ernesto Torres

    2017-02-15

    The presence of marine debris has been reported recently in several oceans basins; there is very little information available for Mexican Pacific coasts, however. This research examined the composition, possible sources, distribution, and density of Floating Marine Debris (FMD) during nine research surveys conducted during 2010-2012 in the Mexican Central Pacific (MCP). Of 1820 floating objects recorded, 80% were plastic items. Sources of FMD were determined using key objects, which indicated that the most were related to the presence of the industrial harbor and of a growing fishing industry in the study area. Densities were relatively high, ranging from 40 to 2440objects/km 2 ; the highest densities were recorded in autumn. FMD were distributed near coastal regions, mainly in Jalisco, influenced by river outflow and surface currents. Our results seem to follow worldwide trends and highlight the need for further studies on potential ecological impacts within coastal waters of the MCP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee: progress and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee (rGLC WPR was established in 2011 to promote the rational scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (PMDT. We reflect on its achievements, consider the challenges faced, and explore its potential future role. Achievements include the supervision and support of national PMDT action plans, increased local ownership, contextualized guidance, and a strong focus on regional capacity building, as well as a greater awareness of regional challenges. Future rGLC activities should include (1 advocacy for high-level political commitment; (2 monitoring, evaluation, and supervision; (3 technical support and contextualized guidance; and (4 training, capacity building, and operational research. Regional activities require close collaboration with both national and global efforts, and should be an important component of the new Global Drug-resistant TB Initiative.

  12. Electrical conductivity imaging in the western Pacific subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi; Baba, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic plate subduction is an important process for the dynamics and evolution of the Earth's interior, as it is regarded as a typical downward flow of the mantle convection that transports materials from the near surface to the deep mantle. Recent seismological study showed evidence suggesting the transportation of a certain amount of water by subduction of old oceanic plate such as the Pacific plate down to 150-200 km depth into the back arc mantle. However it is not well clarified how deep into the mantle the water can be transported. The electromagnetic induction method to image electrical conductivity distribution is a possible tool to answer this question as it is known to be sensitive to the presence of water. Here we show recent result of observational study from the western Pacific subduction zone to examine the electrical conductivity distribution in the upper mantle and in the mantle transition zone (MTZ), which will provide implications how water distributes in the mantle. We take two kinds of approach for imaging the mantle conductivity, (a) semi-global and (b) regional induction approaches. Result may be summarized as follows: (a) Long (5-30 years) time series records from 8 submarine cables and 13 geomagnetic observatories in the north Pacific region were analyzed and long period magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) responses were estimated in the period range from 1.7 to 35 days. These frequency dependent response functions were inverted to 3-dimensional conductivity distribution in the depth range between 350 and 850 km. Three major features are suggested in the MTZ depth such as, (1) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Philippine Sea, (2) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Hawaiian Islands, and (3) a low conductivity anomaly beneath and in the vicinity of northern Japan. (b) A three-year long deployment of ocean bottom electro-magnetometers (OBEM's) was conducted in the Philippine Sea and west Pacific Ocean from 2005

  13. Subtropical Low Cloud Responses to Central and Eastern Pacific El Nino Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, A. D.; Bennartz, R.; Jiang, J. H.; Kato, S.; Olson, W. S.; Pinker, R. T.; Su, H.; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Pacific El Niño event in 2006-2007 and the central Pacific El Niño event during 2009-2010 exhibit opposite responses in the top of atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects. These responses are driven by differences in large-scale circulation that result in significant low cloud anomalies in the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Both the vertical profile of cloud fraction and cloud water content are reduced during the eastern Pacific El Niño; however, the shift in the distribution of cloud characteristics and the physical processes underlying these changes need further analysis. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Clouds and Radiation Working Group will use a synthesis of NEWS data products, A-Train satellite measurements, reanalysis, and modeling approaches to further explore the differences in the low cloud response to changes in the large-scale forcing, as well as try to understand the physical mechanism driving the observed changes in the low clouds for the 2006/07 and 2009/10 distinct El Niño events. The distributions of cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties over the southeast Pacific will first be compared for these two events using a combination of MODIS, CloudSat/CALIPSO, and CERES data. Satellite and reanalysis estimates of changes in the vertical temperature and moisture profiles, lower tropospheric stability, winds, and surface heat fluxes are then used to identify the drivers for observed differences in the clouds and TOA radiative effects.

  14. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it's new marketing plan

  15. Multi-scale analysis of hermatypic coral assemblages at Mexican Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joicye Hernández-Zulueta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Central Pacific is located in a zone of oceanographic transition between two biogeographic provinces with particular conditions that affect the associated fauna. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of hermatypic coral assemblages in this region and to determine their relationship with the heterogeneity of the benthonic habitat and spatial variables. A total of 156 transects were carried out at 41 sites in the years 2010 and 2011. The sampling effort returned 96.7% of the coral richness expected for the area, with a total of 15 species recorded. The results showed that richness, diversity and cover of corals varied only at the site and state scales. However, the composition and coverage of all coral species, as well as the benthonic habitat structure, differed significantly across the study scales (i.e. sites, zones and states. Canonical redundancy analysis showed that variation in the richness, diversity and assemblages of corals was explained by the cover of live corals, articulated calcareous algae, sandy substrate, sponges and fleshy macroalgae. This study suggests that local scale (i.e. site variation in the coral assemblages of the Mexican Central Pacific is the result of the heterogeneity of the benthonic habitat, while geomorphological and oceanographic characteristics play a greater role at regional scale.

  16. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frere, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous

  17. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna) from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsken, Thomas; Keyse, Jude; Liggins, Libby; Penny, Shane; Treml, Eric A; Riginos, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Giant clams (genus Tridacna) are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea), whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  18. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission: Emerging Factor in Western Pacific Strategic Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Those studying and analyzing Western Pacific strategic trends and develop- ments have access to multiple unclassified analyses of security trends in this region covering these waters and adjacent countries. These information resources are produced by military and government agencies from multiple countries, multinational public policy research institutions, popular and scholarly journals, and Internet resources featuring text, data, webcasts, and imagery. One of these resources is the U.S.–Ch...

  19. Impacts of Pacific SSTs on California Winter Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, B.; Kafatos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Consecutive below-normal precipitation years and resulted multi-year droughts are critical issues as the recent 2012-2015 drought of California caused tremendous socio-economic damages. However, studies on the causes of the multi-year droughts lack. In this study, focusing on the three multi-year droughts (1999-2002, 2007-2009, and 2012-2015) in California during the last two decades, we investigated the atmospheric and oceanic characteristics of the three drought events for winter (December-February, DJF) in order to understand large-scale circulations that are responsible for initiation, maintenance, and termination of the droughts. It was found that abnormally developed upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific are primarily responsible for precipitation deficits and then droughts. These ridges developed when negative sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTs) including La Niña events are pervasive in the tropical Pacific. After 3 or 4 years, the droughts ended under the opposite conditions; upper-tropospheric troughs in the North Pacific with El Niño events in the tropics. Results of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis for the 41-year (1974/75-2014/15) 500 hPa geopotential height in DJF revealed that, during the drought periods, the positive phases of the first and second EOF mode (EOF1+ and EOF2+, respectively) were active one by one, positioning upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific. While EOF1+ is associated with cold tropical central Pacific and negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), EOF2+ is associated with the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern (i.e., warm western tropical Pacific and cool eastern tropical Pacific near the southern Peru). Based on these results, we developed a regression model for winter precipitation. While dominant SST factors differ by decades, for the recent two decades (1994/1995-2014/2015), 56% variability of DJF precipitation is explained by the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern and PDO (NINO3

  20. ENSO-driven nutrient variability recorded by central equatorial Pacific corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K. M.; McGregor, H. V.; Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence for shifts in global ocean primary productivity suggests that surface ocean nutrient availability is a key link between global climate and ocean carbon cycling. Time-series records from satellite, in situ buoy sensors, and bottle sampling have documented the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on equatorial Pacific hydrography and broad changes in biogeochemistry since the late 1990's, however, data are sparse prior to this. Here we use a new paleoceanographic nutrient proxy, coral P/Ca, to explore the impact of ENSO on nutrient availability in the central equatorial Pacific at higher-resolution than available from in situ nutrient data. Corals from Christmas (157°W 2°N) and Fanning (159°W 4°N) Islands recorded a well-documented decrease in equatorial upwelling as a ~40% decrease in P/Ca during the 1997-98 ENSO cycle, validating the application of this proxy to Pacific Porites corals. We compare the biogeochemical shifts observed through the 1997-98 event with two pre-TOGA-TAO ENSO cycles (1982-83 and 1986-87) reconstructed from a longer Christmas Island core. All three corals revealed ~30-40% P/Ca depletions during ENSO warming as a result of decreased regional wind stress, thermocline depth, and equatorial upwelling velocity. However, at the termination of each El Niño event, surface nutrients did not return to pre-ENSO levels for ~4-12 months after, SST as a result of increased biological draw down of surface nutrients. These records demonstrate the utility of high-resolution coral nutrient archives for understanding the impact of tropical Pacific climate on the nutrient and carbon cycling of this key region.

  1. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael Otwoma

    Full Text Available The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA. A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1 Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani and (2 the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03. The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13 in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P < 0.001 suggests that Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1 WIO (2 Eastern Indian Ocean (3 IMPA and (4 Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  2. Biological data assimilation for parameter estimation of a phytoplankton functional type model for the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Takafumi; Shigemitsu, Masahito; Nakano, Hideyuki; Hashioka, Taketo; Masuda, Yoshio; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Ecosystem models are used to understand ecosystem dynamics and ocean biogeochemical cycles and require optimum physiological parameters to best represent biological behaviours. These physiological parameters are often tuned up empirically, while ecosystem models have evolved to increase the number of physiological parameters. We developed a three-dimensional (3-D) lower-trophic-level marine ecosystem model known as the Nitrogen, Silicon and Iron regulated Marine Ecosystem Model (NSI-MEM) and employed biological data assimilation using a micro-genetic algorithm to estimate 23 physiological parameters for two phytoplankton functional types in the western North Pacific. The estimation of the parameters was based on a one-dimensional simulation that referenced satellite data for constraining the physiological parameters. The 3-D NSI-MEM optimized by the data assimilation improved the timing of a modelled plankton bloom in the subarctic and subtropical regions compared to the model without data assimilation. Furthermore, the model was able to improve not only surface concentrations of phytoplankton but also their subsurface maximum concentrations. Our results showed that surface data assimilation of physiological parameters from two contrasting observatory stations benefits the representation of vertical plankton distribution in the western North Pacific.

  3. Ooid turbidites from the Central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    Gravity displaced debris flows/turbidites have been observed in five box cores collected between water depths of 649 and 3,627 m from the Central Western continental margin of India. Studies on grain size, carbonate content, and coarse fraction...

  4. Status of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) in the western Limfjord, Denmark – Five years of population development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groslier, Tilde; Christensen, Helle Torp; Davids, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, was introduced into the Netherlands in 1964 for aquaculture purposes and has since spread extensively in Northern European waters. Eight locations in the western part of the Limfjord, Denmark, first sampled in 2006 were revisited in 2011, to determine how...

  5. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  6. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...

  7. Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia from the Central Indo-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Reimer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the Central Indo-Pacific (CIP and the Indonesian Archipelago being a well-known region of coral reef biodiversity, particularly in the ‘Coral Triangle’, little published information is available on its zoantharians (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia. In order to provide a basis for future research on the Indo-Pacific zoantharian fauna and facilitate comparisons between more well-studied regions such as Japan and the Great Barrier Reef, this report deals with CIP zoantharian specimens in the Naturalis collection in Leiden, the Netherlands; 106 specimens were placed into 24 morpho-species and were supplemented with 88 in situ photographic records from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. At least nine morpho-species are likely to be undescribed species, indicating that the region needs more research in order to properly understand zoantharian diversity within the CIP. The Naturalis’ zoantharian specimens are listed by species, as well as all relevant collection information, and in situ images are provided to aid in future studies on zoantharians in the CIP.

  8. Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, James D.; Poliseno, Angelo; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite the Central Indo-Pacific (CIP) and the Indonesian Archipelago being a well-known region of coral reef biodiversity, particularly in the ‘Coral Triangle’, little published information is available on its zoantharians (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia). In order to provide a basis for future research on the Indo-Pacific zoantharian fauna and facilitate comparisons between more well-studied regions such as Japan and the Great Barrier Reef, this report deals with CIP zoantharian specimens in the Naturalis collection in Leiden, the Netherlands; 106 specimens were placed into 24 morpho-species and were supplemented with 88 in situ photographic records from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. At least nine morpho-species are likely to be undescribed species, indicating that the region needs more research in order to properly understand zoantharian diversity within the CIP. The Naturalis’ zoantharian specimens are listed by species, as well as all relevant collection information, and in situ images are provided to aid in future studies on zoantharians in the CIP. PMID:25349499

  9. Spatio-temporal distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in the marine aerosols from the North and South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mir Md. Mozammal; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2017-03-01

    Aerosol samples (TSP) were collected during a cruise in the North (3°05‧N-34°02‧N) and South (6°59‧S-25°46‧S) Pacific to investigate the spatio-temporal distributions of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and then succinic (C4) acid. However, we found a predominance of C4 over C3 in the aerosol sample that was collected in the western North Pacific Rim with a heavy influence from continental air masses. Atmospheric abundances of short chain diacids (C2-C4) are 2-3 times higher in the North Pacific than in the South Pacific. During the cruise, abundances of C2 in the western North Pacific are 5 times higher than those in the rest of the samples collected. Moreover, the aerosol samples collected in the western North Pacific demonstrated that glyoxylic (ωC2) acid and methylglyoxal (MeGly) were dominant together with C2. We found a strong correlation between C2 and ωC2 (r = 0.87) and C2 and MeGly (r = 0.97) in the western North Pacific aerosols but the correlations are significantly weak in the samples from the central North Pacific and Southern Ocean. Diacids were found to account for 1.6 to 14% of organic carbon with higher values in the western North Pacific. These results, together with 7-day backward air mass trajectories, indicate that ωC2 and MeGly are both originated from the photochemical oxidation of continent-derived organic precursors including isoprene, which can serve as precursors for the production of C2 during long-range atmospheric transport.

  10. Impact of the Fukushima accident on tritium, radiocarbon and radiocesium levels in seawater of the western North Pacific Ocean: A comparison with pre-Fukushima situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, P P; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Kaizer, J; Molnár, M; Nies, H; Palcsu, L; Papp, L; Pham, M K; Jean-Baptiste, P

    2017-01-01

    Tritium, radiocarbon and radiocesium concentrations in water column samples in coastal waters offshore Fukushima and in the western North Pacific Ocean collected in 2011-2012 during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KoK) cruise are compared with other published results. The highest levels in surface seawater were observed for 134 Cs and 137 Cs in seawater samples collected offshore Fukushima (up to 1.1 Bq L -1 ), which represent an increase by about three orders of magnitude when compared with the pre-Fukushima concentration. Tritium levels were much lower (up to 0.15 Bq L -1 ), representing an increase by about a factor of 6. The impact on the radiocarbon distribution was measurable, but the observed levels were only by about 9% above the global fallout background. The 137 Cs (and similarly 134 Cs) inventory in the water column of the investigated western North Pacific region was (2.7 ± 0.4) PBq, while for 3 H it was only (0.3 ± 0.2) PBq. Direct releases of highly contaminated water from the damaged Fukushima NPP, as well as dry and wet depositions of these radionuclides over the western North Pacific considerably changed their distribution patterns in seawater. Presently we can distinguish Fukushima labeled waters from global fallout background thanks to short-lived 134 Cs. However, in the long-term perspective when 134 Cs will decay, new distribution patterns of 3 H, 14 C and 137 Cs in the Pacific Ocean should be established for future oceanographic and climate change studies in the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding the effect of an excessive cold tongue bias on projecting the tropical Pacific SST warming pattern in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Huang, Ping; Lian, Tao; Tan, Hongjian

    2018-05-01

    An excessive cold tongue is a common bias among current climate models, and considered an important source of bias in projections of tropical Pacific climate change under global warming. Specifically, the excessive cold tongue bias is closely related to the tropical Pacific SST warming (TPSW) pattern. In this study, we reveal that two processes are the critical mechanisms by which the excessive cold tongue bias influences the projection of the TPSW pattern, based on 32 models from phase 5 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Projection (CMIP5). On the one hand, by assuming that the shortwave (SW) radiation to SST feedback is linearly correlated to the cold tongue SST, the excessive cold tongue bias can induce an overly weak negative SW-SST feedback in the central Pacific, which can lead to a positive SST warming bias in the central to western Pacific (around 150°E-140°W). Moreover, the overly weak local atmospheric dynamics response to SST is a key process of the overly weak SW-SST feedback, compared with the cloud response to atmospheric dynamics and the SW radiation response to cloud. On the other hand, the overly strong ocean zonal overturning circulation associated with the excessive cold tongue bias results in an overestimation of the ocean dynamical thermostat effect, with enhanced ocean stratification under global warming, leading to a negative SST warming bias in the central and eastern Pacific (around 170°W-120°W). These two processes jointly form a positive SST warming bias in the western Pacific, contributing to a La Niña-like warming bias. Therefore, we suggest a more realistic climatological cold tongue SST is needed for a more reliable projection of the TPSW pattern.

  12. A novel widespread cryptic species and phylogeographic patterns within several giant clam species (Cardiidae: Tridacna from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Huelsken

    Full Text Available Giant clams (genus Tridacna are iconic coral reef animals of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, easily recognizable by their massive shells and vibrantly colored mantle tissue. Most Tridacna species are listed by CITES and the IUCN Redlist, as their populations have been extensively harvested and depleted in many regions. Here, we survey Tridacna crocea and Tridacna maxima from the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans for mitochondrial (COI and 16S and nuclear (ITS sequence variation and consolidate these data with previous published results using phylogenetic analyses. We find deep intraspecific differentiation within both T. crocea and T. maxima. In T. crocea we describe a previously undocumented phylogeographic division to the east of Cenderawasih Bay (northwest New Guinea, whereas for T. maxima the previously described, distinctive lineage of Cenderawasih Bay can be seen to also typify western Pacific populations. Furthermore, we find an undescribed, monophyletic group that is evolutionarily distinct from named Tridacna species at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This cryptic taxon is geographically widespread with a range extent that minimally includes much of the central Indo-Pacific region. Our results reinforce the emerging paradigm that cryptic species are common among marine invertebrates, even for conspicuous and culturally significant taxa. Additionally, our results add to identified locations of genetic differentiation across the central Indo-Pacific and highlight how phylogeographic patterns may differ even between closely related and co-distributed species.

  13. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Vaughan; Nicole Nemeth; Leonel Marineros

    2006-01-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds to...

  14. Diabetic dyslipidaemia in Asian populations in the Western Pacific Region: what we know and don't know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Chan, Siew Pheng; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Go, Ruby T; Lee, Kok-Onn; Ma, Ronald Ching-Wan; Pan, Chang-Yu; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Barter, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 77 million persons with diabetes reside in the Western Pacific Region. This number is estimated to rise to 113 million in 2030 with increasing burden of cardio-renal disease, affecting an increasingly young population. Randomized clinical trials have confirmed the benefits of using statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Caucasians, although similar data are lacking in Asia. Experts from the Western Pacific Region met and reviewed evidence regarding risk association of diabetic dyslipidaemia with cardio-renal disease, effects of lipid lowering, recommended guidelines and clinical practices in Asian populations. There is strong evidence supporting the role of diabetic dyslipidaemia in cardio-renal disease and the benefits of lipid lowering in these populations. The high rate of diabetic kidney disease, its close links with CVD, and the benefits of lipid lowering on renal function are particularly relevant to this population. While most national guidelines use criteria similar to the West in management of diabetic dyslipidaemia, there are consistently low rates of use of lipid-lowering drugs and attaining treatment goals in the region. The group recommends conducting randomized studies, strengthening of the health care system to promote early detection, and intervention of diabetic dyslipidaemia to prevent end organ damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  16. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  17. Potential impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-Western Pacific on the variability of typhoon landfall on the China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The landfall activity of typhoons (TYs) along the coast of China during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variation during 1965-2010. We identify three sub-periods of TY landfall activity in JAS along the China coast in this period, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (Period I) and 1998-2010 (Period III), and less during 1982-1995 (Period II). We find that the interdecadal variation might be related to the combined effects of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase changes and sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (IO-WP). During the negative PDO phase in Periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP), inducing easterly flow in its northern part, which favors TY landfall along the eastern China coast. Warm SST anomalies over the tropical IO-WP during Period III induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP through both the Gill-pattern response to the warm SST in the tropical IO and the anomalous meridional circulation induced by the warm SST in the tropical WNP. As a result, the northern South China Sea and WNP (10°-20° N) are dominated by southeasterly flow, which favors TYs making landfall on both the southern and eastern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TYs making landfall along the China coast during Period III than during Period I, which shows cool SST anomalies in the tropical IO-WP.

  18. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  19. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Pan

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez, though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  20. Age determination of marine sediments in the western North Pacific by aspartic acid chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Naomi; Kusakabe, Masashi; Handa, Nobuhiko; Oba, Tadamichi; Matsuoka, Hiromi; Kimoto, Katsunori.

    1997-01-01

    The ages of fossil planktonic foraminifera, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, in sediments (core 3bPC) from the western North Pacific were determined by aspartic acid chronology, which uses the racemization reaction rate constant of aspartic acid (k Asp ). Aspartic acid racemization-based ages (Asp ages) ranged from 7,600 yrBP at the surface, to 307,000 yrBP at a depth of 352.9 cm in the sediments. This sediment core was also dated by the glacial-interglacial fluctuation of σ 18 O chronology, and the ages determined by both chronologies were compared. The ages derived from aspartic acid chronology and σ 18 O stratigraphy were more or less consistent, but there appeared to be some differences in age estimates between these two dating methods at some depths within the core. In the core top sediments, the likely cause for the age discrepancy could be the loss of the surface sediment during sampling of the core. At depths of 66.3 and 139 cm within the core, Asp ages indicated reduced sedimentation rates during ca. 60,000-80,000 yrBP and ca. 140,000-190,000 yrBP. The maximum age differences in both chronologies are 33,000 yr and 46,600 yr during each of these periods. These anomalous reductions in sedimentation rates occurring during these periods could possibly be related to some geological events, such as an increased dissolution effect of the calcium carbonate in the western North Pacific. Another possible reason for these age differences could be the unreliability in σ 18 O ages of core 3bPC as they were estimated by σ 18 O ages of another core, 3aPC. (author)

  1. Marine lake ecosystem dynamics illustrate ENSO variation in the tropical western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura E; Dawson, Michael N; Bell, Lori J; Colin, Patrick L

    2006-03-22

    Understanding El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its biological consequences is hindered by a lack of high-resolution, long-term data from the tropical western Pacific. We describe a preliminary, 6 year dataset that shows tightly coupled ENSO-related bio-physical dynamics in a seawater lake in Palau, Micronesia. The lake is more strongly stratified during La Niña than El Niño conditions, temperature anomalies in the lake co-vary strongly with the Niño 3.4 climate index, and the abundance of the dominant member of the pelagic community, an endemic subspecies of zooxanthellate jellyfish, is temperature associated. These results have broad relevance because the lake: (i) illustrates an ENSO signal that is partly obscured in surrounding semi-enclosed lagoon waters and, therefore, (ii) may provide a model system for studying the effects of climate change on community evolution and cnidarian-zooxanthellae symbioses, which (iii) should be traceable throughout the Holocene because the lake harbours a high quality sediment record; the sediment record should (iv) provide a sensitive and regionally unique record of Holocene climate relevant to predicting ENSO responses to future global climate change and, finally, (v) seawater lake ecosystems elsewhere in the Pacific may hold similar potential for past, present, and predictive measurements of climate variation and ecosystem response.

  2. Climate variability and predictability associated with the Indo-Pacific Oceanic Channel Dynamics in the CCSM4 Coupled System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfei

    2017-01-01

    An experiment using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a participant of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5), is analyzed to assess the skills of this model in simulating and predicting the climate variabilities associated with the oceanic channel dynamics across the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The results of these analyses suggest that the model is able to reproduce the observed lag correlation between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and those in the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean at a time lag of 1 year. This success may be largely attributed to the successful simulation of the interannual variations of the Indonesian Throughflow, which carries the anomalies of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) into the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to produce subsurface temperature anomalies, which in turn propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific to generate ENSO. This connection is termed the "oceanic channel dynamics" and is shown to be consistent with the observational analyses. However, the model simulates a weaker connection between the IOD and the interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport than found in the observations. In addition, the model overestimates the westerly wind anomalies in the western-central equatorial Pacific in the year following the IOD, which forces unrealistic upwelling Rossby waves in the western equatorial Pacific and downwelling Kelvin waves in the east. This assessment suggests that the CCSM4 coupled climate system has underestimated the oceanic channel dynamics and overestimated the atmospheric bridge processes.

  3. Genetic variability of central-western European pine marten (Martes martes) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Elschot, Kelly; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; van de Zande, Louis; Zalewski, Andrzej; Munoz, Joaquin; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Loeschcke, Volker; de Groot, Arjen; Bijlsma, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies highlighted the potential role of cryptic glacial refugia for temperate taxa in Europe beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas. To further investigate phylogeographic features of the European pine marten (Martes martes) in previously identified cryptic refugia located in central-western

  4. Evidence for coral island formation during rising sea level in the central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kench, Paul S.; Owen, Susan D.; Ford, Murray R.

    2014-02-01

    The timing and evolution of Jabat Island, Marshall Islands, was investigated using morphostratigraphic analysis and radiometric dating. Results show the first evidence of island building in the Pacific during latter stages of Holocene sea level rise. A three-phase model of development of Jabat is presented. Initially, rapid accumulation of coarse sediments on Jabat occurred 4800-4000 years B.P. across a reef flat higher than present level, as sea level continued to rise. During the highstand, island margins and particularly the western margin accreted vertically to 2.5-3.0 m above contemporary ridge elevations. This accumulation phase was dominated by sand-size sediments. Phase three involved deposition of gravel ridges on the northern reef, as sea level fell to present position. Jabat has remained geomorphically stable for the past 2000 years. Findings suggest reef platforms may accommodate the oldest reef islands in atoll systems, which may have profound implications for questions of prehistoric migration through Pacific archipelagos.

  5. Dissolved rare earth elements in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean: Geochemical tracing of seawater masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetta, Clara; Barbaro, Elena; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Barbante, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The present essay contributes to the existing literature on rare earth elements (REEs) in the southern hemisphere by presenting the first data, to our knowledge, on the vertical profiles of dissolved REEs in 71 samples collected in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean-SO). The REEs were measured in the water samples collected during the 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 austral summers. 4 samples were collected and analysed in the framework of a test experiment, as part of the WISSARD Project (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Our results show significant differences between the REE patterns of the main water masses present in the SO: we could observe specific signature in the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW), Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW). A significant increase in Terbium (Tb) concentration was observed in the HSSW and ISW, the two principal water masses contributing to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Ross Sea area, and in LSSW. Some of the HSSW samples show enrichment in Neodymium (Nd). Dissolved REE could therefore be used as tracers to understand the deep circulation of the SO (Pacific sector). We hypothesize that: (I) the characteristic dissolved REE pattern may derive from the composition of source area and from the hydrothermal activity of the central-western area of the Ross Sea; (II) the Tb anomaly observed in the AABW on the South Australian platform could be partially explained by the contribution of AABW generated in the Ross Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  7. Depression literacy and health-seeking attitudes in the Western Pacific region: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Grace W K; Bressington, D; Leung, S F; Lam, K K C; Leung, A Y M; Molassiotis, A; Ligot, J; Ranoco, C; Sophal, C; Valimaki, M

    2018-06-02

    Depression literacy refers to the ability to recognize depression and make informed decisions about its treatment. To date, relatively little research has been done to examine depression literacy in the Western Pacific region. Given the pervasiveness of depression and the need to enhance mental health care in this region, it is important to gain a better understanding of depression literacy and health-seeking behaviors in this part of the world. This mixed-methods study utilized a convergent parallel design to examine depression literacy and the associated health-seeking attitudes among urban adults from three countries-Cambodia, Philippines, and Fiji. A total of 455 adults completed a quantitative survey on depression knowledge, attitudes, and professional help seeking. Separately, 56 interviewees from 6 focus groups provided qualitative data on their impression and knowledge of depression and mental illness within the context of their local communities. Overall, results showed that depression knowledge was comparatively lower in this region. Controlling for differences across countries, higher knowledge was significantly associated with more positive attitudes towards mental illness (B = - 0.28, p = 0.025) and professional help seeking (B = 0.20, p < 0.001). Financial stability, such as employment, was also a salient factor for help seeking. This study was the first to provide a baseline understanding on depression literacy and highlights the need to increase public knowledge on depression in the Western Pacific. Culturally congruent recommendations on enhancing depression literacy in this region, such as anti-stigma campaigns, use of financial incentives, and family-based approach in health education, are discussed.

  8. Sound velocity from inverted echo sounders (IES) in the western Pacific Ocean from 1992-08-26 to 1993-03-22 (NODC Accession 9300159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains inverted echo sounder data collected from two stations in the western Pacific, TPW nominally @ 2S and 154E and TPE nominally @ 2S and 164E....

  9. Long-term trends of typhoon-induced rainfall over Taiwan: in situ evidence of poleward shift of typhoons in western North Pacific in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting-Yu; Oey, Leo; Huang, Shiming; Chou, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Tracks of tropical cyclones or typhoons in the western North Pacific have recently been shown to shift northward in the past several decades; the poleward shift has been attributed to the expansion of the tropics due to climate warming. Here we use 64-year, hourly rainfall observations around Taiwan, and take advantage of the unique terrain and geographic location of the island with respect to typhoon tracks, to show that since 1950 the typhoon-related rainfalls have been rising on the western side of the island, but decreasing on the eastern side. We show that these extraordinary rainfall patterns, despite the smallness of Taiwan, are indicative of a northward shift of typhoons related to the changes in the wind fields and surface warming over the Indian and Pacific tropical/subtropical regions.

  10. Condensed and Updated Version of the Systematic Approach Meteorological Knowledge Base Western North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Lester E., III; Elsberry, Russell L.; Boothe, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense. The meteorological knowledge base for the Systematic and Integrated Approach to Tropical Cydone Track Forecasting proposed by Carr and Elsberry has evolved as additional research has been completed. This Systematic Approach has been applied in the eastern and central North Pacific, and in the Southern Hemisphere, a number of conceptual models have bee...

  11. Indo-Pacific sea level variability during recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Nakano, H.; Urakawa, S. L.; Sakamoto, K.

