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Sample records for western canada study

  1. A retrospective study of canine strychnine poisonings from 1998 to 2013 in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Vanessa E; Blakley, Barry R

    2015-06-01

    This study describes observations related to 93 cases of strychnine poisoning in dogs over a 16-year period in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba. Epidemiological information describing age, gender, breed, and size of the dogs, geographical distribution of poisonings, and strychnine concentrations in tissue matrices were tabulated. The mortality in dogs poisoned with strychnine was 60.2%. Strychnine poisoning cases varied by year (P = 0.0012) and by season (P = 0.0005). The highest number of confirmed cases occurred in years 2000 and 2001. Poisonings occurred most frequently during the spring. There were no statistical differences related to age or gender, but older, male dogs appeared to be more commonly affected. Large dog breeds were most commonly affected. Strychnine was detected in multiple tissue matrices, including stomach contents, liver, urine, vomitus, and gastric washings. The study indicates that strychnine poisoning in the dog remains a common toxicosis in western Canada.

  2. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  3. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection II. Location of study herds relative to the oil and gas industry in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    During the late part of 2000 and early months of 2001, project veterinarians recruited 205 beef herds to participate in a study of the effects of emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry on cattle reproduction and health. Researchers developed herd-selection criteria to optimize the range of exposure to facilities, including oil and gas wells, battery sites, and gas-gathering and gas-processing facilities across the major cattle-producing areas of Western Canada. Herds were initially selected on the basis of a ranking system of exposure potential on the basis of herd-owner reports of the locations of their operations in relation to oil and gas industry facilities. At the end of the study, researchers summarized data obtained from provincial regulatory agencies on facility location and reported flaring and venting volumes for each herd and compared these data to the original rankings of herd-exposure potential. Through this selection process, the researchers were successful in obtaining statistically significant differences in exposure to various types of oil and gas facility types and reported emissions among herds recruited for the study.

  4. Bentonite chemical features as proxy of late Cretaceous provenance changes: A case study from the Western Interior Basin of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Bentonite beds are fairly common in both marine and terrestrial Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) deposits of the Western Interior Basin of western Canada and northwestern United States. A detailed stratigraphic, sedimentologic, geochemical (X-ray fluorescence), and mineralogical (X-ray diffraction) study of twenty-one bentonites from the Puskwaskau and Wapiti formations in the Grande Prairie area (west-central Alberta, Canada) is here presented. Major and trace-element concentrations from altered volcanic ashes document the presence in the study area of predominantly trachyandesitic and rhyolitic volcanogenic products, resulted from intense volcanic arc to within-plate pyroclastic activity. Concentration values of high field strength elements (HFSE) and selected large ion lithophile elements (LILE) (e.g. Nb, Zr, Th, and Y) obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy strongly support the presence of multiple volcanic sources. Integrated paleoenvironmental and geochemical criteria for provenance determination indicate a bimodal occurrence of basic and acid volcanic products interpreted as reflection of source areas characterized by different tectonic setting and magmatic composition. A comparative analysis of geochemical compositions between Grande Prairie bentonites and 30 known volcanic beds from central and southern Alberta, Manitoba and Montana 1. documents a trend toward more acidic and alkali-depleted volcanic products during the late Campanian-early Maastrichtian interval, and 2. suggests a well constrained stratigraphic and geographic subdivision of the non-marine successions of the foreland basin on the basis of geochemical characteristic of volcanic ash beds. Furthermore, geochemical "fingerprints" of several decimeter to meter thick bentonite beds have been coupled with volcanic ash subsurface signature in order to investigate their role as marker beds. This multiple-approach provides a reliable tool for basin-scale identification and correlation

  5. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The impact of exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities on animal and human health has been a long-standing concern in western Canada. This technical summary presented highlights of the 17 major research appendices of a study examining associations between emissions and important reproductive parameters in beef cattle, including pregnancy rates, frequencies of abortions and stillbirths, and the risk of death among young calves. The effect of exposure to emissions on the respiratory, immune and nervous systems of calves and yearlings was also evaluated. The study was an epidemiological investigation that drew on large blocks of data collected from privately owned cow-calf operations, laboratory analyses of biological samples and samplers from air monitors. Mixed effect regression models were used to investigate whether measures of reproductive, immunological, and pathology outcomes were associated with emissions from the petroleum industry. Appropriate statistical adjustments were made to correct for multiple comparisons following standard statistical practice. An overview of the methods used to analyze the data was presented, as well as an examination of the methods of epidemiology in determining a causal effect, and the limitations of a single study in determining causation with certainty. Information on water quality testing and feeding management and forage testing was provided. 15 tabs., 26 figs.

  6. Socioeconomic status, sunlight exposure, and risk of malignant melanoma: the Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R P; Elwood, J M; Threlfall, W J; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Hill, G B

    1987-10-01

    In a study of 261 male melanoma patients and age-and sex-matched controls, a strong positive univariate association between socioeconomic status, as determined by usual occupation, and risk of melanoma was detected. This association, however, was substantially explained by host constitutional factors and occupational, recreational, and vacation sunlight exposure. The study demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma in draftsmen and surveyors and a reduced risk of melanoma in construction workers and individuals employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry even after control for the effect of host factors and sunlight exposure.

  7. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  8. A study of the composition, characteristics, and origin of modern driftwood on the western coast of Nunavik (Quebec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelandt, Stéphanie; Marguerie, Dominique; Bhiry, Najat; Delwaide, Ann

    2015-03-01

    Data concerning driftwood is of value to researchers in fields as diverse as oceanography, geomorphology, and human occupation. Yet studies on the subject in the Canadian Arctic have only recently been carried out, and the present study is the first in Nunavik (northeastern Canada). This paper documents the composition, characteristics, and origin of modern driftwood pieces on the beaches of the eastern coast of Hudson Bay. A total of 1057 samples from Ivujivik, Akulivik, Inukjuak, and Umiujaq were identified as belonging to four coniferous species (Picea sp., Larix sp., Abies sp. likely balsamea, and Thuja sp. likely occidentalis) and four deciduous species (Salix sp., Populus sp., Alnus sp., and Betula sp., likely papyrifera). Spruce largely predominate; white birch, white cedar, and fir are rare. The presence of the latter species proves that some of the wood originated from south-southeast of James Bay. Driftwood found in the southern area (Umiujaq) are more numerous, larger, and less degraded than driftwood in the north (Ivujivik). However, many large coniferous samples were found as far north as Akulivik, indicating that they likely traveled a great distance, unlike the smaller wood specimens (especially deciduous samples). All of the wood that we analyzed died relatively young, with an average age of 63 years for conifers and 23 years for deciduous. Measurements of ring widths and the cross-dating of samples with existing reference chronologies of living trees along Hudson Bay and James Bay revealed several possible correlations and origins for wood found in same areas.

  9. Warm water geothermal and cold energy in western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peachey, B. [New Paradigm Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)]|[Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada's low carbon futures study was discussed along with a study in which scenarios were developed for three resources, notably bitumen in carbonate reservoirs; conventional heavy oil; and warm water geothermal energy from operating oil wells. The presentation provided an overview of geothermal systems including hot dry rock; dry steam resources; hot water resources; warm water resources; and low temperature systems. A warm water geothermal study for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was also presented. Although high quality geothermal energy sources are rare in Canada, there are large warm water geothermal reservoirs, ranging in temperature from 50 to 180 degrees C in the WCSB. This presentation focused on the potential for recovery of the warm water geothermal energy already being brought to surface from the WCSB's oil wells. Several energy approaches were also presented, such as warm geothermal or produced water being used for heating an oil reservoir; using produced mechanical energy for field pumping; and producing renewable electricity from binary plants with propane. Illustrations were also provided for the organic Rankine cycle; low pump geothermal power; and no pump geothermal system. Combined geothermal and oil production were also discussed. Other topics that were presented included industrial cooling; municipal cooling; mined oilsands barriers and tailings; containment of in-situ oilsands; and rural freeze desalination. The report concluded with discussions of the Canadian minerals industry; cold Arctic construction; and ice roads in the North. It was concluded that there is potential for warm water geothermal in existing oilfield operations in Canada. tabs., figs.

  10. Risk factors for Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease in farmed bison (Bison bison) herds in western Canada: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Ana L; Barkema, Herman W; Woodbury, Murray; Ribble, Carl; Perez-Casal, Jose; Windeyer, M Claire

    2016-07-01

    North American bison producers have been attempting to control and prevent Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease without the benefit of bison-specific knowledge. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation of disease associated with M. bovis infection in western Canadian farmed bison, and to identify herd-level risk factors for M. bovis-associated disease. Bison producers (n=49) from western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia) were selected for a 1:2 case-control study. Data were collected by an in-person interview using a questionnaire regarding clinical presentations of outbreaks and herd-level management factors. Risk factors associated with M. bovis outbreaks were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. All 17 case herds had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of M. bovis infection within the last 5 years. In 11 (65%) of the 17 case herds, disease associated with M. bovis infection recurred in subsequent years. Overall, 88% of case herds had recently introduced bison that later developed clinical signs associated with M. bovis infection. Within a bison operation, a median of 8% (Inter Quartile Range [IQR]: 3-11%) developed clinical signs: lameness, reluctance to move, swollen joints, difficulty breathing, coughing, sluggishness, and loss of body condition. Also, calving percentage the year after the first M. bovis outbreak was lower than calving percentage the year before the outbreak. Herd-level mortality risk during the first M. bovis outbreak in case herds ranged from 0.5 to 50% (median 5%, IQR: 3-10%) and the median case fatality risk was 100%. Case herds were more likely than control herds to have a feedlot unit (OR=7), to receive regular visits from rental trailers or trailers from other farms (OR=15), to annually vaccinate bison (OR=7), and to lose at least one bison due to fatal respiratory disease in the previous year (OR=9). These findings will aid development of evidence

  11. Environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design for benzene-contaminated groundwater under parameter uncertainty: a case study in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; He, L; Lu, H W; Li, J

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design approach for benzene-contaminated groundwater. It involves exposure frequency and intake rates that are important but difficult to be exactly quantified as breakthrough point. Flexible health-risk control is considered in the simulation and optimization work. The proposed approach is then applied to a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Different situations about remediation durations, public concerns, and satisfactory degrees are addressed by the approach. The relationship between environmental standards and health-risk limits is analyzed, in association with their effect on remediation costs. Insights of three uncertain factors (i.e. exposure frequency, intake rate and health-risk threshold) for the remediation system are also explored, on a basis of understanding their impacts on health risk as well as their importance order. The case study results show that (1) nature attenuation plays a more important role in long-term remediation scheme than the pump-and-treat system; (2) carcinogenic risks have greater impact on total pumping rates than environmental standards for long-term remediation; (3) intake rates are the second important factor affecting the remediation system's performance, followed by exposure frequency; (4) the 10-year remediation scheme is the most robust choice when environmental and health-risk concerns are not well quantified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Peer Collaboration in an English/Chinese Bilingual Program in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Maio

    2016-01-01

    Informed by current notions of dynamic bilingualism and the community of practice (C of P) framework, this study was designed as an ethnographic case study to explore peer collaboration in an English/Chinese bilingual program in a city in Western Canada. The main participants in the study were three Grade 5 English/Chinese bilingual students. The…

  13. Geological and production characteristics of the Lewis Shale, San Juan Basin, USA: an ongoing study with applications to other foreland basins of the Western Interior, USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereskin, R. [Tesseract Corporation, Park City, UT (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The geological characteristics of the Lewis Shale, San Juan Basin, New Mexico is examined to provide information about ways to characterize productive wells. Logs of Cretaceous shale need to be examined more closely. The lithology, environment of deposition, and porosity types shown by a type log of Lewis shale and the utility of a FMI log for indicating various features are described. Integrated use of core, FMI, gamma ray, and neutron log techniques improve target identification. Lewis shale analogues likely exist along lengths of the Western Interior and Canada. 21 figs.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  15. Skills required of dairy veterinarians in western Canada: A survey of practicing veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Luby, Christopher D.; McIntyre, Katelyn; Jelinski, Murray D.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined skills required of entry-level veterinarians for dairy practice in western Canada and compared mixed and dairy practitioners in the skills that they perform. We surveyed western Canadian veterinarians involved in dairy practice, focusing primarily on clinical activity of respondents. Response rate was 39.4% (281/714). Respondents were classified as either mixed practitioners ( 75% time in dairy practice). For both gr...

  16. Evolution of a saline wetland in western boreal Canada: a study based on diatoms, pollen, and non-pollen palynomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volik, O.; Petrone, R. M.; Wells, C. M.; Hall, R. I.; Price, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems, which comprise over 50% of northern Alberta's land base, are under increasing pressures as a result of intensive development related to oil sands extraction. According to provincial guidelines, mined area must be reclaimed to an "equivalent capacity" and should contain ~33% wetlands by area. Paleoecological studies have proven useful for the development of restoration strategies through establishment of pre-disturbance baselines and assessing the possibility of returning ecosystems to pre-disturbance state. The task of wetland reclamation is challenged by salinization in the post mined environment, thus understanding the evolution of natural saline wetlands will aid in the development of improved reclamation strategies. The study was carried out in a natural saline wetland situated ~10 km southeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Paleoecological changes were investigated using diatoms, pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs in sediment cores taken from a pond in the central part of the wetland. Variations in physicochemical properties and microfossils assemblages in the core demonstrate dynamic changes associated with saline wetland initiation and its trajectory. The transition from clay sediments, characterized by low concentration of microfossils, to gyttja indicates that lake drainage preceded establishment of the wetland. Upcore shifts in microfossil assemblages reflect cycling between periods of very high salinity (recorded by a dominance of marine-brackish and brackish diatoms) followed by period of decreased salinity (indicted by a rise in fresh-brackish species) with gradual increases in salinity thereafter. Identification of the processes driving variation in salinity over time may be useful in the post-mined reclamation setting. Assessment of temporal changes in ecosystem functioning associated with differences in level of dissolved salts may lead to different reclamation approaches capable of dealing with the higher salinity conditions.

  17. The Effect of Climate Change on Optimal Wetlands and Waterfowl Management in Western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitey, P.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Warmer temperatures and a decrease in precipitation in the 21st century could severely deplete wetlands in the prairie pothole region of western Canada. In this study, we employ linear regression analysis to determine the casual effect of climate change on wetlands in this region, with temperature,

  18. The Effect of Climate Change on Optimal Wetlands and Waterfowl Management in Western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitey, P.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Warmer temperatures and a decrease in precipitation in the 21st century could severely deplete wetlands in the prairie pothole region of western Canada. In this study, we employ linear regression analysis to determine the casual effect of climate change on wetlands in this region, with temperature,

  19. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

    2002-01-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of...

  20. Drought causes reduced growth of trembling aspen in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-Guo; Alam, Syed Ashraful; Zhai, Lihong; Dawson, Andria; Stadt, Kenneth J; Comeau, Philip G

    2017-07-01

    Adequate and advance knowledge of the response of forest ecosystems to temperature-induced drought is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function. Recent massive decline in aspen-dominated forests and an increased aspen mortality in boreal forests have been associated with global warming, but it is still uncertain whether the decline and mortality are driven by drought. We used a series of ring-width chronologies from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) sites along a latitudinal gradient (from 52° to 58°N) in western Canada, in an attempt to clarify the impacts of drought on aspen growth by using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Results indicated that prolonged and large-scale droughts had a strong negative impact on trembling aspen growth. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal variability of drought indices is useful for explaining the spatial heterogeneity in the radial growth of trembling aspen. Due to ongoing global warming and rising temperatures, it is likely that severer droughts with a higher frequency will occur in western Canada. As trembling aspen is sensitive to drought, we suggest that drought indices could be applied to monitor the potential effects of increased drought stress on aspen trees growth, achieve classification of eco-regions and develop effective mitigation strategies to maintain western Canadian boreal forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): An analysis of spatial and temporal hydrological trends and patterns in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, A. J.; Burn, D. H.; Prowse, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change can have profound impacts on the hydrologic regime of a watershed. These effects are likely to be especially severe in regions particularly sensitive to changes in climate, such as the Canadian north, or when there are other stresses on the hydrologic regime, such as may occur when there are large withdrawals from, or land-use changes within, a watershed. A recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stressed that future climate is likely to accelerate the hydrologic cycle and hence may affect water security in certain locations. For some regions, this will mean enhanced access to water resources, but because the effects will not be spatially uniform, other regions will experience reduced access. Understanding these patterns is critical for water managers and government agencies in western Canada - an area of highly contrasting hydroclimatic regimes and overlapping water-use and jurisdictional borders - as adapting to climate change may require reconsideration of inter-regional transfers and revised allocation of water resources to competing industrial sectors, including agriculture, hydroelectric production, and oil and gas. This research involves the detection and examination of spatial and temporal streamflow trends in western Canadian rivers as a response to changing climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and the synoptic patterns controlling these drivers. The study area, known as the CROCWR region, extends from the Pacific coast of British Columbia as far east as the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border and from the Canada-United States international border through a large portion of the Northwest Territories. This analysis examines hydrologic trends in monthly and annual streamflow for a collection of 34 hydrometric gauging stations believed to adequately represent the overall effects of climate variability and change on flows in western Canada by means of the Mann-Kendall non

  2. Electrical conductivity in the precambrian lithosphere of western canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner; Kurtz; Craven; Ross; Jones; Davis

    1999-01-29

    The subcrustal lithosphere underlying the southern Archean Churchill Province (ACP) in western Canada is at least one order of magnitude more electrically conductive than the lithosphere beneath adjacent Paleoproterozoic crust. The measured electrical properties of the lithosphere underlying most of the Paleoproterozoic crust can be explained by the conductivity of olivine. Mantle xenolith and geological mapping evidence indicate that the lithosphere beneath the southern ACP was substantially modified as a result of being trapped between two nearly synchronous Paleoproterozoic subduction zones. Tectonically induced metasomatism thus may have enhanced the subcrustal lithosphere conductivity of the southern ACP.

  3. A Brief Review of Bovine Coccidiosis in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radostits, O. M.; Stockdale, P. H. G.

    1980-01-01

    Coccidiosis of beef cattle, in both its enteric and nervous forms, seen in feedlots in Western Canada is discussed. Cases of coccidiosis accompanied by nervous signs, occasionally up to 30% of those affected enterically, are most common during the coldest winter months. The pathogenesis of the nervous form of the disease is unknown. Clinical management of disease outbreaks using various chemotherapeutics is described. The importance of using anticoccidial drugs before the onset of clinical signs in cattle in contact with sick animals is discussed. PMID:7000331

  4. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : interpretive overview by the science advisory panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, T.; Nielsen, O.; Berhane, K.; Cohen, B.S.; Hunter, B.; Lasley, B.; Martin, W.; Ribble, C.; Thorne, P.; Tollerud, D.; Witschi, H. [Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association, Calgary, AB (Canada). Science Advisory Panel

    2006-05-15

    The results of a study to determine if chronic exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry influence the health and reproductive performance of cattle and wildlife in western Canada was presented. Individual cows in herds from Alberta, Saskatchewan and northeastern British Columbia were monitored in pens and pastures to determine their exposure status. Data on other known risk factors such as the cow's age, breed and body condition were collected. The study measured concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}); hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S); and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured as benzene and toluene. Passive air monitors were located on all occupied pastures and wintering areas for each herd. Information on the location of over 39,000 animals from 205 herds on 3355 different parcels of land was recorded at 2 week intervals. Each animal's exposure was then averaged to create cumulative exposure values for biologically relevant risk periods for each outcome. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured a total of 365 times near the calving area for 32 herds. Five primary health outcomes were studied: (1) nonpregnancy; (2) length of breeding-to-calving interval; (3) abortion; (4) stillbirth; and (5) calf mortality. No associations were found among any of the exposure measures and the risk of nonpregnancy, abortion or stillbirth. Sulphur-containing exposures showed no associations with secondary outcome measures in the respiratory, immune and nervous systems. An association was found between exposure to SO{sub 2} and the increased risk of calf mortality. Findings also suggested that there was a greater risk of lesions in the calf skeletal or cardiac muscle with increased prenatal exposure to SO{sub 2}. Increased exposure to VOCs contributed to a greater risk of calf respiratory and thyroid lesions, and a lower count of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in calves. The results of a concurrent study on

  5. Skills required of dairy veterinarians in western Canada: a survey of practicing veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Christopher D; McIntyre, Katelyn; Jelinski, Murray D

    2013-03-01

    This study determined skills required of entry-level veterinarians for dairy practice in western Canada and compared mixed and dairy practitioners in the skills that they perform. We surveyed western Canadian veterinarians involved in dairy practice, focusing primarily on clinical activity of respondents. Response rate was 39.4% (281/714). Respondents were classified as either mixed practitioners ( 75% time in dairy practice). For both groups, individual animal medicine and surgery skills were performed more commonly than herd health skills. The most important skills identified were those required for basic theriogenology, physical examination, treatment of common disorders, and general surgery. These results underscore the continued importance of individual animal skills in food animal practice in western Canada.

  6. Alberta, Western Canada and the FTA/NAFTA: 1988-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, S.S.; Chambers, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The sharp improvement in the export performance of Western Canada in recent years was discussed. In 1995, British Columbia ranked first among western provinces in the value of exports, and Alberta ranked second. Shipments from Alberta increased 15.4 per cent in value over 1994. The two provinces account for approximately 80 per cent of Western Canada`s total. A summary was provided of the increased value of exports for certain categories (meat, vegetables, energy, plastics, wood, electrical machinery, furniture, precision instruments); all of these meet the criteria defined for `sustained growth` and `export foothold`. Western Canada`s trade with Mexico was also discussed. All exports from Western Canada were itemized,along with export and U.S. market shares data from 1988 to 1995. 11 tabs.

  7. Habitat associations with counts of declining Western Grebes in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara E. Erickson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past several decades, numbers of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis have declined throughout their breeding and wintering ranges in North America. We estimated Western Grebe abundance and documented habitat factors between 2007 and 2009 from 43 lakes in Alberta, Canada where Western Grebes historically have occurred, to (1 compare Western Grebe abundance with the relative probability of persistence, and (2 identify habitat correlates of grebe abundance. The relative probability of Western Grebe persistence was correlated with abundance in the study area, although only 19% of the variation in persistence probability was explained by abundance. Western Grebe abundance was positively correlated with the shoreline extent of emergent bulrush (Scirpus lacustris, which is consistent with past studies and underlies the importance of protecting emergent vegetation in efforts to conserve Western Grebes. Grebe abundance also was positively correlated with a longer shoreline perimeter, but was inversely correlated with the amount of forested backshore, which occurred on lakes primarily at the northern margins of Western Grebe range. The amount of backshore development was positively associated with Western Grebe abundance, which might reflect a preference for similar lake characteristics by humans and grebes. These relationships are important to consider in the context of implementing and managing recovery of the Western Grebe in Alberta.

  8. Fault activation by hydraulic fracturing in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xuewei; Eaton, David W.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been inferred to trigger the majority of injection-induced earthquakes in western Canada, in contrast to the Midwestern United States, where massive saltwater disposal is the dominant triggering mechanism. A template-based earthquake catalog from a seismically active Canadian shale play, combined with comprehensive injection data during a 4-month interval, shows that earthquakes are tightly clustered in space and time near hydraulic fracturing sites. The largest event [moment magnitude (MW) 3.9] occurred several weeks after injection along a fault that appears to extend from the injection zone into crystalline basement. Patterns of seismicity indicate that stress changes during operations can activate fault slip to an offset distance of >1 km, whereas pressurization by hydraulic fracturing into a fault yields episodic seismicity that can persist for months.

  9. Long-distance induced tremor observed off western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-05-01

    Using seismic observations made near the Queen Charlotte Margin (QCM), a seismically active region off the western coast of Canada, Aiken et al. add to the growing body of research on how large earthquakes can cause tectonic plates to slip half way around the world. Reaching north from the intersection of the Juan de Fuca ridge, the Cascadia subduction zone, and the Queen Charlotte Fault, QCM underlies the islands of Haida Gwaii and was the site of a magnitude 7.7 earthquake in October 2012. Drawing on seismic readings collected from 1990 to 2012 and using a database of major worldwide earthquakes, the authors identified three earthquakes that induced tremors in QCM: the 2002 magnitude 7.9 Denali earthquake, the 2004 magnitude 9.2 Sumatra quake, and the 2011 magnitude 9.1 Tohoku earthquake. The authors observed the induction not of conventional earthquakes but of deep tectonic tremors, slips of tectonic plates with epicenters located far beneath the surface.

  10. Time dependent seismicity along the western coast of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos V. Christou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Decelerating generation of intermediate magnitude earthquakes (preshocks in a narrow region (seismogenic region and accelerating generation of relatively larger such earthquakes in a broader region (critical region has been proposed as an appropriate model for intermediate-term earthquake prediction. We examined the seismic activity which preceded the Mw=7.7 (October 28, 2012 thrust event that occurred off the west coast of Haida Gwaii, Canada (formerly the Queen Charlotte islands, by applying the decelerating-accelerating seismic strain model. We found that this mainshock was preceded by a pronounced accelerating seismic sequence with the time to the mainshock, as well as by an equally easily identifiable decelerating seismic sequence. Both precursory seismic sequences occurred in different space, time and magnitude windows. The behavior of previous mainshocks that occurred close to the 2012 earthquake was also examined by the time and magnitude predictable regional model. An attempt was also made to identify such seismic strain patterns, which may also be related to the generation of strong mainshocks along the western coast of Canada.

  11. Glacier and hydrology changes in future climate over western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Katja; Sushama, Laxmi; Marshall, Shawn

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers are frozen fresh water reservoirs that respond to changes in temperature and snowfall. Concern is growing about the impact that changes in glaciers may have on water resources in regions such as western Canada that derive a lot of their summer streamflow from glacier melt. Given that RCM projections are an important tool and are increasingly being used in assessing projected changes to water resources, particularly due to its high resolution compared with GCMs, realistic representation of glaciers in RCMs is very important. Currently, glaciers are only represented in an extremely simplified way in the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). This simple approach of representing glaciers as static glacier masks is appropriate for short-term integrations, where the response of glacier to changing atmospheric conditions might still be small due to glacier response times and therefore the feedback of changing glacier extent on large-scale atmospheric flow conditions might be negligible. A new dynamic glacier scheme has been developed for use within CRCM5, based on volume-area relationships. Simulations have been performed with this glacier model and Land Surface Scheme CLASS for the 2000-2100 period over a domain covering western Canada. These simulations were driven by outputs from a CRCM5 transient climate change simulation driven by CanESM2 at the lateral boundaries, for RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. Preliminary results suggest significant decreases to glacier fractions in future climate. Though the glacier contribution to streamflows is found to dramatically decrease in future climate, the total streamflows did not show any dramatic decreases due to the increase in precipitation for these regions.

  12. Tourism Standards: Western Canada. Certification Field Test. Final Report. Formative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Tourism Education Council, Edmonton.

    The Tourism Standards Consortium (TSC) is a partnership of the governments of Canada's western provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia), the provinces' tourism industries, and the Pacific Rim Institute of Tourism in British Columbia. In an effort to increase professionalism in Western Canada's tourism industry, the TSC…

  13. Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in wolves from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M; Elkin, Brett T; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-02-01

    Echinococcus species are important parasites of wildlife, domestic animals and people worldwide; however, little is known about the prevalence, intensity and genetic diversity of Echinococcus tapeworms in Canadian wildlife. Echinococcus tapeworms were harvested from the intestines of 42% of 93 wolves (Canis lupus) from five sampling regions in the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and visually identified to genus level by microscopic examination. Genetic characterization was successful for tapeworms from 30 wolves, and identified both Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis in all sampling locations. Mixed infections of E. canadensis/E. multilocularis, as well as the G8/G10 genotypes of E. canadensis were observed. These findings suggest that wolves may be an important definitive host for both parasite species in western Canada. This represents the first report of wolves naturally infected with E. multilocularis in North America, and of wolves harbouring mixed infections with multiple species and genotypes of Echinococcus. These observations provide important information regarding the distribution and diversity of zoonotic species of Echinococcus in western North America, and may be of interest from public health and wildlife conservation perspectives.

  14. The potential for western Canada to become a leader in electrically powered land transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, A.; Gilbert, R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Canada's western provinces are among the most oil-intensive jurisdictions in the world. Per capita consumption in 2007 was 70 percent higher than that of eastern Canada. While western Canada will be buffered as a producer of oil, predicted swings in oil prices may disrupt the fiscal capacity of producer provinces. The price of crude oil in western Canada is the same price established in world markets. This paper examined some of the opportunities available for western Canada to move away from oil consumption by becoming a leader in electric traction. Methods of replacing oil-based transportation with the use of electric vehicles were discussed. Western Canada's capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources was evaluated. Economic opportunities related to the electrification of land transport were also examined. The report concluded by stating that a clear vision and policy framework for supporting new technologies for surface transport across western Canada are needed. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Roundabouts Canada case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lenters, M. [Roundabouts Canada, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A modern roundabout was constructed in the community of Ancaster, Ontario in response to growing complaints regarding speeding along the major roadway, and queuing on the minor roadway. The roundabout opened on October 25, 2002. The before and after speeds at the roundabout are being studied, and the fastest path characteristics are assessed in an effort to determine whether the predicted fastest path data correlates with the in-service operating speeds. The speed at R1, R2 and R3 locations on the east west, and north south approaches are measured. tabs., figs.

  16. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU)...

  17. Sage-grouse Management Zones in the Western U.S. and Canada - DRAFT

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts a preliminary version of the management zone boundaries for Greater and Gunnison sage-grouse in the western United States and Canada. These...

  18. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...

  19. Distinguishing phosphate from fertilizers and wastewater treatment plant effluents in Western Canada using oxygen isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fau, Veronique; Nightingale, Michael; Tamburini, Frederica; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The successful application of oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for phosphate in aquatic ecosystems requires that different sources of phosphate are isotopically distinct. The objective of this study was to determine whether the oxygen isotope ratios of phosphate from fertilizers and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in Western Canada are isotopically distinct. Therefore, we carried out oxygen isotope analyses on phosphate in effluent from five different wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Samples were collected directly from the final effluent (post-UV) in Banff and Canmore upstream of Calgary, and from effluents of Calgary's WWTPs at Bonnybrook, Fish Creek and Pine Creek. We also carried out oxygen isotope analyses on a variety of phosphate-containing fertilizers that are widely used in Western Canada. Historically, most of the phosphate contained in manufactured fertilizers sold in Alberta came from two distinct deposits: 1) a weathered Pliocene igneous carbonatite located in eastern Canada, and 2) the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the western USA. Phosphate (PO43-) contained in the water or the fertilizer was concentrated and quantitatively converted to pure silver phosphate (Ag3PO4). The silver phosphate was then reduced with carbon in an oxygen free environment using a TC/EA pyrolysis reactor linked to a mass spectrometer where 18O/16O ratios of CO were measured in continuous flow mode. Preparation of samples for δ18OPO4 analyses was conducted using the Magnesium Induced Coprecipitation (MAGIC) method. Expected oxygen isotope ratios for phosphate in equilibrium with water (δ18Oeq) were calculated using the Longinelli and Nuti equation: T (° C) = 111.4 - 4.3 (δ18Oeq - δ18Owater). Measured δ18O values of phosphate for fertilizer samples varied from 8 to 25 oÈ®n average, fertilizer samples of sedimentary origin had higher δ18O values (15.8) than those of igneous origin (11.5). Phosphate isotopic

  20. Phosphogypsum capping depth affects revegetation and hydrology in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mallory E; Naeth, M Anne; Chanasyk, David S; Nichol, Connie K

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, is commonly stacked and capped with soil at decommissioning. Shallow (0, 8, 15, and 30 cm) and thick (46 and 91 cm) sandy loam caps on a PG stack near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada, were studied in relation to vegetation establishment and hydrologic properties. Plant response was evaluated over two growing seasons for redtop ( L.), slender wheatgrass ( (Link) Malte ex H.F. Lewis), tufted hairgrass ( (L.) P. Beauv.), and sheep fescue ( L.) and for a mix of these grasses with alsike clover ( L.). Water content below the soil-PG interface was monitored with time-domain reflectometry probes, and leachate water quantity and quality at a depth of 30 cm was measured using lysimeters. Vegetation responded positively to all cap depths relative to bare PG, with few significant differences among cap depths. Slender wheatgrass performed best, and tufted hairgrass performed poorly. Soil caps <1 m required by regulation were sufficient for early revegetation. Soil water fluctuated more in shallow than in thick caps, and water content was generally between field capacity and wilting point regardless of cap depth. Water quality was not affected by cap depths ≤30 cm. Leachate volumes at 30 cm from distinct rainfall events were independent of precipitation amount and cap depth. The study period had lower precipitation than normal, yet soil caps were hospitable for plant growth in the first 2 yr of establishment.

  1. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection III. Methods of assessing animal exposure to contaminants from the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    Researchers measured exposure to oil and gas industry emissions in 205 cow-calf herds located in Western Canada. They measured airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds with passive monitors placed in each pasture, wintering, or calving area that contained study animals from the start of the breeding season in the spring of 2001 until June 30, 2002. Researchers continued air monitoring in a subset of herds to the end of the study in fall 2002. Each sampling device was exposed for 1 month and then shipped to the laboratory for analysis. New samplers were installed and the shelters relocated, as necessary, to follow the movements of herd-management groups between pastures. Researchers linked the results of the air-monitoring analysis to individual animals for the relevant month. For the 205 herds examined at pregnancy testing in 2001, monthly mean exposures on the basis of all available data were as follows: sulfur dioxide, geometric mean (GM)=0.5 ppb, geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.2; hydrogen sulfide, GM=0.14 ppb, GSD=2.3; benzene, GM=0.247 microg/m3, GSD=2.5; and toluene, GM=0.236 microg/m3, GSD=2.7. Benzene and toluene were surrogates for volatile organic compound exposure. In addition to passive measurements of air quality, researchers obtained data from provincial regulatory agencies on the density of oil and gas field facilities and on flaring and venting from the surrounding facilities. They developed the data into additional measures of exposure that were linked to each animal at each location for each month of the study.

  2. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  3. The Rocky Mountain population of the western Canada goose: its distribution, habitats, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.; Bizeau, Elwood G.

    1980-01-01

    The western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) was divided into a Rocky Mountain population (RMP) and a Pacific population (PP) on the basis of band recovery patterns examined in this study and recovery data from other investigators. Habitat information obtained from nine cooperating wildlife agencies within the RMP's range provided a base line for evaluating future changes in nesting, molting, and wintering areas. The habitat inventory indicated that none of the seasonal habitats were currently limiting the size of the RMP. The RMP's range is divided into 15 reference areas and these are briefly described. Past studies of Canada geese in the Intermountain Region are reviewed. Topics covered in the discussion of breeding biology are nesting chronology, spring population composition, breeding age, clutch size, nesting success. artificial nesting structures, and gosling survival. Much of the mortality of Canada geese occurs before the birds are fledged. Man-made nesting structures reduce losses during incubation. but research is needed on the relations between brooding sites and gosling survival. Some western Canada geese, mainly prebreeders and unsuccessful nesters, make molt migrations to and from molting areas during and after the brood-rearing season. More than half of these molt-migrants are yearlings too young to nest; there are indications that even some successful nesters leave nesting areas to molt before the fledging of their offspring. Geese 2 years old or older may serve as guides to traditional molting areas for the first-time migrants (i.e., yearlings). Lack of disturbance appears to influence selection of specific molting areas within the nesting range of moffitti, whereas movements of molters out of the Intermountain Region may be related to the evolution of this subspecies. Apparently. molters of both the PP and RMP that leave the Region go to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although the taxonomic status of moffitti as related to the

  4. Fugitive Emissions from Conventional and Hydraulically Fractured Natural Gas Developments in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, E. E.; Risk, D. A.; Lavoie, M.; Marshall, A. D.; Baillie, J.; Williams, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Presently, fugitive emissions released into the atmosphere during the completion and production of oil and gas wells are poorly regulated within Canada. Some possible upstream sources of these emissions include flowback during well completions, liquid unloading, chemical injection pumps, and equipment leaks. The environmental benefits of combusting natural gas compared to oil or coal are negated if methane leakages surpass 3.2% of total production, so it is important to have a thorough understanding of these fugitive emissions. This study compares atmospheric leakage pathways of methane and other fugitive gases in both conventional and unconventional oil and gas developments in Western Canada to help fill this knowledge gap. Over 5000 kilometers of mobile survey campaigns were completed in carefully selected developments in the Montney shale play in British Columbia, and in conventional oil fields in Alberta. These sites are developed by more than 25 different operators. High precision laser and UV fluorescence gas analyzers were used to gather geolocated trace gas concentrations at a frequency of 1 Hz while driving. These data were processed with an adaptive technique to compensate for fluctuations in background concentrations for each gas. The residual excess concentrations were compositionally fingerprinted on the basis of the expected gas ratios for potential emission sites in order to definitively attribute anomalies to infrastructural leak sources. Preliminary results from the mobile surveys of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas sites are presented here. Pathways of methane and other fugitive gases are mapped to their respective sources, identifying common causes of emissions leaks across the oil and gas industry. This is the first bottom-up study of fugitive emissions from Canadian energy developments to produce publicly available data. These findings are significant to operators interested in lowering emissions for economic benefit, as well as

  5. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2016-09-01

    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  6. Screening for neurocognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety in HIV-infected patients in Western Europe and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    CRANIum, a cross-sectional epidemiology study in Western Europe and Canada, was conducted to describe and compare the prevalence of a positive screen for neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depressive symptoms, and anxiety in an HIV-positive population either receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) or who were naive to antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV-positive patients ≥18 years of age attending a routine medical follow-up visit and able to complete the designated screening tools we...

  7. Mercury risk to avian piscivores across western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Josh; Willacker, James J.; Elliott, John E.; Lepak, Jesse M; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    The widespread distribution of mercury (Hg) threatens wildlife health, particularly piscivorous birds. Western North America is a diverse region that provides critical habitat to many piscivorous bird species, and also has a well-documented history of mercury contamination from legacy mining and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of landscapes in the west limits the distribution of avian piscivore species, complicating broad comparisons across the region. Mercury risk to avian piscivores was evaluated across the western United States and Canada using a suite of avian piscivore species representing a variety of foraging strategies that together occur broadly across the region. Prey fish Hg concentrations were size-adjusted to the preferred size class of the diet for each avian piscivore (Bald Eagle = 36 cm, Osprey = 30 cm, Common and Yellow-billed Loon = 15 cm, Western and Clark's Grebe = 6 cm, and Belted Kingfisher = 5 cm) across each species breeding range. Using a combination of field and lab-based studies on Hg effect in a variety of species, wet weight blood estimates were grouped into five relative risk categories including: background ( 3 μg/g). These risk categories were used to estimate potential mercury risk to avian piscivores across the west at a 1 degree-by-1 degree grid cell resolution. Avian piscivores foraging on larger-sized fish generally were at a higher relative risk to Hg. Habitats with a relatively high risk included wetland complexes (e.g., prairie pothole in Saskatchewan), river deltas (e.g., San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Columbia River), and arid lands (Great Basin and central Arizona). These results indicate that more intensive avian piscivore sampling is needed across Western North America to generate a more robust assessment of exposure risk.

  8. Bias corrections of precipitation measurements across experimental sites in different ecoclimatic regions of western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xicai; Yang, Daqing; Li, Yanping; Barr, Alan; Helgason, Warren; Hayashi, Masaki; Marsh, Philip; Pomeroy, John; Janowicz, Richard J.

    2016-10-01

    This study assesses a filtering procedure on accumulating precipitation gauge measurements and quantifies the effects of bias corrections for wind-induced undercatch across four ecoclimatic regions in western Canada, including the permafrost regions of the subarctic, the Western Cordillera, the boreal forest, and the prairies. The bias corrections increased monthly precipitation by up to 163 % at windy sites with short vegetation and sometimes modified the seasonal precipitation regime, whereas the increases were less than 13 % at sites shielded by forest. On a yearly basis, the increase of total precipitation ranged from 8 to 20 mm (3-4 %) at sites shielded by vegetation and 60 to 384 mm (about 15-34 %) at open sites. In addition, the bias corrections altered the seasonal precipitation patterns at some windy sites with high snow percentage ( > 50 %). This study highlights the need for and importance of precipitation bias corrections at both research sites and operational networks for water balance assessment and the validation of global/regional climate-hydrology models.

  9. Climate change in the western and northern forests of Canada: Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, G. A.; Webber, S. L.; MacKendrick, N. A. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This report contains summaries of papers presented at the Workshop on Climate Change in the Western and Northern Forests of Canada, held on February 17-19, 2003, in Prince George BC. The workshop provided an opportunity for the exchange of views on the expected impacts of climate change on Canada's western and northern forests, and potential adaptive strategies. Several papers also dealt with the implications of climate change on environmental, social, and economic values of the forest, and institutional barriers to adaptation. Six key topics were addressed in informal 'knowledge cafe sessions': forest fires, insects and disease, forest productivity, forest practices, biodiversity, and non-timber forest values. Another informal series of meetings, dubbed 'open space sessions' centred around managing the various mechanisms, organizations, and stakeholders involved in climate change research and adaptation strategies. Lists containing the names of authors, and of workshop participants are also included.

  10. Small animal deworming protocols, client education, and veterinarian perception of zoonotic parasites in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Jason W.; Carr, Anthony P.; Chomel, Bruno B.; Berghaus, Roy D.; Hird, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Questionnaires were mailed to veterinarians in western Canada to determine dog and cat deworming protocols and the association between perceived zoonotic risk and perceived prevalence of endoparasites and deworming protocols. Of the responding veterinarians (545), 13% and 39% recommended deworming protocols consistent with established guidelines for puppies and kittens, respectively. Mixed animal practitioners and high-perceived prevalence of Toxocara cati were associated with increased appropriate kitten deworming (P veterinarians noted an established hospital deworming protocol, although only 78% followed the protocol. Forty-four percent of veterinarians stated they discussed with all clients the zoonotic risk of animal-derived endoparasites, whereas the remainder discussed it only under particular circumstances or not at all. Most small animal deworming protocols recommended in western Canada begin too late to inhibit endoparasite shedding. Increased educational efforts directed at veterinarians are warranted. PMID:17436903

  11. Focal mechanisms and variations in tectonic stress fields in eastern Canada (western Quebec and southern Ontario)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Sadegh, Parisa

    Earthquakes in western Quebec and southern Ontario present a major contribution to the natural hazards in south eastern Canada due to their proximity to major population centres. However, the seismic characteristics of the events in these regions have not been well documented. Improved knowledge of earthquake distribution and seismic controlling mechanisms provides a great benefit for earthquake hazard analysis in eastern Canada. The available information about the tectonic stress indicators, including focal mechanisms, was compiled for Canada prior to 1994. The present research is concentrated mainly on determination of the focal mechanisms and hypocentre locations of the earthquakes after 1993 with M > 3.5 to characterize the present-day regional and local stress fields in southern Ontario and western Quebec. An attempt was also made to differentiate local zones with comparatively homogeneous tectonic stresses orientation and seismic regimes, thus providing information for future re-assessment of the seismic hazard in each region. Considering seismic parameters such as the trend of the epicentres, focal depths and the state of stress of the events along with their tectonic settings, ten distinct clusters have been proposed for western Quebec and two clusters of events were determined for southern Ontario with comparatively consistent focal mechanisms. The locations and characteristics of seismicity clusters appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that they are near the locations of large historic and prehistoric events, and represent exceptionally persistent aftershocks of past large earthquakes.

  12. Assessment of High-Resolution Simulations of Precipitation and Temperature Characteristics Over Western Canada Using WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asong, Z. E.

    2016-12-01

    Lack of accurate estimates of precipitation are an important limitation for hydrological and earth systems modelling in Canada. Ground-based measurements are inevitably limited, given the large land area and small population density, fail to capture the effects of mountain topography in important runoff-producing areas and suffer from gross inaccuracies associated with cold climate precipitation processes. The capability of the current generation of atmospheric models to represent precipitation is therefore of major interest for hydrological practice. The skill of a high-resolution 4-km convection resolving regional climate model (RCM)―Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in capturing the statistics of daily-scale precipitation (P) and temperature (T) over western Canada within the period 2002 - 2013, using observational data sets for comparison is evaluated in this study. We analyze not only the mean pattern of P and T distributions, but also the inter-annual variability and trends in higher order climate statistics such as wet-dry day frequency, spell lengths, 95th percentile daily maximum T, 5th percentile daily minimum T, and 95th percentile daily P are evaluated against ground observations. This preliminary assessment should enable more informed application of high-resolution RCMs for the investigation of current and future changes in socio-economic and environmentally relevant hydro-climatic characteristics over this topographically complex region of western Canada.

  13. Reconstructing a mid-Cretaceous landscape from paleosols in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnar, David F.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Brenner, Richard L.; Witzke, B.J.; Leckie, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Albian Stage of the mid-Cretaceous was a time of equable climate conditions with high sea levels and broad shallow epeiric seas that may have had a moderating affect on continental climates. A Late Albian landscape surface that developed during a regression and subsequent sea-level rise in the Western Canada Foreland Basin is reconstructed on the basis of correlation of paleosols penetrated by cores through the Paddy Member of the Peace River Formation. Reconstruction of this landscape refines chronostratigraphic relationships and will benefit future paleoclimatological studies milizing continental sphaerosiderite proxy records. The paleosols developed in estuarine sandstones and mudstones, and they exhibit evidence of a polygenetic history. Upon initial exposure and pedogenesis, the Paddy Member developed deeply weathered, well-drained cumulative soil profiles. Later stages of pedogenesis were characterized by hydromorphic soil conditions. The stages of soil development interpreted for the Paddy Member correlate with inferred stages of pedogenic development in time-equivalent formations located both basinward and downslope (upper Viking Formation), and landward and upslope (Boulder Creek Formation). On the basis of the genetic similarity among paleosols in these three correlative formations, the paleosols are interpreted as having formed along a single, continuous landscape surface. Results of this study indicate that the catena concept of pedogenesis along sloping landscapes is applicable to ancient successions. Sphaerosiderites in the Paddy Mem ber paleosols are used to provide proxy values for meteoric ??18O values at 52?? N paleolatitude in the Cretaceous Western Interior Basin. The meteoric ??18O values are used to refine existing interpretations about the mid-Cretaceous paleolatitudinal gradient in meteoric ?? 18O values, and the mid-Cretaceous hydrologic cycle. Copyright ?? 2005, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  14. Measurements of Ice Nuclei at a Remote Coastal Site in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, M.; Mason, R.; Li, J.; Dickie, R.; Chou, C.; Ladino Moreno, L.; Yakobi-Hancock, J.; Schiller, C. L.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Desiree, T. S.; Abbatt, J.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles are abundant in the atmosphere, and they can influence climate by modifying the formation of ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Understanding the sources of ice nuclei (IN) should lead to better predictions of climate. Many current instruments for measuring atmospheric concentrations of IN are not capable of providing size-resolved information. Such knowledge is useful in identifying the sources of IN. The recently developed micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) provides size-resolved information by combining an established immersion freezing apparatus with a cascade impactor for sample collection. Here we show results from a field study undertaken at a remote coastal site in Western Canada in August, 2013 using this technique. The size distributions of IN will be presented. A recent study suggested that the IN population in remote marine regions might be dominated by primary biogenic particles. To address the sources of IN from this campaign, correlations between IN concentrations and biological aerosols, carbonaceous aerosols, and other possible IN sources will be discussed.

  15. Self-directed learning of hospital pharmacy residents in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, J W

    1983-01-01

    The extent of self-directed learning among hospital pharmacy residents in western Canada was studied. A preresidency questionnaire and a postresidency group interview with a set of questionnaires were used. The residents were asked to list learning projects conducted in their residency programs; these learning projects were categorized as self-directed, mutual-agreement, and preceptor-directed. A postinterview questionnaire was used to obtain postresidency measurements of self-directedness and resident autonomy. Twenty-four residents provided data on 164 learning projects. Projects with the most meaningfulness, high achievement contribution, positive motivation, and relevance corresponded with the self-directed approach. Residents who had more meaningful learning entered their residencies with no more self-directedness than other residents, but they did have more autonomy in their residencies. No particular type of project, with respect to learner autonomy, was found to be more problematic than the others. Facilitation of learner autonomy in a hospital pharmacy residency may increase the value of self-directed learning projects in general and improve the resident's self-directedness. Self-directed learning should continue to be part of residency programs.

