WorldWideScience

Sample records for western boundary current

  1. The western boundary current of the seasonal subtropical gyre in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Nampoothiri, G.

    , and monthly mean wind stress, we propose that the poleward current is the western boundary current of a seasonal anticyclonic subtropical gyre which forms in the Bay during January, is best developed during March-April, and decays by June. The gyre...

  2. Lagrangian Observations of the Deep Western Boundary Currents in the North Pacific During KERE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riser, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    .... This study resulted from the observation that numerical model solutions of upper ocean flows in the western Pacific often appear to depend on the state of the deep ocean flow near the western boundary...

  3. Weak Thermocline Mixing in the North Pacific Low-Latitude Western Boundary Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyu; Lian, Qiang; Zhang, Fangtao; Wang, Lei; Li, Mingming; Bai, Xiaolin; Wang, Jianing; Wang, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Despite its potential importance in the global climate system, mixing properties of the North Pacific low-latitude western boundary current system (LLWBC) remained unsampled until very recently. We report here on the first measurements of turbulence microstructure associated with these currents, made in the western boundary region of the tropical North Pacific east of the Philippines. The results suggest that thermocline mixing in the North Pacific LLWBC is generally weak with the diapycnal diffusivity κρ˜O(10-6) m2 s-1. This is consistent with predictions from internal wave-wave interaction theory that mixing due to internal wave breaking is significantly reduced at low latitudes. Enhanced mixing is found to be associated with a permanent cyclonic eddy, the Mindanao Eddy, but mainly at its south and north flanks. There, κρ is elevated by an order of magnitude due to eddy-induced geostrophic shear. Mixing in the eddy core is at the background level with no indication of enhancement.

  4. Monitoring the deep western boundary current in the western North Pacific by echo intensity measured with lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Kanae; Nagano, Akira

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation of iron and manganese ions is predominant in the oxygen-rich deep western boundary current (DWBC) within the Pacific Ocean. By the faster removal of particulate iron hydroxide and manganese oxide, densities of the particulate matters are considered to be lower in the DWBC than the interior region. To detect the density variation of suspended particles between the DWBC and interior regions, we analyzed echo intensity (EI) measured in the western North Pacific by hydrographic casts with a 300 kHz lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) in a whole water column. At depths greater than 3000 m ( 3000 dbar), EI is almost uniformly low between 12°N and 30°N but peaks sharply from 30°N to 35°N to a maximum north of 35°N. EI is found to be anomalously low in the DWBC compared to the background distribution. The DWBC pathways are identifiable by the low EI and high dissolved oxygen concentration. EI data by LADCPs and other acoustic instruments may be used to observe the temporal variations of the DWBC pathways.

  5. Equatorward western boundary current in the Bay of Bengal during November - December 1983

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.

    eastward at about 12 degrees N where curlz is zero. Subsequently, a cold core gyre (CCG) is formed in the central Bay when the zonal flow merges with the northward current at 9 degrees C. It is concluded that the WBC is mainly driven by the cross...

  6. Links Between the Deep Western Boundary Current, Labrador Sea Water Formation and Export, and the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Paul G.; Kulan, Nilgun

    2010-05-01

    Based on an isopyncal analysis of historical data, 3-year overlapping triad fields of objectively analysed temperature and salinity are produced for the Labrador Sea, covering 1949-1999. These fields are then used to spectrally nudge an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model of the sub-polar gyre, otherwise forced by inter annually varying surface forcing based upon the Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE). High frequency output from the reanalysis is used to examine Labrador Sea Water formation and its export. A number of different apprpoaches are used to estimate Labrador Sea Water formation, including an instanteous kinematic approach to calculate the annual rate of water mass subduction at a given density range. Historical transports are computed along sections at 53 and 56N for several different water masses for comparison with recent observations, showing a decline in the stength of the deep western boundary current with time. The variability of the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) from the reanalysis is also examined in both depth and density space. Linkages between MOC variability and water mass formation variability is considered.

  7. A comparison of the structure, properties, and water mass composition of quasi-isotropic eddies in western boundary currents in an eddy-resolving ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykova, Tatiana; Oke, Peter R.; Griffin, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Using output from a near-global eddy-resolving ocean model, we analyse the properties and characteristics of quasi-isotropic eddies in five Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions, including the extensions of the Agulhas, East Australian Current (EAC), Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC), Kuroshio and Gulf Stream regions. We assess the model eddies by comparing to satellite and in situ observations, and show that most aspects of the model's representation of eddies are realistic. We find that the mean eddies differ dramatically between these WBC regions - all with some unique and noteworthy characteristics. We find that the vertical displacement of isopycnals of Agulhas eddies is the greatest, averaging 350-450 m at depths of over 800-900 m. EAC (BMC) eddies are the least (most) barotropic, with only 50% (85-90%) of the velocity associated with the barotropic mode. Kuroshio eddies are the most stratified, resulting in small isopycnal displacement, even for strong eddies; and Gulf Stream eddies carry the most heat. Despite their differences, we explicitly show that the source waters for anticyclonic eddies are a mix of the WBC water (from the boundary current itself) and water that originates equatorward of the WBC eddy-field; and cyclonic eddies are a mix of WBC water and water that originates poleward of the WBC eddy-field.

  8. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina A. Doblin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core eddy (CCE and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67% by larger micro-plankton $(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m}$ ≥ 20 μ m , as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially

  9. Current Sinkhole Boundaries in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset is a polygon coverage of the sinkhole boundaries as determined by using LiDAR data. The polygons relate to the point coverage using the KPolyID field in...

  10. An Observational Study of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea: Local, Regional, and Basin-Wide Perspectives on a Western Boundary Current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andres, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    .... An observational study of the Kuroshio was conducted using data collected in the East China Sea (ECS) north of Okinawa from December 2002 through November 2004 with an array of inverted echo sounders and acoustic Doppler current profilers...

  11. Regional Wave Climates along Eastern Boundary Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Two types of wind-generated gravity waves coexist at the ocean surface: wind sea and swell. Wind sea waves are waves under growing process. These young growing waves receive energy from the overlaying wind and are strongly coupled to the local wind field. Waves that propagate away from their generation area and no longer receive energy input from the local wind are called swell. Swell waves can travel long distances across entire ocean basins. A qualitative study of the ocean waves from a locally vs. remotely generation perspective is important, since the air sea interaction processes is strongly modulated by waves and vary accordingly to the prevalence of wind sea or swell waves in the area. A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves along eastern boundary currents (EBC; California Current, Canary Current, in the Northern Hemisphere, and Humboldt Current, Benguela Current, and Western Australia Current, in the Southern Hemisphere), based on the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis will be presented. The wind regime along EBC varies significantly from winter to summer. The high summer wind speeds along EBC generate higher locally generated wind sea waves, whereas lower winter wind speeds in these areas, along with stronger winter extratropical storms far away, lead to a predominance of swell waves there. In summer, the coast parallel winds also interact with coastal headlands, increasing the wind speed through a process called "expansion fan", which leads to an increase in the height of locally generated waves downwind of capes and points. Hence the spatial patterns of the wind sea or swell regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean along EBC, due to coastal geometry and fetch dimensions. Swell waves will be shown to be considerably more prevalent and to carry more energy in winter along EBC, while in summer locally generated wind sea waves are either more comparable to swell waves or

  12. Contrasting Boundary Scavenging in two Eastern Boundary Current Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. F.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Pavia, F. J.; Vivancos, S. M.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, P.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    We use data from two US GEOTRACES expeditions to compare boundary scavenging intensity in two eastern boundary current systems: the Canary Current off Mauritania and the Humboldt Current off Peru. Boundary scavenging refers to the enhanced removal of trace elements from the ocean by sorption to sinking particles in regions of greater than average particle abundance. Both regimes experience high rates of biological productivity and generation of biogenic particles, with rates of productivity potentially a little greater off Peru, whereas dust fluxes are an order of magnitude greater off NW Africa (see presentation by Vivancos et al., this meeting). Despite greater productivity off Peru, we find greater intensity of scavenging off NW Africa as measured by the residence time of dissolved 230Th integrated from the surface to a depth of 2500 m (10-11 years off NW Africa vs. 15-17 years off Peru). Dissolved 231Pa/230Th ratios off NW Africa (Hayes et al., Deep Sea Res.-II 116 (2015) 29-41) are nearly twice the values observed off Peru. We attribute this difference to the well-known tendency for lithogenic phases (dust) to strongly fractionate in favor of Th uptake during scavenging and removal, leaving the dissolved phase enriched in Pa. This behavior needs to be considered when interpreting sedimentary 231Pa/230Th ratios as a paleo proxy.

  13. How do western abyssal currents cross the equator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nof, Doron; Olson, Donald B.