    2016-12-01

    Decadal variability of sea level in the Indo-Pacific region is investigated using a historical OGCM simulation. The OGCM driven by the atmospheric forcing removing long-term trends clearly exhibits decadal sea level variability in the Pacific Ocean, which is associated with eastern tropical Pacific thermal anomalies. During the period of 1977-1987, the sea level anomalies are positive in the eastern equatorial Pacific and show deviations from a north-south symmetric distribution, with strongly negative anomalies in the western tropical South Pacific. During the period of 1996-2006, in contrast, the sea level anomalies are negative in the eastern equatorial Pacific and show a nearly north-south symmetric pattern, with positive anomalies in both hemispheres. Concurrently, sea level anomalies in the south-eastern Indian Ocean vary with those in the western tropical Pacific. These sea level variations are closely related to large-scale wind fields. Indo-Pacific sea level distributions are basically determined by wind anomalies over the equatorial region as well as wind stress curl anomalies over the off-equatorial region.

  12. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  13. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  14. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  15. Variability of the western Pacific warm pool structure associated with El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shijian; Hu, Dunxin; Guan, Cong; Xing, Nan; Li, Jianping; Feng, Junqiao

    2017-10-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) structure inside the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) is usually overlooked because of its distinct homogeneity, but in fact it possesses a clear meridional high-low-high pattern. Here we show that the SST low in the WPWP is significantly intensified in July-October of El Niño years (especially extreme El Niño years) and splits the 28.5 °C-isotherm-defined WPWP (WPWP split for simplification). Composite analysis and heat budget analysis indicate that the enhanced upwelling due to positive wind stress curl anomaly and western propagating upwelling Rossby waves account for the WPWP split. Zonal advection at the eastern edge of split region plays a secondary role in the formation of the WPWP split. Composite analysis and results from a Matsuno-Gill model with an asymmetric cooling forcing imply that the WPWP split seems to give rise to significant anomalous westerly winds and intensify the following El Niño event. Lead-lag correlation shows that the WPWP split slightly leads the Niño 3.4 index.

  16. Coherent tropical Indo-Pacific interannual climate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Wieners, C.E.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.; Ridderinkhof, W.; von der Heydt, A.S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    A multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) applied simultaneously to tropical sea surface temperature (SST), zonal wind, and burstiness (zonal wind variability) reveals three significant oscillatory modes. They all show a strong ENSO signal in the eastern Pacific Ocean (PO) but also a substantial SST signal in the western Indian Ocean (IO). A correlation-based analysis shows that the western IO signal contains linearly independent information on ENSO. Of the three Indo-Pacific ENSO mode...

  17. Report of the 2004 Workshop on In Situ Iron Enrichment Experiments in the Eastern and Western Subarctic Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shigenobu; Wong, C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Foreword 1. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES (pdf, 0.1 Mb) 2. 2004 WORKSHOP SUMMARY (pdf, < 0.1 Mb) 2.1. What have we learned from the enrichment experiments? 2.2 What are the outstanding questions? 2.3 Recommendations for SEEDS-II 3. EXTENDED ABSTRACTS OF THE 2004 WORKSHOP 3.1 Synthesis of the Iron Enrichment Experiments: SEEDS and SERIES (pdf, 0.5 Mb) Iron fertilization experiment in the western subarctic Pacific (SEEDS) by At...

  18. Hydroclimate of the western Indo-Pacific Warm Pool during the past 24,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Eva M.; Sessions, Alex L.; Feakins, Sarah J.; Mohtadi, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) is a key site for the global hydrologic cycle, and modern observations indicate that both the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation exert strong influence on its regional hydrologic characteristics. Detailed insight into the natural range of IPWP dynamics and underlying climate mechanisms is, however, limited by the spatial and temporal coverage of climate data. In particular, long-term (multimillennial) precipitation patterns of the western IPWP, a key location for IOZM dynamics, are poorly understood. To help rectify this, we have reconstructed rainfall changes over Northwest Sumatra (western IPWP, Indian Ocean) throughout the past 24,000 y based on the stable hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions (δD and δ13C, respectively) of terrestrial plant waxes. As a general feature of western IPWP hydrology, our data suggest similar rainfall amounts during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene, contradicting previous claims that precipitation increased across the IPWP in response to deglacial changes in sea level and/or the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. We attribute this discrepancy to regional differences in topography and different responses to glacioeustatically forced changes in coastline position within the continental IPWP. During the Holocene, our data indicate considerable variations in rainfall amount. Comparison of our isotope time series to paleoclimate records from the Indian Ocean realm reveals previously unrecognized fluctuations of the Indian Ocean precipitation dipole during the Holocene, indicating that oscillations of the IOZM mean state have been a constituent of western IPWP rainfall over the past ten thousand years. PMID:24979768

  19. Dust fluxes linked to intensification of Prevailing Westerlies and Trade Winds stimulated Ethmodiscus rex giant diatom blooms in the southern Mariana Trench, western tropical Pacific at onset of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Luo, M.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotope compositions and clay-mineral assemblages of the detrital fraction of sediments in the southern Mariana Trench together with major- and trace-elements concentrations of bulk sediments have been determined to trace the sediment provenance and investigate the relationship between Asian dust input and blooms of the giant diatom Ethmodiscus rex. Enrichment of barium (Ba) in relative to upper continental crust (UCC) and low average Rb/K ratios in all study cores point to both hydrothermal and volcaniclastic inputs to the sediments. Both the Sr-Nd isotope compositions and the clay-mineral assemblages of the detrital fraction reflect a two-component mixing system consisting of Mariana arc volcaniclastics and eolian Asian dust. A decrease in smectite content and an increase in illite content just before formation of laminated diatom mats (LDMs) suggest a change in the source of the eolian dust from eastern Asian deserts (EADs) to central Asian deserts (CADs) at the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). This observation suggests a causal linkage between atmospheric circulation patterns, the sources of eolian Asian dust, and marine productivity in the western Pacific region. We postulate that the shift to CAD-sourced dust may have played a greater role in promoting biological productivity in the oligotrophic western Pacific Ocean during the LGM than previously realized.

  20. An initial examination of carbonate variability in the western equatorial Pacific: XRF results from the lower to middle Miocene of IODP Site U1490

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, D. A.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Rosenthal, Y.; Holbourn, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 363 sought to determine the nature of and driving forces behind climate variability in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) region throughout the Neogene on millennial, orbital, and geologic timescales. Our research focuses on the Miocene (19-9 Ma) sediment record from IODP Site U1490 to examine changes in carbonate production and burial in the WPWP as a record of variations in the regional/global carbon cycle. This interval is of particular interest because it spans the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum, the Middle Miocene Climate Transition, and the late Miocene carbonate crash. Site U1490 is located on the northern edge of Eauripik Rise at 05°58.95'N, 142°39.27'E in the northern part of the WPWP. At 2341 m water depth, today the site is bathed in Upper Circumpolar Deepwater. Miocene sediment at Site U1490 primarily consists of clay-bearing to clay-rich foraminifer-rich nannofossil ooze, although biogenic silica (primarily radiolaria) is a significant component in the lowermost part of the record. The sedimentation rate in the early to middle Miocene was very low (calcium carbonate content of 87 wt% throughout the site, with the most significant variations in the lower to middle Miocene, where contents range from 20 to 85 wt%. We collected X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data at 1 cm resolution along the composite stratigraphic section over the 19-9 Ma interval to obtain a qualitative measure of the bulk chemistry of the sediment. We will use the weight percent calcium carbonate of discrete samples to calibrate the XRF data to generate a high-resolution carbonate record. We observe cyclical variations in the Ca/Ba, which may reflect variations in productivity and/or dissolution through this interval, although additional work is needed to fully interpret these data. Ultimately our research will allow for comparison between records obtained from these cores located in the western equatorial Pacific to those obtained

  1. 137Cs, 239+24Pu and 24Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng Jian; Wang Zhongliang

    2006-01-01

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The 137 Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The 137 Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m -3 in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m -3 in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of 137 Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of 137 Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of 137 Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr -1 in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr -1 in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr -1 in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. 239+24 Pu activities and 24 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199 ± 0.026 to 0.248 ± 0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios

  2. The Advective Flux and Temporal Evolution of Aerosols from the Western Pacific Rim as Observed during TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Jordan, C. E.; Grant, W. B.; Browell, E. V.; Hudgins, C. H.; Winstead, E. L.; Thornhill, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The 2001, NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment was conducted during late winter and early spring, the time of year when eastward transport of dust and pollution from southern and central Asia reaches a maximum. From bases of operation in Hong Kong, Japan, and Hawaii, extensive measurements of trace species concentrations and characteristics were made from aboard a P-3B and DC-8 aircraft as they flew coordinated sampling missions within air masses at varying distances from the Asian coast and at altitudes ranging from near surface to over 12 km. Data recorded aboard the DC-8 included total condensation nuclei (CN) number densities and fractional volatility; aerosol size distributions, composition and optical properties; and multi-wavelength profiles of polarized, aerosol backscatter. Examining these data in light of simultaneous meteorological and chemical species measurements, we have calculated the advective flux and mean values of aerosol mass and physical properties at various locations within the Western Pacific Basin. At distances >100 km offshore, we find that the highest fluxes of sub-micron particles occurred below 2 km in the region downwind of Shanghai. These air masses exhibited CN concentrations approaching 50,000 cm-3 and visible scattering coefficients in excess of 200 Mm-1. For near-shore sampling between 26° and 36°N within this height range, these parameters averaged ~8,000 cm-3 and 130 Mm-, respectively, . As a result of dilution, surface deposition, and precipitation scavenging, these values rapidly diminished during eastward transport so that parcels sampled at low altitudes >1500 km from land typically contained ~1000 cm-3 CN and exhibited scattering coefficients <30 Mm-1. Because of the decreased strength of loss processes and greater atmospheric stability, parcels sampled in the 2- to 7-km height range were more apt to maintain their initial aerosol signatures during long-range transport.

  3. Impacts of an Extreme Early-Season Freeze Event in the Interior Pacific Northwest (30 October-3 November 2002) on Western Juniper Woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Soulé, Peter T.

    2005-07-01

    In mid-autumn 2002, an exceptional 5-day cold spell affected much of the interior Pacific Northwest, with minimum temperatures averaging 13°C below long-term means (1953-2002). On 31 October, minimum temperature records occurred at 98 of the 106 recording stations, with records lowered in some locations by 9°C. Calculation of recurrence intervals of minimum temperatures shows that 50% of the stations experienced a >500-yr event. The synoptic conditions responsible were the development of a pronounced high pressure ridge over western Canada and an intense low pressure area centered in the Intermountain West that promoted strong northeasterly winds. The cold spell occurred near the end of the growing season for an ecologically critical and dominant tree species of the interior Pacific Northwest—western juniper—and followed an extended period of severe drought. In spring 2003, it became apparent that the cold had caused high rates of tree mortality and canopy dieback in a species that is remarkable for its longevity and resistance to climatic stress. The cold event altered western juniper dominance in some areas, and this alteration may have long-term impacts on water budgets, fire intensities and frequencies, animal species interrelationships, and interspecific competition among plant species.

  4. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  5. Decadal Variation of the Relationship between Western Pacific Subtropical High and Summer Heatwaves in East China Modulated by Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Fu, C.; Zhou, T.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and summer heatwaves over Eastern China in interannual scale during the period of 1959-2016. Based on surface daily maximum temperature of 654 monitoring stations over China and meteorological variables in reanalysis data, we calculate the number of heatwave days (NHD) (one heatwave day was defined as one day with its daily maximum temperature greater than 35 degrees centigrade) as well as WPSH index and then examine their interannual relationship. Although the high-NHD-related 850hPa horizontal wind structure was shared by that of high WPSH and decaying El Niño summer, a decadal oscillation emerges for the correlation between interannual WPSH and NHD after removing their interdecadal variability by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method. The correlation coefficient can reach up to as high as 0.69 and as low as 0.17 and assembles the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) pretty well. Compositing analysis demonstrates that unstable WPSH-NHD relationship is mainly attributed to the spatial structure distinction of WPSH and surface warming in the El Niño decaying summer of different PDO phases. In the El Niño decaying summer of positive PDO phases, remarkable enhanced warming over majority of Southeastern China matches well with the noticeable westward extension of WPSH, which seems to be forced by the cyclonic circulation anomaly over Japan. The warmer Pacific-Indian Ocean Warm Pool intensifies the Matsuno-Gill pattern over Maritime Continent, stimulating this cyclonic circulation anomaly via the northward propagation of Rossby wave. In the El Niño decaying summer of negative PDO phases, the cooler East China Sea enhances WPSH in North China and South China Sea, and thereby leads to a local cyclonic circulation anomaly over Eastern China, which would cause a large scope of cooling and out-of-phase WPSH-NHD relationship.

  6. Southern Hemisphere circulation signals in connection with winter rainfall forecasting in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutlant, J.; Aceituno, P.

    1991-05-01

    The possibility of detecting easterly propagating low frequency signals in the Southern Hemispheric circulation is explored in connection with the assessment of a possible seasonal rainfall forecast in central Chile. The analysis has focused on the seasonal variability associated with the biennial component of the Southern Oscillation (SO) and on the one resulting from superimposed intraseasonal oscillations, in relation with winter precipitation and individual rainfall events, respectively. Based on a previous work, relating wet winters to frequent blocks to the SW of South America during warm events of the SO, time-longitude cross sections of a 5-day average blocking index (BI) calculated from ECMWF 200 hPa daily hemispheric analyses for the period 1980-1987 are presented. A general eastward displacement of western and central Pacific positive BI areas seems to characterize the developing phase of warm SO events and vice versa, while intraseasonal variability patterns appear to be related to single rainstorms, either when the positive BI phase of the wave amplifies while crossing the western Pacific or when it reaches the far southeastern Pacific, frequently with a double block structure. It is concluded that the behaviour of both sources of variability is consistent with previously described teleconnection patterns for ENSO events in the southern winter, and that a primary prospect for winter precipitation and for the occurrence of relatively large individual rainstorms in central Chile could be obtained following the filtered BI and 500 hPa height anomalies in both time scales during the fall season. (author). 28 refs, 12 figs

  7. Contingent Pacific-Atlantic Ocean influence on multicentury wildfire synchrony over western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Brown, Peter M; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Swetnam, Thomas W; Veblen, Thomas T

    2007-01-09

    Widespread synchronous wildfires driven by climatic variation, such as those that swept western North America during 1996, 2000, and 2002, can result in major environmental and societal impacts. Understanding relationships between continental-scale patterns of drought and modes of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) may explain how interannual to multidecadal variability in SSTs drives fire at continental scales. We used local wildfire chronologies reconstructed from fire scars on tree rings across western North America and independent reconstructions of SST developed from tree-ring widths at other sites to examine the relationships of multicentury patterns of climate and fire synchrony. From 33,039 annually resolved fire-scar dates at 238 sites (the largest paleofire record yet assembled), we examined forest fires at regional and subcontinental scales. Since 1550 CE, drought and forest fires covaried across the West, but in a manner contingent on SST modes. During certain phases of ENSO and PDO, fire was synchronous within broad subregions and sometimes asynchronous among those regions. In contrast, fires were most commonly synchronous across the West during warm phases of the AMO. ENSO and PDO were the main drivers of high-frequency variation in fire (interannual to decadal), whereas the AMO conditionally changed the strength and spatial influence of ENSO and PDO on wildfire occurrence at multidecadal scales. A current warming trend in AMO suggests that we may expect an increase in widespread, synchronous fires across the western U.S. in coming decades.

  8. Long-Term Changes in the Extreme Significant Wave Heights on the Western North Pacific: Impacts of Tropical Cyclone Activity and ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sinil; Oh, Jaiho

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal extreme wave statistics were reproduced by using the 25-km-grid global wave model of WAVEWATCH-III. The results showed that the simulated wave dataset for the present climate (1979-2009) was similar to Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) wave data. Statistics such as the root mean squared error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) basin were 0.5 m and 0.69 over the analysis domain. The largest trends and standard deviation were around the southern coast of Japan and western edge of the WNP. Linear regression analysis was employed to identify the relationship between the leading principal components (PCs) of significant wave heights (SWHs) in the peak season of July to September and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial Pacific. The results indicated that the inter-annual variability of SWH can be associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the peak season. The CC between the first PC of the SWH and anomalies in the Nino 3.4 SST index was also significant at a 99% confidence level. Significant variations in the SWH are affected by tropical cyclones (TCs) caused by increased SST anomalies. The genesis and development of simulated TCs can be important to the variation in SWHs for the WNP in the peak season. Therefore, we can project the variability of SWHs through TC activity based on changes in SST conditions for the equatorial Pacific in the future.

  9. Monsoonal and fertility contols on recent marginal sea and continental shelf coccolith assemblages from the western Pacific and northern Indian Oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Houghton, S.D.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    Gill, 1973). These nutrient-enriched surface waters support large blooms of the diatom Rhizo- solenia (Nair et al., 1989). High fluxes of carbonate, mainly coccolithophorids with some foraminifera, are associated with the monsoons. High levels.... In the low-latitude Pacific Ocean, high abun- dances of E. huxleyi (>40%) are generally re- stricted to assemblages beneath waters of low to medium fertility; these areas include the East Pacific Rise (near the Galapogos Islands), and below the central...

  10. Tectonics and Volcanism During the Cretaceous Normal Superchron Seafloor in the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, E.

    2017-12-01

    We have conducted an integration study on the origin and evolution of the tectonics and volcanism of seafloor in the Western Pacific Ocean that took place during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS) where sparse data has so far precluded detailed investigation. We have compiled the latest satellite-based gravity, gravity gradient, and magnetic grids (EMAG2 v.3) for this region. These crustal-scale high-resolution grids suggest that the CNS seafloor contains fossilized lithospheric morphology possibly attributed to the interaction between Cretaceous supervolcanism activity and Mid-Cretaceous Pacific mid ocean ridge systems that have continuously expanded the Pacific Plate. We recognize previously identified fossilized microplates west of the Magellan Rise, short-lived abandoned propagating rifts and fracture zones, all of which show significant rotation of seafloor fabric. In addition to these large scale observations, we have also compiled marine geological information from previously drilled cores and new data from a Kongsberg Topas PS18 Parametric Sub-Bottom Profiler collected on a transect from Honolulu, Hawaii to Apra, Guam acquired during research cruise SKQ2014S2. In particular, the narrow beam and high bandwidth signal of the Topas PS18 sub-bottom profiler provides sonar data of the seabed with a resolution and depth penetration that is unprecedented compared with previously available surveys in the region. A preliminary assessment of this high resolution Topas data allows us to better characterize sub-seafloor sediment properties and identify features, including the Upper Transparent Layer with identifiable pelagic clay and porcelanite-chert reflectors as well as tectonic features such as the westernmost tip of the Waghenaer Fracture Zone.

  11. La/Yb and Th/Sc in settling particles: vertical and horizontal transport of lithogenic material in the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Noriki, Shinichiro; Honda, Makio C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the origins and transport processes of lithogenic aluminosilicate in the western North Pacific, time-series traps were deployed at Stn. KNOT at 44degN 155degE (water depth: 5320 m). Annual mean content of aluminum (Al) which is a proxy of lithogenic material in settling particles was 0.38% at 1 km depth, 0.78% at 3 km depth and 1.14% at 5 km depth, respectively. Mass fluxes were corrected by 230 Th and 231 Pa activities in particles and seawater. Annual mean corrected Al fluxes at 1, 3 and 5 km depths were calculated to 0.45, 0.46 and 0.33 g/m 2 /year, respectively. Lanthanum/ytterbium (La/Yb) and thorium/scandium (Th/Sc) ratios were used as proxies for estimating the origin of lithogenic aluminosilicate in settling particles. Both La/Yb and Th/Sc ratios in settling particles increased with depth, and the seasonal variation was the smallest at 5 km depth. It was considered that variations of La/Yb and Th/Sc ratios in settling particles reflected the change of source material of lithogenic aluminosilicates. Origins of lithogenic materials in the settling particles were summarized using two end-members, loess from central Asian continent (AL) and basalts from the Kurile-Kamchatka Islands (KEK). Contributions of end-members in settling particles were estimated from the La/Yb and Th/Sc ratios. The contribution of KK particles in lithogenic materials was calculated to be 84% at 1 km depth, and 61% at 3 and 5 km depths, respectively. Although the KK material was the dominant constituent of the terrigenous component in settling particles at Stn. KNOT, the KK flux decreased with depth. On the other hand, the AL flux increased with depth and the significant increase of the AL flux was presumably due to the lateral import of AL particles to the deep layer at Stn. KNOT. From these results we conclude that the distribution of lithogenic materials recorded in sediments in the western North Pacific are influenced by the northward transport of AL within the

  12. Benefits of Using Pairwise Trajectory Management in the Central East Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Ryan; Ballard, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM) is a concept that utilizes airborne and ground-based capabilities to enable airborne spacing operations in procedural airspace. This concept makes use of updated ground automation, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and on board avionics generating real time guidance. An experiment was conducted to examine the potential benefits of implementing PTM in the Central East Pacific oceanic region. An explanation of the experiment and some of the results are included in this paper. The PTM concept allowed for an increase in the average time an aircraft is able to spend at its desired flight level and a reduction in fuel burn.

  13. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  14. Autumn Cooling of Western East Antarctica Linked to the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, the climate of East Antarctica cooled while portions of West Antarctica were among the most rapidly warming regions on the planet. The East Antarctic cooling is attributed to a positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and a strengthening of the westerlies, while West Antarctic warming is tied to zonally asymmetric circulation changes forced by the tropics. This study finds recent (post-1979) surface cooling of East Antarctica during austral autumn to also be tied to tropical forcing, namely, an increase in La Niña events. The recent increase in La Niña conditions forces a Rossby wave into the Southern Hemisphere that increases anticyclonic circulation over the South Atlantic. The South Atlantic anticyclone is associated with cold air advection, weakened northerlies, and increased sea ice concentrations across the western East Antarctic coast, which has increased the rate of cooling at Novolazarevskaya and Syowa stations after 1979. This enhanced cooling over western East Antarctica is tied more broadly to a zonally asymmetric temperature trend pattern across East Antarctica during autumn that is consistent with a tropically forced Rossby wave rather than a SAM pattern; the positive SAM pattern is associated with ubiquitous cooling across East Antarctica, which is not seen in temperature observations after 1979. We conclude that El Niño-Southern Oscillation-related circulation anomalies, particularly zonal asymmetries that locally enhance meridional wind, are an important component of East Antarctic climate variability during autumn, and future changes in tropical Pacific climate will likely have implications for East Antarctica.

  15. The Pacific Islands Climate Science Center five-year science agenda, 2014-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, David; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Polhemus, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    From the heights of Mauna Kea on Hawaiʻi Island to the depths of the Mariana Trench, from densely populated cities to sparse rural indigenous communities and uninhabited sandy atolls, the Pacific region encompasses diverse associations of peoples and places that are directly affected by changes to the atmosphere, ocean, and land. The peoples of the Pacific are among the first to observe and experience the effects of global climatic changes. Because the Pacific region is predominantly composed of vast ocean expanses punctuated only by small, isolated emergent islands and atolls, marine processes are critical factors in the region’s climate systems, and their impacts occur here to a greater degree than in continental regions. Rates of sea-level rise in the region during the modern altimetry period exceed the global rate, with the highest increases occurring in the western North Pacific (Cazenave and Llovel, 2010; Nerem and others, 2010; Timmermann and others, 2010). The ocean has also warmed during this period. Since the 1970s, sea-surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.41 °F (0.07 to 0.23 °C) per decade, depending on the location (Keener and others, 2012a). Ocean chemistry has changed during this period as well, with surface pH having dropped by 0.1 pH units (Feely and others, 2009; Doney and others, 2012). Over the past century, air temperature has increased throughout the Pacific region. In Hawaiʻi, average temperatures increased by 0.08 °F per decade during the period 1919 to 2006, and in recent years, the rate of increase has been accelerating, particularly at high elevations (Giambelluca and others, 2008). In the western North Pacific, temperatures also increased over the past 60 years (Lander and Guard, 2003; Lander, 2004; Lander and Khosrowpanah, 2004; Kruk and others, 2013), with a concurrent warming trend in the central South Pacific since the 1950s (Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2011).

  16. Diverse coral communities in naturally acidified waters of a Western Pacific reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, Kathryn E. F.; Cohen, Anne L.; Golbuu, Yimnang; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Lentz, Steven J.; Barkley, Hannah C.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are acidifying the oceans, reducing the concentration of carbonate ions ([CO32-]) that calcifying organisms need to build and cement coral reefs. To date, studies of a handful of naturally acidified reef systems reveal depauperate communities, sometimes with reduced coral cover and calcification rates, consistent with results of laboratory-based studies. Here we report the existence of highly diverse, coral-dominated reef communities under chronically low pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωar). Biological and hydrographic processes change the chemistry of the seawater moving across the barrier reefs and into Palau's Rock Island bays, where levels of acidification approach those projected for the western tropical Pacific open ocean by 2100. Nevertheless, coral diversity, cover, and calcification rates are maintained across this natural acidification gradient. Identifying the combination of biological and environmental factors that enable these communities to persist could provide important insights into the future of coral reefs under anthropogenic acidification.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Pelagic Thresher Shark (Alopias pelagicus) in the Pacific Ocean: Evidence for Two Evolutionarily Significant Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Diego; Hyde, John; Caballero, Susana

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about shark overexploitation in the last decade, especially for open ocean shark species, where there is a paucity of data about their life histories and population dynamics. Little is known regarding the population structure of the pelagic thresher shark, Alopias pelagicus. Though an earlier study using mtDNA control region data, showed evidence for differences between eastern and western Pacific populations, the study was hampered by low sample size and sparse geographic coverage, particularly a lack of samples from the central Pacific. Here, we present the population structure of Alopias pelagicus analyzing 351 samples from six different locations across the Pacific Ocean. Using data from mitochondrial DNA COI sequences and seven microsatellite loci we found evidence of strong population differentiation between western and eastern Pacific populations and evidence for reciprocally monophyly for organelle haplotypes and significant divergence of allele frequencies at nuclear loci, suggesting the existence of two Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESU) in the Pacific Ocean. Interestingly, the population in Hawaii appears to be composed of both ESUs in what seems to be clear sympatry with reproductive isolation. These results may indicate the existence of a new cryptic species in the Pacific Ocean. The presence of these distinct ESUs highlights the need for revised management plans for this highly exploited shark throughout its range. PMID:25337814

  18. A prospective earthquake forecast experiment in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, David A. J.; Zechar, J. Douglas; Wiemer, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Since the beginning of 2009, the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) has been conducting an earthquake forecast experiment in the western Pacific. This experiment is an extension of the Kagan-Jackson experiments begun 15 years earlier and is a prototype for future global earthquake predictability experiments. At the beginning of each year, seismicity models make a spatially gridded forecast of the number of Mw≥ 5.8 earthquakes expected in the next year. For the three participating statistical models, we analyse the first two years of this experiment. We use likelihood-based metrics to evaluate the consistency of the forecasts with the observed target earthquakes and we apply measures based on Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the forecasts. Overall, a simple smoothed seismicity model (TripleS) performs the best, but there are some exceptions that indicate continued experiments are vital to fully understand the stability of these models, the robustness of model selection and, more generally, earthquake predictability in this region. We also estimate uncertainties in our results that are caused by uncertainties in earthquake location and seismic moment. Our uncertainty estimates are relatively small and suggest that the evaluation metrics are relatively robust. Finally, we consider the implications of our results for a global earthquake forecast experiment.

  19. Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material in the central equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.; Peterson, Michael L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Lee, Cindy

    Neutral carbohydrate compositions were determined for particulate samples from plankton net tows, shallow floating sediment traps, mid-depth and deep moored sediment traps, and sediment cores collected along a north-south transect in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the U.S. JGOFS EqPac program. Total neutral carbohydrate depth profiles and patterns along the transect follow essentially the same trends as bulk and organic carbon (OC) fluxes—attenuating with depth, high near the equator and decreasing poleward. OC-normalized total aldose (TCH 2,O) yields along the transect and with depth do not show any consitent patterns. Relative to a planktonic source, neutral carbohydrate compositions in sediment trap and sediment core samples reflect preferential loss of ribose and storage carbohydrates rich in glucose, and preferential preservation of structural carbohydrates rich in rhamnose, xylose, fucose, and mannose. There is also evidence for an intermediately labile component rich in galactose. It appears that compositional signatures of neutral carbohydrates in sediments are more dependent upon their planktonic source than on any particular diagenetic pathway. Relative to other types of organic matter, neutral carbohydrates are better preserved in calcareous oozes from 12°S to 5°N than in red clays at 9°N based on OC-normalized TCH 2O yields, due to either differing sources or sorption characteristics. Weight per cent glucose generally decreases with increased degradation of organic material in the central equatorial Pacific region. Based on weight per cent glucose, comparisons of samples between Survey I (El Niõn) and Survey II (non-El Niño) indicate that during Survey I, organic material in the epipelagic zone in the northern hemisphere may have undergone more degradation than organic material in the southern hemisphere.

  20. First round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwoon Yong Pok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue surveillance and control. The objective of this programme was to assess dengue diagnostic proficiency among national-level public health laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. Methods: Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 (Module A and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B. A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. Results: All 16 laboratories testing Module A performed reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both RNA and serotype detection. Of these, 15 had correct results for RNA detection and all 16 correctly serotyped the viruses. All nine laboratories performing NS1 antigen detection obtained the correct results. Sixteen of the 18 laboratories using IgM assays in Module B obtained the correct results as did the 13 laboratories that performed IgG assays. Detection of ongoing/recent dengue virus infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 15/19 participating laboratories. Discussion: This first round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics was successfully conducted in national-level public health laboratories in the WHO Western Pacific Region, revealing good proficiency in both molecular and serological testing. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing for dengue virus and other priority pathogens in the Region will be assessed during future rounds.

  1. Analysis of El Niño-Southern Oscillation Phenomena's Effect on the Gross Domestic Product of Western Pacific Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Lewis, A.; Mezzafonte, D.

    2014-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climatological phenomenon that occurs in the tropical Pacific Ocean which has a direct influence on the climate of western Pacific nations. This study evaluated the meteorological effects of ENSO on the economies of Indonesia and the Philippines. It was hypothesized that decreased precipitation in the western Tropical Pacific region during El Niño events causes decreases in agricultural production in the region resulting in a negative effect on a nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Furthermore, during La Niña events, when precipitation increases, an increase in the nation's agricultural GDP and overall GDP is expected. Annual GDP data were obtained from the World Bank and the Bank of Indonesia for 1960-2012. Sea surface temperatures (SST) data, in the Niño 3.4 region, were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Data Center. Data of the agricultural and total GDP of Indonesia and the Philippines had inconclusive correlations with ENSO signal data. By examining data between smaller time segments of the overall 1960-2012 timeframe, more conclusive results could not be discerned. Indonesia's quarterly non-oil GDP for 2000-2009 was independently correlated with ENSO providing better insight on the variables' relationship during discrete ENSO phenomena. The results provided strong correlation coefficients of 0.831 and 0.624 in support of the antithesis as well as -0.421 in support of the hypothesis. An economic anomaly known as the East Asian Financial Crisis may have been the cause of the unexpected correlations however more data is needed to be certain. Overall, the results demonstrated weak to moderate correlations between studied variables. However, more data is needed to reach substantial conclusions.