  16. Projected deglaciation of western Canada in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Garry K. C.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Anslow, Faron S.; Radić, Valentina; Menounos, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Retreat of mountain glaciers is a significant contributor to sea-level rise and a potential threat to human populations through impacts on water availability and regional hydrology. Like most of Earth’s mountain glaciers, those in western North America are experiencing rapid mass loss. Projections of future large-scale mass change are based on surface mass balance models that are open to criticism, because they ignore or greatly simplify glacier physics. Here we use a high-resolution regional glaciation model, developed by coupling physics-based ice dynamics with a surface mass balance model, to project the fate of glaciers in western Canada. We use twenty-first-century climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations; the results indicate that by 2100, the volume of glacier ice in western Canada will shrink by 70 +/- 10% relative to 2005. According to our simulations, few glaciers will remain in the Interior and Rockies regions, but maritime glaciers, in particular those in northwestern British Columbia, will survive in a diminished state. We project the maximum rate of ice volume loss, corresponding to peak input of deglacial meltwater to streams and rivers, to occur around 2020-2040. Potential implications include impacts on aquatic ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, alpine tourism and water quality.

  17. Longitudinal assessment of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in pregnant women from Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser Russ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal exposures to organochlorines prior to pregnancy are considered a risk to neonatal welfare, specifically in relation to neurocognitive functions. There is growing interest in the evaluation of maternal blood testing as a marker for fetal exposure as well as the variable geographic distribution of these priority chemicals. Methods Three hundred and twenty-three women in the second trimester of pregnancy entered the study at a prenatal clinic providing genetic counselling information. Subjects who had an indication for genetic amniocentesis based on late maternal age were eligible to participate. Two hundred and thirty-eight completed an environmental questionnaire. A sample of amniotic fluid was taken for karyotype analysis in 323 women and blood samples during pregnancy (209, at birth (105 and from the umbilical cord (97 and breast milk (47 were also collected. These samples were tested for 29 PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides. Results The concentrations of PCB 153 in these media were relatively low in relation to other studies. Σ PCBs measurements in samples taken during the second trimester of pregnancy, at birth and in the umbilical cord were strongly correlated. Specific measurements of PCB 153 and PCB 180 among those subjects with completed sampling of blood samples from mothers and cord samples were significantly correlated. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides did not differ in relation to prior spontaneous abortion history. There were no organochlorines present in the amniotic fluid at the current level of quantification. Conclusion Pregnant women from the Western Canada region of Calgary, Alberta are exposed to relatively low concentrations of organochlorines. Measurement of maternal blood during the second trimester of pregnancy can reliably estimate the fetal exposure to PCBs. This estimate is reliable for Group 2 and 3 PCBs as well as PCB 153 and PCB 180. The amniotic fluid does not contain

  18. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Seismicity Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Ghofrani, H.; Kothari, S.; Atkinson, G. M.; Cheadle, B.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    The unconventional extraction of shale oil or gas is typically carried out by the subsurface injection of large volumes of fluids. The fluids are used in the process of hydraulic fracturing and subsequent wastewater injection into high volume disposal wells. These operations are usually accompanied by various levels of seismic activity and sometimes result in the occurrence of moderate to large earthquakes. It is suggested that the increase in seismic activity within the central U.S. in the last decade or so is primely associated with large-scale disposal of wastewater. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is an active exploration area for the extraction of oil and gas. The average rate of seismicity is lower than in the central U.S., however, there are several active clusters, where in the last 8-10 years, there has been an increase in the occurrence of moderate earthquakes. In this study, we analyze the statistical properties of seismicity associated with the WCSB. We find that the increase in seismicity rate is mostly associated with the hydraulic fracturing operations in several well defined spatial zones. Hydraulic fracturing involves high-pressure injections of fluids and is performed in multiple stages. This is done along horizontal wells which are drilled at average depths of 2 to 3 km. The triggering of large earthquakes is mostly due to injection of fluids into nearby tectonic faults which are close to failure. To model the rate of the occurrence of earthquakes we introduce a modified version of the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model. The earthquake occurrence rate associated with several prominent clusters is characterized by bursts of activity associated with specifics of hydraulic fracturing operations. The proposed model can be used in the probabilistic assessment and mitigation of the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  20. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti

  1. Letting go: How newly graduated registered nurses in Western Canada decide to exit the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachula, Kathryn M; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive

    2015-07-01

    The Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) estimates a nursing shortage in Canada will rise to 60,000 registered nurses by 2022. Further compounding this crisis is the approximate 14-61% of new nursing graduates who will change nursing roles or exit the profession. To explore the factors and basic psychosocial process involved in the decisions of newly graduated registered nurses in Western Canada who permanently exit the nursing profession within five years. Data was collected through unstructured and semi-structured interviews using the Glaserian grounded theory method. Participants were found to be in a process of letting go of nursing that commenced as students and continued as they entered practice as registered nurses. Four major themes were identified. 1) Navigating constraints of the healthcare system and workplace: participants encountered difficulties adjusting to shiftwork and workload. 2) Negotiating social relationships, hierarchies, and troublesome behaviors; specifically hierarchal and horizontal violence. 3) Facing fears, traumas and challenges. 4) Weighing competing rewards and tensions which resulted in leaving the nursing profession. Students and subsequently new nursing graduates require a variety of supports to establish a nursing identity and remain in the profession. These supports include a manageable workload; meaningful orientation; interprofessional teamwork; and engagement within transformational and authentic leadership constructs. New nurses require a sense of being welcomed, valued, respected and accepted into the workplace environment, as well as constructive feedback, emotional support and debriefing to face workplace challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, L.; Dorr, P. M.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScopeTransportable Array is working to locate over 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. In this region, new tactics and partnerships are needed to increase outreach exposure. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, to spread awareness of Alaska earthquakes and the benefits of the Transportable Array for Alaskans. Nearly all parts of Alaska are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaska villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. For this reason, Alaska outreach most often occurs at community events. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor will emphasize the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offer not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan understanding of the seismic hazard and tectonics of the region. Efforts to publicize the presence of the Transportable Array in Alaska, western Canada, and the Lower 48 also continue. There have been recent articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world

  3. The Effect of Climate Change on Wetlands and Waterfowl in Western Canada: Incorporating Cropping Decisions into a Bioeconomic Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withey, P.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2013-01-01

    We extend an earlier bioeconomic model of optimal duck harvest and wetland retention in the Prairie Pothole Region of Western Canada to include cropping decisions. Instead of a single state equation, the model has two state equations representing the population dynamics of ducks and the amount of

  4. Reservoirs and water management influence fish mercury concentrations in the western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacker, James J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Ackerman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic manipulation of aquatic habitats can profoundly alter mercury (Hg) cycling and bioaccumulation. The impoundment of fluvial systems is among the most common habitat manipulations and is known to increase fish Hg concentrations immediately following impoundment. However, it is not well understood how Hg concentrations differ between reservoirs and lakes at large spatial and temporal scales or how reservoir management influences fish Hg concentrations. This study evaluated total Hg (THg) concentrations in 64,386 fish from 883 reservoirs and 1387 lakes, across the western United States and Canada, to assess differences between reservoirs and lakes, as well as the influence of reservoir management on fish THg concentrations. Fish THg concentrations were 1.4-fold higher in reservoirs (0.13 ± 0.011 μg/g wet weight ± standard error) than lakes (0.09 ± 0.006), though this difference varied among ecoregions. Fish THg concentrations were 1.5- to 2.6-fold higher in reservoirs than lakes of the North American Deserts, Northern Forests, and Mediterranean California ecoregions, but did not differ between reservoirs and lakes in four other ecoregions. Fish THg concentrations peaked in three-year-old reservoirs then rapidly declined in 4–12 year old reservoirs. Water management was particularly important in influencing fish THg concentrations, which were up to 11-times higher in reservoirs with minimum water storage occurring in May, June, or July compared to reservoirs with minimum storage occurring in other months. Between-year changes in maximum water storage strongly influenced fish THg concentrations, but within-year fluctuations in water levels did not influence fish THg concentrations. Specifically, fish THg concentrations increased up to 3.2-fold over the range of between-year changes in maximum water storage in all ecoregions except Mediterranean California. These data highlight the role of reservoir creation and management in influencing fish

  5. Climate change-associated trends in net biomass change are age dependent in western boreal forests of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong; Reich, Peter B; Searle, Eric B; Biswas, Shekhar R

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of climate change on forest net biomass change are poorly understood but critical for predicting forest's contribution to the global carbon cycle. Recent studies show climate change-associated net biomass declines in mature forest plots. The representativeness of these plots for regional forests, however, remains uncertain because we lack an assessment of whether climate change impacts differ with forest age. Using data from plots of varying ages from 17 to 210 years, monitored from 1958 to 2011 in western Canada, we found that climate change has little effect on net biomass change in forests ≤ 40 years of age due to increased growth offsetting increased mortality, but has led to large decreases in older forests due to increased mortality accompanying little growth gain. Our analysis highlights the need to incorporate forest age profiles in examining past and projecting future forest responses to climate change.

  6. Vertical resolution enhancement of the Phasor induction: Applications in western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rixon, M.D.; Kasperski, B.W.; Morriss, C.E

    A substantial number of wells in western Canada are drilled into thinly bedded reservoirs. Qualitative evaluation of these reservoirs is difficult using standard induction due to the poor vertical resolution and shoulder bed effect. The Phasor induction tool and Phasor processing reduce the shoulder bed effect but do not address the thin bed response. The recent introduction of enhanced resolution phasor (ERP) processing has made it possible, under favorable conditions, to fully resolve the resistivity of a 1 m bed. This results in accurate water saturation calculations and reserve estimates for thinly bedded formations, typically yielding a higher resistivity, resulting in lower water saturation and a higher reserve estimate. ERP processing also gives a better indication of the diameter of invasion in thin beds. However, to effectively utilize the processing, consideration must be given to its limitations, and severe borehole washouts or rugosity and large variations in invasion across a thick zone can adversely affect the processing. Sample logs are presented for five types of western Canadian reservoirs: Mississippian carbonate (dolomite, calcite); basal quartz formation (sand, shale, calcite); Viking formation (sand, shale, calcite, cement); Gilwood formation (sand, shale, calcite); and Halfway formation (sand, dolomite, anhydrite, calcite). 9 refs., 16 figs.

  7. Recent climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological changes over the interior of western Canada: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, Chris M.; Wheater, Howard S.; Carey, Sean K.; Chun, Kwok P.

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the Earth's climate system has warmed significantly over the past several decades, and in association there have been widespread changes in various other Earth system components. This has been especially prevalent in the cold regions of the northern mid- to high latitudes. Examples of these changes can be found within the western and northern interior of Canada, a region that exemplifies the scientific and societal issues faced in many other similar parts of the world, and where impacts have global-scale consequences. This region has been the geographic focus of a large amount of previous research on changing climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological regimes in recent decades, while current initiatives such as the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) introduced in this review seek to further develop the understanding and diagnosis of this change and hence improve the capacity to predict future change. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the observed changes in various Earth system components and a concise and up-to-date regional picture of some of the temporal trends over the interior of western Canada since the mid- or late 20th century. The focus is on air temperature, precipitation, seasonal snow cover, mountain glaciers, permafrost, freshwater ice cover, and river discharge. Important long-term observational networks and data sets are described, and qualitative linkages among the changing components are highlighted. Increases in air temperature are the most notable changes within the domain, rising on average 2 °C throughout the western interior since 1950. This increase in air temperature is associated with hydrologically important changes to precipitation regimes and unambiguous declines in snow cover depth, persistence, and spatial extent. Consequences of warming air temperatures have caused mountain glaciers to recede at all latitudes, permafrost to thaw at its southern limit, and active layers over permafrost to thicken

  8. Persistent and pervasive compositional shifts of western boreal forest plots in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Eric B; Chen, Han Y H

    2017-02-01

    Species compositional shifts have important consequences to biodiversity and ecosystem function and services to humanity. In boreal forests, compositional shifts from late-successional conifers to early-successional conifers and deciduous broadleaves have been postulated based on increased fire frequency associated with climate change truncating stand age-dependent succession. However, little is known about how climate change has affected forest composition in the background between successive catastrophic fires in boreal forests. Using 1797 permanent sample plots from western boreal forests of Canada measured from 1958 to 2013, we show that after accounting for stand age-dependent succession, the relative abundances of early-successional deciduous broadleaves and early-successional conifers have increased at the expense of late-successional conifers with climate change. These background compositional shifts are persistent temporally, consistent across all forest stand ages and pervasive spatially across the region. Rising atmospheric CO2 promoted early-successional conifers and deciduous broadleaves, and warming increased early-successional conifers at the expense of late-successional conifers, but compositional shifts were not associated with climate moisture index. Our results emphasize the importance of climate change on background compositional shifts in the boreal forest and suggest further compositional shifts as rising CO2 and warming will continue in the 21st century. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exceptionally preserved crustaceans from western Canada reveal a cryptic Cambrian radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Thomas H. P.; Vélez, Maria I.; Butterfield, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The early history of crustaceans is obscured by strong biases in fossil preservation, but a previously overlooked taphonomic mode yields important complementary insights. Here we describe diverse crustacean appendages of Middle and Late Cambrian age from shallow-marine mudstones of the Deadwood Formation in western Canada. The fossils occur as flattened and fragmentary carbonaceous cuticles but provide a suite of phylogenetic and ecological data by virtue of their detailed preservation. In addition to an unprecedented range of complex, largely articulated filtering limbs, we identify at least four distinct types of mandible. Together, these fossils provide the earliest evidence for crown-group branchiopods and total-group copepods and ostracods, extending the respective ranges of these clades back from the Devonian, Pennsylvanian, and Ordovician. Detailed similarities with living forms demonstrate the early origins and subsequent conservation of various complex food-handling adaptations, including a directional mandibular asymmetry that has persisted through half a billion years of evolution. At the same time, the Deadwood fossils indicate profound secular changes in crustacean ecology in terms of body size and environmental distribution. The earliest radiation of crustaceans is largely cryptic in the fossil record, but "small carbonaceous fossils" reveal organisms of surprisingly modern aspect operating in an unfamiliar biosphere.

  10. A novel Rickettsia species detected in Vole Ticks (Ixodes angustus) from Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, Clare A; Chilton, Neil B

    2013-12-01

    The genomic DNA of ixodid ticks from western Canada was tested by PCR for the presence of Rickettsia. No rickettsiae were detected in Ixodes sculptus, whereas 18% of the I. angustus and 42% of the Dermacentor andersoni organisms examined were PCR positive for Rickettsia. The rickettsiae from each tick species were characterized genetically using multiple genes. Rickettsiae within the D. andersoni organisms had sequences at four genes that matched those of R. peacockii. In contrast, the Rickettsia present within the larvae, nymphs, and adults of I. angustus had novel DNA sequences at four of the genes characterized compared to the sequences available from GenBank for all recognized species of Rickettsia and all other putative species within the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data revealed that the rickettsiae in I. angustus do not belong to the spotted fever, transitional, or typhus groups of rickettsiae but are most closely related to "Candidatus Rickettsia kingi" and belong to a clade that also includes R. canadensis, "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae," and "Candidatus Rickettsia monteiroi."

  11. P and S Wave Finite-frequency Imaging of the Cordillera-craton Boundary Zone in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Y.; Hung, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) marks a boundary zone and a strong seismic lateral velocity gradient in the upper mantle between the Precambrian North American craton and the Phanerozoic Cordillera. While much of the tectonic imprints are buried below thick sediments, seismic data coverage in this region has been greatly improved to unravel the underlying structure, owing to a growing number of regional broadband arrays. In this study we conduct a high-resolution survey of the mantle P- and S-wave velocities in the WCSB using a multi-scale parameterization and the finite-frequency theory. Our models suggest respective increases of 4% and 6% of Vp and Vs velocities across the Cordilleran Deformation Front (CDF) toward the craton interior. This sharp gradient resides to the west of the CDF, which may imply the over-thrusting of the crustal terranes of the Cordillera onto the craton edge. Significant along-strike variation in the lithospheric basal geometry and dip could reflect secular tectonic modifications such as episodic shortening/extension and convective erosion. The results of our finite-frequency tomography indicate vertically continuous high velocities at least down to 200 km beneath the crustal domains of the Precambrian Buffalo Head Terrane (BHT), Hearne craton and Medicine Hat Block (MHB). The lithosphere beneath the southern Hearne province could extend down to 280 km, nearly 70 km deeper than those of its neighboring cratons of similar ages. The velocity anomalies and their intricate variations/reversals within the mantle lithosphere may be evidence for a multi-stage formation of western Laurentia during Precambrian plate convergence. On the other hand, destruction processes since formation, e.g., convective removal and thermomagmatic erosion, may also have played key roles in shaping the mantle lithosphere beneath the western margin of the North American craton.

  12. Life cycle analysis of multi-crop lignocellulosic material (perennial grasses) for bioethanol production in western Canada : a review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing; Panigrahi, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Mupondwa, E.K. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a life cycle assessment of multi-crop lignocellulosic biomass to determine the environmental performance of a bioethanol biorefinery in western Canada. The study investigated the economic aspects of the ethanol fuel system such as biorefinery operating costs and possible improvements in biorefinery economics resulting from pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation processes. The eco-efficiency was determined by comparing economic parameters with selected environmental parameters. The study also compared the efficiency of the lignoce lulosic biorefinery with grain-based dry milling ethanol plants that produce ethanol as well as dried grains and solubles used as animal feed. The study showed that the choice of feedstock and location of the biorefinery is very important. The location should be carefully chosen where there is no water shortage. Various low valued lignocellulosic energy crops such as switch grass, alfalfa, and other perennial grasses can grow in marginal or pasture land and can decrease production costs considerably, thus improving the economic viability of biorefineries. The use of co-products can also add value to the process and can decrease the cost of ethanol production. tabs., figs.

  13. Transgenic oilseed rape along transportation routes and port of Vancouver in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Beckie, Hugh J; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of transgenic herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in ruderal (non-crop disturbed) areas has not been investigated previously in Canada. The primary objective of this study was to document their occurrence in two main ruderal areas (along railways and roads) in the province of Saskatchewan, where half of all oilseed rape is grown, and at the port of Vancouver, British Columbia on the west coast of Canada, where most oilseed rape destined for export is transported by rail. During the 2005 growing season, leaf samples of oilseed rape plants were collected at randomly-selected sites along railways and roads across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver; infestation area, density, and plant height of oilseed rape were measured at each site. The presence of the glyphosate and glufosinate resistance traits was determined using test strips. The infestation area of oilseed rape, averaged across 155 sampled sites in the Saskatchewan survey, was markedly smaller in populations along railways than roads; in contrast, infestation area averaged across 54 sites in the Vancouver survey was greater for populations along railways than roads. In both surveys, mean plant density was greater for populations found along railways than roads. Two-thirds of oilseed rape plants sampled across Saskatchewan ecoregions and at Vancouver were transgenic, although the relative proportion of plants with the glyphosate or glufosinate resistance trait varied between surveys. Frequency of occurrence of transgenic plants in ruderal areas was similar to the proportion of the oilseed rape area planted with transgenic cultivars in the recent preceding years. A single transgenic B. rapa x B. napus hybrid was found along a road in Vancouver, confirming the relatively high probability of hybridization between these two Brassica species. With current control measures, transgenic oilseed rape populations may persist and spread in these ruderal areas.

  14. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  15. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2016-07-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  16. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2017-08-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  17. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  18. Biodegradation and origin of oil sands in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shuqing; Huang Haiping; Liu Yuming

    2008-01-01

    The oil sands deposits in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) comprise of at least 85% of the total immobile bitumen in place in the world and are so concentrated as to be virtually the only such deposits that are economically recoverable for conversion to oil.The major deposits are in three geographic and geologic regions of Alberta: Athabasca,Cold Lake and Peace River.The bitumen reserves have oil gravities ranging from 8 to 12° API,and are hosted in the reservoirs of varying age,ranging from Devonian (Grosmont Formation) to Early Cretaceous (Mannville Group).They were derived from light oils in the southern Alberta and migrated to the north and east for over 100 km during the Laramide Orogeny,which was responsible for the uplift of the Rocky Mountains.Biodegradation is the only process that transforms light oil into bitumen in such a dramatic way that overshadowed other alterations with minor contributions.The levels of biodegradation in the basin increasing from west (non-biodegraded) to east (extremely biodegraded) can be attributed to decreasing reservoir temperature,which played the primary role in controlling the biodegradation regime.Once the reservoir was heated to approximately 80 ℃,it was pasteurized and no biodegradation would further occur.However,reservoir temperature could not alone predict the variations of the oil composition and physical properties.Compositional gradients and a wide range of biodegradation degree at single reservoir column indicate that the water-leg size or the volume ratio of oil to water is one of the critical local controls for the vertical variations of biodegradation degree and oil physical properties.Late charging and mixing of the fresh and degraded oils ultimately dictate the final distribution of compositions and physical properties found in the heavy oil and oil sand fields.Oil geochemistry can reveal precisely the processes and levels that control these variations in a given field,which opens the

  19. A harvest management strategy for Canada geese in the western Mississippi Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) harvest in the Mississippi Flyway became increasingly complex during the 1980s. A strategy for managing harvest was...

  20. Translocation and banding of Aleutian Canada geese in the western Aleutian Islands in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In August 1990, 110 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were captured and banded at Buldir Island. Twenty-five of these geese were translocated to...

  1. A Tentative Study of Learning Support Service Systems of Trinity Western University in Canada%加拿大西三一大学(TWU)学习支持服务制度初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜利

    2016-01-01

    The support service system of student learning is one of the important parts of develo-ping talents systems in universities of Canada.Under the guidance of the concept of service and leadership,TWU has built the student learning supporting agencies and systems, which including the academic, spiritual, physical, entertainment, learning support services, such as school culture and institutional systems.By improving the ability and level of student support services, the university is famous for its quality and service and has gained high praise by student survey and social recogni-tion.The systems and experiences of the higher education institution are of great enlightenment and reference to the support service system of student learning system of higher education institutions in China.%学习支持服务制度,是大学培养人才的重要制度之一。加拿大西三一大学在“服务与领导”理念指导下,通过构建学术、精神、身体、娱乐、学校文化等支持服务机构与制度而形成学生支持服务的体系,提高支持服务的能力与水平,获得社会与学生的好评。本文在学习的基础上对其进行了深入的分析与探索,并提出了对我国内地大学建构学习支持服务机构与制度的三点启示。

  2. Screening for neurocognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety in HIV-infected patients in Western Europe and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin; Bayon, Carmen; Molina, Jean-Michel; McNamara, Patricia; Resch, Christiane; Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A; Kulasegaram, Ranjababu; Schewe, Knud; Burgos-Ramirez, Angel; De Alvaro, Cristina; Cabrero, Esther; Guion, Matthew; Norton, Michael; van Wyk, Jean

    2014-01-01

    CRANIum, a cross-sectional epidemiology study in Western Europe and Canada, was conducted to describe and compare the prevalence of a positive screen for neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depressive symptoms, and anxiety in an HIV-positive population either receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) or who were naive to antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV-positive patients ≥18 years of age attending a routine medical follow-up visit and able to complete the designated screening tools were eligible for study inclusion. The Brief Neurocognitive Screen was used to assess NCI; depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The evaluable patient population (N = 2863) included 1766 men (61.7%) and 1096 (38.3%) women. A total of 1969 patients were cART-experienced (68.8%), and 894 were ART-naive (31.2%). A positive screen for NCI was found in 41.5% of patients (cART-experienced, 42.5%; ART-naive, 39.4%; p = 0.12). A positive screen for depressive symptoms was found in 15.7% of patients (cART-experienced, 16.8%; ART-naive, 13.3%; p = 0.01), whereas 33.3% of patients screened positive for anxiety (cART-experienced, 33.5%; ART-naive, 32.8%; p = 0.71). A greater percentage of women compared with men screened positive for NCI (51.78% vs. 35.1%; p < 0.0001) and depressive symptoms (17.9% vs. 14.3%; p = 0.01). These data suggest that neurocognitive and mood disorders remain highly prevalent in HIV-infected patients. Regular mental health screening in this population is warranted.

  3. Spatial genetic structure of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in western Canada: historical patterns and contemporary dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri Samarasekera, G D N; Bartell, Nicholas V; Lindgren, B Staffan; Cooke, Janice E K; Davis, Corey S; James, Patrick M A; Coltman, David W; Mock, Karen E; Murray, Brent W

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change has a wide range of ecological consequences, including species extinction and range expansion. Many studies have shown that insect species respond rapidly to climatic change. A mountain pine beetle epidemic of record size in North America has led to unprecedented mortality of lodgepole pine, and a significant range expansion to the northeast of its historic range. Our goal was to determine the spatial genetic variation found among outbreak population from which genetic structure, and dispersal patterns may be inferred. Beetles from 49 sampling locations throughout the outbreak area in western Canada were analysed at 13 microsatellite loci. We found significant north-south population structure as evidenced by: (i) Bayesian-based analyses, (ii) north-south genetic relationships and diversity gradients; and (iii) a lack of isolation-by-distance in the northernmost cluster. The north-south structure is proposed to have arisen from the processes of postglacial colonization as well as recent climate-driven changes in population dynamics. Our data support the hypothesis of multiple sources of origin for the outbreak and point to the need for population specific information to improve our understanding and management of outbreaks. The recent range expansion across the Rocky Mountains into the jack/lodgepole hybrid and pure jack pine zones of northern Alberta is consistent with a northern British Columbia origin. We detected no loss of genetic variability in these populations, indicating that the evolutionary potential of mountain pine beetle to adapt has not been reduced by founder events. This study illustrates a rapid range-wide response to the removal of climatic constraints, and the potential for range expansion of a regional population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Discovery of the Western Palearctic bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in Ontario Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bees of North America are very diverse, including over 3500 species. Approximately thirty of these bee species are not native to this continent. Recently another non-native bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, was found in a naturalized area in Ontario, Canada. This bee nests in holes...

  5. Advancing team-based primary health care: a comparative analysis of policies in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Misfeldt, Renee; Boakye, Omenaa; Nasmith, Louise; Wong, Sabrina T

    2017-07-17

    We analyzed and compared primary health care (PHC) policies in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to understand how they inform the design and implementation of team-based primary health care service delivery. The goal was to develop policy imperatives that can advance team-based PHC in Canada. We conducted comparative case studies (n = 3). The policy analysis included: Context review: We reviewed relevant information (2007 to 2014) from databases and websites. Policy review and comparative analysis: We compared and contrasted publically available PHC policies. Key informant interviews: Key informants (n = 30) validated narratives prepared from the comparative analysis by offering contextual information on potential policy imperatives. Advisory group and roundtable: An expert advisory group guided this work and a key stakeholder roundtable event guided prioritization of policy imperatives. The concept of team-based PHC varies widely across and within the three provinces. We noted policy gaps related to team configuration, leadership, scope of practice, role clarity and financing of team-based care; few policies speak explicitly to monitoring and evaluation of team-based PHC. We prioritized four policy imperatives: (1) alignment of goals and policies at different system levels; (2) investment of resources for system change; (3) compensation models for all members of the team; and (4) accountability through collaborative practice metrics. Policies supporting team-based PHC have been slow to emerge, lacking a systematic and coordinated approach. Greater alignment with specific consideration of financing, reimbursement, implementation mechanisms and performance monitoring could accelerate systemic transformation by removing some well-known barriers to team-based care.

  6. Past and future hydro-climatic change and the 2015 drought in the interior of western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.; Szeto, K.; Brimelow, J.; Chun, K. P.; Masud, M. B.; Bonsal, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interior of western Canada has experienced rapid and severe hydro-climatic change in recent decades. This is projected to continue in future. Since 1950, mean annual air temperature has increased by 2 °C (4 °C increase in winter daily means) with associated changes in cryospheric regime. Changes in precipitation have varied regionally; in the Prairies there has been a decrease in winter precipitation, shift from snowfall to rainfall, and increased clustering of summer rainfall events into multiple day storms. Regionally, river discharge indicates an earlier spring freshet and increased incidence of rain-on-snow peak flow events, but otherwise mixed responses due to multiple process interactions. In winter/spring 2015, persistent anomalous ridging conditions developed over western North America causing widespread drought. This produced abnormally warm and dry conditions over the Rocky Mountain headwaters of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan Rivers, resulting in low spring snowpacks that melted earlier than normal and were followed by an atypical lack of spring rainfall. By summer 2015, most of western Canada was subject to extreme drought conditions leading to record dry soil moisture conditions in parts of the Prairies during a key crop growth time, streamflows that were greatly diminished, and extensive wildfires across the Boreal Forest. The importance of the warmer winter to this drought and the contextual trend for increasing winter warmth provide new insight into the impact of climate warming on droughts in cold regions. This talk will discuss efforts by the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN; www.ccrnetwork.ca) to understand and diagnose the 2015 drought, its potential linkages with the concurrent California drought and other continental events, and its relevance in the context of historical and predicted future climate change.

  7. The Nitrogen Balance of Three Long-term Agroecosystems on a Boreal Soil in Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Shirley M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Janzen, H. H.; Robertson, J. A.; Mcgill, William B.

    2008-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) budgets can be used to quantify the flows of N in agroecosystems and to account for differences in losses and retention of N. The objective of our study was to develop 24-year N budgets for three diverse cropping systems on a boreal soil at Breton, Alberta, Canada: AER an agroecological 8-year rotation, with N inputs from legumes [fababean (Vicia faba L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)] and manure; CF - a continuous perennial grass legume forage system, with N inputs from fertilizer (18 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.); and CG - a continuous annual grain system, with N fertilizer (90 kg N ha-1 yr-1). We were able to compile detailed N budgets, demonstrate accumulation of soil N, and attribute differences in N flow and permanence to treatment effects. For AER and CG, net inputs almost exactlymatched gains in soil N. The AER system had the highest N flow and the largest net N accumulation. Soil total N mass to 30 cm depth increased in all systems during 1980 2005, but increases were smaller in CG (0.59 Mg N ha-1) than in AER (1.90 Mg N ha-1) and CF (1.63 Mg N ha-1), showing the effect of legumes, perennial species, and manure in the latter systems. The proportion of total N inputs retained as soil N with organic N inputs in AER (44%) was about twice that with synthetic N fertilizer in CG (23%). The CF system had the lowest productivity and the least N loss to the environment (4 kg N ha-1 yr-1, compared to 28 for AER and 24 for CG). The proportion of N inputs lost to the environment was 16% for AER and 24% for CG. In CF, gains of soil N exceeded apparent net N inputs, perhaps because we under-estimated N inputs from clover. Estimate of legume N input was one of the larger sources of uncertainty. The study affirmed the value of N budgets in evaluating agroecosystem performance, and identified AER and CF as productive and sustainable systems due to their minimal reliance on external N inputs and small

  8. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaelyn J Eberle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma, despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut. Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus, esocid (pike, and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.. Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  9. Mass balance and fluid flow constraints on regional-scale dolomitization, Late Devonian, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machel, H.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mountjoy, E.M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Amthor, J.E. [Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij NV, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    Flow mechanisms that resulted in regionally pervasive, replacive dolomitization of the Upper Devonian carbonates in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), were discussed. In critiquing the hydrogeological model proposed by Shields and Brady (1995), these interveners noted three major problems: (1) brine recharge area not isotropic or homogeneous, (2) hydrogeologic model does not match the conceptual geological model, (3) the aspect ratio of the hydrogeologic model is inconsistent with other explanations of brine reflux flushing. While these authors agree that seepage reflux of evaporite brines account for some of the dolomites in the basin, they believe that available geological, petrographic, paragenetic, and geochemical evidence invalidate regional brine reflux as the mechanism of basin-wide pervasive dolomitization, as proposed by Shields and Brady. (A response to this critique from Shields and Brady is presented on pages 572-573 of this issue of the Bulletin). 27 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of mercury concentrations in freshwater fish across the Western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Josh; Willacker, James J.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A; Fleck, Jacob; Stewart, Robin; Wiener, James G.; Evers, David C.; Lepak, Jesse M; Davis, Jay A; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fish is a global threat to environmental health. Mercury (Hg) monitoring programs are valuable for generating data that can be compiled for spatially broad syntheses to identify emergent ecosystem properties that influence fish Hg bioaccumulation. Fish total Hg (THg) concentrations were evaluated across the Western United States (US) and Canada, a region defined by extreme gradients in habitat structure and water management. A database was compiled with THg concentrations in 96,310 fish that comprised 206 species from 4262 locations, and used to evaluate the spatial distribution of fish THg across the region and effects of species, foraging guilds, habitats, and ecoregions. Areas of elevated THg exposure were identified by developing a relativized estimate of fish mercury concentrations at a watershed scale that accounted for the variability associated with fish species, fish size, and site effects. THg concentrations in fish muscle ranged between 0.001 and 28.4 (μg/g wet weight (ww)) with a geometric mean of 0.17. Overall, 30% of individual fish samples and 17% of means by location exceeded the 0.30 μg/g ww US EPA fish tissue criterion. Fish THg concentrations differed among habitat types, with riverine habitats consistently higher than lacustrine habitats. Importantly, fish THg concentrations were not correlated with sediment THg concentrations at a watershed scale, but were weakly correlated with sediment MeHg concentrations, suggesting that factors influencing MeHg production may be more important than inorganic Hg loading for determining fish MeHg exposure. There was large heterogeneity in fish THg concentrations across the landscape; THg concentrations were generally higher in semi-arid and arid regions such as the Great Basin and Desert Southwest, than in temperate forests. Results suggest that fish mercury exposure is widespread throughout Western US and Canada, and that species, habitat type, and region play an important

  11. The Cora Lake Shear Zone, an Exhumed Deep Crustal Lithotectonic Discontinuity, Western Churchill Province, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S.; Leslie, S.; Holland, M. E.; Williams, M. L.; Mahan, K. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Deep crustal flow is a fundamental tectonic process that may serve to reduce topographic gradients, especially in overthickened collisional orogens. Recent studies have utilized numerical models and seismic interpretations, but generally in two dimensions. Although useful, two dimensional models can not fully characterize lower crustal flow or coupling of crustal layers because they cannot fully incorporate lateral heterogeneity in the flow field. The Athabasca Granulite terrane, in northern Saskatchewan, is an exposed deep crustal terrane that underwent granulite grade deformation during the Neoarchean (ca. 2.55), then cooled isobarically for 600 m.y., and then was reactivated during the Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.9 Ga). Regional exhumation occurred at roughly 1.85 Ga. This exposure, is a field laboratory for studying lower crustal flow, stabilization, and reactivation. Recent work suggests that the northwestern domain, dominated by the multiphase, opx-bearing, Mary batholith, underwent top-to-the-east lower crustal flow during the Neoarchean. The Chipman domain, to the SE , is primarily underlain by the 3.2 Ga, Chipman tonalite straight gneiss, which was likely restitic, and rheologically strong during the 2.6 Ga flow event. The Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz), which divides the two domains, is interpreted to represent a lithotectonic, compositional, and rheologic boundary within the deep crust. Recent mapping of the western gradient of the CLsz has provided insight into the role and evolution of the rheologic discontinuity and its relationship to crustal flow. The Mary granite (gneiss) contains excellent assemblages for P-T and pseudosection analysis. Interlayered felsic granulite contain abundant monazite for in-situ geochronology. An intense subhorizontal tectonic fabric (S1), interpreted to be the product of crustal flow, is present in both units. This early fabric was locally crenulated, folded, and transposed, by a sub-vertical S2 fabric. Current work involves

  12. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six…

  13. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  14. Assessing potential health risks to fish and humans using mercury concentrations in inland fish from across western Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Wiener, James G.; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Davis, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Fish represent high quality protein and nutrient sources, but Hg contamination is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can pose health risks to fish and their consumers. Potential health risks posed to fish and humans by Hg contamination in fish were assessed in western Canada and the United States. A large compilation of inland fish Hg concentrations was evaluated in terms of potential health risk to the fish themselves, health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish, and to humans that consume Hg contaminated fish. The probability that a fish collected from a given location would exceed a Hg concentration benchmark relevant to a health risk was calculated. These exceedance probabilities and their associated uncertainties were characterized for fish of multiple size classes at multiple health-relevant benchmarks. The approach was novel and allowed for the assessment of the potential for deleterious health effects in fish and humans associated with Hg contamination in fish across this broad study area. Exceedance probabilities were relatively common at low Hg concentration benchmarks, particularly for fish in larger size classes. Specifically, median exceedances for the largest size classes of fish evaluated at the lowest Hg concentration benchmarks were 0.73 (potential health risks to fish themselves), 0.90 (potential health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish), and 0.97 (potential for restricted fish consumption by humans), but diminished to essentially zero at the highest benchmarks and smallest fish size classes. Exceedances of benchmarks are likely to have deleterious health effects on fish and limit recommended amounts of fish humans consume in western Canada and the United States. Results presented here are not intended to subvert or replace local fish Hg data or consumption advice, but provide a basis for identifying areas of potential health risk and developing more focused future research and monitoring efforts.

  15. Persistent millennial-scale shifts in moisture regimes in western Canada during the past six millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Brian F.; Laird, Kathleen R.; Bennett, Joseph R.; Smol, John P.; Salomon, Anne K.

    2002-01-01

    Inferences of past climatic conditions from a sedimentary record from Big Lake, British Columbia, Canada, over the past 5,500 years show strong millennial-scale patterns, which oscillate between periods of wet and drier climatic conditions. Higher frequency decadal- to centennial-scale fluctuations also occur within the dominant millennial-scale patterns. These changes in climatic conditions are based on estimates of changes in lake depth and salinity inferred from diatom assemblages in a well dated sediment core. After periods of relative stability, abrupt shifts in diatom assemblages and inferred climatic conditions occur approximately every 1,220 years. The correspondence of these shifts to millennial-scale variations in records of glacial expansion/recession and ice-rafting events in the Atlantic suggest that abrupt millennial-scale shifts are important to understanding climatic variability in North America during the mid- to late Holocene. Unfortunately, the spatial patterns and mechanisms behind these large and abrupt swings are poorly understood. Similar abrupt and prolonged changes in climatic conditions today could pose major societal challenges for many regions. PMID:12461174

  16. Predator Bounties in Western Canada Cause Animal Suffering and CompromiseWildlife Conservation Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Proulx

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although predation bounty programs (rewards offered for capturing or killing an animal ended more than 40 years ago in Canada, they were reintroduced in Alberta in 2007 by hunting, trapping, and farming organizations, municipalities and counties, and in 2009 in Saskatchewan, by municipal and provincial governments and the Saskatchewan Cattlemen’s Association. Bounty hunters use inhumane and non-selective killing methods such as shooting animals in non-vital regions, and killing neck snares and strychnine poisoning, which cause suffering and delayed deaths. They are unselective, and kill many non-target species, some of them at risk. Predator bounty programs have been found to be ineffective by wildlife professionals, and they use killing methods that cause needless suffering and jeopardize wildlife conservation programs. Our analysis therefore indicates that government agencies should not permit the implementation of bounty programs. Accordingly, they must develop conservation programs that will minimize wildlife-human conflicts, prevent the unnecessary and inhumane killing of animals, and ensure the persistence of all wildlife species.

  17. Topographic Indices and Yield Variability in a Rolling Landscape of Western Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Bao-Liang; BING Cheng-Si; F.WALLEY; T.YATES

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between topographic indices and crop yield variability is important for soil management and crop production in rolling landscape.Two agricultural fields at Alvena and Hepburn,Saskatchewan,Canada were selected to examine how topographic indices were related to wheat yield under two topographic and weather conditions in the Canadian prairies.The landscapes of the two sites are classified as hummocky and the dominant soil type is an Aridic Ustoll.The relationships among yield,topography,soil,and weather were analyzed using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)grain yield from Alvena in 2001 (dry year) and 2004 (wet year) and from Hepburn in 1998 (dry year).Topographic/soil indices included relative elevation,wetness index,upslope length,curvature,soil organic matter,and soil moisture storage before seeding.The results indicated that,in the dry years,the correlation coefficients between upslope length and grain yield were 0.79 for the typical rolling landscape (Alvena) in 2001 and 0.73 for shallow gentle rolling landscape (Hepburn) in 1998.In the wet year (2004),the relationships between yield and topographic/soil attributes were not as strong as in dry years.Therefore,upslope length was the best yield indicator for the two landscapes in dry years,whereas no topographic indices were highly correlated to crop yield in wet years.Those topographic indices seemed useful in identifying the yield variability and delineating the proper management zone.

  18. Net aboveground biomass declines of four major forest types with forest ageing and climate change in western Canada's boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Biomass change of the world's forests is critical to the global carbon cycle. Despite storing nearly half of global forest carbon, the boreal biome of diverse forest types and ages is a poorly understood component of the carbon cycle. Using data from 871 permanent plots in the western boreal forest of Canada, we examined net annual aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) of four major forest types between 1958 and 2011. We found that ΔAGB was higher for deciduous broadleaf (DEC) (1.44 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) , 95% Bayesian confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.68) and early-successional coniferous forests (ESC) (1.42, CI, 1.30-1.56) than mixed forests (MIX) (0.80, CI, 0.50-1.11) and late-successional coniferous (LSC) forests (0.62, CI, 0.39-0.88). ΔAGB declined with forest age as well as calendar year. After accounting for the effects of forest age, ΔAGB declined by 0.035, 0.021, 0.032 and 0.069 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) per calendar year in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. The ΔAGB declines resulted from increased tree mortality and reduced growth in all forest types except DEC, in which a large biomass loss from mortality was accompanied with a small increase in growth. With every degree of annual temperature increase, ΔAGB decreased by 1.00, 0.20, 0.55 and 1.07 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. With every cm decrease of annual climatic moisture availability, ΔAGB decreased 0.030, 0.045 and 0.17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in ESC, MIX and LSC forests, but changed little in DEC forests. Our results suggest that persistent warming and decreasing water availability have profound negative effects on forest biomass in the boreal forests of western Canada. Furthermore, our results indicate that forest responses to climate change are strongly dependent on forest composition with late-successional coniferous forests being most vulnerable to climate changes in terms of aboveground biomass. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tepees in peritidal carbonates: origin via earthquake-induced deformation, with example from the Middle Cambrian of western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian R.

    2002-11-01

    Tepee structures are common in many ancient carbonate tidal flat successions, and because analogues are known from tropical coastal areas, they are well established as evidence for synsedimentary lithification of subaerially exposed carbonate sediment. Existing explanations involving desiccation, thermal expansion and contraction, fluctuating groundwater pore pressure or diagenetic force of crystallization do not adequately account for the style and degree of deformation seen in some examples, such as those in the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation of the southern Rocky Mountains, western Canada. These tepees provide evidence for essentially instantaneous events causing brittle failure of decimetre-thick crusts of ooidal and pisoidal grainstone, followed by their dilation, rupturing, separation, tilting and shingling. They can be explained as breccias generated by sporadic episodes of strong ground motion from earthquakes that emanated from a syndepositionally active fault system nearby. Variably directed tensile and compressive stresses broke crusts, shifted them upwards and shuffled them laterally. Subsequent microbial encrustation and vigorous flushing by seawater in the resulting shelter cavities led to rapid stabilization by cementation. Recognition of the role of seismically induced deformation in explaining some tepee structures furnishes a proxy for synsedimentary tectonism and adds another member to the family of 'seismites' which reflect a range of rheological properties of unlithified and lithifying sediments.

  20. Half-century evidence from western Canada shows forest dynamics are primarily driven by competition followed by climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Huang, Shongming; He, Fangliang

    2015-03-31

    Tree mortality, growth, and recruitment are essential components of forest dynamics and resiliency, for which there is great concern as climate change progresses at high latitudes. Tree mortality has been observed to increase over the past decades in many regions, but the causes of this increase are not well understood, and we know even less about long-term changes in growth and recruitment rates. Using a dataset of long-term (1958-2009) observations on 1,680 permanent sample plots from undisturbed natural forests in western Canada, we found that tree demographic rates have changed markedly over the last five decades. We observed a widespread, significant increase in tree mortality, a significant decrease in tree growth, and a similar but weaker trend of decreasing recruitment. However, these changes varied widely across tree size, forest age, ecozones, and species. We found that competition was the primary factor causing the long-term changes in tree mortality, growth, and recruitment. Regional climate had a weaker yet still significant effect on tree mortality, but little effect on tree growth and recruitment. This finding suggests that internal community-level processes-more so than external climatic factors-are driving forest dynamics.

  1. Transient peat properties in two pond-peatland complexes in the sub-humid Western Boreal Plain, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Petrone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Canadian Western Boreal Plain (WBP, wetlands (ponds and peatlands comprise up to 50% of the landscape and represent unique habitat where summer precipitation is often outpaced by evapotranspiration and hillslope groundwater position does not follow topography. In this sub-humid location, groundwater fluxes and stores in riparian peatlands influence pond water levels and root zone moisture sources for forested uplands. To accurately describe the transport and retention of water in peat, it is important to consider peat subsidence. This paper quantifies the amount and effect of seasonal subsidence in a riparian peatland in the Utikuma Lake region in north-central Alberta, Canada. Results demonstrate that the deep and poorly decomposed peat deposits are resistant to compression, and that thick (and persistent ground frost hinders pore collapse (shrinkage above the water table until late summer when the ground has thawed. Even then, subsidence is still limited to the top 50 cm and is not closely related to changes in peatland water table or pond water level. Thus the water balance of these ponds and riparian areas appears to be less sensitive to peat volume changes than it is to the persistence of a substantial frost layer well into the snow-free period.

  2. Deformed wing virus in western honey bees (Apis mellifera) from Atlantic Canada and the first description of an overtly-infected emerging queen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Rogers, Richard E L; Kalkstein, Abby L; Taylor, Benjamin A; Shutler, Dave; Ostiguy, Nancy

    2009-04-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) in western honey bees (Apis mellifera) often remains asymptomatic in workers and drones, and symptoms have never been described from queens. However, intense infections linked to parasitism by the mite Varroa destructor can cause worker wing deformity and death within 67 h of emergence. Ten workers (eight with deformed wings and two with normal wings) and three drones (two with deformed wings and one with normal wings) from two colonies infected with V. destructor from Nova Scotia, Canada, and two newly-emerged queens (one with deformed wings and one with normal wings) from two colonies infected with V. destructor from Prince Edward Island, Canada, were genetically analyzed for DWV. We detected DWV in all workers and drones, regardless of wing morphology, but only in the deformed-winged queen. This is the first report of DWV from Atlantic Canada and the first detection of a symptomatic queen with DWV from anywhere.

  3. Renewing the Study of Public Sector Unions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Camfield

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A renewal of the study of public sector unionism in Canada is long overdue. This article explains why public sector unions deserve more attention from researchers than they have received of late and proposes that studies of public sector unions would benefit from adopting a new theoretical framework that conceptualizes contemporary unions as not only labour relations institutions but also as particular kinds of working-class movement organizations within a historically-specific class formation. It also identifies two obstacles to the production of accounts of contemporary public sector unions from this perspective.