    1993-02-01

    Previous investigations of upper ocean currents on a β-plane have shown that it is quite difficult for a parcel of fluid to cross the equator in the open ocean. Boundary currents sometimes can cross the equator, but even this crossing is not easily achieved. The main barrier for equatorial crossing of inviscid western boundary currents is the presence of a front on the open ocean side ( NOF, 1990, Deep-Sea Research, 37, 853-875). One-and-a-half and 2 1/2 layer models are used to examine how this frontal blocking constraint is modified by bottom topography. Both models show that some topographic features, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, may entirely relax the frontal blocking constraint. The single layer crossing is modeled in terms of a heavy double-fronted inertial current (overlaid by a stagnant infinitely deep upper layer) flowing northward in a parabolic channel. Analytic solutions show that the current's position "flips" as it crosses the equator, it is situated next to the left flank of the channel (i.e. the western boundary) in the southern hemisphere and next to the right flank (i.e. the eastern part of the channel corresponding to the western side of the the mid-ocean ridge) in the northern hemisphere. With the aid of the above model, a 2 1/2 layer model, which contains an additional intermediate current above the core, is considered. It is found that the nonfrontal southward (or northward) intermediate flow crosses the equator and remains adjacent to the western boundary. In contrast, the deep frontal flow underneath again "flips" from the left to the right boundary as it crosses the equator. Possible application of this theory to the dense Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) and the Lower North Atlantic Deep Water (LNADW) is discussed.

  14. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  15. Wind-driven coastal upwelling along the western boundary of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.; Nampoothiri, G.

    The western boundary regions of the world's oceans generally show the influence of remote forcing by the presence of a western boundary current. On the continental shelf off Florida, U.S.A., influence of the Gulf Stream is felt at locations as shallow as 75... upwelling on the Bay of Bengal 1403 ee" ~t 32 i i* Fig. 6. bo" , e.5, , , to" Salinity (ppt) at the surface. Dots indicate station locations. using available climatologies. The charts for 10-day mean ship-drift averaged over 1 ° x 1 ° given...

  16. Upwelling systems in eastern boundary currents have been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Differences are found in the location of return, onshore flow. .... eastern boundary currents, downstream of the west wind drift ... show maximum upwelling conditions (equatorward winds) in ..... The work of PTS and CJ was supported by Grant.

  17. Field-aligned currents near the magnetosphere boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes present thinking about the structure of magnetospheric boundary layers and their roles in the generation of the field-aligned currents that are observed in the polar regions. A principal effect of the momentum loss by magnetosheath plasma to the magnetosphere boundary regions just within the magnetopause, whether it be by a diffusive process or by magnetic reconnection, is the tailward pulling of the surface flux tubes relative to those deeper below the surface. The dayside region 1 currents at low altitudes flow along field lines in the resulting regions of magnetic shear. The direction of the shear and its magnitude, actually measured in the boundary region, confirm that the polarities and intensities of the dayside region 1 currents can be accounted for by this process. The low latitude boundary layer, formerly thought to be threaded entirely by closed field lines, now appears to contain at least some open field lines, newly reconnected, that are in the process of being swept into the high latitude tail to form the plasma mantle. The open flux tubes of the flux transfer events, thought to be the product of patchy reconnection have a spiral magnetic structure whose helicity is such as to suggest currents having the polarities of the region 1 currents. 13 references

  18. Field-aligned currents near the magnetosphere boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews present thinking about the structure of magnetospheric boundary layers and their roles in the generation of the field-aligned currents that are observed in the polar regions. A principal effect of the momentum loss by magnetosheath plasma to the magnetosphere boundary regions just within the magnetopause, whether it be by a diffusive process or by magnetic reconnection, is the tailward pulling of surface flux tubes relative to those deeper below the surface. The dayside region 1 currents at low altitudes flow along field lines in the resulting regions of magnetic shear. The direction of the shear and its magnitude, measured in the boundary region, confirm tht the polarities and intensities of the dayside region 1 currents can be accounted for by this process. The low latitude boundary layer, formerly thought to be threaded entirely by closed field lines, now appears to contain at least some open field lines, newly reconnected, that are in the process of being swept into the high latitude tail to form the plasma mantle. The open flux tubes of the flux transfer events, thought to be the product of patchy reconnection have a spiral magnetic structure whose helicity is such as to suggest currents having the polarities of the region 1 currents

  19. The Capes Current: a summer countercurrent flowing past Cape Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    1999-03-01

    Although the dominant boundary current off Western Australia is the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current, satellite imagery shows that there is a cool equatorward coastal countercurrent running close inshore in the extreme southwest during the summer months. This seasonal current has been named the Capes Current as it appears to be strongest between Cape Leeuwin (34°20'S) and Cape Naturaliste (33°30'S), and it is probably linked with the general northward shelf current which has been observed previously along most of the Western Australian coastline further north. Strong northwards wind stresses between November and March slow the Leeuwin Current (which moves offshore) and drive the Capes Current, and there may be localised upwelling as well (Gersbach et al., Continental Shelf Research, 1998). It has important implications for the salmon fishery as it may affect the migration of adult salmon around Cape Leeuwin at this time of year.

  20. Geochemistry and magnetic sediment distribution at the western boundary upwelling system of southwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Anna P. S.; Barbosa, Catia F.; Ayres-Neto, Arthur; Munayco, Pablo; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Amorim, Nívea Santos; Albuquerque, Ana L. S.; Seoane, José C. S.

    2018-02-01

    In order to investigate the chemical and magnetic characteristics of sediments of the western boundary upwelling system of Southwest Atlantic we analyzed magnetic susceptibility, grain size distribution, total organic carbon, heavy mineral abundance, Fe associated with Mössbauer spectra, and Fe and Mn of pore water to evaluate the deposition patterns of sediments. Four box-cores were collected along a cross-shelf transect. Brazil Current and coastal plume exert a primary control at the inner and outer shelf cores, which exhibited similar depositional patterns characterized by a high abundance of heavy minerals (mean 0.21% and 0.08%, respectively) and very fine sand, whereas middle shelf cores presented low abundances of heavy minerals (mean 0.03%) and medium silt. The inner shelf was dominated by sub-angular grains, while in middle and outer shelf cores well-rounded grains were found. The increasing Fe3+:Fe2+ ratio from the inner to the outer shelf reflects farther distance to the sediment source. The outer shelf presented well-rounded minerals, indicating abrasive processes as a result of transport by the Brazil Current from the source areas. In the middle shelf, cold-water intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water contributes to the primary productivity, resulting in higher deposition of fine sediment and organic carbon accumulation. The high input of organic carbon and the decreased grain size are indicative of changes in the hydrodynamics and primary productivity fueled by the western boundary upwelling system, which promotes loss of magnetization due to the induction of diagenesis of iron oxide minerals.

  1. Current oscillations, interacting Hall discs and boundary CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, A.P.; Vaidya, S.; Bimonte, G.; Govindarajan, T.R.; Gupta, K.S.; John, V.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the behavior of conformal field theories interacting at a single point. The edge states of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) system gives rise to a particular representation of a chiral Kac-Moody current algebra. We show that in the case of QHE systems interacting at one point we obtain a 'twisted' representation of the current algebra. The condition for stationarity of currents is the same as the classical Kirchoff's law applied to the currents at the interaction point. We find that in the case of two discs touching at one point, since the currents are chiral, they are not stationary and one obtains current oscillations between the two discs. We determine the frequency of these oscillations in terms of an effective parameter characterizing the interactions. The chiral conformal field theories can be represented in terms of bosonic Lagrangians with a boundary interaction. We discuss how these one point interactions can be represented as boundary conditions on fields, and how the requirement of chirality leads to restrictions on the interactions described by these Lagrangians. By gauging these models we find that the theory is naturally coupled to a Chern-Simons gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, and this coupling is completely determined by the requirement of anomaly cancellation. (author)

  2. Toroidal current asymmetry and boundary conditions in disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Henry

    2014-10-01

    It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current. The toroidal current asymmetry ΔIϕ is proportional to the vertical current moment ΔMIZ , with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was claimed that this could only be explained by Hiro current. It is shown that instead it is essentially a kinematic effect produced by the VDE displacement of a 3D magnetic perturbation. This is verified by M3D simulations. The simulation results do not require penetration of plasma into the boundary, as in the Hiro current model. It is shown that the normal velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field vanishes at the wall, in the small Larmor radius limit of electromagnetic sheath boundary conditions. Plasma is absorbed into the wall only via the parallel velocity, which is small, penetrates only an infinitesimal distance into the wall, and does not affect forces exerted by the plasma on the wall. Supported by USDOE and ITER.

  3. On the Crossover of Boundary Currents in an Idealized Model of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Ping

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 American Meteorological Society. The west-to-east crossover of boundary currents has been seen in mean circulation schemes from several past models of the Red Sea. This study investigates the mechanisms that produce and control the crossover in an idealized, eddy-resolving numerical model of the Red Sea. The authors also review the observational evidence and derive an analytical estimate for the crossover latitude. The surface buoyancy loss increases northward in the idealized model, and the resultant mean circulation consists of an anticyclonic gyre in the south and a cyclonic gyre in the north. In the midbasin, the northward surface flow crosses from the western boundary to the eastern boundary. Numerical experiments with different parameters indicate that the crossover latitude of the boundary currents changes with f0, β, and the meridional gradient of surface buoyancy forcing. In the analytical estimate, which is based on quasigeostrophic, β-plane dynamics, the crossover is predicted to lie at the latitude where the net potential vorticity advection (including an eddy component) is zero. Various terms in the potential vorticity budget can be estimated using a buoyancy budget, a thermal wind balance, and a parameterization of baroclinic instability.