  2. 76 FR 60004 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Species with MSY, Existing Quota, or Reference Points (Tier 3 and 4). a. Coastal Pelagics in Hawaii. b...'s Report. 5. Agency Reports. A. National Marine Fisheries Service. 1. Pacific Islands Regional...

  3. Evaluations of Extended-Range tropical Cyclone Forecasts in the Western North Pacific by using the Ensemble Reforecasts: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-Chung; Chen, Pang-Cheng; Elsberry, Russell L.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictability of the extended-range forecasts of tropical cyclone (TC) in the western North Pacific using reforecasts from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) during 1996-2015, and from the Climate Forecast System (CFS) during 1999-2010. Tsai and Elsberry have demonstrated that an opportunity exists to support hydrological operations by using the extended-range TC formation and track forecasts in the western North Pacific from the ECMWF 32-day ensemble. To demonstrate this potential for the decision-making processes regarding water resource management and hydrological operation in Taiwan reservoir watershed areas, special attention is given to the skill of the NCEP GEFS and CFS models in predicting the TCs affecting the Taiwan area. The first objective of this study is to analyze the skill of NCEP GEFS and CFS TC forecasts and quantify the forecast uncertainties via verifications of categorical binary forecasts and probabilistic forecasts. The second objective is to investigate the relationships among the large-scale environmental factors [e.g., El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), etc.] and the model forecast errors by using the reforecasts. Preliminary results are indicating that the skill of the TC activity forecasts based on the raw forecasts can be further improved if the model biases are minimized by utilizing these reforecasts.

  4. No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Iliana B; Boulay, Jennifer N; Polato, Nicholas R; Hellberg, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    The expanse of deep water between the central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world's most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO, El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favourable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal eastern Pacific reefs. Here, we investigate the population connectivity of the reef-building coral Porites lobata across the Eastern Pacific Barrier (EPB). Patterns of recent gene flow in samples (n = 1173) from the central Pacific and the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) were analysed with 12 microsatellite loci. Results indicated that P. lobata from the ETP are strongly isolated from those in the central Pacific and Hawaii (F(ct) ' = 0.509; P Clipperton Atoll, an oceanic island on the eastern side of the EPB, grouped with the central Pacific. Within the central Pacific, Hawaiian populations were strongly isolated from three co-occurring clusters found throughout the remainder of the central Pacific. No further substructure was evident in the ETP. Changes in oceanographic conditions during ENSO over the past several thousand years thus appear insufficient to support larval deliveries from the central Pacific to the ETP or strong postsettlement selection acts on ETP settlers from the central Pacific. Recovery of P. lobata populations in the frequently disturbed ETP thus must depend on local larval sources. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Boundary scavenging in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Lao, Y.; Broecker, W.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Hofmann, H.J.; Wolfli, W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, 231 Pa and 10 Be were measured in Holocene sediments from two cores collected off the west coast of South America, two cores from the East Pacific Rise, two from the equatorial Pacific and one from the south Pacific central gyre. Our results, together with data from 5 cores reported in the literature, show that boundary scavenging plays a major role in the removal of 10 Be from the Pacific Ocean. Deposition rates of 10 Be at three margin sites are more than an order of magnitude greater than at sites of red clay accumulation in the deep central Pacific. Deposition of 231 Pa is 4 to 5-fold greater at the margin sites. The residence time of 10 Be with respect to chemical scavenging, defined as its inventory in the water column divided by its rate of removal to the sediments, varies regionally from >1000 years at the red-clay sites in the deep central Pacific to ∝100 years at the margin sites. Different factors control boundary scavenging of Pa and Be. For example, scavenging of 231 Pa is enhanced by metal-oxide coatings of particles, whereas this seems to have little influence on the scavenging of 10 Be. (orig.)

  6. Overview of the genus Briareum (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Briareidae) in the Indo-Pacific, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; van Ofwegen, Leen P

    2016-01-01

    The status of Indo-Pacific Briareum species (Cnidaria, Octocorallia, Briareidae) is reviewed by presenting their sclerite features and habitus descriptions. Following the re-examination of type material, museum specimens and newly collected specimens, a species identification key is provided. The species distributions are discussed and updated distribution ranges are depicted. Moreover, a new taxon, Briareum cylindrum sp. n. is described and depicted, whereas Briareum excavatum (Nutting, 1911) is synonymised with Briareum stechei (Kükenthal, 1908). Briareum hamrum (Gohar, 1948) is recorded from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea for the first time. Consequently, in total four Briareum species are recognized in the Indo-Pacific; Briareum hamrum from the western Indian Ocean, and Briareum cylindrum sp. n., Briareum stechei, and Briareum violaceum from the central and eastern Indo-Pacific region.

  7. Changes in Pacific Absolute Plate Motion and Formation of Oceanic Flood Basalt Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, L. W.; Wessel, P.

    2006-12-01

    The origin of the large oceanic flood basalt plateaus that are prominent features of the central western Pacific Basin remains unclear. Major changes in Pacific Absolute Plate Motion (APM) have been identified as occurring at 145, 125, 96, and 47 Ma. Formation of the Shatsky Rise (~145 Ma), the Ontong Java Plateau (122+ Ma), the Southern Hess Rise (95±5 Ma), and the Louisiade Plateau (~48 Ma) appear to coincide with these changes. A smaller, but still prominent change in Pacific APM also occurred at 110 Ma when the Northern Hess Rise formed. Although these concurrent events may simply be chance occurrences, initiation of plate tectonic reorganizations upon arrival of mantle plume heads also was proposed by Ratcliff et al. (1998), who suggested that the mantle plume head delivery of hot material to produce flood basalts also had the potential to trigger reorganizations of plate motions. It should be noted, however, that Pacific Rim subduction zone development also coincides with these APM changes, and that the actual cause and effect of each change in APM has yet to be clearly established. Here we present a modified Pacific APM model that uses several older seamount chains (Musicians, Ratak-Gilbert-Ellice, the Wake trails, and the Liliuokalani trails) to constrain the oldest Pacific plate motion using the hybrid technique of Wessel et al (2006).

  8. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  9. Biodiversity of deep-sea demersal megafauna in western and central Mediterranean basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Tecchio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance, biomass and diversity patterns of bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean megafauna (fishes and invertebrates were analyzed in the western Balearic Sea, the western Ionian Sea and the eastern Ionian Sea. Sampling was conducted with a Otter-trawl Maireta System (OTMS at depths ranging from 600 to 4000 m. A series of ecological indicators were computed: total abundance and biomass, Margalef species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou’s index of evenness. A multidimensional scaling was applied, indicating that the megafauna communities were grouped by depth, while geographic area had a less defined influence. Margalef richness declined with depth in all three areas, but more steeply in the western Ionian Sea. Pielou’s evenness behaved differently in the three zones, showing a V-shaped curve in the eastern Ionian while showing a decreasing pattern in the other two areas. At lower slope depths, massive presence of the fishes Alepocephalus rostratus in the western basin and Bathypterois mediterraneus in the central basin caused a sharp reduction in evenness.

  10. Stone tools from the ancient Tongan state reveal prehistoric interaction centers in the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Geoffrey R.; Reepmeyer, Christian; Melekiola, Nivaleti; Woodhead, Jon; Dickinson, William R.; Martinsson-Wallin, Helene

    2014-07-01

    Tonga was unique in the prehistoric Pacific for developing a maritime state that integrated the archipelago under a centralized authority and for undertaking long-distance economic and political exchanges in the second millennium A.D. To establish the extent of Tonga's maritime polity, we geochemically analyzed stone tools excavated from the central places of the ruling paramounts, particularly lithic artifacts associated with stone-faced chiefly tombs. The lithic networks of the Tongan state focused on Samoa and Fiji, with one adze sourced to the Society Islands 2,500 km from Tongatapu. To test the hypothesis that nonlocal lithics were especially valued by Tongan elites and were an important source of political capital, we analyzed prestate lithics from Tongatapu and stone artifacts from Samoa. In the Tongan state, 66% of worked stone tools were long-distance imports, indicating that interarchipelago connections intensified with the development of the Tongan polity after A.D. 1200. In contrast, stone tools found in Samoa were from local sources, including tools associated with a monumental structure contemporary with the Tongan state. Network analysis of lithics entering the Tongan state and of the distribution of Samoan adzes in the Pacific identified a centralized polity and the products of specialized lithic workshops, respectively. These results indicate that a significant consequence of social complexity was the establishment of new types of specialized sites in distant geographic areas. Specialized sites were loci of long-distance interaction and formed important centers for the transmission of information, people, and materials in prehistoric Oceania.

  11. Extended-range forecast for the temporal distribution of clustering tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim; Bai, Long; Gao, Jianyun

    2017-11-01

    Based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), an index for clustering tropical cyclogenesis (CTC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) was defined. Around 76 % of total CTC events were generated during the active phase of the CTC index, and 38 % of the total active phase was concurrent with CTC events. For its continuous property, the CTC index was used as the representative predictand for extended-range forecasting the temporal distribution of CTC events. The predictability sources for CTC events were detected via correlation analyses of the previous 35-5-day lead atmospheric fields against the CTC index. The results showed that the geopotential height at different levels and the 200 hPa zonal wind over the global tropics possessed large predictability sources, whereas the predictability sources of other variables, e.g., OLR, zonal wind, and relatively vorticity at 850 hPa and relatively humility at 700 hPa, were mainly confined to the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. Several spatial-temporal projection model (STPM) sets were constructed to carry out the extended-range forecast for the CTC index. By combining the output of STPMs separately conducted for the two dominant modes of intraseasonal variability, e.g., the 10-30 and the 30-80 day mode, useful forecast skill could be achieved for a 30-day lead time. The combined output successfully captured both the 10-30 and 30-80 day mode at least 10 days in advance. With a relatively low rate of false alarm, the STPM achieved hits for 80 % (69 %) of 54 CTC events during 2003-2014 at the 10-day (20-day) lead time, suggesting a practical value of the STPM for real-time forecasting WNP CTC events at an extended range.

  12. Assessment of coastal erosion and quantification of land loss on Western Pacific atolls during the last 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborosi, Danko; Zega, Mojca; Jenson, John W.

    2010-05-01

    The majority of islands in the tropical western Pacific are coral atolls. Most are inhabited by indigenous Micronesian populations. Local people have over the millennia developed coping strategies and response mechanisms to difficult natural conditions, including typhoons, erosion, giant swells, and flooding, as well as ensuing famines and epidemics. However, since 1990s residents of atolls in the region have been appealing for help. They indicate that their islands are being rapidly eroded along coastlines, land areas are becoming smaller, and taro patches and other vegetation are being damaged. Such concerns were corroborated by one sweeping assessment by South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission in 1998, as well as various isolated field observations since. Evidence of recent coastal erosion is found locally on many islands, both on windward and leeward sides and ocean and lagoon facing shores. Examples include retreating modern beaches, exhumed beachrock, scouring and undercutting of vegetation, overhanging scarps, etc. In addition, a considerable number of uninhabited islets have been completely obliterated by storms in the recent past; unusually high tides and swells have swept over large populated islands, destroying homes and harming agriculture; and at least one atoll has been abandoned due to irrecoverable typhoon damage. Those problems have received much worldwide media coverage, in which they are generally presented as "sinking" of islands due to global climate change and accompanying sea level rise. In reality, modern atolls are now known to be artifacts of the Pacific mid-Holocene High-Stand, and no first-hand data are available from Pacific islands to discern what proportion of observed erosional phenomena are 1) due to local natural and anthropogenic coastal processes as opposed to global and regional changes, and 2) caused by continuous natural dynamics as opposed to episodic extreme events. It is clear that some islands are faring better than

  13. Entrepreneurship Opportunities after Military Career: Practice in Central and Eastern versus Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa SMALIUKIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    differences between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Western Europe (WE practice. The results indicate the lack of entrepreneurship development policies for early retired servicemen, while service in military often provides highly specific competencies that can be adapted as transferable expertise and knowledge for entrepreneurship.

  14. Interannual Variations in Synoptic-Scale Disturbances over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingyan; Lu, Riyu; Chen, Guanghua; Wu, Liang

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the interannual variation of June-November synoptic disturbance activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) and its relationship with large-scale circulation for the period 1958-2014. Two leading modes of eddy kinetic energy for the disturbance variability over the WNP are obtained by EOF analysis, characterized by anomalous eddy kinetic energy over the subtropical WNP and around the Philippines, respectively. These modes explain a large portion of the interannual variance of synoptic disturbance activity over the WNP. Both are associated with lower-level cyclonic anomalies, but with different locations: over the subtropical WNP for the first mode and over the South China Sea for the second mode. Considering the impact of ENSO on synoptic disturbance activity over the WNP, we repeat the analyses after removing the effect of ENSO, which is simply defined as the components linearly regressed onto the Niño3.4 index, and find similar results, suggesting that the leading modes and their relationships with large-scale circulation exist without SST effects. Further analyses suggest that the meridional shear of zonal winds caused by cyclonic anomalies is crucial for maintaining the leading modes through barotropic conversion.

  15. Microseismic Properties of Typhoons in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.

    2017-12-01

    We analyzed the ambient seismic noise recorded in 2012 by a temporary array of 240 seismometers deployed in Yunnan, China as part of Phase I of the ChinArray project. The stations were installed with a quasi-uniform spacing of about 70 km by the Yunnan Earthquake Administration. Each station consisted of a three-component Guralp-3ESP seismometer and a Reftek 130 data acquisition system with a sampling interval of 0.01 s. To identify the structure and source of the ambient noise, we applied frequency-dependent polarization analysis to the individual stations and f-k analysis for three sub-arrays consisting of 14-25 stations. The most prominent microseismic signals we observed were surface waves generated at periods of 3-7 s by 15 typhoons that occurred in the Western Pacific, mostly during the summer of 2012. The U.S. Navy's Joint Typhoon Warning Center divides a tropical cyclone into four levels, Tropical Depression (TD), Tropical Storm (TS), Typhoon (TY) and Super Typhoon (ST) based on the estimated wind speed. Four of the 15 analyzed typhoons reached ST intensity. The maximum microseism signals tended to last throughout the lifetime of a typhoon. Sometimes, we observed the splitting of a single microseism spectral peak into two parallel peaks. We compared the seismic observations to storm track data for typhoons Guchol, Jelawat, and Son-Tinh, and with oceanic models of wave-wave interaction. We find that microseismic power is correlated with changes in the direction or speed, or both, of the typhoon track. High wind speed or changing wind speed within the typhoon does not have a clear relationship with the microseismic power.

  16. Manganese in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruland, K.W.; Landing, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative and precise method for determination of dissolved M (nmol)/kg level in seawater has been developed and used to study the distribution of Mn in the northeast Pacific. Mn concentrations in the surface mixed layer decrease from 1.0 to 0.6 nmol/kg between the central gyre and the western boundary of the California Current, then increase to values from 2 to 6 nmol/kg near the coastal boundary (in contrast to the distribution of 210 Pb). Particulate Mn in the surface waters accounts for only about 1% of the total. Vertical distributions of Mn are characterized by surface maxima, minima near 300 m, maxima at mid-depth coinciding with the oxygen minimum and the labile nutrient maxima, and concentrations in Pacific bottom waters of approximately 0.2 nmol/kg. The oceanic distribution of Mn appears to be dominated by external inputs superimposed upon ovberall scavenging which can lead to Mn maxima in (1) the surface waters due to riverine and atmospheric sources; (2) the deep ocean as a result of hydrothermal injection and/or sediment resuspension; and (3) the oxygen minimum region resulting from in-situ breakdown of organic matter, in-situ MnO 2 reduction, and/or advective-diffusive transport of dissolved Mn from anoxic slope sediments. (orig.)

  17. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 919-926. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Entre 1993-97, observamos el comportamiento de alimentación de la lapa roja (Ara macao en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica. La lapa roja se alimentó de semillas, frutas, hojas, flores y corteza de 43 especies de plantas. Varias partes de las plantas comidas por las lapas contienen compuestos secundarios tóxicos al ser humano, y especies adicionales incluidas en la dieta son exóticas; introducidas por razones agrícolas, forestales o estéticas. Especies de árboles importantes como alimento de la lapa roja incluyen: Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, y Hura crepitans; también son criticas para la población de la lapa roja debido a proveen cavidades para anidaci

  18. Pleurolucina from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans: a new intertidal species from Curaçao with unusual shell microstructure (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Glover

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new shallow water species of the lucinid bivalve Pleurolucina is described from Curaçao in the southern Caribbean Sea and compared with known species of the genus from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Although confused with the Floridian species P. leucocyma, it is most similar to the eastern Pacific P. undata. As in all studied lucinids, the new species possesses symbiotic bacteria housed in the ctenidia. The shell microstructure is unusual with repeated and intercalated conchiolin layers that have sublayers of ‘tulip-shaped’ calcareous spherules. Predatory drillings by naticid gastropods frequently terminate at the conchiolin layers.

  19. Interdecadal Change of Tropical Cyclone Genesis Controlling Parameter in Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.

    2017-12-01

    The main environmental parameter controlling tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the western North Pacific (WNP) changed in different interdecadal periods. The interannual variability of TC genesis frequency was primarily control by specific humidity in 1950-1976, sea surface temperature (SST) in 1977-1998, and vorticity in 1999-2014. A further diagnosis shows that the change of environmental specific humidity during 1950-1976 was attributed to anomalous advection of mean moisture during ENSO developing summer. The SST change during 1977-1998 was associated with circulation change during ENSO decaying summer. The change of environment vorticity was primarily related to CP-type El Niño during 1999-2014. The ultimate cause of the controlling parameter change is attributed to the change of ENSO behavior. Compared to the first period, a stronger EP-type ENSO variability in the second period leads to a stronger circulation/SST response during ENSO decaying phase. The occurrence of more frequent CP type El Niño in the third period was responsible for greater vorticity controlling in the WNP.

  20. Organohalogen compounds in deep-sea fishes from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan: Contamination status and bioaccumulation profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shin; Oshihoi, Tomoko; Ramu, Karri; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ohmori, Koji; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of deep-sea fishes collected in 2005 from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan were analyzed for organohalogen compounds. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of DDTs and PCBs (up to 23,000 and 12,400 ng/g lipid wt, respectively) were the highest. The present study is the foremost to report the occurrence of brominated flame retardants such as PBDEs and HBCDs in deep-sea organisms from the North Pacific region. Significant positive correlations found between δ 15 N ( per mille ) and PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs suggest the high biomagnification potential of these contaminants in food web. The large variation in δ 13 C ( per mille ) values observed between the species indicate multiple sources of carbon in the food web and specific accumulation of hydrophobic organohalogen compounds in benthic dwelling carnivore species like snubnosed eel. The results obtained in this study highlight the usefulness of deep-sea fishes as sentinel species to monitor the deep-sea environment.

  1. Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide

    2012-01-16

    A regional near-infrared (NIR) ocean normalized water-leaving radiance (nL(w)(λ)) model is proposed for atmospheric correction for ocean color data processing in the western Pacific region, including the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. Our motivation for this work is to derive ocean color products in the highly turbid western Pacific region using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard South Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). GOCI has eight spectral bands from 412 to 865 nm but does not have shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands that are needed for satellite ocean color remote sensing in the turbid ocean region. Based on a regional empirical relationship between the NIR nL(w)(λ) and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K(d)(490)), which is derived from the long-term measurements with the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, an iterative scheme with the NIR-based atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed. Results from MODIS-Aqua measurements show that ocean color products in the region derived from the new proposed NIR-corrected atmospheric correction algorithm match well with those from the SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm. Thus, the proposed new atmospheric correction method provides an alternative for ocean color data processing for GOCI (and other ocean color satellite sensors without SWIR bands) in the turbid ocean regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea, although the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach is still much preferred. The proposed atmospheric correction methodology can also be applied to other turbid coastal regions.

  2. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  3. Influence of regional-scale anthropogenic emissions on CO2 distributions over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.-H.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Blake, D. R.; Westberg, D. J.; Kiley, C. M.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Streets, D. G.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nolf, S. R.

    2003-10-01

    We report here airborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific during the March-April 2001 Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The CO2 spatial distributions were notably influenced by cyclogenesis-triggered transport of regionally polluted continental air masses. Examination of the CO2 to C2H2/CO ratio indicated rapid outflow of combustion-related emissions in the free troposphere below 8 km. Although the highest CO2 mixing ratios were measured within the Pacific Rim region, enhancements were also observed further east over the open ocean at locations far removed from surface sources. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered within the planetary boundary layer contained up to 393 ppmv of CO2. Coincident enhancements in the mixing ratios of C2Cl4, C2H2, and C2H4 measured concurrently revealed combustion and industrial sources. To elucidate the source distributions of CO2, an emissions database for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5-day backward trajectories that revealed the WNW/W sector of northeast Asia was a major contributor to these pollution events. Comparisons of NOAA/CMDL and JMA surface data with measurements obtained aloft showed a strong latitudinal gradient that peaked between 35° and 40°N. We estimated a net CO2 flux from the Asian continent of approximately 13.93 Tg C day-1 for late winter/early spring with the majority of the export (79%) occurring in the lower free troposphere (2-8 km). The apportionment of the flux between anthropogenic and biospheric sources was estimated at 6.37 Tg C day-1 and 7.56 Tg C day-1, respectively.

  4. The Variation of Tropical Cyclone Rainfall within the North Atlantic and Pacific as Observed from Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Edward; Pierce, Harold; Adler, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Tropical cyclone monthly rainfall amounts are estimated from passive microwave satellite observations in the North Atlantic and in three equal geographical regions of the North Pacific (i.e., Western, Central, and Eastern North Pacific). These satellite-derived rainfall amounts are used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone rainfall in altering the geographical, seasonal, and inter-annual distribution of the 1987-1989, 1991-1998 North Atlantic and Pacific rainfall during June-November when tropical cyclones are most abundant. To estimate these tropical cyclone rainfall amounts, mean monthly rain rates are derived from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/ Radiometer (SSM/I) observations within 444 km radius of the center of those North Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclones that reached storm stage and greater. These rain rate observations are then multiplied by the number of hours in a given month. Mean monthly rainfall amounts are also constructed for all the other North Atlantic and Pacific raining systems during this eleven year period for the purpose of estimating the geographical distribution and intensity of rainfall contributed by non-tropical cyclone systems. Further, the combination of the non-tropical cyclone and tropical cyclone (i.e., total) rainfall is constructed to delineate the fractional amount that tropical cyclones contributed to the total North Pacific rainfall.

  5. Assessing millennial-scale variability during the Holocene: A perspective from the western tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khider, D.; Jackson, C. S.; Stott, L. D.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relationship between tropical Pacific and Southern Ocean variability during the Holocene using the stable oxygen isotope and magnesium/calcium records of cooccurring planktonic and benthic foraminifera from a marine sediment core collected in the western equatorial Pacific. The planktonic record exhibits millennial-scale sea surface temperature (SST) oscillations over the Holocene of 0.5°C while the benthic δ18Oc document 0.10‰ millennial-scale changes of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW), a water mass which outcrops in the Southern Ocean. Solar forcing as an explanation for millennial-scale SST variability requires (1) a large climate sensitivity and (2) a long 400 year delayed response, suggesting that if solar forcing is the cause of the variability, it would need to be considerably amplified by processes within the climate system at least at the core location. We also explore the possibility that SST variability arose from volcanic forcing using a simple red noise model. Our best estimates of volcanic forcing falls short of reproducing the amplitude of observed SST variations although it produces power at low-frequency similar to that observed in the MD81 record. Although we cannot totally discount the volcanic and solar forcing hypotheses, we are left to consider that the most plausible source for Holocene millennial-scale variability lies within the climate system itself. In particular, UCDW variability coincided with deep North Atlantic changes, indicating a role for the deep ocean in Holocene millennial-scale variability.

  6. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.

    2006-11-15

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methods used to estimate surface wind speeds from satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. On the other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. From this annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution using a generalization Abild's method that allows for data wind collected from multiple positions. The choice of this method is justified by a Monte Carlo simulation comparing it to two other methods. The principle output is a map showing fifty year winds in the region. The method is tested against observed winds from Philippine synoptic stations and fair agreement is found for observed and predicted 48 year maxima. However, the almost biasfree performance of the model could be fortuitous, since precise definitions of 'windspeed' in terms averaging time, height above ground and assumed surface roughness are not available, neither for best tracks nor for the synoptic data. The work has been carried out under Danish Research Agency grant 2104-04-0005 'Offshore wind power' and it also covers the findings and analysis carried out in connection with task 1.6 of the project 'Feasibility Assessment and Capacity Building for Wind Energy Development in Cambodia, The Philippines and Vietnam' during 2005-06 under contract 125-2004 with EU

  7. An outline of neotectonic structures and morphotectonics of the western and central Pannonian basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodor, L.; Bada, G.; Csillag, G.; Horvath, E.; Ruszkiczay-Rudiger, Z.; Klara, P.; Sikhegyi, F.; Timár, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Horvath, F.

    2005-01-01

    Neotectonic deformation in the western and central part of the Pannonian Basin was investigated by means of surface and subsurface structural analyses, and geomorphologic observations. The applied methodology includes the study of outcrops, industrial seismic profiles, digital elevation models,

  8. Deepwater carbonate ion concentrations in the western tropical Pacific since 250 ka: Evidence for oceanic carbon storage and global climate influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bingbin; Li, Tiegang; Xiong, Zhifang; Algeo, Thomas J.; Chang, Fengming

    2017-04-01

    We present new "size-normalized weight" (SNW)-Δ[CO32-] core-top calibrations for three planktonic foraminiferal species and assess their reliability as a paleo-alkalinity proxy. SNWs of Globigerina sacculifer and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei can be used to reconstruct past deep Pacific [CO32-], whereas SNWs of Pulleniatina obliquiloculata are controlled by additional environmental factors. Based on this methodological advance, we reconstruct SNW-based deepwater [CO32-] for core WP7 from the western tropical Pacific since 250 ka. Secular variation in the SNW proxy documents little change in deep Pacific [CO32-] between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene. Further back in time, deepwater [CO32-] shows long-term increases from marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e to MIS 3 and from early MIS 7 to late MIS 6, consistent with the "coral reef hypothesis" that the deep Pacific Ocean carbonate system responded to declining shelf carbonate production during these two intervals. During deglaciations, we have evidence of [CO32-] peaks coincident with Terminations 2 and 3, which suggests that a breakdown of oceanic vertical stratification drove a net transfer of CO2 from the ocean to the atmosphere, causing spikes in carbonate preservation (i.e., the "deglacial ventilation hypothesis"). During MIS 4, a transient decline in SNW-based [CO32-], along with other reported [CO32-] and/or dissolution records, implies that increased deep-ocean carbon storage resulted in a global carbonate dissolution event. These findings provide new insights into the role of the deep Pacific in the global carbon cycle during the late Quaternary.

  9. Notoraja martinezi sp. nov., a new species of deepwater skate and the first record of the genus Notoraja Ishiyama, 1958 (Rajiformes: Arhynchobatidae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Francisco J; Ebert, David A; Long, Douglas J

    2016-04-05

    A new arhynchobatid skate, Notoraja martinezi, sp. nov., is described from four specimens collected from the eastern Central Pacific from Costa Rica to Ecuador and between depths of 1256-1472 m. The new species is placed in the genus Notoraja based on the long and flexible rostrum and its proportionally long tail with respect to total length. This species is distinct from its congeners in the Western Pacific by the straight margins of its rostrum, long anterior lobes of pelvic fins, and its abundant and very well developed caudal thorns.

  10. Extent and impact of Cretaceous magmatism on the formation and evolution of Jurassic oceanic crust in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Lizarralde, D.; Tominaga, M.; Hart, L.; Tivey, M.; Swift, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-channel seismic (MCS) images and wide-angle sonobuoy data acquired during a 2011 cruise on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson (TN272) show widespread emplacement of igneous sills and broadly thickened oceanic Layer 2 through hundreds of kilometers of oceanic crust in one of the oldest ocean basins in the western Pacific, a region known as the Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). Oceanic crust from the JQZ has grown through at least two main magmatic phases: It was formed by mid-ocean ridge processes in the Jurassic (at ~170 Ma), and then it was added to by a substantial Cretaceous magmatic event (at ~75-125 Ma). The scale of Cretaceous magmatism is exemplified by massive seafloor features such as the Ontong Java Plateau, Mid-Pacific Mountains, Marshall-Gilbert Islands, Marcus-Wake Seamount Chain, and numerous guyots, seamounts, and volcaniclastic flows observed throughout the region. We use seismic data to image heavily intruded and modified oceanic crust along an 800-km-long transect through the JQZ in order to examine how processes of secondary crustal growth - including magmatic emplacement, transport, and distribution - are expressed in the structure of modified oceanic crust. We also model gravity anomalies to constrain crustal thickness and depth to the Moho. Our observations suggest that western Pacific crust was modified via the following modes of emplacement: (a) extrusive seafloor flows that may or may not have grown into seamounts, (b) seamounts formed through intrusive diking that pushed older sediments aside during their formation, and (c) igneous sills that intruded sediments at varying depths. Emplacement modes (a) and (b) tend to imply a focused, pipe-like mechanism for melt transport through the lithosphere. Such a mechanism does not explain the observed broadly distributed intrusive emplacement of mode (c) however, which may entail successive sill emplacement between igneous basement and sediments thickening oceanic Layer 2 along ~400 km of our seismic line

  11. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  12. 75 FR 68767 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... fluctuation in the central and western portions with a possible increase in the eastern portion likely related... Western U.S. stock of Steller sea lions, and the Eastern U.S. stock of Steller sea lions. The impacts on... Central North Pacific (CNP) stock of humpback whales, Western North Pacific (WNP) stock of humpback whales...

  13. Large-Scale Preventive Chemotherapy for the Control of Helminth Infection in Western Pacific Countries: Six Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montresor, Antonio; Cong, Dai Tran; Sinuon, Mouth; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Chanthavisouk, Chitsavang; Strandgaard, Hanne; Velayudhan, Raman; Capuano, Corinne M.; Le Anh, Tuan; Tee Dató, Ah S.