  4. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz Haderlein; T.L. Jensen; Dowbenko, R.E.; A.D. Blaylock

    2001-01-01

    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  5. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz Haderlein; Jensen, T. L.; Dowbenko, R.E.; A.D. Blaylock

    2001-01-01

    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  6. Transport of trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cd) in the western Arctic Ocean (Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin) in late summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime.; Hioki, Nanako; Ooki, Atsushi; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kuma, Kenshi

    2016-10-01

    Distributions of trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cd) in the western Arctic Ocean (Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin) in September 2012 were investigated to elucidate the mechanisms behind the transport of these metals from the Chukchi Shelf to the Canada Basin. Filtered (melting sea-ice, influenced trace metal concentrations. The distribution patterns and concentration ranges were generally similar between the D and TD fractions for Ni, Zn and Cd, which indicate that Ni, Zn and Cd were present mainly in their dissolved forms, whereas the concentrations of TD-Fe and TD-Mn were generally higher than those of D-Fe and D-Mn, respectively. These results are consistent with the results of previous studies of this region. For both Fe and Mn, labile particulate (LP) concentrations (the difference between the TD and D fractions, which is acid-leachable fraction in the particles during storage at pH 1.5-1.6) were highest in the near-bottom waters of the Chukchi Shelf region. The relationships between the distance from the shelf break and the concentrations of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn concentrations in halocline waters tended to decrease logarithmically with distance, whereas changes in the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd and phosphate with distance were small. These results suggest that the distributions of Fe and Mn were controlled mainly by input from shelf sediment and removal through scavenging processes. Based on the phase distributions of Fe and Mn, which were calculated as ratios between the LP and D fractions, different behaviors between Fe and Mn were expressed during lateral transportation. The concentration of TD-Fe declined rapidly via removal of LP-Fe from the water column, whereas the concentration of TD-Mn declined more slowly through the transformation of D-Mn into LP-Mn. In contrast, the concentrations of D-Cd, D-Zn and D-Ni were more strongly correlated with phosphate levels, which suggest that, like phosphate, the distributions of Cd, Zn and Ni were

  7. Recruitment process of a Chinese immigrant study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this article were to provide a comprehensive overview of the recruitment experience and participant characteristics in an antihypertensive dietary educational intervention pilot trial among Chinese Canadians. The recruitment was conducted in a community centre. Two recruitment approaches, self-referral and proactive recruitment, were used. Among 618 Chinese Canadians in the blood pressure screening, 105 (17.0%) individuals were eligible to participate in this trial. Of the 105 eligible individuals, 45 (42.9%) declined enrollment and 60 (57.1%) consented to participate in the trial and were recruited. The most common reason for refusal was being unable to access to the education location (n=19, 42.2%) followed by being too busy to participate (n=18, 40.0%). All participants were Chinese immigrants and the mean number of years living in Canada was 9.2. Most participants had low English proficiency, accepted Chinese culture more than Western culture, and had strong traditional health beliefs. It is concluded that both self-referral and proactive recruitment approaches were effective. Home-based interventions using Internet and telephone should be used as alternative delivery approaches to improve recruitment rate and facilitate participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  9. Potential rates of anaerobic decomposition and experimental priming effects in thawed peats from discontinuous permafrost in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estop Aragones, C.; Heffernan, L.; Olefeldt, D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent climate change has led to increased rates of warming and wildfire in the circumpolar region. It is predicted that this will promote the widespread thawing of permafrost and the development of thermokarst bogs in the peatlands of western Canada. Previously frozen deep organic matter becomes available to microbial activity with thermokarst with the potential loss of C stocks while liberating greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and creating a positive feedback to climate change. Although anoxic conditions in these waterlogged systems may reduce peat decomposition, fresh plant derived C inputs associated with high vegetation productivity post-thaw could increase peat decomposition. The effect of this potential mechanism on enhanced peat decomposition is poorly investigated though. We are measuring anaerobic CO2 and CH4 production rates from a peat plateau, an adjacent young and an old thermokarst feature in the discontinuous permafrost. Samples were selected from depths where peat has been exposed to seasonal thaw (active layer) and from deeper, previously frozen organic matter along 5 m profiles. Preliminary results indicate that most CO2 production is driven by the top meter of peat, especially in the recent thermokarst where the highest rates of CH4 production are also measured due to high vegetation productivity post-thaw. Data suggests that the decomposition of deeper peat is more temperature sensitive. We are considering a 13C labelling experiment to investigate the priming effects on heterotrophic respiration of organic matter heterotrophic respiration once the labile C pool has been depleted and production rates have become stable over time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy will be used to determine how peat quality is related to anaerobic decomposition rates, its temperature dependency, and priming effects. These measurements aim to constrain the fate of C through anaerobic decomposition upon permafrost thaw.

  10. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  11. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Denise; Cox, Amy; Kampen, Ruth; Kobayashi, Karen; Cook, Heather; Taylor, Deanne; Gaspard, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators), and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists), working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change. PMID:27417591

  12. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM) in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Denise; Cox, Amy; Kampen, Ruth; Kobayashi, Karen; Cook, Heather; Taylor, Deanne; Gaspard, Gina

    2016-01-04

    Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM) designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators), and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists), working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change.

  13. A Tale of Two Sites: Lessons on Leadership from the Implementation of a Long-term Care Delivery Model (CDM in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential, long-term care serves vulnerable older adults in a facility-based environment. A new care delivery model (CDM designed to promote more equitable care for residents was implemented in a health region in Western Canada. Leaders and managers faced challenges in implementing this model alongside other concurrent changes. This paper explores the question: How did leadership style influence team functioning with the implementation of the CDM? Qualitative data from interviews with leadership personnel (directors and managers, residential care coordinators and clinical nurse educators, and direct care staff (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, health care aides, and allied health therapists, working in two different facilities comprise the main sources of data for this study. The findings reveal that leaders with a servant leadership style were better able to create and sustain the conditions to support successful model implementation and higher team functioning, compared to a facility in which the leadership style was less inclusive and proactive, and more resistant to the change. Consequently, staff at the second facility experienced a greater sense of overload with the implementation of the CDM. This study concludes that strong leadership is key to facilitating team work and job satisfaction in a context of change.

  14. Neurological Diseases, Disorders and Injuries in Canada: Highlights of a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Garth M; Huggett, Deanna L

    2016-01-01

    The National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions, a partnership between Neurological Health Charities Canada and the Government of Canada, was the largest study of neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries ever conducted in Canada. Undertaken between 2009 and 2013, the expansive program of research addressed the epidemiology, impacts, health services, and risk factors of 18 neurological conditions and estimated the health outcomes and costs of these conditions in Canada through 2031. This review summarizes highlights from the component projects of the study as presented in the synthesis report, Mapping Connections: An Understanding of Neurological Conditions in Canada. The key findings included new prevalence and incidence estimates, documentation of the diverse and often debilitating effects of neurological conditions, and identification of the utilization, economic costs, and current limitations of related health services. The study findings will support health charities, governments, and other stakeholders to reduce the impact of neurological conditions in Canada.

  15. Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

  16. Limitations On Canada Goose Production at Fish springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied the western Canada goose (B. c. moffitti) population at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in western Utah from March to July in 1996 and 1997 to...

  17. Relative performance of different exposure modeling approaches for sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air in rural western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyang-Mi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this paper is to compare different methods for predicting the levels of SO2 air pollution in oil and gas producing area of rural western Canada. Month-long average air quality measurements were collected over a two-year period (2001–2002 at multiple locations, with some side-by-side measurements, and repeated time-series at selected locations. Methods We explored how accurately location-specific mean concentrations of SO2 can be predicted for 2002 at 666 locations with multiple measurements. Means of repeated measurements on the 666 locations in 2002 were used as the alloyed gold standard (AGS. First, we considered two approaches: one that uses one measurement from each location of interest; and the other that uses context data on proximity of monitoring sites to putative sources of emission in 2002. Second, we imagined that all of the previous year's (2001's data were also available to exposure assessors: 9,464 measurements and their context (month, proximity to sources. Exposure prediction approaches we explored with the 2001 data included regression modeling using either mixed or fixed effects models. Third, we used Bayesian methods to combine single measurements from locations in 2002 (not used to calculate AGS with different priors. Results The regression method that included both fixed and random effects for prediction (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor had the best agreement with the AGS (Pearson correlation 0.77 and the smallest mean squared error (MSE: 0.03. The second best method in terms of correlation with AGS (0.74 and MSE (0.09 was the Bayesian method that uses normal mixture prior derived from predictions of the 2001 mixed effects applied in the 2002 context. Conclusion It is likely that either collecting some measurements from the desired locations and time periods or predictions of a reasonable empirical mixed effects model perhaps is sufficient in most epidemiological applications. The

  18. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  19. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  20. Education as a Social Determinant of Health: Issues Facing Indigenous and Visible Minority Students in Postsecondary Education in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Lam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The level of educational attainment is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health. While higher educational attainment can play a significant role in shaping employment opportunities, it can also increase the capacity for better decision making regarding one’s health, and provide scope for increasing social and personal resources that are vital for physical and mental health. In today’s highly globalized knowledge based society postsecondary education (PSE is fast becoming a minimum requirement for securing employment that can afford young adults the economic, social and personal resources needed for better health. Canada ranks high among OECD countries in terms of advanced education, with 66% of Canadians having completed some form of postsecondary education. Yet youth from low income indigenous and visible minority (LIIVM backgrounds continue to be poorly represented at PSE levels. The current study aimed to understand the reasons for this poor representation by examining the experiences of LIIVM students enrolled in a postsecondary program. Findings show that the challenges they faced during the course of their study had an adverse impact on their health and that improving representation of these students in PSE will require changes at many levels.

  1. A retrospective study of surgically excised phaeochromocytomas in Newfoundland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Holland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A retrospective study detailing the circumstances surrounding diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytomas with the associated genetic disorders. Materials and Methods: All patients with surgically excised pheochromocytomas in the Health Sciences Center, St. John′s, Newfoundland, Canada between January 2001 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed to determine associated familial syndromes, age, tumor size, symptomatology, and percentage of paragangliomas and bilateral pheochromocytomas. Pathology specimen reports, adrenalectomy lists and Meditech (electronic medical record diagnostic codes provided a comprehensive database for this study. Results: Twenty-four patients were studied; familial disorder patients comprised 42% (10/24. Average age at diagnosis was 57 among the sporadic and 34 in familial disorder groups (P = 0.006. Average tumor size was 4.5 cm in the sporadic group and 3 cm in the familial disorder group (P = 0.19. All atypical cases including bilateral or extra-adrenal tumors and malignancy occurred in familial disorder patients. Conclusions: The proportion of familial disorder patients (42% was higher in this study than would be expected, likely a result of the relatively high incidence of hereditary autosomal dominant disorders within Newfoundland. Among familial disorder patients, the average younger age at diagnosis and the smaller tumor size suggest syndromic pheochromocytomas may develop earlier, however they are more likely to be diagnosed sooner due to biochemical surveillance testing in known genetic disorder patients. We also demonstrate a relatively high incidence of surgically resected pheochromocytomas of 4.679/million/year in Newfoundland.

  2. US-Canada Great Lakes Regional Specimen Bank Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, A; Edmonds, C J; Landon, L; Yonker, T L

    1993-11-01

    A study to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Specimen Bank in the Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada has recently been initiated by the Michigan Audubon Society. There are several existing formal and informal specimen banking facilities active in the region but their combined adequacy has not been evaluated. This feasibility study will establish the need and use of a regional bank and the institution(s) necessary to satisfy this need will be recommended. The study will address the scope required to meet present and future needs including the types of specimens to be represented in the bank, geographic coverage and protocols for collection, shipping, processing, analysis and storage. A management policy of the bank will be developed encompassing business operation, costs, governing structure and personnel requirements. The legal requirements of the bank will be determined with regards to the acquisition of samples, transport across national boundaries, access to specimens and information, and liability during operation. An effective information dissemination network will be recommended that is compatible with national and international partners, will facilitate technology and information transfer and support the quality and status of the bank. Determination of secure, long-term funding sources will be one of the key elements to ensuring a safe repository. This feasibility study is funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.

  3. A retrospective study of surgically excised phaeochromocytomas in Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Joanna; Chandurkar, Vikram

    2014-07-01

    A retrospective study detailing the circumstances surrounding diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytomas with the associated genetic disorders. All patients with surgically excised pheochromocytomas in the Health Sciences Center, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada between January 2001 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed to determine associated familial syndromes, age, tumor size, symptomatology, and percentage of paragangliomas and bilateral pheochromocytomas. Pathology specimen reports, adrenalectomy lists and Meditech (electronic medical record) diagnostic codes provided a comprehensive database for this study. Twenty-four patients were studied; familial disorder patients comprised 42% (10/24). Average age at diagnosis was 57 among the sporadic and 34 in familial disorder groups (P = 0.006). Average tumor size was 4.5 cm in the sporadic group and 3 cm in the familial disorder group (P = 0.19). All atypical cases including bilateral or extra-adrenal tumors and malignancy occurred in familial disorder patients. The proportion of familial disorder patients (42%) was higher in this study than would be expected, likely a result of the relatively high incidence of hereditary autosomal dominant disorders within Newfoundland. Among familial disorder patients, the average younger age at diagnosis and the smaller tumor size suggest syndromic pheochromocytomas may develop earlier, however they are more likely to be diagnosed sooner due to biochemical surveillance testing in known genetic disorder patients. We also demonstrate a relatively high incidence of surgically resected pheochromocytomas of 4.679/million/year in Newfoundland.

  4. Geographical variations in the prevalence of atopic sensitization in six study sites across Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Anthonisen, N R; Becklake, M R;

    2010-01-01

    Geographical variations in atopic sensitization in Canada have not been described previously. This study used the standardized protocol of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey-1 (ECRHS-1) to investigate the distribution and predictors of atopic sensitization in six sites across Canada...

  5. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  6. A study of fairness judgments in China, Switzerland and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compares judgments of the fairness of economic actions among survey populations in Switzerland, and both student and non-student groups in the People's Republic of China, with the earlier Kahneman, Knetsch and Thaler (1986a surveys of Canadians. The findings suggest that fairness concerns matter among all of these groups, and the general patterns of what was and was not considered to be fair were similar. However, there were also some significant differences with the influence of fairness being weaker in the two Chinese samples than in the groups from the Western countries, with the influence being weakest in the Chinese student population for the wage related topics. On the whole, almost no significant gender differences were found in any of the new surveys.

  7. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  8. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  9. Influence of organizational context on nursing home staff burnout: A cross-sectional survey of care aides in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Stephanie A; Gruneir, Andrea; Hoben, Matthias; Squires, Janet E; Cummings, Greta G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2017-06-01

    Our study examined care aide characteristics, organizational context, and frequency of dementia-related resident responsive behaviours associated with burnout. Burnout is the experience of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Care aide burnout has implications for turnover, staff health, and quality of care. We used surveys collected from 1194 care aides from 30 urban nursing homes in three Western Canadian provinces. We used a mixed-effects regression analysis to assess care aide characteristics, dementia-related responsive behaviours, unit and facility characteristics, and organizational context predictors of care aide burnout. We measured burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Short Form. We found that care aides were at high risk for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, but report high professional efficacy. Statistically significant predictors of emotional exhaustion included English as a second language, medium facility size, organizational slack-staff, organizational slack-space, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of cynicism were care aide age, English as a second language, unit culture, evaluation (feedback of data), formal interactions, health (mental and physical) and dementia-related responsive behaviours. Statistically significant predictors of professional efficacy were unit culture and structural resources. Greater care aide job satisfaction was significantly associated with increased professional efficacy. This study suggests that individual care aide and organization features are both predictive of care aide burnout. Unlike care aide or structural characteristics of the facility elements of the organizational context are potentially modifiable, and therefore amenable to intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between oil- and gas-well sites, processing facilities, flaring, and beef cattle reproduction and calf mortality in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L; Ribble, C S; Janzen, E D; Campbell, J R

    2001-07-19

    From the fall of 1992 through calving 1996, detailed cow breeding outcome records were maintained actively for seven large cow-calf herds in western Canada. The numbers of mature females in the study for the breeding seasons beginning in 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 were 1122, 1177, 1251, and 1236, respectively. Outcomes included pregnancy status, calving interval, and the occurrence of twins, abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal mortality. Information also was collected on other risk factors known to influence beef-herd health and productivity. Detailed maps of active and inactive oil and natural-gas sites, batteries, compressor stations and processing plants were verified. Records of flaring activity at each facility were obtained from the government regulatory agency. Each flaring site then was classified as sour or sweet based on the presence or absence of hydrogen sulfide in the flared gas. A detailed inventory was prepared itemizing the type and number of facilities within 1.6 km (1 mile) of the center of each quarter section used for pasture. The total volume of gas flared within 1.6 km of the center of each pasture was determined for each month of the study. Appropriate risk periods where specified for each outcome and a cumulative exposure calculated for each breeding female (using detailed individual-animal records of cow movements between pastures and herd-management groups). Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between exposure and outcome and to adjust for potential confounders and clustering of binomial outcomes within herd. Increased risk of non-pregnancy was sometimes associated with exposure to one or more of the following facility types: sour-gas flaring battery facilities, all battery-flaring sites, active gas wells, and larger field facilities. The associations were not, however, consistent among years or even among risk periods for the same year. Facility proximity and flaring were not associated with increased

  11. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  12. Geochemistry and Cyclostratigraphy of Magnetic Susceptibility data from the Frasnian-Famennian event interval in western Canada: Insights in the pattern and timing of a biotic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, M. T.; De Vleeschouwer, D.; Sliwinski, M. G.; Claeys, P. F.; Day, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Cyclostratigraphic calibration of magnetic susceptibility data along with stable isotopic and geochemical proxy data for redox, productivity, and detrital input from western Canada provide insight into the pace and timing of the Late Devonian, Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) biotic crisis. Two organic-rich shales that, in much of the world, display geochemical anomalies indicating low oxygen conditions and carbon burial characterize the F-F event. These events, referred to as the Lower and Upper Kellwasser events (LKE & UKE), have been linked to the evolutionary expansion of deeply rooted terrestrial forests and the concomitant changes in soil development and chemical weathering and changes in Late Devonian climate. Our geochemical data record relatively high levels of redox sensitive trace metals (Mo, U, V), proxies for biological productivity (Ba, Cu, Ni, Zn), and detrital input (Al, Si, Ti, Zr) during both events. C stable isotopic data generated from organic matter records a 3-4‰ positive excursion during both events. Each event is recorded in lowstand and/or early transgressive facies. These data corroborate hypotheses about enhanced biological productivity, driven by heightened terrestrial detrital input, leading to low oxygen conditions and decreases in biotic diversity during during relatively low stands of Late Devonian sea level. Age dating of such events in deep time is problematic due to insufficient biochronologic control. Each event is within one conodont biostratigraphic zone, with durations on the order of 0.5-1.0 Ma. Time series analysis of high-resolution magnetic susceptibility data identified 16 long eccentricity cycles (405 ky) during the Frasnian stage and one in the earliest Famennian stage. The geochemical anomalies associated with the LKE and UKE are recorded over 7 and 14 m of stratigraphic section respectively. These strata represent only a portion of a 405 ky long eccentricity cycle and astronomical tuning implies that the LKE likely occurred

  13. Studying Summer Season Drought in Western Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Lupo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2010 summer, a severe drought impacted Western Russia, including regions surrounding Moscow and Belgorod (about 700 km south of Moscow. The drought was accompanied by high temperatures. Moscow recorded 37.8°C (100°F for the first time in over 130 years of record keeping. The record heat, high humidity, dry weather, and smoke from forest fires caused increased human mortality rates in the Moscow region during the summer. The excessive heat and humidity in Western Russia were the result of atmospheric blocking from June through mid-August. The NCAR-NCEP reanalyses were used to examine blocking in the Eastern European and Western Russia sector during the spring and summer seasons from 1970 to 2012. We found that drier years were correlated with stronger and more persistent blocking during the spring and summer seasons. During these years, the Moscow region was drier in the summer and Belgorod during the spring seasons. In the Moscow region, the drier summers were correlated with transitions from El Niño to La Niña, but the opposite was true in the Belgorod region. Synoptic flow regimes were then analyzed and support the contention that dry years are associated with more blocking and El Niño transitions.

  14. Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus minimus distribution and habitat use in a montane forest landscape of western Newfoundland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darroch M. Whitaker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Once abundant, the Newfoundland Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus minimus has declined by as much as 95% since 1975. Underlying cause(s of this population collapse are not known, although hypotheses include loss of winter habitat and the introduction of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus to Newfoundland. Uncertainties regarding habitat needs are also extensive, and these knowledge gaps are an impediment to conservation. We investigated neighborhood (i.e., within 115 m [4.1 ha] and landscape scale (i.e., within 1250 m [490.8 ha] habitat associations of Gray-cheeked Thrush in a 200-km² study area in the Long Range Mountains of western Newfoundland, where elevations range from 300-600 m and landcover was a matrix of old growth fir forest, 6- to 8-year-old clearcuts, coniferous scrub, bogs, and barrens. Thrushes were restricted to elevations above ~375 m, and occurrence was strongly positively related to elevation. Occurrence was also positively related to cover of tall scrub forest at the neighborhood scale, and at the landscape scale showed curvilinear relations with the proportion of both tall scrub and old growth forest that peaked with intermediate amounts of cover. Occurrence of thrushes was also highest when clearcuts made up 60%-70% of neighborhood landcover, but was negatively related to cover of clearcuts in the broader landscape. Finally, occurrence was highest in areas having 50% cover of partially harvested forest (strip cuts or row cuts at the neighborhood scale, but because this treatment was limited to one small portion of the study area, this finding may be spurious. Taken together, our results suggest selection for mixed habitats and sensitivity to both neighborhood and landscape-scale habitat. More research is needed on responses of thrushes to forestry, including use of older clearcuts, partially harvested stands, and precommercially thinned clearcuts. Finally, restriction of thrushes to higher elevations is consistent

  15. The linkage between fluvial meander-belt morphodynamics and the depositional record improves paleoenvironmental interpretations, Western Interior Basin, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, P.; Hubbard, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced stratigraphic interpretations are possible when linkages between morphodynamic processes and the depositional record are resolved. Recent studies of modern and ancient meander-belt deposits have emphasized morphodynamic processes that are commonly understated in the analysis of stratigraphic products, such as intra-point bar erosion and rotation, counter-point-bar (concave bank-bench) development and meander-bend abandonment. On a larger scale, longitudinal changes in meander-belt morphology and processes such as changes in meander-bend migration rate, channel-belt width/depth ratio and sinuosity have been observed as rivers flow through the tidal backwater zone. However, few studies have attempted to recognize the impact of the backwater zone in the stratigraphic record. We consider ancient meander-belt deposits of the Cretaceous McMurray Formation and document linkages between morphodynamic processes and their stratigraphic product to resolve more detailed paleoenvironmental interpretations. The ancient meander belt was characterized by paleochannels that were 600 m wide and up to 50 m deep, resolved in a particularly high quality subsurface dataset consisting of 600 km2 of high-quality 3-D seismic data and over 1000 wellbores. A 3-D geocellular model and reconstructed paleochannel migration patterns reveal the evolutionary history of seventeen individual meander belt elements, including point bars, counter point bars and their associated abandoned channel fills. At the meander-bend scale, intra-point-bar erosion surfaces bound accretion packages characterized by unique accretion directions, internal stratigraphic architecture and lithologic properties. Erosion surfaces and punctuated bar rotation are linked to upstream changes in channel planform geometry (meander cut-offs). We provide evidence for downstream translation and development of counter-point bars that formed in response to valley-edge and intra-meander-belt confinement. At the meander

  16. School-Based Strategies to Reduce Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Discrimination among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents in Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Konishi, Chiaki; Rose, Hilary A.; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between the existence of and length of time since implementation of school-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and explicit anti-homophobic bullying policies in secondary schools across British Columbia, Canada, with experiences of anti-gay discrimination, suicidal ideation and attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), mostly heterosexual, and exclusively heterosexual students. Analyses of the province-wide random cluster-stratified 2008 B.C. Adolescen...

  17. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels.

  18. A Statistical Comparative Study of the Working Poor in Japan and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently in Japan, there has been an increase in the group which is termed the ‘Working Poor’. However, the group’s size and configuration remains unknown. Approach: The purpose of this study is to compare the working poor in Canada and Japan using microdata. First, the definition and method of estimation of the working poor provided by (Iwai and Murakami, 2007 are provided along with later modifications. Second, results of the investigation into data appropriate for use in estimating Canada’s working poor and poverty line are given, as are estimates of Canada’s working poor. Last, the characteristics of unemployment, unstable employment and the labor market are examined for both Canada and Japan and the similarities and differences between the two countries are highlighted. Results: In Canada and Japan, the working poor are most likely to be found among the young, those with a low level of education, those in unstable employment or those working in a company having few employees. As regards the differences between the two countries, males are more likely to be the working poor than females in Canada, though this trend is not seen in Japan; moreover, the percentage of the working poor is high among the 25-34 and 35-44 age groups in Japan, though this is not the case in Canada. Conclusion: As conclusions of this study, the first challenge that lies ahead is to find data from the two countries that allows a more rigorous comparison. The second challenge is to re-evaluate estimates made to date after a full investigation of labor market systems. Statistical Analysis Research Project (2009, we have estimated the working poor of the UK and compared their figures with those of Japan. The third challenge is thus to add the findings of this study to those from the UK/Japan and thereby perform a trilateral comparison.

  19. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  20. A comparative study of institutional adaptive capacity : South Saskatchewan River Basin, Canada, and Elqui River Basin, Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauchyn, D.; Diaz, P.; Gauthier, D. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed the strategies and materials developed for a five-year study of the capacity of institutions in two dryland regions (the South Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada and the Elqui River Basin of north-central Chile) to adapt to the impacts of climate change. The purpose of the project was to obtain a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the capacities of regional institutions to formulate and implement strategies of adaptation to climate change risks and the forecasted impacts of climate change on the supply and management of water resources in dryland environments. Both regions are at different stages of social and environmental vulnerability and yet have a dry climate adjacent to a major mountain system and landscapes at risk of desertification, as well as an agricultural economy dependent on irrigation water derived from mountain snow and glaciers. tabs., figs.

  1. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H. J.; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  2. Topographic control of snow distribution in an alpine watershed of western Canada inferred from spatially-filtered MODIS snow products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A spatial filter (SF is used to reduce cloud coverage in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS 8-day maximum snow cover extent products (MOD10A2 from 2000–2007, which are obtained from MODIS daily snow cover extent products (MOD10A1, to assess the topographic control on snow cover fraction (SCF and snow cover duration (SCD in the Quesnel River Basin (QRB of British Columbia, Canada. Results show that the SF reduces cloud coverage and improves by 2% the accuracy of snow mapping in the QRB. The new product developed using the SF method shows larger SCF and longer SCD than MOD10A2, with higher altitudes experiencing longer snow cover and perennial snow above 2500 m. The gradient of SCF with elevation (d(SCF/dz during the snowmelt season is 8% (100 m−1. The average ablation rates of SCF are similar for different 100 m elevation bands at about 5.5% (8 days−1 for altitudes <1500 m with decreasing values with elevation to near 0% (8 days−1 for altitudes >2500 m. Different combinations of slopes and aspects also affect the SCF with a maximum difference of 20.9% at a given time. Correlation coefficients between SCD and elevation attain 0.96 (p<0.001. Mean gradients of SCD with elevation are 3.8, 4.3, and 11.6 days (100 m−1 for the snow onset season, snowmelt season, and entire year, respectively. The SF decreases the standard deviations of SCDs compared to MOD10A2 with a maximum difference near 0.6 day, 0.9 day, and 1.0 day for the snow onset season, snowmelt season, and entire year, respectively.

  3. Access to health services in Western Newfoundland, Canada: Issues, barriers and recommendations emerging from a community-engaged research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle Hippe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that people living in rural and remote areas of Canada face challenges to accessing health services. This article reports on a community-engaged research project conducted by investigators at Memorial University of Newfoundland in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat Regional Councils and Regional Partnership Planners for the Corner Brook–Rocky Harbour and Stephenville–Port aux Basques Rural Secretariat Regions of Newfoundland and Labrador. The aim of this research was to gather information on barriers to accessing health services, to identify solutions to health services’ access issues and to inform policy advice to government on enhancing access to health services. Data was collected through: (1 targeted distribution of a survey to communities throughout the region, and (2 informal ‘kitchen table’ discussions to discuss health services’ access issues. A total of 1049 surveys were collected and 10 kitchen table discussions were held. Overall, the main barriers to care listed in the survey included long wait times, services not available in the area and services not available at time required. Other barriers noted by survey respondents included transportation problems, financial concerns, no medical insurance coverage, distance to travel and weather conditions. Some respondents reported poorer access to maternal/child health and breast and cervical screening services and a lack of access to general practitioners, pharmacy services, dentists and nurse practitioners. Recommendations that emerged from this research included improving the recruitment of rural physicians, exploring the use of nurse practitioners, assisting individuals with travel costs,  developing specialist outreach services, increasing use of telehealth services and initiating additional rural and remote health research. Keywords: rural, remote, healthcare, health services, social determinants of health

  4. Canada in American Schools: A Janus Look. A National Study on the Teaching of Canada in American Schools. Occasional Paper Series, Number 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, Marion C.; Wilson, Donald C.

    This study was undertaken to determine what human factors, teaching materials, and situational conditions foster teaching about Canada in American schools. Case studies of secondary schools were conducted, teachers completed questionnaires, and social studies supervisors and other educators were interviewed. This report presents an analysis of the…

  5. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in...

  6. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand...

  7. Proceedings of the OPAS oil and gas sector symposium : Human resources in the western Canada oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Office for Partnerships in Advanced Skills (OPAS), Western Office organized this conference to discuss critical human resource issues in the oil and gas sector. In order to gain a broad perspective and different viewpoints, OPAS brought together representatives from the oil and gas industry, academia, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, and Alberta's Ministry of Human Resources and Employment. Topics of discussion included market trends, skills shortages and training development needs to respond to difficulties in recruiting in the areas of thermal enhanced oil recovery technologies and unconventional gas technologies. An 18 question survey conducted prior to the symposium revealed that the majority of respondents do not think that the current post secondary curriculum adequately meets the oil and gas industry's employment skill requirements. The challenges in designing and implementing industry specific programs were then discussed along with the timeline needed to develop an appropriate program and get graduates into the marketplace. The recommended initiatives resulting from the symposium discussions were then presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Haderlein

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yields and increase grain N and N use efficiency when compared to the practice of side-banding of urea N fertilizer. CRU was designed to release timely and adequate, but not excessive, amounts of N to the crop. Crop uptake of N from seed-placed CRU was sufficient to provide yields similar to those of side-banded urea N. Grain N concentrations of the CRU treatments were higher, on average, than those from side-banded urea, resulting in 4.2% higher N use efficiency across the entire N application range from 25 to 100 kg ha-1. Higher levels of removal of N in grain from CRU compared to side-banded urea can result in less residual N remaining in the soil, and limit the possibility of N losses due to denitrification and leaching.

  9. Study on requirements of bioequivalence for registration of pharmaceutical products in USA, Europe and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Galgatte, Upendra C.; Jamdade, Vijay R.; Aute, Pravin P.; Chaudhari, Pravin D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the requirements of bioequivalence for the registration of pharmaceutical products in the USA, Europe and Canada. Before going into bioequivalence studies it is essential for the pharmaceutical industry to study the guidelines of bioequivalence for the respective country where the industry wants to market its products and thus enter into generic market. This study reviews the requirements of bioequivalence with study parameters such as study design, fastin...

  10. Study physico-chemical of the sand of the western ERG (Western South Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, M.; Tafraoui, A. [Faculty of sciences and technology, University of Bechar (Algeria)], email: allammessaouda@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Silica is gaining increasing importance as it is the base for the production of pure silicon, for which several applications are under development in the electronic and solar energy sectors. The aim of this study is to characterize the sand taken from the Western Erg of Algeria to determine the percentage of silicon it contains. Characterization was done through physical analysis to determine the granulometry of the sand. A chemical analysis was next performed, using diffraction of X-rays and a scanning electron microscope to determine the chemical composition of the sand. Results showed that the sand is mainly made of quartz in the form of rounded and subbarrondis grains and that silicon is prevalent, accounting for 98% of the composition. This study demonstrated that sand from the Western Erg of Algeria is rich in silicon and could be used for silicon production.

  11. Joint-FACET: The Canada-Netherlands initiative to study multi-sensor data fusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossee, E.; Theil, A.; Huizing, A.G.; Aartsen, C.S. van

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the progress of a collaborative effort between Canada and The Netherlands in analyzing multi-sensor data fusion systems, e.g. for potential application to their respective frigates. In view of the overlapping interest in studying and comparing applicability and performance and ad

  12. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  13. Gestures of India: A Study of Emblems among Punjabi Residents of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher R.

    Based on the theoretical concepts and research methodology of Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen, a study examined the emblems (gestures with exact verbal meanings) of Punjabi (India) immigrants in Canada. A limited repertoire of 63 emblems was elicited from nine Punjabi informants and then shown to nine Canadian citizens and one United States…

  14. Gestures of India: A Study of Emblems among Punjabi Residents of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher R.

    Based on the theoretical concepts and research methodology of Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen, a study examined the emblems (gestures with exact verbal meanings) of Punjabi (India) immigrants in Canada. A limited repertoire of 63 emblems was elicited from nine Punjabi informants and then shown to nine Canadian citizens and one United States…

  15. Women Learning Politics and the Politics of Learning: A Feminist Study of Canada and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, Darlene E.; McGregor, Catherine; Farrell, Martha; Pant, Mandakini

    2011-01-01

    Our feminist cross-national comparative study explored the informal and nonformal education and learning of women politicians in Canada and India. Using individual interviews, focus groups, surveys and observations of training sessions we compared and contrasted socio-cultural contexts, challenges, education and learning philosophies, and diverse…

  16. Matching magnetic trends and patterns across the Tintina fault, Alaska and Canada--evidence for offset of about 490 kilometers: Chapter C in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, Richard W.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic anomaly patterns on opposite sides of the mapped Tintina fault in eastern Alaska and western Canada show an apparent offset of about 490 kilometers (km), probably of Eocene age. This estimate is compared with previous geologically based estimates of 400 to 430 km and paleomagnetically based estimates of more than 1,100 km. The apparent geophysical alignments have geologic implications that deserve further study.

  17. Findings of 4-H Impact Studies in Six Western States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Brenda S.; Hodnett, Frank; Van Leeuwen, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2007, six western states conducted individual impact studies using public school youth in grades five, seven, and nine. Common areas of study included: risk behaviors, leadership positions held, helping others, close relationships with adults, self-identity, character, self-confidence, and empowerment. The purpose of the study was…

  18. Mineralogical study of surface sediments in the western Arctic Ocean and their implications for material sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Linsen; SHI Xuefa; LIU Yanguang; FANG Xisheng; CHEN Zhihua; WANG Chunjuan; ZOU Jianjun; HUANG Yuanhui

    2014-01-01

    Mineralogical analysis was performed on bulk sediments of 79 surface samples using X-ray diffraction. The analytical results, combined with data on ocean currents and the regional geological background, were used to investigate the mineral sources. Mineral assemblages in sediments and their distribution in the study area indicate that the material sources are complex. (1) Feldspar is abundant in the sediments of the middle Chukchi Sea near the Bering Strait, originating from sediments in the Anadyr River carried by the Anadyr Current. Sediments deposited on the western side of the Chukchi Sea are rich in feldspar. Compared with other areas, sediments in this region are rich in hornblende transported from volcanic and sedimentary rocks in Siberia by the Anadyr Stream and the Siberian Coastal Current. Sediments in the eastern Chukchi Sea are rich in quartz sourced from sediments of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers carried by the Alaska Coastal Current. Sediments in the northern Chukchi Sea are rich in quartz and carbonates from the Mackenzie River sediments. (2) Sediments of the southern and central Canada Basin contain little calcite and dolomite, mainly due to the small impact of the Beaufort Gyre carrying carbonates from the Canadian Arctic Islands. Compared with other areas, the mica content in the region is high, implying that the Laptev Sea is the main sediment source for the southern and central Canada Basin. In the other deep sea areas, calcite and dolomite levels are high caused by the input of large amounts of sediment carried by the Beaufort Gyre from the Canadian Arctic Islands (Banks and Victoria). The Siberian Laptev Sea also provides small amounts of sediment for this region. Furthermore, the Atlantic mid-water contributes some fine-grained material to the entire deep western Arctic Ocean.

  19. Western Experiential Pedagogy in Study-Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琼丽安

    2005-01-01

    西方海外教学法以实践为纲,认为实践是海外课程与本国课程的主要区别.此教学法将学生的海外经历作为教学的出发点,并和课堂教学融于一体.文章从海外教学法的角度对如何使初学者在短训班内也能成功地完成课外交际任务,并为其以后长期学习汉语打下良好的基础这一问题进行了论述.%As it is the guiding principle in the study-abroad pedagogy, practice is considered to constitute the major difference between the study-abroad program and that in their home campuses.This pedagogy sets the students' overseas experience as the essential emphasis of teaching and integrates it with classroom teaching. This paper discussed, from the point of view of the studyabroad pedagogy, how to enable the beginning student to successfully fulfill the communicative tasks in an out-of-classroom environment in short-term programs and to lay a good foundation for their future long-term studies.

  20. Comparative studies of sexual assaults in Canada and in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Carol K

    2011-01-01

    Although criminal law involving sexual offence has undergone many legal reforms in both Canada and Hong Kong, there remain numerous socio-cultural factors that maintain the difficulty of achieving successful prosecutions for these offences. This dissertation includes two comparative studies that explore complainant-specific factors that may affect the perception of adult female complainants in real (Study 1) and simulated (Study 2) sexual assault cases. Study 1 reviewed 220 archival rape case...

  1. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32-0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was consistently

  2. Fuel cells research in Canada and in other leading countries: a bibliometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, E. [Science Metrix, Montreal, QC (Canada)], e-mail: eric.archambault@science-metrix.com; Cote, G.

    2008-07-01

    This document is a study on fuel cells (FC) research in Canada and other leading countries, performed by Science Metrix for the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC). Fuel cells research started growing rapidly around 1999 and paused in 2005. In 1996, 519 papers were published in the field of fuel cells. In 2007, more than 3000 documents were presented. Most of the papers that mention a fuel cell type deal with solid oxide (SO) or proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Canada occupies the most advantageous position for both SOFCs and PEMFCs and ranks first in the multicriteria ranking of scientific research on fuel cells. Among the leading companies at the world level, Ballard ranks 5th for fuel cell papers and presents an excellent scientific impact and scientific impact. Among the leading universities, Penn State is the leading one in FC research regarding the number of fuel cell papers and the scientific impact. Scientific collaboration in this field is fragmented and appears to be mostly regional around the world. 8 tabs., 17 figs.

  3. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-02-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds ("WAP 12", "WAP 20", and "WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of (210)Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

  4. Monitoring the species of arsenic, chromium and nickel in milled coal, bottom ash and fly ash from a pulverized coal-fired power plant in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, F; Huggins, F E

    2001-02-01

    The concentration of As, Cr and Ni and their speciation (As3+;5+, Cr3+;6+ and Ni0;2+) in milled coal, bottom ash and ash collected by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) from a coal fired-power plant in western Canada were determined using HGAAS, ICP-AES and XANES. The chemical fractionation of these elements was also determined by a sequential leaching procedure, using deionized water, NH4OAC and HCI as extracting agents. The leachate was analyzed by ICP-AES. Arsenic in the milled coal is mostly associated with organic matter, and 67% of this arsenic is removed by ammonium acetate. This element is totally removed from milled coal after extraction with HCI. Arsenic occurs in both the As3+ and the As5+ oxidation states in the milled coal, while virtually all (>90%) of the arsenic in bottom ash and fly ash appears to be in the less toxic arsenate (As5+) form. Both Ni and Cr in the milled coal are extracted by HCI, indicating that water can mobilize Ni and Cr in an acidic environment. The chromium is leached by water from fly ash as a result of the high pH of the water, which is induced during the leaching. Ammonium acetate removes Ni from bottom ash through an ion exchange process. Chromium in milled coal is present entirely as Cr3+, which is an essential human trace nutrient. The Cr speciation in bottom ash is a more accentuated version of the milled coal and consists mostly of the Cr3+ species. Chromium in fly ash is mostly Cr3+, with significant contamination by stainless-steel from the installation itself.

  5. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-01-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds (“WAP 12”, “WAP 20”, and “WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of 210Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring. PMID:25750718

  6. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, <5 of 9 before calving, and lost condition between calving and the start of the breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS <5 of 9 with a loss of condition between breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors.

  7. Spatio-temporal dynamics of evapotranspiration from forested, ephemeral wetlands and its implication for hydrologic connectivity in the Western Boreal Plain in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Alexander; Kettridge, Nicholas; Devito, Kevin; Hokanson, Kelly; Leonard, Rhoswen; Krause, Stefan; Waddington, James Michael

    2017-04-01

    In catchments where hydrologic connectivity is predominantly controlled by storage-threshold dynamics, landscape units promoting water transmission can be crucial for overall ecohydrological functioning. In Canada's Western Boreal Plain, ephemeral wetlands surrounded by upland forests on deep and coarse, glacial deposits are examples of such units. In the sub-humid climate, their importance is exacerbated due to regional, multi-year water deficits, resulting from high evapotranspirative (ET) demand coinciding with most of the annual precipitation and its variability between years. Yet, these ephemeral wetlands frequently saturate during small rain events; hence, they likely play a key role in supplying water to adjacent and downstream systems in both dry and wet periods. We assess factors controlling water losses from these wetlands to the atmosphere (via the soil surface and vegetation), how they change over time (i.e. throughout the growing season), and the extent to which they vary in space. Our goal is to generate process-based understanding of ET dynamics and to determine potential feedbacks that reduce ET losses, maximizing the magnitude and period over which these landscape units may act as water sources. We hypothesize that the following mechanisms enhance the ascribed water transmitting function: (1) external and internal shading reduces incident radiation and therefore available energy to drive ET; this effect increases with leaf area, but is counter-acted by interception. (2) Vegetation structure reduces turbulent exchange with air masses above the canopy, thereby decreasing humidity gradients driving ET. (3) High, near-surface soil tensions during periods of drying limit rates of evaporation. We applied a combined measurement approach to assess spatial and temporal dynamics of ET in the 2016 growing season (May - August) and gathered additional data to assess abiotic and biotic controls on ET rates. We continuously measured ET from the wetland's surface

  8. Retirement income policies and welfare state retrenchment: A comparative study of Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bouma, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of welfare state retrenchment on the retirement income system in Canada during the years 1980-2000. In order to provide perspective on the Canadian experience, this study also examined the effects of retrenchment on the pension systems in the Netherlands and Sweden. The theoretical foundation for this study was supported by Esping-Andersen's (1990) welfare-state regime typology (liberal, conservative and social-democratic). To address retre...

  9. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  10. 1989 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  11. 1990 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  12. 1992 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  13. 1991 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  14. Variability, heritability and genetic advance in some agronomic and forage quality characters of spring triticale in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarrah, Mazen; Oatway, Lori; Albers, Susan; Bergen, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate variability, broad sense heritability, and genetic advance for dry matter yield (DMY), days to anthesis (ANTH), plant height (HT), in-vitro fiber digestibility-30h (IVFD), lignin (LIGN), starch (STAR %), crude protein content (CP %), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in spring triticale genotypes. Eighteen genotypes were tested at the Field Crop Development Centre (FCDC) in Lacombe, Alberta in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 growing season. The experimental design was randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Combined analysis of variance was carried out using SAS Enterprise 4.2 statistical package. Heritability was estimated following the variance component method. Simple correlation coefficients were determined among all traits using two years average data. The genotype mean squares were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for DMY, ANTH, HT, IFVD, ADF, NDF, STAR %, LIGN, and CP %. The effect of year was also highly significant on all studied traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the genetic coefficient of variation for all traits, indicating high influence of the environment on these traits. The significant genetic variability and the high heritability combined with high genetic advance of HT, STAR% and ADF in triticale genotypes suggested that selection could be successfully practiced for those traits. Correlation analysis showed significant and positive correlation of DMY with ANTH and HT, indicating that late and tall genotypes are more suitable as a forage type and they tend to produce more biomass yield. However, DMY did not show any significant correlation with the digestibility. IVFD and STAR % were negatively correlated with LIGN. In general, these results indicated that breeding for low lignin and high starch content will improve the digestibility in triticale genotypes. The preliminary results of this study were promising. Further research must include more diverse

  15. Defining risk for low reticuloruminal pH during the diet transition period in a commercial feedlot in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, B I; Hendrick, S; Campbell, J G; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Penner, G B

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to measure reticuloruminal pH in cattle in a commercial feedlot setting to determine the incidence and extent of low reticuloruminal pH for steers and heifers as they transition to a high-concentrate finishing diet. Reticuloruminal pH was measured in 16 "mixed breed" steers (4 steers/pen with 4 pens) and 16 "mixed breed" heifers (4 heifers/pen with 4 pens) housed in commercial feedlot pens, with 227 ± 13 and 249 ± 6 cattle/pen cohort steers and heifers, respectively, for the diet transition period. Cattle were transitioned from a diet of 53.5% forage and 46.5% concentrate to a diet of 9.5% forage and 90.5% concentrate on a DM basis using a 40-d transition with 5 dietary steps with the diets containing 41.4, 44.8, 49.8, 52.5, 55.1, and 64.0% nonfibrous carbohydrate. In addition, wheat replaced barley as the grain source during the dietary transition. Reticuloruminal pH was measured using orally administered pH measurement devices that were retrieved at slaughter. Data were analyzed using a mixed model including the fixed effects of sex, diet, and the 2-way interaction to evaluate the effect of diet and sex and with the fixed effects of sex, diet, and day relative to each dietary change along with the 2- and 3-way interactions to evaluate temporal responses as a result of diet change. A repeated measures statement was included for the effect of day. Both the mean and minimum reticuloruminal pH values decreased as the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased ( pH was pH, defined as pH 180 min, increased with increasing concentrate, and by the end of the 40-d dietary transition, 83% of the cattle had experienced at least 1 bout of low reticuloruminal pH, with most experiencing between 1 and 3 bouts/diet. These data are interpreted to suggest that cattle are at high risk for experiencing low reticuloruminal pH during the dietary transition but that the extent of low reticuloruminal pH is mild. Moreover, the data suggest

  16. Project Canada West. A Study of Urban Rural Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    Project SURT, The Study of Rural-Urban Transition, deals with the dynamics of Canadian society. The interdisciplinary curriculum to be produced will be instrumental in assisting tenth and eleventh grade students in two or three months, to assess the changes which are occuring in selected Canadian Communities, and to gain some proficiency in…

  17. Implementing Knowledge Translation Strategies in Funded Research in Canada and Australia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Moore; Therese Fitzpatrick; Ivy Lim-Carter; Abby Haynes; Anna Flego; Barbara Snelgrove

    2016-01-01

    There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge trans...

  18. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Jennifer A Pereira; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age child...

  19. Asylum-seeking children's experiences of detention in Canada: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Rachel; Rousseau, Cécile; Cleveland, Janet

    2015-05-01

    Children and parents seeking asylum are regularly detained in Canada, however little is known about the experiences of detained families. International literature suggests that the detention of children is associated with significant morbidity. Our study aims to understand the experiences of detained children and families who have sought asylum in Canada by using a qualitative methodology that includes semistructured interviews and ethnographic participant observation. Detention appears to be a frightening experience of deprivation that leaves children feeling criminalized and helpless. Family separation further shatters children's sense of well-being. Children's emotional and behavioral responses to separation and to detention suggest that the experience is acutely stressful and, in some cases, traumatic--even when detention is brief. Distress and impairment may persist months after release. Given the burden of psychological suffering and the harmful consequences of separating families, children should not be detained for immigration reasons and parents should not be detained without children.

  20. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  1. Economics of fossil fuel substitution and wood product sinks when trees are planted to sequester carbon on agricultural lands in western Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stennes, Brad; Krcmar-Nozic, Emina; van Gorkom, Ruud; van Kooten, G Cornelis

    1999-01-01

    To meet its international commitment to reduce CO 2 output by 7% from the 1990 level by 2012, Canada will rely to some extent on terrestrial carbon uptake, particularly afforestation of marginal agricultural land...

  2. Market Exclusivity Time for Top Selling Originator Drugs in Canada: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2017-09-01

    This study looks at market exclusivity time for the top selling originator drugs in Canada. Total sales for drugs without competition were also calculated. A list of the top selling originator drugs by dollar sales from 2009 to 2015 inclusive, except for 2010, was compiled along with their annual sales. Health Canada databases were used to extract the following information: generic name, date of Notice of Compliance (NOC, date of marketing authorization), whether the product was a small molecule drug or a biologic, and date of NOC for a generic or biosimilar. Market exclusivity time was calculated in days for drugs. A total of 121 drugs were identified. There were 96 small molecule drugs (63 with a generic competitor and 33 with no generic competitor) and 25 biologics (none with a biosimilar competitor). The 63 drugs with a competitor had a mean market exclusivity time of 4478 days (12.3 years) (95% CI 4159-4798). The 58 drugs without competition had total annual sales of Can$8.59 billion and were on the market for a median of 5357 days (14.7 years) (interquartile range 3291-6679) as of January 31, 2017. Top selling originator drugs in Canada have a considerably longer period of market exclusivity than the 8 to 10 years that the research-based pharmaceutical industry claims. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Results of a Consultation Study by the Canadian Immunization Research Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Dubé

    Full Text Available "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept now frequently used in vaccination discourse. The increased popularity of this concept in both academic and public health circles is challenging previously held perspectives that individual vaccination attitudes and behaviours are a simple dichotomy of accept or reject. A consultation study was designed to assess the opinions of experts and health professionals concerning the definition, scope, and causes of vaccine hesitancy in Canada. We sent online surveys to two panels (1- vaccination experts and 2- front-line vaccine providers. Two questionnaires were completed by each panel, with data from the first questionnaire informing the development of questions for the second. Our participants defined vaccine hesitancy as an attitude (doubts, concerns as well as a behaviour (refusing some / many vaccines, delaying vaccination. Our findings also indicate that both vaccine experts and front-line vaccine providers have the perception that vaccine rates have been declining and consider vaccine hesitancy an important issue to address in Canada. Diffusion of negative information online and lack of knowledge about vaccines were identified as the key causes of vaccine hesitancy by the participants. A common understanding of vaccine hesitancy among researchers, public health experts, policymakers and health care providers will better guide interventions that can more effectively address vaccine hesitancy within Canada.