  4. 78 FR 44596 - Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Mariposa County, California, immediately adjacent to the current western boundary of Yosemite National Park.... The land is located in Mariposa County, California, immediately adjacent to the current western...

  5. Tropical-Extratropical Exchange Based on Argo Profiles and Ship-Based Observations Near the Western Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D.; Li, B.; Yang, L.

    2014-12-01

    The tropical-extratropical exchange in the northwestern Pacific Ocean is studied using the absolute geostrophic currents based on Argo Profiles and the observations of the western boundary currents (WBCs) during two cruises in the winters of 2010 and 2012. The absolute geostrophic currents are calculated using the P-vector method for the period of 2004 through 2011. The transport of the geostrophic currents is compared with the Sverdrup theory and found to differ significantly in several locations. Analyses have shown that errors of wind stress estimation cannot account for all of the differences. The largest differences are found in the area, where nonlinear activities are vigorous. It is, therefore, suggested that the linear dynamics of the Sverdrup theory is deficient in explaining the geostrophic transport of the tropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. Previous studies suggest recharge and discharge of the tropical Pacific Ocean heat content through the interior circulation of the North Pacific Ocean, based on the Sverdrup theory, and that the WBCs play the role opposite to the interior ocean recharge and discharge anomalies. Using ocean observations from two cruises in a La Niña winter and a normal winter, it is suggested that the Kuroshio transport decreases significantly and the Mindanao Current transport increases significantly at the peak of 2010 La Niña, opposite to the prediction of existing theory. The anomalies of the western boundary current transport are found much larger than those of the meridional circulation in the entire interior of the North Pacific Ocean, the dynamics of which are suggested to be associated with the Kelvin wave propagation around the Philippine islands. The results suggest that the WBCs dominate the interannual recharge and discharge of the western Pacific warm pool during the 2010 La Niña.

  6. Disruption of the terrestrial plant ecosystem at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, western interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.; Pillmore, C.L.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The palynologically defined Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the western interior of North America occurs at the top of an iridium-rich clay layer. The boundary is characterized by the abrupt disappearance of certain pollen species, immediately followed by a pronounced, geologically brief change in the ratio of fern spores to angiosperm pollen. The occurrence of these changes at two widely separated sites implies continentwide disruption of the terrestrial ecosystem, probably caused by a major catastrophic event at the end of the period.

  7. Southward flow on the western flank of the Florida Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Alexander V.; Hirons, Amy; Maingot, Christopher; Dean, Cayla W.; Dodge, Richard E.; Yankovsky, Alexander E.; Wood, Jon; Weisberg, Robert H.; Luther, Mark E.; McCreary, Julian P.

    2017-07-01

    A suite of long-term in situ measurements in the Straits of Florida, including the ADCP bottom moorings at an 11-m isobath and 244-m isobath (Miami Terrace) and several ADCP ship transects, have revealed a remarkable feature of the ocean circulation - southward flow on the western, coastal flank of the Florida Current. We have observed three forms of the southward flow - a seasonally varying coastal countercurrent, an undercurrent jet attached to the Florida shelf, and an intermittent undercurrent on the Miami Terrace. According to a 13-year monthly climatology obtained from the near-shore mooring, the coastal countercurrent is a persistent feature from October through January. The southward flow in the form of an undercurrent jet attached to the continental slope was observed during five ship transects from April through September but was not observed during three transects in February, March, and November. This undercurrent jet is well mixed due to strong shear at its top associated with the northward direction of the surface flow (Florida Current) and friction at the bottom. At the same time, no statistically significant seasonal cycle has been observed in the undercurrent flow on the Miami Terrace. Theoretical considerations suggest that several processes could drive the southward current, including interaction between the Florida Current and the shelf, as well as forcing that is independent of the Florida Current. The exact nature of the southward flow on the western flank of the Florida Current is, however, unknown.

  8. Production regimes in four eastern boundary current systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. E.; Kearns, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    High productivity (maxima 3 g C m(sup -2)day(sup -1)) of the Eastern Boundary Currents (EBCs), i.e. the California, Peru-Humboldt, Canary and Benguela Currents, is driven by a combination of local forcing and large-scale circulation. The characteristics of the deep water brought to the surface by upwelling favorable winds depend on the large-scale circulation patterns. Here we use a new hydrographic and nutrient climatology together with satellite measurements ofthe wind vector, sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll concentration, and primary production modeled from ocean color to quantify the meridional and seasonal patterns of upwelling dynamics and biological response. The unprecedented combination of data sets allows us to describe objectively the variability for small regions within each current and to characterize the governing factors for biological production. The temporal and spatial environmental variability was due in most regions to large-scale circulation, alone or in combination with offshore transport (local forcing). The observed meridional and seasonal patterns of biomass and primary production were most highlycorrelated to components representing large-scale circulation. The biomass sustained by a given nutrient concentration in the Atlantic EBCs was twice as large as that of the Pacific EBCs. This apparent greater efficiency may be due toavailability of iron, physical retention, or differences in planktonic community structure.

  9. Downscaling biogeochemistry in the Benguela eastern boundary current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machu, E.; Goubanova, K.; Le Vu, B.; Gutknecht, E.; Garçon, V.

    2015-06-01

    Dynamical downscaling is developed to better predict the regional impact of global changes in the framework of scenarios. As an intermediary step towards this objective we used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to downscale a low resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean global circulation model (AOGCM; IPSL-CM4) for simulating the recent-past dynamics and biogeochemistry of the Benguela eastern boundary current. Both physical and biogeochemical improvements are discussed over the present climate scenario (1980-1999) under the light of downscaling. Despite biases introduced through boundary conditions (atmospheric and oceanic), the physical and biogeochemical processes in the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) have been improved by the ROMS model, relative to the IPSL-CM4 simulation. Nevertheless, using coarse-resolution AOGCM daily atmospheric forcing interpolated on ROMS grids resulted in a shifted SST seasonality in the southern BUS, a deterioration of the northern Benguela region and a very shallow mixed layer depth over the whole regional domain. We then investigated the effect of wind downscaling on ROMS solution. Together with a finer resolution of dynamical processes and of bathymetric features (continental shelf and Walvis Ridge), wind downscaling allowed correction of the seasonality, the mixed layer depth, and provided a better circulation over the domain and substantial modifications of subsurface biogeochemical properties. It has also changed the structure of the lower trophic levels by shifting large offshore areas from autotrophic to heterotrophic regimes with potential important consequences on ecosystem functioning. The regional downscaling also improved the phytoplankton distribution and the southward extension of low oxygen waters in the Northern Benguela. It allowed simulating low oxygen events in the northern BUS and highlighted a potential upscaling effect related to the nitrogen irrigation from the productive BUS towards the tropical

  10. Downwelling dynamics of the western Adriatic Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, W. R.; Mullenbach, B. L.; Kineke, G. C.; Sherwood, C. R.; Signell, R. P.; Ogston, A. S.; Puig, P.; Traykovski, P.

    2004-12-01

    The western Adriatic coastal current (WACC) flows for hundreds of kilometers along the east coast of Italy at speeds of 20 to 100 cm/s. It is fed by the buoyancy input from the Po River and other rivers of the northern Adriatic Sea, with typical freshwater discharge rates of 2000 m**3/s. The Bora winds provide the dominant forcing agent of the WACC during the winter months, resulting in peak southeastward flows reaching 100 cm/s. The energy input of the Bora is principally in the northern Adriatic, and the coastal current response is due mainly to the set up of the pressure field, although there is sometimes an accompanying local component of down-coast winds that further augments the coastal current. Downwelling conditions occur during Bora, with or without local wind-forcing, because the bottom Ekman transport occurs in either case. Downwelling results in destratification of the coastal current, due to both vertical mixing and straining of the cross-shore density gradient. The relative contributions of mixing and straining depends on the value of the Kelvin number K=Lf/(g_Oh)**1/2, where L is the width of the coastal current, f is the Coriolis parameter, g_O is reduced gravity, and h is the plume thickness. For a narrow coastal current (KWACC during Bora events, with strain-induced destratification occurring in less than 24 hours. The straining process limits vertical mixing of the coastal current with the ambient Adriatic water, because once the isopycnals become vertical, no more mixing can occur. This limitation of mixing may explain the persistence of the density anomaly of the coastal current in the presence of high stresses. The straining process also has important implications for sediment transport: destratification allows sediment to be distributed throughout the water column during Bora events, resulting in enhanced down-coast fluxes. The influence of the downwelling dynamics on cross-shore sediment transport is still under examination.