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Urbani and Palmer published a review of the epidemiological situation of helminthiases in the countries of the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization indicating the control needs in the region. Six years after this inspiring article, large-scale preventive chemotherapy for the control of helminthiasis has scaled up dramatically in the region. This paper analyzes the most recent published and unpublished country information on large-scale preventive chemotherapy and summarizes the progress made since 2000. Almost 39 million treatments were provided in 2006 in the region for the control of helminthiasis: nearly 14 million for the control of lymphatic filariasis, more than 22 million for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and over 2 million for the control of schistosomiasis. In general, control of these helminthiases is progressing well in the Mekong countries and Pacific Islands. In China, despite harboring the majority of the helminth infections of the region, the control activities have not reached the level of coverage of countries with much more limited financial resources. The control of food-borne trematodes is still limited, but pilot activities have been initiated in China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam. PMID:18846234

  14. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Drew

    Full Text Available The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah and the Dusky (C. obscurus, were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  15. Asymmetric response of tropical cyclone activity to global warming over the North Atlantic and western North Pacific from CMIP5 model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-Sun R; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Chan, Johnny C L; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hyeong-Seog; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Joo-Hong

    2017-01-30

    Recent improvements in the theoretical understanding of the relationship between tropical cyclones (TCs) and their large-scale environments have resulted in significant improvements in the skill for forecasting TC activity at daily and seasonal time-scales. However, future changes in TC activity under a warmer climate remain uncertain, particularly in terms of TC genesis locations and subsequent pathways. Applying a track-pattern-based statistical model to 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model runs for the historical period and the future period corresponding to the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 emissions scenarios, this study shows that in future climate conditions, TC passage frequency will decrease over the North Atlantic, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico, but will increase over the western North Pacific, especially that hits Korea and Japan. Unlike previous studies based on fine-resolution models, an ensemble mean of CMIP5 models projects an increase in TC activity in the western North Pacific, which is owing to enhanced subtropical deep convection and favorable dynamic conditions therein in conjunction with the expansion of the tropics and vice versa for the North Atlantic. Our results suggest that North America will experience less TC landfalls, while northeast Asia will experience more TCs than in the present-day climate.

  16. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  17. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. This volume, Volume 2, reports on impacts from Sales 142 and 143

  18. United States Pacific Command, Asia-Pacific Economic Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    export process more efficient and effective by reducing export barriers and expanding markets abroad. The strategy coordinates the U.S. Government’s...investment from Western companies, such as Boeing and Mercedes - Benz , since China opened to the outside world the late 1970s.12 North Korea’s arms... markets for American trade and investment. Expanding wealth and opportunity in many Asia-Pacific countries have facilitated a transition to greater

  19. Projected sea level rise, gyre circulation and water mass formation in the western North Pacific: CMIP5 inter-model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Mio; Minobe, Shoshiro

    2018-06-01

    Future changes in the dynamic sea level (DSL), which is defined as sea-level deviation from the global mean sea level, is investigated over the North Pacific, by analyzing data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. The analysis provides more comprehensive descriptions of DSL responses to the global warming in this region than available from previous studies, by using surface and subsurface data until the year 2300 under middle and high greenhouse-gas emission scenarios. The DSL changes in the North Pacific are characterized by a DSL rise in the western North Pacific around the Kuroshio Extension (KE), as also reported by previous studies. Subsurface density analysis indicates that DSL rise around the KE is associated with decrease in density of subtropical mode water (STMW) and with northward KE migration, the former (latter) of which is relatively strong between 2000 and 2100 for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (between 2100 and 2300 for RCP8.5). The STMW density decrease is related to large heat uptake to the south and southeast of Japan, while the northward KE migration is associated with the poleward shift of the wind stress field. These features are commonly found in multi-model ensemble means and the relations among representative quantities produced by different climate models.

  20. Inter-decadal change of the lagged inter-annual relationship between local sea surface temperature and tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haikun; Wu, Liguang; Raga, G. B.

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the inter-decadal change of the lagged inter-annual relationship between the TC frequency (TCF) and the local sea surface temperature (SST) in the western North Pacific (WNP) during 1979-2014. An abrupt shift of the lagged relationship between them is observed to occur in 1998. Before the shift (1979-1997), a moderately positive correlation (0.35) between previous-year local SST and TCF is found, while a significantly negative correlation (- 0.71) is found since the shift (1998-2014). The inter-decadal change of the lagged relationship between TCF and local SST over the WNP is also accompanied by an inter-decadal change in the lagged inter-annual relationship between large-scale factors affecting TCs and local SST over the WNP. During 1998-2014, the previous-year local SST shows a significant negative correlation with the mid-level moisture and a significant positive correlation with the vertical wind shear over the main development region of WNP TC genesis. Almost opposite relationships are seen during 1979-1997, with a smaller magnitude of the correlation coefficients. These changes are consistent with the changes of the lagged inter-annual relationship between upper- and lower-level winds and local SST over the WNP. Analyses further suggests that the inter-decadal shift of the lagged inter-annual relationship between WNP TCF and local SST may be closely linked to the inter-decadal change of inter-annual SST transition over the tropical central-eastern Pacific associated with the climate regime shift in the late 1990s. Details on the underlying physical process need further investigation using observations and simulations.

  1. Maximum wind radius estimated by the 50 kt radius: improvement of storm surge forecasting over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    Even though the maximum wind radius (Rmax) is an important parameter in determining the intensity and size of tropical cyclones, it has been overlooked in previous storm surge studies. This study reviews the existing estimation methods for Rmax based on central pressure or maximum wind speed. These over- or underestimate Rmax because of substantial variations in the data, although an average radius can be estimated with moderate accuracy. As an alternative, we propose an Rmax estimation method based on the radius of the 50 kt wind (R50). Data obtained by a meteorological station network in the Japanese archipelago during the passage of strong typhoons, together with the JMA typhoon best track data for 1990-2013, enabled us to derive the following simple equation, Rmax = 0.23 R50. Application to a recent strong typhoon, the 2015 Typhoon Goni, confirms that the equation provides a good estimation of Rmax, particularly when the central pressure became considerably low. Although this new method substantially improves the estimation of Rmax compared to the existing models, estimation errors are unavoidable because of fundamental uncertainties regarding the typhoon's structure or insufficient number of available typhoon data. In fact, a numerical simulation for the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan as well as 2015 Typhoon Goni demonstrates a substantial difference in the storm surge height for different Rmax. Therefore, the variability of Rmax should be taken into account in storm surge simulations (e.g., Rmax = 0.15 R50-0.35 R50), independently of the model used, to minimize the risk of over- or underestimating storm surges. The proposed method is expected to increase the predictability of major storm surges and to contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in the western North Pacific, including countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Vietnam.

  2. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m-3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m-3). We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose) maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose) in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  3. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  4. Global species delimitation and phylogeography of the circumtropical ‘sexy shrimp’ Thor amboinensis reveals a cryptic species complex and secondary contact in the Indo-West Pacific

    KAUST Repository

    Titus, Benjamin M.

    2018-04-27

    Aim The “sexy shrimp” Thor amboinensis is currently considered a single circumtropical species. However, the tropical oceans are partitioned by hard and soft barriers to dispersal, providing ample opportunity for allopatric speciation. Herein, we test the null hypothesis that T. amboinensis is a single global species, reconstruct its global biogeographical history, and comment on population‐level patterns throughout the Tropical Western Atlantic. Location Coral reefs in all tropical oceans. Methods Specimens of Thor amboinensis were obtained through field collection and museum holdings. We used one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (NaK, enolase) gene fragments for global species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses (n = 83 individuals, 30 sample localities), while phylogeographical reconstruction in the TWA was based on COI only (n = 303 individuals, 10 sample localities). Results We found evidence for at least five cryptic lineages (9%–22% COI pairwise sequence divergence): four in the Indo‐West Pacific and one in the Tropical Western Atlantic. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that endemic lineages from Japan and the South Central Pacific are more closely related to the Tropical Western Atlantic lineage than to a co‐occurring lineage that is widespread throughout the Indo‐West Pacific. Concatenated and species tree phylogenetic analyses differ in the placement of an endemic Red Sea lineage and suggest alternate dispersal pathways into the Atlantic. Phylogeographical reconstruction throughout the Tropical Western Atlantic reveals little genetic structure over more than 3,000 km. Main conclusions Thor amboinensis is a species complex that has undergone a series of allopatric speciation events and whose members are in secondary contact in the Indo‐West Pacific. Nuclear‐ and mitochondrial‐ gene phylogenies show evidence of introgression between lineages inferred to have been separated more than 20 Ma. Phylogenetic discordance between

  5. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  6. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kameník

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2–1.5 Bq m–3 were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6–1.8 Bq m–3 were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m–3 (Station Aloha, 18 values. In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1–4 Bq m–3, and 137Cs levels were about 2–3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  7. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenik, J.; Dulaiova, H. [Hawaii Univ., Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Buesseler, K.O.; Pike, S.M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Dept. of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry; St' astna, K. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2013-07-01

    Surface seawater {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable {sup 134}Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, {sup 134}Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most {sup 137}Cs activities (1.2-1.5 Bq m{sup -3}) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6-1.8 Bq m{sup -3}) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup -3} (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained {sup 134}Cs activities in the range of 1-4 Bq m{sup -3}, and {sup 137}Cs levels were about 2-3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  8. Nuclear energy in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, M.; Walker, W.

    1984-01-01

    This is an overview of nuclear energy in Western Europe, as seen by two Western Europeans, attempting to place the topic into the context not only of energy supply but also of industrial relations, institutional structure, and sociocultural factors. Although its main focus is Western Europe, it is sometimes necessary to glance at the wider context, in particular the industrial relations with the United States and Japan. Export markets are also considered, in particular, in the Pacific. The paper does not, however, deal with nonproliferation policies and the possible difference of opinion within Western Europe and between Western Europe and other regions over this topic. (author)

  9. A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2013-04-01

    Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

  10. The response of the North Pacific Decadal Variability to strong tropical volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Otteraa, Odd Helge [Uni Bjerknes Centre, Uni Research, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Gao, Yongqi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Wang, Huijun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Climate Change Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    In this study, the effects of volcanic forcing on North Pacific climate variability, on interannual to decadal time scales, are examined using climate model simulations covering the last 600 years. The model used is the Bergen Climate Model, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. It is found that natural external forcings, such as tropical strong volcanic eruptions (SVEs) and variations in total solar irradiance, play an important role in regulating North Pacific Decadal Variability (NPDV). In response to tropical SVEs the lower stratospheric pole-to-equator temperature gradient is enhanced. The North polar vortex is strengthened, which forces a significant positive Arctic Oscillation. At the same time, dipole zonal wind anomalies associated with strong polar vortex propagate downward from the lower stratosphere. Through positive feedbacks in the troposphere, the surface westerly winds across the central North Pacific are significantly weakened, and positive sea level pressure anomalies are formed in the North Pacific. This anomalous surface circulation results in changes in the net heat fluxes and the oceanic advection across the North Pacific. As a result of this, warm water converges in the subtropical western North Pacific, where the surface waters in addition are heated by significantly reduced latent and sensible heat fluxes from the ocean. In the eastern and high-latitude North Pacific the ocean loses more heat, and large-scale decreases in sea surface temperatures are found. The overall response of this chain of events is that the North Pacific enters a negative phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and this negative phase of the PDO is maintained for several years. It is thus concluded that the volcanic forcing plays a key role in the phasing of the PDO. The model results furthermore highlight the important role of troposphere-stratosphere coupling, tropical-extratropical teleconnections and extratropical ocean

  11. Ship-borne FTIR measurements of CO and O3 in the Western Pacific from 43° N to 35° S: an evaluation of the sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 have been measured in the Western Pacific (43° N to 35° S during a ship campaign with Research Vessel Sonne in fall 2009. Observations have been performed using ship-based solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry, flask sampling, balloon sounding, and in-situ Fourier Transform infrared analysis. The results obtained are compared to the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model for atmospheric composition. In general, a very good agreement is found between the GEOS-Chem model and all instruments. The CO and O3 distributions show a comparable variability suggesting an impact from the same source regions. Tagged-CO simulations implemented in the GEOS-Chem model make it possible to differentiate between different source processes and source regions. The source regions are verified with HYSPLIT backward trajectory calculations. In the Northern Hemisphere fossil fuel combustion in Asia is the dominant source. European and North American fossil fuel combustion also contribute to Northern Hemispheric CO pollution. In the Southern Hemisphere contributions from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are dominant; African biomass burning has a significant impact on Western Pacific CO pollution. Furthermore, in the tropical Western Pacific enhanced upper tropospheric CO within the tropical tropopause layer mainly originates from Indonesian fossil fuel combustion and can be transported into the stratosphere. The source regions of the measured O3 pollution are simulated with a tagged-O3 simulation implemented in the GEOS-Chem model. Similar source regions compared to the tagged-CO simulations are identified by the model. In the Northern Hemisphere contributions from Asia, Europe, and North America are significant. In the Southern Hemisphere emissions from South America, south-east Africa, and Oceania significantly contribute to the measured O3 pollution.

  12. Atmosphere-Ocean Variations in the Indo-Pacific Sector during ENSO Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ngar-Cheung; Nath, Mary Jo

    2003-01-01

    The influences of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on air-sea interaction in the Indian-western Pacific (IWP) Oceans have been investigated using a general circulation model. Observed monthly sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the deep tropical eastern/central Pacific (DTEP) have been inserted in the lower boundary of this model through the 1950-99 period. At all maritime grid points outside of DTEP, the model atmosphere has been coupled with an oceanic mixed layer model with variable depth. Altogether 16 independent model runs have been conducted.Composite analysis of selected ENSO episodes illustrates that the prescribed SST anomalies in DTEP affect the surface atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns in IWP through displacements of the near-equatorial Walker circulation and generation of Rossby wave modes in the subtropics. Such atmospheric responses modulate the surface fluxes as well as the oceanic mixed layer depth, and thereby establish a well-defined SST anomaly pattern in the IWP sector several months after the peak in ENSO forcing in DTEP. In most parts of the IWP region, the net SST tendency induced by atmospheric changes has the same polarity as the local composite SST anomaly, thus indicating that the atmospheric forcing acts to reinforce the underlying SST signal.By analyzing the output from a suite of auxiliary experiments, it is demonstrated that the SST perturbations in IWP (which are primarily generated by ENSO-related atmospheric changes) can, in turn, exert notable influences on the atmospheric conditions over that region. This feedback mechanism also plays an important role in the eastward migration of the subtropical anticyclones over the western Pacific in both hemispheres.

  13. Stumpage market integration in western national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels

    2011-01-01

    This study presents results of statistical tests for stumpage market integration on 62 national forests in the Western United States. Quarterly stumpage prices from 1984 to 2007 obtained from cut and sold reports for USDA Forest Service Regions 1, 4, 5, and 6 (Northern, Intermountain, Pacific Southwest, and Pacific Northwest, respectively) were analyzed to establish...

  14. Role of atmospheric heating over the South China Sea and western Pacific regions in modulating Asian summer climate under the global warming background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Yang, Song; Li, Zhenning

    2016-05-01

    The response of monsoon precipitation to global warming, which is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface, exhibits very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and adjacent regions in boreal summer. To understand the possible atmospheric dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, changes in atmospheric heating and their possible influences on Asian summer climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical simulations. Results indicate that heating in the middle troposphere has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific regions in boreal summer, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, and lower-tropospheric convergence and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS and western Pacific and continental South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The result highlights the important role of air-sea interaction in understanding the changes in Asian climate.

  15. Sources and processes affecting the distribution of dissolved Nd isotopes and concentrations in the West Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Melanie K.; Pahnke, Katharina; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    In the Atlantic, where deep circulation is vigorous, the dissolved neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (expressed as ɛNd) is largely controlled by water mass mixing. In contrast, the factors influencing the ɛNd distribution in the Pacific, marked by sluggish circulation, is not clear yet. Indication for regional overprints in the Pacific is given based on its bordering volcanic islands. Our study aims to clarify the impact and relative importance of different Nd sources (rivers, volcanic islands), vertical (bio)geochemical processes and lateral water mass transport in controlling dissolved ɛNd and Nd concentration ([Nd]) distributions in the West Pacific between South Korea and Fiji. We find indication for unradiogenic continental input from South Korean and Chinese rivers to the East China Sea. In the tropical West Pacific, volcanic islands supply Nd to surface and subsurface waters and modify their ɛNd to radiogenic values of up to +0.7. These radiogenic signatures allow detailed tracing of currents flowing to the east and differentiation from westward currents with open ocean Pacific ɛNd composition in the complex tropical Pacific zonal current system. Modified radiogenic ɛNd of West Pacific intermediate to bottom waters upstream or within our section also indicates non-conservative behavior of ɛNd due to boundary exchange at volcanic island margins, submarine ridges, and with hydrothermal particles. Only subsurface to deep waters (3000 m) in the open Northwest Pacific show conservative behavior of ɛNd. In contrast, we find a striking correlation of extremely low (down to 2.77 pmol/kg Nd) and laterally constant [Nd] with the high-salinity North and South Pacific Tropical Water, indicating lateral transport of preformed [Nd] from the North and South Pacific subtropical gyres into the study area. This observation also explains the previously observed low subsurface [Nd] in the tropical West Pacific. Similarly, Western South Pacific Central Water, Antarctic

  16. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  17. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. The input from these sources aided in the identification of significant issues, possible alternatives to the proposed actions, and potential mitigating measures

  18. Using eddy geopotential height to measure the western North Pacific subtropical high in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun

    2018-01-01

    The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is crucial to the East Asian summer climate, and geopotential height ( H) is widely used to measure the WPNSH. However, a rapidly rising trend of H in the future is projected by the models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Diagnoses based on the hypsometric equation suggest that more than 80% of the rise in H are attributable to zonal uniform warming. Because circulation is determined by the gradient of H rather than its absolute magnitude, the spatially uniform rising trend of H gives rise to difficulties when measuring the WNPSH with H. These difficulties include an invalid western boundary of WNPSH in the future and spurious information regarding long-term trends and interannual variability of WNPSH. Using CMIP5 model simulations and reanalysis data, the applicability of a metric based on eddy geopotential height ( H e ) to the warming climate is investigated. The results show that the H e metric outperforms the H metric under warming climate conditions. First, the mean state rainfall- H e relationship is more robust than the rainfall- H relationship. Second, the area, intensity, and western boundary indices of WNPSH can be effectively defined by the H e = 0-m contour in future warming climate scenarios without spurious trends. Third, the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is more closely related to the H e -based WNPSH indices. We recommend that the H e metric be adopted as an operational metric on the WNPSH under the current warming climate.

  19. Projected increase in El Niño-driven tropical cyclone frequency in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Savin S.; Tory, Kevin J.; Ye, Hua; Walsh, Kevin J. E.

    2017-02-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in tropical cyclone (TC) activity around the world. However, it remains uncertain how the projected future changes in ENSO under greenhouse warming will affect TC activity, apart from an expectation that the overall frequency of TCs is likely to decrease for most ocean basins. Here we show robust changes in ENSO-driven variability in TC occurrence by the late twenty-first century. In particular, we show that TCs become more frequent (~20-40%) during future-climate El Niño events compared with present-climate El Niño events--and less frequent during future-climate La Niña events--around a group of small island nations (for example, Fiji, Vanuatu, Marshall Islands and Hawaii) in the Pacific. We examine TCs across 20 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 database, forced under historical and greenhouse warming conditions. The 12 most realistic models identified show a strong consensus on El Niño-driven changes in future-climate large-scale environmental conditions that modulate development of TCs over the off-equatorial western Pacific and the central North Pacific regions. These results have important implications for climate change and adaptation pathways for the vulnerable Pacific island nations.

  20. Allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma update (ARIA 2008)--western and Asian-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawankar, Ruby; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Chen, Yuzhi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kim, You-Young; Le, Lan Thi Tuyet; Huong, Le Thi Thu; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Ohta, Ken; Vichyanond, Pakit; Wang, De-Yun; Zhong, Nanshan; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma is markedly increasing worldwide as societies adopt western life styles. Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma and AR, and asthma often co-exists with AR. An estimated 300 million people worldwide have asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries and about 400 million people suffer from AR. Yet, AR is often under-diagnosed and under-treated due to a lack of appreciation of the disease burden and its impact on quality of life, as well as its social impact at school and at the workplace. However, AR with or without asthma is a huge economic burden. Thus, there was clearly a need for a global evidence-based document which would highlight the interactions between the upper and lower airways including diagnosis, epidemiology, common risk factors, management and prevention. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document was first published in 2001 as a state-of-the-art guideline for the specialist, the general practitioner and other health care professionals. Subsequent new evidence regarding the pathomechanisms, new drugs and increased knowledge have resulted in the publication of the ARIA 2008 update. The present review summarizes the ARIA update with particular emphasis on the current status of AR and asthma in the Asia-Pacific region and discusses the Western and Asian perspective.

  1. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  2. Mesozooplankton structure and functioning in the western tropical South Pacific along the 20° parallel south during the OUTPACE survey (February-April 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, François; Pagano, Marc; Guilloux, Loïc; Donoso, Katty; Valdés, Valentina; Hunt, Brian P. V.

    2018-03-01

    increasing in contribution from west to east while, in parallel, gelatinous plankton decreased (dominated by appendicularians) and other holoplankton. Detritus in the net tow samples represented 20-50 % of the biomass, the lowest and the highest values being obtained in the subtropical Pacific gyre and in the Coral Sea, respectively, linked to the local primary production and the biomass and growth rates of zooplanktonic populations. Taxonomic compositions showed a high degree of similarity across the whole region, however, with a moderate difference in subtropical Pacific gyre. Several copepod taxa, known to have trophic links with Trichodesmium, presented positive relationships with Trichodesmium abundance, such as the Harpacticoids Macrosetella, Microsetella and Miracia, and the Poecilostomatoids Corycaeus and Oncaea. At the LD stations, the populations initially responded to local spring blooms with a large production of larval forms, reflected in increasing abundances but with limited (station LD-A) or no (station LD-A) biomass changes. Diazotrophs contributed up to 67 and 75 % to zooplankton biomass in the western and central Melanesian Archipelago regions respectively, but strongly decreased to an average of 22 % in the subtropical Pacific gyre (GY) and down to 7 % occurring in the most eastern station (SD-15). Using allometric relationships, specific zooplankton ingestion rates were estimated between 0.55 and 0.64 d-1 with the highest mean value at the bloom station (LD-B) and the lowest in GY, whereas estimated weight specific excretion rates ranged between 0.1 and 0.15 d-1 for NH4 and between 0.09 and 9.12 d-1 for PO4. Daily grazing pressure on phytoplankton stocks and daily regeneration by zooplankton were as well estimated for the different regions showing contrasted impacts between MA and GY regions. For the 3 LD stations, it was not possible to find any relationship between the abundance and biomass in the water column and swimmers found in sediment

  3. A 12-year observation of water-soluble ions in TSP aerosols collected at a remote marine location in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, S. K. R.; Kawamura, K.

    2015-06-01

    In order to characterize the long-term trend of remote marine aerosols, a 12-year observation was conducted for water-soluble ions in TSP (total suspended particulate) aerosols collected from 2001 to 2012 in the Asian outflow region at Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific. We found a clear difference in chemical composition between the continentally affected and marine background air masses over the observation site. Asian continental air masses are delivered from late autumn to spring, whereas marine air masses were dominated in summer. Concentrations of non-sea salt (nss-) SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, nss-K+ and nss-Ca2+ are high in winter and spring and low in summer. On the other hand, MSA- (methanesulfonate) exhibits higher concentrations during spring and winter, probably due to springtime dust bloom or due to the direct continental transport of MSA- to the observation site. We could not find any clear decadal trend for Na+, Cl-, Mg2+ and nss-Ca2+ in all seasons, although there exists a clear seasonal trend. However, concentrations of nss-SO42- continuously decreased from 2007 to 2012, probably due to the decreased SO2 emissions in East Asia especially in China. In contrast, nss-K+ and MSA- concentrations continuously increased from 2001 to 2012 during winter and spring seasons, demonstrating that biomass burning and/or terrestrial biological emissions in East Asia are being increasingly transported from the Asian continent to the western North Pacific. This study also demonstrates that Asian dusts can act as an important source of nutrients for phytoplankton and thus sea-to-air emission of dimethyl sulfide over the western North Pacific.

  4. Regulation of phytoplankton carbon to chlorophyll ratio by light, nutrients and temperature in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean: a basin-scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Wang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex effects of light, nutrients and temperature lead to a variable carbon to chlorophyll (C:Chl ratio in phytoplankton cells. Using field data collected in the Equatorial Pacific, we derived a new dynamic model with a non-steady C:Chl ratio as a function of irradiance, nitrate, iron, and temperature. The dynamic model is implemented into a basin-scale ocean circulation-biogeochemistry model and tested in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. The model reproduces well the general features of phytoplankton dynamics in this region. For instance, the simulated deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM is much deeper in the western warm pool (~100 m than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (~50 m. The model also shows the ability to reproduce chlorophyll, including not only the zonal, meridional and vertical variations, but also the interannual variability. This modeling study demonstrates that combination of nitrate and iron regulates the spatial and temporal variations in the phytoplankton C:Chl ratio in the Equatorial Pacific. Sensitivity simulations suggest that nitrate is mainly responsible for the high C:Chl ratio in the western warm pool while iron is responsible for the frontal features in the C:Chl ratio between the warm pool and the upwelling region. In addition, iron plays a dominant role in regulating the spatial and temporal variations of the C:Chl ratio in the Central and Eastern Equatorial Pacific. While temperature has a relatively small effect on the C:Chl ratio, light is primarily responsible for the vertical decrease of phytoplankton C:Chl ratio in the euphotic zone.

  5. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  6. Working mothers of the World Health Organization Western Pacific offices: lessons and experiences to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iellamo, Alessandro; Sobel, Howard; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Optimal breastfeeding saves lives. However, suboptimal breastfeeding is prevalent, primarily resulting from inappropriate promotion of infant formula and challenges of working mothers to continue breastfeeding. The article aims to determine the extent to which World Health Organization (WHO) policies protect, promote, and support breastfeeding women working at the WHO, Western Pacific Region. An online survey targeted all female WHO and contractual staff in all country and regional offices, who delivered a baby between July 24, 2008 and July 24, 2013. Respondents advised on how the worksite could better support breastfeeding. Thirty-two female staff from 11 of the 12 WHO offices within the Western Pacific Region responded. "Returning to work" (44%) and "not having enough milk" (17%) were the most commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding. Eighteen (56%) reported using infant formula and 8 (44%) reported that the product was prescribed. Among the suggestions given to better support breastfeeding, 10 (32%) recommended having a private room with a chair, table, electric outlet, and refrigerator. The findings show that women working at the WHO face similar challenges to mothers outside the WHO. Based on the findings, we recommend the following: (1) provide prenatal/postpartum breastfeeding counseling services for employees; (2) establish breastfeeding rooms in country offices and regularly orient staff on agency policies to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; (3) annually celebrate World Breastfeeding Week with employees; (4) encourage other public and private institutions to conduct online surveys and elicit recommendations from mothers on how their workplace can support breastfeeding; and (5) conduct a larger survey among UN agencies on how to better protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Change in the relationship between the Australian summer monsoon circulation and boreal summer precipitation over Central China in the late 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruowen; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Tianyu; He, Shengping

    2017-09-01

    Recent study revealed a close connection between the Australian summer monsoon (ASM) and boreal summer precipitation over Central China (SPCC). This study further revealed a strengthening of the ASM-SPCC relationship around the late 1990s. It is found that the relationship between the ASM and the SPCC during 1979-1997 (1998-2014) relationship is statistically insignificant (significant). Further analysis indicated that during 1998-2014, the weakened ASM is concurrent with significant positive sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea, which could persist into the following boreal summer and further lead to intensified East Asian summer monsoon, strengthened western North Pacific subtropical high, and anomalous ascending motion over Central China. Consequently, more moisture is transported from the western Pacific northward to Central China where significant anomalous convergence appears. Therefore, the ASM could potentially influence the SPCC during 1998-2014. By contrast, the ASM-related SST and atmospheric circulation anomalies in boreal winter are statistically insignificant during 1979-1997. Such an interdecadal change might be attributed to the interdecadal warming that occurred in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea around the late 1990s. This study might be useful for the prediction of the SPCC.

  8. The Indo-West Pacific alpheid shrimp Athanas dimorphus Ortmann, 1894: first record for Brazil and the western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo P. G. Pachelle

    Full Text Available The alpheid shrimp Athanas dimorphus Ortmann, 1894, common and widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific, is reported for the first time from Brazil, representing the first invasive alpheid species in Brazil, and the first species of the genus Athanas Leach, 1816 introduced to the western Atlantic. The present record is based on several specimens collected at two localities in Ceará, Pedra Rachada beach near the town of Paracuru, and Meireles beach in Fortaleza. Athanas dimorphus is very common at the second site, suggesting that a population of this species is now established in northwestern Brazil. An updated list of marine and freshwater decapods accidentally or voluntarily introduced to Brazil is provided.

  9. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  10. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific.

  11. Anomalous winter climate conditions in the Pacific rim during recent El Nino Modoki and El Nino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Hengyi; Behera, Swadhin K. [Climate Variations Research Program, Frontier Research Center for Global Change/JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan); Yamagata, Toshio [Climate Variations Research Program, Frontier Research Center for Global Change/JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan)]|[University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Present work compares impacts of El Nino Modoki and El Nino on anomalous climate in the Pacific rim during boreal winters of 1979-2005. El Nino Modoki (El Nino) is associated with tripole (dipole) patterns in anomalies of sea-surface temperature, precipitation, and upper-level divergent wind in the tropical Pacific, which are related to multiple 'boomerangs' of ocean-atmosphere conditions in the Pacific. Zonal and meridional extents of those 'boomerangs' reflect their independent influences, which are seen from lower latitudes in the west to higher latitudes in the east. In the central Pacific, more moisture is transported from the tropics to higher latitudes during El Nino Modoki owing to displacement of the wet 'boomerang' arms more poleward toward east. Discontinuities at outer 'boomerang' arms manifest intense interactions between tropical and subtropical/extratropical systems. The Pacific/North American pattern and related climate anomalies in North America found in earlier studies are modified in very different ways by the two phenomena. The seesaw with the dry north and the wet south in the western USA is more likely to occur during El Nino Modoki, while much of the western USA is wet during El Nino. The moisture to the southwestern USA is transported from the northward shifted ITCZ during El Nino Modoki, while it is carried by the storms traveling along the southerly shifted polar front jet during El Nino. The East Asian winter monsoon related anticyclone is over the South China Sea during El Nino Modoki as compared to its position over the Philippine Sea during El Nino, causing opposite precipitation anomalies in the southern East Asia between the two phenomena. (orig.)

  12. Gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, S.; Florido, P.; Reguilon, R.

    2010-01-01

    The gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System can be grouped in: (1) gold quartz veins type (El Chivote, La Pedrera), (2) paleoplacers: gold nuggets in tertiary alluvial deposits (Las Cavenes, Sierro de Coria), (3) quaternary placers (Rio Erjas), (4) gold nuggets in a regolith developed on the Schist and Graywacke Complex (CEG) (Casillas de Coria). The morphological study of gold nuggets will provide physical, chemical, bacteriological and climatic characteristics. Mining works are located on these deposits from roman time to the present day. (Author)

  13. Pacific Decadal Variability and Central Pacific Warming El Niño in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lorenzo, Emanuele [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-02-27

    This research aimed at understanding the dynamics controlling decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean and its interactions with global-scale climate change. The first goal was to assess how the dynamics and statistics of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the modes of Pacific decadal variability are represented in global climate models used in the IPCC. The second goal was to quantify how decadal dynamics are projected to change under continued greenhouse forcing, and determine their significance in the context of paleo-proxy reconstruction of long-term climate.