  4. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START: a Canada-India collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  5. Understanding Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Results of a Consultation Study by the Canadian Immunization Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Ouakki, Manale; Bettinger, Julie A; Guay, Maryse; Halperin, Scott; Wilson, Kumanan; Graham, Janice; Witteman, Holly O; MacDonald, Shannon; Fisher, William; Monnais, Laurence; Tran, Dat; Gagneur, Arnaud; Guichon, Juliet; Saini, Vineet; Heffernan, Jane M; Meyer, Samantha; Driedger, S Michelle; Greenberg, Joshua; MacDougall, Heather

    2016-01-01

    "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept now frequently used in vaccination discourse. The increased popularity of this concept in both academic and public health circles is challenging previously held perspectives that individual vaccination attitudes and behaviours are a simple dichotomy of accept or reject. A consultation study was designed to assess the opinions of experts and health professionals concerning the definition, scope, and causes of vaccine hesitancy in Canada. We sent online surveys to two panels (1- vaccination experts and 2- front-line vaccine providers). Two questionnaires were completed by each panel, with data from the first questionnaire informing the development of questions for the second. Our participants defined vaccine hesitancy as an attitude (doubts, concerns) as well as a behaviour (refusing some / many vaccines, delaying vaccination). Our findings also indicate that both vaccine experts and front-line vaccine providers have the perception that vaccine rates have been declining and consider vaccine hesitancy an important issue to address in Canada. Diffusion of negative information online and lack of knowledge about vaccines were identified as the key causes of vaccine hesitancy by the participants. A common understanding of vaccine hesitancy among researchers, public health experts, policymakers and health care providers will better guide interventions that can more effectively address vaccine hesitancy within Canada.

  6. [Study on Bartonella species in rodents in western Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, He-ming; Yang, Fa-lian; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Qing

    2005-11-01

    To study the infection status of Bartonella spp. in rodents in western part of Yunnan province. Blood samples were collected from four species of rodents captured in four counties in western Yunnan in 2004. Bartomella was isolated through being cultured in brain and heart infusion agar media containing 5% rabbit blood. Suspective Bartomella strains isolates were confirmed by amplification of 379 bp of citrate synthase (gltA) gene with specific primer by polymerase chin reaction (PCR). Fifty-four strains of Bartomella isolates were obtained from 397 samples including four rodent species captured in the fields with an overall isolation-rate of 13.6% (54/397). The rates of isolation among different species were: 22.0% (22/100) in Rattus nitidus, 14.8% (31/210) in Rattus flavipectus and 1.2%(1/87) in Rattus norvegicus while in R. t. yunnanensis it was negative. These findings demonstrated that the local rodents in western Yunnan were widely infected by Bartomella spp. It is indispensable to study the vector and the route of transmission to discover the relations between Bartomella and human diseases.

  7. Occupation, work organization conditions, and alcohol misuse in Canada: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the specific contribution of occupations and work organization conditions to the onset and recurrent alcohol misuse in Canadian workers between 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. Longitudinal data were derived from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey, totaling 6,526 and 6,582 workers (45% females) nested in 1,337 and 1,413 neighborhoods for onset and recurrent alcohol misuse, respectively. Data were analyzed with multilevel logistic regression models. Results suggested a limited contribution for work factors to the onset of alcohol misuse, a stronger influence for them on recurrent alcohol misuse. The study's limitations are discussed.

  8. School-Based Strategies to Reduce Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Attempts, and Discrimination among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Konishi, Chiaki; Rose, Hilary A; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between the existence of and length of time since implementation of school-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and explicit anti-homophobic bullying policies in secondary schools across British Columbia, Canada, with experiences of anti-gay discrimination, suicidal ideation and attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), mostly heterosexual, and exclusively heterosexual students. Analyses of the province-wide random cluster-stratified 2008 B.C. Adolescent Health Survey (n =21,70 8) compared students in schools with GSAs or policies implemented at least 3 years, and less than 3 years, with those in schools without GSAs or anti-homophobia policies, using multinomial logistic regression, separately by gender. LGB students had lower odds of past year discrimination, suicidal thoughts and attempts, mostly when policies and GSAs had been in place for 3+ years; policies had a less consistent effect than GSAs. Heterosexual boys, but not girls, also had lower odds of suicidal ideation and attempts in schools with longer-established anti-homophobic bullying policies and GSAs. Given consistently higher documented risk for suicidal ideation and attempts among LGB and mostly heterosexual adolescents, prevention efforts should be a priority, and school-level interventions, such as GSAs, may be an effective approach to reducing this risk, while also offering prevention benefits for heterosexual boys.

  9. The Evolving Role of Botanical Gardens and Natural Areas: A Floristic Case Study from Royal Botanical Gardens, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A. GALBRAITH; Natalie E. IWANYCKI; Brechann V. McGOEY; Jamie McGREGOR; James S. PRINGLE; Carl J. ROTHFELS; Tyler W. SMITH

    2011-01-01

    As leaders calling for the conservation of the world's plants, botanical gardens protect plants within living collections. Many also study, manage and restore plants in natural habitats. Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario,Canada) has integrated both horticultural and natural heritage in its mission for decades. Envisioned by municipal leaders in the 1920s as a combination of nature sanctuaries and civic gardens, RBG now includes forests, wetlands and other habitats, gardens and built spaces. Today RBG is Canada's largest botanical garden on the basis of area.In the 1950s RBG began to inventory plant diversity. The checklist of spontaneous vascular plants now exceeds 1 170 species, of which 752 are native. This is 37% of Ontario's native vascular plants and 19% of the native vascular flora of Canada. The RBG nature sanctuaries are among the richest locations in Canada for species-level diversity.We examine the history of fioristic exploration within RBG and compare plant species-area relationships among protected natural areas in Ontario. This comparison supports the contention that the nature sanctuaries, and in particular Cootes Paradise, could be considered an important area for plants in Canada, and relative to the nation's flora, a biodiversity hotspot. The fact that a candidate vascular plant hotspot for Canada lies within a major botanical garden presents opportunities for raising public awareness of the importance of plant diversity, as well as focusing attention on the scientific and conservation biology needs of communities and individual species in this area.

  10. Economics of fossil fuel substitution and wood product sinks when trees are planted to sequester carbon on agricultural lands in western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Krcmar-Nozic, E.; Stennes, B.; Gorkom, van R.

    1999-01-01

    To meet its international commitment to reduce CO2 output by 7% from the 1990 level by 2012, Canada will rely to some extent on terrestrial carbon uptake, particularly afforestation of marginal agricultural land. The economics of afforestation is examined for northeastern British Columbia and all of

  11. Cause-specific mortality by income adequacy in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    People with lower incomes tend to have less favourable health outcomes than do people with higher incomes. Because death registrations in Canada do not contain information about the income of the deceased, vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality by income at the individual level. However, through record linkage, information on the individual or family income of people followed for mortality can be obtained. Recently, a large, population-based sample of Canadian adults was linked to almost 16 years of mortality data. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by income adequacy among Canadian adults. It is based on data from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality and cancer follow-up study, which followed 2.7 million people aged 25 or older at baseline, 426,979 of whom died during the 16-year period. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were calculated by income adequacy quintile for various causes of death. For most causes examined, ASMRs were clearly graded by income: highest among people in the in the lowest income quintile, and lowest among people in the highest income quintile. Inter-quintile rate ratios (quintile 1/quintile 5) were greater than 2.00 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide, cancer of the cervix, and causes of death closely associated with smoking and alcohol. These individually based results provide cause-specific information by income adequacy quintile that was not previously available for Canada.

  12. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  13. Ethnicity and utilization of family physicians: a case study of Mainland Chinese immigrants in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Rosenberg, Mark; Lo, Lucia

    2008-11-01

    This paper seeks to examine how immigrants in a multicultural society access and utilize culturally- and linguistically-diverse family physicians. It focuses on Mainland Chinese (MLC) immigrants - the most important source of immigrants to Canada since 1996 - in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), Canada. Specifically, the paper aims to explore the choice between Chinese-speaking and non-Chinese-speaking family physicians by MLC immigrants and to determine the underlying reasons for MLC immigrants use of ethnically- and linguistically-matched family physicians. A wide range of data are analyzed including survey and focus group data, physician data from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO) and geo-referenced 2001 Canadian Census data. A mixed-method approach is employed combining quantitative analysis of survey data and Census data, spatial analysis of patient travel behaviour based on the survey and qualitative analysis based on focus groups. The paper reveals an overwhelming preference among MLC survey respondents for Chinese-speaking family physicians regardless of study areas and socioeconomic and demographic status. The focus groups suggest that language, culture and ethnicity are intertwined in a complex way to influence the choice of health care providers and health management strategies in the host society. The paper yields important policy implications for identifying health professional shortage areas for culturally-diverse populations, addressing issues related to foreign-trained physicians and enhancing primary care delivery relevant for immigrant populations.

  14. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  15. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, B. -M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, J. [RePPAE; Lefton, S. A. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, N. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Agan, D. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States); Venkataraman, S. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  16. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in......, mathematics, and science. The study does not offer proof of any clear difference between the Danish teacher education programmes and those found in the topperforming countries; differences can be found in certain areas, in other areas there are greater differences between the four individual countries. Three...... main findings are: 1) Philosophically-based professional knowledge, much of which is normative in character, forms an extensive part of the body of professional knowledge within the Danish teacher education programmes, which is not true of the programmes in the Top-3 countries. 2) The programmes...

  17. Are healthcare aides underused in long-term care? A cross-sectional study on continuing care facilities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mubashir A; Deutschlander, Siegrid; Charland, Paola

    2017-05-17

    Over the last 10 years, appropriate workforce utilisation has been an important discussion among healthcare practitioners and policy-makers. The role of healthcare aides (HCAs) has also expanded to improve their utilisation. This evolving role of HCAs in Canada has prompted calls for standardised training, education and scope of practice for HCAs. The purpose of this research was to examine the differences in HCAs training and utilisation in continuing care facilities. From June 2014 to July 2015, we conducted a mixed-method study on HCA utilisation in continuing care. This paper presents findings gathered solely from the prospective cross-sectional survey of continuing care facilities (long-term care (LTC) and supportive living (SL)) on HCA utilisation. We conducted this study in a Western Canadian province. The managers of the continuing care facilities (SL and LTC) were eligible to participate in the survey. The pattern of HCAs involvement in medication assistance and other care activities in SL and LTC facilities. We received 130 completed surveys (LTC=64 and SL=52). Our findings showed that approximately 81% of HCAs were fully certified. We found variations in how HCAs were used in SL and LTC facilities. Overall, HCAs in SL were more likely to be involved in medication management such as assisting with inhaled medication and oral medication delivery. A significantly larger proportion of survey respondents from SL facilities reported that medication assistance training was mandatory for their HCAs (86%) compared with the LTC facilities (50%) (p value facilities. HCAs in SL facilities may be considered better used according to their required educational training and competencies. Expanding the role of HCAs in LTC facilities may lead to a cost-effective and more efficient utilisation of workforce in continuing care facilities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  18. A marine magnetic study of a carbonate-hosted impact structure: Ile Rouleau, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelatos, John; Butler, Karl E.; Spray, John G.

    2009-10-01

    Marine magnetic and bathymetric data have been acquired in a 6.5 × 10 km area centred on the Ile Rouleau impact structure, Quebec, Canada. The deeply eroded crater is emplaced in weakly magnetic shaley dolomites of the Palaeoproterozoic Mistassini Group. Subaerial exposure of the structure consists of an island (Ile Mintunikus Misaupinanuch) in Lac Mistassini, which hosts shatter cones. Short-wavelength and linear NNE-trending magnetic anomalies that pervade the survey area are inferred to reflect the presence of magnetic glacial landforms on the lake floor. The most prominent magnetic feature is a high-amplitude anomaly that wraps round the western side of the island. The anomaly correlates with an abrupt change in bathymetry but is not consistently circular about the island and its relationship to the impact is unclear. To the east, a disjointed arcuate anomaly lies parallel to the island 100 m from shore. Its source may be interpreted to be either (1) a locally thickened layer of magnetic glaciofluvial deposits, or (2) post-impact chemically induced magnetization along faults. The abrupt variations in glaciofluvial thickness needed to account for the anomaly under scenario (1) are, however, hard to explain geologically and hypothesis (2) is therefore favoured. Regardless of which model is correct, both suggest that the arcuate anomaly coincides with the fault-bounded perimeter of a central peak. Two possible reconstructions for the original crater diameter, estimated from the curvature of the magnetic anomaly and using morphometric relationships, are 4.4 km and 6.8 km. The former is more realistic with regards to the topography and the lack of conspicuous impact-related deformation on adjacent Ile Manitounouc.

  19. Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a preliminary observational study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald; Lucas, Philippe; Capler, N Rielle; Tupper, Kenneth W; Martin, Gina

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports results from a preliminary observational study of ayahuasca-assisted treatment for problematic substance use and stress delivered in a rural First Nations community in British Columbia, Canada. The "Working with Addiction and Stress" retreats combined four days of group counselling with two expert-led ayahuasca ceremonies. This study collected pre-treatment and six months follow-up data from 12 participants on several psychological and behavioral factors related to problematic substance use, and qualitative data assessing the personal experiences of the participants six months after the retreat. Statistically significant (p ayahuasca-assisted therapy appears to be associated with statistically significant improvements in several factors related to problematic substance use among a rural aboriginal population. These findings suggest participants may have experienced positive psychological and behavioral changes in response to this therapeutic approach, and that more rigorous research of ayahuasca-assisted therapy for problematic substance use is warranted.

  20. Cancer screening behaviours among South Asian immigrants in the UK, US and Canada: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Beaton, Dorcas; Bierman, Arlene S

    2016-03-01

    South Asian (SA) immigrants settled in the United Kingdom (UK) and North America [United States (US) and Canada] have low screening rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. Incidence rates of these cancers increase among SA immigrants after migration, becoming similar to rates in non-Asian native populations. However, there are disparities in cancer screening, with low cancer screening uptake in this population. We conducted a scoping study using Arksey & O'Malley's framework to examine cancer screening literature on SA immigrants residing in the UK, US and Canada. Eight electronic databases, key journals and reference lists were searched for English language studies and reports. Of 1465 identified references, 70 studies from 1994 to November 2014 were included: 63% on breast or cervical cancer screening or both; 10% examined colorectal cancer screening only; 16% explored health promotion/service provision; 8% studied breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening; and 3% examined breast and colorectal cancer screening. A thematic analysis uncovered four dominant themes: (i) beliefs and attitudes towards cancer and screening included centrality of family, holistic healthcare, fatalism, screening as unnecessary and emotion-laden perceptions; (ii) lack of knowledge of cancer and screening related to not having heard about cancer and its causes, or lack of awareness of screening, its rationale and/or how to access services; (iii) barriers to access including individual and structural barriers; and (iv) gender differences in screening uptake and their associated factors. Findings offer insights that can be used to develop culturally sensitive interventions to minimise barriers and increase cancer screening uptake in these communities, while recognising the diversity within the SA culture. Further research is required to address the gap in colorectal cancer screening literature to more fully understand SA immigrants' perspectives, as well as research to

  1. The Applicability of Western Socio-Legal Frameworks to the Study of Negotiation in Chinese Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mona; Ingleby, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical frameworks for the examination of negotiation generated by Western academics do not easily translate to Chinese society because of fundamental differences between Western and Chinese society. Attempts to study negotiation in Chinese society and to improve negotiation between Chinese and Western business people are themselves…

  2. Foreign–trained medical professionals: Wanted or not? A case study of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Campbell–Page

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of the term “International Medical Graduate” vary but the Medical Council of Canada defines an IMG to be a graduate of a medical school outside of Canada or the United States, with the exception of US schools of osteopathic medicine.

  3. Geminate attrition across three generations of Farsi-English bilinguals living in Canada: An acoustic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Rafat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to determine whether the geminate-singleton consonant length contrast attrites across three different generations of Farsi-English-speaking bilinguals living in Canada. The secondary aim of the study was to shed light on the role of universal phonetic factors on the process of geminate-singleton length contrast attrition in the same population. The effect of manner/class of sounds and voicing were examined as predictors of geminate attrition in eight Farsi-English-speaking bilinguals living in Toronto forming three categories of generations: first generation, 1.5 generation and second generation. The inclusion of the 1.5 generation category is novel and it refers to children of immigrants who came to Canada between the ages of five to fourteen. The productions of the bilinguals were compared with the productions of three homeland variety controls. A word-naming task, which included 108 words was conducted. 2398 tokens were analyzed acoustically using PRAAT. Attrition was defined in terms of changes in mean duration of geminates relative to their singleton counter-parts and percentage geminate-singleton degemination/category overlap. Mean durations were then analyzed using a 3-way, mixed-model, repeated-measures ANOVA. Results showed that geminates attrite across different successive generations. Moreover, there was some evidence to suggest that geminate realization across generations patterns with typological patterns previously reported, showing that universal phonetic principles such as aerodynamic constraints/articulatory difficulty and acoustic salience also constrain geminate realization in bilingual Farsi-English speakers. However, there was no evidence to suggest that more marked geminates suffer a higher degree of attrition. This is the first study to examine the attrition of a typologically marked contrast, which considers the role of universal phonetic principles, markedness in an understudied bilingual

  4. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  5. Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

  6. The Registry and Follow-Up of Complex Pediatric Therapies Program of Western Canada: A Mechanism for Service, Audit, and Research after Life-Saving Therapies for Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene M. T. Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging health technologies are being developed to care for children with complex cardiac defects. Neurodevelopmental and childhood school-related outcomes are of great interest to parents of children receiving this care, care providers, and healthcare administrators. Since the 1970s, neonatal follow-up clinics have provided service, audit, and research for preterm infants as care for these at-risk children evolved. We have chosen to present for this issue the mechanism for longitudinal follow-up of survivors that we have developed for western Canada patterned after neonatal follow-up. Our program provides registration for young children receiving complex cardiac surgery, heart transplantation, ventricular assist device support, and extracorporeal life support among others. The program includes multidisciplinary assessments with appropriate neurodevelopmental intervention, active quality improvement evaluations, and outcomes research. Through this mechanism, consistently high (96% follow-up over two years is maintained.

  7. Implementing Knowledge Translation Strategies in Funded Research in Canada and Australia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge translation plans. It identifies the challenges faced by the Men’s Mental Health Program Team and how these were resolved. The strategies explored include articulating knowledge translation requirements, ensuring a common understanding of knowledge translation, assessing knowledge translation plans, methods of engaging end users, and building capacity with applicants. An iterative approach to facilitating knowledge translation planning within project development was rolled out in Australia just prior to Canada so that lessons learned were immediately available to refine the second roll out. Implementation included the use of external knowledge translation expertise, the development of knowledge translation plans, and the need for internal infrastructure to support monitoring and reporting. Differences in the Australian and Canadian contexts may point to differential exposure to the concepts and practices of knowledge translation. This case study details an example of designing and implementing an integrated knowledge translation strategy that moves beyond traditional dissemination models. Lessons learned point to the importance of a long lead-up time, the use of knowledge translation expertise for capacity building, the need for flexible implementation, and the need for efficiencies in supporting applicants.

  8. Study on requirements of bioequivalence for registration of pharmaceutical products in USA, Europe and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgatte, Upendra C; Jamdade, Vijay R; Aute, Pravin P; Chaudhari, Pravin D

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed to study the requirements of bioequivalence for the registration of pharmaceutical products in the USA, Europe and Canada. Before going into bioequivalence studies it is essential for the pharmaceutical industry to study the guidelines of bioequivalence for the respective country where the industry wants to market its products and thus enter into generic market. This study reviews the requirements of bioequivalence with study parameters such as study design, fasting or fed state studies, volunteers recruitment, study dose, sampling points, analytical method validation parameters, moieties to be measured in plasma, pharmacokinetic parameters, criteria for bioequivalence, GCP requirements etc, which are needed for the pharmaceutical industry to carry out bioequivalence studies and to file ANDA. Test products and reference products are needed for this study. Test products are usually manufactured by a sponsor and reference products are provided by the government laboratories of the respective countries. Sampling points also vary with respect to the regulatory guidelines of these countries. All these countries follow ICH GCP guidelines. The criterion of bioequivalence for these countries is 90% CI 80-125% for C max, AUC t , AUC0-∞.

  9. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-06-05

    To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Descriptive qualitative study. Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Ontario, Canada. Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  10. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days < 0°C (a measure of winter season coldness) using the spatially interpolated climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days < 0°C was also estimated from recorded climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  11. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THYROID CARTILAGES IN WESTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini M.Joshi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphometrical evaluation of the larynx has always been interesting for both morphologists and the physicians. A good understanding of the anatomy and the knowledge of variations in the laryngeal cartilages is important Objective: Objective of the present study was to collect exact and reliable morphometric data of thyroid cartilage in adult human larynx of regional population. Methods: The totals of 50 thyroid cartilage specimens were studied. The cartilages were preserved in 5% formalin. The measurements were taken with the help of Digital Vernier Caliper. The cartilages were weighed on Single pan electronic balance. For each of the parameters, the mean, standard deviation (S.D. and range was calculated. Results: Mean depth of superior thyroid notch was 9.7± 3.36 mm. Asymmetry between the length of superior horn of thyroid cartilages in left and right sides can be seen, but difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. It is observed that inner thyroid angle varies from 55 to 1040 and outer thyroid angle varies from 53 to 990. In present study mean weight of thyroid cartilage was 6.70±1.55 grams. Conclusions: A fair amount of intersubject variability in the dimensions was observed. Bilateral asymmetry, though present in majority of specimens, was insignificant. Various dimensions of thyroid cartilages are smaller as compared to the western population.

  12. A Case Study Of Workers In South-Western Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    politics on career development of workers in the south-western Nigeria. Three hundred .... situation where there is uncertainty or consensus about choice. Wagner III ... However, personality factors are important determinants of organization ...

  13. An Empirical Study of the Career Paths of Senior Educational Administrators in Manitoba, Canada: Implications for Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes queue theory (Tallerico & Blount, 2004) to discuss a mixed-methods study that determined the career patterns of senior educational administrators in public school divisions in Manitoba, Canada, compared by position, context and sex. Findings indicate that queue theory has merit for describing the career paths of…

  14. Indigenous Cultural Self-Representation and Its Internal Critiques: A Case Study of the Woodland Cultural Centre, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    This research report discusses Indigenous cultural representation and its internal critiques, based on the case study of an Indigenous-run museum, the Woodland Cultural Centre, in Canada. Since its establishment in 1972, the Woodland Cultural Centre has strived to promote Indigenous culture, especially First Nations art, and has challenged the…

  15. Canada acute coronary syndrome score was a stronger baseline predictor than age ≥75 years of in-hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients in western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorevici A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antoanela Pogorevici, Ioana Mihaela Citu, Diana Aurora Bordejevic, Florina Caruntu, Mirela Cleopatra TomescuCardiology Department, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, RomaniaBackground: Several risk scores were developed for acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients, but their use is limited by their complexity.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors at admission for in-hospital mortality in ACS patients in western Romania, using a simple risk-assessment tool – the new Canada acute coronary syndrome (C-ACS risk score.Patients and methods: The baseline risk of patients admitted with ACS was retrospectively assessed using the C-ACS risk score. The score ranged from 0 to 4; 1 point was assigned for the presence of each of the following parameters: age ≥75 years, Killip class >1, systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg, and heart rate >100 bpm.Results: A total of 960 patients with ACS were included, 409 (43% with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI and 551 (57% with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS. The C-ACS score predicted in-hospital mortality in all ACS patients with a C-statistic of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93–0.96, in STEMI patients with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89–0.94, and in NSTE-ACS patients with a C-statistic of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95–0.98. Of the 960 patients, 218 (22.7% were aged ≥75 years. The proportion of patients aged ≥75 years was 21.7% in the STEMI subgroup and 23.4% in the NSTE-ACS subgroup (P>0.05. Age ≥75 years was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in ACS patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.24–8.25 and in the STEMI subgroup (OR >3.99, 95% CI: 1.28–12.44. Female sex was strongly associated with mortality in the NSTE-ACS subgroup (OR: 27.72, 95% CI: 1.83–39.99.Conclusion: We conclude that C-ACS score was the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in all ACS patients while

  16. WESTERN ESOTERICISM AS AN OBJECT OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nosachev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a short excursus into the history of research on western esotericism. At the beginning the basic terms esoterica and esotericism are defi ned. Then the history of societies and academic chairs devoted to research on the subject is examined. The source for research on the subject is the Eranos Circle. Later authors such as Frances Yates took up the study which was continued and developed in the volumes authored by Antoine Faivre and Wouter Hanegraaff. Resorting to generalities in describing the various branches of thought on the subject, the author defi nes three main schools: the American School, the Old European School, and finally the New European School. The principle characteristics of the American School is the acknowledgement of the reality of esoteric experience and a tendency to override the border dividing the researcher and the phenomenon researched as well as attempting to popularize the subject in wide sectors of society. The Old European School is characterized by its extremely critical attitude to esotericism, seeing in it little more than a deviation on the path of the development of culture and religion. The New European School, on the other hand, is guided by a post-modern approach to research on this subject, which leads to the constant study of the problem of dialogue and demands a pluralistic attitude in regard to various forms of esotericism. Another characteristic of this school is the intention to include the study of esotericism as an accepted academic discipline. Some basic problems which face the contemporary researcher of this topic are studied by the author separately. The idea of combining the study of esotericism with the study of theology is also touched upon, pointing out the basic contradiction and incompatibility separating the two subjects. Two approaches for Christian researchers are defined — the approach of the tree and the modernistic approach

  17. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Margaret; Morrison, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.62 (1.02–2.58). Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years) (OR = 0.65), high consumption of spinach/squash (OR = 0.62) and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR = 0.75), and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR = 0.78). Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:28133481

  18. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Yi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.62 (1.02–2.58. Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years (OR=0.65, high consumption of spinach/squash (OR=0.62 and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR=0.75, and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR=0.78. Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  19. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  20. Comparative Study on Chinese and Western Traditional Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小凌

    2015-01-01

    This essay compares and analysis the main traditional festivals in Chinese and Western countries and discusses the cultural meaning,similarities and differences.The traditional festivals are the outstanding cultural heritage of a nation,and the precious spiritual wealth of mankind,so different festivals can reflect different cultures.As we all know,Chinese and Western traditional festivals are two different cultural forms evolved from comparatively independent cultural systems,which possess peculiar characteristics and varied manifestation.The comparison of festival cultures between China and western countries can not only help us learn English,but also make us know more about our cultures and promote the cultural communication of China and the West.

  1. A descriptive study of employment patterns and work environment outcomes of specialist nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Duffield, Christine; Rizk, Paul; Nahm, Sang; Chu, Charlene H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the number, demographic characteristics, work patterns, exit rates, and work perceptions of nurses in Ontario, Canada, in 4 specialty classifications: advanced practice nurse (APN)-clinical nurse specialist (CNS), APN-other, primary healthcare nurse practitioner [RN(extended class [EC])], and registered nurse (RN) with specialty certification. The objectives were to (1) describe how many qualified nurses are available by specialty class; (2) create a demographic profile of specialist nurses; (3) determine the proportions of specialist and nonspecialist nurses who leave (a) direct patient care and (b) nursing practice annually; (4) determine whether specialist and nonspecialist nurses differ in their self-ratings of work environment, job satisfaction, and intention to remain in nursing. Employment patterns refer to nurses' employment status (eg, full-time, part-time, casual), work duration (ie, length of employment in nurses and in current role), and work transitions (ie, movement in and out of the nursing workforce, and movement out of current role). A longitudinal analysis of the Ontario nurses' registration database from 2005 to 2010 and a survey of specialist nurses in Canada was conducted. The setting was Canada. The database sample consisted of 3 specialist groups, consisting of RN(EC), CNS, and APN-other, as well as 1 nonspecialist RN staff nurse group. The survey sample involved 359 nurses who were classified into groups based on self-reported job title and RN specialty-certification status. Data sources included College of Nurses of Ontario registration database and survey data. The study measures were the Nursing Work Index, a 4-item measure of job satisfaction, and 1-item measure of intent to leave current job. Nurses registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario were tracked over the study period to identify changes in their employment status with comparisons made between nurses employed in specialist roles and those

  2. Users' perspectives of barriers and facilitators to implementing EHR in Canada: A study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Shaw, Nicola; Sicotte, Claude; Mathieu, Luc; Leduc, Yvan; Duplantie, Julie; Maclean, James; Légaré, France

    2009-01-01

    Background In Canada, federal, provincial, and territorial governments are developing an ambitious project to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR). Benefits for patients, healthcare professionals, organizations, and the public in general are expected. However, adoption of an interoperable EHR remains an important issue because many previous EHR projects have failed due to the lack of integration into practices and organizations. Furthermore, perceptions of the EHR vary between end-user groups, adding to the complexity of implementing this technology. Our aim is to produce a comprehensive synthesis of actual knowledge on the barriers and facilitators influencing the adoption of an interoperable EHR among its various users and beneficiaries. Methods First, we will conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature and other published documentation on the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the EHR. Standardized literature search and data extraction methods will be used. Studies' quality and relevance to inform decisions on EHR implementation will be assessed. For each group of EHR users identified, barriers and facilitators will be categorized and compiled using narrative synthesis and meta-analytical techniques. The principal factors identified for each group of EHR users will then be validated for its applicability to various Canadian contexts through a two-round Delphi study, involving representatives from each end-user groups. Continuous exchanges with decision makers and periodic knowledge transfer activities are planned to facilitate the dissemination and utilization of research results in policies regarding the implementation of EHR in the Canadian healthcare system. Discussion Given the imminence of an interoperable EHR in Canada, knowledge and evidence are urgently needed to prepare this major shift in our healthcare system and to oversee the factors that could affect its adoption and integration by all its

  3. Users' perspectives of barriers and facilitators to implementing EHR in Canada: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplantie Julie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, federal, provincial, and territorial governments are developing an ambitious project to implement an interoperable electronic health record (EHR. Benefits for patients, healthcare professionals, organizations, and the public in general are expected. However, adoption of an interoperable EHR remains an important issue because many previous EHR projects have failed due to the lack of integration into practices and organizations. Furthermore, perceptions of the EHR vary between end-user groups, adding to the complexity of implementing this technology. Our aim is to produce a comprehensive synthesis of actual knowledge on the barriers and facilitators influencing the adoption of an interoperable EHR among its various users and beneficiaries. Methods First, we will conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature and other published documentation on the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the EHR. Standardized literature search and data extraction methods will be used. Studies' quality and relevance to inform decisions on EHR implementation will be assessed. For each group of EHR users identified, barriers and facilitators will be categorized and compiled using narrative synthesis and meta-analytical techniques. The principal factors identified for each group of EHR users will then be validated for its applicability to various Canadian contexts through a two-round Delphi study, involving representatives from each end-user groups. Continuous exchanges with decision makers and periodic knowledge transfer activities are planned to facilitate the dissemination and utilization of research results in policies regarding the implementation of EHR in the Canadian healthcare system. Discussion Given the imminence of an interoperable EHR in Canada, knowledge and evidence are urgently needed to prepare this major shift in our healthcare system and to oversee the factors that could affect its adoption and

  4. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  5. Regional stratospheric warmings in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector during winter 2004/2005: implications for temperatures, winds, chemical constituents and the characterization of the Polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The vortex during winter 2004/2005 was interesting for several reasons. It has been described as "cold" stratospherically, with relatively strong westerly winds. Losses of ozone until the final warming in March were considerable, and comparable to the cold 1999–2000 winter. There were also modest warming events, indicated by peaks in 10 hPa zonal mean temperatures at high latitudes, near 1 January and 1 February. Events associated with a significant regional stratospheric warming in the Pacific-Western Canada (PWC sector then began and peaked toward the end of February, providing strong longitudinal variations in dynamical characteristics (Chshyolkova et al., 2007; hereafter C07. The associated disturbed vortex of 25 February was displaced from the pole and either elongated (upper or split into two cyclonic centres (lower.

    Observations from Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on Aura are used here to study the thermal characteristics of the stratosphere in the Canadian-US (253° E and Scandinavian-Europe (16° E sectors. Undisturbed high latitude stratopause (55 km zonal mean temperatures during the mid-winter (December–February reached 270 K, warmer than empirical-models such as CIRA-86, suggesting that seasonal polar warming due to dynamical influences affects the high altitude stratosphere as well as the mesosphere. There were also significant stratopause differences between Scandinavia and Canada during the warming events of 1 January and 1 February, with higher temperatures near 275 K at 16° E. During the 25 February "PWC" event a warming occurred at low and middle stratospheric heights (10–30 km: 220 K at 253° E and the stratopause cooled; while over Scandinavia-Europe the stratosphere below ~30 km was relatively cold at 195 K and the stratopause became even warmer (>295 K and lower (~45 km. The zonal winds followed the associated temperature gradients so that the vertical and latitudinal gradients of the winds differed strongly

  6. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: a 16-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    People with lower levels of education tend to have higher rates of disease and death, compared with people who have higher levels of education. However, because death registrations in Canada do not contain information on the education of the deceased, unlinked vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality differentials by education. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by education in a broadly representative sample of Canadians aged 25 or older. The data are from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality follow-up study, which included about 2.7 million people and 426,979 deaths. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated by education for different causes of death. Rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were also calculated. All-cause ASMRs were highest among people with less than secondary graduation and lowest for university degree-holders. If all cohort members had the mortality rates of those with a university degree, the overall ASMRs would have been 27% lower for men and 22% lower for women. The causes contributing most to that "excess" mortality were ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, diabetes, injuries (men), and respiratory infections (women). Causes associated with smoking and alcohol abuse had the steepest gradients. A mortality gradient by education was evident for many causes of death.

  7. Quantitative study on pollen-based reconstructions of vegetation history from central Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HART; Catherina; VETTER; Mary; SAUCHYN; David

    2008-01-01

    Based on high-resolution pollen records from lake cores in central Canada, the present study instructed pollen taxa assignations in ecosystem groups and modern analogue technique, reported major results of quantitative reconstructions of vegetation history during the last 1000 years, and discussed the validation of simulated vegetation. The results showed that in central America (115°-95°W, 40°-60°N), best analogue of the modern vegetation is 81% for boreal forest, 72% for parkland, and 94% for grassland-parkland, which are consistent with vegetation distributions of the North American Ecosystem II. Simulations of the past vegetation from the sedimentary pollen showed climate changes during the past 1000 years: it was warm and dry in the Medieval Warm period, cold and wet in the earlier period and cold and dry in the later period of the Little Ice Age. It became obviously increasing warm and drought in the 20th century. The present studies would provide us scientific basis to understand vegetation and climate changes during the last 1000 years in a characteristic region and in 10-100 year time scales.

  8. Quantitative study on pollen-based reconstructions of vegetation history from central Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ge; HART Catherina; VETTER Mary; SAUCHYN David

    2008-01-01

    Based on high-resolution pollen records from lake cores in central Canada, the present study instructed pollen taxa assignations in ecosystem groups and modern analogue technique, reported major results of quantitative reconstructions of vegetation history during the last 1000 years, and discussed the validation of simulated vegetation. The results showed that in central America (115°-95°W,40°-60°N), best analogue of the modern vegetation is 81% for boreal forest, 72% for parkland, and 94% for grassland-parkland, which are consistent with vegetation distributions of the North American Ecosystem Ⅱ. Simulations of the past vegetation from the sedimentary pollen showed climate changes during the past 1000 years: it was warm and dry in the Medieval Warm period, cold and wet in the earlier period and cold and dry in the later period of the Little Ice Age. It became obviously increasing warm and drought in the 20th century. The present studies would provide us scientific basis to understand vegetation and climate changes during the last 1000 years in a characteristic region and in 10-100 year time scales.

  9. Characterizing New Channels of Communication: A Case Study of Municipal 311 Requests in Edmonton, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available City governments around the world are developing and expanding how they connect to citizens. Technologies play an important role in making this connection, and one frequent way that cities connect with citizens is through 311-style request systems. 311 is a non-emergency municipal notification system that uses telephone, email, web forms, and increasingly, mobile applications to allow citizens to notify government of infrastructure issues and make requests for municipal services. In many ways, this process of citizen contribution mirrors the provision of volunteered geographic information, that is spatially-referenced user generated content. This research presents a case study of the city of Edmonton, Canada, an early adopter of multi-channel 311 service request systems, including telephone, email, web form, and mobile app 311 request channels. Three methods of analysis are used to characterize and compare these different channels over three years of request data; a comparison of relative request share for each channel, a spatial hot spot analysis, and regression models to compare channel usage with sociodemographic variables. The results of this study indicate a shift in channel usage from traditional to Internet-enabled, that this shift is mirrored in the hotspots of request activity, and that specific digital inequalities exist that reinforce this distinction between traditional and Internet-enabled reporting channels.

  10. Case study of Canada's first advanced anaerobic digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, M. [PlanET Biogas Solutions Inc., St. Catharines, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    PlanET refers to the planning and design of energy technology. PlanET Biogastechnik, located two hours east of Amsterdam was founded 11 years ago and has 140 employees. There are over 110 anaerobic digesters (AD) in operation in Germany and Holland with another 15-20 under construction. This presentation discussed a case study of Canada's first advanced AD. It provided an overview of a conventional digester and of an advanced digester, and defined and discussed the features of an advanced biogas system. The presentation also discussed the case study of an advanced AD from PlanET in Germany, and described what worked and what did not. An overview of the input menu was provided and a number of photos were provided on the AD system. Lessons learned were also presented with particular reference to the construction start date; grading/drainage plan; installation of double/concentric roof right away; freezing the design early; surveying the neighbourhood early, before construction; getting the menu approved by a qualified microbiologist; and recoverable heat-of-engine. tabs., figs.

  11. Summer Season Water Temperature Modeling under the Climate Change: Case Study for Fourchue River, Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that human-induced climate change is unavoidable and it will have effects on physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquatic habitats. This will be especially important for cold water fishes such as trout. The objective of this study is to simulate water temperature for future periods under the climate change situations. Future water temperature in the Fourchue River (St-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska, QC, Canada were simulated by the CEQUEAU hydrological and water temperature model, using meteorological inputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios. The result of the study indicated that water temperature in June will increase 0.2–0.7 °C and that in September, median water temperature could decrease by 0.2–1.1 °C. The rise in summer water temperature may be favorable to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis growth, but several days over the Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature (UILT are also likely to occur. Therefore, flow regulation procedures, including cold water releases from the Morin dam may have to be considered for the Fourchue River.

  12. Characterizing New Channels of Communication: A Case Study of Municipal 311 Requests in Edmonton, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available City governments around the world are developing and expanding how they connect to citizens. Technologies play an important role in making this connection, and one frequent way that cities connect with citizens is through 311-style request systems. 311 is a non-emergency municipal notification system that uses telephone, email, web forms, and increasingly, mobile applications to allow citizens to notify government of infrastructure issues and make requests for municipal services. In many ways, this process of citizen contribution mirrors the provision of volunteered geographic information, that is spatially-referenced user generated content. This research presents a case study of the city of Edmonton, Canada, an early adopter of multi-channel 311 service request systems, including telephone, email, web form, and mobile app 311 request channels. Three methods of analysis are used to characterize and compare these different channels over three years of request data; a comparison of relative request share for each channel, a spatial hot spot analysis, and regression models to compare channel usage with sociodemographic variables. The results of this study indicate a shift in channel usage from traditional to Internet-enabled, that this shift is mirrored in the hotspots of request activity, and that specific digital inequalities exist that reinforce this distinction between traditional and Internet-enabled reporting channels.

  13. General practitioners' perspective on poverty: a qualitative study in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loignon, Christine; Gottin, Thomas; Dupéré, Sophie; Bedos, Christophe

    2017-08-24

    Social inequalities in healthcare systems persist worldwide. Physicians' prejudices and negative attitudes towards people living in poverty are one of the determinants of healthcare inequalities. We know very little about general practitioners' (GPs) perceptions of poverty, which shape their attitudes. To identify the perceptions of poverty of GPs who deal with it in everyday practice. A qualitative study based on interviews with GPs working in deprived urban neighbourhoods. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with physicians working in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis consisted of interview debriefing, transcript coding, and thematic analysis using an inductive and iterative approach. Our study revealed two contrasting perceptions of poverty. The global conception of poverty referred to social determinants and was shared by the majority of physicians interviewed, while the moral conception, centring on individual responsibility, was shared by a minority of participants. The moral judgments and misunderstandings evidenced by GPs regarding poverty suggest avenues for improving general medical training. Understanding social determinants of health should be an important component of this training, to improve access to care for people living in poverty.

  14. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S; Kurdyak, Paul A; Rhodes, Anne E; VonderPorten, Emily H; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N

    2017-08-28

    Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994-2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non-mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58). The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994-2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  15. Study of lone working magnetic resonance technologists in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Anne Dewland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is recommended that magnetic resonance (MR technologists should not work alone due to potential occupational health risks although lone working is legally acceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the current situation of lone working MR technologists in Western Australia (WA and any issue against the regulations. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire regarding the issues of occupational health of lone working MR technologists was developed based on relevant literature and distributed to WA MR technologists. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics (Fisher's exact, Chi2 and t tests, and analysis of variance were used to analyze the responses of the yes/no, multiple choice and 5 pt scale questions from the returned questionnaires. Results: The questionnaire response rate was 65.6% (59/90. It was found that about half of the MR technologists (45.8%, 27/59 experienced lone working. The private magnetic resonance imaging (MRI centers were more likely to arrange technologists to work alone (p < 0.05. The respondents expressed positive views on issues of adequacy of training and arrangement, confidence and comfort towards lone working except immediate assistance for emergency (mean: 3. Factors of existence of MRI safety officer (p < 0.05 and nature of lone working (p < 0.001-0.05 affected MR technologists' concerns. Conclusions: Lone working of MR technologists is common in WA especially in private centers. The training and arrangement provided seem to be adequate for meeting the legal requirements. However, several areas should be improved by the workplaces including enhancement on immediate emergency assistance and concern relief.

  16. Western Kentucky University Teacher Preparation Evaluation System. Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green.

    Western Kentucky University is engaged in testing an evaluation system designed to obtain objective, quantifiable data on graduates of its teacher education program. Each year 20 elementary and 20 secondary participants are randomly selected at the beginning of their student teaching experience. Participants are observed during their preservice…

  17. A Cross Generational Dialect Study in Western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the relationship between African American English and White Vernacular English as spoken in a small rural town in western North Carolina for consistencies in vowel production by group membership and for participation in the Southern Vowel Shift (SVS), a vowel rotation currently occurring in the Southern United States. A…

  18. Lymphedema in Canada: a qualitative study to help develop a clinical, research, and education strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, P.; Towers, A.; Keast, D.H.; Kennedy, A.; Pritzker, R.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to gather data from Canadian stakeholders to help construct a national strategy and agenda for lymphedema management. Methods The Canadian Lymphedema Framework, a collaboration of medical academics, lymphedema therapists, patient advocates, and others, used participatory action research and Open Space Technology to identify issues and build consensus at a national meeting of lymphedema stakeholders. Proceedings were videotaped and underwent content analysis. Existing Canadian documentation on lymphedema services was analyzed. Using those data sources, the Canadian Lymphedema Framework drafted a development strategy. Results Of 320 invited stakeholders (patients, therapists, physicians, industry representatives, and health policymakers), 108 participated in a day-long videotaped meeting discussing strategies to improve the management of lymphedema and related disorders in Canada. Participants identified barriers, challenges, and issues related to the need to raise awareness about lymphedema with patients, physicians, and the public. Five priority areas for development were articulated: education, standards, research, reimbursement and access to treatment, and advocacy. The main barrier to development was identified as the lack of clear responsibility within the health care system for lymphedema care. Conclusions Data from stakeholders was obtained to solidly define priority areas for lymphedema development at a national level. The Canadian Lymphedema Framework has created a working plan, an advisory board, and working groups to implement the strategy. PMID:22184493

  19. Spectral decomposition aids AVO analysis in reservoir characterization: A case study of Blackfoot field, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Yoon, Wang; Farfour, Mohammed

    2012-09-01

    Blackfoot field, Alberta, Canada, has produced oil and gas from a Glauconitic compound incised valley-system. In this area channels can be filled with sands and/or shales. Differentiation of prospective channel sands and non-productive shales was always problematic due to the similarity in P-wave impedance of these two lithotypes. We study the spectral decomposition response to the hydrocarbons presence in the Glauconitic channel of Early Cretaceous age. From previous AVO analysis and modeling, a strong Class III AVO anomaly has been observed at the top of the porous sandstone in the upper valley, whereas shale had a very different AVO response. Furthermore, AVO inversion revealed additional information about lithology and fluid content in the channel. Our workflow starts from selecting a continuous horizon that was close and conforms to the channel interval; we then run spectral analyses for the channel area. Short Window Fourier Transform workflow could successfully image the channel's stratigraphic features and confirm results obtained from AVO analysis and inversion run on the data before being stacked. Additionally, the producing oil wells in the sand-fill channel were found to be correlating with high spectrum amplitude; while the dry wells in the shale-plugged channel fell in low amplitude anomaly.

  20. Testing the Nursing Worklife Model in Canada and Australia: a multi-group comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael A; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Duffield, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To test a model derived from the Nursing Worklife Model linking elements of supportive practice environments to nurses' turnover intentions and behaviours in Canada and Australia. With the worldwide shortage of nurses, retaining nurses within fiscally challenged health care systems is critical to sustaining the future of the nursing workforce and ultimately safe patient care. The Nursing Worklife Model describes a pattern of relationships amongst environmental factors that support nursing practice and link to nurse turnover. This model has been tested in north American settings but not in other countries. A secondary analysis of data collected in two cross-sectional studies in Canadian and Australian hospitals (N=4816) was conducted to test our theoretical model. Multigroup structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine the validity of our model in both countries and to identify differences between countries. The hypothesized model relationships were supported in both countries with few differences between groups. Components of supportive professional practice work environments, particularly resources, were significantly linked to nurses' turnover intentions and active search for new jobs. Leadership played a critical role in shaping the pattern of relationships to other components of supportive practice environments and ultimately turnover behaviours. The Nursing Worklife Model was shown to be valid in both countries, suggesting that management efforts to ensure that features of supportive practice environments are in place to promote the retention of valuable nursing resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suffocation using plastic bags: a retrospective study of suicides in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, M J; Diniz, D

    2000-05-01

    One hundred and ten cases of suicidal suffocation using a plastic bag were identified in the files of the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, Canada, between 1993 and 1997. The records were reviewed to determine the demographic characteristics of this group compared with all cases of suicide in Ontario, the scene information, autopsy findings and toxicology results. Most suicides occurred in people over 60 years of age, with older women making up a considerable proportion of cases as compared with other methods of suicide. In 40% of cases the deceased was suffering from a serious illness. Autopsy findings were usually minimal, with facial, conjunctival and visceral petechiae present in a minority of cases. One or more drugs were detected in the blood in 92.6% of cases where toxicologic testing was performed. Benzodiazepines, diphenhydramine and antidepressants were the most common drugs found, with diphenhydramine the most common drug present at an elevated concentration. Information at the scene from "right to die" societies was uncommon. One quarter of decedents took additional measures, besides the use of drugs or alcohol, to ensure the rapidity, certainty or comfort of their death. This study further elucidates the characteristics of this uncommon method of suicide. It emphasizes additional scene findings, such as the presence of dust masks, physical restraints and modification of the plastic bag that may be of use to death investigators in determining the correct manner of death.

  2. A Call for More Religious Education in the Secondary Social Studies Curriculum of Western Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Margaretta L.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of religion in public education remains contentious in many countries, including Canada. As multiple religions fill the public sphere, some religious education is necessary if Canadians are to understand each other. Social studies is seen as an appropriate subject to include such education given its foci on diversity and citizenship.…

  3. A Call for More Religious Education in the Secondary Social Studies Curriculum of Western Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Margaretta L.