  11. Critical current of the nonuniform Josephson transition at intergranular boundary with random dislocation distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejlikhov, E.Z.; Farzetdinova, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Critical current of inhomogeneous intergranular Josephson transition is calculated in the assumption concerning superconductivity suppression by local strains of boundary dislocations with random distribution

  12. The influence of vortex pinning and grain boundary structure on critical currents across grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    We have used studies of single grain boundaries in YBCO thin films and bulk bicrystals to study the influence of vortex pinning along a grain boundary on dissipation. The critical current density for transport across grain boundaries in thin films is typically more than an order of magnitude larger than that measured for transport across grain boundaries in bulk samples. For low disorientation angles, the difference in critical current density within the grains that form the boundary can contribute to the substantial differences in current density measured across the boundary. However, substantial differences exist in the critical current density across boundaries in thin film compared to bulk bicrystals even in the higher angle regime in which grain boundary dissipation dominates. The differences in critical current density in this regime can be understood on the basis of vortex pinning along the boundary

  13. Seismicity and Seismic Hazard along the Western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Fontiela, João; Ferrão, Celia; Borges, José Fernando; Caldeira, Bento; Dib, Assia; Ousadou, Farida

    2016-04-01

    The seismic phenomenon is the most damaging natural hazard known in the Mediterranean area. The western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary extends from the Azores to the Mediterranean region. The oceanic part of the plate boundary is well delimited from the Azores Islands, along the Azores-Gibraltar fault to approximately 12°W (west of the Strait of Gibraltar). From 12°W to 3.5°E, including the Iberia-Nubia region and extending to the western part of Algeria, the boundary is more diffuse and forms a wider area of deformation. The boundary between the Iberia and Nubia plates is the most complex part of the margin. This region corresponds to the transition from an oceanic boundary to a continental boundary, where Iberia and Nubia collide. Although most earthquakes along this plate boundary are shallow and generally have magnitudes less than 5.5, there have been several high-magnitude events. Many devastating earthquakes, some of them tsunami-triggering, inflicted heavy loss and considerable economic damage to the region. From 1920 to present, three earthquakes with magnitudes of about 8.0 (Mw 8.2, 25 November 1941; Ms 8.0, 25 February 1969; and Mw 7.9, 26 May 1975) occurred in the oceanic region, and four earthquakes with magnitudes of about 7.0 (Mw 7.1, 8 May 1939, Santa Maria Island and Mw 7.1, January 1980, Terceira and Graciosa Islands, both in the Azores; Ms 7.1, 20 May 1931, Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone; and Mw 7.3, 10 October 1980, El Asnam, Algeria) occurred along the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. In general, large earthquakes (M ≥7) occur within the oceanic region, with the exception of the El Asnam (Algeria) earthquakes. Some of these events caused extensive damage. The 1755 Lisbon earthquake (˜Mw 9) on the Portugal Atlantic margin, about 200 km W-SW of Cape St. Vincent, was followed by a tsunami and fires that caused the near-total destruction of Lisbon and adjacent areas. Estimates of the death toll in Lisbon alone (~70

  14. Surface capillary currents: Rediscovery of fluid-structure interaction by forced evolving boundary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunbai; Mitra, Ambar K.

    2016-01-01

    Any boundary surface evolving in viscous fluid is driven with surface capillary currents. By step function defined for the fluid-structure interface, surface currents are found near a flat wall in a logarithmic form. The general flat-plate boundary layer is demonstrated through the interface kinematics. The dynamics analysis elucidates the relationship of the surface currents with the adhering region as well as the no-slip boundary condition. The wall skin friction coefficient, displacement thickness, and the logarithmic velocity-defect law of the smooth flat-plate boundary-layer flow are derived with the advent of the forced evolving boundary method. This fundamental theory has wide applications in applied science and engineering.

  15. Sediment Resuspension and Transport During Bora in the Western Adriatic Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, B. L.; Geyer, W. R.; Sherwood, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    The Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC) is an important agent for along-shelf transport of sediment and fresh water in the western Adriatic Sea. The WACC is driven by a combination of buoyancy forcing from the Po River (northern Adriatic) and wind forcing from northeasterly Bora winds. The large seasonal pulse of freshwater (during the winter) from the Po River influences WACC strength; however, preliminary results from current measurements and model runs indicate that the WACC responds quickly and strongly to Bora wind events, with a strengthening of the current moving southward. Along-margin sediment transport to the south is significantly increased as a result of Bora wind events, presumably because of enhanced wave resuspension and WACC velocity. Elevated sediment fluxes have been observed in both the upper water column (i.e., core of the WACC) and bottom boundary layer (BBL) during these events, which suggests that wind-driven currents may be coupled with the near-bottom transport. This study addresses the interaction of the WACC with the BBL and the impact of this interaction on sediment transport in the western Adriatic. Two benthic tripods were deployed from November 2002 to June 2003 on an across-shelf transect near the Chienti River (at 10 and 20-m water depth), in the region where WACC begins to intensify (200 km south of Po River). Continuous measurements of suspended sediment concentration and current velocity were recorded in the upper-water column and BBL to document sediment transport events. A time series of sediment fluxes and shear velocities (from currents only, u*c; from waves and currents, u*wc) were calculated from these data. Results show that suspended sediment concentrations near the seabed (few cmab) during Bora wind events are strongly correlated with u*wc, which supports a previous hypothesis that wave resuspension (rather than direct fluvial input) is responsible for much of the suspended sediment available for transport southward

  16. Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    transport, (3) the process of wave transition in shallow water in the presence of strong alongshore currents, (4) the interaction between oblique...conducted in relatively deep water with bottom sediment comprised mostly of silt. One of the earlier studies for a wide shallow shelf was conducted off...wave asymmetry in combined flows and how this drives mass transport, (3) the process of wave transition in shallow water in the presence of strong

  17. Western medical ethics taught to junior medical students can cross cultural and linguistic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Stephen A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9 and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7 There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third

  18. Platinum group element enrichments and possible chondritic Ru:Ir across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, western New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, D J; Conaway, C A; Katz, D J; Goodfellow, W D; Gregoire, D C

    1997-08-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian boundary is recognized as the culmination of a global mass extinction in the Late Devonian. In western New York State the boundary is a distinct horizon within a pyritic black shale bed of the upper Hanover Shale defined by the first occurrence of Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian conodonts. The boundary is characterized by a minor disconformity marked by a lag concentration of conodonts. Iridium at the boundary is 0.11-0.24 ng/g, two to five times background levels of <0.05 ng/g; other Ir enrichments of 0.38 ng/g and 0.49 ng/g occur within 50 cm of the conodont-constrained boundary. Numerous Ir enrichments in the boundary interval suggest extraterrestrial accretion and platinum group element (PGE) concentration at disconformities, or mobilization and concentration in organic-rich/pyritic-rich laminations from cosmic or terrestrial sources. PGE ratios of Pt/Pd and Ku/Ir at the boundary horizon approximate chondritic ratios and are suggestive of an unaltered extraterrestrial source. These values do not conclusively establish a single extraterrestrial impact as the ultimate cause of the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, especially given the presence of similar Ir enrichments elsewhere in the section and the absence at the boundary of microtektites and shocked mineral grains.

  19. Evaluation of Current Planetary Boundary Layer Retrieval Capabilities from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Schaefer, Alexander J.; Blaisdell, John; Yorks, John

    2016-01-01

    The PBL over land remains a significant gap in our water and energy cycle understanding from space. This work combines unique NASA satellite and model products to demonstrate the ability of current sensors (advanced IR sounding and lidar) to retrieve PBL properties and in turn their potential to be used globally to evaluate and improve weather and climate prediction models. While incremental progress has been made in recent AIRS retrieval versions, insufficient vertical resolution remains in terms of detecting PBL properties. Lidar shows promise in terms of detecting vertical gradients (and PBLh) in the lower troposphere, but daytime conditions over land remain a challenge due to noise, and their coverage is limited to approximately 2 weeks or longer return times.

  20. Corporatism In Western Europe: Current State And Prospects For Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Ja. Feldman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts a political analysis of the Western European institutions of corporatism. The main task of the author is the study of the policy of harmonizing the interests of labor and capital (trade unions and employers’ associations, which is implemented in countries such as the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Denmark etc. Dynamics of political processes unfolding in the space of Western Europe, suggests that the mechanisms of articulation and political representation of social and labour interests have significantly transformed over the past 30 years. The use of institutional and systemic approaches along with the empirical methods, leads to the conclusion that the most developed European countries are moving from the classical model of corporatism to a more pluralistic forms of interaction between the state, labour and capital. Social partnership as an instrument of collective bargaining between employees and employers is displaced from the political sphere to the sectoral and organizational levels. The typical institutions of democratic corporatism (tripartite commissions, socio-economic councils, etc., who played a crucial role in rebuilding post-war Europe, become rudimentary organs of the national political systems. In addition, there is a tendency to weaken the political influence of trade unions, who successfully struggled for the satisfaction of collective demands of workers in the beginning of XX century. Large multinational companies prefer to influence the political decision-making centers autonomously, ignoring the associative membership in the guild organizations. As a consequence, corporatist bargaining is being replaced by direct and indirect lobbying, Government Relations and election fundraising. When accounting for identified trends, the author presents a hypothesis that the evolution of corporatism in Western Europe will lead to its gradual degeneration. Taking into account the identified trends, the

  1. System of ionospheric currents excited by a magnetospheric generator in the boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, V.V.; Zamaj, S.S.; Kitaev, A.V.; Matveenkov, I.T.; Pivovarov, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    A model of ionospheric electric fields and currents in the vicinity of the daytime cusp is proposed; the fields and currents occur due to diffusion mechanism of electric field generation at the boundary of Earth's magnetosphere. The results of calculating electric fields and currents are presented for various values of magnetic field components in the solar wind

  2. Western Gulf of Mexico July 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Jul_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  3. Western Gulf of Mexico May 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_May_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  4. Western Gulf of Mexico August 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Aug_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  5. Western Gulf of Mexico April 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Apr_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  6. Western Gulf of Mexico January 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Jan_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  7. Western Gulf of Mexico March 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Mar_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  8. Western Gulf of Mexico September 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Sep_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  9. Western Gulf of Mexico February 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Feb_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  10. Western Gulf of Mexico October 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999)[ocean_currents_wgom_Oct_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  11. Western Gulf of Mexico June 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Jun_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  12. Western Gulf of Mexico November 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Nov_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  13. Western Gulf of Mexico December 1994 Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_Dec_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  14. A high-latitude, low-latitude boundary layer model of the convection current system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siscoe, G.L.; Lotko, W.; Sonnerup, B.U.O.