  14. Chloroplast DNA variation of oaks in western Central Europe and genetic consequences of human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, A.O.; Ziegenhagen, B.; Dam, van B.C.; Csaikl, U.M.; Coart, E.; Degen, B.; Burg, K.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Petit, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Oak chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was studied in a grid-based inventory in western Central Europe, including Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the northern parts of Upper and Lower Austria. A total of 2155 trees representing 426 populations of Quercus robur

  15. Identifying causes of Western Pacific ITCZ drift in ECMWF System 4 hindcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonk, Jonathan K. P.; Guilyardi, Eric; Toniazzo, Thomas; Woolnough, Steven J.; Stockdale, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The development of systematic biases in climate models used in operational seasonal forecasting adversely affects the quality of forecasts they produce. In this study, we examine the initial evolution of systematic biases in the ECMWF System 4 forecast model, and isolate aspects of the model simulations that lead to the development of these biases. We focus on the tendency of the simulated intertropical convergence zone in the western equatorial Pacific to drift northwards by between 0.5° and 3° of latitude depending on season. Comparing observations with both fully coupled atmosphere-ocean hindcasts and atmosphere-only hindcasts (driven by observed sea-surface temperatures), we show that the northward drift is caused by a cooling of the sea-surface temperature on the Equator. The cooling is associated with anomalous easterly wind stress and excessive evaporation during the first twenty days of hindcast, both of which occur whether air-sea interactions are permitted or not. The easterly wind bias develops immediately after initialisation throughout the lower troposphere; a westerly bias develops in the upper troposphere after about 10 days of hindcast. At this point, the baroclinic structure of the wind bias suggests coupling with errors in convective heating, although the initial wind bias is barotropic in structure and appears to have an alternative origin.

  16. Interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and implications for tropical cyclone genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Emmanuel M. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); UPMC, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lengaigne, Matthieu [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Menkes, Christophe E. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Jourdain, Nicolas C. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Marchesiello, Patrick [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); CNES/CNRS/UPS/IRD, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale (LEGOS), Toulouse (France); Madec, Gurvan [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    The interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and its influence on tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the South Pacific are investigated using observations and ERA40 reanalysis over the 1979-2002 period. In austral summer, the SPCZ displays four typical structures at interannual timescales. The first three are characterized by a diagonal orientation of the SPCZ and account for 85% of the summer seasons. One is close to climatology and the other two exhibit a 3 northward or southward departure from the SPCZ climatological position. In contrast, the fourth one, that only encompasses three austral summer seasons (the extreme 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 El Nino events and the moderate 1991/1992 El Nino event), displays very peculiar behaviour where the SPCZ largely departs from its climatological position and is zonally oriented. Variability of the western/central Pacific equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) is shown to modulate moisture transport south of the equator, thereby strongly constraining the location of the SPCZ. The SPCZ location is also shown to strongly modulate the atmospheric circulation variability in the South Pacific with specific patterns for each class. However, independently of its wide year-to-year excursions, the SPCZ is always collocated with the zero relative vorticity at low levels while the maximum vorticity axis lies 6 to the south of the SPCZ position. This coherent atmospheric organisation in the SPCZ region is shown to constrain tropical cyclogenesis to occur preferentially within 10 south of the SPCZ location as this region combines all the large-scale atmospheric conditions that favour the breeding of TCs. This analysis also reveals that cyclogenesis in the central Pacific (in the vicinity of French Polynesia) only occurs when the SPCZ displays a zonal orientation while this observation was previously attributed to El Nino years in general. Different characteristics of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO

  17. Pricing appraisal of anti-cancer drugs in the South East Asian, Western Pacific and East Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Neoh, Chin Fen; Elrggal, Mahmoud E; Babar, Zaheer-Ud- Din; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-12-28

    Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. High treatment cost, partly owing to higher prices of anti-cancer drugs, presents a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to survey and compare retail prices of anti-cancer drugs between high, middle and low income countries in the South-East Asia, Western Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions. Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present study. Pricing data from ten counties including one from South-East Asia, two from Western Pacific and seven from Eastern Mediterranean regions were used in this study. Purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted mean unit prices for 26 anti-cancer drug presentations (similar pharmaceutical form, strength, and pack size) were used to compare prices of anti-cancer drugs across three regions. A structured form was used to extract relevant data. Data were entered and analysed using Microsoft Excel®. Overall, Taiwan had the lowest mean unit prices while Oman had the highest prices. Six (23.1%) and nine (34.6%) drug presentations had a mean unit price below US$100 and between US$100 and US$500 respectively. Eight drug presentations (30.7%) had a mean unit price of more than US$1000 including cabazitaxel with a mean unit price of $17,304.9/vial. There was a direct relationship between income category of the countries and their mean unit price; low-income countries had lower mean unit prices. The average PPP-adjusted unit prices for countries based on their income level were as follows: low middle-income countries (LMICs): US$814.07; high middle income countries (HMICs): US$1150.63; and high income countries (HICs): US$1148.19. There is a great variation in pricing of anticancer drugs in selected countires and within their respective regions. These findings will allow policy makers to compare prices of anti-cancer agents with neighbouring countries and develop policies to ensure accessibility and affordability of

  18. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Roybal, A.L. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  19. Radiocarbon in dissolved organic matter in the central North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; Druffel, E.R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the first detailed profile of radiocarbon measured in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the oligotrophic gyre of the central North Pacific. Δ 14 C of DOC ranged from -150 per mille (1,310 yr BP) in surface waters to -540 per mille (6,240 yr BP) at 5,710 m, 40 m off the bottom. The surprising similarity in the shapes of the profiles of Δ 14 C in the DOC and DIC pools suggest that similar processes are controlling the radiocarbon distribution in each of the two reservoirs and that bomb-produced radiocarbon has penetrated the DOC + DIC pools to a depth of ∼ 900 m. The depletion of the Δ 14 Csub(DOC) values by 300 per mille with respect to the Δ 14 Csub(DIC) values suggests that a certain fraction of the DOC is recycled within the ocean on longer time-scales than DIC. (author)

  20. Warm Water Pools of the Western Caribbean and Eastern Tropical Pacific: Their Influence on Intraseasonal Rainfall Regimes and Tropical Storm Activity in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A. V.; Englehart, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    A dipole in tropical cyclone development between the Caribbean and the eastern tropical Pacific will be examined relative to its affect on southern Mexican rainfall. With the change over in the AMO and PDO in 1994 and 1998, respectively, tropical storm genesis has been increasing in the Caribbean while declining in the tropical east Pacific. This dipole in tropical cyclone development appears to be related to changes in the pre storm season heat content of the two ocean basins (data Scripps Institution of Oceanography). Preliminary work indicates that if the Caribbean is warmer than the Pacific by late May the dipole will be accentuated with a pronounced decrease in tropical storms in the east Pacific with an early and prolonged season in the Caribbean. In recent years there appears to have been an increase in the intensity and duration of midsummer drought (Canicula) in Mexico associated with changes in the PDO and AMO. These long term ocean oscillations appear to control the dipole in the strength of the Caribbean and East Pacific warm pools. Mid summer drought is a normal occurrence in much of Mexico and Central America, but the intensified droughts of the recent period have stressed the agricultural community of the region. Based on preliminary work, it appears that the recent increased frequency of midsummer drought can be linked to a shift in the warmest pool from the East Pacific to the Caribbean.

  1. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  3. Active Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) during the warm Pliocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J; Fedorov, Alexey V; Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Tiedemann, Ralf; Haug, Gerald H

    2017-09-01

    An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400-ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO 2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell. In Pliocene subarctic North Pacific sediments, we report orbitally paced maxima in calcium carbonate accumulation rate, with accompanying pigment and total organic carbon measurements supporting deep-ocean ventilation-driven preservation as their cause. Together with high accumulation rates of biogenic opal, these findings require vigorous bidirectional communication between surface waters and interior waters down to ~3 km in the western subarctic North Pacific, implying deep convection. Redox-sensitive trace metal data provide further evidence of higher Pliocene deep-ocean ventilation before the 2.73-Ma (million years) transition. This observational analysis is supported by climate modeling results, demonstrating that atmospheric moisture transport changes, in response to the reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradients of the Pliocene, were capable of eroding the halocline, leading to deep-water formation in the western subarctic Pacific and a strong PMOC. This second Northern Hemisphere overturning cell has important implications for heat transport, the ocean/atmosphere cycle of carbon, and potentially the equilibrium response of the Pacific to global warming.

  4. 76 FR 32929 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... are revised from ``Indo-Pacific blue marlin, Makaira mazara'' to ``Pacific blue marlin, Makaira... Istiompax indica striped marlin Kajikia audax * * * * * Pacific blue marlin Makaira nigricans [[Page 32932...

  5. Does Institutional Trust in East Central Europe Differ from Western Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Boda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to Western European countries, the new democracies of East Central Europe (ECE demonstrate substantially lower levels of institutional trust. Some authors consider this phenomenon as a consequence of the transition process and raise concerns about the public approval and legitimacy of ECE political systems and institutions. Based on the datasets of the European Social Survey (ESS, in this paper we aim to address this issue by shedding light on the possible differences between old and new European democracies regarding the origins and patterns of institutional trust. We especially focus on the micro-level foundations of institutional trust and through a quantitative analysis of the 2010 ESS dataset we find that, overall, similarly to Western Europe, institutional trust in ECE is positively associated with success in social and economic life. We also find that relative to westerners, ECE citizens demonstrate comparable degrees of “materialistic trust” as income levels and trust in institutions are similarly associated with each other across these countries even after controlling for several socio-economic characteristics. In addition, the citizens of new European democracies seem to be equally ready to formulate separate evaluative attitudes towards specific institutions. Our findings suggest that in order to explain the persistently low levels of trust in ECE a greater emphasis should be devoted to how people perceive institutional performance when they formulate their trust judgements towards specific institutions.

  6. Tree ring-based seven-century drought records for the Western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2013-05-01

    The paucity of available instrumental climate records in cold and arid regions of the western Himalaya, India, hampers our understanding of the long-term variability of regional droughts, which seriously affect the agrarian economy of the region. Using ring width chronologies of Cedrus deodara and Pinus gerardiana together from a network of moisture-stressed sites, Palmer Drought Severity Index values for October-May back to 1310 A.D. were developed. The twentieth century features dominant decadal-scale pluvial phases (1981-1995, 1952-1968, and 1918-1934) as compared to the severe droughts in the early seventeenth century (1617-1640) as well as late fifteenth to early sixteenth (1491-1526) centuries. The drought anomalies are positively (negatively) associated with central Pacific (Indo-Pacific Warm Pool) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, non-stationarity in such relationships appears to be the major riddle in the predictability of long-term droughts much needed for the sustainable development of the ecologically sensitive region of the Himalayas.

  7. Genetic and morphological analyses of Gracilaria firma and G. changii (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta), the commercially important agarophytes in western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Poh-Kheng; Lin, Showe-Mei; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Hurtado, Anicia Q; Phang, Siew-Moi; Yow, Yoon-Yen; Sun, Zhongmin

    2017-01-01

    Many studies classifying Gracilaria species for the exploitation of agarophytes and the development of the agar industry were conducted before the prevalence of molecular tools, resulting in the description of many species based solely on their morphology. Gracilaria firma and G. changii are among the commercially important agarophytes from the western Pacific; both feature branches with basal constrictions that taper toward acute apices. In this study, we contrasted the morpho-anatomical circumscriptions of the two traditionally described species with molecular data from samples that included representatives of G. changii collected from its type locality. Concerted molecular analyses using the rbcL and cox1 gene sequences, coupled with morphological observations of the collections from the western Pacific, revealed no inherent differences to support the treatment of the two entities as distinct taxa. We propose merging G. changii (a later synonym) into G. firma and recognize G. firma based on thallus branches with abrupt basal constrictions that gradually taper toward acute (or sometimes broken) apices, cystocarps consisting of small gonimoblast cells and inconspicuous multinucleate tubular nutritive cells issuing from gonimoblasts extending into the inner pericarp at the cystocarp floor, as well as deep spermatangial conceptacles of the verrucosa-type. The validation of specimens under different names as a single genetic species is useful to allow communication and knowledge transfer among groups from different fields. This study also revealed considerably low number of haplotypes and nucleotide diversity with apparent phylogeographic patterns for G. firma in the region. Populations from the Philippines and Taiwan were divergent from each other as well as from the populations from Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam. Establishment of baseline data on the genetic diversity of this commercially important agarophyte is relevant in the context of cultivation

  8. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Erikson, Li; Hegermiller, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976–2005), mid-, and end-of-century time periods. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-of-century June–August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December–February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions often rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June–August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds’ influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell or eastern shift of storm tracks. The projected changes in extreme wave heights, directions of extreme events, and frequencies at which extreme events occur will likely result in changes to the morphology and sustainability of island nations.

  9. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  10. Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.

    2008-06-01

    Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.

  11. The Modulation of Tropical Storm Activity in the Western North Pacific by the Madden-Julian Oscillation in GEOS-5 AGCM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Hye-Mi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Yoo, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on tropical storm (TS) activity in the western North Pacific, using observations and GEOS-5 simulations at 50-km horizontal resolution. While GEOS-5 produces an MJO of faster propagation and weaker amplitude, it nevertheless reproduces the observed modulation of TS activity by the MJO with the highest TS genesis and increased track density in the active phases of MJO. The study suggests that the simulation of the sub-seasonal variability of TS activity could be improved by improving the simulations of the MJO in climate models.

  12. Accommodation of missing shear strain in the Central Walker Lane, western North America: Constraints from dense GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Jayne M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    We present 264 new interseismic GPS velocities from the Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada Transtension (MAGNET) and continuous GPS networks that measure Pacific-North American plate boundary deformation in the Central Walker Lane. Relative to a North America-fixed reference frame, northwestward velocities increase smoothly from ∼4 mm/yr in the Basin and Range province to 12.2 mm/yr in the central Sierra Nevada resulting in a Central Walker Lane deformation budget of ∼8 mm/yr. We use an elastic block model to estimate fault slip and block rotation rates and patterns of deformation from the GPS velocities. Right-lateral shear is distributed throughout the Central Walker Lane with strike-slip rates generally Bodie Hills, Carson Domain, and Mina Deflection are between 1-4°/Myr, lower than published paleomagnetic rotation rates, suggesting that block rotation rates have decreased since the Late to Middle Miocene.

  13. Transport pathways for Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific: Interannual and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-10-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Niña) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  14. Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.; Barnes, Ivan; Pattan, William Wallace

    1973-01-01

    Numerous hot springs occur in a variety of geologic provinces in central and western Alaska. Granitic plutons are common to all the provinces and the hot springs are spatially associated with the contacts of these plutons. Of 23 hot springs whose bedrock geology is known, all occur within 3 miles of a granitic pluton. The occurrence of hot springs, however, appears to be independent of the age, composition, or magmatic history of the pluton.

  15. Deployment of deer-resistant western redcedar (Thuja plicata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Russell

    2008-01-01

    Protecting planted western redcedar (Thuja plicata) seedlings from deer browse in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia is estimated to cost up to CAN$ 25 million annually. Recent studies linking deer browse and needle monoterpenes has resulted in the initiation of a breeding program for deer-resistant western redcedar at Cowichan Lake Research...

  16. The Role of Atmospheric Heating over the South China Sea and Western Pacific Regions in Modulating Asian Summer Climate under the Global Warming Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is one of the most significant climate change signals at the earth's surface. However, the responses of monsoon precipitation to global warming show very distinct regional features, especially over the South China Sea (SCS) and surrounding regions during boreal summer. To understand the possible dynamics in these specific regions under the global warming background, the changes in atmospheric latent heating and their possible influences on global climate are investigated by both observational diagnosis and numerical sensitivity simulations. Results indicate that summertime latent heating has intensified in the SCS and western Pacific, accompanied by increased precipitation, cloud cover, lower-tropospheric convergence, and decreased sea level pressure. Sensitivity experiments show that middle and upper tropospheric heating causes an east-west feedback pattern between SCS-western Pacific and South Asia, which strengthens the South Asian High in the upper troposphere and moist convergence in the lower troposphere, consequently forcing a descending motion and adiabatic warming over continental South Asia and leading to a warm and dry climate. When air-sea interaction is considered, the simulation results are overall more similar to observations, and in particular the bias of precipitation over the Indian Ocean simulated by AGCMs has been reduced. The results highlight the important role of latent heating in adjusting the changes in sea surface temperature through atmospheric dynamics.

  17. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  18. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  19. The impact of summertime north Indian Ocean SST on tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Wu, Qiaoyan; Guo, Yipeng; Zhao, Sen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of interannual variability of boreal summertime (June-September) north Indian Ocean (NIO) sea surface temperature (SST) on the distribution of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) using observational datasets. In the boreal summers with warm (cold) SST in the NIO, fewer (more) than normal TCs form over the entire WNP, with fewer (more) TCs forming north of 10°N and more (fewer) TCs forming south of 10°N. The warm (cold) SST in the NIO induces anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity north of 10°N and cyclonic (anticyclonic) vorticity south of 10°N, which contributes to the meridional seesaw-like distribution of WNP TC genesis. This study provides a new perspective to understand TC activities over the WNP and may help seasonal TC prediction.

  20. ENSO regimes and the late 1970's climate shift: The role of synoptic weather and South Pacific ocean spiciness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Oke, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    South Pacific subtropical density compensated temperature and salinity (spiciness) anomalies are known to be associated with decadal equatorial variability, however, the mechanisms by which such disturbances are generated, advect and the degree to which they modulate the equatorial thermocline remains controversial. During the late 1970's a climate regime transition preceded a period of strong and sustained El Nino events. Using an ocean general circulation model forced by the constituent mechanical and thermodynamic components of the reanalysed atmosphere we show that the late 1970's transition coincided with the arrival of a large-scale, subsurface cold and fresh water anomaly in the central tropical Pacific. An ocean reanalysis for the period 1990–2007 that assimilates subsurface Argo, XBT and CTD data, reveals that disturbances occur due to the subduction of negative surface salinity anomalies from near 30° S, 100° W which are advected along the σ=25–26 kgm −3 isopycnal surfaces. These anomalies take, on average, seven years to reach the central equatorial Pacific where they may substantially perturb the thermocline before the remnants ultimately ventilate in the region of the western Pacific warm pool. Positive (warm–salty) disturbances, known to occur due to late winter diapycnal mixing and isopycnal outcropping, arise due to both subduction of subtropical mode waters and subsurface injection. On reaching the equatorial band (10° S–0° S) these disturbances tend to deepen the thermocline reducing the model's ENSO. In contrast the emergence of negative (cold–fresh) disturbances at the equator are associated with a shoaling of the thermocline and El Nino events. Process studies are used to show that the generation and advection of anomalous density compensated thermocline disturbances critically depend on stochastic forcing of the intrinsic ocean by weather. We further show that in the absence of the inter-annual component of the atmosphere

  1. Comparative account of macrofouling ecology at Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay, central western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    The extent and the nature of fouling were studied on mild steel, aluminum, and stainless steel panels at the Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay on the central western coast of India. In addition, cathodically protected and unprotected panels...

  2. Spatial and temporal variability in the trans-Pacific migration of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) revealed by archival tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Tei, Yaoki; Okamoto, Suguru; Kiyofuji, Hidetada; Furukawa, Seishiro; Takagi, Junichi; Estess, Ethan; Farwell, Charles J.; Fuller, Daniel W.; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ohshimo, Seiji; Kitagawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Archival electronic tags were internally implanted in 713 age-0 Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF) caught in their nursery waters off the southern coast of Japan and in the East China Sea over an extended study period (1995-2015) to clarify the spatial and temporal variability of their trans-Pacific migration. Two hundred twenty-five of these tagged tuna were recaptured by fisheries (31.6%), and we successfully retrieved tag data from 14 of 21 individuals recovered in the Eastern pacific. Furthermore, one archival tag recovered in the Western Pacific revealed that the individual had performed a trans-Pacific migration, so in total 21 tagged PBF were shown to have migrated to the Eastern Pacific (2.9% of the total tags released). We successfully downloaded data from 15 of these 21 archival tags, which revealed that some age-1 PBF migrate rapidly (123.9 ± 82.8 km day-1) and directly from waters offshore of Japan to the eastern Pacific (160.0°E to 130.0°W), a journey that takes an average of 2.5 months (ranging from 1.2 to 5.5 months) through relatively cool waters (14.7 ± 2.0 °C). All juvenile PBF began their trans-Pacific migration shortly after exposure to cooler water temperatures (physiological challenge for this age class. Three patterns were identified in the timing of the departure of juvenile PBF from the western Pacific: departing 12-14 months post-hatch (N = 7) in early summer (May-July), departing 17-19 months post-hatch (N = 7) in late autumn (October-December), and departing 21 months post-hatch (N = 1) in late winter (February). The PBF tagged along the southern coast of Japan (SCJ) arrived in the eastern Pacific earlier than those tagged in the East China Sea (ECS), most likely due to the shorter travel distance. Additionally, the PBF that began their trans-Pacific migration in the earlier period remained in an offshore foraging zone (the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region) for shorter periods (2.8 months on average) and at lower latitudes (35.0

  3. 77 FR 59902 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... 2. Guam. C. Enforcement Issues. 1. CNMI. 2. Guam. D. Status of Guam Indigenous Fishing Rights PL 29.... Hawaii Archipelago and Pacific Remote Island Areas. A. Moku Pepa. B. Department of Land and Natural...

  4. Re-evaluating the health of coral reef communities: baselines and evidence for human impacts across the central Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer E; Brainard, Rusty; Carter, Amanda; Grillo, Saray; Edwards, Clinton; Harris, Jill; Lewis, Levi; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest; Sala, Enric; Vroom, Peter S; Sandin, Stuart

    2016-01-13

    Numerous studies have documented declines in the abundance of reef-building corals over the last several decades and in some but not all cases, phase shifts to dominance by macroalgae have occurred. These assessments, however, often ignore the remainder of the benthos and thus provide limited information on the present-day structure and function of coral reef communities. Here, using an unprecedentedly large dataset collected within the last 10 years across 56 islands spanning five archipelagos in the central Pacific, we examine how benthic reef communities differ in the presence and absence of human populations. Using islands as replicates, we examine whether benthic community structure is associated with human habitation within and among archipelagos and across latitude. While there was no evidence for coral to macroalgal phase shifts across our dataset we did find that the majority of reefs on inhabited islands were dominated by fleshy non-reef-building organisms (turf algae, fleshy macroalgae and non-calcifying invertebrates). By contrast, benthic communities from uninhabited islands were more variable but in general supported more calcifiers and active reef builders (stony corals and crustose coralline algae). Our results suggest that cumulative human impacts across the central Pacific may be causing a reduction in the abundance of reef builders resulting in island scale phase shifts to dominance by fleshy organisms. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Seasonal to Interannual Variability of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates in the Pacific Ocean Associated with ENSO from 1998 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a widely used satellite precipitation product (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis 3B43, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation over the Pacific Ocean for 1998–2014 at seasonal and interannual timescales, separately, using the conventional empirical orthogonal function (EOF and investigated the seasonal patterns associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO cycles using season-reliant empirical orthogonal function (SEOF analysis. Lagged correlation analysis was also applied to derive the lead/lag correlations of the first two SEOF modes for precipitation with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and two types of El Niño, i.e., central Pacific (CP El Niño and eastern Pacific (EP El Niño. We found that: (1 The first two seasonal EOF modes for precipitation represent the annual cycle of precipitation variations for the Pacific Ocean and the first interannual EOF mode shows the spatiotemporal variability associated with ENSO; (2 The first SEOF mode for precipitation is simultaneously associated with the development of El Niño and most likely coincides with CP El Niño. The second SEOF mode lagged behind ENSO by one year and is associated with post-El Niño years. PDO modulates precipitation variability significantly only when ENSO occurs by strengthening and prolonging the impacts of ENSO; (3 Seasonally evolving patterns of the first two SEOF modes represent the consecutive precipitation patterns associated with the entire development of EP El Niño and the following recovery year. The most significant variation occurs over the tropical Pacific, especially in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ; (4 Dry conditions in the western basin of the warm pool and wet conditions along the ITCZ and SPCZ bands during the mature phase of El Niño are associated with warm sea surface temperatures in the central tropical Pacific, and a subtropical anticyclone dominating

  6. Influence of hydrography of Central Mexican Pacific in the spatial variation of inorganic nutrients during 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos-Ortiz, A.; Gaviño-Rodríguez, J. H.; Quijano-Scheggia, S.; Pelayo-Martinez, G.; Torres-Orozco, E.; Calva-Chavez, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Mexican Central Pacific (MCP) is considered an oligotrophic area that holds important populations of different species with ecological and economic importance like marine mammals, billfish and tunas. Hydrographic mechanisms are responsible to interplay with the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients to support primary productivity for these food webs. It is argued that seasonal upwelling of bottom waters rich in nutrients generates distributed in patches of high-productivity, which are also linked to topographic continental forcing. The goal of this study is determine the presence of water masses, depth of the mixed layer, temperature, salinity, patterns of geostrophic currents and their influence on the spatiotemporal variability of inorganic nutrients. For that pupose, three oceanographic cruises were conducted in January, May-June, and October of 2010 off the coast of the MCP. Each campaign consisted of 15 stations in five perpendicular transects with stations at 2, 50 and 100 nm offshore. At each station samples were taken to determine the concentration of NO3-+ NO2-, NH4+, PO43- and SiO2 at 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 m depth. CTD casts were made up to 500m to obtain profiles of salinity, temperature, water masses, and identify geostrophic currents (direction and intensity). Identified water masses were: Pacific Tropical Surface Water (PTSW), Pacific Equatorial Surface Water (PESW), Equatorial Pacific Water (EPW), California Current Water (CCW), Subtropical Subsurface Water (STSsW), and Pacific Intermediate Water (PIT); these water masses were present in all three seasons being more clear the presence of CCW during autumn and PTSW in winter. The interaction between coastal topography, geostrophic circulation, and the depth of the mixed layer (55m oceanic part in January and 10m coastal area in October) were the factors that determined the location of areas of high concentration of nutrients. The distribution of nutrients was heterogeneous

  7. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  8. Neodymium isotopic variations in Northwest Pacific waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Zhang, Jing; Fukugawa, Kiyotaka; Nagai, Hisao

    2004-02-01

    Four vertical profiles of the concentration and isotopic composition of Nd in seawater were obtained in the western North Pacific. Two profiles from the Kuroshio Current regime showed congruently that although the Nd concentration increases gradually with depth, its isotopic composition varies significantly with depth depending upon the water mass occupying the water column. The high-salinity Kuroshio waters originating from the North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW) carry the least radiogenic Nd (ɛ Nd = -7.4 to -8.7) to this region at ˜250 m from the western margin continental shelves, most likely from the East China Sea. The Nd isotopic compositions in the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) that occurs at 600 to 1000 m in the subtropical region are fairly uniform at ɛ Nd = -3.7. The profile data from the ˜38° to 40°N Kuroshio/Oyashio mixed water region off Sanriku of Honshu, Japan, also suggest that the newest NPIW with ɛ Nd = -3.2 is formed there by the mixing of various source waters, and the radiogenic component of Nd is derived mainly from the Oyashio waters. In the Pacific Deep Water (PDW) below ˜1000 m, the Nd isotopic composition is neither vertically nor horizontally homogeneous, suggesting that it serves as a useful tracer for sluggish deep water circulation as well. Two profiles from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench showed a minimum ɛ Nd value at ˜2000 m, suggesting that there exists a horizontal advective flow in the vicinity of Honshu, Japan. There is some evidence from other chemical properties to support this observation. The waters below 4000 m including those within the trench in the subtropical region have ɛ Nd values of around -5, suggesting that the deep waters are fed from the south along the western boundary, ultimately from the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the South Pacific. This extends up to ˜40°N along the Japanese Islands. In the subarctic region (>˜42°N), the waters have more radiogenic Nd with ɛ Nd > -4.0 throughout the

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyosi Sato

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m and long streamer (up to 7 m tori-line and of two different colors (yellow and red of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  10. Changes in intense tropical cyclone activity for the western North Pacific during the last decades derived from a regional climate model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowska, Monika; Feser, Frauke; Zhang, Wei; Mei, Wei

    2017-11-01

    An atmospheric regional climate model (CCLM) was employed to dynamically downscale atmospheric reanalyses (NCEP/NCAR 1, ERA 40) over the western North Pacific and South East Asia. This approach is used for the first time to reconstruct a tropical cyclone climatology, which extends beyond the satellite era and serves as an alternative data set for inhomogeneous observation-derived records (Best Track Data sets). The simulated TC climatology skillfully reproduces observations of the recent decades (1978-2010), including spatial patterns, frequency, lifetime, trends, variability on interannual and decadal time scales and their association with the large-scale circulation patterns. These skills, facilitated here with the spectral nudging method, seem to be a prerequisite to understand the factors determining spatio-temporal variability of TC activity over the western North Pacific. Long-term trends (1948-2011 and 1959-2001) in both simulations show a strong increase of intense tropical cyclone activity. This contrasts with pronounced multidecadal variations found in observations. The discrepancy may partly originate from temporal inhomogeneities in atmospheric reanalyses and Best Track Data, which affect both the model-based and observational-based trends. An adjustment, which removes the simulated upward trend, reduces the apparent discrepancy. Ultimately, our observational and modeling analysis suggests an important contribution of multi-decadal fluctuations in the TC activity during the last six decades. Nevertheless, due to the uncertainties associated with the inconsistencies and quality changes of those data sets, we call for special caution when reconstructing long-term TC statistics either from atmospheric reanalyses or Best Track Data.

  11. Defining conditions of garnet growth across the central and southern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, T. M.; Catlos, E. J.; Kelly, E. D.; Cemen, I.; Ozerdem, C.; Atakturk, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we apply thermodynamic modeling using Theriak-Domino to garnet-bearing rocks from the central and southern portions of the Menderes Massif to gain insight into the dynamics of western Turkey as the region experienced a transition from collisional to extensional tectonics. To this end, we report new pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from garnet-bearing rocks collected along the Alasehir detachment fault, a prominent exhumation structure in the central portion of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey, constituting the southern margin of the Alasehir Graben. These paths are compared to those from the Selimiye shear zone in the Southern (Cine) Massif. Two Alasehir garnets collected from the same outcrop record two P-T paths: 1) a prograde path beginning at 565oC and 6.4 kbar increasing to 592 oC and 7.5 kbar; and 2) near isobaric growth initiating at 531oC and 7.1 kbar and terminating at 571oC and 7.3 kbar. High-resolution P-T paths could not be modeled for the majority of Alasehir samples due to diffusional modification of garnet. However, conditions were estimated by garnet isopleth thermobarometry at the point of highest spessartine content for each crystal. Calculated P-T values for this subset of samples range between 566-651oC and 6.2-6.8 kbar. Despite this broad range, these P-T conditions are consistent with what is observed in the modeled paths. Th-Pb ages of matrix monazite range from 35.8±3.0 to 20.6±2.4 Ma, suggesting metamorphism in the central Menderes Massif occurred over a 15 m.y. period. Selimiye shear zone rocks show distinct N-shaped P-T paths, suggesting garnets in the central and southern portion of the Menderes Massif record distinctly different tectonic histories.