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of religion in public education remains contentious in many countries, including Canada. As multiple religions fill the public sphere, some religious education is necessary if Canadians are to understand each other. Social studies is seen as an appropriate subject to include such education given its foci on diversity and citizenship.…

  4. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  5. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  6. Application of boreal forest toxicity data in the decision-making process for contaminated soil clean-up remediation at oil and gas fields in Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scroggins, R.; Princz, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Moody, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada); Olsgard-Dumanski, M.; Haderlein, L. [WorleyParsons Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, B. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a multi-year research project in which a broad range of boreal forest test methods for assessing petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) toxicity in contaminated soil were used to show that clean-up decisions can be made on a field-wide basis through focused biological testing of typical drill sump and flare pit locations within an oil and gas field. Remediation at most sites will likely be limited to the Alberta soil eco-contact guidelines for PHC F2 and F3 fractions. Since Tier 1 eco-contact guidelines are derived using toxicity data from fresh crude and using agricultural plant species, it was more logical to follow a Tier 2 eco-contact pathway approach because most contamination was related to drilling sumps and flare pits containing highly weathered PHCs and species native to the boreal eco-zone of Canada. The site-specific remedial objective (SSRO) option within the Tier 2 guideline was used because of the large number of sites requiring remediation, and the similarity of sites within pre-determined Risk Assessment Zones. For representative contaminated soils, a SSRO was derived from the twenty-fifth percentile of the estimated species sensitivity distribution of all acceptable boreal plant, earthworm, springtail and mite test endpoints. The purpose of the project was to reduce soil volumes sent to landfill during site remediation by showing that residual impacts from weathered PHC in soil do not have damaging effects on boreal forest receptors following remediation. Data was included to show the value of this approach and the variability between sites and their effect on regionalizing a Tier 2 eco-contact guideline.

  7. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  8. Relationships between culture and health status: a multi-site study of the older Chinese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L; Tsang, Ka Tat; Chappell, Neena; Lai, David C Y; Chau, Shirley B Y

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between culture and the health status of older Chinese in Canada. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a cross-sectional, randomly selected sample of 2,272 older Chinese between 55 and 101 years of age in seven Canadian cities. Health status was assessed by the number of chronic illnesses, by limitations in ADL and IADL, and by information on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form SF-36. Although cultural variables explained only a small proportion of variance in health status, having a stronger level of identification with traditional Chinese health beliefs was significant in predicting physical health, number of illnesses, and limitations on IADL. Other cultural variables, including religion, country of origin, and length of residence in Canada, were also significant in predicting some health variables. Interventions to improve health should focus on strategies to enhance cultural compatibility between users and the health delivery system.

  9. Incorporating public priorities in the Ocean Health Index: Canada as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Philippe; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Stewart Lowndes, Julia S.; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2017-01-01

    The Ocean Health Index (OHI) is a framework to assess ocean health by considering many benefits (called ‘goals’) provided by the ocean provides to humans, such as food provision, tourism opportunities, and coastal protection. The OHI framework can be used to assess marine areas at global or regional scales, but how various OHI goals should be weighted to reflect priorities at those scales remains unclear. In this study, we adapted the framework in two ways for application to Canada as a case study. First, we customized the OHI goals to create a national Canadian Ocean Health Index (COHI). In particular, we altered the list of iconic species assessed, added methane clathrates and subsea permafrost as carbon storage habitats, and developed a new goal, 'Aboriginal Needs', to measure access of Aboriginal people to traditional marine hunting and fishing grounds. Second, we evaluated various goal weighting schemes based on preferences elicited from the general public in online surveys. We quantified these public preferences in three ways: using Likert scores, simple ranks from a best-worst choice experiment, and model coefficients from the analysis of elicited choice experiment. The latter provided the clearest statistical discrimination among goals, and we recommend their use because they can more accurately reflect both public opinion and the trade-offs faced by policy-makers. This initial iteration of the COHI can be used as a baseline against which future COHI scores can be compared, and could potentially be used as a management tool to prioritise actions on a national scale and predict public support for these actions given that the goal weights are based on public priorities. PMID:28542394

  10. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  11. A Preliminary Study of the Western Zhou Building Foundations at Yuntang in Fufeng, Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐良高; 王巍; 丁晓雷

    2003-01-01

    From autumn 1999 through the year 2000, Zhouyuan Archaeological Team excavated a set of Western Zhou building foundations, which was well preserved and uniquely designed. It is significantly valuable for the research on the ritual system of the Western Zhou Dynasty. We here by try to make a preliminary study on its structure and function with reference of historical literature.

  12. Empathy and Emotional Intelligence among Eastern and Western Counsellor Trainees: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Kaelber, Kara A.; Schwartz, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored degree of empathy and emotional intelligence among Thai (n?=?48) and American (n?=?53) counsellor trainees to determine if differences in Eastern and Western cultural orientations (e.g., interdependent versus independent self-construals) affect foundational counselling skills. Results indicated that Western trainees showed…

  13. Empathy and Emotional Intelligence among Eastern and Western Counsellor Trainees: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Kaelber, Kara A.; Schwartz, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored degree of empathy and emotional intelligence among Thai (n?=?48) and American (n?=?53) counsellor trainees to determine if differences in Eastern and Western cultural orientations (e.g., interdependent versus independent self-construals) affect foundational counselling skills. Results indicated that Western trainees showed…

  14. The State of Veterinary Dental Education in North America, Canada, and the Caribbean: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jamie G; Goldstein, Gary; Boudreaux, Karen; Ilkiw, Jan E

    2016-07-14

    Dental disease is important in the population of pets seen by veterinarians. Knowledge and skills related to oral disease and dentistry are critical entry-level skills expected of graduating veterinarians. A descriptive survey on the state of veterinary dental education was sent to respondents from 35 veterinary schools in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Using the online SurveyMonkey application, respondents answered up to 26 questions. Questions were primarily designed to determine the breadth and depth of veterinary dental education from didactic instruction in years 1-3 to the clinical year programs. There was an excellent response to the survey with 86% compliance. Learning opportunities for veterinary students in years 1-3 in both the lecture and laboratory environments were limited, as were the experience in the clinical year 4, which were divided between community-type practices and veterinary dentistry and oral surgery services. The former provided more hands-on clinical experience, including tooth extraction, while the latter focused on dental charting and periodontal debridement. Data on degrees and certifications of faculty revealed only 12 programs with board-certified veterinary dentists. Of these, seven veterinary schools had residency programs in veterinary dentistry at the time of the survey. Data from this study demonstrate the lack of curricular time dedicated to dental content in the veterinary schools participating in the survey, thereby suggesting the need for veterinary schools to address the issue of veterinary dental education. By graduation, new veterinarians should have acquired the needed knowledge and skills to meet both societal demands and professional expectations.

  15. Sex, age, deprivation and patterns in life expectancy in Quebec, Canada: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Carolyne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has evaluated disparities in life expectancy according to material deprivation taking into account differences across the lifespan between men and women. This study investigated age- and sex-specific life expectancy differentials related to area-level material deprivation for the province of Québec, Canada from 1989-2004. Methods Age- and sex-specific life expectancy across the lifespan was calculated for three periods (1989-1992, 1995-1998, and 2001-2004 for the entire Québec population residing in 162 community groupings ranked according to decile of material deprivation. Absolute and relative measures were calculated to summarize differences between the most and least deprived deciles. Results Life expectancy differentials between the most and least deprived deciles were greatest for men. Over time, male differentials increased for age 20 or more, with little change occurring at younger ages. For women, differentials increased across the lifespan and were comparable to men at advanced ages. Despite gains in life expectancy among men relative to women, differentials between men and women were greater for most deprived relative to least deprived deciles. Conclusions Similar to the US, differentials in life expectancy associated with area-level material deprivation increased steadily in Québec from 1989-2004 for males and females of all ages. Differentials were comparable between men and women at advanced ages. Previous research indicating that life expectancy differentials between most and least deprived areas are greater in men may be due to a focus on younger age groups.

  16. The release of wastewater contaminants in the Arctic: A case study from Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Barquero, Luis G; Luong, Kim Hoang; Mundy, C J; Knapp, Charles W; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S

    2016-11-01

    The treatment of municipal wastewater in the Arctic is challenging due to a variety of financial, operational, climatic and technical issues. To better understand the efficacy of current wastewater treatment in this region and the hazard posed to receiving waters, we assessed the occurrence of nutrients and contaminants (i.e., pharmaceuticals, antibiotic resistance genes) as they moved through a lagoon-based treatment system in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. Wastewater treatment in this community is performed by the use of a lagoon-tundra wetland system that is discharged into the marine environment and is representative of current common practices throughout the region. In 2014, samples were collected before and during lagoon discharge from two locations in the main lagoon, one location downstream from the lagoon effluent and three locations offshore. Grab samples were collected to measure nutrients (e.g., total nitrogen and phosphorus) and the presence of antibiotic resistance gene-bearing microbes, and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were deployed to collect passively organic contaminants in all locations. A total of six pharmaceuticals were detected from a screen of twenty-eight analytes during the study: atenolol, carbamazepine, clarithromycin, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The greatest concentrations of nutrients, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and pharmaceuticals were found in sampling locations within the treatment lagoon. Offshore of the release point, we observed limited to no detection of pharmaceuticals and ARGs, but no change in total nitrogen and phosphorus from pre-release. We conclude that the current concentrations of monitored pharmaceuticals do not pose a significant hazard at this time to aquatic organisms in Cambridge Bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative study of population health in the United States and Canada during the neoliberal era, 1980-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Kawachi, Ichiro; Keating, Daniel P; Hertzman, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on the vast evidence that suggests, on one hand, that socioeconomic inequalities in health are present in every society in which they have been measured and, on the other hand, that the size of inequalities varies substantially across societies. We conduct a comparative case study of the United States and Canada to explore the role of neoliberalism as a force that has created inequalities in socioeconomic resources (and thus in health) in both societies and the roles of other societal forces (political, economic, and social) that have provided a buffer, thereby lessening socioeconomic inequalities or their effects on health. Our findings suggest that, from 1980 to 2008, while both the United States and Canada underwent significant neoliberal reforms, Canada showed more resilience in terms of health inequalities as a result of differences in: (a) the degree of income inequality, itself resulting from differences in features of the labor market and tax and transfer policies, (b) equality in the provision of social goods such as health care and education, and (c) the extent of social cohesiveness across race/ethnic- and class-based groups. Our study suggests that further attention must be given to both causes and buffers of health inequalities.

  18. Pathology and diagnosis of avian bornavirus infection in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) and mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Canada: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Ojkic, Davor; Delay, Josepha; Campbell, Doug; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2013-04-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-five pathology cases collected in Ontario between 1992 and 2011 from wild free-ranging Canada geese, trumpeter swans and mute swans were retrospectively evaluated for the pathology associated with avian bornavirus (ABV) infection. Cases were selected based on the presence of upper gastrointestinal impaction, central nervous system histopathology or clinical history suggestive of ABV infection. The proportion of birds meeting at least one of these criteria was significantly higher at the Toronto Zoo (30/132) than elsewhere in Ontario (21/823). Central, peripheral and autonomic nervous tissues were examined for the presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells on histopathology. The presence of virus was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on frozen brains and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Among selected cases, 86.3% (44/51) were considered positive on histopathology, 56.8% (29/51) were positive by immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR was positive on 88.2% (15/17) of the frozen brains and 78.4% (40/51) of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Histopathological lesions included gliosis and lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing in brain (97.7%), spinal cord (50%), peripheral nerves (55.5%) and myenteric ganglia or nerves (62.8%), resembling lesions described in parrots affected with proventricular dilatation disease. Partial amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid gene from seven geese were 100% identical amongst themselves and 98.1 to 100% identical to the waterfowl sequences recently described in the USA. Although ABV has been identified in apparently healthy geese, our study confirmed that ABV can also be associated with significant disease in wild waterfowl species.

  19. Methylsulfone polychlorinated biphenyl and 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene metabolites in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River estuary and western Hudson Bay, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; Sandau, C.D.; Koczanski, K.; Michaud, R.; De Guise, S.; Beland, P.

    2000-05-01

    Knowledge is limited regarding methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and especially MeSo{sub 2}-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), metabolites in cetacean species. The authors hypothesized that the ability of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to biotransform PCB and DDE compounds, and to form and degrade their MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, is related to the capacity for xenobiotic metabolism. Adipose biopsies were collected from male and female beluga whale from distinct populations in the St. Lawrence River estuary (STL) and western Hudson Bay (WHB), Canada, which are contrasted by the exposure to different levels of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing, chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants. The PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, 28 MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 14 meta-para chlorine-unsubstituted PCBs, and four MeSO{sub 2} metabolites of 4,4{prime}- and 2,4{prime}-DDE were determined. The mean concentrations of total ({Sigma}-) MeSO{sub 2}-PCB in male STL beluga (230 ng/g), and ratios of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB (0.05) and {Sigma}-precursor-PCB (0.17) were approximately twofold higher, whereas the {Sigma}-precursor-PCB to {Sigma}-PCB ratio was approximately twofold lower, than in male WHB beluga. Both populations had a low formation capacity for MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs with {le} six chlorines (<4% of {Sigma}-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs). The congener patterns were dominated by trichloro- and tetrachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs, and tetrachloro- and pentachloro-MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in WHB and STL animals, respectively. In addition to 2- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, two unknown MeSO{sub 2}-2,4{prime}-DDEs were detected. The mean 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE concentration in STL beluga (1.2 ng/g) was much greater than in WHB animals. The concentrations of 4,4{prime}-DDE, and not 3-MeSO{sub 2}-4,4{prime}-DDE, increased with age in male STL animals. The authors demonstrated that sulfone formation and clearance is related to metabolic capacity, and thus

  20. Ethnic Studies in the United States as decolonial studies within the overall university system westernized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Grosfoguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the Westernized university and its Eurocentric fundamentalism in relation to the subaltern struggles of racialized groups in the United States and its impact on the formation of ethnic studies in the university’s epistemic structure. The article goes on to discuss questions of epistemic racism/sexism and the dilemmas that ethnic studies programs confront today in particular forms of disciplinary colonization, liberal multiculturalism and identity politics.

  1. In Vitro Activity of Cefepime against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli, Viridans Group Streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae from a Cross-Canada Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E Low

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitro activity of cefepime against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci obtained from an ongoing cross-Canada surveillance study.

  2. Habitat utilization by Canada and blue/snow geese on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge: Wildlife Management Study – No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A goose study on Clarence Cannon NWR was conducted during the fall of 1970 to determine what habitat types and conditions are initially attractive to Canada geese...

  3. Restrictions for reimbursement of direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in Canada: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alison D.; Saeed, Sahar; Barrett, Lisa; Cooper, Curtis L.; Treloar, Carla; Bruneau, Julie; Feld, Jordan J.; Gallagher, Lesley; Klein, Marina B.; Krajden, Mel; Shoukry, Naglaa H.; Taylor, Lynn E.; Grebely, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Canada, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens are costly. This presents challenges for universal drug coverage of the estimated 220 000 people with chronic HCV infection nationwide. The study objective was to appraise criteria for reimbursement of 4 HCV direct-acting antivirals in Canada. Methods: We reviewed the reimbursement criteria for simeprevir, sofosbuvir, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir plus dasabuvir in the 10 provinces and 3 territories. Data were extracted from April 2015 to June 2016. The primary outcomes extracted from health ministerial websites were: 1) minimum fibrosis stage required, 2) drug and alcohol use restrictions, 3) HIV coinfection restrictions and 4) prescriber type restrictions. Results: Overall, 85%-92% of provinces/territories limited access to patients with moderate fibrosis (Meta-Analysis of Histologic Data in Viral Hepatitis stage F2 or greater, or equivalent). There were no drug and alcohol use restrictions; however, several criteria (e.g., active injection drug use) were left to the discretion of the physician. Quebec did not reimburse simeprevir and sofosbuvir for people coinfected with HIV; no restrictions were found in the remaining jurisdictions. Prescriber type was restricted to specialists in up to 42% of provinces/territories. Interpretation: This review of criteria of reimbursement of HCV direct-acting antivirals in Canada showed substantial interjurisdictional heterogeneity. The findings could inform health policy and support the development and adoption of a national HCV strategy. PMID:28018873

  4. Variations in costs and use of provincially-funded testosterone replacement therapy across Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadrous, Mina; Martins, Diana; Lee, Kathy; Knowles, Sandra; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Provincial drug-program policies for the reimbursement of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) vary across Canada, which may result in marked regional variability in use. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional analysis of provincially funded TRT spending and utilization in eight provinces across Canada in 2012. We reported the annual cost per user, total cost, and rate of use of TRT overall and by formulation. We identified 23,544 provincially-funded recipients of TRT in 2012 in the eight provinces studied. Average annual cost per person varied by 3-fold, ranging from $173 (Prince Edward Island) to $485 (Ontario). Ontario also had the highest rate of use (1,105 users per 100,000 eligible) and the most liberal listing. Provinces with more restricted access (Alberta, British Columbia, and PEI) had lower annual costs per user ($293, $206, $173, respectively). Differing reimbursement policies for TRT products across Canada are likely contributing to variation in the rate of use and cost per recipient.

  5. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch

    2001-07-01

    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  6. Tracking the evolution of hospice palliative care in Canada: A comparative case study analysis of seven provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Judy-Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An aging population, rise in chronic illnesses, increase in life expectancy and shift towards care being provided at the community level are trends that are collectively creating an urgency to advance hospice palliative care (HPC planning and provision in Canada. The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of HPC in seven provinces in Canada so as to inform such planning and provision elsewhere. We have endeavoured to undertake this research out of awareness that good future planning for health and social care, such as HPC, typically requires us to first look backwards before moving forward. Methods To identify key policy and practice events in HPC in Canada, as well as describe facilitators of and barriers to progress, a qualitative comparative case study design was used. Specifically, the evolution and development of HCP in 7 strategically selected provinces is compared. After choosing the case study provinces, the grey literature was searched to create a preliminary timeline for each that described the evolution of HPC beginning in 1970. Key informants (n = 42 were then interviewed to verify the content of each provincial timeline and to discuss barriers and facilitators to the development of HPC. Upon completion of the primary data collection, a face-to-face meeting of the research team was then held so as to conduct a comparative study analysis that focused on provincial commonalities and differences. Results Findings point to the fact that HPC continues to remain at the margins of the health care system. The development of HPC has encountered structural inheritances that have both sped up progress as well as slowed it down. These structural inheritances are: (1 foundational health policies (e.g., the Canada Health Act; (2 service structures and planning (e.g., the dominance of urban-focused initiatives; and (3 health system decisions (e.g., regionalization. As a response to these inheritances, circumventions

  7. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge

  8. Anti-smoking advertising campaigns targeting youth: case studies from USA and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, C; Reibling, E T

    2000-01-01

    To assist in planning anti-smoking advertising that targets youth. Using five US state campaigns, one US research study, and a Canadian initiative as exemplars, an attempt is made to explain why certain advertising campaigns have been more cost effective than others in terms of reducing adolescent smoking prevalence. Several factors which prior research and theory suggest may be important to cost effectiveness are examined. Specifically, three variables pertaining to the advertising message (content, consistency, and clarity) and two variables related to the advertising execution or style (age of spokesperson and depiction of smoking behaviour) are studied. A case study approach has been combined with supplemental data collection and analysis. To assess campaign effects, published articles and surveys of adolescent smoking prevalence in campaign versus control (non-campaign) locations were utilised. Adolescent subjects provided supplemental data on the advertising message variables. Trained adults content analysed each advertisement to assess the executional variables. A total of 1128 seventh grade (age 12-13 years) and 10th grade (age 15-16 years) students participated in the supplemental data collection effort. An anti-smoking advertising campaign initiated by Vermont researchers was found to be the most cost effective in that it significantly reduced adolescent smoking prevalence at a low per capita cost. Next in order of cost effectiveness were California, Massachusetts, and Florida because behavioural outcomes were inconsistent across time and/or grades. California was ranked higher than the other two because it spent less per capita. Minnesota and Canada were ineffective at reducing adolescent smoking prevalence, and no comparison outcome data were available for Arizona. Four factors were found to be associated with increased cost effectiveness: (1) a greater use of message content that prior research suggests is efficacious with youth; (2) a more

  9. Agroforestry in private land: a North Western Indian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammed, Nur; Hague, Farhana; Koike, Masao (Forest Policy Laboratory, Department of Forest Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan))

    2007-07-01

    genetically superior clones. Timber yield of the Hara farm is 50 tons ha-1 year-1 (planting 500 trees ha-1; in 10 years rotation) where as the timber yield of the national forests is less than 1 5 ton hat year-1. It is reported that timber yield is 75 tons ha-1 year-1 with a rotation of 15-18 years. But wood industries of the region do not have equipments to handle the large size trees of 15-18 years. So they encourage only 6-8 years cycle. Therefore, the farmers loose this added income retaining trees for 15-18 years. This is also found that before 1990 there was no wood based industry there. Thereafter more than 600 wood processing factories developed in Haryana, Punjab, western Utter Pradesh and Uttarakand states of northern India. Out of this over 300 have been developed in the study area. This study identify that timber price fluctuation due to various socio-political factors hinders the development that during 1990-2000 timber price was US dollar 110 ton-1, dropped down to US dollar 20 ton-1 during 2001-2005 and now again there is an increase of price i.e. US dollar 125 ton-1 Finally, this type of tree based farming is so good for the farmers and farm economy and environmental improvement. More importantly it is notified that forests of the Haryana state has been increased from 3% (base year 1990) to 8 % (2006) which is a tremendous success. Hara Farm Being the largest one can afford anything to be required to sustain the practice. But for the average farms, government and NGO initiatives are needed to supply better clones, new knowledge, demonstration farm and monetary support during the peak farming seasons. It is suggested that if it is possible to establish a farmer led cooperatives, then from production and price point of view every stakeholder will be in a win-win situation. This farm is a model for education and it can be recognized nationally and internationally. Replication of the model in every suitable area would bring a positive response. (orig.)

  10. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-20

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  11. Study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the western United States has been examined and the prospects have been ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. This criterion is obtained principally from expected reservoir temperatures and depths. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data. The Roosevelt, Utah, prospect ranks first in development potential followed in order by Beowawe, Nevada; Coso Hot Springs, California; Long Valley, California; and Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada.

  12. A descriptive study of reportable gastrointestinal illnesses in Ontario, Canada, from 2007 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbova Linda; Johnson Karen; Whitfield Yvonne; Middleton Dean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gastrointestinal illnesses (GI) continue to pose a substantial burden in terms of morbidity and economic impact in Canada. We describe the epidemiology of reportable GI in Ontario by characterizing the incidence of each reportable GI, as well as associated demographics, clinical outcomes, seasonality, risk settings, and likely sources of infection. Methods Reports on laboratory confirmed cases of amebiasis, botulism, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, g...

  13. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G; Burnett, Richard T; Chen, Hong; Wheeler, Amanda J; Goldberg, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    Parks and green space areas are important to human health for psychological and physiological reasons. There have been few evaluations of access to green space on mortality. This paper describes a cohort study of approximately 575,000 adults, 35 years of age and older, who resided in 10 urban areas in Ontario, Canada, between 1982 and 1986. Individuals were identified from income tax filings, and vital status was determined up to December 31, 2004 through record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base. Place of residence was defined by postal code data that were extracted from income tax filings. Urban green space was defined by Landsat satellite retrievals with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and this was assigned to individuals' place of residence at inception into the cohort using both a 30 m grid cell and a 500 m buffer. The proportional hazards model was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for selected underlying causes of death. The rate ratios were adjusted for income, marital status, ambient air pollution, and contextual neighborhood characteristics. About 187,000 subjects died during follow-up. An increase in the interquartile range of green space, using a 500 m buffer, was associated with reduced non-accidental mortality (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.94-0.96). Reductions in mortality with increased residential green space were observed for each underlying cause of death; the strongest association was found for respiratory disease mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI=0.89-0.93). Risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjusting for ambient air pollution. Our study suggests that green space in urban environments was associated with long-term reduction in mortality although this finding should be interpreted cautiously as this association may be influenced by residual confounding of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Further research is needed to: confirm these findings, better understand the

  14. A Comparative Study of Face and Politeness in Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng-fang

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes a comparative study of the Chinese and western attitudes towards“face”and“politeness”. When concerning the standards of politeness, western cultures focus more on the creation of individual ’s private space; while Chinese culture, as a typical collectivist culture, shows more stress on harmony and group identity. But some euphemisms and cultural rit-uals show the generosity of being polite in both cultures. After this comparative study of face and politeness in two cultures, there will be a better understanding of politeness between Chinese and western communication.

  15. Time-Lapse Acoustic Impedance Inversion in CO2 Sequestration Study (Weyburn Field, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Morozov, I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic-impedance (AI) pseudo-logs are useful for characterising subtle variations of fluid content during seismic monitoring of reservoirs undergoing enhanced oil recovery and/or geologic CO2 sequestration. However, highly accurate AI images are required for time-lapse analysis, which may be difficult to achieve with conventional inversion approaches. In this study, two enhancements of time-lapse AI analysis are proposed. First, a well-known uncertainty of AI inversion is caused by the lack of low-frequency signal in reflection seismic data. To resolve this difficulty, we utilize an integrated AI inversion approach combining seismic data, acoustic well logs and seismic-processing velocities. The use of well logs helps stabilizing the recursive AI inverse, and seismic-processing velocities are used to complement the low-frequency information in seismic records. To derive the low-frequency AI from seismic-processing velocity data, an empirical relation is determined by using the available acoustic logs. This method is simple and does not require subjective choices of parameters and regularization schemes as in the more sophisticated joint inversion methods. The second improvement to accurate time-lapse AI imaging consists in time-variant calibration of reflectivity. Calibration corrections consist of time shifts, amplitude corrections, spectral shaping and phase rotations. Following the calibration, average and differential reflection amplitudes are calculated, from which the average and differential AI are obtained. The approaches are applied to a time-lapse 3-D 3-C dataset from Weyburn CO2 sequestration project in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. High quality time-lapse AI volumes are obtained. Comparisons with traditional recursive and colored AI inversions (obtained without using seismic-processing velocities) show that the new method gives a better representation of spatial AI variations. Although only early stages of monitoring seismic data are available, time

  16. Imaging studies in patients with spinal pain: Practice audit evaluation of Choosing Wisely Canada recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate an a priori threshold for advanced imaging in patients with spinal pain. Patients with spinal pain in any region for 6 to 52 weeks were assessed to determine if radiologic studies beyond x-ray scans were indicated, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide bone scans. An a priori threshold was set before MRI, CT, or bone scans would be considered. Those who did not have MRI, CT, or bone scans ordered were followed for at least 1 year to determine if any of them went on to be diagnosed with a more serious spinal disorder (eg, infection, fracture, spondylitis, tumour, neurologic compression). Four large primary care clinics in Edmonton, Alta. A total of 1003 consecutively presenting patients with symptoms suspected to be related to the spine (for a duration of generally 6 to 52 weeks) who had not already undergone advanced imaging and did not have a diagnosis of nonbenign back pain. Number of cases of nonbenign spinal disorder in participants who underwent advanced imaging and participants who did not undergo advanced imaging (ie, did not have any red flags). There were 399 women (39.8%) and 604 men (60.2%). The mean (SD) age of the group was 47.2 (14.6) years. The mean (SD) duration of symptoms was 15.1 (8.6) weeks. Of the 1003 participants, 110 met an a priori threshold for undergoing at least 1 of MRI, CT, or bone scan. In these 110 participants, there were newly diagnosed cases of radiculopathy (n = 12), including a case of cauda equina syndrome; spondyloarthropathy (n = 6); occult fracture (n = 2); solitary metastasis (n = 1); epidural lipomatosis (n = 1); osteomyelitis (n = 1), and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1), each of which was considered likely to be the cause of the patient's spinal symptoms. The remaining 893 participants were followed for at least 1 year and none showed evidence of a nonbenign cause of his or her spinal pain. In the evaluation of nonspecific spinal pain and symptoms, setting and

  17. [History of trachoma in canada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Jean

    2010-06-01

    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  18. Immunization information systems in Canada: Attributes, functionality, strengths and challenges. A Canadian Immunization Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah E; Quach, Susan; MacDonald, Shannon E; Naus, Monika; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Tran, Dat; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Tu, Karen; Johnson, Caitlin; Desai, Shalini

    2017-03-01

    Canada does not have a national immunization registry. Diverse systems to record vaccine uptake exist, but these have not been systematically described. Our objective was to describe the immunization information systems (IISs) and non-IIS processes used to record childhood and adolescent vaccinations, and to outline the strengths and limitations of the systems and processes. We collected information from key informants regarding their provincial, territorial or federal organization's surveillance systems for assessing immunization coverage. Information collection consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a follow-up interview. We evaluated systems against attributes derived from the literature using content analysis. Twenty-six individuals across 16 public health organizations participated over the period of April to August 2015. Twelve of Canada's 13 provinces and territories (P/Ts) and two organizations involved in health service delivery for on-reserve First Nations people participated. Across systems, there were differences in data collection processes, reporting capabilities and advanced functionality. Commonly cited challenges included timeliness and data completeness of records, particularly for physician-administered immunizations. Privacy considerations and the need for data standards were stated as challenges to the goal of information sharing across P/T systems. Many P/Ts have recently implemented new systems and, in some cases, legislation to improve timeliness and/or completeness. Considerable variability exists among IISs and non-IIS processes used to assess immunization coverage in Canada. Although some P/Ts have already pursued legislative or policy initiatives to address the completeness and timeliness of information, many additional opportunities exist in the information technology realm.

  19. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen

    2013-04-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), Ontario, Canada, is an intrusive complex representing the crystallized melt sheet that formed within a large impact crater. The SIC has been extensively studied due to its rich endowment in magmatic sulfide ores (Ni-Cu-PGEs). The nature and origin of the SIC melt sheet and its subsequent evolution still remain controversial. In this study, analyses of primary melt inclusions hosted in cumulus apatite within three mafic units of the SIC (gabbro, norite and sublayer quartz diorite) are used to decipher the thermometric and chemical characteristics of the evolving melt sheet as it crystallized. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions commonly display a negative crystal shape, occur parallel to the c-axis, and often occur within a central growth zone, which suggest a primary origin. The compositions of coeval (co-entrapped) melt inclusions are distinct and may represent either the products of immiscibility (low or high temperature field; c.f. the Skaergaard Intrusion: Jakobsen et al., Geology, 2005), or a product of early, high-temperature, impact-generated emulsification (prior to and independent of crystallization of the melt sheet). The compositions of homogenized (1100-1200oC for 3 hrs) melt inclusions, determined by SEM-EDS and EMP analyses of opened, homogenized melt inclusions, equate to two distinct compositions: (1) Type-I are SiO2-rich, ranging from tonalitic to granodioritic in composition (60-70 wt% SiO2, up to 11 wt% FeO); and (2) Type-II are Fe-rich with syenogabbroic to essexitic to alkali gabbroic compositions (27-49 wt% SiO2, 16-44 wt% FeO). Trace element data, obtained by LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions and surrounding host apatite, are used to infer D values between apatite and the two melt types, and between the coexisting melt types. Apparent Dap-melt values for both Type-I and Type-II inclusions show that the REE, Sr, and Y are compatible in apatite, and As is weakly compatible or incompatible in apatite

  20. Morphometric study of cricoid cartilages in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Joshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is important to determine the size and proportion of thelarynx as such information is useful in procedures such asintubation, endoscopy and surgical manipulations. Recentinterest in the cases of subglottic stenosis and postintubationalstenosis of the lower respiratory tract has ledto renewed interest in ascertaining the measurements ofthe various laryngeal cartilages. The aim of the presentstudy was to collect morphometric data of cricoid cartilagefrom a regional population.MethodFifty laryngeal preparations from adult cadavers of WesternIndia were assessed. Sections were prepared via dissectionand the removed cricoid cartilages then measured andweighed.ResultsThe mean antero-posterior diameter (19.29±2.47 of thecricoid cartilage was greater than the average transversediameter (18.33±2.26. The height of arch of cricoidcartilage was 6.54±1.23mm and height of lamina was21.45±1.97mm. Mean weight of cricoid cartilage was4.53±1.27grams. The shape of the cricoid cartilage wasovoid in 46% of cases, oval in 38%, pear shaped in 12% andnarrow-oblong in 4% of cases.ConclusionInter-subject variability in the dimensions of cricoidcartilages was observed. The large difference in almost allsizes and shapes of the cricoid cartilage makes it difficult tostandardise the rigid stents used in these organs.Endotracheal tubes of the appropriate size should thereforebe based on the measurements of individual patients.Clinicians should therefore be aware of morphologicalvariations as they are of fundamental clinical importance.Key WordsCricoid cartilage, larynx, morphometry

  1. Canada's First Nurse Practitioner-Led Clinic: A Case Study in Healthcare Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heale, Roberta; Butcher, Marilyn

    2010-09-01

    Canada's first nurse practitioner-led clinic opened in 2007 after a period of intense lobbying. The development of this clinic has received a great deal of attention in the nursing world and among the general public, but the factors that enabled it have not been examined. The antecedents outlined in healthcare innovation concept analysis - including leadership, financial considerations, idea generation, teamwork, culture and demand - provide a framework for examination of the campaign for the nurse practitioner-led clinic. This review demonstrates the complex interplay of factors that drive healthcare innovation and expands understanding of the leadership and change competencies of the advanced practice nurse.

  2. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern.

  3. A preliminary investigation into diet adequacy in senior residents of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Liu, Lin; Roebothan, Barbara; Ryan, Ann; Chen, Zhi; Yi, Yanqing; Wang, Peizhong

    2014-04-02

    Adequate dietary intake is essential to maintain good health. This is particularly true for the elderly. This study investigated the dietary intakes of seniors residing in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and assessed the adequacy of nutrients which they consumed as food. Between November 2012 and January 2013, we recruited senior residents in NL, aged 65 years or older Participants were required to complete two questionnaires, one food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and one general health questionnaire (GHQ). Macro- and micro- nutrients in foods consumed were estimated using the Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associations (ESHA) nutrient analysis software. The nutrient intakes were compared with appropriate components of the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) adopted by Health Canada to determine adequacy. Various descriptive statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. One hundred-and-eleven participants (69 females and 42 males) completed the surveys and were included in the analysis. A considerable portion of subjects were overweight (41.7%) or obese (25%), and had at least one chronic illness (86.5%). Many seniors studied did not meet the daily recommendations for dietary intakes of nutrients supported by Health Canada, notably vitamin E (84.7%) and vitamin D (68.5%). Our study also suggests that about 40% of participants consumed more dietary energy as fat than is recommended. The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients from foods in a noninstitutionalized senior population of NL.

  4. A qualitative study on the ethics of transforming care: examining the development and implementation of Canada's first mental health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Melissa M; Lencucha, Raphael; Mattingly, Cheryl; Zafran, Hiba; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-19

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada worked collaboratively with stakeholders to create a new framework for a federal mental health strategy, which is now mandated for implementation by 2017. The proposed strategies have been written into provincial health plans, hospital accreditation standards, and the annual objectives of psychiatric departments and community organizations. This project will explore the decision-making process among those who contributed to Canada's first federal mental health policy and those implementing this policy in the clinical setting. Despite the centrality of ethical reasoning to the successful uptake of the recent national guidelines for recovery-oriented care, to date, there are no studies focused exclusively on the ethical tensions that emerged and continue to emerge during the creation and implementation of the new standards for recovery-oriented practice. This two-year Canadian Institute of Health Research Catalyst Grant in Ethics (2015-2017) consists of three components. C-I, a retrospective, qualitative study consisting of document analysis and interviews with key policy-makers of the ethical tensions that arose during the development of Canada's Mental Health Strategy will be conducted in parallel to C-II, a theory-based, focused ethnography of how mental health practitioners in a psychiatric setting reason about and act upon new standards in everyday practice. Case-based scenarios of ethical tensions will be developed from C-I/II and fed-forward to C-III: participatory forums with policy-makers, mental health practitioners, and other stakeholders in recovery-oriented services to collectively identify and prioritize key ethical concerns and generate action steps to close the gap between the policy-making process and its implementation at the local level. Policy-makers and clinicians make important everyday decisions that effect the creation and implementation of new practice standards. Particularly, there is a need to

  5. Asthma, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease amongst South Asian Immigrants to Canada and Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health adm...

  6. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  7. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  8. A Comparison Study on the Chinese and Western Music Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Specialty:Literary Theory Music Aesthetics is a basic and theoretical subject,which studies the basic rules of music,and especially regards the study of the particularity of music and aesthetics as its general goal.Belonging to liberal arts,music aesthetics is the same as other

  9. Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

  10. Environmental issues in Canada: papers presented at a Canadian studies workshop held at the University of Leeds, February 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkinson, K; McDonald, A.T

    1994-01-01

    ...: Canada's federal environmental assessment system by Patrice Le Blanc -- Issues and conflicts in Canadian water management by Adrian McDonald -- Environment and economy in the prairies - changes...

  11. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary, May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwko, R.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.; Jordan, G.; Miller, N.

    2010-05-01

    This Study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

  12. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-05-01

    This Study investigates the operational impact of up to 35% energy penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs), and concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

  13. Huxley College of Environmental Studies, Western Washington University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the programs of Huxley College (Washington) which were designed to provide an environmental studies thread through all of its academic endeavors. Addresses the development of the curriculum of both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Discusses its research focal points and its prospects for the future. (TW)

  14. MRI study on spinal canal content in Western Maharashtrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanapurkar SV, Kulkarni DO, Bahetee BH, Vahane MI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the spinal canal content has been studied since the invention of myelography. However, most studies have measured the diameters of the spinal cord only, not the size of the subarachnoid space. The present study complements the current data on the morphology of the spinal contents, and in particular, the spinal subarachnoid space, by analyzing MRI images. Objective: To study morphology of the dural sac, spinal cord & subarachnoid space using MRI. To define the inner geometrical dimensions of spinal canal content that confine the maneuver of an endoscope inserted in cervical spine. 3. To have comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of cervical spinal canal. Method: Based on MRI images of the spine from 60 normal patients of age between 25-60 years, the dimensions of spinal cord, dural sac & subarachnoid space were measured at mid-vertebral & intervertebral level from C1-C7 vertebrae. The parameters measured were transverse, sagittal diameter of spinal cord & dural sac. The subarachnoid space was measured as anterior, posterior, right, left distance between spinal cord and dura mater. Results: It was found that at each selected transverse level, the subarachnoid space tends to be symmetrical on the right and left sides of the cord, and measures 3.38 mm on an average. However, the anterior and posterior segment, measured on the mid-sagittal plane are generally asymmetric & varies greatly in size ranging 1mm to 6mm with mean 2.57 of anterior & 2.59 of posterior. These measurements match those found in previous studies. The coefficient of variance for the dimensions of the subarachnoid space is as high as 36.16%, while that for the dimensions of the spinal cord (transverse & sagittal are11.08%&13.28%respectively. Conclusion: The findings presented here, expand our knowledge of morphology of spinal canal and show that a thecaloscope must be smaller than 3.38 mm in diameter.

  15. Non-hodgkin′s lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima P Karunanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency during the study period. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit the statistical models. Results: Farming exposure and exposure to pesticides-contaminated cloths were related to an increased risk of NHL. Exposure to pesticides was strongly associated with an increased risk of NHL, especially for men. Conclusion: For men, the incidence of NHL was associated with exposure to pesticides after adjusting for other independent predictors.

  16. A case study on fine weather in Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄耀荣; 许淙; 尹涛; 张海影

    2001-01-01

    Great Wall Station, the local fine weather was studied. Pressure, temperature and humidity field, and aerological stratification were analyzed synoptically. Two kinds of fine weather with different physical characteristics were found; one was caused by the spreading of subtropical high with high temerature and high humidity, and another was connected with polar highwith low temperature and low humidity. The research provide a synoptic background for the local fine weather forecast.

  17. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  18. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  19. How do schools educate students to be active citizens:? A Case Study of Citizenship education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Alison Molina Girón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although educating active citizen who participate in civic and political life is a fundamental goal of education, in general, and of citizenship education, in particular, there are very few empirical studies that inform us how the school educates for this purpose. This study, conducted in three Civics classrooms in Ontario, Canada, investigates how teachers prepare their students for active citizenship. Drawing on citizenship theories and an examination of citizenship pedagogy through observations of class instruction and interviews with teachers and students, the results of the study reveal that teachers’ understandings of what constitutes active citizenship greatly influence how they educate for active citizenship. I detail three distinct understandings of active citizenship that are advanced through class instruction: the duty-based, the make-a-difference and the politically-oriented active citizenship. The article discusses important implications that these differing understandings and pedagogical approaches have as they delineate different expectations and paths for youth citizenship participation in public life. Although educating active citizen who participate in civic and political life is a fundamental goal of education, in general, and of citizenship education, in particular, there are very few empirical studies that inform us how the school educates for this purpose. This study, conducted in three Civics classrooms in Ontario, Canada, investigates how teachers prepare their students for active citizenship. Drawing on citizenship theories and an examination of citizenship pedagogy through observations of class instruction and interviews with teachers and students, the results of the study reveal that teachers’ understandings of what constitutes active citizenship greatly influence how they educate for active citizenship. I detail three distinct understandings of active citizenship that are advanced through class instruction: the

  20. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    Study area is located NW of Turkey. Total area of the drainage basin is 465 square kilometers and mostly covered by volcanic rocks. Majority of these rocks have highly altered and lost their primary properties because of alteration processes. Especially argillic alteration is common. Tectonic movements and cooling fractures were created suitable circulation environment of groundwater in the rocks (secondary porosity). Alteration affects the composition of groundwater and some rock elements pass into groundwater during the movement of water in the cavities of rocks. High concentration of natural contaminants related to water-rock interaction in spring water has been studied in this research. Field measurements such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity carried out in 500 water points (spring, drilling, well and stream). 150 water samples taken from the water points and 50 rock samples taken from the source of springs has been investigated in point of major anion-cations, heavy metals and trace elements. Some components in the water such as pH (3.5-9.1), specific electrical conductivity (84-6400 microS/cm), aluminum (27-44902 ppb), iron (10-8048 ppb), manganese (0.13-8740 ppb), nickel (0.2-627 ppb), lead (0.1-42.5 ppb) and sulphate (10 to 1940 ppm) extremely high or low in the springs sourced from especially highly altered Miocene aged volcanic rocks. Some measured parameters highly above according to European Communities Drinking Water Regulations (2007) and TS266 (2015-Intended for Human Consumption Water Regulations of Turkey) drinking water standards. The most common element which is found in the groundwater is aluminum that is higher than to the drinking water standards (200 microg/L). The highest levels of the Al values measured in acidic waters with very low pH (3.4) emerging from altered volcanic rocks because of acid mine drainage in Obakoy district, north of the study area. The abundance of this element in

  1. Study of Subsidence and Earthquake Swarms in the Western Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Quetta Valley and surrounding areas have experienced unprecedented levels of subsidence, which has been attributed mainly to groundwater withdrawal. However, this region is also tectonically active and is home to several regional strike-slip faults, including the north–south striking left-lateral Chaman Fault System. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, including one deadly Mw 6.4 earthquake that struck on 28 October 2008. This study integrated Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR results with GPS, gravity, seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake centroid-moment-tensor (CMT data to identify the impact of tectonic and anthropogenic processes on subsidence and earthquake patterns in this region. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, this study used two Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR time series, i.e., 15 Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR images acquired by an Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS from 2006–2011 and 40 Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR images spanning 2003–2010. A Small Baseline Subset (SBAS technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to map the blind thrust faults beneath a Quaternary alluvium layer. The median filtered SBAS-InSAR average velocity profile supports groundwater withdrawal as the dominant source of subsidence, with some contribution from tectonic subsidence in the Quetta Valley. Results of SBAS-InSAR multi-temporal analysis provide a better explanation for the pre-, co-, and post-seismic displacement pattern caused by the 2008 earthquake swarms across two strike-slip faults.

  2. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  3. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  4. A staff shortage in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P. [Human Resources Development Canada, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members` future personnel requirements. (author).

  5. Picture this: a photovoice study of international students' food experience in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Stephanie; Lordly, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    International student enrolment in Canadian universities is increasing. As international university students acculturate, they experience a culture shock in which food plays a major role. International university students' Canadian food experiences therefore were explored. A Photovoice methodology was used with 15 international undergraduate and graduate university students, who were recruited to take pictures of their food experiences. They also participated in two focus group discussions that included an analysis of their photos. Seven themes related to the significance of food in acculturation were revealed: the paradox of Canadian convenience, the equation of traditional foods with health, traditional food quality and accessibility, support networks, food consumption for comfort, ethnic restaurants, and the exploration of non-traditional foods. Maintaining cultural identity with traditional foods was an overarching theme related to acculturation. International students acculturating to Canada have emotional and physical needs, which can be met through food. Opportunities exist to improve their acculturation experiences. Canadian universities can incorporate food acculturation strategies into campus events and menus. Nutrition professionals on campus can facilitate a positive food environment and nurture culture identity formation.

  6. Management practices associated with pain in cattle on western Canadian cow-calf operations: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggy, M A; Pajor, E A; Thurston, W E; Parker, S; Greter, A M; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Campbell, J R; Windeyer, M C

    2017-02-01

    The implementation of on-farm pain mitigation strategies is dependent on feasibility and importance to producers. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding adoption of management practices associated with pain in cattle within the Canadian beef industry. The objective of this mixed methods study was to describe pain-associated practices implemented on farm and producer perceptions toward pain mitigation strategies. A questionnaire about calving management and calf processing was delivered to 109 cow-calf producers in western Canada. In addition, 15 respondents were purposively selected based on questionnaire responses to participate in individual semistructured, on-farm interviews. The prevalence of pain mitigation strategies used for dystocia and cesarean section by respondents were 46 and 100%, respectively. The majority of operations reported castrating and dehorning calves before 3 mo of age (95 and 89%, respectively). The majority of operations did not use pain mitigation strategies for castration and dehorning (90 and 85%, respectively). Branding was practiced by 57% of respondents, 4% of which used pain mitigation. Thematic content analysis revealed that producers' perception of pain were influenced by what they referred to as "common sense," relatability to cattle, visual evidence of pain, and age of the animal. Factors that influenced participant rationale for the implementation of pain mitigation practices included access to information and resources, age of the animal, benefit to the operation, cost and logistics, market demands, and personal conscience. Overall, management practices were generally in compliance with published Canadian guidelines. Results of this study may provide direction for future policy making, research, and extension efforts to encourage the adoption of pain mitigation strategies.