    1991-01-01

    Observations suggest that both the high- and low-latitude boundary layers contribute to magnetospheric convection, and that their contributions are linked. In the interpretation pursued here, the high-latitude boundary layer (HBL) generates the voltage while the low-latitude boundary layer (LBL) generates the current for the part of the convection electric circuit that closes through the ionosphere. This paper gives a model that joins the high- and low-latitude boundary layers consistently with the ionospheric Ohm's law. It describes an electric circuit linking both boundary layers, the region 1 Birkeland currents, and the ionospheric Pedersen closure currents. The model works by using the convection electric field that the ionosphere receives from the HBL to determine two boundary conditions to the equations that govern viscous LBL-ionosphere coupling. The result provides the needed self-consistent coupling between the two boundary layers and fully specifies the solution for the viscous LBL-ionosphere coupling equations. The solution shows that in providing the current required by the ionospheric Ohm's law, the LBL needs only a tenth of the voltage that spans the HBL. The solution also gives the latitude profiles of the ionospheric electric field, parallel currents, and parallel potential. It predicts that the plasma in the inner part of the LBL moves sunward instead of antisunward and that, as the transpolar potential decreases below about 40 kV, reverse polarity (region 0) currents appear at the poleward border of the region 1 currents. A possible problem with the model is its prediction of a thin boundary layer (∼1000 km), whereas thicknesses inferred from satellite data tend to be greater

  15. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Upper Devonian) within the Hanover-Dunkirk transition, northern Appalachian basin, western New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Geneseo, NY (United States))

    1993-03-01

    In western New York State interbedded pyritic silty green and dark grey shales and siltstone of the Hanover Member, Java Formation, West Falls Group, are overlain by thick pyritic dark grey-black shale of the Dunkirk Member of the Canadaway formation. The dark shales in the upper Hanover and Dunkirk contain a diverse and well preserved conodont fauna which allows precise placement of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary at several described sections. At Pt. Gratiot, in far western New York State, the contact between the Hanover and Dunkirk is disconformable. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary is marked by a pyritic lag deposit at the base of the Dunkirk which contains Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. subperlobata. The underlying upper Hanover is characterized by Pa. bogartensis , Pa. cf. Pa. rhenana, Pa. winchelli, and Ancyrognathus (asymmetricus/calvini) Eastward, in the direction of the paleo-source area, the Frasnian-Famennian boundary is within the upper Hanover Member. At Irish Gulf the boundary is recognized within a 10 cm thick laminated pyritic dark grey shale bed 3.0 m below the base of the Dunkirk. Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. subperlobata occur below a conodont-rich lag layer in the upper 2 cm of the bed. Palmatolepis bogartensis , Pa. cf. Pa. rhenana, Ancyrodella curvata, and Icriodus alternatus occur in the underlying 8 cm. Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. winchelli occur in an underlying dark shale bed separated from the boundary bed by a hummocky cross-bedded siltstone layer.

  16. A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary locality in the western powder River basin, Wyoming: biological and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D.J.; Brown, J.L.; Attrep, M.; Orth, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary locality in the western Powder River basin, Wyoming, is characterized by a palynologically defined extinction horizon, a fern-spore abundance anomaly, a strong iridium anomaly, and shock-metamorphosed quartz grains. Detailed microstratigraphic analyses show that about one third of the palynoflora (mostly angiosperm pollen) disappeared abruptly, placing the K-T boundary within a distinctive, 1- to 2-cm-thick claystone layer. Shocked quartz grains are concentrated at the top of this layer, and although fern-spore and iridium concentrations are high in this layer, they reach their maximum concentrations in a 2-cm-thick carbonaceous claystone that overlies the boundary claystone layer. The evidence supports the theory that the K-T boundary event was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body or bodies. Palynological analyses of samples from the K-T boundary interval document extensive changes in the flora that resulted from the boundary event. The palynologically and geochemically defined K-T boundary provides a unique time-line of use in regional basin analysis. ?? 1992.

  17. Current measurements over the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.

    south during May and March and towards north during November. The spectral analysis indicates that the inertial and semidiurnal frequency motions are the major contributors to the current structure. The inertial currents were concentrated near...

  18. Boundary-layer height detection with a ceilometer at a coastal site in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannesdóttir, Ásta; Hansen, Aksel Walle

    in atmospheric transport- and dispersion models. A new method of filtering clouds from the ceilometer data is presented. This allows for the inclusion of more than half of the data in the subsequent analysis, as the presence of clouds would otherwise complicate the boundary-layer height estimations. The boundary....... The boundary-layer height estimates are then used to analyse the daily evolution of the boundary layer and to perform monthly and annual frequency distributions of the boundary-layer height. For westerly winds bi-modal distributions are often found, which may be separated by different criteria, while...

  19. Current Percolation in Medium with Boundaries under Quantum Hall Effect Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Malakeeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current percolation has been considered in the medium with boundaries under quantum Hall effect conditions. It has been shown that in that case the effective Hall conductivity has a nonzero value due to percolation of the Hall current through the finite number of singular points (in our model these are corners at the phase joints.

  20. Potential for small-diameter sawtimber utilization by the current sawmill industry in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis G. Wagner; Charles E. Keegan; Roger D. Fight; Susan. Willits

    1998-01-01

    New silvicultural prescriptions for ecosystem management on both public and private timberlands in western North America will likely result in an influx of relatively small-diameter sawtimber for processing. Since sawmills currently process a majority of sawtimber harvested in western North America (more than 80% in some regions), this study concentrated on...

  1. The coastal current off western India during the northeast monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.; Almeida, A.M.; Santanam, K.

    , temperature and dynamic topography. To understand the driving mechanism of the current, the annual cycle of the contribution of the longshore pressure gradient and that of the winds to the near-surface momentum balance was examined using available...

  2. Neutron transport assembly calculation with non-zero net current boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Chang Keun

    1993-02-01

    Fuel assembly calculation for the homogenized group constants is one of the most important parts in the reactor core analysis. The homogenized group constants of one a quarter assembly are usually generated for the nodal calculation of the reactor core. In the current nodal calculation, one or a quarter of the fuel assembly corresponds to a unit node. The homogenized group constant calculation for a fuel assembly proceeds through cell spectrum calculations, group condensation and cell homogenization calculations, two dimensional fuel assembly calculation, and then depletion calculations of fuel rods. To obtain the assembly wise homogenized group constants, the two dimensional transport calculation is usually performed. Most codes for the assembly wise homogenized group constants employ a zero net current boundary condition. CASMO-3 is such a code that is in wide use. The zero net current boundary condition is plausible and valid in an infinite reactor composed of the same kind of assemblies. However, the reactor is finite and the core is constructed by different kinds of assemblies. Hence, the assumption of the zero net current boundary condition is not valid in the actual reactor. The objective of this study is to develop a homogenization methodology that can treat any actual boundary condition, i.e. non-zero net current boundary condition. In order to treat the non-zero net current boundary condition, we modify CASMO-3. For the two-dimensional treatment in CASMO-3, a multigroup integral transport routine based on the method of transmission probability is used. The code performs assembly calculation with zero net current boundary condition. CASMO-3 is modified to consider the inhomogeneous source at the assembly boundary surface due to the non-zero net current. The modified version of CASMO-3 is called CASMO-3M. CASMO-3M is applied to several benchmark problems. In order to obtain the inhomogeneous source, the global calculation is performed. The local calculation