  12. High connectivity in the deepwater snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus (Lutjanidae) across the Indo-Pacific with isolation of the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Michelle R; Jones, Shelley A; Kelley, Christopher; Newman, Stephen J; Sorenson, Laurie; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-01-01

    In the tropical Indo-Pacific, most phylogeographic studies have focused on the shallow-water taxa that inhabit reefs to approximately 30 m depth. Little is known about the large predatory fishes, primarily snappers (subfamily Etelinae) and groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae) that occur at 100-400 m. These long-lived, slow-growing species support fisheries across the Indo-Pacific, yet no comprehensive genetic surveys within this group have been conducted. Here we contribute the first range-wide survey of a deepwater Indo-Pacific snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, with special focus on Hawai'i. We applied mtDNA cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci to 26 samples (N=1,222) collected across 17,000 km from Hawai'i to the western Indian Ocean. Results indicate that P. filamentosus is a highly dispersive species with low but significant population structure (mtDNA Φ(ST)=0.029, microsatellite F(ST)=0.029) due entirely to the isolation of Hawai'i. No population structure was detected across 14,000 km of the Indo-Pacific from Tonga in the Central Pacific to the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean, a pattern rarely observed in reef species. Despite a long pelagic phase (60-180 days), interisland dispersal as adults, and extensive gene flow across the Indo-Pacific, P. filamentosus is unable to maintain population connectivity with Hawai'i. Coalescent analyses indicate that P. filamentosus may have colonized Hawai'i 26 K-52 K y ago against prevailing currents, with dispersal away from Hawai'i dominating migration estimates. P. filamentosus harbors low genetic diversity in Hawai'i, a common pattern in marine fishes, and our data indicate a single archipelago-wide stock. However, like the Hawaiian Grouper, Hyporthodus quernus, this snapper had several significant pairwise comparisons (F(ST)) clustered around the middle of the archipelago (St. Rogatien, Brooks Banks, Gardner) indicating that this region may be isolated or (more likely) receives input from Johnston Atoll to

  13. High connectivity in the deepwater snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus (Lutjanidae across the Indo-Pacific with isolation of the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Gaither

    Full Text Available In the tropical Indo-Pacific, most phylogeographic studies have focused on the shallow-water taxa that inhabit reefs to approximately 30 m depth. Little is known about the large predatory fishes, primarily snappers (subfamily Etelinae and groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae that occur at 100-400 m. These long-lived, slow-growing species support fisheries across the Indo-Pacific, yet no comprehensive genetic surveys within this group have been conducted. Here we contribute the first range-wide survey of a deepwater Indo-Pacific snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, with special focus on Hawai'i. We applied mtDNA cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci to 26 samples (N=1,222 collected across 17,000 km from Hawai'i to the western Indian Ocean. Results indicate that P. filamentosus is a highly dispersive species with low but significant population structure (mtDNA Φ(ST=0.029, microsatellite F(ST=0.029 due entirely to the isolation of Hawai'i. No population structure was detected across 14,000 km of the Indo-Pacific from Tonga in the Central Pacific to the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean, a pattern rarely observed in reef species. Despite a long pelagic phase (60-180 days, interisland dispersal as adults, and extensive gene flow across the Indo-Pacific, P. filamentosus is unable to maintain population connectivity with Hawai'i. Coalescent analyses indicate that P. filamentosus may have colonized Hawai'i 26 K-52 K y ago against prevailing currents, with dispersal away from Hawai'i dominating migration estimates. P. filamentosus harbors low genetic diversity in Hawai'i, a common pattern in marine fishes, and our data indicate a single archipelago-wide stock. However, like the Hawaiian Grouper, Hyporthodus quernus, this snapper had several significant pairwise comparisons (F(ST clustered around the middle of the archipelago (St. Rogatien, Brooks Banks, Gardner indicating that this region may be isolated or (more likely receives input from Johnston

  14. Detrital zircon typology and U/Pb geochronology for the Miocene Ladrilleros-Juanchaco sedimentary sequence, Equatorial Pacific (Colombia): New constraints on provenance and paleogeography in northwestern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio-Granada, E.; RESTREPO-MORENO, S.A.; MUÑOZ-VALENCIA, J.A.; TREJOS-TAMAYO, R.A.; PARDO-TRUJILLO, A.; BARBOSA-ESPITIA, A.A.

    2017-11-01

    Typology and internal texture analyses were performed on detrital zircons obtained from the Miocene sandstones of the Ladrilleros-Juanchaco sedimentary sequence (Colombia, Equatorial Pacific). This analysis was complemented with zircon U/Pb dating to identify typology-age associations as indicators of sediment provenance. Our results show that zircons with S and P dominant typologies have internal structures/zoning indicative of igneous, and potentially also metamorphic, origins. Morphometric results suggest limited transport from source areas. Both typology and U/Pb data point to the western Cordillera as the principal source of detrital materials for this sedimentary sequence. A paleogeographic reconstruction shows that, during the Late Miocene, significant portions of the western Cordillera were uplifted and actively eroding, thereby forming a fluvio-topographic barrier that prevented sediments from the central Cordillera reaching the Pacific basins. Exhumed Miocene plutons located along the axis of the western Cordillera may also have played a role as geomorphologically active massifs. This study demonstrates that typologic analysis on detrital zircon grains is a useful tool for establishing provenance and paleogeography in complex litho-tectonic areas where overlapping U/Pb signatures can lead to contradictory results.

  15. Indo-Pacific hydroclimate over the past millennium and links with global climate variabilty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Drysdale, R.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Hua, Q.; Johnson, K. R.; Gagan, M. K.; Cole, J. E.; Cook, B. I.; Zhao, J. X.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Hantoro, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    records from the central-eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and western Indian Ocean, and eastern Australia), and thus, the tropical Pacific may have played a critical role in amplifying the radiative-forced global cooling already underway.

  16. Spatiotemporal Trends of Heavy Metals in Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Western Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Ri-Qing; Karczmarski, Leszek; Ding, Yulong; Zhang, Haifei; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Wu, Yuping

    2017-02-07

    We assessed the spatiotemporal trends of the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (HMs) in the liver and kidney of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from western Pearl River Estuary (PRE) during 2004-2015. The hepatic levels of Cr, As, and Cu in these dolphins were among the highest reported for cetaceans globally, and the levels of Zn, Cu, and Hg were sufficiently high to cause toxicological effects in some of the animals. Between same age-sex groups, dolphins from Lingdingyang were significantly more contaminated with Hg, Se, and V than those from the West-four region, while the opposite was true for Cd. Generalized additive mixed models showed that most metals had significant but dissimilar temporal trends over a 10-year period. The concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly in recent years, corresponding to the high input of these metals in the region. Body-length-adjusted Cd levels peaked in 2012, accompanied by the highest annual number of dolphin stranding events. In contrast to the significant decrease in HM levels in the dolphins in Hong Kong waters (the eastern reaches of the PRE), the elevated metal exposure in the western PRE raises serious concerns.

  17. Anthropogenic CO2 distribution in the North Pacific ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses the penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 in the North Pacific Ocean based on carbonate data in the literature. The carbonate data in the literature were used to supplement the tracer data showing oceanic mixing features for waters formed in the last 140 years. The deepest penetration over 2,000m was found in the northwest North Pacific. On the other hand, the shallowest penetration to less than 400m was found in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Consequently, it was suggested that penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 has been controlled by such factors as deep water formation in the Northwest Pacific, upwelling in the equatorial Pacific, and vertical mixing in the western boundary areas. It was revealed that these results are in harmony well with results implied from tritium, C-14, and freons distributions. The total inventory of excess carbon in the North Pacific was 14.7[plus minus]4[times]10[sup 15]g around 1980. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Deep mantle seismic heterogeneities in Western Pacific subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, H. L. M.; Rost, S.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to image the small scale (~10 km) structure of the Earth. In the mantle, small scale structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is essential in our understanding of mantle convection and especially mantle mixing. As subduction is the main source of introducing crustal material into the Earth's mantle, it is of particular interest to track the transport of subducted crust through the mantle to resolve details of composition and deformation of the crust during the subduction process. Improved knowledge of subduction can help provide constraints on the mechanical mixing process of crustal material into the ambient mantle, as well as constraining mantle composition and convection. This study uses seismic array techniques to map seismic heterogeneities associated with Western Pacific subduction zones, where a variety of slab geometries have been previously observed. We use seismic energy arriving prior to PP, a P-wave underside reflection off the Earth's surface halfway between source and receiver, to probe the mantle for small-scale heterogeneities. PP precursors were analysed at Eielson Array (ILAR), Alaska using the recently developed Toolkit for Out-of-Plane Coherent Arrival Tracking (TOPCAT) algorithm. The approach combines the calculated optimal beampower and an independent semblance (coherency) measure, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of coherent arrivals. 94 earthquakes with sufficient coherent precursory energy were selected and directivity information of the arrivals (i.e. slowness and backazimuth) was extracted from the data. The scattering locations for 311 out-of-plane precursors were determined by ray-tracing and minimising the slowness, backazimuth and differential travel time misfit. Initial analyses show that deep scattering (>1000 km) occurs beneath the Izu-Bonin subduction zone, suggesting that subducted crust does continue into the lower mantle in this location. Other

  19. Quality maternal and newborn care to ensure a healthy start for every newborn in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, H; Sobel, H

    2014-09-01

    In the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, the high rates of births attended by skilled health personnel (SHP) do not equal access to quality maternal or newborn care. 'A healthy start for every newborn' for 23 million annual births in the region means that SHP and newborn care providers give quality intrapartum, postpartum and newborn care. WHO and the UNICEF Regional Action Plan for Healthy Newborn Infants provide a platform for countries to scale-up Early Essential Newborn Care (EENC). The plan emphasises the creation of an enabling environment for the practice of EENC; thereby, preventing 50,000 newborn deaths annually. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Challenges and choices : a U.S. refiner's perspective on Western Canadian crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation included a map depicting refineries, pipelines, terminals, coastal terminals and inland terminals in the eastern United States. Major oil trade movements between the United States, Canada, Mexico, South America, Central America, Europe, Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific were also illustrated. A graph depicting Western Canada's long range crude supply forecast shows a decrease in conventional heavy oil supply but an increase in supply of diluent bitumen blend and synthetic bitumen blends. The presentation focused on this shift in refining and how product quality is viewed differently by producers and refiners in terms of gravity, sulfur content, boiling range distribution, distillate cetane, total acid number (TAN), asphalt properties, nitrogen and particulates. Refiners are looking for affordability, quality, consistency, yields and unit balance. Canadian marketing connections to PADD 1, 2, 4 and 5 were outlined. It was noted that more than 45 refineries in over 20 regions in the United States use Western Canadian crude oil. 22 figs

  1. Month-to-month variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall in 2016: role of the Indo-Pacific climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdary, Jasti S.; Srinivas, G.; Du, Yan; Gopinath, K.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Parekh, Anant; Singh, Prem

    2018-03-01

    Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall during 2016 exhibited a prominent month-to-month fluctuations over India, with below normal rainfall in June and August and above normal rainfall in July. The factors determining the month-to-month fluctuations in ISM rainfall during 2016 are investigated with main focus on the Indo-Pacific climatic anomalies. Warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with super El Niño 2015 disappeared by early summer 2016 over the central and eastern Pacific. On the other hand, negative Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) like SST anomaly pattern over the equatorial Indian Ocean and anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the western North Pacific (WNP) are reported in summer 2016 concurrently with decaying El Niño/developing La Niña phase. Observations revealed that the low rainfall over central north India in June is due to moisture divergence caused by the westward extension of ridge corresponding to WNP anticyclone and subsidence induced by local Hadley cell partly related to negative IOD. Low level convergence of southeasterly wind from Bay of Bengal associated with weak WNP anticyclone and northwesterly wind corresponding to anticyclonic circulation over the northwest India remarkably contributed to positive rainfall in July over most of the Indian subcontinent. While reduced rainfall over the Indian subcontinent in August 2016 is associated with the anomalous moisture transport from ISM region to WNP region, in contrast to July, due to local cyclogenesis corroborated by number of tropical cyclones in the WNP. In addition to this, subsidence related to strong convection supported by cyclonic circulation over the WNP also resulted in low rainfall over the ISM region. Coupled General Circulation model sensitivity experiments confirmed that strong convective activities associated with cyclonic circulation over the WNP is primarily responsible for the observed negative ISM rainfall anomalies in August 2016. It is noted that the Indo-Western

  2. Imaging subducted slabs using seismic arrays in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, H. L.; Rost, S.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to image the small scale structure of the Earth. Such structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is therefore essential in our understanding of mantle convection and the composition of the Earth’s deep interior. As subduction is the main source of (re)introducing slab material into the Earth, it is of particular interest to track these heterogeneities. Resolving details of the composition and deformation of subducted lithosphere can help provide constraints on the subduction process, the composition of the mantle and mantle convection. This study uses seismic array techniques to map seismic heterogeneities associated with western Pacfic subduction zones, where a variety of slab geometries have been previously observed. Seismic energy arriving prior to the PP arrival was analysed at Eielson Array (ILAR), Alaska. More than 200 earthquakes were selected with Mw ≥ 6 and with epicentral distances of 90-110deg, giving a good coverage of the PP precursor (P*P) wavefield. Initial findings indicate that the observed P*P arrive out of plane and are likely a result of scattering. These scatterers are linked to the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the Philippine Sea in the Izu-Bonin and Mariana subduction zones. To enable efficient processing of large datasets, a robust automatic coherent (but unpredicted) arrival detector algorithm has been developed to select suitable precursors. Slowness and backazimuth were calculated for each precursor and were used in conjunction with P*P arrival times to back-raytrace the energy from the array to the scatterer location. Processing of the full dataset will help refine models regarding slab deformation as they descend into the mantle as well as unveiling the depth of their descent.

  3. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  4. 75 FR 14571 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Pacific C. Hawaii Archipelago Essential Fish Habitat Review D. Cooperative Research Projects and.... Recommendations on Hawaii Archipelago Essential Fish Habitat D. Catch Shares/Limited Access Privilege Programs In... Essential Fish Habitat Review E. Recommendations on Cooperative Research Projects and Priorities Schedule...

  5. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... invited to participate, living in three areas of Greenland and in Denmark. MEASUREMENTS: Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI in kg/m(2)) and waist-hip ratio calculated. Sociocultural information was obtained by questionnaire and interview. Westernization...... was estimated by language and place of residence. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity (>or=30 kg/m(2)) was 16 and 22% among men and women in Greenland (P=0.004), and 12 and 11%, respectively, in Denmark (NS). Westernization was accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of obese people, in particular among...

  6. Covariability of Central America/Mexico winter precipitation and tropical sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yutong; Zeng, Ning; Mariotti, Annarita; Wang, Hui; Kumar, Arun; Sánchez, René Lobato; Jha, Bhaskar

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the relationships between Central America/Mexico (CAM) winter precipitation and tropical Pacific/Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are examined based on 68-year (1948-2015) observations and 59-year (1957-2015) atmospheric model simulations forced by observed SSTs. The covariability of the winter precipitation and SSTs is quantified using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method with observational data. The first SVD mode relates out-of-phase precipitation anomalies in northern Mexico and Central America to the tropical Pacific El Niño/La Niña SST variation. The second mode links a decreasing trend in the precipitation over Central America to the warming of SSTs in the tropical Atlantic, as well as in the tropical western Pacific and the tropical Indian Ocean. The first mode represents 67% of the covariance between the two fields, indicating a strong association between CAM winter precipitation and El Niño/La Niña, whereas the second mode represents 20% of the covariance. The two modes account for 32% of CAM winter precipitation variance, of which, 17% is related to the El Niño/La Niña SST and 15% is related to the SST warming trend. The atmospheric circulation patterns, including 500-hPa height and low-level winds obtained by linear regressions against the SVD SST time series, are dynamically consistent with the precipitation anomaly patterns. The model simulations driven by the observed SSTs suggest that these precipitation anomalies are likely a response to tropical SST forcing. It is also shown that there is significant potential predictability of CAM winter precipitation given tropical SST information.

  7. Bootstrapping data envelopment analysis of efficiency and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the public hospital reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Li; Fang, Hai-Qing; Tao, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Zhao-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Jun; Cai, Miao; Xu, Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2017-10-01

    China implemented the public hospital reform in 2012. This study utilized bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the 2012 public hospital reform. Data from 127 county public hospitals (39, 45, and 43 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, respectively) were collected during 2012-2015. Changes of TE and productivity over time were estimated by bootstrapping DEA and bootstrapping Malmquist. The disparities in TE and productivity among public hospitals in the three regions of China were compared by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. The average bias-corrected TE values for the four-year period were 0.6442, 0.5785, 0.6099, and 0.6094 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, and the entire country respectively, with average non-technical efficiency, low pure technical efficiency (PTE), and high scale efficiency found. Productivity increased by 8.12%, 0.25%, 12.11%, and 11.58% in China and its three regions during 2012-2015, and such increase in productivity resulted from progressive technological changes by 16.42%, 6.32%, 21.08%, and 21.42%, respectively. The TE and PTE of the county hospitals significantly differed among the three regions of China. Eastern and Western China showed significantly higher TE and PTE than Central China. More than 60% of county public hospitals in China and its three areas operated at decreasing return scales. There was a considerable space for TE improvement in county hospitals in China and its three regions. During 2012-2015, the hospitals experienced progressive productivity; however, the PTE changed adversely. Moreover, Central China continuously achieved a significantly lower efficiency score than Eastern and Western China. Decision makers and administrators in China should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase the efficiency of county

  8. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  9. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  10. 77 FR 12567 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Logbook and Reporting AGENCY... with, or any U.S. citizen issued with, a Special Coral Reef Ecosystem Fishing Permit (authorized under the Fishery Management Plan for Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Western Pacific Region), to complete...

  11. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National... using a vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the... allowed in the regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef...

  12. Assessing the Influence of Western Boundary Ozone Inflow for the Pacific Northwest Using the AIRPACT-4 Air-Quality Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. K.; Chung, S. H.; Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Lamb, B. K.; Zhang, R.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    The AIRPACT project has provided state, local and tribal air quality managers in the Pacific and Inland Northwest with state-of-the-art near-real time air quality forecasts, beginning in 2001 (Vaughan et al., 2004). Air-quality modeling is also an important tool for evaluating strategies for complying with the NAAQS, especially as the ozone standard is likely to be tightened from 75 ppb to 60 - 70 ppb. For the Pacific Northwest a perennial issue is the significance of trans-boundary transport effects on air quality. Under the EPA Exceptional Events Policy, for example, a nominal exceedance can be excluded from design value calculation if it can be credibly ascribed to long-range transport (LRT); air-quality modeling is an accepted tool for making a case that LRT contributes to an exceedance, and thus qualifies as an Exceptional Event. Also, evidence is accumulating that local air pollution should sometimes be viewed in the context of baseline pollution levels, and that these baseline levels are influenced by LRT (Wigder et al., 2013). AIRPACT4, a WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ air quality modeling system, uses chemical boundary conditions from global MOZART4 model runs that assimilate MOPITT/TERRA satellite CO (Herron-Thorpe et al., 2012). Here we use a non-reactive tracer species version of CMAQv4.7.1 to develop a chemical climatology describing trans-boundary ozone contributions (across the western boundary only) to the ozone background of the Pacific Northwest, including ozone input to the domain from trans-Pacific transport originating in Asia. Discrete tracers are assigned to the boundary condition ozone from each of the 21 model layers. The modeling results are analyzed for ozone-season months to determine: 1) monthly statistics on the ratio of trans-boundary tracer ozone to standard AIRPACT4 ground level ozone, and 2) the contribution of trans-boundary tracer ozone to episodes of high ozone concentration. Preliminary results will be presented along with discussion of

  13. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific by various Soviet Union institutions from 1925-11-16 to 1989-05-18 (NODC Accession 0075099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific...

  14. 76 FR 16618 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Reporting B. Hawaiian Archipelago Bottomfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) and Habitat Area of Particular... Bottomfish Essential Fish Habitat C. Protected Species i. Endangered Species Act (ESA) Incidental Take Permit... Biology Institute (MCBI)/NMFS seabirds and pelagic fish workshop 6. Pacific Council Highly Migratory...

  15. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  16. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  17. Decadal Western Pacific Warm Pool Variability: A Centroid and Heat Content Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Autumn; Han, Lu; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2017-10-13

    We examine several characteristics of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WP) in the past thirty years of mixed interannual variability and climate change. Our study presents the three-dimensional WP centroid (WPC) movement, WP heat content anomaly (HC) and WP volume (WPV) on interannual to decadal time scales. We show the statistically significant correlation between each parameter's interannual anomaly and the NINO 3, NINO 3.4, NINO 4, SOI, and PDO indices. The longitudinal component of the WPC is most strongly correlated with NINO 4 (R = 0.78). The depth component of the WPC has the highest correlation (R = -0.6) with NINO3.4. The WPV and NINO4 have an R-Value of -0.65. HC has the highest correlation with NINO3.4 (R = -0.52). During the study period of 1982-2014, the non-linear trends, derived from ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), show that the WPV, WP depth and HC have all increased. The WPV has increased by 14% since 1982 and the HC has increased from -1 × 10 8  J/m 2 in 1993 to 10 × 10 8  J/m 2 in 2014. While the largest variances in the latitudinal and longitudinal WPC locations are associated with annual and seasonal timescales, the largest variances in the WPV and HC are due to the multi-decadal non-linear trend.

  18. Diversity of two widespread Indo-Pacific demosponge species revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Erpenbeck, D.; Aryasari, R.; Benning, S.; Debitus, Cécile; Kaltenbacher, E.; Al-Aidaroos, A. M.; Schupp, P.; Hall, K.; Hooper, J. N. A.; Voigt, O.; de Voogd, N. J.; Worheide, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific is the world's largest marine biogeographic region, covering the tropical and subtropical waters from the Red Sea in the Western Indian Ocean to the Easter Islands in the Pacific. It is characterized by a vast degree of biogeographic connectivity in particular in its marine realm. So far, usage of molecular tools rejected the presence of cosmopolitan or very widespread sponge species in several cases, supporting hypotheses on a higher level of endemism among marine invertebra...

  19. 78 FR 57841 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports F. False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan Research Priorities G.... Insular Fisheries A. Report on the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) Bottomfish Research Working Group Outcomes.... Pacific Island Fisheries Research Program E. Report on the Fisheries Data Clients Meeting F. SSC...

  20. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  1. Nutrient limitation of primary productivity in the Southeast Pacific (BIOSOPE cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bonnet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient involved in a variety of biological processes in the ocean, including photosynthesis, respiration and dinitrogen fixation. Atmospheric deposition of aerosols is recognized as the main source of iron for the surface ocean. In high nutrient, low chlorophyll areas, it is now clearly established that iron limits phytoplankton productivity but its biogeochemical role in low nutrient, low chlorophyll environments has been poorly studied. We investigated this question in the unexplored southeast Pacific, arguably the most oligotrophic area of the global ocean. Situated far from any continental aerosol source, the atmospheric iron flux to this province is amongst the lowest of the world ocean. Here we report that, despite low dissolved iron concentrations (~0.1 nmol l−1 across the whole gyre (3 stations located in the center and at the western and the eastern edges, primary productivity are only limited by iron availability at the border of the gyre, but not in the center. The seasonal stability of the gyre has apparently allowed for the development of populations acclimated to these extreme oligotrophic conditions. Moreover, despite clear evidence of nitrogen limitation in the central gyre, we were unable to measure dinitrogen fixation in our experiments, even after iron and/or phosphate additions, and cyanobacterial nif H gene abundances were extremely low compared to the North Pacific Gyre. The South Pacific gyre is therefore unique with respect to the physiological status of its phytoplankton populations.

  2. Decadal Variations of the Western Subarctic Gyre and Main Pycnocline Depth due to Wind Stress Change in the Northern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, A.; Wakita, M.

    2017-12-01

    From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific, a cyclonic circulation in the western subarctic region, shrank northward associated with a decadal increase of sea surface height (SSH). This gyre change displaced the main pycnocline (halocline) downward and is expected to contribute to the deepening of the overlying temperature minimum layer. This is considered to affect the biogeochemical conditions in the western subarctic region, where is known as substantially slow ocean acidification region. In this study, on the basis of wind stress field data in the subpolar region (40˚N—54˚N, 160˚E—135˚W) during 1979—2014 provided by U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, we estimated the variation in SSH, solving the vorticity gradient equation on the beta plane. Decadal increase in SSH at Station K2 (47˚N, 160˚E), representative point of the western subarctic region, was well produced by the calculation, and the correlation coefficient with altimetric SSH exceeds 0.6. The calculated SSH variation consists of the variations due to the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby wave modes. The gyre shrinkage is found to be caused primarily by the barotropic response to the wind change in the whole subpolar region and secondary by the first baroclinic response. Meanwhile, the decadal deepening of the main pycnocline at K2 is attributed to the baroclinic responses of the higher (second, third, and fourth) vertical modes to the local wind change.

  3. Prevalence of Epidermal Conditions in Critically Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the Waters of Western Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Yang1, Wei-Lung Chang2, Ka-Hei Kwong1, Yi-Ting Yao1 and Lien-Siang Chou2*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of epidermal conditions in a small critically endangered population (<100 individuals of coastal Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the waters of western Taiwan was assessed during a photo-identification study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Of 97 individuals photographically examined, 37% were affected by one or multiple conditions. Besides, mature individuals had significantly higher prevalence than immature ones. Five different skin condition categories were considered, including pox-like lesion, pale lesion, orange film, prolonged ulcer lesion, and nodule on body. This first study to investigate epidermal conditions on S. chinensis in the world offers data for comparison with other studies in the future and new ground for discussion on the health of these animals and the potential impact of anthropogenic activities.

  4. Observations of ice nuclei and heterogeneous freezing in a Western Pacific extratropical storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Stith

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ airborne sampling of refractory black carbon (rBC particles and Ice Nuclei (IN was conducted in and near an extratropical cyclonic storm in the western Pacific Ocean during the Pacific Dust Experiment, PACDEX, in the spring of 2007. Airmass origins were from Eastern Asia. Clouds associated primarily with the warm sector of the storm were sampled at various locations and altitudes. Cloud hydrometeors were evaporated by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI and the residuals were sampled by a single particle soot photometer (SP2 instrument, a continuous flow diffusion chamber ice nucleus detector (CFDC and collected for electron microscope analysis. In clouds containing large ice particles, multiple residual particles were observed downstream of the CVI for each ice particle sampled on average. The fraction of rBC compared to total particles in the residual particles increased with decreasing condensed water content, while the fraction of IN compared to total particles did not, suggesting that the scavenging process for rBC is different than for IN. In the warm sector storm midlevels at temperatures where heterogeneous freezing is expected to be significant (here −24 to −29 °C, IN concentrations from ice particle residuals generally agreed with simultaneous measurements of total ice concentrations or were higher in regions where aggregates of crystals were found, suggesting heterogeneous freezing as the dominant ice formation process in the mid levels of these warm sector clouds. Lower in the storm, at warmer temperatures, ice concentrations were affected by aggregation and were somewhat less than measured IN concentrations at colder temperatures. The results are consistent with ice particles forming at storm mid-levels by heterogeneous freezing on IN, followed by aggregation and sedimentation to lower altitudes. Compositional analysis of the aerosol and back trajectories of the air in the warm sector suggested a possible biomass

  5. Keep up or drown: adjustment of western Pacific coral reefs to sea-level rise in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woesik, R; Golbuu, Y; Roff, G

    2015-07-01

    Since the Mid-Holocene, some 5000 years ago, coral reefs in the Pacific Ocean have been vertically constrained by sea level. Contemporary sea-level rise is releasing these constraints, providing accommodation space for vertical reef expansion. Here, we show that Porites microatolls, from reef-flat environments in Palau (western Pacific Ocean), are 'keeping up' with contemporary sea-level rise. Measurements of 570 reef-flat Porites microatolls at 10 locations around Palau revealed recent vertical skeletal extension (78±13 mm) over the last 6-8 years, which is consistent with the timing of the recent increase in sea level. We modelled whether microatoll growth rates will potentially 'keep up' with predicted sea-level rise in the near future, based upon average growth, and assuming a decline in growth for every 1°C increase in temperature. We then compared these estimated extension rates with rates of sea-level rise under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Our model suggests that under low-mid RCP scenarios, reef-coral growth will keep up with sea-level rise, but if greenhouse gas concentrations exceed 670 ppm atmospheric CO2 levels and with +2.2°C sea-surface temperature by 2100 (RCP 6.0 W m(-2)), our predictions indicate that Porites microatolls will be unable to keep up with projected rates of sea-level rise in the twenty-first century.

  6. A multi-scale study of the dynamical processes of the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Autumn Noel

    In recent years, it has been observed that there are different types of El Nino events. The warm events can be divided into two categories: those centered in the central Pacific (CP) and those centered in the eastern Pacific (EP). We examined the variability of western Pacific warm pool (WP) horizontal migration and size from January 1982 to December 2011 by applying Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and Hilbert Huang Spectrum (HHS) to the optimally interpolated sea surface temperature (OISST) data set. The analysis shows that the long-term residual trend of the zonal centroid movement is migrating to the west by 3.78 from the mean location during the past 30 years. The size of the warm pool has also increased 18% during this period. These analysis techniques isolated two separate time series for the migration of the zonal component of the WPWP for both CP and EP events and showed that these two types of El Nino generally operate at different time-scales. The EP time-series shows the strong traditional EP El Nino and the transition between strong El Nino conditions and La Nina conditions. The CP time-series shows that CP El Ninos occur more often than EP El Ninos. The changes of the El Nino type in conjunction with westward drift and increasing warm pool size shows an interesting multidecadal change in the warm pool.

  7. Microbial aggregates within tissues infect a diversity of corals throughout the Indo-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems where symbioses play a pivotal role. Corals contain cell-associated microbial aggregates (CAMA), yet little is known about how widespread they are among coral species or the nature of the symbiotic relationship. Using histology, we found CAMA within 24 species of corals from 6 genera from Hawaii, American Samoa, Palmyra, Johnston Atoll, Guam, and Australia. Prevalence (%) of infection varied among coral genera: Acropora, Porites, and Pocillopora were commonly infected whereas Montipora were not. Acropora from the Western Pacific were significantly more likely to be infected with CAMA than those from the Central Pacific, whereas the reverse was true for Porites. Compared with apparently healthy colonies, tissues from diseased colonies were significantly more likely to have both surface and basal body walls infected. The close association of CAMA with host cells in numerous species of apparently healthy corals and lack of associated cell pathology reveals an intimate agent-host association. Furthermore, CAMA are Gram negative and in some corals may be related to chlamydia or rickettsia. We propose that CAMA in adult corals are facultative secondary symbionts that could play an important ecological role in some dominant coral genera in the Indo-Pacific. CAMA are important in the life histories of other animals, and more work is needed to understand their role in the distribution, evolution, physiology, and immunology of reef corals.