  7. Human Capital and the Brain Drain Phenomenon: A Study of the Immigration and Emigration of Canada's Knowledge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Savia, Roy

    2003-01-01

    This research discusses the relationship between the migration of skilled professional and managerial workers from Canada to the United States, the so called "brain drain," and seeks to determine if and how the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (F.T.A.) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) may have affected bilateral flows…

  8. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  9. A qualitative study on African immigrant and refugee families' experiences of accessing primary health care services in Manitoba, Canada: it's not easy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Roberta Lynn; Busolo, David Shiyokha; Crockett, Maryanne; Dean, Ruth Anne; Amaladas, Miriam R; Plourde, Pierre J

    2017-01-09

    Immigrant and refugee families form a growing proportion of the Canadian population and experience barriers in accessing primary health care services. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of access to primary health care by African immigrant and refugee families. Eighty-three families originating from 15 African countries took part in multiple open ended interviews in western Canada. Qualitative data was collected in six different languages between 2013 and 2015. Data analysis involved delineating units of meaning from the data, clustering units of meaning to form thematic statements, and extracting themes. African immigrant and refugee families experienced challenges in their quest to access primary health care that were represented by three themes: Expectations not quite met, facing a new life, and let's buddy up to improve access. On the theme of expectations not quite met, families struggled to understand and become familiar with a new health system that presented with a number of barriers including lengthy wait times, a shortage of health care providers, high cost of medication and non-basic health care, and less than ideal care. On the theme of facing a new life, immigrant and refugee families talked of the difficulties of getting used to their new and unfamiliar environments and the barriers that impact their access to health care services. They talked of challenges related to transportation, weather, employment, language and cultural differences, and lack of social support in their quest to access health care services. Additionally, families expressed their lack of social support in accessing care. Privately sponsored families and families with children experienced even less social support. Importantly, in the theme of let's buddy up to improve access, families recommended utilizing networking approaches to engage and improve their access to primary health care services. African immigrant and refugee families experience barriers to accessing

  10. Determinants of urinary concentrations of dialkyl phosphates among pregnant women in Canada - Results from the MIREC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Katia; Fraser, William; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; Gaudreau, Eric; LeBlanc, Alain; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are commonly used in agriculture. Their use decreased in recent years as they were gradually replaced by other pesticides, but some OPs are still among the insecticides most used in Canada. Exposure to elevated levels of OPs during pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes and poorer neurodevelopment in children. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the concentrations of OP pesticides urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites and various factors that are potential sources of exposure or determinants of DAP levels. In the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, six DAPs were measured in 1st trimester urine samples of 1884 pregnant women living in Canada. They were grouped into sums of dimethyl alkyl phosphates (DMAP) and diethyl alkyl phosphates (DEAP) for statistical analysis. We found that 93% of women had at least one DAP detected in their urine. Geometric means (GM) of specific gravity-corrected levels for urine dilution were 59 (95% CI 56-62) and 21 (95% CI 20-22) nmol/L for DMAP and DEAP, respectively. The following characteristics were significantly associated with higher urinary concentrations of DMAP or DEAP: higher education, nulliparous, normal pre-pregnancy body mass index, non-smoker, not fasting at sampling, winter season at sampling, and early and late day collection times. Dietary items that were significantly related with higher urinary concentrations included higher intake of citrus fruits, apple juice, sweet peppers, tomatoes, beans and dry peas, soy and rice beverages, whole grain bread, white wine and green and herbal teas. This study indicates that exposure to these compounds is quasi-ubiquitous. The factors associated with greater DAP levels identified here could be useful to regulatory agencies for risk analysis and management. However, some exposure misclassification might occur due to the single DAP measurement available, and

  11. Major correlates of mercury in small fish and common loons (Gavia immer) across four large study areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A M; Lord, S I; Wayland, M; Burgess, N M; Champoux, L; Elliott, J E

    2016-03-01

    We investigated mercury (Hg) concentrations in small fish (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens; ∼60% of fish collected) and in blood of common loons (Gavia immer) that prey upon them during the breeding season on lakes in 4 large, widely separated study areas in Canada (>13 lakes per study area; total number of lakes = 93). Although surface sediments from lakes near a base metal smelter in Flin Flon, Manitoba had the highest Hg concentrations, perch and other small fish and blood of common loon chicks sampled from these same lakes had low Hg concentrations similar to those from uncontaminated reference lakes. Multiple regression modeling with AIC analysis indicated that lake pH was by far the most important single factor influencing perch Hg concentrations in lakes across the four study areas (R(2) = 0.29). The best model was a three-variable model (pH + alkalinity + sediment Se; Wi = 0.61, R(2) = 0.85). A single-variable model (fish Hg) best explained among-lake variability in loon chick blood Hg (Wi = 0.17; R(2) = 0.53). From a toxicological risk perspective, all lakes posing a potential Hg health risk for perch and possibly other small pelagic fish species (where mean fish muscle Hg concentrations exceeded 2.4 μg/g dry wt.), and for breeding common loons (where mean fish muscle Hg concentrations exceeded 0.8 μg/g dry wt., and loon chick blood Hg exceeded 1.4 μg/g dry wt.) had pH < 6.7 and were located in eastern Canada.

  12. An Empirical Study on E-Commerce Service in the Western China's Tourism Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Li; LI Shi-ming; GAN Lu

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's tourism industry, e-commerce will bring about new opportunity and challenge to tourism. Hotels and travel agencies play very important roles in tourism industry and their level of application of IT prominently shows the management level and information process of whole tourism. This study uses content analysis to evaluate the web sites service of travel agencies and hotels in the Western China. Moreover, this paper puts forward strategic suggestion for the future development of tourism e-commerce in the Western China.

  13. An Empirical Study on Telecommunication Development in the Rural Areas of China's 12 Western Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper studied rural telecom markets in China's 12 western provinces with Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) models. Using two regress analysis of telecom business income and rural telephone permeation rate in 12 western provinces, we got some new conclusions such as, the installation and usage of telephones among farmers are affected by several variables, and income is only one of them. According to our data analysis, variables influencing the installation and usage of telephones are not the same. Different variables exert different degrees of influence in the provinces.

  14. A General Study of the Wine Culture in China and the Western World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Na

    2016-01-01

    Wine culture is considered as an indispensible part of the culture in different countries. Distinctive differences exist be-tween Chinese wine culture and the wine culture in western countries due to their historical backgrounds, different values, cul-tures and customs, etc. A general study of the comparison between Chinese wine culture and western wine culture is given in this paper in order to help us have a better understanding of the wine culture and make us be aware of showing mutual respect for each other.

  15. Information needs, sources, and decision-making by hatching egg and broiler chicken producers: A qualitative study in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R Michele; Russell, Margaret; Inglis, Tom; Mitevski, Darko; Hall, David

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sources and use of information from hatching egg and broiler chicken producers, their constraints, and unmet information needs can help define future research agendas. This report presents the results from a qualitative study using interviews of 11 hatching egg producers and 12 broiler producers in Alberta, Canada. Patterns were reported and described using thematic analysis. Producers recognized that there were numerous sources of information available to them for managing disease in their flocks. Complex disease issues such as early mortality were discussed, but many producers did not believe they had any influence over the outcomes and did not see a benefit from additional information to improve outcomes. Producers described their experience, trust in the information source, and the usefulness of the information for decision-making as necessary for information uptake.

  16. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes.

  17. Informing Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) with numerical modelling: A case-study on shellfish aquaculture in Malpeque Bay (Eastern Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Bacher, Cédric; Comeau, Luc A

    2015-11-15

    A moratorium on further bivalve leasing was established in 1999-2000 in Prince Edward Island (Canada). Recently, a marine spatial planning process was initiated explore potential mussel culture expansion in Malpeque Bay. This study focuses on the effects of a projected expansion scenario on productivity of existing leases and available suspended food resources. The aim is to provide a robust scientific assessment using available datasets and three modelling approaches ranging in complexity: (1) a connectivity analysis among culture areas; (2) a scenario analysis of organic seston dynamics based on a simplified biogeochemical model; and (3) a scenario analysis of phytoplankton dynamics based on an ecosystem model. These complementary approaches suggest (1) new leases can affect existing culture both through direct connectivity and through bay-scale effects driven by the overall increase in mussel biomass, and (2) a net reduction of phytoplankton within the bounds of its natural variation in the area.

  18. Eugenics and migration: a case study of Salvation Army literature about Canada and Britain, c.1890-1921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The eugenics movement attracted a wide range of supporters. This article explores this theme with relation to literature about the charitable work of the Salvation Army in Britain and Canada c.1890-1921, with a focus upon the emigration scheme outlined in William Booth's book In Darkest England and the Way Out. These writings indicate the widespread dispersal of eugenic ideology, and demonstrate the flexibility with which these theories were interpreted in this period. It will be shown that the Salvation Army adopted elements of both hereditarian and environmentalist views regarding racial health. These arguments were unified by the claim that the work of the organization made a worthy contribution to public health, both in the present and in the future. This case study sheds new light upon the history of a prominent evangelical Christian organization and upon the development of the international eugenics movement.

  19. Satellites for Commonwealth Education: Some Policy Issues. Case Studies: AUSSAT, Australia; Knowledge Network, Canada; INSAT, India; University of the South Pacific; University of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A. W.

    This report presents case studies on the use of satellites for education in five Commonwealth countries: Australia, Canada, India, Fiji, and Jamaica. Information provided in each of the case studies includes geography, production, the distribution system, regulation and management, and costs. Additional information given for the Australian…

  20. Westernization of dietary patterns among young Japanese and Polish females -- a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaka, Tomoko; Wozniewicz, Malgorzata; Jeszka, Jan; Bajerska, Joanna; Nowaczyk, Paulina; Sone, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the process of the westernization of eating habits is perceived to be one of the main causes of epidemics of civilization diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to assess the westernization of eating habits among 100 Japanese (aged 18-23 years) and 111 Polish female students (aged 19-25 years) of nutrition science related faculties. Food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess a dietary pattern during the four seasons of a one-year investigation. Data obtained in each season was pooled. The frequency of consumption of different foods (servings/week) between the two countries was compared and characterization of the dietary patterns of both studied populations was analyzed by factor analysis. When food consumption between the two countries was compared, apart from total meat and meat products and high-energy drink intake, significant differences were observed in all foods and food groups. Three dietary patterns were identified in both groups. Among Japanese participants, the first pattern was 'traditional Japanese', the second 'sweets and beverages', and the third 'Western', explaining 9.0%, 8.5% and 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Among Polish participants, the first pattern was 'prudent', the second 'Western', and the third 'sweets and alcoholic beverages', explaining 8.2%, 7.7%, 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Although the 'Western' dietary pattern was found in both groups, there were some differences in the remaining dietary patterns between the two countries. In the Japanese participants, significant cultural influences on habitual food intake could still be observed, and the extent of diet westernization seems to be smaller compared to the Polish participants.

  1. Contemporary Trends in the Management and Outcomes of Patients With Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Canada: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunham, Liam R; Cermakova, Lubomira; Lee, Terry; Priecelova, Ida; Alloul, Karine; de Chantal, Marilyn; Francis, Gordon A; Frohlich, Jiri

    2017-03-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is one of the most common genetic diseases in the world and an important cause of premature cardiovascular (CV) disease. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features, current treatment patterns, and CV outcomes of patients with HeFH in British Columbia, Canada. We conducted a longitudinal observational study of patients with HeFH attending a specialized lipid clinic. We collected data on lipid levels, medication use, and CV events at baseline and last follow-up. We recruited 339 patients with clinically diagnosed HeFH, with a total of 3700 person-years of follow-up. The mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was 5.9 mmol/L at baseline and 3.7 mmol/L at last follow-up. Use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) increased from 35.7% at baseline to 84.7% at last follow-up. A ≥ 50% reduction in LDL-C level was achieved in 34.5% of patients, and an LDL-C level ≤ 2 mmol/L was seen in 8.3%. The overall CV event rate in this cohort was 33.5/1000 person-years. Among patients who had a CV event during follow-up, 59% experienced a recurrent event within 5 years. These data contribute to our understanding of contemporary trends in the management of patients with HeFH in Canada. Despite a majority of patients receiving LLT, few patients reached high-risk lipid targets. These data highlight important opportunities to improve the care of patients with HeFH. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Study on Attitude to Western Culture of English Majors and Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉

    2013-01-01

    With different learning purposes and environment, the attitude to western culture of English majors and non-English majors is hypothetically different. But after the study conducted with the method of questionnaire, the hypothesis is proved to be wrong. Thus, the writer analyses the reasons for the problem and suggests the pedagogic practice.

  3. Adapting Western Pedagogies for Chinese Literacy Instruction: Case Studies of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala; Tse, Shek Kam

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Western ideas and progressive pedagogies have been introduced to China (including Shenzhen), Hong Kong, and Singapore to replace traditional Chinese pedagogy. But these imported ideas are not congruent with traditional Chinese culture and thus have encountered resistance from Chinese teachers. The present study observed and…

  4. Studies on the planktonic Decapoda and Stomatopoda (Crustacea) from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Nair, V.R.; Goswami, S.C.

    Abundance and distribution of decapods and stomatopods were studied, based on 90 samples collected from the western Bay of Bengal (Lat. 09 degrees 58' and 20 degrees 50'N and long. 80 degrees 00'E) between 24 August and 2 October, 1976. The decapod...

  5. Adapting Western Pedagogies for Chinese Literacy Instruction: Case Studies of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala; Tse, Shek Kam

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Western ideas and progressive pedagogies have been introduced to China (including Shenzhen), Hong Kong, and Singapore to replace traditional Chinese pedagogy. But these imported ideas are not congruent with traditional Chinese culture and thus have encountered resistance from Chinese teachers. The present study observed and…

  6. Migration and Multilingualism in Western Europe: A Case Study of the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extra, Guus; Vallen, Ton

    1997-01-01

    Reviews demographic and linguistic consequences of recent processes of migration and minority group influx in Western Europe and describes the case of the Netherlands to illustrate these effects. Highlights first- and second-language studies of immigrant and ethnic minority groups and notes resulting major demographic trends in Dutch society and…

  7. Migration and Multilingualism in Western Europe: A Case Study of the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extra, Guus; Vallen, Ton

    1997-01-01

    Reviews demographic and linguistic consequences of recent processes of migration and minority group influx in Western Europe and describes the case of the Netherlands to illustrate these effects. Highlights first- and second-language studies of immigrant and ethnic minority groups and notes resulting major demographic trends in Dutch society and…

  8. Nursery cultural practices to achieve targets: A case study in western larch irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Robert F. Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Nursery cultural practices are used to help growers achieve pre-determined size and physiological targets for seedlings. In that regard, irrigation is used to accelerate or slow growth and as a trigger for changing growth phase. In a case study highlighting the effects of irrigation on seedling development, western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings were grown...

  9. The CIET Aboriginal Youth Resilience Studies: 14 Years of Capacity Building and Methods Development in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    CIET started supporting Canadian Aboriginal community-based researchers of resilience in 1995. An evolving approach to Aboriginal resilience used a combination of standard instruments and questionnaires of local design. Over the years, CIET measured personal assets like sense of coherence, spirituality, knowledge, pride in one's heritage, mastery or self-efficacy, self-esteem, low levels of distress, involvement in traditional ways and activities, church attendance. Other indicators reflected the social dimension of resilience: feeling supported; parental care and support; parental monitoring, attitudes, and example; peer support; and support from the wider community.Pride in one's heritage, self-esteem, low distress, and mastery were measurable personal assets of resilient Aboriginal youth in a variety of cultures and circumstances. Early efforts to link resilience with specific features of culture or spirituality did not meet with success - largely reflecting failure to ask the right questions. Parental care and support, parental monitoring, parental attitudes, and parental example clearly supported the resilient Aboriginal youth in most settings. But peers are an even stronger influence, critical in relation to different types of behaviour from smoking to drinking to substance abuse to violence, unsafe sex, and suicidal tendencies. More generally, having someone to confide in, to count on in times of crisis, someone to give advice and someone who makes one feel cared for are important factors in youth resilience and something that communities can help to provide even where the family is not the support it should be and where peers are more of a hindrance than a help.CIET currently supports three resilience research projects involving Aboriginal youth in Canada: suicide prevention, reduction of HIV risk, and reduction of domestic violence. The latest resilience measurement tools include enculturation and revised approaches to Aboriginal spirituality.

  10. A clinical study of integrating acupuncture and Western medicine in treating patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Chang, Ching-Mao; Shiu, Jing-Huei; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Ta-Peng; Yang, Jen-Lin; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chern, Chang-Ming; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2015-01-01

    Complementary therapy with acupuncture for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been studied for quite a long time, but the effectiveness of the treatment still remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the integrated effects of acupuncture treatment in PD patients who received western medicine. In the short-term acupuncture treatment study, 20 patients received acupuncture therapy twice a week in acupoints DU 20, GB 20, LI 11, LI 10, LI 4, GB 31, ST 32, GB 34 and GB 38 along with western medicine for 18 weeks, and 20 controlled patients received western medicine only. In the long-term acupuncture treatment, 13 patients received acupuncture treatment twice a week for 36 weeks. The outcome parameters include Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-Version 2 (BDI-II), and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL). In the short-term clinical trial, a higher percentage of patients in the acupuncture group had score improvement in UPDRS total scores (55% vs. 15%, p = 0.019), sub-score of mind, behavior and mood (85% vs. 25%, p acupuncture treatment, the mean UPDRS total scores and sub-score of mentation, behavior and mood, sub-score of complications of therapy and BDI-II score decreased significantly when compared to the pretreatment baseline. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment had integrated effects in reducing symptoms and signs of mind, behavior, mood, complications of therapy and depression in PD patients who received Western medicine.

  11. Indoor Radon in Micro-geological Setting of an Indigenous Community in Canada: A Pilot Study for Hazard Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Wilton, Derek Hc; Fitzgerald, Erica

    2017-04-01

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol. We surveyed a remote Inuit community in Labrador, located in the midst of uranium belt. We selected 25 houses by convenience sampling and placed electret-ion-chamber radon monitoring devices in the lowest levels of the house (basement/crawl space). The standard radon study questionnaire developed and used by Health Canada was used. 7 (28%) houses had radon levels above the guideline value (range 249 to 574 Bq/m(3)). Housing characteristics, such as floors, sump holes, ventilation, and heating systems were suspected for high indoor radon levels and health consequences. There is a possibility of the existence of high-risk community in a low-risk region. The regional and provincial health authorities would be benefited by consulting geologists to identify potentially high-risk communities across the country. Placing testing devices in the lowest levels provides more accurate assessment of indoor radon level. The proposed protocol, based on synchronized testing of radon (at the lowest level of houses and in rooms of normal occupancy) and thorough inspection of the houses will be a more effective lung cancer prevention strategy.

  12. Indoor Radon in Micro-geological Setting of an Indigenous Community in Canada: A Pilot Study for Hazard Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. Objective: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol. Methods: We surveyed a remote Inuit community in Labrador, located in the midst of uranium belt. We selected 25 houses by convenience sampling and placed electret-ion-chamber radon monitoring devices in the lowest levels of the house (basement/crawl space. The standard radon study questionnaire developed and used by Health Canada was used. Results: 7 (28% houses had radon levels above the guideline value (range 249 to 574 Bq/m3. Housing characteristics, such as floors, sump holes, ventilation, and heating systems were suspected for high indoor radon levels and health consequences. Conclusion: There is a possibility of the existence of high-risk community in a low-risk region. The regional and provincial health authorities would be benefited by consulting geologists to identify potentially high-risk communities across the country. Placing testing devices in the lowest levels provides more accurate assessment of indoor radon level. The proposed protocol, based on synchronized testing of radon (at the lowest level of houses and in rooms of normal occupancy and thorough inspection of the houses will be a more effective lung cancer prevention strategy.

  13. Septicemic listeriosis in wild hares from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Bennett, Katarina R; Bryan, Lorraine; Bollinger, Trent K

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes causes disease in a wide variety of mammals including rabbits and hares. We describe naturally acquired metritis and septicemic listeriosis in wild female hares from Saskatchewan, Canada. Between April 2012 and July 2013, two white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) were presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada with nonspecific neurologic signs. The hares were euthanized and autopsied. Necrotizing fibrinosuppurative metritis was present in all. Additional findings in individual hares included fetal maceration, multifocal necrotizing myocarditis, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and nonsuppurative encephalitis. Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from multiple tissues in each hare. Although listeriosis in pregnant domestic rabbits has been studied, this is the first detailed description in wild North American hares. The epidemiology of listeriosis, including prevalence and the role of environmental sources and coprophagy in transmission among hares, requires further investigation.

  14. Seasonal effects on great ape health: a case study of wild chimpanzees and Western gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda, and a western gorilla (G. gorilla group (N = 13 in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic. Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July-December 2006; gorillas: April-July 2008 and December 2008-February 2009. Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load, but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  15. Canada`s oceans: Experiences and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Canada has the world`s longest coastline. In recent years, growth in Canada`s oceans sector has resulted in increased pressures on the ocean environment. In many areas the biodiversity and ecological integrity of marine ecosystems are being threatened. There is a need to proactively conserve, restore, and protect marine ecosystem functions, species, and habitats for future generations. This document provides an overview of the economic contributions of the oceans sector to Canada`s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), explains Canada`s oceans management strategy, the national system of marine protected areas, and programs of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities. The broad objectives of Canada`s Policy for the Management of Fish Habitat, the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy, and the Program of Living Marine Resource Management are reviewed. Harmonization of Canada`s shipping policy and its marine safety and environmental policies with international maritime laws are discussed, along with offshore energy and mineral resource development, and the integral role that oceans play in the earth`s climate. Oceans management and development assistance provided by Canada through the Canadian International Development Agency and the International Development Research Centre, especially in the areas of management of the uses of the ocean and seabed, protection of the marine environment, and fisheries management and development are also highlighted. Establishing a framework for sustainable ocean development, an ocean policy and related law, and further development of the knowledge bases in fisheries and marine science are some of the other priorities of CIDA`s oceans-related programs. 21 refs.

  16. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Studebaker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  17. NEW PROBLEMATIZATION WAYS OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR HISTORY IN WESTERN RUSSIAN STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Валерьевна Трубникова

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the new thematic perspectives prevailing in Western historiography of the Great Patriotic War. The analysis is implemented on the basis of the French scientific periodicals of 2001–2013 years. Historical survey of contemporary Russian Studies seeking to fill research gaps and form a new problem fields in the study of the World War II Eastern Front history. These studies continue the trend of the second half of 1990 – the beginning of the 2000s, which withdrow themes of Soviet history from politicized totalitarian interpretations to ideologically neutral field of renewed social history. New vectors of study based on the use of newly opened archives hold  a "context" study of pre–war and post–war international political events related to the activities of the Soviet regime, including sensitive issues of the Soviet Union geopolitical expansion in Eastern Europe; the survey of different social ( ethnic, gender , religious groups in the war and in the " out of the war " process; Stalins's strategies of management, military repression, " purges " and ideological influence on the population.Purpose: To reveal the areas of contemporary Western Russian Studies research in the history of the Great Patriotic War.Methodology : problem historiography.Results: the newest thematic areas of research and methodological techniques of WWII Western Russien studies are identified.Practical implications: research and teaching activities in the field of the Russian history.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-26

  18. Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Greta R Bauer; Scheim, Ayden I; Pyne, Jake; Travers, Robb; Hammond, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background Across Europe, Canada, and the United States, 22–43 % of transgender (trans) people report a history of suicide attempts. We aimed to identify intervenable factors (related to social inclusion, transphobia, or sex/gender transition) associated with reduced risk of past-year suicide ideation or attempt, and to quantify the potential population health impact. Methods The Trans PULSE respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey collected data from trans people age 16+ in Ontario, Canada, i...

  19. Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Gilsing, Anne M.; Hobin, Erin; Solbak, Nathan M.; Wallace, Angela; Haines, Jess; Mayhew, Alexandra J.; Orr, Sarah K.; Raina, Parminder; Robson, Paula J.; Sacco, Jocelyn E.; Whelan, Heather K.

    2017-01-01

    With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-h (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents), in public schools (children in grades 5–8; aged 10–13 years), and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research. PMID:28146125

  20. Prolonged episodic Paleoproterozoic metamorphism in the Thelon Tectonic Zone, Canada: an in-situ SHRIMP/EPMA monazite geochronology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rhea; William, Davis; Robert, Berman; Sharon, Carr; Michael, Jercinovic

    2017-04-01

    The Thelon Tectonic zone (TTZ), Nunavut, Canada, is a >500km long geophysically, lithologically and structurally distinct N-NNE striking Paleoproterozoic boundary zone between the Slave and Rae Archean provinces. The TTZ has been interpreted as a ca. 2.0 Ga continental arc on the western edge of the Rae craton, that was deformed during collision with the Slave craton ca. 1.97 Ga. Alternatively, the Slave-Rae collision is interpreted as occurring during the 2.35 Ga Arrowsmith orogeny while the 1.9-2.0 Ga TTZ represents an intra-continental orogenic belt formed in previously thinned continental crust, postdating the Slave-Rae collision. The central part of the TTZ comprises three >100 km long, 10-20 km wide belts of ca. 2.0 Ga, mainly charnockitic plutonic rocks, and a ca. 1910 Ma garnet-leucogranite belt. Metamorphism throughout these domains is upper-amphibolite to granulite-facies, with metasedimentary rocks occurring as volumetrically minor enclaves and strands of migmatites. The Ellice River domain occurs between the western and central plutonic belts. It contains ca. 1950 Ma ultramafic to dacitic volcanic rocks and foliated Paleoproterozoic psammitic metasedimentary rocks at relatively lower grade with lower to middle amphibolite-facies metamorphic assemblages. In-situ U-Pb analyses of monazite using a combination of Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) and Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) were carried out on high-grade metasedimentary rocks from seventeen samples representing the eastern margin of the Slave Province and all major lithological domains of the TTZ. 207Pb/206Pb monazite ages from SHRIMP analysis form the foundation of this dataset, while EPMA ages are supplementary. The smaller <6µm spot size of EPMA allowed for further constraint on ages of micro-scale intra-crystalline domains in some samples. Monazite ages define four distinct Paleoproterozoic metamorphic events and one Archean metamorphic event at ca. 2580 Ma. The latter is

  1. Fire - caribou - winter range relationships in northern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D C; S.J. Barry; G. Alaie

    1996-01-01

    We needed data on temporal changes in caribou forages after fire and relative use of age-classes of forests by caribou to help devise a fire suppression priority strategy for caribou winter range in north-central Canada. Consequently, from 1983 through 1986, we estimated the abundance of vegetation and relative use by caribou at 197 sites in western and eastern study areas on the winter range of the Beverly herd of caribou {Rangifer tarandus). Species of lichens attained peak biomass at diffe...

  2. The Certificate Program in Western European Area and in Latin American Area Studies as Incentives to Study French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Claude

    The University of San Francisco developed a certificate program in Western European area studies covering French-speaking countries, and subsequently a Latin American area studies program for Spanish-speaking countries, in response to uneven language enrollments and as a means of increasing intermediate-level enrollment. The French program begins…

  3. How do dentists perceive poverty and people on social assistance? A qualitative study conducted in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loignon, Christine; Landry, Anne; Allison, Paul; Richard, Lucie; Bedos, Christophe

    2012-05-01

    Despite significant needs, people on social assistance are sometimes reluctant to consult dentists because of previous negative experience and communication barriers. They feel poorly understood by oral health professionals and sometimes complain of being stigmatized. It is thus important to know how dentists perceive poverty and this group of patients. The aim of this study was to understand how dentists perceive poverty and people on social assistance. To investigate this largely unexplored question, a qualitative study was conducted based on in-depth interviews with thirty-three dentists practicing in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed for qualitative analysis. The study revealed two perspectives on poverty: 1) the individualistic-deficit perspective and 2) the socio-lifecourse perspective. In the individualistic-deficit perspective, which predominated among these participants, dentists explained poverty by individual factors and emphasized individuals' negative attitudes toward work and lack of capabilities. Conversely, dentists with a socio-lifecourse perspective described poverty as a structural rather than an individual process. Acknowledging individuals' distress and powerlessness, these dentists expressed more empathy toward people on social assistance. The results suggest the individualistic-deficit perspective impedes the care relationship between dentists and poor patients as well as highlighting the need to better prepare dentists for addressing issues of poverty and social inequities in clinical practice.

  4. Experimental study on grain size and soluble salt of saline soil in western Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianWen Yu; Qing Wang; XuDong Zhang; Xin Zhou; Gang Wang; CenCen Niu

    2015-01-01

    Western Jilin Province is a typical seasonal frost region, and is also one of the severest salinization areas of China. In this study, we aim to examine the saline soil in Da'an and Wukesong areas, western Jilin Province, and mainly analyze the granulometric composition and distribution of salt in soil profiles. Four sampling sites, two in Da'an and two in Wukesong respectively, are chosen for study. The granulometric composition, especially silt and clay content change in different sites and soil depths are analyzed. Analysis of total and components of soluble salt shows that the surface soil is weak carbonate saline, in which the main cation is Na+and the main anion is HCO3−. The total amount of soluble salt presents a decreasing tendency with increasing depth. The comprehensive analysis of granulometric composition and soluble salt shows that the clay content and soluble salt content present similar variation tendency with an increase of depth.

  5. Multiple sclerosis in Canada 2011 to 2031: results of a microsimulation modelling study of epidemiological and economic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Amankwah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of our study was to present model-based estimates and projections on current and future health and economic impacts of multiple sclerosis (MS in Canada over a 20-year time horizon (2011–2031. Methods: Using Statistics Canada’s Population Health Microsimulation Model (POHEM framework, specifically the population-based longitudinal, microsimulation model named, we identified people with MS from health administrative data sources and derived incidence and mortality rate parameters from a British Columbia population-based cohort for future MS incidence and mortality projections. We also included a utility-based measure (Health Utilities Index Mark 3 reflecting states of functional health to allow projections of health-related quality of life. Finally, we estimated caregiving parameters and health care costs from Canadian national surveys and health administrative data and included them as model parameters to assess the health and economic impact of the neurological conditions. Results: The number of incident MS cases is expected to rise slightly from 4 051 cases in 2011 to 4 794 cases per 100,000 population in 2031, and the number of Canadians affected by MS will increase from 98 385 in 2011 to 133 635 in 2031. The total per capita health care cost (excluding out-of-pocket expenses for adults aged 20 and older in 2011 was about $16 800 for individuals with MS, and approximately $2 500 for individuals without a neurological condition. Thus, after accounting for additional expenditures due to MS (excluding out-of-pocket expenses, total annual health sector costs for MS are expected to reach $2.0 billion by 2031. As well, the average out-of-pocket expenditure for people with MS was around $1 300 annually throughout the projection period. Conclusion: MS is associated with a significant economic burden on society, since it usually affects young adults during prime career- and family-building years. Canada has a

  6. Adapting western pedagogies for Chinese literacy instruction: case studies of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore preschools

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, N.; Li, H.; Tse, SK

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Western ideas and progressive pedagogies have been introduced to China (including Shenzhen), Hong Kong, and Singapore to replace traditional Chinese pedagogy. But these imported ideas are not congruent with traditional Chinese culture and thus have encountered resistance from Chinese teachers. The present study observed and analyzed 18 early childhood classrooms in the 3 localities and questioned the class teachers about their respective teaching practices to see how those ...

  7. Recurring Challenges from a Necrotrophic Fungal Plant Pathogen: a Case Study with Leptosphaeria maculans (Causal Agent of Blackleg Disease in Brassicas) in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; BARBETTI, MARTIN J.; Li, Hua

    2005-01-01

    • Background Blackleg disease of Brassica napus, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, causes severe yield losses in Australia, Europe and Canada. In Western Australia, it nearly destroyed the oilseed rape industry in 1972 when host genotypes and conducive environmental conditions favoured severe epidemics. The introduction of cultivars with polygenic resistance and the adoption of sound cultural practices two decades later helped to manage the disease. These were abandone...

  8. Primary Care Physician Panel Size and Quality of Care: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Muggah, Elizabeth; Russell, Grant; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the number of patients under a primary care physician's care (panel size) and primary care quality indicators. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of fee-for-service and capitated interprofessional and non-interprofessional primary health care practices in Ontario, Canada between April 2008 and March 2010, encompassing 4,195 physicians with panel sizes ≥1,200 serving 8.3 million patients. Data was extracted from multiple linked, health-related administrative databases and covered 16 quality indicators spanning 5 dimensions of care: access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and evidence-based indicators of cancer screening and chronic disease management. The likelihood of being up-to-date on cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening showed relative decreases of 7.9% (P indicators (4 medication-based and 4 screening-based) showed no significant association with panel size. The likelihood of individuals with a new diagnosis of congestive heart failure having an echocardiogram, however, increased by a relative 8.1% (P hospitalization rates for ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions (P = .04) and a 10.8% decrease in non-urgent emergency department visits (P = .004). Continuity was highest with medium panel sizes (P management or access indicators. We found no panel size threshold above which quality of care suffered. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  9. Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Villeneuve, Paul J; Reeves, François

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for time-varying covariates. Risk of MI was 5.5% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 7.6) on days in the highest tertile of total pollen concentrations compared with days in the lowest tertile, and a significant concentration-response trend was observed (P pollen concentrations, with the largest risks being observed during May (odds ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) and June (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22), when tree and grass pollen are most common. Mold spore concentrations were not associated with MI. Our findings suggest that airborne pollen might represent a previously unidentified environmental risk factor for myocardial infarction.

  10. Modeling the behavior of an ungauged catchment using alternative datasets: a case study of the Caribou catchment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Geneviève; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Chesnaux, Romain

    2017-04-01

    The modelling of ungauged catchments is a long standing problem in hydrology and there is still no general consensus regarding the best practices to adopt in a variety of situations. In addition to flood and drought forecasting, there are other interests of modelling the hydrological behaviour of a catchment, whether it is gauged or not. For instance, estimation of groundwater recharge can be performed through an integrated modeling of the catchment. In this study, the WaSim model is used to model the hydrology of the Caribou River catchment located in the province of Quebec, in Canada. Since this catchment includes an important aquifer that is used both for drinking water, industrial and potential agricultural purposes, an accurate recharge assessment is important and is the long-term objective of the project. The WaSim model was chosen due to its very versatile soil sub-model features which allow to simulate subsurface flows and calculate the groundwater recharge as an output variable. Since the Caribou River is ungauged, alternative means of calibrating the free parameters of WaSim had to be implemented. The implementation of a calibration protocol that can get the most out of the few available data is a secondary objective and is the subject of this presentation. First, a « twin » gauged catchment is selected for its physiographic and hydro-climatic similarities with the Caribou River catchment. Streamflow series from this « twin » catchment are then transferred and used jointly with the dynamically dimensioned search (DDS) algorithm (Tolson and Shoemaker 2007) to obtain a raw calibration of the WaSim model parameters. This initial calibration can be further refined using two available datasets: (1) snow water equivalent data interpolated on a 10 km by 10 km grid and (2) a short and discontinuous time series of streamflow obtained using the land-surface scheme of the environmental multiscale atmospheric model (GEM) at Environment and Climate Change Canada

  11. Introduction history and population genetics of the invasive grass Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliant, Morgan T; Mack, Richard N; Novak, Stephen J

    2007-07-01

    The invasive annual Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is distributed in Canada primarily south of 52° N latitude in two diffuse ranges separated by the extensive coniferous forest in western Ontario. The grass was likely introduced independently to eastern and western Canada post-1880. We detected regional variation in the grass's genetic diversity using starch gel electrophoresis to analyze genetic diversity at 25 allozyme loci in 60 populations collected across Canada. The Pgm-1a & Pgm-2a multilocus genotype, which occurs in the grass's native range in Eastern Europe, is prevalent in eastern Canada but occurs at low frequency in western Canada. In contrast, the Got-4c multilocus genotype, found in the native range in Central Europe, is widespread in populations from western Canada. Overall genetic diversity of B. tectorum is much higher in eastern Canada than in the eastern U.S., while the genetic diversity in populations in western North America is similar between Canada and the U.S. The distribution of genetic diversity across Canada strongly suggests multiple introduction events. Heterozygous individuals, which are exceedingly rare in B. tectorum, were detected in three Canadian populations. Formation of novel genotypes through occasional outcrossing events could spark adaptive evolution and further range expansion across Canada of this exceedingly damaging grass.

  12. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 -- Frequency Response and Transient Stability (Report and Executive Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2014-12-01

    The primary objectives of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) were to examine the large-scale transient stability and frequency response of the Western Interconnection with high wind and solar penetration, and to identify means to mitigate any adverse performance impacts via transmission reinforcements, storage, advanced control capabilities, or other alternatives.

  13. Degrees of Closure and Economic Success in the Norwegian Labour Market: Field of Study and Non-Western Immigrant Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drange, Ida

    2016-01-01

    This article compares outcomes in the Norwegian labour market for non-Western immigrants and majority colleagues with professional or master's degrees within three different fields of study: health science, social science and natural science. Professions have a higher degree of occupational closure, which may entail that non-Western immigrants…

  14. Study on the mechanism of transport of heavy metals in soil in western suburb of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongyan; WANG Jinsheng; TENG Yanguo; WANG Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are paying more and more attention to the adsorption and transport of heavy metals in soil. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the characteristics of adsorption and transport of mercury in soils of different locations in the western suburb of Beijing. To characterize the adsorption mechanism of mercury in soil, adsorption isotherms were determined through a batch experiment. Soil column experiments were performed in saturated soil under steady-state flow at a specific water head. The breakthrough curves ( BTC ) for the tracer (bromine) and mercury were obtained after continuous input. Moreover, two solute transport models [ convection-dispersion equation model (CDE)and two-site non-equilibrium model (TSN) ] were used to simulate heavy metal movement in soil on a laboratory column scale. According to the simulating results, we explored which model is more adapted to simulate the movement of heavy metals in saturated soil in the western suburb of Beijing.

  15. A mini-review on econophysics: Comparative study of Chinese and western financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Ni, Peng-Yun

    2014-07-01

    We present a review of our recent research in econophysics, and focus on the comparative study of Chinese and western financial markets. By virtue of concepts and methods in statistical physics, we investigate the time correlations and spatial structure of financial markets based on empirical high-frequency data. We discover that the Chinese stock market shares common basic properties with the western stock markets, such as the fat-tail probability distribution of price returns, the long-range auto-correlation of volatilities, and the persistence probability of volatilities, while it exhibits very different higher-order time correlations of price returns and volatilities, spatial correlations of individual stock prices, and large-fluctuation dynamic behaviors. Furthermore, multi-agent-based models are developed to simulate the microscopic interaction and dynamic evolution of the stock markets.

  16. High resolution model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Torsten; Fennel, Wolfgang; Kuhrts, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The paper presents high resolution model simulations of transport, deposition and resuspension of sedimentary material in the south-western Baltic, based on an upgrade of the sediment transport model described in the work of Kuhrts et al. [Kuhrts, C., Fennel, W., Seifert, T., 2004. Model studies of transport of sedimentary material in the Western Baltic. Journal of Marine Systems 52, 167.]. In the western Baltic, a grid spacing of at least 1 nautical mile is required to resolve the shallow and narrow bathymetry and the associated current patterns. A series of experimental model simulations is carried out with forcing data for the year 1993, which include a sequence of storms in January. Compared to earlier model versions, a more detailed description of potential deposition areas can be provided. The study quantifies the influence of enhanced bottom roughness caused by biological structures, like mussels and worm holes, provides estimates of the regional erosion risks for fine grained sediments, and analyses scenarios of the settling and spreading of material at dumping sites. Although the effects of changed bottom roughness, as derived from more detailed, re-classified sea floor data, are relatively small, the sediment transport and deposition patterns are clearly affected by the variation of the sea bed properties.

  17. Maxillofacial Fractures: Its features and Occurrence in Western Uttar Pradesh,India- A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Swapnil S. Bumb

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The successful surgical treatment of maxillofacial fractures consists of early recognition of fractured site, etiologic factors and demographic patterns. In Western Uttar Pradesh, Road Traffic Accidents are leading cause of maxillofacial fractures followed by facial assault. Mandibular fractures followed by upper face fractures are the leading causes of maxillofacial fractures. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in western Uttar Pradesh, India. Material & Methods: This study is conducted at Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College & Research Center and associated Teerthankar Mahaveer Dental College & Research Center, TMU are situated on Moradabad –Delhi national highway. Most patients admitted here were referral patients from adjacent territory. Results: There were about 76% cases of mandibular and 24% cases of mid-face fractures. Among mid-face fractures Zygoma fractures constituted about 35.5% cases. Male to female ratio was found to be 3.5:1. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that RTAs remain the biggest etiological factor of maxillofacial fractures in (Western Uttar Pradesh India.

  18. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada: Pilot Study Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek Hall, Paul Greger

    2008-11-12

    The western red-tailed skink (Eumeces gilberti rubricaudatus) is a sensitive species that is on the Nevada Natural Heritage Program’s “Animal and Plant At-Risk Tracking List.” Information about this species is lacking, especially for southern Nevada. A pilot project was initiated in 2006 on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to (1) develop techniques for determining western red-tailed skink distribution, (2) determine if skinks are still present at historic locations, (3) evaluate habitat use by trapping in a variety of habitats, and (4) collect tissue samples for genetic analysis. Skink capture success was compared in trap arrays with and without drift fences. A total of 9 western red-tailed skinks were captured in 6,092 trap days (0.1%, 1 skink/677 trap days). No skinks were captured in trap arrays with drift fences, which suggests that funnel traps set near rocks or vegetation without drift fences is a viable technique for capturing skinks. This greatly reduces the effort and cost to capture skinks. Skinks were captured at one of the three historic locations. Captures occurred in a variety of habitats including springs, ephemeral washes, and dry rocky areas. Genetic analysis revealed that NTS skinks are part of the Inyo clade, and are most closely related to skinks from slightly further north in Esmeralda County, Nevada, and west into the Panamint and Inyo/White Mountains in California. Results from this pilot study will be used to develop a western red-tailed skink distribution study for the entire NTS.

  19. Forgotten antibiotics: a follow-up inventory study in Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulcini, C.; Mohrs, S.; Beovic, B.; Gyssens, I.C.; Theuretzbacher, U.; Cars, O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to update a 2011 survey, conducted on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group for Antibiotic Policies (ESGAP), studying the availability of old but clinically useful antibiotics in North America, Europe and Australia. This follow-up survey was performed in 2015 in 40

  20. Modeling land cover dynamics to assess the sustainability of wetland services: a case study of the Grand Lake Meadows, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodimu, O.; Al-Tahir, Raid

    2016-04-01

    The Grand Lake Meadows is an important part of the Saint John River wetlands that form the largest freshwater wetland habitat in the Maritimes (eastern Canada). Changes in the land cover and use around wetlands significantly impact their biotic diversity, alter the ecosystem, and affect their ability to support human needs. The goal for this paper was to undertake a detailed and spatially explicit inventory of local trends in land use and land cover changes in Grand Lake Meadows over a 20-year time period. This goal was achieved through classifying historical remotely-sensed images to map the state of land use and cover. Other available data were combined with this information to create a database that was used to investigate the causes and consequences of changes. The results demonstrated the flexibility and the effectiveness of this technology in establishing the necessary baseline and support information for sustaining the eco-services of a wetland. The study identified a 38% decrease in the wetland from 1990 to 2001, while there was 80% increase in the wetland area since then. The result will help managers to comprehend the dynamics of the changes, prompting a better management and implementation of LULC administration in the area.

  1. Assessing the Potential Stem Growth and Quality of Yellow Birch Prior to Restoration: A Case Study in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Achim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past silvicultural treatments have resulted in the high-grading mixed temperate forests of Québec, Canada. Despite recognition of this issue, the low occurrence of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton within current stands raises questions about the potential of the species to grow and eventually constitute a high-quality forest resource. The objective of this study was to assess this potential using tree characteristics, forest structure and additional site and climatic conditions as predictors. A total of 145 trees were sampled in two areas located in the same bioclimatic zone. Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix was chosen as an area where a restoration plan could be implemented, whereas Portneuf was selected as a reference. We used nonlinear mixed models to investigate which environmental factors are likely to influence the radial growth and stem quality of yellow birch sample trees. Our results suggest that topographic and climatic conditions, as well as the competitive environment of the trees, are important factors to consider in the evaluation of yellow birch production. Despite the limited occurrence of yellow birch, the potential for growth and quality was high in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area. For equivalent topographic, climatic, and competitive environment conditions, there was no significant difference in either radial growth or stem quality with Portneuf. We suggest that the economic interest of producing high quality timber should be used to justify the implementation of a restoration strategy in the Lower-Saguenay-Charlevoix area.

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Cognitive Model of Depression: Cognitive Experiences Converge between Egypt and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Dobson, Keith S; Adel, Ashraf; Hanna, Niveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Models of depression that arise in the West need to be examined in other regions of the world. This study examined a set of foundational hypotheses generated by Beck’s cognitive model of depression among depressed individuals in Egypt and Canada. Method We recruited 29 depressed and 29 non-depressed Egyptians and compared their results with those of 35 depressed and 38 non-depressed Canadians. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview, scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, and scores on the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire. Participants completed questionnaires designed to measure the frequency of negative and positive automatic thoughts (ATQ–N, BHS, and ATQ–P), and dysfunctional attitudes (DAS). Results Depressed individuals in both countries had significantly more negative thoughts about self and future, greater frequency of dysfunctional attitudes, and diminished positive self-thoughts in comparison to non-depressed individuals. Egyptians generally showed significantly more dysfunctional attitudes than their Canadian counterparts. Discussion The four hypotheses that were tested were supported among the depressed Egyptian sample, which is consistent with the cognitive model. Implications for the cognitive-behavioral model and treatment for this group of sufferers are discussed. PMID:27010706

  3. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting.

  4. Does woodland encroachment impact water?: An ecohydrology study of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and other semi-arid conifers in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, R. J.; Link, T. E.; Heinse, R.; Seyfried, M. S.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Klos, P. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid conifer species including western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) among other pinyon and juniper (P-J) species have expanded into grass and shrub-dominated landscapes in the western U.S. Despite the importance of land cover changes to hydrological fluxes in these water-limited systems, there have been few process-based ecohydrology studies of western juniper encroachment. Furthermore, many conclusions about the impact of P-J encroachment on streamflow are limited to several studies in the southwestern U.S. Our objectives are to: a) assess how western juniper will impact above-ground hydrological processes, b) assess how western juniper will alter below-ground hydrological processes, c) assess how changes in P-J cover alters deep drainage across diverse climates of the western U.S. To accomplish these objectives we used a combination of continuous lysimeter and soil moisture measurements, periodic snow surveys, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys, simulations with the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model and broad, spatially-coarse simulations with the atmosphere-vegetation-soil component of the HBV model. Juniper trees by both intercepting snow and increasing below-canopy snow melt caused tree wells to form throughout the winter. These tree wells increased snow redistribution to the base of the trees. Soil moisture in the interspace dominated by sagebrush, forbes, and grasses drops early in the season, but late season soil moisture changes are moderated by juniper. There is evidence that junipers continue to transpire soil moisture both late into the summer and at up to 3 meters deep. HBV simulations revealed that the potential for increases in deep drainage with a change from P-J to grass cover is principally controlled by the timing instead of the total precipitation. Simulations confirm previous empirical studies that landscapes in monsoon-dominated climates of the southwestern U.S. show negligible

  5. Supreme Court Coverage in Canada: A Case Study of Media Coverage of the Whatcott Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Anita Miljan

    2014-01-01

    Do Canadian media outlets report Supreme Court decisions in a legal or political frame? Starting with a review of how the media amplify court decisions, the study focuses on a case study regarding a freedom of speech decision of the Court. This study finds that although the media critically evaluated the freedom of speech case of William Whatcott, it did so from a legal frame. Unlike American research that shows the media increasingly interprets Supreme Court decisions from a political frame,...

  6. Upscaling reflectance information of lichens and mosses using a singularity index: a case study of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400–2500 nm offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This information may be valuable for present and future carbon balance modeling. Previous studies are based upon point measurements of vegetation moisture content and water table position, and therefore a detailed moisture status of entire northern peatlands is not available. Consequently, upscaling ground and remotely sensed data to the desired spatial resolutions is inevitable. This study continues our previous investigation of the impact of various moisture conditions of common sub-Arctic lichen and moss species (i.e., Cladina stellaris, Cladina rangiferina, Dicranum elongatum, and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Upscaling reflectance measurements of the above species were conducted in the field, and reflectance analysis using a singularity index was made, since this study serves as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research. An attempt to upscale current and new spectral reflectance indices developed in our previous studies was made as well. Our findings indicate that the spectral index C. rangiferina is to a lesser amount influenced by scale since it has a small R2 values between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, reduced slopes between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, and similar slopes between log reflectance and log resolution (α of two wavelengths employed by the index. Future study should focus on concurrent monitoring of moisture variations in lichens and mosses both in situ and from satellite and airborne images, as well as analysis of fractal models in relations to the upscaling experiments.

  7. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities.

  8. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants’ experiences with non-western immigrant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Francke, A.L.; Reep, M. van de; Manniën, J.; Wiegers, T.A.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the

  9. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants' experiences with non-western immigrant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Boerleider; A.L. Francke; M. van de Reep; J. Manniën; T.A. Wiegers; W.L.J.M. Devillé

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the

  10. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants’ experiences with non-western immigrant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Francke, A.L.; Reep, M. van de; Manniën, J.; Wiegers, T.A.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the

  11. Home Economics/Family Studies Curricula in Canada: Current Status and Challenges = Programmes d'etudes en economie familiale et sciences familiale au Canada: Situation actuelle et enjeux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterat, Linda; Khamasi, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Replicating a 1984 study, a survey of home economics/family studies coordinators in the 10 Canadian provinces found the following: home economics has expanded into grades lower than 8; required courses have increased; core curriculum has not changed radically; there is increased focus on family well-being; and there is a need to address curriculum…

  12. Studying protein-protein interactions via blot overlay/far western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    Blot overlay is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. This technique involves fractionating proteins on SDS-PAGE, blotting to nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane, and then incubating with a probe of interest. The probe is typically a protein that is radiolabeled, biotinylated, or simply visualized with a specific antibody. When the probe is visualized via antibody detection, this technique is often referred to as "Far Western blot." Many different kinds of protein-protein interactions can be studied via blot overlay, and the method is applicable to screens for unknown protein-protein interactions as well as to the detailed characterization of known interactions.