  3. A Geodetic Strain Rate Model for the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Holland, A. A.; Bennett, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a model of crustal strain rates derived from GPS measurements of horizontal station velocities in the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the western United States. The model reflects a best estimate of present-day deformation from the San Andreas fault system in the west to the Basin and Range province in the east. Of the total 2,846 GPS velocities used in the model, 1,197 are derived by ourselves, and 1,649 are taken from (mostly) published results. The velocities derived by ourselves (the "UNR solution") are estimated from GPS position time-series of continuous and semi-continuous stations for which data are publicly available. We estimated ITRF2005 positions from 2002-2011.5 using JPL's GIPSY-OASIS II software with ambiguity resolution applied using our custom Ambizap software. Only stations with time-series that span at least 2.25 years are considered. We removed from the time-series continental-scale common-mode errors using a spatially-varying filtering technique. Velocity uncertainties (typically 0.1-0.3 mm/yr) assume that the time-series contain flicker plus white noise. We used a subset of stations on the stable parts of the Pacific and North American plates to estimate the Pacific-North American pole of rotation. This pole is applied as a boundary condition to the model and the North American - ITRF2005 pole is used to rotate our velocities into a North America fixed reference frame. We do not include parts of the time-series that show curvature due to post-seismic deformation after major earthquakes and we also exclude stations whose time-series display a significant unexplained non-linearity or that are near volcanic centers. Transient effects longer than the observation period (i.e., slow viscoelastic relaxation) are left in the data. We added to the UNR solution velocities from 12 other studies. The velocities are transformed onto the UNR solution's reference frame by estimating and applying a translation and rotation that minimizes

  4. Geometrical effects on western intensification of wind-driven ocean currents: The rotated-channel Stommel model, coastal orientation, and curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, John P.; Sanjaya, Edwin

    2014-03-01

    We revisit early models of steady western boundary currents [Gulf Stream, Kuroshio, etc.] to explore the role of irregular coastlines on jets, both to advance the research frontier and to illuminate for education. In the framework of a steady-state, quasigeostrophic model with viscosity, bottom friction and nonlinearity, we prove that rotating a straight coastline, initially parallel to the meridians, significantly thickens the western boundary layer. We analyze an infinitely long, straight channel with arbitrary orientation and bottom friction using an exact solution and singular perturbation theory, and show that the model, though simpler than Stommel's, nevertheless captures both the western boundary jet (“Gulf Stream”) and the “orientation effect”. In the rest of the article, we restrict attention to the Stommel flow (that is, linear and inviscid except for bottom friction) and apply matched asymptotic expansions, radial basis function, Fourier-Chebyshev and Chebyshev-Chebyshev pseudospectral methods to explore the effects of coastal geometry in a variety of non-rectangular domains bounded by a circle, parabolas and squircles. Although our oceans are unabashedly idealized, the narrow spikes, broad jets and stationary points vividly illustrate the power and complexity of coastal control of western boundary layers.

  5. Growth of a deep-water, predatory fish is influenced by the productivity of a boundary current system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Rountrey, Adam N; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Coulson, Peter G; Feng, Ming; Newman, Stephen J; Waite, Anya M; Wakefield, Corey B; Meekan, Mark G

    2015-03-12

    The effects of climate change on predatory fishes in deep shelf areas are difficult to predict because complex processes may govern food availability and temperature at depth. We characterised the net impact of recent environmental changes on hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios), an apex predator found in continental slope habitats (>200 m depth) by using dendrochronology techniques to develop a multi-decadal record of growth from otoliths. Fish were sampled off temperate south-western Australia, a region strongly influenced by the Leeuwin Current, a poleward-flowing, eastern boundary current. The common variance among individual growth records was relatively low (3.4%), but the otolith chronology was positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.02) with sea level at Fremantle, a proxy for the strength of the Leeuwin Current. The Leeuwin Current influences the primary productivity of shelf ecosystems, with a strong current favouring growth in hapuku. Leeuwin Current strength is predicted to decline under climate change models and this study provides evidence that associated productivity changes may flow through to higher trophic levels even in deep water habitats.

  6. Antishocks in the ASEP with open boundaries conditioned on low current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitsky, V; Schütz, G M

    2013-01-01

    We study the time evolution of the ASEP on a finite lattice with L sites and open boundaries, conditioned on an atypically low current up to a finite time t. By an exact computation, we show that for a one-parameter family of boundary densities and a special value of the conditioned current, an initial product measure with an antishock at site k evolves into a convex combination of such antishocks at sites k′. The weights p(k′, t|k, 0) are shown to be the transition probabilities of simple biased random walk with reflecting boundaries. We compute explicitly these transition rates. Our result implies that the antishock remains microscopically stable under the locally conditioned dynamics. (paper)

  7. Effects of Uncertainties in Electric Field Boundary Conditions for Ring Current Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Margaret W.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Lemon, Colby L.; Guild, Timothy B.

    2018-01-01

    Physics-based simulation results can vary widely depending on the applied boundary conditions. As a first step toward assessing the effect of boundary conditions on ring current simulations, we analyze the uncertainty of cross-polar cap potentials (CPCP) on electric field boundary conditions applied to the Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E). The empirical Weimer model of CPCP is chosen as the reference model and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program CPCP measurements as the reference data. Using temporal correlations from a statistical analysis of the "errors" between the reference model and data, we construct a Monte Carlo CPCP discrete time series model that can be generalized to other model boundary conditions. RCM-E simulations using electric field boundary conditions from the reference model and from 20 randomly generated Monte Carlo discrete time series of CPCP are performed for two large storms. During the 10 August 2000 storm main phase, the proton density at 10 RE at midnight was observed to be low (Dst index is bounded by the simulated Dst values. In contrast, the simulated Dst values during the recovery phases of the 10 August 2000 and 31 August 2005 storms tend to underestimate systematically the observed late Dst recovery. This suggests a need to improve the accuracy of particle loss calculations in the RCM-E model. Application of this technique can aid modelers to make efficient choices on either investing more effort on improving specification of boundary conditions or on improving descriptions of physical processes.

  8. Structure of the marine boundary layer over north western Indian Ocean during 1983 summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Michael, G.S.; Rao, L.V.G.

    regions namely (a) the western region (from east Africa up to 56 ° E); (b) the central region (from 56 ° E to about 65 ° E) and (c) the eastern region (east of 65 ° E). The western and eastern regions were characterised by strong convective activity... and the central region by large-scale subsidence. Desai (1975) found a southerly wind component, its depth increasing to the west of 60 ° E. He also observed low level jet streams over the western Indian Ocean region between 850 and 700 mb and high humidity...

  9. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  10. Conflict in the Currents: The Cross-boundary Consequences of Larval Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J. A.; Ramesh, N.; Dookie, D.

    2016-02-01

    As commercial fish populations decline in many regions, the increasing demand for ocean resources can create conflicts along international boundaries. Because fish stock ranges do not respect political boundaries, neighboring countries can impact each other through the management of the stocks within their exclusive economic zones. By combining spawning and larvae information from the FishBase database with current velocities from ocean reanalyses using a particle tracking scheme, we construct a measure of the cross-boundary diffusion of fish larvae for 40 major exploited species. These flows represent important connections both for fish populations and for fisheries and the people who depend on them, but these connections rely on fisheries management in the 'source' countries. We then use socioeconomic data on the national importance of these fish to identify hotspots for potential conflict. Finally, we consider how ranges will shift under climate change, and the social impacts of these shifts.

  11. Wintertime re-ventilation of the East Greenland Current's Atlantic-origin Overflow Water in the western Iceland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våge, Kjetil; Håvik, Lisbeth; Papritz, Lukas; Spall, Michael; Moore, Kent

    2017-04-01

    The Deep Western Boundary Current constitutes the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, and, as such, is a crucial component of the Earth's climate system. The largest and densest contribution to the current stems from the overflow plume that passes through Denmark Strait. A main source of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is the East Greenland Current (EGC). The DSOW transported by the EGC originates from the Atlantic inflow into the Nordic Seas. This is then transformed into Atlantic-origin Overflow Water while progressing northward through the eastern part of the Nordic Seas. Here we show, using measurements from autonomous gliders deployed from fall 2015 to spring 2016, that the Atlantic-origin Overflow Water transported toward Denmark Strait by the EGC was re-ventilated while transiting the western Iceland Sea in winter. In summer, this region is characterized by an upper layer of cold, fresh Polar Surface Water that is thought to prevent convection. But in fall and winter this fresh water mass is diverted toward the Greenland shelf by enhanced northerly winds, which results in a water column that is preconditioned for convection. Severe heat loss from the ocean to the atmosphere offshore of the ice edge subsequently causes the formation of deep mixed layers. This further transforms the Atlantic-origin Overflow Water and impacts the properties of the DSOW, and hence the deepest and densest component of the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

  12. Charge and current transport in open field lines turbulence: Influence of plasma-surface boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futtersack, R., E-mail: romain.futtersack@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hagelaar, G. [Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Ghendrih, Ph.; Simonin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the impact of both parallel and transverse boundary conditions on the current and charge transport in open field line systems using the TOKAM2D code, which solves a minimal model for interchange turbulence. Various limit test cases are discussed and analyzed. In the parallel direction, the sheath conductivity is found to play an essential role in the stabilization of large-scale potential structures, leading to the formation of transport channel or transport barrier respectively for an insulating end wall or a wall with an enhanced sheath conductivity. On another hand, the addition of transverse boundary conditions intrinsically changes the transport characteristics, influencing both radial profiles and probability density functions. It underlines that in some cases a detailed description of the plasma-wall interaction process is required to get a proper description of the current loop pattern that determines electrostatic turbulent transport.