  8. The Pacific SST response to volcanic eruptions over the past millennium based on the CESM-LME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, W.; Zuo, M.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of the northern hemispheric, tropical and southern hemispheric volcanic eruptions on the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and its mechanism are investigated using the Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble. Analysis of the simulations indicates that the Pacific SST features a significant El Niño-like pattern a few months after the northern hemispheric and tropical eruptions, and with a weaker such tendency after the southern hemispheric eruptions. Furthermore, the Niño3 index peaks lagging one and a half years after the northern hemispheric and tropical eruptions. Two years after all three types of volcanic eruptions, a La Niña-like pattern over the equatorial Pacific is observed, which seems to form an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. In addition, the westerly anomalies at 850 hPa over the western-to-central Pacific appear ahead of the warm SST; hence, the El Niño-like warming over the eastern Pacific can be attributed to the weakening of the trade winds. We further examined the causes of westerly anomalies and find that a shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) can explain the El Niño-like response to the northern hemispheric eruptions, which is not applicable for tropical or southern hemispheric eruptions. Instead, the reduction in the zonal equatorial SST gradient through the ocean dynamical thermostat mechanism, combined with the land-sea thermal contrast between the Maritime Continent (MC) and the surrounding ocean and the divergent wind induced by the decreased precipitation over the MC, can trigger the westerly anomalies over the equatorial Pacific, which is applicable for all three types of eruptions.

  9. Characterizing genetic diversity of contemporary pacific chickens using mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Needham Dancause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region (HVR sequences of prehistoric Polynesian chicken samples reflect dispersal of two haplogroups--D and E--by the settlers of the Pacific. The distribution of these chicken haplogroups has been used as an indicator of human movement. Recent analyses suggested similarities between prehistoric Pacific and South American chicken samples, perhaps reflecting prehistoric Polynesian introduction of the chicken into South America. These analyses have been heavily debated. The current distribution of the D and E lineages among contemporary chicken populations in the Western Pacific is unclear, but might ultimately help to inform debates about the movements of humans that carried them. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize contemporary mtDNA diversity among chickens in two of the earliest settled archipelagos of Remote Oceania, the Marianas and Vanuatu. METHODS: We generated HVR sequences for 43 chickens from four islands in Vanuatu, and for 5 chickens from Guam in the Marianas. RESULTS: Forty samples from Vanuatu and three from Guam were assigned to haplogroup D, supporting this as a Pacific chicken haplogroup that persists in the Western Pacific. Two haplogroup E lineages were observed in Guam and two in Vanuatu. Of the E lineages in Vanuatu, one was identical to prehistoric Vanuatu and Polynesian samples and the other differed by one polymorphism. Contrary to our expectations, we observed few globally distributed domesticate lineages not associated with Pacific chicken dispersal. This might suggest less European introgression of chickens into Vanuatu than expected. If so, the E lineages might represent lineages maintained from ancient Pacific chicken introductions. The Vanuatu sample might thus provide an opportunity to distinguish between maintained ancestral Pacific chicken lineages and replacement by global domesticates through genomic analyses, which could resolve questions of contemporary

  10. 137Cs concentration in zooplankton and its relation to taxonomic composition in the western North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeriyama, Hideki; Watabe, Teruhisa; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    To study the role of zooplankton in the transport of 137 Cs in the ocean, zooplankton samples were collected in October 2005 and June 2006 in the western North Pacific Ocean. The peak zooplankton biomass was observed in the surface layer, and gelatinous plankton was more abundant in October 2005 than in June 2006 reflecting exchange of water masses. The concentrations of 137 Cs in zooplankton varied from 11 to 24 mBq kg wet -1 and were higher in October 2005 than in June 2006. The elevated abundance of gelatinous zooplankton probably led to higher concentration of 137 Cs in zooplankton in October 2005. Annual export fluxes of 137 Cs by ontogenetic vertical migrant copepods were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.6 mBq m -2 year -1 at 200 and 1000 m depths, respectively; this suggested that transport of 137 Cs by zooplankton may be no trivial pathway

  11. Concentrations of mineral aerosol from desert to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Goldstein, Harland L.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral dusts can have profound effects on climate, clouds, ecosystem processes, and human health. Because regional dust emission and deposition in western North America are not well understood, measurements of total suspended particulate (TSP) from 2011 to 2013 were made along a 500-km transect of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA. The TSP concentrations in μg m−3 adjusted to a 24-h period were relatively high at the two westernmost, dryland sites at Canyonlands National Park (mean = 135) and at Mesa Verde National Park (mean = 99), as well as at the easternmost site on the Great Plains (mean = 143). The TSP concentrations at the two intervening montane sites were less, with more loading on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, mean = 68) closest to the desert sites compared with the site on the eastern slope (Niwot Ridge, mean = 58). Dust concentrations were commonly highest during late winter-late spring, when Pacific frontal storms are the dominant causes of regional wind. Low concentrations (10), as revealed by relatively low average daily concentrations of fine (<5 μg m−3; PM2.5) and coarse (<10 μg m−3; PM2.5–10) fractions monitored at or near four sites. Standard air-quality measurements for PM2.5 and PM10 apparently do not capture the large majority of mineral-particulate pollution in the remote western interior U.S.

  12. Biogeochemical impact of a model western iron source in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent

    OpenAIRE

    Slemons, L.; Gorgues, T.; Aumont, Olivier; Menkès, Christophe; Murray, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Trace element distributions in the source waters of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) show the existence of elevated total acid-soluble iron concentrations. This region has been suggested to contribute enough bioavailable iron to regulate interannual and interglacial variability in biological productivity downstream in the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll upwelling zone of the eastern equatorial Pacific. We investigated the advection and first-order biogeochemical impact of an imposed, da...

  13. The Effect of ENSO on Phytoplankton Composition in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (p less than 0.01) with the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). In the North Central Pacific, MEI and chlorophyll were significantly (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Ni a events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  14. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    The central-western Mediterranean area is a key region for understanding the complex interaction between igneous activity and tectonics. In this review, the specific geochemical character of several 'subduction-related' Cenozoic igneous provinces are described with a view to identifying the processes responsible for the modifications of their sources. Different petrogenetic models are reviewed in the light of competing geological and geodynamic scenarios proposed in the literature. Plutonic rocks occur almost exclusively in the Eocene-Oligocene Periadriatic Province of the Alps while relatively minor plutonic bodies (mostly Miocene in age) crop out in N Morocco, S Spain and N Algeria. Igneous activity is otherwise confined to lava flows and dykes accompanied by relatively greater volumes of pyroclastic (often ignimbritic) products. Overall, the igneous activity spanned a wide temporal range, from middle Eocene (such as the Periadriatic Province) to the present (as in the Neapolitan of southern Italy). The magmatic products are mostly SiO 2-oversaturated, showing calcalkaline to high-K calcalcaline affinity, except in some areas (as in peninsular Italy) where potassic to ultrapotassic compositions prevail. The ultrapotassic magmas (which include leucitites to leucite-phonolites) are dominantly SiO 2-undersaturated, although rare, SiO 2-saturated (i.e., leucite-free lamproites) appear over much of this region, examples being in the Betics (southeast Spain), the northwest Alps, northeast Corsica (France), Tuscany (northwest Italy), southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Cornacya Seamount) and possibly in the Tell region (northeast Algeria). Excepted for the Alpine case, subduction-related igneous activity is strictly linked to the formation of the Mediterranean Sea. This Sea, at least in its central and western sectors, is made up of several young (fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the

  15. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  16. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jordan M; Ponnampalam, Louisa S; Araújo, Claryana C; Wang, John Y; Kuit, Sui Hyang; Hung, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010-1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations.

  17. Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, P.J.; Clayson, C.A.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Ocean, the clouds and the cloud-radiation feedback can only be understood in the context of air/sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer. Considerable interest has been shown in attempting to explain why sea surface temperature (SST) rarely rises above 30{degrees}C, and gradients of the SST. For the most part, observational studies that address this issue have been conducted using monthly cloud and SST data, and the focus has been on intraseasonal and interannual time scales. For the unstable tropical atmosphere, using monthly averaged data misses a key feedback between clouds and SST that occurs on the cloud-SST coupling time scale, which was estimated to be 3-6 days for the unstable tropical atmosphere. This time scale is the time needed for a change in cloud properties, due to the change of ocean surface evaporation caused by SST variation, to feed back to the SST variation, to feed back to the SST through its effect on the surface heat flux. This paper addresses the relationship between clouds, surface radiation flux and SST of the TWP ocean over the diurnal cycle.

  18. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  19. Identifying Pelagic Habitat Hotspots of Neon Flying Squid in the Temperate Waters of the Central North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabia, Irene D; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Mugo, Robinson; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Seito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We identified the pelagic habitat hotspots of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the central North Pacific from May to July and characterized the spatial patterns of squid aggregations in relation to oceanographic features such as mesoscale oceanic eddies and the Transition Zone Chlorophyll-a Front (TZCF). The data used for the habitat model construction and analyses were squid fishery information, remotely-sensed and numerical model-derived environmental data from May to July 1999-2010. Squid habitat hotspots were deduced from the monthly Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models and were identified as regions of persistent high suitable habitat across the 12-year period. The distribution of predicted squid habitat hotspots in central North Pacific revealed interesting spatial and temporal patterns likely linked with the presence and dynamics of oceanographic features in squid's putative foraging grounds from late spring to summer. From May to June, the inferred patches of squid habitat hotspots developed within the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone (KOTZ; 37-40°N) and further expanded north towards the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ; 40-44°N) in July. The squid habitat hotspots within the KOTZ and areas west of the dateline (160°W-180°) were likely influenced and associated with the highly dynamic and transient oceanic eddies and could possibly account for lower squid suitable habitat persistence obtained from these regions. However, predicted squid habitat hotspots located in regions east of the dateline (180°-160°W) from June to July, showed predominantly higher squid habitat persistence presumably due to their proximity to the mean position of the seasonally-shifting TZCF and consequent utilization of the highly productive waters of the SAFZ.

  20. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The proposed rule is intended to...). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577...

  1. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in situ measurements from the western Pacific area during SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-07-01

    During the recent SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive data set of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine was collected in the western Pacific region using the Falcon aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully automated in situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground-based state-of-the-art GC / MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the western Pacific could be a region of strongly increased atmospheric VSLS abundance (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only in the upper troposphere a slightly enhanced amount of total organic bromine from VSLS relative to the levels reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. From the SHIVA observations in the upper troposphere, a budget for total organic bromine, including four halons (H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402), CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the level of zero radiative heating (LZRH), the input region for the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and thus also for the stratosphere. With the exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  2. Impact of La Niña and La Niña Modoki on Indonesia rainfall variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, R.; Juniarti, MD; Ma’rufah, U.

    2018-05-01

    La Niña events are indicated by cooling SST in central and eastern equatorial Pacific. While La Niña Modoki occurrences are indicated by cooling SST in central Pacific and warming SST in western and eastern equatorial Pacific. These two events are influencing rainfall variability in several regions including Indonesia. The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of La Niña and La Niña Modoki on Indonesian rainfall variability. We found the Nino 3.4 index is highly correlated (r = -0.95) with Indonesian rainfall. Positive rainfall anomalies up to 200 mm/month occurred mostly in Indonesian region during La Niña events, but in DJF several areas of Sumatera, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia tend to have negative rainfall. During La Niña Modoki events, positive rainfall anomaly (up to 50 mm/month) occurred in Sumatera Island, Kalimantan, Java and eastern Indonesia in DJF and up to 175 mm/month occurred only in Java Island in MAM season. La Niña events have strong cooling SST in central and eastern equatorial Pacific (-1.5°C) in DJF. While La Niña Modoki events warming SST occurred in western and eastern equatorial Pacific (0.75°C) and cooling SST in central Pacific (- 0.75°C) in DJF and MAM. Walker circulation in La Niña Modoki events (on DJF and MAM) showed strong convergence in eastern Pacific, and weak convergence in western Pacific (Indonesia).

  3. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  4. Foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of the youngest (Late Albian through Late Cenomanian) sediments of the Tatra massif, Central Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąk, Krzysztof; Bąk, Marta

    2013-06-01

    Bąk, K. and Bąk M. 2013. Foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of the youngest (Late Albian through Late Cenomanian) sediments of the Tatra massif, Central Western Carpathians. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 223-237. Warszawa. The foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of selected sections of the Zabijak Formation, the youngest sediments of the Tatra massif (Central Western Carpathians), have been studied. Benthic foraminifers, mainly agglutinated species, occur abundantly and continuously throughout the studied succession, while planktic foraminifers are generally sparse. Five planktic and two benthic foraminiferal zones have been recognized. The marly part of the Zabijak Formation comprises the Pseudothalmanninella ticinensis (Upper Albian) through the Rotalipora cushmani (Upper Cenomanian) planktic foraminiferal zones, and the Haplophragmoides nonioninoides and Bulbobaculites problematicus benthic foraminiferal zones. The radiolarians were recognized exclusively in the Lower Cenomanian part of the formation.

  5. The little shrimp that could: phylogeography of the circumtropical Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda), reveals divergent Atlantic and Pacific lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacchei, Matthew; Coleman, Richard R.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Browne, William E.; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The banded coral shrimp, Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea) is a popular marine ornamental species with a circumtropical distribution. The planktonic larval stage lasts ∼120–253 days, indicating considerable dispersal potential, but few studies have investigated genetic connectivity on a global scale in marine invertebrates. To resolve patterns of divergence and phylogeography of S. hispidus, we surveyed 525 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from 198 individuals sampled at 10 locations across ∼27,000 km of the species range. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that S. hispidus has a Western Atlantic lineage and a widely distributed Indo-Pacific lineage, separated by sequence divergence of 2.1%. Genetic diversity is much higher in the Western Atlantic (h = 0.929; π = 0.004) relative to the Indo-Pacific (h = 0.105; π Indo-Pacific population expanded more recently (95% HPD (highest posterior density) = 60,000–400,000 yr) than the Western Atlantic population (95% HPD = 300,000–760,000 yr). Divergence of the Western Atlantic and Pacific lineages is estimated at 710,000–1.8 million years ago, which does not readily align with commonly implicated colonization events between the ocean basins. The estimated age of populations contradicts the prevailing dispersal route for tropical marine biodiversity (Indo-Pacific to Atlantic) with the oldest and most diverse population in the Atlantic, and a recent population expansion with a single common haplotype shared throughout the vast Indian and Pacific oceans. In contrast to the circumtropical fishes, this diminutive reef shrimp challenges our understanding of conventional dispersal capabilities of marine species. PMID:29527409

  6. Moessbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J; Toth, I; Sulak, M; Putis, M

    2010-01-01

    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe 2+ Fe 3+ contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Moessbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  7. Moessbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, J; Toth, I [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sulak, M; Putis, M, E-mail: jozef.sitek@stuba.s [Department of of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina G, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-03-01

    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe{sup 2+} Fe{sup 3+} contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Moessbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  8. Yaws in the Western Pacific Region: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Capuano

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific, yaws may be amenable to elimination if adequate resources are provided and political commitment revived. A mapping of yaws prevalence in PNG, Solomon, and Vanuatu is needed before comprehensive country-tailored strategies towards yaws elimination can be developed.

  9. Importance of Ekman transport and gyre circulation change on seasonal variation of surface dissolved iron in the western subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanowatari, Takuya; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Uchimoto, Keisuke; Nishioka, Jun; Mitsudera, Humio; Wakatsuchi, Masaaki

    2017-05-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton and it constitutes an important element in the marine carbon cycle in the ocean. This study examined the mechanisms controlling seasonal variation of dissolved Fe (dFe) in the western subarctic North Pacific (WSNP), using an ocean general circulation model coupled with a simple biogeochemical model incorporating a dFe cycle fed by two major sources (atmospheric dust and continental shelf sediment). The model reproduced the seasonal cycle of observed concentrations of dFe and macronutrients at the surface in the Oyashio region with maxima in winter (February-March) and minima in summer (July-September), although the simulated seasonal amplitudes are a half of the observed values. Analysis of the mixed-layer dFe budget indicated that both local vertical entrainment and lateral advection are primary contributors to the wintertime increase in dFe concentration. In early winter, strengthened northwesterly winds excite southward Ekman transport and Ekman upwelling over the western subarctic gyre, transporting dFe-rich water southward. In mid to late winter, the southward western boundary current of the subarctic gyre and the outflow from the Sea of Okhotsk also bring dFe-rich water to the Oyashio region. The contribution of atmospheric dust to the dFe budget is several times smaller than these ocean transport processes in winter. These results suggest that the westerly wind-induced Ekman transport and gyre circulation systematically influence the seasonal cycle of WSNP surface dFe concentration.

  10. Forest inventory and analysis program in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service monitors and reports on the status and trends of the Pacific Island’s forest resources and ecosystem services. Since 2001 the FIA program has partnered with State and Private Forestry’s, Region 5 and the local governments in the U.S. Affiliated Western...

  11. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection. PMID:26838053

  12. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-02-03

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection.

  13. A new species of Indo-Pacific Modulidae (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozouet, Pierre; Krygelmans, Anouchka

    2016-04-12

    Modulidae is a littoral cerithioid family exclusively encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. It contains 12 to 15 living species (some species are not clearly delimited). Only one species is known to occur in the vast Indo-Pacific region (Bouchet 2015) and two species in the eastern Atlantic. By comparison, the tropical American regions are relatively rich with at least eleven living species (two or three species in the eastern Pacific and nine or more in the western Atlantic), and an equivalent number or more of fossil species (Landau et al. 2014).

  14. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  15. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  16. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  17. Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing in the Pacific Warm Pool Estimated Using TOGA COARE Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong

    1999-01-01

    The energy budget of the tropical western Pacific (TWP) is particularly important because this is one of the most energetic convection regions on the Earth. Nearly half of the solar radiation incident at the top of atmosphere is absorbed at the surface and only about 22% absorbed in the atmosphere. A large portion of the excess heat absorbed at the surface is transferred to the atmosphere through evaporation, which provides energy and water for convection and precipitation. The western equatorial Pacific is characterized by the highest sea surface temperature (SST) and heaviest rainfall in the world ocean. A small variation of SST associated with the eastward shift of the warm pool during El-Nino/Souther Oscillation changes the atmospheric circulation pattern and affects the global climate. In a study of the TWP surface heat and momentum fluxes during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) Intensive observing period (IOP) from November 1992 to February have found that the solar radiation is the most important component of the surface energy budget, which undergoes significant temporal and spatial variation. The variations are influenced by the two 40-50 days Madden Julian Oscillations (MJOs) which propagated eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Central Pacific during the IOP. The TWP surface solar radiation during the COARE IOP was investigated by a number of studies. In addition, the effects of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere in the TWP was studied using energy budget analysis. In this study, we present some results of the TWP surface solar shortwave or SW radiation budget and the effect of clouds on the atmospheric solar heating using the surface radiation measurements and Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 4 radiance measurements during COARE IOP.

  18. Modeling the population dynamics of Pacific yew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Busing; Thomas A. Spies

    1995-01-01

    A study of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) population dynamics in the mountains of western Oregon and Washington was based on a combination of long-term population data and computer modeling. Rates of growth and mortality were low in mature and old-growth forest stands. Diameter growth at breast height ranged from 0 to 3 centimeters per decade...

  19. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  20. Growth and reproductive investment of introduced Pacific oysters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Peralta, N.R.E.; Machado, J.P.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Growth and reproductive investment of cultured Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas were studied in two south-western European estuaries: the Ria de Ribadeo in Spain and the Ria Formosa in Portugal. Developing gonads were found in individuals >23.5 mm shell length in the Ria Formosa and >27.5 mm shell

  1. The tropospheric biennial oscillation defined by a biennial mode of sea surface temperature and its impact on the atmospheric circulation and precipitation in the tropical eastern Indo-western Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinju; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2016-10-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of anomalous atmospheric circulation and precipitation over the Indo-Pacific region are analyzed in conjunction with the Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation as represented by the biennial mode of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). The biennial components of key variables are identified independently of other variability via CSEOF analysis. Then, its impact on the Asian-Australian monsoon is examined. The biennial mode exhibits a seasonally distinctive atmospheric response over the tropical eastern Indo-western Pacific (EIWP) region (90°-150°E, 20°S-20°N). In boreal summer, local meridional circulation is a distinguishing characteristic over the tropical EIWP region, whereas a meridionally expanded branch of intensified zonal circulation develops in austral summer. Temporally varying evolution and distinct timing of SSTA phase transition in the Indian and Pacific Oceans is considered a main factor for this variation of circulation in the tropical EIWP region. The impact of the biennial mode is not the same between the two seasons, with different impacts over ocean areas in Asian monsoon and Australian monsoon regions.

  2. New flags, upward forces and sheltered harbours: The new ‘Great Game’ in the Pacific Islands region

    OpenAIRE

    Kowasch, Matthias; Lindenmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The centre of the global economy and the US-geostrategic focus seem to be shifting to the Asia-Pacific region. The present paper deals with the role of Pacific Island states in this new ‘Great Game’ between China and Western powers. Pacific Island states have a long tradition in building non-confrontational and open ties with rival powers. While only four countries in the Pacific have known mineral resources, others depend mainly on tourism, fisheries and remittances. China is interested in t...

  3. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  4. The Dynamics of Eddy Fluxes and Jet-Scale Overturning Circulations and its Impact on the Mixed Layer Formation in the Indo-Western Pacific Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Q.; Lee, S.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) jets and eddy fluxes in the Indo-western Pacific Southern Ocean (90°E-145°E) is investigated using an eddy-resolving model. In this region, transient eddy momentum flux convergence occurs at the latitude of the primary jet core, whereas eddy buoyancy flux is located over a broader region that encompasses the jet and the inter-jet minimum. In a small sector (120°E-144°E) where jets are especially zonal, a spatial and temporal decomposition of the eddy fluxes further reveals that fast eddies act to accelerate the jet with the maximum eddy momentum flux convergence at the jet center, while slow eddies tend to decelerate the zonal current at the inter-jet minimum. Transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) diagnostics reveals that the eddy momentum contribution accelerates the jets at all model depths, whereas the buoyancy flux contribution decelerates the jets at depths below 600 m. In ocean sectors where the jets are relatively well defined, there exist jet-scale overturning circulations (JSOC) with sinking motion on the equatorward flank, and rising motion on the poleward flank of the jets. The location and structure of these thermally indirect circulations suggest that they are driven by the eddy momentum flux convergence, much like the Ferrel cell in the atmosphere. This study also found that the JSOC plays a significant role in the oceanic heat transport and that it also contributes to the formation of a thin band of mixed layer that exists on the equatorward flank of the Indo-western Pacific ACC jets.

  5. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  6. Interannual variability of the North Pacific winter storm track and its relationship with extratropical atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Yaocun

    2018-01-01

    Interannual variability of the North Pacific storm track and the three-dimensional atmosphere circulation during winter are investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1950-2015. Results show that year-to-year variations of the storm track exhibit two principal modes, i.e. the monopole intensity change and the meridional shift of the storm track, respectively. The intensity change mode is linked to weakening of the Siberian high, northward shift of the western Pacific jet stream and Aleutian Low, and well corresponding to the Western Pacific teleconnection. The meridional shift mode is related to intensification and south-eastward extension of western Pacific jet stream and Aleutian Low, and linked to the Pacific-North America teleconnection. The internal atmospheric dynamics responsible for the storm track variability is further investigated from the perspective of wave-flow energy conversion. For the intensity change mode, accompanied by the enhanced baroclinity over the entrance region of the storm track, more energy is converted from mean available potential energy to eddy available potential energy and then transferred to eddy kinetic energy, which is favorable for the overall enhancement of the storm track intensity. For the meridional shift mode, more energy is transformed from mean available potential energy to eddy available potential energy and further transferred to eddy kinetic energy over the southern (northern) areas of the storm track, contributing to the southward (northward) shift of the storm track. Additionally, the increased (decreased) conversion from mean-flow kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy over the north-eastern Pacific region is also in favor of the southward (northward) shift of the storm track.

  7. Dynamic nuclear development in Pacific Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillessen, U.

    1996-01-01

    The gigantic wave of industrialization in Pacific Asia is based on a reliable supply of electricity whose expansion is being planned long in advance. In this context, nuclear power serves to reduce the dependence on, mostly imported, fossil fuels. Seventy nuclear power plants are in operation, twelve are under construction, and at least another 65 are planned by the year 2020. Also current nuclear research programs have been designed with long term objectives in mind. In times of moratoria and intentions to opt out in Western Europe it is perhaps worthwhile to look beyond the borders of cantons and federal states. The situation of nuclear power worldwide, especially in Pacific Asia, clearly reveals one thing: There is no opting out. (orig.) [de

  8. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, Hon S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  9. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  10. Glacial forcing of central Indonesian hydroclimate since 60,000 y B.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James M; Vogel, Hendrik; Konecky, Bronwen L; Bijaksana, Satria; Huang, Yongsong; Melles, Martin; Wattrus, Nigel; Costa, Kassandra; King, John W

    2014-04-08

    The Indo-Pacific warm pool houses the largest zone of deep atmospheric convection on Earth and plays a critical role in global climate variations. Despite the region's importance, changes in Indo-Pacific hydroclimate on orbital timescales remain poorly constrained. Here we present high-resolution geochemical records of surface runoff and vegetation from sediment cores from Lake Towuti, on the island of Sulawesi in central Indonesia, that continuously span the past 60,000 y. We show that wet conditions and rainforest ecosystems on Sulawesi present during marine isotope stage 3 (MIS3) and the Holocene were interrupted by severe drying between ∼33,000 and 16,000 y B.P. when Northern Hemisphere ice sheets expanded and global temperatures cooled. Our record reveals little direct influence of precessional orbital forcing on regional climate, and the similarity between MIS3 and Holocene climates observed in Lake Towuti suggests that exposure of the Sunda Shelf has a weaker influence on regional hydroclimate and terrestrial ecosystems than suggested previously. We infer that hydrological variability in this part of Indonesia varies strongly in response to high-latitude climate forcing, likely through reorganizations of the monsoons and the position of the intertropical convergence zone. These findings suggest an important role for the tropical western Pacific in amplifying glacial-interglacial climate variability.

  11. Pacific walrus coastal haulout database, 1852-2016— Background report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Anthony S.; Kochnev, Anatoly A.; Garlich-Miller, Joel L.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2016-01-01

    Walruses are large benthic predators that rest out of water between foraging bouts. Coastal “haulouts” (places where walruses rest) are formed by adult males in summer and sometimes by females and young when sea ice is absent, and are often used repeatedly across seasons and years. Understanding the geography and historical use of haulouts provides a context for conservation efforts. We summarize information on Pacific walrus haulouts from available reports (n =151), interviews with coastal residents and aviators, and personal observations of the authors. We provide this in the form of a georeferenced database that can be queried and displayed with standard geographic information system and database management software. The database contains 150 records of Pacific walrus haulouts, with a summary of basic characteristics on maximum haulout aggregation size, age-sex composition, season of use, and decade of most recent use. Citations to reports are provided in the appendix and as a bibliographic database. Haulouts were distributed across the coasts of the Pacific walrus range; however, the largest (maximum >10,000 walruses) of the haulouts reported in the recent 4 decades (n=19) were concentrated on the Russian shores in regions near the Bering Strait and northward into the western Chukchi Sea (n=17). Haulouts of adult female and young walruses primarily occurred in the Bering Strait region and areas northward, with others occurring in the central Bering Sea, Gulf of Anadyr, and Saint Lawrence Island regions. The Gulf of Anadyr was the only region to contain female and young walrus haulouts, which formed after the northward spring migration and prior to autumn ice formation.

  12. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan A. Black; Peter van der Sleen; Emanuele Di Lorenzo; Daniel Griffin; William J. Sydeman; Jason B. Dunham; Ryan R. Rykaczewski; Marisol García-Reyes; Mohammad Safeeq; Ivan Arismendi; Steven J. Bograd

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we...

  13. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  14. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  15. Isolation by distance and vicariance drive genetic structure of a coral reef fish in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planes, S; Fauvelot, C

    2002-02-01

    We studied the genetic diversity of a coral reef fish species to investigate the origin of the differentiation. A total of 727 Acanthurus triostegus collected from 15 locations throughout the Pacific were analyzed for 20 polymorphic loci. The genetic structure showed limited internal disequilibrium within each population; 3.7% of the loci showed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, mostly associated with Adh*, and we subsequently removed this locus from further analysis of geographic pattern. The genetic structure of A. triostegus throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean revealed a strong geographic pattern. Overall, there was significant population differentiation (multilocus F(ST) = 0.199), which was geographically structured according to bootstraps of neighbor-joining analysis on Nei's unbiased genetic distances and AMOVA analysis. The genetic structure revealed five geographic groups in the Pacific Ocean: western Pacific (Guam, Philippines, Palau, and Great Barrier Reef); central Pacific (Solomons, New Caledonia, and Fiji); and three groups made up of the eastern populations, namely Hawaiian Archipelago (north), Marquesas (equatorial), and southern French Polynesia (south) that incorporates Clipperton Island located in the northeastern Pacific. In addition, heterozygosity values were found to be geographically structured with higher values grouped within Polynesian and Clipperton populations, which exhibited lower population size. Finally, the genetic differentiation (F(ST)) was significantly correlated with geographic distance when populations from the Hawaiian and Marquesas archipelagos were separated from all the other locations. These results show that patterns of differentiation vary within the same species according to the spatial scale, with one group probably issued from vicariance, whereas the other followed a pattern of isolation by distance. The geographic pattern for A. triostegus emphasizes the diversity of the evolutionary processes that lead

  16. Development of Innovative Tools and Models for Vocational Education and Training in Central and Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Moldovan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an initiative developed by two partner universities from Romania and Norway entitled „Innovative Tools and models for Vocational Education and Training in Central and western Romania” (MoVE-IT financed by SEE mechanism [1]. It has the priority to develop human resource through promotion of education and training, by means of distance learning. The objective, legal issues, outcome and results and envisaged impact of the project are presented.

  17. Pacific Proving Grounds radioisotope imprint in the Philippine Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Roos, Per; Qiao, Jixin

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations were studied in sediment cores taken at the continental slope of the Philippine Sea off Mindanao Island in the equatorial Western Pacific. High resolution deposition records of anthropogenic radionuclides were collected at this site. Excess 210Pb together with excess 2...

  18. Nannofossils in upper quaternary bottom sediments of back-arc basins in the southwestern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, O. B.

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages in bottom sediments sampled during Cruise 21 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in three areas located in back-arc basins of the southwestern Pacific (western Woodlark in the Solomon Sea, Manus in the Bismarck Sea, Central Lau) reveal that they belong to the Emiliania huxleyi Acme Zone, the most detailed one in the Gartner's scale of 1977. The content of coccoliths and their taxonomic composition indicate warm subtropical-tropical conditions. Long cores demonstrate a decrease in species diversity reflecting the transition from the cold late Pleistocene to the Holocene. The changes in species diversity and presence/absence of thermophilic representatives indicate transformation of depositional environments with unstable conditions in the water column and bottom layer, seismic activity, and widely developed processes of sediment redistribution and reworking.