  13. Teaching Sociology of Education in Canada: A Comparative Study of the "Two Solitudes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the fields of sociology of education and Canadian sociological teaching. English and French Canadian sociology of education course outlines were systematically analysed in order to assess how national context, language and internal divisions influence the undergraduate teaching of sociology of education. The…

  14. Teaching Sociology of Education in Canada: A Comparative Study of the "Two Solitudes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the fields of sociology of education and Canadian sociological teaching. English and French Canadian sociology of education course outlines were systematically analysed in order to assess how national context, language and internal divisions influence the undergraduate teaching of sociology of education. The…

  15. The impact of a large boreal wildfire on boundary-layer conditions and carbon cycling in adjacent unburned areas: case study of the 2011 Utikuma Complex fire, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, R. M.; Thompson, D. K.; Chasmer, L.; Kljun, N.; Flannigan, M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal wildfire conflagrations have increased in frequency in the western boreal forest of Canada, with notable events in 2011, 2015, and 2016. Significant advances have been made in recent years in understanding fire-atmosphere interactions, with similar gains in the knowledge of carbon emissions and post-fire carbon cycling in forests. However, the focus of such studies is routinely on the burned stands themselves, with little attention to the adjacent forest whose boundary layer meteorology and carbon cycling may be impacted by smoke plume. We capitalize here on opportunistic eddy covariance observations of boundary-layer conditions and carbon cycling taken over a long-term monitoring site adjacent to an active wildfire in Alberta, Canada in 2011. Over a one-week period while the wildfire was burning near the footprint of the tower the turbulent structure of the boundary layer near the tower was altered with significant changes in friction velocity, air temperature, and vapour pressure deficit. Moreover, growing season net ecosystem productivity (NEP) decreased to almost zero largely due to reduced photosynthesis likely due to smoke-related reductions in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). While the `smoke event' caused a reduction in forest CO2 sequestration by 7 g CO2 m-2 given that the smoked affected area was 120 times greater than the area burned this carbon reduction was equivalent to 30% of gross fire emissions from the fire. Consequently, we argue that smoke related inhibition of photosynthesis via reduced light should be considered when investigating the net radiative forcing of boreal forest wildfires.

  16. Supreme Court Coverage in Canada: A Case Study of Media Coverage of the Whatcott Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anita Miljan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Do Canadian media outlets report Supreme Court decisions in a legal or political frame? Starting with a review of how the media amplify court decisions, the study focuses on a case study regarding a freedom of speech decision of the Court. This study finds that although the media critically evaluated the freedom of speech case of William Whatcott, it did so from a legal frame. Unlike American research that shows the media increasingly interprets Supreme Court decisions from a political frame, this study on Whatcott finds that the media focused on the legal arguments of the case. ¿Los medios de comunicación canadienses informan sobre las decisiones de la Corte Suprema en un marco legal o político? A partir de una revisión de cómo los medios de comunicación amplifican las decisiones judiciales, el estudio se centra en un caso práctico sobre la libertad de expresión de las decisiones del tribunal. Este estudio revela que aunque los medios evaluaron críticamente la libertad de expresión en el caso de William Whatcott, se hizo en un marco legal. A diferencia de investigaciones estadounidenses que prueban que los medios de comunicación interpretan cada vez con mayor frecuencia las decisiones de la Corte desde un marco político, este estudio sobre Whatcott demuestra que los medios de comunicación se centraron en los argumentos legales del caso. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2500102

  17. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Canada: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Our objective was to explore whether the link between discrimination and self-rated health status differed as a function of discrimination type, including discrimination based on ethnicity/culture, race, physical appearance (other than skin colour), religion, age, and disability. Methods A sample of 19,422 men and women aged 15 and older was included in this study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between perceived discrimination types...

  18. Physical Impacts of Climate Change on the Western US Electricity System: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie; Goldman, Charles

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of the possible physical impacts of climate change on the electric power system, and how these impacts could be incorporated into resource planning in the Western United States. While many aspects of climate change and energy have been discussed in the literature, there has not yet been a systematic review of the relationship between specific physical effects and the quantitative analyses that are commonly used in planning studies. The core of the problem is to understand how the electric system is vulnerable to physical weather risk, and how to make use of information from climate models to characterize the way these risks may evolve over time, including a treatment of uncertainty. In this paper, to provide the necessary technical background in climate science, we present an overview of the basic physics of climate and explain some of the methodologies used in climate modeling studies, particularly the importance of emissions scenarios. We also provide a brief survey of recent climate-related studies relevant to electric system planning in the Western US. To define the institutional context, we discuss the core elements of the resource and reliability planning processes used currently by utilities and by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. To illustrate more precisely how climate-related risk could be incorporated into modeling exercises, we discuss three idealized examples. Overall, we argue that existing methods of analysis can and should be extended to encompass the uncertainties related to future climate. While the focus here is on risk related to physical impacts, the same principles apply to a consideration of how future climate change policy decisions might impact the design and functioning of the electric grid. We conclude with some suggestions and recommendations on how to begin developing this approach within the existing electric system planning framework for the West.

  19. Gravimetry contributions to the study of the complex western Haouz aquifer (Morocco): Structural and hydrogeological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikri, Ibtissam; el Mandour, Abdennabi; Jaffal, Mohammed; Baudron, Paul; García-Aróstegui, José-Luis; Manar, Ahmed; Casas, Albert

    2016-03-01

    This study provides new elements that illustrate the benefits of combining gravity, structural, stratigraphic and piezometric data for hydrogeological purposes. A combined methodology was applied to the western Haouz aquifer (Morocco), one of the main sources of water for irrigation and human consumption in the Marrakech region. First, a residual anomaly map was calculated from the Bouguer anomaly data. The computed map provided information on the ground density variation, revealing a strong control by a regional gradient. We then used various filtering techniques to delineate the major geological structures such as faults and basins: vertical and horizontal derivatives and upward continuation. This technique highlighted news structures and provided information on their dip. The gravity anomalies perfectly delineated the basement uplifts and the sedimentary thickening in depressions and grabens. The interpretation of gravimetric filtering, geological and hydrogeological data then highlighted two types of groundwater reservoirs, an unconfined aquifer hosted in conglomeratic mio-pliocene and quaternary rocks, covering the entire western Haouz and a deep confined aquifer contained in cenomanian-turonian limestone and eocene dolomitic formations in the south. Combining piezometric and residual anomaly maps revealed that groundwater flow and storage was in perfect agreement with the structures showing a negative anomaly, while structures with positive anomalies corresponded to groundwater divides. The study of gravity gradient zones by contact analysis enhanced the existing structural pattern of the study area and highlighted new structures, mainly oriented N70 and N130. The results of this study present a common framework and provide a notable step forward in the knowledge of the geometry and the groundwater flow pattern of the western Haouz aquifer, and will serve as a solid basis for a better water resource management.

  20. Four years prospective study of the maxillofacial trauma at a tertiary center in Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Khadka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial trauma in the Western region of Nepal. Materials and Methods: All the trauma patients attending the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery in 4 years period at a tertiary center in Western Nepal were included in the study. The incidence, prevalence, age and sex distribution, etiologies and types as well as seasonal and daily variation of maxillofacial trauma were studied. Results: Maxillofacial trauma with male (71.55% predominance was seen. Road traffic accidents (RTA, 46.5% were the most common cause, and 41.65% of fracture cases due to RTA were under the influence of alcohol. Accidents were more common on the rural roads (38.9%, and majorities (43.3% were due to motorcycle accidents. They were more common on Friday (36.7% and in winter seasons (51.2%. The mandible fractures (65.85% were more common than midface fractures (53.58% and 19.44% of the fractures were combined fractures. Parasymphysis in mandible (32.16% and zygoma (39.09% in midface were the most common type of fracture. Conclusion: The increased incidence of maxillofacial trauma following RTA under the influence of alcohol noted in this study reveals the need for formulating preventive measures in the Western region of Nepal. Need to aware people to avoid drink and drive proper traffic management, prevention of carrying excessive passengers, especially on the rooftop of vehicles on the highway and disposal of out of date vehicles and timely maintenance of faulty roads is a must.

  1. Numerical studies of gas production from several CH4 hydrate zones at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Dallimore, S.R.; Satoh, T.; Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mallik site represents an onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulation in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. A gas hydrate research well was drilled at the site in 1998. The objective of this study is the analysis of various gas production scenarios from five methane hydrate-bearing zones at the Mallik site. In Zone #1, numerical simulations using the EOSHYDR2 model indicated that gas production from hydrates at the Mallik site was possible by depressurizing a thin free gas zone at the base of the hydrate stability field. Horizontal wells appeared to have a slight advantage over vertical wells, while multiwell systems involving a combination of depressurization and thermal stimulation offered superior performance, especially when a hot noncondensible gas was injected. Zone #2, which involved a gas hydrate layer with an underlying aquifer, could yield significant amounts of gas originating entirely from gas hydrates, the volumes of which increased with the production rate. However, large amounts of water were also produced. Zones #3, #4 and #5 were lithologically isolated gas hydrate-bearing deposits with no underlying zones of mobile gas or water. In these zones, thermal stimulation by circulating hot water in the well was used to induce dissociation. Sensitivity studies indicated that the methane release from the hydrate accumulations increased with the gas hydrate saturation, the initial formation temperature, the temperature of the circulating water in the well, and the formation thermal conductivity. Methane production appears to be less sensitive to the specific heat of the rock and of the hydrate, and to the permeability of the formation. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Predicting river water temperatures using stochastic models: case study of the Moisie River (Québec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Nedushan, Behrouz; St-Hilaire, André; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Bilodeau, Laurent; Robichaud, Élaine; Thiémonge, Nathalie; Bobée, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Successful applications of stochastic models for simulating and predicting daily stream temperature have been reported in the literature. These stochastic models have been generally tested on small rivers and have used only air temperature as an exogenous variable. This study investigates the stochastic modelling of daily mean stream water temperatures on the Moisie River, a relatively large unregulated river located in Québec, Canada. The objective of the study is to compare different stochastic approaches previously used on small streams to relate mean daily water temperatures to air temperatures and streamflow indices. Various stochastic approaches are used to model the water temperature residuals, representing short-term variations, which were obtained by subtracting the seasonal components from water temperature time-series. The first three models, a multiple regression, a second-order autoregressive model, and a Box and Jenkins model, used only lagged air temperature residuals as exogenous variables. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) for these models varied between 0.53 and 1.70 °C and the second-order autoregressive model provided the best results.A statistical methodology using best subsets regression is proposed to model the combined effect of discharge and air temperature on stream temperatures. Various streamflow indices were considered as additional independent variables, and models with different number of variables were tested. The results indicated that the best model included relative change in flow as the most important streamflow index. The RMSE for this model was of the order of 0.51 °C, which shows a small improvement over the first three models that did not include streamflow indices. The ridge regression was applied to this model to alleviate the potential statistical inadequacies associated with multicollinearity. The amplitude and sign of the ridge regression coefficients seem to be more in agreement with prior expectations (e.g. positive

  3. Lifetime report of perceived stress at work and cancer among men: A case-control study in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Weiss, Deborah; El-Zein, Mariam; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2017-03-01

    The association between perceived workplace psychological stress, over the entire work career, and cancer among men has never been assessed. This was explored in the context of a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada. 3103 incident cancer cases (11 types) diagnosed in 1979-1985 and 512 population controls were interviewed. Subjects described in detail each job held during their lifetime, including the occurrence of stress, and its reason. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between perceived workplace stress and its duration, and each cancer site, adjusting for lifestyle and occupational factors. Employment in at least one stressful job was associated with increased odds of cancers of the lung (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75), colon (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.15-1.98), bladder (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-1.81), rectal (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.10-2.10), and stomach (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.15). A duration-response trend was found for cancers of the lung, colon, rectum, stomach, and for NHL. Subjects reported changes in stress level over their career. Perceived stress was ascribed to several sources, including high demand and time pressure, financial issues, job insecurity, and hazardous conditions. Prolonged exposure to perceived stress at work was associated with greater odds of cancer at 5 out of 11 sites. While over reporting of stress by cases cannot be fully ruled out, these associations, if substantiated, would bear important public health significance. Prospective studies building on detailed stress assessment protocols considering all sources and changes over the career are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Forgotten antibiotics: a follow-up inventory study in Europe, the USA, Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Mohrs, Simone; Beovic, Bojana; Gyssens, Inge; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Cars, Otto

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to update a 2011 survey, conducted on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group for Antibiotic Policies (ESGAP), studying the availability of old but clinically useful antibiotics in North America, Europe and Australia. This follow-up survey was performed in 2015 in 40 countries among specialists from the pharmaceutical, infectious diseases and microbiology sectors in North America, Europe and Australia in order to assess the availability through usual marketing processes of 36 systemic antibiotics (addition of 3 antibiotics compared with the 2011 survey) selected for their ability to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria and their unique value for specific criteria. The questionnaire was sent by e-mail to national contacts belonging to ESGAP and ReAct networks. In all, 39 of the 40 countries participated in this survey. The number of available antibiotics differed considerably from one drug to another as well as from one country to another (e.g. 7 antibiotics available in Estonia, 24 in France). Overall, 25/36 selected antibiotics were marketed in 20/39 countries or less. From 2011 to 2015 (data available for both periods in 37 countries for 33 antibiotics), the number of available selected antibiotics increased in 13 countries and decreased in 17. In conclusion, despite the ongoing bacterial resistance crisis, the situation regarding the availability of 'forgotten antibiotics' has worsened since 2011. Urgent measures are needed to ensure better availability of these antibiotics on a global scale as a conservation measure to ensure sustainable and responsible use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. A methodology for evaluating environmental planning systems: a case study of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Meghan; Gunton, Thomas; Rutherford, Murray

    2010-06-01

    Sustainable environmental management is contingent on having an effective environmental planning system. A new methodology for designing and evaluating environmental planning systems is described and applied to a case study evaluation of the Canadian environmental planning process. The methodology is based on eight international best practice principles for environmental planning and 45 indicators. The research illustrates the benefits of the evaluation methodology in identifying how to improve environmental planning systems to achieve desired results. The methodology is applicable to a wide variety of jurisdictions. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. A Retrospective Study of the Clinical Burden of Hospitalized All-Cause and Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly A. McNeil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Routine vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended in Canada for infants, the elderly, and individuals with chronic comorbidity. National incidence and burden of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia in Canada (excluding Quebec were assessed. Methods. Incidence, length of stay, and case-fatality rates of hospitalized all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia were determined for 2004–2010 using ICD-10 discharge data from the Canadian Institutes for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database. Population-at-risk data were obtained from the Statistics Canada census. Temporal changes in pneumococcal and all-cause pneumonia rates in adults ≥65 years were analyzed by logistic regression. Results. Hospitalization for all-cause pneumonia was highest in children 70 years and declined significantly from 1766/100,000 to 1537/100,000 per year in individuals aged ≥65 years (P<0.001. Overall hospitalization for pneumococcal pneumonia also declined from 6.40/100,000 to 5.08/100,000 per year. Case-fatality rates were stable (11.6% to 12.3%. Elderly individuals had longer length of stay and higher case-fatality rates than younger groups. Conclusions. All-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates declined between 2004 and 2010 in Canada (excluding Quebec. Direct and indirect effects from pediatric pneumococcal immunization may partly explain some of this decline. Nevertheless, the burden of disease from pneumonia remains high.

  8. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  9. Influence of forest fires on climate change studies in the central boreal forest of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeo, C.; Beaty, K.; Hesslein, R.

    2003-09-01

    This brief paper indicates that forest fires may have short and longer term effects on runoff and thus, can influence trend studies on the response of watersheds to climate change. Twenty-two watersheds at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario were studied to view the impacts of climatic variability and forest fires on runoff. A roughly 30 year database demonstrated few trends in climatological variables and even fewer trends in runoff data at the 5% significance level. Daily maximum temperature increased by 0.053 °C per year, while precipitation in the months of February and March showed significant decreases. Total snow showed a significant decrease over a 30 year period at the 8% significance level. The Mann Kendall test for trend was applied to the runoff indices of 19 watersheds and it was revealed that only six exhibited trends. Of these, five had been burned during the test period. Virtually all burned watersheds showed initial increases in runoff, however, long term runoff trended lower in the burned watersheds, while the one watershed that was not burned showed an increasing trend. Forest fires alter the age distribution of trees with subsequent impacts on water yields in the short and longer term.

  10. Current Trends in Leisure Sports in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凯伦·丹尼贾克

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the current trends in leisure sports in Canada. Based on physical activity and sport participation levels investigation conducted by Statistics Canada and the Ca-nadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute,this paper provided an overview of the most recent findings on participation of leisure,sport,physical activity,and exercise of Canadians.

  11. Safety analysis of FOLFOX4 treatment in colorectal cancer patients: a comparison between two Asian studies and four Western studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Kenichi; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Lee, Po-Huang; de Gramont, Aimery; Goldberg, Richard M; Rothenberg, Mace L; André, Thierry; Brienza, Silvano; Gomi, Katsushige

    2012-06-01

    Oxaliplatin-based therapy, notably FOLFOX4 (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin), is a standard regimen approved globally for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, and as adjuvant treatment of colon cancer. As part of the Japanese submission for the adjuvant indication, the safety profile of FOLFOX4 regimen was compared in Asian and Western patients. A total of 3359 patients with colorectal cancer treated with the FOLFOX4 regimen were included in the analyses: 1515 from 2 Asian studies (Japanese Post Marketing Surveillance and Multicenter Asia Study in Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer with Oxaliplatin/5-FU/LV), and 1844 from 4 Western studies (EFC2962, N9741, EFC4584, and Multicenter International Study of Oxaliplatin/5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin in the Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer). Doses administered and safety parameters were analyzed by using common definitions and programs. Demographic and baseline characteristics were comparable between Asian and Western patients. Patients received FOLFOX4 for a median of 6-12 cycles, which ranged from 16 to 28 weeks. Median dose intensities of oxaliplatin and of 5-fluorouracil, bolus and infusion, were within the ranges of 33 to 36 mg/m(2)/week, 297 to 338 mg/m(2)/week, and 467 to 510 mg/m(2)/week, respectively. Most frequently reported adverse events (AE) included hematologic, gastrointestinal, and neurosensory adverse events (NSAE). The incidence of grade ≥3 neutropenia ranged from 37% (422 of 1134) to 52% (83 of 159) in Asian and 41% (455 of 1108) to 56% (144 of 259) in Western studies; of diarrhea, ranged from 1.4% (3 of 222) to 6.3% (10 of 159) and 11% (30 of 268 or 120 of 1108) to 14% (36 of 259); of NSAEs, from 1.9% (21 of 1134) to 4.4% (7 of 159) and 9.3% (25 of 268) to 19% (39 of 209); and of allergic reactions, from 0.6% (7 of 1134) to 3.1% (5 of 159) and 1.1% (3 of 268) to 3.0% (33 of 1108), respectively. The probability of grade ≥3 NSAEs and diarrhea was statistically significantly lower

  12. A study of the effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Aline; Lécuyer, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is a crash avoidance system found on many vehicles. Unlike air bags, which only help during a collision, ESC helps to avoid a loss of control that could lead to a collision by preventing skidding. ESC is designed to help the driver stay in control of the vehicle during an emergency manoeuvre, such as when the driver needs to swerve to avoid an obstacle. Our study is an effectiveness evaluation of ESC using crash data. The purpose of a Canadian evaluation study is to examine whether there is an issue with multi-vehicle crashes, and whether ESC is effective in Canadian weather conditions, i.e. on ice, snow and slush. Our results show that ESC is effective for all ESC-sensitive crashes (41.1% effectiveness) and its effectiveness is higher for ESC-sensitive injury crashes only (54.8% effectiveness). In particular, ESC is effective in the case of all multi-vehicle ESC-sensitive crashes (23.2% effectiveness) and of multi-vehicle ESC-sensitive injury crashes (28.4% effectiveness). ESC is also effective for single-vehicle ESC-sensitive crashes, both for all severities of crashes (18.6% effectiveness) and injury crashes only (49.3% effectiveness). The results of the study also show that ESC is effective in Canadian weather conditions (i.e. on ice, snow and slush). The effectiveness of ESC on roads covered with ice, snow and slush is 51.1% for ESC-sensitive crashes of all severities and 71.1% for ESC-sensitive injury crashes. ESC is also effective on dry roads (36.3% effectiveness for ESC-sensitive crashes of all severities and 46.6% effectiveness for ESC-sensitive injury crashes), wet roads (35.8% effectiveness for ESC-sensitive crashes of all severities and 49.5% effectiveness for ESC-sensitive injury crashes) and for both cars (28.5% effectiveness for ESC-sensitive crashes of all severities and 43.7% effectiveness for ESC-sensitive injury crashes) and LTVs (51.9% effectiveness for ESC-sensitive crashes of all severities and 69

  13. Key IT management issues in hospitals: Results of a Delphi study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaana, Mirou; Tamim, Haitham; Paré, Guy; Teitelbaum, Mari

    2011-12-01

    To develop an authoritative list of IT management issues faced by CIOs and IT directors in public hospitals. The ranking-type Delphi method, which elicits the opinion of a panel of experts through iterative controlled feedback, was used in this study. Data collection involved three main steps during which three panels of experts in Ontario (n=13 in rural hospitals; n=9 in community hospitals; n=8 in academic hospitals) provided their input about the key IT management issues in hospitals and their relative importance. Attrition rate was minimal; 28 out of the 30 experts who participated in the study completed all three phases of the survey. During the brainstorming phase, the responses from the three panels were consolidated resulting in a list of 36 IT management issues; eleven were overlapping between the three panels. In the narrowing down phase, 18 issues were retained in the rural panel; 20 issues in the community panel; and 17 issues in the academic panel. The top issues retained in this phase included: managing demand and expectations for IT services (76% of participants); having sufficient funds (69% of participants); recognizing IT as a key stakeholder in major hospital decisions (65% of participants); and implementation of an EMR (62% of participants). In the ranking phase, a moderate level of consensus was obtained for all three panels: W=0.41 (rural panel); W=0.54 (community panel); and W=0.43 (academic panel). Despite the differences in the preoccupations between the three groups, there were similarities on certain IT management issues. Besides having sufficient funds, three of the top IT management issues relate to the strategic positioning of IT within the hospital: managing demands and expectations for IT services; IT competing with other clinical priorities for scarce resources; and recognizing IT as a key stakeholder in major hospital decisions. This study is the first to systematically and rigorously identify and prioritize critical IT management

  14. Using UAV photogrammetry to study topographic change: application to Saskatchewan Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier Cardinal, G.; Demuth, M. N.; Kinnard, C.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers are an important source of fresh water in the headwaters of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and ongoing climate warming could reduce their future hydrological contribution. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs) are an emergent technology that allow studying glacial processes with an unprecedented level of detail, but their usefulness for deriving accurate topographic data on glaciers has not yet been fully assessed. In this perspective we tested the use of a UAV platform to acquire images at a very high spatial resolution (tracking techniques to the orthomosaics. Further, the dominant scales of topographic spatial variability were examined using a semivariogram analysis of the DEMs. Results show that UAV-based photogrammetry is promising to further our understanding of high-resolution glacier surface processes and to perform repeat, on-demand monitoring of glacier changes, but their application on remote glaciers remains challenging.

  15. In vivo facial tissue depth for Canadian aboriginal children: a case study from Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Manhein, Mary H; Listi, Ginesse A; Fournier, Michel

    2013-11-01

    This study examines facial tissue depth in Canadian Aboriginal children. Using ultrasound, measurements were taken at 19 points on the faces of 392 individuals aged 3-18 years old. The relationships between tissue thickness, age, and sex were investigated. A positive linear trend may exist between tissue thickness and age for Aboriginal females and males at multiple points. No points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 3-8 years old; seven points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 9-13 years old; and five points show significant differences in facial tissue depth between males and females aged 14-18 years old. Comparisons were made with White Americans and African Nova Scotians. These data can assist in 3-D facial reconstructions and aid in establishing an individual's identity. Previously, no data existed for facial tissue thickness in Canadian Aboriginal populations. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Observational Study Of The Pacific Western Boundary Currents And The Indonesian Throughflow by the CAS Strategic Priority Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The warm pool in the western Pacific Ocean has significant impact on the evolution of ENSO and the East Asian monsoon. Ocean circulation in the western Pacific Ocean and in Indonesian seas plays an important role in the interannual climate variations and predictability of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. A major observational program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is recently launched to study the western Pacific Ocean circulation and the warm pool to test these scientific hypotheses. The physical oceanography project called the "Western Pacific Ocean Circulation and the Warm Pool Variability" is by far the largest and the most intensive observational program in history in the western Pacific ocean study. In this talk, the background and scientific hypotheses of the project, the observational design in the western Pacific Ocean, Indonesian seas, and the eastern Indian Ocean region, and some preliminary results of the program will be presented. The talk serves to encourage more scientists to collaborate in the studies of the ocean circulation and climate in the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans.

  17. Should we use seasonnal meteorological ensemble forecasts for hydrological forecasting? A case study for nordic watersheds in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Rachel; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Perreault, Luc; Leconte, Robert; Guay, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Hydro-electricity is a major source of energy for many countries throughout the world, including Canada. Long lead-time streamflow forecasts are all the more valuable as they help decision making and dam management. Different techniques exist for long-term hydrological forecasting. Perhaps the most well-known is 'Extended Streamflow Prediction' (ESP), which considers past meteorological scenarios as possible, often equiprobable, future scenarios. In the ESP framework, those past-observed meteorological scenarios (climatology) are used in turn as the inputs of a chosen hydrological model to produce ensemble forecasts (one member corresponding to each year in the available database). Many hydropower companies, including Hydro-Québec (province of Quebec, Canada) use variants of the above described ESP system operationally for long-term operation planning. The ESP system accounts for the hydrological initial conditions and for the natural variability of the meteorological variables. However, it cannot consider the current initial state of the atmosphere. Climate models can help remedy this drawback. In the context of a changing climate, dynamical forecasts issued from climate models seem to be an interesting avenue to improve upon the ESP method and could help hydropower companies to adapt their management practices to an evolving climate. Long-range forecasts from climate models can also be helpful for water management at locations where records of past meteorological conditions are short or nonexistent. In this study, we compare 7-month hydrological forecasts obtained from climate model outputs to an ESP system. The ESP system mimics the one used operationally at Hydro-Québec. The dynamical climate forecasts are produced by the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) System4. Forecasts quality is assessed using numerical scores such as the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) and the Ignorance score and also graphical tools such as the

  18. Varicella vaccine for immunocompromised children: results of collaborative studies in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRussa, P; Steinberg, S; Gershon, A A

    1996-11-01

    Varicella vaccine in immunocompromised children was clinically evaluated in 575 US and Canadian children with leukemia in remission by the Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study. Most children had chemotherapy stopped 1 week before and 1 week after immunization. Steroids were stopped for 3 weeks (1 week before to 2 weeks after vaccination). Varicella vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and effective in leukemic children at risk for serious disease or death from chickenpox. The major side effect was mild rash in 50% approximately 1 month after immunization. About 40% of children who developed rash were treated with acyclovir. Vaccine efficacy was judged by the degree of protection after a household exposure to varicella; of 123 exposed children, 17 (14%) developed a mild form of varicella. The vaccine protected completely against severe varicella. Leukemic vaccines were less likely to develop zoster than were comparable children with leukemia who had wild type varicella. Thus, varicella vaccine, administered carefully with close follow-up, is extremely beneficial for leukemic children.

  19. A Study on Snowstorm Weather in Coastal Area of Western Antarctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yaorong; Xue Zhenhe; Xu Cong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, based on the observational data of 1995 in the Chinese Antarctic Great Wall Station the snowstorm is studied synoptically. It is found that there are two kinds of snowstorms with different physical characteristics and that the happening of snowstorm is always accompanied by a near-ground level inversion layer. The function of the inversion layer is analyzed, too. It is indicated that the strong ESE-wind type snowstorm is mainly caused by katabatic wind and gradient wind together. This idea is new and different from the general concept that there is no katabatic wind in the western Antarctic area.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas W. [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable

  1. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  2. Western Studies of Southeast Asian Islam: Problem of Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Islamic studies conducted in Southeast Asia Western observers during this tendency dominated framework which clearly separates between the teachings of Islam as a set of Islamic practices of living in society. They make the teachings of Islam as contained in the books as a benchmark to see if the Islamic community in this area or not.Such an approach would obviously not be able to capture and understand the reality of life in a Islamic society as revealed in the creative interpretation done b...

  3. Risk factors for obstetric fistula in Western Uganda: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Kafunjo Barageine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Two million women worldwide are living with genital fistula with an annual incidence of 50,000-100,000 women. Risk factors for obstetric fistula are context bound. Studies from other countries show variation in the risk factors for obstetric fistula. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for obstetric fistula in western Ugandan context. METHODS: A case control study comparing background factors of women with obstetric fistula (cases and women without fistula (controls was conducted in western Uganda. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stata 12. RESULTS: Altogether, 420 respondents (140 cases and 280 controls participated in the study. Duration of labour was used to form the product terms when assessing for interaction and confounding since it was one the most significant factors at bivariate level with a narrow confidence interval and was hence considered the main predictor. After adjusting for interaction and confounding, significant risk factors associated with development of obstetric fistula in western Uganda were: Caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 13.30, 95% CI = 6.74-26.39, respondent height of 150 cm or less (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.35-5.26, baby weight of 3.5 kg or more (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.15-1.99, prolonged labour (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.08. A quarter of the fistulas had resulted from iatrogenic complication during caesarean section. Compared to no education, post primary level of education was protective against obstetric fistula (AOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13-0.72 and there was no difference between respondents without education and those with primary level education. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons contribute to a big proportion (25% of fistula cases hence caesarean section being a risk factor in this region. Other risk factors include; prolonged labour, weight of the baby of 3.5 kg or more, respondent height of 150 cm

  4. Risk Factors for Obstetric Fistula in Western Uganda: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barageine, Justus Kafunjo; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Byamugisha, Josaphat K.; Almroth, Lars; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Two million women worldwide are living with genital fistula with an annual incidence of 50,000–100,000 women. Risk factors for obstetric fistula are context bound. Studies from other countries show variation in the risk factors for obstetric fistula. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for obstetric fistula in western Ugandan context. Methods A case control study comparing background factors of women with obstetric fistula (cases) and women without fistula (controls) was conducted in western Uganda. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stata 12. Results Altogether, 420 respondents (140 cases and 280 controls) participated in the study. Duration of labour was used to form the product terms when assessing for interaction and confounding since it was one the most significant factors at bivariate level with a narrow confidence interval and was hence considered the main predictor. After adjusting for interaction and confounding, significant risk factors associated with development of obstetric fistula in western Uganda were: Caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 13.30, 95% CI  = 6.74–26.39), respondent height of 150 cm or less (AOR  = 2.63, 95% CI  = 1.35–5.26), baby weight of 3.5 kg or more (AOR  = 1.52, 95% CI  = 1.15–1.99), prolonged labour (AOR  = 1.06, 95% CI  = 1.04–1.08. A quarter of the fistulas had resulted from iatrogenic complication during caesarean section. Compared to no education, post primary level of education was protective against obstetric fistula (AOR  = 0.31, 95% CI  = 0.13–0.72) and there was no difference between respondents without education and those with primary level education. Conclusions Surgeons contribute to a big proportion (25%) of fistula cases hence caesarean section being a risk factor in this region. Other risk factors include; prolonged labour, weight of the baby

  5. A Brief Study of Western Filial Piety--From the Perspective of Classical Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫奕锟

    2014-01-01

    Different from Chinese filial piety, Western filial piety hasn’t developed into an independent system, only with the meaning of filial piety infiltrating into the religious belief and religious culture. In this sense, Western filial piety bears a strong sense of logical thinking and religious belief, which has much to do with Western classical philosophy.

  6. A Brief Study of Western Filial Piety——From the Perspective of Classical Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫奕锟

    2014-01-01

    Different from Chinese filial piety, Western filial piety hasn’t developed into an independent system, only with the meaning of filial piety infiltrating into the religious belief and religious culture. In this sense, Western filial piety bears a strong sense of logical thinking and religious belief, which has much to do with Western classical philosophy.

  7. A study of the distribution and abundance of the adult malaria vector in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guiyun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sharp rise in the malaria mortality rate has been observed recently in western Kenya. Malaria is transmitted by mosquito vectors. Malaria control strategies can be more successful if the distribution and abundance of mosquito vectors is predicted. However, how mosquito vectors are distributed in space remain poor understood, and this question is rarely studied using spatial methods. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the distribution and abundance of mosquito vectors. To achieve this objective, spatial and non-spatial methods were employed. The data on the distribution of adult mosquitoes, and mosquito breeding habitats in a study area in western Kenya, and environmental variables were analyzed. Results The models developed using spatial methods outperformed the models developed using non-spatial methods. Houses close to locations where mosquito breeding habitats were repeatedly observed had more abundant adult female mosquitoes. Distance to high-order streams was identified as an effective predictor for the distribution of adult mosquitoes. Conclusion The spatial method is more effective in modeling the distribution of adult mosquitoes than the non-spatial method. The results of this study can be used to facilitate decision-making related to mosquito surveillance and malaria prevention.

  8. How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Lofters

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. RESULTS: There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1% than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3% or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%. DISCUSSION: A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support

  9. How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha; Slater, Morgan; Kirst, Maritt; Shankardass, Ketan; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1%) than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3%) or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%). A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support for equity-focused public policy, and knowledge

  10. Pharmaceutical sales representatives and patient safety: a comparative prospective study of information quality in Canada, France and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Lexchin, Joel; Sutherland, Jason M; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Wilkes, Michael S; Durrieu, Geneviève; Reynolds, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    The information provided by pharmaceutical sales representatives has been shown to influence prescribing. To enable safe prescribing, medicines information must include harm as well as benefits. Regulation supports this aim, but relative effectiveness of different approaches is not known. The United States (US) and France directly regulate drug promotion; Canada relies on industry self-regulation. France has the strictest information standards. This is a prospective cohort study in Montreal, Vancouver, Sacramento and Toulouse. We recruited random samples of primary care physicians from May 2009 to June 2010 to report on consecutive sales visits. The primary outcome measure was "minimally adequate safety information" (mention of at least one indication, serious adverse event, common adverse event, and contraindication, and no unqualified safety claims or unapproved indications). Two hundred and fifty-five physicians reported on 1,692 drug-specific promotions. "Minimally adequate safety information" did not differ: 1.7 % of promotions; range 0.9-3.0 % per site. Sales representatives provided some vs. no information on harm more often in Toulouse than in Montreal and Vancouver: 61 % vs. 34 %, OR = 4.0; 95 % CI 2.8-5.6, or Sacramento (39 %), OR = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.7-3.6. Serious adverse events were rarely mentioned (5-6 % of promotions in all four sites), although 45 % of promotions were for drugs with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) "black box" warnings of serious risks. Nevertheless, physicians judged the quality of scientific information to be good or excellent in 901 (54 %) of promotions, and indicated readiness to prescribe 64 % of the time. "Minimally adequate safety information" did not differ in the US and Canadian sites, despite regulatory differences. In Toulouse, consistent with stricter standards, more harm information was provided. However, in all sites, physicians were rarely informed about serious adverse events, raising questions about

  11. Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admission in Alberta, Canada: A Three-Step Procedure Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Kindzierski, Warren; Kaul, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Adverse associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI) are widely reported in medical literature. However, inconsistency and sensitivity of the findings are still big concerns. An exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine associations between air pollutants and risk of acute MI (AMI) hospitalization in Alberta, Canada. A time stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the transient effect of five air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5)) on the risk of AMI hospitalization over the period 1999-2009. Subgroups were predefined to see if any susceptible group of individuals existed. A three-step procedure, including univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and bootstrap model averaging, was used. The multivariate analysis was used in an effort to address adjustment uncertainty; whereas the bootstrap technique was used as a way to account for regression model uncertainty. There were 25,894 AMI hospital admissions during the 11-year period. Estimating health effects that are properly adjusted for all possible confounding factors and accounting for model uncertainty are important for making interpretations of air pollution-health effect associations. The most robust findings included: (1) only 1-day lag NO2 concentrations (6-, 12- or 24-hour average), but not those of CO, NO, O3 or PM2.5, were associated with an elevated risk of AMI hospitalization; (2) evidence was suggested for an effect of elevated risk of hospitalization for NSTEMI (Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction), but not for STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction); and (3) susceptible subgroups included elders (age ≥65) and elders with hypertension. As this was only an exploratory study there is a need to replicate these findings with other methodologies and datasets.

  12. Disparities in attendance at diabetes self-management education programs after diagnosis in Ontario, Canada: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauch-Dudek Karen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients newly-diagnosed with diabetes require self-management education to help them understand and manage the disease. The goals of the study were to determine the frequency of diabetes self-management education program utilization by newly-diagnosed patients, and to evaluate whether there were any demographic or clinical disparities in utilization. Methods Using population-level health care data, all 46,553 adults who were diagnosed with any type of non-gestational diabetes in Ontario, Canada between January and June 2006 were identified. They were linked with a diabetes self-management education program registry to identify those who attended within 6 months of diagnosis. The demographic and clinical characteristics of attendees and non-attendees were compared. Results A total of 9,568 (20.6% patients attended a diabetes self-management education program within 6 months of diagnosis. Younger age, increasing socioeconomic status, and the absence of mental health conditions or other medical comorbidity were associated with attendance. Patients living in rural areas, where access to physicians may be limited, were markedly more likely to attend. Recent immigrants were 40% less likely to attend self-management education programs than longer-term immigrants or nonimmigrants. Conclusion Only one in five newly-diagnosed diabetes patients attended a diabetes self-management education program. Demographic and clinical disparities in utilization persisted despite a publicly-funded health care system where patients could access these services without direct charges. Primary care providers and education programs must ensure that more newly-diagnosed diabetes patients receive self-management education, particularly those who are older, poorer, sicker, or recent immigrants.

  13. Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admission in Alberta, Canada: A Three-Step Procedure Case-Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wang

    Full Text Available Adverse associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI are widely reported in medical literature. However, inconsistency and sensitivity of the findings are still big concerns. An exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine associations between air pollutants and risk of acute MI (AMI hospitalization in Alberta, Canada. A time stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the transient effect of five air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5 on the risk of AMI hospitalization over the period 1999-2009. Subgroups were predefined to see if any susceptible group of individuals existed. A three-step procedure, including univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and bootstrap model averaging, was used. The multivariate analysis was used in an effort to address adjustment uncertainty; whereas the bootstrap technique was used as a way to account for regression model uncertainty. There were 25,894 AMI hospital admissions during the 11-year period. Estimating health effects that are properly adjusted for all possible confounding factors and accounting for model uncertainty are important for making interpretations of air pollution-health effect associations. The most robust findings included: (1 only 1-day lag NO2 concentrations (6-, 12- or 24-hour average, but not those of CO, NO, O3 or PM2.5, were associated with an elevated risk of AMI hospitalization; (2 evidence was suggested for an effect of elevated risk of hospitalization for NSTEMI (Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction, but not for STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction; and (3 susceptible subgroups included elders (age ≥65 and elders with hypertension. As this was only an exploratory study there is a need to replicate these findings with other methodologies and datasets.

  14. Water and Metasomatism in the Slave Cratonic Lithosphere (Canada): An FTIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, McKensie; Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Pearson, D. Graham; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Kopylova, Maya G.; Griffin, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Water in the mantle influences melting, viscosity, seismic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The role played by water in the long-term stabilization of cratonic roots is currently being debated. This study focuses on water contents of mantle minerals (olivine, pyroxene and garnet) from xenoliths found in kimberlites of the Archean Slave craton. 19 mantle xenoliths from central Lac de Gras, and 10 from northern Jericho were analyzed by FTIR for water, and their equilibration depths span the several compositional layers identified beneath the region. At both locations, the shallow peridotites have lower water contents in their olivines (11-30 ppm H2O) than those from the deeper layers (28-300 ppm H2O). The driest olivines, however, are not at the base of the cratonic lithosphere (>6 GPa) as in the Kaapvaal craton. Instead, the deepest olivines are hydrous (31-72 ppm H2O at Lac de Gras and 275 ppm H2O at Jericho). Correlations of water in clinopyroxene and garnet with their other trace element contents are consistent with water being added by metasomatism by melts resembling kimberlite precursors in the mantle approx.0.35 Ga ago beneath Lac de Gras. The northern Jericho xenoliths are derived from a region of the Slave craton that is even more chemically stratified, and was affected at depth by the 1.27 Ga Mackenzie igneous events. Metasomatism at Jericho may be responsible for the particularly high olivine water contents (up to 300 ppm H2O) compared to those at Lac de Gras, which will be investigated by acquiring trace-element data on these xenoliths. These data indicate that several episodes of metasomatic rehydration occurred in the deep part of the Slave craton mantle lithosphere, with the process being more intense in the northern part beneath Jericho, likely related to a translithospheric suture serving as a channel to introduce fluids and/or melts in the northern region. Consequently, rehydration of the lithosphere does not necessarily cause cratonic root

  15. District heating (DH) network design and operation toward a system-wide methodology for optimizing renewable energy solutions (SMORES) in Canada: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, A.; Boulter, R.; Church, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of implementing District Heating (DH) in Canada, with focus on the network design and operation. We selected for case study an urban area in Ottawa. First, we proved that the medium-temperature district heating (MTDH) (70 C Tsupply 90 C) had b...... in Canada. The paper discusses critical issues and quantifies the performance of design concepts for DH supply to low heat density areas. DH is a fundamental energy infrastructure and is part of the solution for sustainable energy planning in Canadian communities.......This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of implementing District Heating (DH) in Canada, with focus on the network design and operation. We selected for case study an urban area in Ottawa. First, we proved that the medium-temperature district heating (MTDH) (70 C Tsupply 90 C) had...... better energy delivery performance than high-temperature district heating (HTDH) (Tsupply> 100 C), decreasing the heat loss by approximately 40%. The low-temperature networks (Tsupply

  16. Documentation and dissemination of the sculptural elements of Canada's Parliamentary Buildings: Methodology development and evolution, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, C.; Gregg, J.; Kretz, S.; Chandler, C.; Hayes, J.

    2015-08-01

    Parliament Hill consists of four historic gothic revival buildings, which form part of the Parliament Buildings National Historic Site of Canada in the National Capital of Ottawa. There are more than 2000 masonry sculptural elements throughout the four buildings. Three of the buildings are in the middle of multi-year rehabilitation projects. Extensive Heritage Documentation is being undertaken to support various activities and conservation teams throughout the interior and exterior of the buildings while also serving as a key posterity records. One of the significant heritage documentation projects is the 3D digitization of the 2000+ heritage character defining sculptural elements. The Heritage Conservation Directorate (HCD) of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) was tasked by the Parliamentary Precinct Branch (PPB) of PWGSC to document these character defining elements. The sculptures vary in size from as small as 100mm in width to up to 2 meters in size. This project is in its third year and much has been learned and researched about the most appropriate and efficient means by which to document these elements. Although a methodology was in place to document the sculptures at the inception of the project, it has gone through several iterations in order to improve the gathered data, and in turn increase the efficiency, quality and speed of data acquisition. This paper will describe the evolution of the methodology, as well as the rationale for the alterations in technique. With over 600 of the approximate 2000 (heritage character defining) sculptural elements captured to date, the project is entering a critical phase where an efficient and effective method for sharing and disseminating the information to a wide audience is being explored and evaluated. The end result is intended to allow the client (PPB) and the general public a way to look at and interactively manipulate the viewpoint of each digital model. This will provide a unique opportunity

  17. The petroleum potential of the passive continental margin of South-Western Africa : a basin modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    The Petroleum Potential of the Continental Margin of South-Western Africa - A Basin Modelling Study The hydrocarbon potential of the continental margin of south-western Africa was assessed with means of a 2D basin modelling study of the hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation of the Kudu gas field. The basin model is based on well and seismic data from offshore Namibia and constrained by geochemical data on source rocks, natural gas samples and hydrocarbons desorbed from near-surfa...

  18. Uranium industry in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Current state of uranium industry in Canada has been considered. It is shown that in Canada, which is the major supplier of uranium, new methods of prospecting, mining and processing of uranium are developed and the old ones are improved. Owing to automation and mechanization a higher labour productivity in uranium ore mining is achieved. The uranium industry of Canada can satisfy the future demands in uranium but introduction of any new improvement will depend completely on the rate of nuclear power development.

  19. Kerosene-a toddler's sin: A five years study at tertiary care hospital in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Utsav; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-04-01

    Acute kerosene poisoning is a preventable health problem in children perceived mainly in developing countries. It influences socioeconomic and cultural status of country due to its contribution in morbidity and mortality. As kerosene is widely used as household energy source in India at rural areas as well as urban, it accounts for significant number of poisoning cases mainly accidental in manner. As there are only handful studies from India on kerosene poisoning in children, we planned this study to evaluate incidence of kerosene poisoning in Western Indian population and its clinico-epidemiotoxicological profile. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we collected data of all the cases of kerosene poisoning diagnosed during five years from 2009 to 2013 at Shri Krishna hospital situated at Karamsad, Gujarat state of Western India. We observed among total 42 cases, all victims were under 3 years of age. Evening in summer months, rural areas, storage of kerosene in household containers, inadequate parental supervision and door-to-hospitalization period emerged as most serious associated factors. Fever, cough, vomiting, tachypnoea and leucocytosis were commonest manifestations while pneumonia was the most common complication. Signs of central nervous system involvement, leucocytosis and vomiting were significantly correlated with pneumonia. Deaths occurred due to pneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia may reduce mortality and recommendations are made to reduce the incidence of kerosene poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  1. Canada Youth & AIDS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan J. C.; And Others

    This report contains the findings from a survey of over 38,000 youth in grades 7, 9, 11, and the first year of college or university, designed to obtain a cross-sectional perspective of the development of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Also included…

  2. A long term (1999-2008) study of radar anomalous propagation conditions in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi, A. V.; Mateu, M.; Bech, J.; Lorente, J.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a study of the radio propagation environment of electromagnetic waves prevailing in the lower troposphere of the Western Mediterranean basin is presented. Deviations from atmospheric average or standard radio propagation conditions (anomalous propagation or AP) can affect significantly the quality of weather radar observations and other telecommunication systems. This is particularly important when ducting or superrefraction is present and spurious echoes resulting from the interaction of the beam with the ground or sea surface may appear. These AP conditions occur mainly when temperature inversions or strong moisture gradients are present. The period covered in this study ranges from 1999 to 2008 and conditions were derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, using the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA25) dataset as initial and boundary data. From the WRF model, we use the temperature, moisture, and pressure fields with a grid length of 30-km horizontal resolution and 250 m vertical resolution to compute several indices such as the Vertical Refractivity Gradient, Vertical Modified Refractivity Gradient and a Ducting Index. Results obtained show that on the Western Mediterranean coast the most favorable conditions for superrefraction are found in summer, while the most affected areas are the Gulf of Valencia, the Strait of Gibraltar and the Northern Gulf of Lion. Additionally, a comparison with radiosonde data recorded in Barcelona (NE Spain) is also performed indicating an overall agreement between model and observational data despite a tendency to decrease subrefractive events by the WRF model.

  3. Study on Modern Plant C-13 in Western China and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成君; 陈发虎; 金明

    2003-01-01

    Organic carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C) is one of the important proxies in paleoenvironment studies. In this paper modern plant δ 13C in the arid areas of China and Tibetan Plateau is studied. It is found that most terrestrial plant species in western China are C3 plants with δ 13C values ranging from -32.6‰ to -23.2‰ and only few species are C4 plants with δ 13C values from - 16.8‰ to - 13.3‰. The δ 13C is closely related to precipitation ( or humidity), i. e., light δ 13C is related to high precipitation (or humid climate), while heavy δ 13C to low precipitation (or dry climate), but there is almost no relation between plant δ 13Cand temperature. Submerged plants have δ 13C values ranging from -22.0‰ to - 12.7‰, like C4 plants, while merged plants have δ 13C values ranging from -28. 1‰ to -24.5‰, like C3plants. It can then be concluded that organic δ 13C variations in terrestrial sediments such as loess and soil in western China can indicate precipitation changes, but those in lake sediments can reflect organic sources and the productivity of different types of aquatic plants.

  4. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  5. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  6. Developing Canada`s climate change strategy : electricity sector table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Canada`s climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent).