  13. Calpionellid distribution and microfacies across the Jurassic/ Cretaceous boundary in western Cuba (Sierra de los Órganos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rafael; Barragán, Ricardo; Reháková, Daniela; Cobiella-Reguera, Jorge Luis

    2013-06-01

    A detailed bed-by-bed sampled stratigraphic section of the Guasasa Formation in the Rancho San Vicente area of the "Sierra de los Órganos", western Cuba, provides well-supported evidence about facies and calpionellid distribution across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. These new data allowed the definition of an updated and sound calpionellid biozonation scheme for the section. In this scheme, the drowning event of a carbonate platform displayed by the facies of the San Vicente Member, the lowermost unit of the section, is dated as Late Tithonian, Boneti Subzone. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary was recognized within the facies of the overlying El Americano Member on the basis of the acme of Calpionella alpina Lorenz. The boundary is placed nearly six meters above the contact between the San Vicente and the El Americano Members, in a facies linked to a sea-level drop. The recorded calpionellid bioevents should allow correlations of the Cuban biozonation scheme herein proposed, with other previously published schemes from distant areas of the Tethyan Domain.

  14. Motions of quantized vortices attached to a boundary in alternating currents of superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, H.; Hashimoto, N.; Handa, A.; Obara, K.; Ishikawa, O.; Hata, T.; Nakagawa, M.

    2007-01-01

    The motions of superfluid vortices attached to a boundary are investigated in alternating currents by using a vibrating wire. The attached vortices appear to form a layer on the wire and enhance the mass of the wire, even for low velocity currents. In turbulence, chaotic motions of vortices such as entanglement and reconnection reduce the thickness of the layer in spite of the fact that the vortices unstably expand. When turbulence subsides, the attached vortices appear to shrink, with the degree of shrinking influenced by thermal excitations in the superfluid

  15. The Density Jump at the Inner Core Boundary in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, D. N.; Ovtchinnikov, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    The results of analysis of more than 1300 new PKiKP/PcP amplitude ratios measured in Southeast Asia and South America at the epicentral distances of 3.2°-35.2° are presented. The density jump in the Eastern Hemisphere of the Earth's inner core (IC) is 0.3 g/cm3, and it is 0.9 g/cm3 in the Western one. Taking the large discrepancy in the obtained estimates into consideration, maintenance of such large lateral variations in the mosaic properties of the IC reflecting surface requires considerable variations in the thermodynamic parameters (mostly temperature) of the inner-outer core transition. However, if the observed asymmetry in the density jump distribution is of a global character, the data presented support the translation model of the IC dynamics. This model implies IC crystallization in the Western Hemisphere and melting in the Eastern one, not vice versa, as suggested by another geodynamic model based on thermochemical convection in the outer core and the thermal balance of the core-mantle system.

  16. Theory and observations of upward field-aligned currents at the magnetopause boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Simon; Johnson, Jay R

    2015-11-16

    The dependence of the upward field-aligned current density ( J ‖ ) at the dayside magnetopause boundary layer is well described by a simple analytic model based on a velocity shear generator. A previous observational survey confirmed that the scaling properties predicted by the analytical model are applicable between 11 and 17 MLT. We utilize the analytic model to predict field-aligned currents using solar wind and ionospheric parameters and compare with direct observations. The calculated and observed parallel currents are in excellent agreement, suggesting that the model may be useful to infer boundary layer structures. However, near noon, where velocity shear is small, the kinetic pressure gradients and thermal currents, which are not included in the model, could make a small but significant contribution to J ‖ . Excluding data from noon, our least squares fit returns log( J ‖,max_cal ) = (0.96 ± 0.04) log( J ‖_obs ) + (0.03 ± 0.01) where J ‖,max_cal = calculated J ‖,max and J ‖_obs = observed J ‖ .

  17. CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY AT THE LUKAC SECTION IN WESTERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEA KOLAR-JURKOVSEK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Detailed conodont biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Late Permian and Early Triassic beds were studied at the LukaC section in western Slovenia. The analyzed section is composed of the Bellerophon Formation ("evaporite-dolomite member" and the newly introduced Lukaè Formation ("transitional beds", "streaky limestone member" and "carbonate-clastic beds member". The Permian-Triassic boundary interval is represented by "transitional beds" of carbonate facies deposited in shallow restricted marine conditions. The presence of H. parvus in sample L1 in the "transitional beds" marks the systemic boundary between Permian and Triassic. The studied interval is characterized by a diverse microfauna that contain conodonts, foraminifers, ostracods and gastropods. Six conodont zones have been recognized, in ascending order, the latest Changhsingian (uppermost Permian praeparvus Zone, and the Griesbachian (lowermost Triassic parvus, lobata, staeschei-isarcica, postparvus and anceps zones. This faunal succession represents the first known and the most complete conodont biozonation across the Permian-Triassic interval from the entire Dinaric region. The recognized conodont biozones can be correlated with the biozonation of the Southern Alps and of the GSSP Meishan D section. 

  18. Open-boundary Ehrenfest molecular dynamics: towards a model of current induced heating in nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsfield, Andrew P; Bowler, D R; Fisher, A J

    2004-01-01

    We present a time-dependent method based on the single-particle electron density matrix that allows the electronic and ionic degrees of freedom to be modelled within the Ehrenfest approximation in the presence of open boundaries. We describe a practical implementation using tight binding, and use it to investigate steady-state conduction through a single-atom device and to perform molecular dynamics. We find that in the Ehrenfest approximation an electric current allows both ionic heating and cooling to take place, depending on the bias. (letter to the editor)

  19. External kinks in plasmas with helical boundary deformation and net toroidal current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardelea, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1997-11-01

    The investigation of the global ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of plasmas with helical boundary shape and nonvanishing toroidal plasma current constitutes the principal aim of this work. Global external modes with small values of m,n (typically n = 1,2,3 and m = n+1) are studied, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. The first and main part of the work concentrates on fixed boundary equilibria generated by systematically varying parameters such as the type and the magnitude of the boundary deformation, the number of equilibrium field periods N{sub per}, the aspect ratio, the toroidal current density profile, {beta} and the pressure profile. Due to the periodicity of the equilibrium, couplings between Fourier perturbation components with different toroidal mode numbers n occur and lead to the apparition of families of modes. The study of a particular (m,n) mode has to take into account all (m{sub l}, n{sub l}) perturbation components with n{sub 1} belonging to the same family as n. The stability analysis is carried out in the parameter region where the inverse rotational transform (the safety factor in the traditional tokamak notation) q{<=}2.0 and {beta}{<=}2%. A particular property of the configurations investigated is that equilibrium Fourier components (m{sub e}, N{sub per}n{sub e}) which are involved in the couplings between the (m,n) mode studied and the (m{sub k},n{sub k}) perturbation components with m{sub k}>n{sub k}>n that exhibit resonances in the q>1 region are very small. As a consequence, the contributions of the (m,n)x(m{sub k},n{sub k}) couplings to the potential energy are very weak. It is shown that a helical boundary deformation can stabilize the n=1,2,3 external modes; if {delta} is a measure of the plasma boundary deformation, then windows of stability [{delta}{sub min}, {delta}{sub max}] may exist for a large variety of equilibrium parameters. (author) figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  20. On the nature of meandering of the springtime western boundary current in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; BharatRaj, G.N.; Chaudhuri, A.H.; Babu, M.T.; Sengupta, D.

    2192 Ocean Prediction System: Assimilation Strategies and Structured Data Models, inModern Approaches to Data Assimilation in Ocean Modeling, (Ed.P. Malanotte-Rizzoli), Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 413–452. Legeckis, R...

  1. DROPOUTS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES: ASSOCIATED WITH LOCAL TRAPPING BOUNDARIES OR CURRENT SHEETS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent observations by the Advanced Composition Explorer, the intensity of solar energetic particles exhibits sudden, large changes known as dropouts. These have been explained in terms of turbulence or a flux tube structure in the solar wind. Dropouts are believed to indicate filamentary magnetic connection to a localized particle source near the solar surface, and computer simulations of a random-phase model of magnetic turbulence have indicated a spatial association between dropout features and local trapping boundaries (LTBs) defined for a two-dimensional (2D) + slab model of turbulence. Previous observations have shown that dropout features are not well associated with sharp magnetic field changes, as might be expected in the flux tube model. Random-phase turbulence models do not properly treat sharp changes in the magnetic field, such as current sheets, and thus cannot be tested in this way. Here, we explore the properties of a more realistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence model (2D MHD), in which current sheets develop and the current and magnetic field have characteristic non-Gaussian statistical properties. For this model, computer simulations that trace field lines to determine magnetic connection from a localized particle source indicate that sharp particle gradients should frequently be associated with LTBs, sometimes with strong 2D magnetic fluctuations, and infrequently with current sheets. Thus, the 2D MHD + slab model of turbulent fluctuations includes some realistic features of the flux tube view and is consistent with the lack of an observed association between dropouts and intense magnetic fields or currents.