  19. 77 FR 72907 - Western Washington Railroad, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-City of Tacoma, Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ..., 2012, Western Washington Railroad, LLC (WWRR), a Washington limited liability company and noncarrier... allow for interchange with WWRR, BNSF Railway Company, the Puget Sound and Pacific Railroad, and Union Pacific Railroad Company, and also over the entire line for emergency routing. WWRR states that the...

  20. Monitoring Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Western Pacific Using Satellite Remote Sensing Integrated with Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, C. M.; Phinn, S. R.; Lyons, M. B.; Kovacs, E.; Saunders, M. I.; Leon, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) are typically found in highly dynamic environments where the magnitude and types of physical and biological processes controlling their distribution, diversity and function changes dramatically. Recent advances in the types of satellite image data and the length of their archives that are available globally, coupled with new techniques for extracting environmental information from these data sets has enabled significant advances to be made in our ability to map and monitor coral and SAV environments. Object Based Image Analysis techniques are one of the most significant advances in information extraction techniques for processing images to deliver environmental information at multiple spatial scales. This poster demonstrates OBIA applied to high spatial resolution satellite image data to map and monitor coral and SAV communities across a variety of environments in the Western Pacific that vary in their extent, biological composition, forcing physical factors and location. High spatial resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird, Ikonos and Worldview2) were acquired coincident with field surveys on each reef to collect georeferenced benthic photo transects, over various areas in the Western Pacific. Base line maps were created, from Roviana Lagoon Solomon island (600 km2), Bikini Atoll Marshall Island (800 Km2), Lizard Island, Australia (30 km2) and time series maps for geomorphic and benthic communities were collected for Heron Reef, Australia (24 km2) and Eastern Banks area of Moreton Bay, Australia (200 km2). The satellite image data were corrected for radiometric and atmospheric distortions to at-surface reflectance. Georeferenced benthic photos were acquired by divers or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, analysed for benthic cover composition, and used for calibration and validation purposes. Hierarchical mapping from: reef/non-reef (1000's - 10000's m); reef type (100's - 1000's m); 'geomorphic zone' (10's - 100's m); to

  1. The Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea as the region of natural aquaculture: Organochlorine pesticides in Pacific salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu.; Lukyanova, Olga N.; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K.

    2016-01-01

    Kuril Islands of the Sea of Okhotsk and the western part of the Bering Sea are an area of natural feeding of Pacific salmon, and the catch area of ones for food market. Food safety of products is an important task of aquaculture. Сoncentrations of HCHs (α-, β-, γ-) and DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) were determined in organs of the pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), which caught from the natural aquaculture region of Russia (near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea). The average total concentration of OCPs in organs of salmon from Western Pacific is lower than that in salmon from the North Pacific American coast and the Atlantic Ocean. The region can be used to grow smolts, which will be later released into the ocean. - Highlights: • The study area is area of natural feeding of Pacific salmon, and the catch area of ones for food market. • ΣOCPs in salmon muscle increases in the following: chum ≤ pink < chinook < sockeye. • ΣOCPs in salmon from study area is lower than that in ones from the Atlantic Ocean. • The salmon, which feeding in the study area, did not accumulate higher OCPs content.

  2. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  3. Canyon incision chronology based on ignimbrite stratigraphy and cut-and-fill sediment sequences in SW Peru documents intermittent uplift of the western Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gunnell, Yanni; Jicha, Brian R.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Braucher, Régis

    2017-12-01

    Based on an 40Ar/39Ar- and U/Pb-based chronostratigraphy of ignimbrite sheets and the geomorphological features of watersheds, river profiles and slope deposits in the Ocoña-Cotahuasi-Marán (OCM) and Colca valleys of southwest Peru, we reconstruct the valley incision history of the western Central Andes over the last c. 25 Myr. We further document the Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of deep valleys on the basis of 14 10Be surface-exposure ages obtained on debris-avalanche deposits and river straths. The data suggest that uplift was gradual over the past 25 Myr, but accelerated after c. 9 Ma. Valley incision started around 11-9 Ma and accelerated between 5 and 4 Ma. Incision was followed by several pulses of valley cut-and-fill after 2.3 Ma. Evidence presented suggest that the post-5 Ma sequence of accelerated canyon incision probably resulted from a combination of drainage piracy from the Cordilleran drainage divide towards the Altiplano, accentuated flexural tilting of the Western Cordillera towards the SE, and increased rainfall on the Altiplano after late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The valley deepening and slope steepening driven by tectonic uplift gave rise to large occurrences of rockslope failure. The collapsed rock masses periodically obstructed the canyons, thus causing abrupt changes in local base levels and interfering with the steadiness of fluvial incision. As a result, channel aggradation has prevailed in the lower-gradient, U-shaped Pacific-rim canyons, whereas re-incision through landslide deposits has occurred more rapidly across the steeper V-shaped, upper valleys. Existing canyon knickpoints are currently arrested at the boundary between the plutonic bedrock and widespread outcrops of middle Miocene ignimbritic caprock, where groundwater sapping favouring rock collapse may be the dominant process driving headward erosion.

  4. Aggressive root pathogen Phellinus noxius and implications for western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is an aggressive root rot pathogen affecting tropical and subtropical forests. Causing much damage in tropical Asia, Africa, Taiwan, Japan and the Pacific Islands, its wide host range encompasses more than 200 plant species representing 59 families (Ann et al. 2002). It can devastate agricultural plantations of tea, rubber, cocoa, avocados,...

  5. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.

  6. Multiformity of the tropical cyclone wind–pressure relationship in the western North Pacific: discrepancies among four best-track archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueh, Mien-Tze

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of tropical cyclone intensity estimates for the western North Pacific is assessed in the context of wind–pressure relationships. Four best-track datasets compiled in the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) are compared to assess the data consistency. Over the past 20 yr period (1991–2010), apparent interagency discrepancies in the archived tropical cyclone intensities are found. Heavy reliance upon operational wind–pressure relationships may reduce subjective biases at the cost of potential loss of tropical cyclone natural variability. Given that the intercomparisons are performed based upon a set of identical tropical cyclones, the differences in operational wind–pressure relationships and in the mapping of satellite tropical cyclone intensity classification for these relationships are presumably critical causes of the interagency discrepancies. This result calls for imperative refinement of current satellite-based tropical cyclone intensity estimates and reanalysis of historical tropical cyclone best-track archives for the basin. (letter)

  7. How well do climate models simulate atmospheric teleconnctions over the North Pacific and East Asia associated with ENSO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyong; Son, Hye-Young; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-02-01

    During the El Niño and La Niña mature phase, atmospheric teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia vary considerably on sub-seasonal time scales, and are strongly phase-locked to the sub-seasonal evolution. In this study, we investigate how well climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulate the sub-seasonal evolution of teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the observations, there is a prominent anticyclone anomaly over the Kuroshio extension region (i.e. Kuroshio anticyclone), which significantly affects East Asian climate in the early winter (November-December) of El Niño years. However, in January, the Kuroshio anticyclone suddenly disappears, and a cyclonic flow dominates over the North Pacific. It is found here that the CMIP5 models simulate the overall extratropical teleconnection patterns, but they fail to reproduce some of these sub-seasonally-varying features in atmospheric circulation. For example, the models tend to simulate a weaker Kuroshio anticyclone in the early winter during El Niño phases, and fail to capture the abrupt decay of the Kuroshio anticyclone in the late winter. We demonstrate here that these systematic errors in ENSO teleconnection can be explained by systematic errors in tropical precipitation associated with ENSO. That is, negative precipitation anomalies over the western North Pacific (WNP) are too weak in the models compared to that in the observations, and their amplitude tends to be strengthened from December to the following January, while they are weakened in the observations. In addition, analyses on the inter-model diversity strongly support that relative magnitudes of WNP and central Pacific precipitation anomalies are critical for determining sub-seasonal evolution of ENSO teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia.

  8. Long-lived large-scale deformation under Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the past and present-day deformation pattern under Central and Western Europe through seismic anisotropy. We use all SK(K)S splitting results that have been so far presented for this region and compile an image of upper mantle deformation. A large-scale deformation pattern emerges where NE-SW fast orientations under the Aegean are smoothly changing to NW-SE beneath the Hellenides-Dinarides conjunction. NW-SE is the dominant pattern under the whole Carpathian-Pannonian region. Towards Bohemia, the pattern rotates to E-W. The rotation continues until the Rhine valley, and it continues further within the Alps, all the way to Southern France. Outside the Alpine-deformation-influenced region, we observe a jump in fast orientation, between the Ardennes and the Massif Central in France, where the fast axis orientation is back to NW-SE. That anisotropy pattern may correlate with the arcuate shape of Variscan orogeny. It agrees with the Rheic suture line, and the boarders of two main tectonic units of European Variscides, Saxothuringian and Muldanubian. Previous studies on upper mantle anisotropy have interpreted and related such pattern mainly to frozen-in deformation from the past tectonic episodes. This has so far remained ambiguous though. Here we assess the relation between deformation at depth and shallower structure, as evidenced by stress field and topography. We discuss the presence of a long-lived large-scale upper mantle deformation, which has been acting ever since the Cambrian in different orogenic phases (Caledonian, Variscan, Alpine).

  9. Processes Driving Natural Acidification of Western Pacific Coral Reef Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, K. E.; Cohen, A. L.; Golbuu, Y.; McCorkle, D. C.; Lentz, S. J.; Barkley, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are acidifying the oceans, reducing seawater pH, aragonite saturation state (Ωar) and the availability of carbonate ions (CO32-) that calcifying organisms use to build coral reefs. Today's most extensive reef ecosystems are located where open ocean CO32- concentration ([CO32-]) and Ωar exceed 200 μmol kg-1 and 3.3, respectively. However, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and long residence times of water can result in carbonate chemistry conditions within coral reef systems that differ greatly from those of nearby open ocean waters. In the Palauan archipelago, water moving across the reef platform is altered by both biological and hydrographic processes that combine to produce seawater pH, Ωar, [CO32-] significantly lower than that of open ocean source water. Just inshore of the barrier reefs, average Ωar values are 0.2 to 0.3 and pH values are 0.02 to 0.03 lower than they are offshore, declining further as water moves across the back reef, lagoon and into the meandering bays and inlets that characterize the Rock Islands. In the Rock Island bays, coral communities inhabit seawater with average Ωar values of 2.7 or less, and as low as 1.9. Levels of Ωar as low as these are not predicted to occur in the western tropical Pacific open ocean until near the end of the century. Calcification by coral reef organisms is the principal biological process responsible for lowering Ωar and pH, accounting for 68 - 99 % of the difference in Ωar between offshore source water and reef water at our sites. However, in the Rock Island bays where Ωar is lowest, CO2 production by net respiration contributes between 17 - 30 % of the difference in Ωar between offshore source water and reef water. Furthermore, the residence time of seawater in the Rock Island bays is much longer than at the well flushed exposed sites, enabling calcification and respiration to drive Ωar to very low levels despite lower net ecosystem

  10. Study of movement of the western and central belts of Peninsular Malaysia using GPS data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Siti Hafizah; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim [Geology Programme, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Since the large earthquakes in Sumatera and Nias, there were some tremors incidents at Bukit Tinggi. Therefore, a study on the earth’s crust movement and the effects of the earthquake in Indonesia on the tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia have been carried out using GPS data analysis. GPS data from five MyRTKnet stations within Peninsular Malaysia have been analyzed to monitor the movement of two major tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia which are the western belt represented by the Behrang (BEHR) and UPM Serdang (UPMS) stations and the central belt represented by Bentong (BENT), Jerantut (JRNT) and Temerloh (TLOH) stations. GPS data recorded from 2005 to 2010 were analysed based on horizontal and vertical displacements of the respective stations by using Trimble Business Centre (TBC) software. Based on the results of accumulated displacements of recorded GPS data from January 2006 to December 2013, it shows that the western belt which represented by UPMS has shifted 0.096m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of +0.030m while the central belt which represented by TLOH has shifted 0.080m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of −0.015m. Meanwhile, BENT station which is located on the Bentong-Raub suture zone turns to its original position as well as JRNT station. However, BEHR station which are located in western belt do not show any movements. All of these movements may be due to the influence of reactive faults in the stations area stimulated by several large earthquakes that occurred in 2005 to 2010. Study on using the GPS data analysis and combine with integrated geophysical methods are necessary to understand in detail about the tectonic evolution of Peninsular Malaysia.

  11. Source of low frequency modulation of ENSO amplitude in a CGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung-Kwon [Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education/Institute of Science Education, Jeonju (Korea); Yeh, Sang-Wook [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan (Korea); Dewitte, Boris [Laboratoire d' Etude en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Jhun, Jong-Ghap [Seoul National University, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul (Korea); Kang, In-Sik [Seoul National University, Climate Environment System Research Center (CES), Seoul (Korea)

    2007-07-15

    We study the relationship between changes in equatorial stratification and low frequency El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude modulation in a coupled general circulation model (CGCM) that uses an anomaly coupling strategy to prevent climate drifts in the mean state. The stratification is intensified at upper levels in the western and central equatorial Pacific during periods of high ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, changes in equatorial stratification are connected with subsurface temperature anomalies originating from the central south tropical Pacific. The correlation analysis of ocean temperature anomalies against an index for the ENSO modulation supports the hypothesis of the existence of an oceanic ''tunnel'' that connects the south tropical Pacific to the equatorial wave guide. Further analysis of the wind stress projection coefficient onto the oceanic baroclinic modes suggests that the low frequency modulation of ENSO amplitude is associated with a significant contribution of higher-order modes in the western and central equatorial Pacific. In the light of these results, we suggest that, in the CGCM, change in the baroclinic mode energy distribution associated with low frequency ENSO amplitude modulation have its source in the central south tropical Pacific. (orig.)

  12. Behavioral risk factors for obesity during health transition in Vanuatu, South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; DeHuff, Christa; Chan, Chim; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this "health transition." To identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. Five hundred and thirty four adults from three islands varying in level of economic development were surveyed. Height, weight, waist, and hip circumferences; triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat (%BF) by bioelectrical impedance were measured. Diet through 24-h dietary recall and physical activity patterns using a survey were assessed. We analyzed prevalence of obesity and central obesity based on multiple indicators (body mass index, %BF, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), and analyzed differences among islands and associations with behavioral patterns. Obesity prevalence was lowest among rural and highest among suburban participants. Prevalence of central obesity was particularly high among women (up to 73.9%), even in rural areas (ranging from 14.7 to 41.2% depending on the measure used). Heavier reliance on animal protein and incorporation of Western foods in the diet-specifically, tinned fish and instant noodles-was significantly associated with increased obesity risk. Even in rural areas where diets and lifestyles remain largely traditional, modest incorporation of Western foods in the diet can contribute to increased risk of obesity. Early prevention efforts are thus particularly important during health transition. Where public health resources are limited, education about dietary change could be the best target for prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viviana Bojanich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households.

  14. Regulation of primary productivity rate in the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.T.; Chavez, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the Chl-specific rate of primary productivity (P B ) as a function of subsurface nutrient concentration at >300 equatorial stations provides an answer to the question: What processes regulate primary productivity rate in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters of the equatorial Pacific? In the western Pacific where there is a gradient in 60-m [NO 3 ] from 0 to ∼12 μM, the productivity rate is a linear function of nutrient concentration; in the eastern Pacific where the gradient is from 12 to 28 μM, the productivity rate is independent of nutrient concentration and limited to ∼36 mg C(mg Chl) -1 d -1 , or a mean euphotic zone C-specific growth rate (μ) of 0.47 d -1 . However, rates downstream of the Galapagos Islands are not limited; they are 46.4 mg C(mg Chl) -1 d -1 and μ = 0.57 d -1 , very close to the predicted nutrient-regulated rates in the absence of other limitation. This pattern of rate regulation can be accounted for by a combination of eolian Fe, subsurface nutrients, and sedimentary Fe derived from the Galapagos platform. In the low-nutrient western Pacific the eolian supply of Fe is adequate to allow productivity rate to be set by subsurface nutrient concentration. In the nutrient-rich easter equatorial region eolian Fe is inadequate to support productivity rates proportional to the higher nutrient concentrations, so in this region eolian Fe is rate limiting. Around the Galapagos Islands productivity rates reach levels consistent with nutrient concentrations; sedimentary Fe from the Galapagos platform seems adequate to support increased nutrient-regulated productivity rates in this region

  15. Tropical-Extratropical Exchange Based on Argo Profiles and Ship-Based Observations Near the Western Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D.; Li, B.; Yang, L.

    2014-12-01

    The tropical-extratropical exchange in the northwestern Pacific Ocean is studied using the absolute geostrophic currents based on Argo Profiles and the observations of the western boundary currents (WBCs) during two cruises in the winters of 2010 and 2012. The absolute geostrophic currents are calculated using the P-vector method for the period of 2004 through 2011. The transport of the geostrophic currents is compared with the Sverdrup theory and found to differ significantly in several locations. Analyses have shown that errors of wind stress estimation cannot account for all of the differences. The largest differences are found in the area, where nonlinear activities are vigorous. It is, therefore, suggested that the linear dynamics of the Sverdrup theory is deficient in explaining the geostrophic transport of the tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. Previous studies suggest recharge and discharge of the tropical Pacific Ocean heat content through the interior circulation of the North Pacific Ocean, based on the Sverdrup theory, and that the WBCs play the role opposite to the interior ocean recharge and discharge anomalies. Using ocean observations from two cruises in a La Niña winter and a normal winter, it is suggested that the Kuroshio transport decreases significantly and the Mindanao Current transport increases significantly at the peak of 2010 La Niña, opposite to the prediction of existing theory. The anomalies of the western boundary current transport are found much larger than those of the meridional circulation in the entire interior of the North Pacific Ocean, the dynamics of which are suggested to be associated with the Kelvin wave propagation around the Philippine islands. The results suggest that the WBCs dominate the interannual recharge and discharge of the western Pacific warm pool during the 2010 La Niña.

  16. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, oxygen and other data profiles from CTD and bottle casts from NOAA/NMFS cruises of NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell in the central north Pacific, 1997-2002 (NODC Accession 0100295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains measurements from CTD hydrocast stations from seven cruises of NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell in the central north Pacific from 1997 to 2002...

  17. N2 fixation as a dominant new N source in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean (OUTPACE cruise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffin, Mathieu; Moutin, Thierry; Foster, Rachel Ann; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Michelangelo Doglioli, Andrea; Berthelot, Hugo; Guieu, Cécile; Grosso, Olivier; Helias-Nunige, Sandra; Leblond, Nathalie; Gimenez, Audrey; Petrenko, Anne Alexandra; de Verneil, Alain; Bonnet, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    We performed nitrogen (N) budgets in the photic layer of three contrasting stations representing different trophic conditions in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) Ocean during austral summer conditions (February-March 2015). Using a Lagrangian strategy, we sampled the same water mass for the entire duration of each long-duration (5 days) station, allowing us to consider only vertical exchanges for the budgets. We quantified all major vertical N fluxes both entering (N2 fixation, nitrate turbulent diffusion, atmospheric deposition) and leaving the photic layer (particulate N export). The three stations were characterized by a strong nitracline and contrasted deep chlorophyll maximum depths, which were lower in the oligotrophic Melanesian archipelago (MA, stations LD A and LD B) than in the ultra-oligotrophic waters of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG, station LD C). N2 fixation rates were extremely high at both LD A (593 ± 51 µmol N m-2 d-1) and LD B (706 ± 302 µmol N m-2 d-1), and the diazotroph community was dominated by Trichodesmium. N2 fixation rates were lower (59 ± 16 µmol N m-2 d-1) at LD C, and the diazotroph community was dominated by unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacteria (UCYN). At all stations, N2 fixation was the major source of new N (> 90 %) before atmospheric deposition and upward nitrate fluxes induced by turbulence. N2 fixation contributed circa 13-18 % of primary production in the MA region and 3 % in the SPG water and sustained nearly all new primary production at all stations. The e ratio (e ratio = particulate carbon export / primary production) was maximum at LD A (9.7 %) and was higher than the e ratio in most studied oligotrophic regions (leading to N accumulation in the upper layer appears as a characteristic of the WTSP during the summer season.

  18. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Wittenberg, A.

    2009-08-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño) while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  19. Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Chun Tan

    Full Text Available A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the 50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (<0.36. These correlation coefficients were further interpreted in terms of the geographical distributions of dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas.

  20. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  1. Phylogeny of deepwater snappers (Genus Etelis) reveals a cryptic species pair in the Indo-Pacific and Pleistocene invasion of the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kimberly R; Williams, Ashley J; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Newman, Stephen J; Copus, Joshua M; Wakefield, Corey B; Randall, John E; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary genetic patterns in shallow coastal fishes are documented with dozens of studies, but corresponding surveys of deepwater fishes (>200m) are scarce. Here we investigate the evolutionary history of deepwater snappers (genus Etelis), comprised of three recognized Indo-Pacific species and one Atlantic congener, by constructing a phylogeny of the genus with two mtDNA loci and two nuclear introns. Further, we apply range-wide Indo-Pacific sampling to test for the presence and distribution of a putative cryptic species pair within E. carbunculus using morphological analyses and mtDNA cytochrome b sequences from 14 locations across the species range (N=1696). These analyses indicate that E. carbunculus is comprised of two distinct, non-interbreeding lineages separated by deep divergence (d=0.081 in cytochrome b). Although these species are morphologically similar, we identified qualitative differences in coloration of the upper-caudal fin tip and the shape of the opercular spine, as well as significant differences in adult body length, body depth, and head length. These two species have overlapping Indo-Pacific distributions, but one species is more widespread across the Indo-Pacific, whereas the other species is documented in the Indian Ocean and Western Central Pacific. The dated Etelis phylogeny places the cryptic species divergence in the Pliocene, indicating that the biogeographic barrier between the Indian and Pacific Oceans played a role in speciation. Based on historic taxonomy and nomenclature, the species more widespread in the Pacific Ocean is E. carbunculus, and the other species is previously undescribed (referred to here as E. sp.). The Atlantic congener E. oculatus has only recently (∼0.5Ma) diverged from E. coruscans in the Indo-Pacific, indicating colonization via southern Africa. The pattern of divergence at the Indo-Pacific barrier, and Pleistocene colonization from the Indian Ocean into the Atlantic, is concordant with patterns observed

  2. Trace elements from the Central Pacific Mexican Shelf: Geochemical associations and anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Rodríguez, A. J.; Morales-Blake, A. R.; González-Chavarín, I.; Hernández-Becerril, D.; Alonso-Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez-Palacio, M. C.; Sánchez-González, A.; Magallanes-Ordóñez, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    Baselines for major and trace elements were determined from surface sediment samples from sites located along the Central Pacific Mexican Shelf (CPMS; 16.7-20.45° N). This study area is next to the biggest harbours in Mexico, for example touristic (Puerto Vallarta and Acapulco), touristic and industrial (Manzanillo), and industrial harbours (Lázaro Cárdenas). The industrial harbours have been expanding, transporting tonnes of materials to Asia and North and South America. Oceanographic campaigns were conducted to obtain sediment from depths ranging from 56 to 159 m. The grain size was predominately fine fraction (determined for the sediments. Arsenic is enriched in the CPMS; the Normalized Enrichment Factor average (NEFAV) for As is NEFAV = 8 ± 7. However the ratio between As and Cs indicates a natural origin in the most of the sites. Cadmium, Mo, and Ag were significantly correlated with Corg enhanced precipitation of sulfide-reactive metals. Moreover, an anthropogenic influence was detected for Hg (NEFAV = 4.3 ± 1.5) and Ag (NEFAV = 8.5 ± 2.6) in the shelf near the heavily industrialized harbour of Lázaro Cárdenas.

  3. Sociological Variables Perceived in the Study of Ghanaian Languages in Central and Western Regional Colleges of Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaicoe, Kate; Adams, Francis Hull; Bersah, Vivian Adoboah; Baah, Kwabena Appiah

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted in two Colleges of Education in the Western and Central Regions of Ghana to find out how Colleges of Education students and tutors perceive the study of Ghanaian Languages. The target population comprised all staff and students of the Colleges of Education but the accessible population comprised students and tutors of the…

  4. Seasonal changes in nutrients, chlorophyll a and the phytoplankton assemblage of the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mamiko; Shiga, Naonobu; Saito, Masaru; Imai, Keiri; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    The standing stock and species composition of phytoplankton (>10 μm) were studied using monthly water samples collected at Stn KNOT (Kyodo North Pacific Ocean Time Series; 44°N, 155°E) in the western subarctic gyre in the Pacific Ocean through June 1998 to June 1999 (except for January-April 1999) and January-February 2000. One-liter water samples were preserved in 1% neutrally buffered formalin. Identification and enumeration of phytoplankton were made with an inverted microscope. Nutrients did not appear to be depleted for phytoplakton growth during any season. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton was primarily restricted by the pycnocline, and the bulk of phytoplankton assemblage existed within the surface mixed layer. In July, however, some senescent cells were observed at 200 m. Phytoplankton abundance clearly showed a spring maximum (i.e. spring bloom) in May. The seasonal change in cell numbers, however, did not coincide closely with the change in chlorophyll a concentration. Centric diatoms, which were composed of Thalassiosira, Chaetoceros, and Coscinodiscus, dominated all year round, and showed temporal succession. Pennate diatoms (mostly Neodenticula seminae and Fragilariopsis) increased only during the spring bloom. Dinoflagellates (mostly Gymnodinium and Prorocentrum) were low in abundance, although they increased in summer when the phytoplankton standing stock was low. Silicoflagellate abundance was extremely low. Comparing the annual species composition of phytoplankton between Stn KNOT and Stn P (50°N, 145°W) in the Alaskan Gyre, there was a remarkable difference between the two sites. The phytoplankton assemblage at Stn P is characterized by a high abundance of Rhizosolenia alata and low abundance of Thalassiosira. In contrast, Thalassiosira dominates at Stn KNOT during most seasons.

  5. Intermontane eolian sand sheet development, Upper Tulum Valley, central-western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Francisco Fuhr Dal' Bó

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe intermontane Upper Tulum eolian sand sheet covers an area of ca. 125 km² at north of the San Juan Province, central-western Argentina. The sand sheet is currently an aggrading system where vegetation cover, surface cementation and periodic flooding withhold the development of dunes with slipfaces. The sand sheet surface is divided into three parts according to the distribution of sedimentary features, which reflects the variation in sediment budget, water table level and periodic flooding. The central sand sheet part is the main area of eolian deposition and is largely stabilized by vegetation. The sedimentary succession is 4 m thick and records the vertical interbedding of eolian and subaqueous deposits, which have been deposited for at least 3.6 ky with sedimentation rates of 86.1 cm/ky. The construction of the sand sheet is associated with deflation of the sand-graded debris sourced by San Juan alluvial fan, which is available mainly in drier fall-winter months where water table is lower and wind speeds are periodically above the threshold velocity for sand transport. The accumulation of sedimentary bodies occurs in a stabilized eolian system where vegetation cover, thin mud veneers and surface cementation are the main agents in promoting accumulation. The preservation of the sand sheet accumulations is enabled by the progressive creation of the accommodation space in a tectonically active basin and the continuous burial of geological bodies favored by high rates of sedimentation.

  6. Mössbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, J.; Sulák, M.; Putiš, M.; Tóth, I.

    2010-03-01

    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Mössbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ Fe3+ contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Mössbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  7. Tropical Pacific Climate, Carbon, and Ocean Biogeochemical Response to the Central American Seaway in a GFDL Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, L. T.; Dunne, J. P.; Stouffer, R. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Broccoli, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    To explore the tropical Pacific climate, carbon, and ocean biogeochemical response to the shoaling and closure of the Central American Seaway during the Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma), we performed a suite of sensitivity experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, GFDL-ESM2G, varying only the seaway widths and sill depths. These novel ESM simulations include near-final closure of the seaway with a very narrow, 1º grid cell wide opening. Net mass transport through the seaway into the Caribbean is 20.5-23.1 Sv with a deep seaway, but only 14.1 Sv for the wide/shallow seaway because of the inter-basin bi-directional horizontal mass transport. Seaway transport originates from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Pacific and rejoins it in the South Atlantic, reducing the Indonesian Throughflow and transporting heat and salt southward into the South Atlantic, in contrast to present-day and previous seaway simulations. Tropical Pacific mean climate and interannual variability is sensitive to the seaway shoaling, with the largest response to the wider/deeper seaway. In the tropical Pacific, the top 300-m warms 0.4-0.8°C, the equatorial east-west sea surface temperature gradient increases, the north-south sea surface temperature asymmetry at 110°W decreases, thermocline deepens 5-11 m, and the east-west thermocline gradient increases. In the Niño-3 region, ENSO amplitude increases, skewed toward more cold (La Niña) events, El Niño and La Niña develops earlier ( 3 months), the annual cycle weakens and the semi-annual and interannual cycles strengthen from increased symmetry of the north-south sea surface temperature gradient, and atmospheric global teleconnections strengthen with the seaway. The increase in global ocean overturning with the seaway results in a younger average ocean ideal age, reduced dissolved inorganic carbon inventory and marine net primary productivity, and altered inter-basin patterns of surface sediment carbonate

  8. Numerical experiments on the atmospheric response to cold Equatorial Pacific conditions ('La Nina') during northern summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Schriever, D.; Arpe, K.; Branstator, G.W.; Legnani, R.; Ulbrich, U.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of cold conditions in the central and eastern Equatorial Pacific during Northern Summer is examined in a series of numerical experiments with the low resolution (T21) atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM2. Anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) as observed in June 1988 were prescribed and the effect on the global circulation is examined. In the model atmosphere, the anomalous cold water in the Equatorial Pacific excites a strong and stable response over the tropical Central and East Pacific. From here stationary Rossby waves radiate into both hemispheres. The Northern Hemisphere wave train is weak and affects only the Northeast Pacific area; the Southern Hemisphere wave train arches from the Central Pacific over the southern tip of South America to the South Atlantic. This response is not only present in the basic anomaly experiment with the T21 GCM but also in experiments with SST anomalies confined to the tropics and with an envelope-formulation of the SST anomalies, in experiments with a linear model, and in high resolution (T42) model experiments. The model output is also compared to the actually observed atmospheric state in June 1988. (orig./KW)

  9. Sedimentary structure and tectonic setting of the abyssal basins adjoining the southeast part of the Ontong Java Plateau, western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S.; Masato, N.; Miura, S.; Suetsugu, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ontong Java Plateau(OJP) in the western Pacific Ocean is one of the largest oceanic plateau in the world. Radioactive ages of drilling samples indicate that the most part of the OJP was emplaced about 122 Ma (Mahoney et al., 1993). Taylor (2006) proposed that the OJP f