  7. Reduction in Clostridium difficile infection rates after mandatory hospital public reporting: findings from a longitudinal cohort study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneman, Nick; Stukel, Therese A; Ma, Xiaomu; Vermeulen, Marian; Guttmann, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The role of public reporting in improving hospital quality of care is controversial. Reporting of hospital-acquired infection rates has been introduced in multiple health care systems, but its relationship to infection rates has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether mandatory public reporting by hospitals is associated with a reduction in hospital rates of Clostridium difficile infection. We conducted a longitudinal, population-based cohort study in Ontario (Canada's largest province) between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2010. We included all patients (>1 y old) admitted to 180 acute care hospitals. Using Poisson regression, we developed a model to predict hospital- and age-specific monthly rates of C. difficile disease per 10,000 patient-days prior to introduction of public reporting on September 1, 2008. We then compared observed monthly rates of C. difficile infection in the post-intervention period with rates predicted by the pre-intervention predictive model. In the pre-intervention period there were 33,634 cases of C. difficile infection during 39,221,113 hospital days, with rates increasing from 7.01 per 10,000 patient-days in 2002 to 10.79 in 2007. In the first calendar year after the introduction of public reporting, there was a decline in observed rates of C. difficile colitis in Ontario to 8.92 cases per 10,000 patient-days, which was significantly lower than the predicted rate of 12.16 (95% CI 11.35-13.04) cases per 10,000 patient-days (ppublic reporting was associated with a 26.7% (95% CI 21.4%-31.6%) reduction in C. difficile cases, or a projected 1,970 cases averted per year (95% CI 1,476-2,500). The effect was specific to C. difficile, with rates of community-acquired gastrointestinal infections and urinary tract infections unchanged. A limitation of our study is that this observational study design cannot rule out the influence of unmeasured temporal confounders. Public reporting of hospital C. difficile rates was associated

  8. Three-month follow-up of Western and non-Western participants in a study on preconceptional ancestry-based carrier couple screening for cystic fibrosis and hemoglobinopathies in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, P.; Plass, A.M.C.; Henneman, L.; Bezemer, P.D.; Cornel, M.C.; Kate, L.P. ten

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study psychological outcomes, knowledge, recall and understanding of test-results, satisfaction, and reproductive intentions among 97 Western and 46 non-Western participants in a unique preconceptional carrier screening study for both cystic fibrosis and hemoglobinopathies in a multiet

  9. Vascular trauma in Western Australia: a comparison of two study periods over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jikol; Rao, Sudhakar; Sieunarine, Kishore; Woodroof, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) has become Western Australia's only designated adult major trauma facility since a previous study of vascular trauma was conducted in 2001 at the same facility. The aim of this study is to identify changes in vascular trauma patterns over the two study periods and compare these changes with international literature. All individuals presenting to RPH between January 2000 and December 2010 with vascular injury were identified from a prospective trauma database for this descriptive study. Injuries were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). The incidence of vascular trauma as a percentage of total trauma increased over the two study periods. The current 10-year study included 45 164 patients on the trauma database, of which 1205 patients (2.6%) sustained 1335 vascular injuries, an increase from 1% in the previous 5-year study at the same facility. Males aged 20-29 years were more frequently injured. Blunt trauma occurred more frequently than penetrating. The extremities, particularly the upper limbs were most commonly injured. The most common causes of injury for each region were as follows; motorbike crash (MBC), motor vehicle crash (MVC) and stabbing (neck, thorax and abdomen), MBC and MVC (lower limb) and piercing injuries (upper limb). Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality 43% (32 of 75) were highest for thoracic injuries, particularly thoracic aorta injury. Mortality rate has decreased. Vascular injuries in Western Australia are increasing. MVC are the most common cause of life threatening injury. Road safety interventions targeting young males are likely to reduce trauma. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Integrating an incident management system within a continuity of operations programme: case study of the Bank of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices.

  11. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  12. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-05-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  13. Clinical Study on Treatment of Incipient Diabetic Nephropathy by Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    bian; fang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Mogensen CE. Early diabetic renal involvement and nephropathy. In: Alberti KGMM. Krall Lp (eds). The Diabetes Annual(1/3). Amsterdan: Elsevier, 1987∶306-311.[2]WANG XB, SANG Y, KONG XM, et al. Clinical observation on treatment of non-insulin dependent type of diabetes mellitus accompanied with microalbuminuria by Tangshen capsule combining western medicine. CJIM(Chin) 1997;17(10)∶622-623.[3]LU RH. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications by traditional Chinese and western medicine. Beijing: People's Health Publishing House, 1998∶527-531.[4]Febre J, Balant LP, Dayerpa, et al. The kidney in maturity on set diabetes mellitus: a clinical study on 510 patients. Kidney Int 1982;21∶730-738.[5]David M, Neumann L, Lishher M. Plasma lipids and the progression of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus type 2: effect of ACE inhibitors. Kidney Int 1995;47∶907.[6]CAO SF, FANG FZ, AN XY, et al. Significance of microalbuminuria, blood and urine β2-MG and THP in diagnosis of early stage diabetic nephropathy. Chinese J Nephrology 1992;8(3)∶164-165.

  14. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-04-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  15. Gay and bisexual men's awareness and knowledge of treatment as prevention: findings from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Carter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Awareness and knowledge of treatment as prevention (TasP was assessed among HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM in Vancouver, Canada. Methods: Baseline cross-sectional survey data were analyzed for GBMSM enrolled, via respondent-driven sampling (RDS, in the Momentum Health Study. TasP awareness was defined as ever versus never heard of the term “TasP.” Multivariable logistic regression identified covariates of TasP awareness. Among those aware of TasP, men's level of knowledge of TasP was explored through an examination of self-perceived knowledge levels, risk perceptions and short-answer definitions of TasP which were coded as “complete” if three TasP-related components were identified (i.e. HIV treatment, viral suppression and prevention of transmission. Information source was also assessed. Analyses were stratified by HIV status and RDS adjusted. Results: Of 719 participants, 23% were HIV-positive, 68% Caucasian and median age was 33 (Interquartile range (IQR 26,47. Overall, 46% heard of TasP with differences by HIV status [69% HIV-positive vs. 41% HIV-negative GBMSM (p<0.0001]. In adjusted models: HIV-positive GBMSM were more likely to have heard of TasP if they were Canadian born, unemployed, not using party drugs and had higher CD4 counts; HIV-negative GBMSM were more likely to have heard of TasP if they were Caucasian (vs. Aboriginal, students, had higher education, a regular partner and multiple sexual partners. Among those aware of TasP 91% of HIV-positive and 69% of HIV-negative GBMSM (p<0.0001 felt they knew “a lot” or “a bit in general” about TasP; 64 and 41% (p=0.002 felt HIV treatment made the risk of transmission “a lot lower”; and 21 and 13% (p<0.0001 demonstrated “complete” TasP definitions. The leading information source was doctors (44% for HIV-positive GBMSM and community agencies (38% for HIV-negative GBMSM, followed by gay media for

  16. Temporally-resolved Study of Atmosphere-lake Net CO2 Exchange at Lochaber Lake, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, L. A.; Risk, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Lakes are carbon gateways with immense processing capacity, acting as either sinks or sources for CO2. As climate change exacerbates weather extremes, carbon stored within permafrost and soils is liberated to water systems, altering aquatic carbon budgets and light availability for photosynthesis. The functional response of lakes to climate change is uncertain, and continuous data of lake respiration and its drivers are lacking. This study used high-frequency measurements of CO2 exchange during a growing season by a novel technique to quantify the net flux of carbon at a small deep oligotrophic lake in eastern Nova Scotia, Canada, and to examine the influence of environmental forcings. We installed 3 floating Forced Diffusion dynamic membrane chambers on the lake, coupled to a valving multiplexer and a single Vaisala GMP 343 CO2 analyzer. This low-power system sampled lake-atmosphere CO2 exchange at several points from shore every hour for over 100 days in the growing season. At the same frequency we also collected automated measurements of wind velocity, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), dissolved CO2, air and water temperature. Manual measurement campaigns measured chlorophyll `a', DOC, surface methane (CH4), and CO2 flux by manual static floating chamber to confirm the automated measurements. The lake was a net source for carbon, on average emitting 0.038 µmol CO2/m2/s or 4.967 g CO2/s over the entire lake, but we did observe significant temporal variation across diel cycles, and along with changing weather. Approximately 48 hours after every rain event, we observed an increase in littoral CO2 release by the lake. Wind speed, air temperature, and distance from shore were also drivers of variation, as the littoral zone tended to release less CO2 during the course of our study. This work shows the variable influence of environmental drivers of lake carbon flux, as well as the utility of low-power automated chambers for observing aquatic net CO2 exchange.

  17. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前

    2004-01-01

    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  18. Typological analysis of social linear blocks: Spain 1950-1983. The case study of western Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guajardo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge that cities will need to face in the next few years is the regeneration of the social housing estates built during the decades of 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. One of the causes of their obsolescence is the mismatch between their hous-ing typologies and the contemporary needs. The main target of this study is to contribute to take a step forward in the un-derstanding of these typologies to be able to intervene on them efficiently. With this purpose, a study on 42 linear blocks built in Spain between 1950 and 1983 in western Andalusia has been carried out. The analysis includes three stages: 1 classification of the houses in recognizable groups; 2 an identification of the most used spatial configurations and 3 definition of their programmatic and size characteristics. As a result, a characterization of linear blocks is proposed as a reference model for future regenerative interventions.

  19. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Executive Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  20. Amphibian responses to wildfire in the western united states: Emerging patterns from short-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, B.R.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increased frequency and severity of large wildfires in the western United States is an important ecological and management issue with direct relevance to amphibian conservation. Although the knowledge of fire effects on amphibians in the region is still limited relative to most other vertebrate species, we reviewed the current literature to determine if there are evident patterns that might be informative for conservation or management strategies. Of the seven studies that compared pre- and post-wildfire data on a variety of metrics, ranging from amphibian occupancy to body condition, two reported positive responses and five detected negative responses by at least one species. Another seven studies used a retrospective approach to compare effects of wildfire on populations: two studies reported positive effects, three reported negative effects from wildfire, and two reported no effects. All four studies that included plethodontid salamanders reported negative effects on populations or individuals; these effects were greater in forests where fire had been suppressed and in areas that burned with high severity. Species that breed in streams are also vulnerable to post-wildfire changes in habitat, especially in the Southwest. Wildfire is also important for maintaining suitable habitat for diverse amphibian communities, although those results may not be evident immediately after an area burns. We expect that wildfire will extirpate few healthy amphibian populations, but it is still unclear how populations will respond to wildfire in the context of land management (including pre- and post-fire timber harvest) and fragmentation. Wildfire may also increase the risk of decline or extirpation for small, isolated, or stressed (e.g., from drought or disease) populations. Improved understanding of how these effects vary according to changes in fire frequency and severity are critical to form more effective conservation strategies for amphibians in the western United States.

  1. Compromised wounds in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Keith; Lawand, Christina; Perry, Sheril D

    2014-01-01

    Wounds are a serious healthcare issue with profound personal, clinical and economic implications. Using a working definition of compromised wounds, this study examines the prevalence of wounds by type and by healthcare setting using data from hospitals, home care, hospital-based continuing care and long-term care facilities within fiscal year 2011-2012 in Canada. It also evaluates several risk factors associated with wounds, such as diabetes, circulatory disease and age. Compromised wounds were reported in almost 4% of in-patient acute hospitalizations and in more than 7% of home care clients, almost 10% of long-term care clients and almost 30% of hospital-based continuing care clients. Patients with diabetes were much more likely to have a compromised wound than were patients without the disease. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  2. No difference in stroke knowledge between Korean adherents to traditional and western medicine – the AGE study: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Su-Yong

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective stroke intervention and risk reduction depend on the general public's awareness and knowledge of stroke. In Korea, where both traditional Oriental medicine and Western medicine are practiced, estimates of the general public's awareness and knowledge of stroke are poor. The present study sought to describe the inception cohort of the Ansan Geriatric Study (AGE study and to determine baseline stroke awareness and preferred medical treatment for stroke in this Korean sample. Methods A total of 2,767 subjects selected randomly from the Ansan Geriatric Study in South Korea were questioned about stroke. Their answers were compared with their sociodemographic data and other variables. Results Only 44.8% of participants correctly identified stroke as a vascular disease in the human brain. Sudden numbness or weakness was the most frequently identified stroke warning sign (60.2%. Hypertension (66.7% and mental stress (62.2% were most frequently identified as stroke risk factors. The contributions of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease to stroke were underestimated; they were identified as risk factors by 28.3% and 18.6% of participants, respectively. The predictors for poor knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors were similar irrespective of preference for Western or Oriental medical treatment, and included those with lower levels of education and inaccurate definition of stroke. Television and radio (40.3% were the most frequent sources of stroke information for both groups. Conclusion This study shows that knowledge of stroke is similar among Koreans with preferences for either Western or Oriental medical treatment and that misunderstandings about stroke are common among the Korean elderly. In order to prevent and manage stroke effectively, public health education regarding basic concepts of stroke is necessary. This should target those with a lower level of education and a misunderstanding of the

  3. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  4. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  5. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 – Frequency Response and Transient Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. W. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Shao, M. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pajic, S. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); D' Aquila, R. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.

  6. Policy Options for Private Forest Owners in Western Balkans: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersudin AVDIBEGOVIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Private forest owners start to play an important role in Western Balkans’ forestry and they are essential to the successful implementation of environmental policies. Little is known about how forest policy can support private forest owners in these countries and therefore this study was conducted though a qualitative method, based on personal interviews with representatives of 54 stakeholders that include state forest authorities and administration, private forest owners associations, forest science and research and private sector in Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The results show significant homogeneity across the region towards creation of independent interest forest owners associations based on financial support. Regression analysis identified stakeholder attitudes as significant predictors of policy preferences and also identified owners of production forest as more supportive of such policies

  7. A review of the studies on modern process for climatic proxies in north-western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghui SUN; Furong LI; Wenwei ZHAO; Yu TANG

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the modem process studies for four types of proxies(tree-ring,biologic indicators,physical proxies and geochemical indexes)in arid northwestern China for the purpose of better understanding their environmental indication for reconstructing paleoenvironment and palcoclimate.These proxies are affected by many variables in some cases,such as temperature,precipitation,pH,topography etc.,and their indicative meanings may become complex sometimes.For this reason,multiple proxies might be used to complement each other if conditions permit.Moreover,potential differences of each proxy should be taken into consideration when they were used.This paper indicates the application of each modem process proxy and their advantages and disadvantages,so as to give some references to fossil data interpretation and environment reconstruction in arid north-western China.

  8. Meiotic Studies in Some Species of Tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae from Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghbir Chand Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n=10 and Lactuca lessertiana (2n=2x=16. Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n=2x=10 and 2n=6x=54, Tragopogon dubius (2n=2x=14 and 2n=4x=28, and T. gracilis (2n=2x=14. The chromosome report of 2n=2x=10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability.

  9. Meiotic studies in some species of tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae) from Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Goyal, Henna; Singh, Vijay; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n = 10) and Lactuca lessertiana (2n = 2x = 16). Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n = 2x = 10 and 2n = 6x = 54), Tragopogon dubius (2n = 2x = 14 and 2n = 4x = 28), and T. gracilis (2n = 2x = 14). The chromosome report of 2n = 2x = 10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability.

  10. Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valério, P., E-mail: pvalerio@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C., E-mail: rjcs@fct.unl.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Soares, A.M.M., E-mail: amsoares@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Araújo, M.F., E-mail: faraujo@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Gonçalves, A.P., E-mail: apg@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Soares, R.M., E-mail: ruigusmao@hotmail.com [UNIARQ, Centro de Arqueologia da Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, Alameda da Universidade, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-09-01

    The Phoenician arrival at Iberian coastal regions had an actual influence on indigenous technology. A collection of coeval metallurgical remains and artefacts was studied by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM–EDS and XRD, to identify certain features of the production and utilisation of metal in protohistoric Western Iberia. The composition of artefacts indicates a prevalence of Cu–Sn alloys with low content of impurities (Pb, As, Sb and Fe) during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, while the composition of slags points to a smaller loss of copper in Phoenician smelting operations. Moreover, the amount of iron impurities in metal proved to be a helpful discriminator between indigenous and Phoenician-based metallurgies, showing that later alloys have higher amounts of iron. Besides, the indigenous alloys have higher tin contents that can probably be explained by the easier access to metal sources of local communities.

  11. Self-reported practices among traditional birth attendants surveyed in western Kenya: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Sherri; Konana, Olive; Liechty, Edward; Garces, Ana; Gisore, Peter; Marete, Irene; Tenge, Constance; Shipala, Evelyn; Wright, Linda; Esamai, Fabian

    2016-08-12

    The high rate of home deliveries conducted by unskilled birth attendants in resource-limited settings is an important global health issue because it is believed to be a significant contributing factor to maternal and newborn mortality. Given the large number of deliveries that are managed by unskilled or traditional birth attendants outside of health facilities, and the fact that there is on-going discussion regarding the role of traditional birth attendants in the maternal newborn health (MNH) service continuum, we sought to ascertain the practices of traditional birth attendants in our catchment area. The findings of this descriptive study might help inform conversations regarding the roles that traditional birth attendants can play in maternal-newborn health care. A structured questionnaire was used in a survey that included one hundred unskilled birth attendants in western Kenya. Descriptive statistics were employed. Inappropriate or outdated practices were reported in relation to some obstetric complications and newborn care. Encouraging results were reported with regard to positive relationships that traditional birth attendants have with their local health facilities. Furthermore, high rates of referral to health facilities was reported for many common obstetric emergencies and similar rates for reporting of pregnancy outcomes to village elders and chiefs. Potentially harmful or outdated practices with regard to maternal and newborn care among traditional birth attendants in western Kenya were revealed by this study. There were high rates of traditional birth attendant referrals of pregnant mothers with obstetric complications to health facilities. Policy makers may consider re-educating and re-defining the roles and responsibilities of traditional birth attendants in maternal and neonatal health care based on the findings of this survey.

  12. The Processing of Pitch and Scale: An ERP Study of Musicians Trained Outside of the Western Musical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bischoff Renninger

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study extends the efforts of Bischoff Renninger, Granot and Donchin (2003 to non-Western musical systems and focuses specifically on Event-Related Potential (ERP responses to scalar deviations within the Javanese pélog scale by groups of musicians trained within the Western and Javanese systems. The principal aim is to ascertain whether results found in previous experiments may be obtained cross-culturally. Participants include five subjects trained in the Western system only (control group and five subjects trained in both the Western and Javanese systems (experimental group. Tasks include identifying scalar deviations within the Western diatonic scale, identifying scalar deviations within the Javanese pèlog scale, and identifying target letters in a visual control task. ERP and overt behavioral responses are recorded. Results show significant differences between group responses to diatonic and Javanese scale conditions. Interesting results also arise in terms of how tones and intervals in the different scales are conceptualized by subjects in both groups. Control subjects especially tend to assimilate pélog scale intervals to intervals in the Western equal-tempered scale.

  13. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women’s inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; Stenus, C.M.V. van; Wiegers, T.A.; Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Spelten, E.R.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little research into non-western women’s prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women’s prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  14. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women’s inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; Stenus, C.M.V. van; Wiegers, T.A.; Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Spelten, E.R.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little research into non-western women’s prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women’s prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status. Me

  15. The Conundrum of Demographic Aging and Policy Challenges: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging andeconomic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.RésuméIl y a des analystes qui ont un penchant pour les analyses comparatives du vieillissement despopulations, puis en déduisent les implications possibles sur les politiques. D’autres préfèrentporter leur attention sur les différences dans les régimes de politiques, puis considèrent lesimplications sur le vieillissement des populations. Il est possible que les différences majeuresdans les civilisations de pointe ne soient pas apparentes dans le vieillissement démographique mais plutôt dans les différentes manières dont les marchés, les états, et les familles oeuvrent àredistribuer les avantages sociaux. Dans

  16. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Majorowicz; Vasile Minea

    2015-01-01

    Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the ...

  17. Assessing pasture quality and degradation status using hyperspectral imaging: a case study from western Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Lukas W.; Meyer, Hanna; Meyer, Nele; Reudenbach, Christoph; Bendix, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    Alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are suffering from pasture degradation induced by over-grazing, climate change and improper livestock management. Meanwhile, the status of pastures is largely unknown especially in poor accessible western parts on the TP. The aim of this case study was to assess the suitability of hyperspectral imaging to predict quality and amount of forage on the western TP. Therefore, 18 ground- based hyperspectral images taken along two transects on a winter pasture were used to estimate leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic-active vegetation cover (PV) and proportion of grasses. For calibration and validation purposes, chlorophyll content of 20 grass plants was measured in situ. From the images reference spectra of grass and non-grass species were collected. PV was assessed from similarity of images to mean vegetation spectra using spectral angle mapper and threshold classifications. A set of 48 previously published hyperspectral vegetation indices (VI) was used as predictors to estimate chlorophyll content and to discriminate grass and non-grass pixels. Separation into grass and non-grass species was performed using partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and chlorophyll content was estimated with PLS regression. The accuracy of the models was assessed with leave-one-out cross validation and normalised root mean square errors (nRMSE) for chlorophyll and contingency matrices for grass classification and total PV separation. Highest error rates were observed for discrimination between vegetated and non-vegetated parts (Overall accuracy = 0.85), whilst accuracies of grass and non grass separation (Overall accuracy = 0.98) and chlorophyll estimation were higher (nRMSE = 10.7).

  18. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  19. Bailarinas Exoticas, Striptease e Inmigracion en Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.

  20. Seed bank estimation and regeneration studies of Calophyllum apetalum Willd., from Western Ghats of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Prasanna Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the seed production, modes of dispersal and regeneration patterns of threatened tree species are crucial for the management of their genetic diversity. The seed bank estimation of Calophyllum apetalum was assessed from three different locations of Western Ghats of Karnataka, using two factorial completely randomized design. The results revealed the seeds are dispersed by hydrochory and mammalochory. The post seed dispersal, seed bank estimation studies yielded a high seed density near the base of tree trunks, but it was varied between the distances and locations. The results revealed seed densities are insignificant among the forest ranges and significant with the distances. The in-situ regeneration studies revealed an insignificant relationship between the mean regeneration among the forest ranges and the distances. Also, the ex-situ regeneration studies resulted an insignificant relationship among forest ranges and the distances from which the seeds were collected. The highest seed germination through ex-situ regeneration suggested it, as a best suitable method of conservation of this species.

  1. A Field Study of Plague and Tularemia in Rodents, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Japoni-Nejad, Alireza; Esmaeili, Saber; Darvish, Jamshid; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadi, Ali; Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin; Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Pourhossein, Behzad; Ghasemi, Ahmad; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Kurdistan Province in Iran is a historical focus for plague and tularemia. This study aimed at assessing the current status of these two foci by studying their rodent reservoirs. Rodents were trapped and their ectoparasites were collected. The genus and species of both rodents and ectoparasites were determined. Serological analyses of rodent blood samples were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for plague and by standard tube agglutination assay for tularemia. Rodent spleen samples were subjected to bacterial culture, microscopic examination, and real-time PCR to search for active plague or tularemia infection. During this study, 245 rodents were trapped, of which the most abundant genera were Apodemus (40%), Mus (24.49%), and Meriones (12.65%). One hundred fifty-three fleas, 37 mites, and 54 ticks were collected on these rodents. The results of all direct and indirect tests were negative for plague. Serological tests were positive for tularemia in 4.8% of trapped rodents. This study is the first report on the presence of tularemia infection in rodents in Western Iran. Since Meriones persicus is a known reservoir for plague and tularemia, and this rodent carried plague and tularemia vectors in Marivan and Sanandaj districts, there is a real potential for the occurrence of these two diseases in this region.

  2. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives

  3. Mecaster batnensis (Coquand, 1862), a late Cenomanian echinoid from New Mexico, with a compilation of Late Cretaceous echinoid records in the Western Interior of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Stephen C.; Cobban, William A.

    2017-03-01

    Echinoids are rare in the Upper Cretaceous of the Western Interior, where fewer than 60 unique occurrences are known to date, most of these represented by only a few tests or isolated spines. A notable exception is the Carthage coal field (Socorro County, New Mexico), where more than 200 specimens of Mecaster batnensis, previously referred to as Hemiaster jacksoni Maury, 1925, have been collected from the basal Bridge Creek Limestone Beds of the Tokay Tongue of the Mancos Shale. Prolific occurrences from the same beds are known from elsewhere in west-central and southwest New Mexico. Recorded originally from the Upper Cretaceous of Algeria, M. batnensis is a small- to medium-sized, irregular echinoid that is confined to the upper Cenomanian Euomphaloceras septemseriatum Zone in New Mexico. Measurements on 169 well-preserved specimens from two localities in New Mexico document a species that is, on average, 21.0 mm long, 19.8 mm wide, and 15.1 mm tall, yielding a width/length ratio of 0.94 and a height/length ratio of 0.72. Graphs plotting width against length and height against length are strongly linear. The Western Interior echinoid record spans the entire Late Cretaceous, although there are no records from rocks of Santonian age. Localities are spread from New Mexico on the south to Alberta on the north. Preservation ranges from coarse internal molds in high-energy sandstones to original tests in low-energy limestones.

  4. Status of Day Care in Canada: A Review of the Major Findings of the National Day Care Study, 1974. (Situation De La Garde De Jour Au Canada: Une Revue des Principales Constatations Sur La Garde De Jour, 1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet presents (in both French and English) the results of a 1974 survey which assessed the growth of day care services in Canada. Similar national surveys had been conducted in 1971 and 1973. Results indicated that the number of day care spaces and the number of children of working mothers in day care increased substantially from 1973 to…

  5. Recent studies on the Silurian of the western part of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyński, Piotr; Skompski, Stanisław; Kozłowski, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The paper summarises the effects of recent studies carried out by a team from the Department of Historical and Regional Geology of the Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw on the upper Silurian of Podolia (western part of Ukraine). The sedimentary history of the Silurian succession of Podolia is characterised by its cyclic pattern, with shallowing-upward cyclothems. In the traditional interpretation, the occurrence of stromatoporoid beds within each cyclothem marks the deepest (or most open-marine) sedimentary environment within the cycle. According to the results of recent studies, their occurrence is connected rather with a relatively shallow-water environment and with high energy phenomena. A substantial reinterpretation of the main sedimentary processes governing the deposition and facies distribution on the shelf is presented. Particularly, there are recognised and described high-energy sedimentary events repeatedly punctuating the generally calm sedimentation that prevailed in the lagoonal settings, some of which are interpreted as tsunami induced. Further perspectives for studies on the Silurian successions of Podolia are also discussed. The main problem is the precise correlation of particular sections that are scattered over vast distances and developed in similar facies associations.

  6. Discoursive Practice and Cultural Position——A Study of Introduction of Western Literary Theories:1993-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Specialty:Comparative Literature and World Literature Observing,examining and studying five theoretical periodicals of foreign literary theories in China,this dissertation aims at studying closely the introduction of western literary theories into China ever since the cultural transformation in 1990s.

  7. The Evolutions of Interest and Beliefs about Arabic as a Foreign Language: A Case Study on Three Western Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Hazem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate the evolutions of interest and beliefs about Arabic as a foreign language among three Western faculty members at an education college in United Arab Emirates. The study used four data resources which were: interviews, field notes, reflective journals and an information form. After four months of…

  8. Examining Culture's Impact on the Learning Behaviors of International Students from Confucius Culture Studying in Western Online Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…

  9. Unproven stem cell-based interventions & physicians' professional obligations; a qualitative study with medical regulatory authorities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzeczny, Amy; Clark, Marianne

    2014-10-14

    The pursuit of unproven stem cell-based interventions ("stem cell tourism") is an emerging issue that raises various concerns. Physicians play different roles in this market, many of which engage their legal, ethical and professional obligations. In Canada, physicians are members of a self-regulated profession and their professional regulatory bodies are responsible for regulating the practice of medicine and protecting the public interest. They also provide policy guidance to their members and discipline members for unprofessional conduct. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with representatives from six different provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada to discuss their experiences and perspectives regarding stem cell tourism. Our focus was on exploring how different types of physician involvement in this market would be viewed by physicians' professional regulatory bodies in Canada. When considering physicians' professional obligations, participants drew analogies between stem cell tourism and other areas of medical tourism as well as with some aspects of complementary alternative medicine where existing policies, codes of ethics and regulations provide some guidance. Canadian physicians are required to act in the best interests of their patients, respect patient autonomy, avoid conflicts of interest and pursue evidence-based practice in accordance with accepted standards of care. Physicians who provide unproven treatments falling outside the standard of care, not in the context of an approved research protocol, could be subject to professional discipline. Other types of problematic conduct include referrals involving financial conflict of interest and failure to provide urgent medically necessary care. Areas of ambiguity include physicians' obligations when asked for information and advice about seeking unproven medical treatments, in terms of providing non-urgent follow-up care, and when asked to support efforts to go abroad by

  10. The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarpour Morteza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. Methods A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. Results Six themes emerged: (1 A sense of being overwhelmed, (2 A multitude of health issues, (3 critical challenges in providing health care, (4 access to health and settlement services, (5 overall successes and (6 need for a coordinated approach to migration health. Conclusions For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems.

  11. The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Nancy; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Molinaro, Elizabeth; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Jafarpour, Morteza; Robinson, Susan

    2005-01-12

    BACKGROUND: In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. METHODS: A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. RESULTS: Six themes emerged: (1) A sense of being overwhelmed, (2) A multitude of health issues, (3) critical challenges in providing health care, (4) access to health and settlement services, (5) overall successes and (6) need for a coordinated approach to migration health. CONCLUSIONS: For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems.

  12. Examining Urban Expansion Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: a Case Study of the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area from 1975 TO 2015, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingfei; Zhao, He; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Urban expansion, particularly the movement of residential and commercial land use to sub-urban areas in metropolitan areas, has been considered as a significant signal of regional economic development. In 1970s, the economic centre of Canada moved from Montreal to Toronto. Since some previous research have been focused on the urbanization process in Greater Toronto Area (GTA), it is significant to conduct research in its counterpart. This study evaluates urban expansion process in Montréal census metropolitan area (CMA), Canada, between 1975 and 2015 using satellite images and socio-economic data. Spatial and temporal dynamic information of urbanization process was quantified using Landsat imagery, supervised classification algorithms and the post-classification change detection technique. Accuracy of the Landsat-derived land use classification map ranged from 80% to 97%. The results indicated that continuous growth of built-up areas in the CMA over the study period resulted in a decrease in the area of cultivated land and vegetation. The results showed that urban areas expanded 442 km2 both along major river systems and lakeshores, as well as expanded from urban centres to surrounded areas. The analysis revealed that urban expansion has been largely driven by population growth and economic development. Consequently, the urban expansion maps produced in this research can assist decision-makers to promote sustainable urban development, and forecast potential changes in urbanization growth patterns.

  13. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach.

  14. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  15. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Queiroz

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon.This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261 regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%, followed by moderate (26.8%, and severe (4.6%. The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47-4.55; p = 0.001], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18-3.29; p = 0.033 and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17-2.93; p = 0.008] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity.Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus, the mapping of scorpions fauna in different Amazon localities

  16. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  17. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  18. Case-control study of bladder cancer and drinking water arsenic in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Yuan, Yan; Bates, Michael N; Smith, Allan H

    2003-12-15

    Numerous epidemiologic investigations have identified links between high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water and cancer, although the risks at lower exposures are largely unknown. This paper presents the results of a case-control study of arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer in seven counties in the western United States. These counties contain the largest populations historically exposed to drinking water arsenic at concentrations near 100 microg/liter. All incident cases diagnosed from 1994 to 2000 were recruited. Individual data on water sources, water consumption patterns, smoking, and other factors were collected for 181 cases and 328 controls. Overall, no increased risks were identified for arsenic intakes greater than 80 microg/day (odds ratio=0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.57; linear trend, p=0.48). These risks are below predictions based on high dose studies from Taiwan. When the analysis was focused on exposures 40 or more years ago, an odds ratio of 3.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.43, 9.42; linear trend, p<0.01) was identified for intakes greater than 80 microg/day (median intake, 177 microg/day) in smokers. These data provide some evidence that smokers who ingest arsenic at concentrations near 200 microg/day may be at increased risk of bladder cancer.

  19. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions.

  20. A Mössbauer study of an ancient pottery figure (Western-Han dynasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Dai, Kaimei; Liu, Rongchuan; Hsia, Yuanfu; Jiang, Zanchu

    1992-04-01

    The grey pottery figure manufactured in the Western-Han Dynasty (175-118 B.C.) and the clay gathered from the same site of Beidongshan in Xuzhou have been studied by X-ray Diffraction(XRD). X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. They were simultaneously fired under the same conditions in different atmospheres at various temperature up to 1100°C. This study deals with the original firing atmosphere, original firing temperature and its provenance. The information mentioned above can be inferred from the method of the refiring pottery and the firing clay. The results of the original firing temperature deduced from both of them are in goodself agreement. It is found that the values of the Mössbauer parameters for the unrefired pottery figure are approximately the same as those for the clay fired at 950°C for five hours in a reduced atmosphere. The XRF analysis confirmed the locality of this pottery figure.

  1. Environmental Collaborations Between Indigenous Communities and Western Science: Case Studies and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    The study of coupled natural and human systems in a changing world can benefit greatly from indigenous perspectives, which have the potential to bring deep, placed-based understanding to complex environmental issues while promoting sustainable solutions to pressing socio-environmental problems. In recent years, scientists have begun to embrace indigenous knowledge and perspectives, but indigenous voices in the sciences remain relatively few. At the same time, indigenous communities face wide ranging and unique vulnerabilities to global environmental change on a variety of fronts, particularly where water resources are concerned. Given this situation, indigenous scientists often find themselves bridging both western scientific and indigenous communities, sometimes embodying the nexus in a literal sense. Here I reflect on this nexus from the perspective of an indigenous hydrologist collaborating with American Indian communities in North Carolina, which has the largest American Indian population of any state in the eastern US. Intertwining case studies of coupled natural and human systems illustrate some of the the challenges, complexities, and successes of ongoing collaborations with tribal communities and Native-serving organizations on water resource issues, environmental impacts of food and energy production, and broadening participation of American Indians in the sciences.

  2. A Microsimulation Model to Study the Interaction between Fertility and Union Formation and Dissolution: An Application to Canada and Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Spielauer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Union formation and dissolution are among the main determinants explaining variations in fertility. Compared to the rest of Canada, Quebec’s marital histories are more complex and its prevalence of common-law unions much higher. The objective of this article is to examine the role of marital behaviours on fertility by comparing different indicators of fertility and conjugal life that were obtained through microsimulation. Parameters of the microsimulation model were estimated from hazard regressions performed on the marital and fertility histories collected in two retrospective longitudinal surveys: the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS 2001 and 2006. Results show that the more complex marital histories of Quebecers can explain more than one-quarter of their fertility differences with the rest of the country.

  3. SHEAR Kit case study : ConocoPhillips Canada leverages technology for health, safety and environmental operations to improve program effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, J. [Pangaea Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the elements of an automated safety program that Pangaea Systems Inc. has provided to ConocoPhillips Canada Ltd. SHEAR is a web-based computer application that centralizes health, safety and environment documentation to enable better reporting and improved business analysis of management involvement; hazard identification and risk control; rules and work procedures; training; communication; and, incident and accident reporting and investigation. SHEAR collects findings from audits, site inspections, safety meetings, hazards and risks, and accidents. Its purpose is to identify, classify and better understand events and to develop a process for remedial action. This presentation described SHEAR's incident severity potential index, the incident reporting process, and the elements of the management system. 8 figs.

  4. Cause-specific mortality by occupational skill level in Canada: a 16-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjepkema, M; Wilkins, R; Long, A

    2013-09-01

    Mortality data by occupation are not routinely available in Canada, so we analyzed census-linked data to examine cause-specific mortality rates across groups of occupations ranked by skill level. A 15% sample of 1991 Canadian Census respondents aged 25 years or older was previously linked to 16 years of mortality data (1991-2006). The current analysis is based on 2.3 million people aged 25 to 64 years at cohort inception, among whom there were 164 332 deaths during the follow-up period. Occupations coded according to the National Occupation Classification were grouped into five skill levels. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios (RRs), rate differences (RDs) and excess mortality were calculated by occupational skill level for various causes of death. ASMRs were clearly graded by skill level: they were highest among those employed in unskilled jobs (and those without an occupation) and lowest for those in professional occupations. All-cause RRs for men were 1.16, 1.40, 1.63 and 1.83 with decreasing occupational skill level compared with professionals. For women the gradient was less steep: 1.23, 1.24, 1.32 and 1.53. This gradient was present for most causes of death. Rate ratios comparing lowest to highest skill levels were greater than 2 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide and cancer of the cervix as well as for causes of death associated with tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption. Mortality gradients by occupational skill level were evident for most causes of death. These results provide detailed cause-specific baseline indicators not previously available for Canada.

  5. Acceptance of cancer by women after mastectomy in Western Pomerania region – preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lewandowska-Abucewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is the most common cancer that women can suffer from. Most often it develops between 50 and 80 year of life. Many women adapt to the new situation, but a large group cannot adapt and reconcile with the disease. The bigger acceptation of a disease, the better adaptation and smaller feeling of discomfort. Objectives. The aim of this thesis was to check the degree of acceptance of cancer among women after mastectomy. Material and methods . The study was conducted among 60 women after mastectomy in Western Pomerania. The study was entirely voluntary and anonymous, the authors obtained the written, informed consent from each person to participate in the studies and each person was informed of the aim. The study used an anonymous questionnaire containing questions about demographics and The Scale of Disease Acceptance in adaptation of Z. Juczyński. The study was made after acceptance of Bioethics Commission of Westpomeranian Medical University, getting number KB-0012/97/14. Results . The average age of women is 62.3 years. 25 (42% of the women received a high level of acceptance of the disease, 18 (30% the average, and 17 (28% of women low level of acceptance. 22 (37% of the respondents have no problem adapting to the limitations imposed by the disease. 24 (40% women feel needed, 30 (50% of respondents believe that they are not a problem to family and friends. 19 (32% amazons feel a full-fledged human being despite the illness. Conclusions . Analysis of the research material revealed that nearly half of the respondents achieved a high level of acceptance of the disease, which creates a sense of security and control over their lives.

  6. Malaria mosquito control using edible fish in western Kenya: preliminary findings of a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omlin Francois X

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological control methods are once again being given much research focus for malaria vector control. This is largely due to the emerging threat of strong resistance to pesticides. Larvivorous fish have been used for over 100 years in mosquito control and many species have proved effective. In the western Kenyan highlands the larvivorous fish Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes: Cichlidae (formerly Tilapia nilotica is commonly farmed and eaten but has not been previously tested in the field for malaria mosquito control. Methods This fish was introduced into abandoned fishponds at an altitude of 1,880 m and the effect measured over six months on the numbers of mosquito immatures. For comparison an untreated control pond was used. During this time, all ponds were regularly cleared of emergent vegetation and fish re-stocking was not needed. Significant autocorrelation was removed from the time series data, and t-tests were used to investigate within a pond and within a mosquito type any differences before and after the introduction of O. niloticus. Mulla's formula was also used on the raw data to calculate the percentage reduction of the mosquito larvae. Results After O. niloticus introduction, mosquito densities immediately dropped in the treated ponds but increased in the control pond. This increase was apparently due to climatic factors. Mulla's formula was applied which corrects for that natural tendency to increase. The results showed that after 15 weeks the fish caused a more than 94% reduction in both Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae in the treated ponds, and more than 75% reduction in culicine mosquitoes. There was a highly significantly reduction in A. gambiae s.l. numbers when compared to pre-treatment levels. Conclusion This study reports the first field trial data on O. niloticus for malaria mosquito control and shows that this species, already a popular food fish in western Kenya

  7. Biogeochemistry of Lakes in Western Papua, Indonesia - First Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Nomosatryo, S.; Henny, C.; Kopalit, H.

    2016-12-01

    Despite years of exploration for mineral and hydrocarbon resources, the lakes of Western Papua have received very little attention from a limnogeologic perspective. In some cases not even the maximum water depth of the lakes is published. The only research carried out so far focused on the fish and invertebrate fauna of the lakes, because the macrofauna of Papuan Lakes is significantly different from other islands of western Indonesia. Most lakes harbor numerous endemic species. We carried out a first limnogeologic pilot campaign in spring 2016 to measure water column profiles and take short (max 80 cm long) sediment cores.Lake Sentani is seated in Mesozoic mafic bedrock and consists of four separate basins with maximum water depths of 30 to 40 m. Three basins are connected by shallow sills and one by a natural canal. Although all four basins share almost identical surface water chemistry and exhibit sub- to anoxic bottom waters, each basin has its distinct water column stratification and sediment geochemistry. Despite its coastal location and minimal elevation we could not identify an influx of seawater into the lake. Lake Ayamaru is located further inland on a densely forested karstified carbonate platform. The lake level has dropped significantly in recent years due to water loss into the karst, further reduction of open water surface is caused by massive growth of Pistia. Currently the lake has a maximum depth of around 2 m. Its sediment is mainly composed of carbonate minerals and methane saturated. Due to the carbonate bedrock the lake is highly alkaline (up to 20 meq/L) despite its very low salinity. The initial analyses show that these lakes offer unique biogeochemical conditions that require further in-depth studies.Our research will expand to lakes Anggi Giji and Anggi Gida, which are at almost 2000 m elevation. They have maximum depths of around 200 m and much colder surface waters (12-20°C) compared to the other two lakes that have about 30

  8. Perceptions of immunization information systems for collecting pandemic H1N1 immunization data within Canada's public health community: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidebrecht Christine L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization information systems (IISs are electronic registries used to monitor individual vaccination status and assess vaccine coverage. IISs are currently not widely used across Canada, where health jurisdictions employ a range of approaches to capture influenza immunization information. Conducted in advance of the 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign, the objectives of this study were to understand the perceived value of individual-level data and IISs for influenza control, identify ideal system functions, and explore barriers to implementation. Methods In July and August 2009, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants engaged in vaccine delivery and/or pandemic planning at regional, provincial/territorial and federal levels across Canada. Key informants were recruited using a combination of convenience and snowball sampling methodologies. Qualitative analysis was used to extract themes from interview content. Results Patient management, assessment of vaccine coverage, and evaluation of safety and effectiveness were identified as public health priorities that would be achieved in a more timely manner, and with greater accuracy, through the use of an IIS. Features described as ideal included system flexibility, rapid data entry, and universality. Financial and human resource constraints as well as coordination between immunization providers were expressed as barriers to implementation. Conclusions IISs were perceived as valuable by key informants for strengthening management capacity and improving evaluation of both seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination campaigns. However, certain implementation restrictions may need to be overcome for these benefits to be achieved.

  9. Recent trends and variability in river discharge across northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Stephen J.; Stadnyk, Tricia A.; MacDonald, Matthew K.; Gauli-Sharma, Bunu

    2016-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of the observed inter-annual variability and inter-decadal trends in river discharge across northern Canada for 1964-2013. The 42 rivers chosen for this study span a combined gauged area of 5.26 × 106 km2 and are selected based on data availability and quality, gauged area and record length. Inter-annual variability in river discharge is greatest for the eastern Arctic Ocean (coefficient of variation, CV = 16 %) due to the Caniapiscau River diversion into the La Grande Rivière system for enhanced hydropower production. Variability is lowest for the study area as a whole (CV = 7 %). Based on the Mann-Kendall test (MKT), no significant (p > 0.05) trend in annual discharge from 1964 to 2013 is observed in the Bering Sea, western Arctic Ocean, western Hudson and James Bay, and Labrador Sea; for northern Canada as a whole, however, a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decline of 102.8 km3 25 yr-1 in discharge occurs over the first half of the study period followed by a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase of 208.8 km3 25 yr-1 in the latter half. Increasing (decreasing) trends in river discharge to the eastern Hudson and James Bay (eastern Arctic Ocean) are largely explained by the Caniapiscau diversion to the La Grande Rivière system. Strong regional variations in seasonal trends of river discharge are observed, with overall winter (summer) flows increasing (decreasing, with the exception of the most recent decade) partly due to flow regulation and storage for enhanced hydropower production along the Hudson and James Bay, the eastern Arctic Ocean and Labrador Sea. Flow regulation also suppresses the natural variability of river discharge, particularly during cold seasons.

  10. "Being flexible and creative": a qualitative study on maternity care assistants' experiences with non-Western immigrant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha W Boerleider

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the baby's grandmother as care-giver in the postnatal period. However, not much attention has been paid in existing literature to postnatal care professionals' approaches to these issues. Our main objective was to gain insight into how Dutch postnatal care providers--'maternity care assistants' (MCA--address issues encountered when providing care for non-western women. METHODS: A generic qualitative research approach was used. Two researchers interviewed fifteen MCAs individually, analysing the interview material separately and then comparing and discussing their results. Analytical codes were organised into main themes and subthemes. RESULTS: MCAs perceive caring for non-western women as interesting and challenging, but sometimes difficult too. To guarantee the health and safety of mother and baby, they have adopted flexible and creative approaches to address issues concerning traditional practices, socioeconomic status and communication. Furthermore, they employ several other strategies to establish relationships with non-western clients and their families, improve women's knowledge of the maternity care system and give health education. CONCLUSION: Provision of postnatal care to non-western clients may require special skills and measures. The quality of care for non-western clients might be improved by including these skills in education and retraining programmes for postnatal care providers on top of factual knowledge about traditional practices.

  11. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  12. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  13. An investigation of the auditory perception of western lowland gorillas in an enrichment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Jake S

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has highlighted the varied effects of auditory enrichment on different captive animals. This study investigated how manipulating musical components can influence the behavior of a group of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bristol Zoo. The gorillas were observed during exposure to classical music, rock-and-roll music, and rainforest sounds. The two music conditions were modified to create five further conditions: unmanipulated, decreased pitch, increased pitch, decreased tempo, and increased tempo. We compared the prevalence of activity, anxiety, and social behaviors between the standard conditions. We also compared the prevalence of each of these behaviors across the manipulated conditions of each type of music independently and collectively. Control observations with no sound exposure were regularly scheduled between the observations of the 12 auditory conditions. The results suggest that naturalistic rainforest sounds had no influence on the anxiety of captive gorillas, contrary to past research. The tempo of music appears to be significantly associated with activity levels among this group, and social behavior may be affected by pitch. Low tempo music also may be effective at reducing anxiety behavior in captive gorillas. Regulated auditory enrichment may provide effective means of calming gorillas, or for facilitating active behavior. Zoo Biol. 35:398-408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Vessel traffic safety in busy waterways: A case study of accidents in western shenzhen port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, J M; Chen, P F; He, Y X; Yip, Tsz Leung; Li, W H; Tang, J; Zhang, H Z

    2016-08-03

    Throughout the world, busy waterways near large ports witness heavy vessel traffic in recent decades. The waterways are characterized by high risk in terms of loss of life, property, and pollution to environment. To facilitate maritime safety management with satisfactory efficiency and efficacy, the authors propose a framework of safety indexes to evaluate the risk level in busy waterways according to the accident severity, fatality rate and special indicators of maritime transportation. The safety indexes consist of Safety Evaluation Index (SEI) and Safety Warning Index (SWI), and are derived from the proposed risk criteria of Chinese vessel traffic. As a case study, data on vessel traffic accidents reported in the Western Shenzhen Port, South China from 1995 to 2015 are analyzed. The actual risk level of this area during the period is calculated under the framework. The implementation of the safety indexes indicate that the risk criteria and safety indexes are practicable and effective for the vessel traffic management. The methodology based on long-term accident data can significantly support the risk analysis in the macroscopic perspective for busy ports and waterways, such that SWI can act as threshold to trigger actions, while SEI can act as an indicator to measure safety status.

  15. Palaeointensity and palaeomagnetic study of Cretaceous and Palaeocene rocks from Western Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Bakhmutov, V. G.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.; Shpyra, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    A combined palaeodirectional and palaeointensity study of a representative collection of plutonic rocks from the Antarctic Peninsula batholith from the western part of the Antarctic Peninsula, near the Ukrainian Antarctic base 'Academik Vernadsky' were carried out. Petrographically, the collection includes gabbros, diorites and quartz diorites, tonalities, granodiorites and granites. The ages of igneous complex emplacement vary from 50 to 117 Ma with most of the rocks belonging to the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. The characteristic remanent magnetizations were isolated by stepwise thermal demagnetization over the temperature interval 440-590°C and their in