  2. Electron-beam-induced current study of small-angle grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Sekiguchi, T.; Xie, R.; Ahmet, P.; Chikyo, T.; Yang, D.; Ito, S.; Yin, F.

    2005-01-01

    Recombination activity of small-angle grain boundaries (SA GBs) in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) was studied by means of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) technique. In the as-grown mc-Si, the EBIC contrasts of special Σ and random GBs were weak at both 300 and 100 K, whereas those of SA GBs were weak (<3%) at 300 K and strong (30-40%) at 100 K. In the contaminated mc-Si, SA GBs showed stronger EBIC contrast than Σ and R GBs at 300 K. It is indicated that SA GBs possess high density of shallow levels and are easily contaminated with Fe compared to other GBs

  3. A Zero Input Current Ripple ZVS/ZCS Boost Converter with Boundary-Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to achieve zero ripple conditions, the use of a ripple mirror (RM circuit for the boost converter is proposed. The operation modes are studied and steady-state analyses performed to show the merits of the proposed converter. It is found that the proposed RM circuit technique can provide much better flexibility than the two-phase interleaved boost converter for locating the zero ripple operating point in the design stage. In addition, the choice of using a boundary-mode control is mainly based on the consideration of achieving both ZVS (zero voltage switching/ZCS (zero current switching soft-switching and constant on-time control for the converter. To verify the performance of the proposed converter, a 48 V input and 200 W/200 V output prototype is constructed. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  4. Constructing integrable full-pressure full-current free-boundary stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    For stellarators to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands, caused by Pfirsch-Schlueter currents, diamagnetic currents and resonant coil fields, are guaranteed to exist. The challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary full-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the PIES code [Comp. Phys. Comm., 43:157, 1986] which iterates the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to lie in the nullspace of certain measures of engineering acceptability and kink stability. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for NCSX [Phys. Plas., 7:1911, 2000]. (author)

  5. Western Gulf of Mexico, June 1993 to June 1994 Average Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_AVG_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  6. Fluctuating hydrodynamics, current fluctuations, and hyperuniformity in boundary-driven open quantum chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, Federico; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Pérez-Espigares, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We consider a class of either fermionic or bosonic noninteracting open quantum chains driven by dissipative interactions at the boundaries and study the interplay of coherent transport and dissipative processes, such as bulk dephasing and diffusion. Starting from the microscopic formulation, we show that the dynamics on large scales can be described in terms of fluctuating hydrodynamics. This is an important simplification as it allows us to apply the methods of macroscopic fluctuation theory to compute the large deviation (LD) statistics of time-integrated currents. In particular, this permits us to show that fermionic open chains display a third-order dynamical phase transition in LD functions. We show that this transition is manifested in a singular change in the structure of trajectories: while typical trajectories are diffusive, rare trajectories associated with atypical currents are ballistic and hyperuniform in their spatial structure. We confirm these results by numerically simulating ensembles of rare trajectories via the cloning method, and by exact numerical diagonalization of the microscopic quantum generator.

  7. A Technical Assessment Of The Current Water Policy Boundary At U.S. Department Of Energy, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2012-01-01

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The

  8. Constructing Integrable High-pressure Full-current Free-boundary Stellarator Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.; Strickler, D.J.; Hirshman, S.P.; Ku, L-P; Lazarus, E.; Brooks, A.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Boozer, A.H.; Fu, G-Y.; Neilson, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schluter currents, diamagnetic currents, and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver [Reiman and Greenside, Comp. Phys. Comm. 43 (1986) 157] which iterate s the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Reiman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8 (May 2001) 2083

  9. Constructing integrable high-pressure full-current free-boundary stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schlueter currents, diamagnetic currents and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (Reiman and Greenside 1986 Comput. Phys. Commun. 43 157) which iterates the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator eXperiment (Reiman et al 2001 Phys. Plasma 8 2083). (author)

  10. Effects of the current boundary conditions at the plasma-gun gap on density in SSPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Roman; Lodestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.

    2012-10-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) was a toroidal magnetic-confinement device without toroidal magnetic-field coils or a central transformer but which generated core-plasma currents by dynamo processes driven by coaxial plasma-gun injection into a flux-conserving vessel. Record electron temperatures in a spheromak (Te˜500eV) were achieved, and final results of the SSPX program were reported in [1]. Plasma density, which depended strongly on wall conditions, was an important parameter in SSPX. It was observed that density rises with Igun and that confinement improved as the density was lowered. Shortly after the last experiments, a new feature was added to the Corsica code's solver used to reconstruct SSPX equilibria. Motivated by n=0 fields observed in NIMROD simulations of SSPX, an insulating boundary condition was implemented at the plasma-gun gap. Using this option we will perform new reconstructions of SSPX equilibria and look for correlations between the location of the separatrix (which moves up the gun wall and onto the insulating gap as Igun increases) and plasma density and magnetic-flux amplification [2].[4pt] [1] H. S. McLean, APS, DPP, Dallas, TX, 2008.[0pt] [2] E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1064 (2007).

  11. The low-latitude boundary layer at mid-altitiudes: Relation to large-scale Birkeland currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woch, J.; Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    In this work the authors seek to test a projected relationship between the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) and field aligned currents (FAC), or Birkeland currents. They use the procedure developed by Woch and Lundin for identifying LLBL boundaries. They look for correlations between properties of the FAC and properties of the LLBL. Their results show that in most cases the FAC observed are totally inside the region which exhibits LLBL plasma precipitation. The authors argue that within the biases to their data because of its source, and relative sensitivities, their conclusions support earlier work which argues for the LLBL acting as a source region for FAC features

  12. Current Challenges in Understanding and Forecasting Stable Boundary Layers over Land and Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan eSteeneveld

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is challenging. Many physical processes come into play in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling and heterogeneity, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag. The development of robust stable boundary-layer parameterizations for weather and climate models is difficult because of the multiplicity of processes and their complex interactions. As a result, these models suffer from biases in key variables, such as the 2-m temperature, boundary-layer depth and wind speed. This short paper briefly summarizes the state-of-the-art of stable boundary layer research, and highlights physical processes that received only limited attention so far, in particular orographically-induced gravity wave drag, longwave radiation divergence, and the land-atmosphere coupling over a snow-covered surface. Finally, a conceptual framework with relevant processes and particularly their interactions is proposed.

  13. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current County and Equivalent for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  14. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Alaska Native Regional Corporation for Alaska, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  15. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  16. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  17. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current County and Equivalent for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  18. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  19. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  20. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current County and Equivalent for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  1. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current County and Equivalent for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  2. Mesoscopic current transport in two-dimensional materials with grain boundaries: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2016-01-01

    -configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately...

  3. Direct imaging of enhanced current collection on grain boundaries of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JunHo, E-mail: jhk@incheon.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kim, SeongYeon [Department of Physics, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Ramanathan, Kannan; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M. [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We report on direct imaging of current collection by performing conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) measurement on a complete Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell. The localized current was imaged by milling away the top conductive layer of the device by repeated C-AFM scans. The result exhibits enhanced photocurrent collection on grain boundaries (GBs) of CIGS films, consistent with the argument for electric-field-assisted carrier collection on the GBs.

  4. Influence of the permafrost boundary on dissolved organic matter characteristics in rivers within the Boreal and Taiga plains of western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olefeldt, D; Turetsky, M R; Persson, A

    2014-01-01

    Catchment export of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its downstream degradation in aquatic ecosystems are important components of landscape scale carbon balances. In order to assess the influence of peatland permafrost on river DOM characteristics, we sampled 65 rivers along a 900 km transect crossing into the southern discontinuous permafrost zone on the Boreal and Tundra Plains of western Canada. Catchment peatland cover and catchment location north or south of the permafrost boundary were found together to have strong influences on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DOM chemical composition. River DOC concentrations increased with catchment peatland cover, but were consistently lower for catchments north of the permafrost boundary. In contrast, protein fluorescence (PARAFAC analysis), was unrelated to catchment peatland cover but increased significantly in rivers north of the permafrost boundary. Humic and fulvic acid contribution to DOM fluorescence was lower in rivers draining catchments with large lakes than in other rivers, consistent with extensive photodegradation, but humic and fulvic acid fluorescence were also lower in rivers north of the permafrost boundary than in rivers to the south. We hypothesize that shifts in river DOM characteristics when crossing the permafrost boundary are related to the influence of permafrost on peatland hydrological connectivity to stream networks, peatland DOM characteristics and differences in DOM degradation within aquatic ecosystems. (paper)

  5. Significant Atmospheric Boundary Layer Change Observed above an Agulhas Current Warm Cored Eddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Messager

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The air-sea impact of a warm cored eddy ejected from the Agulhas Retroflection region south of Africa was assessed through both ocean and atmospheric profiling measurements during the austral summer. The presence of the eddy causes dramatic atmospheric boundary layer deepening, exceeding what was measured previously over such a feature in the region. This deepening seems mainly due to the turbulent heat flux anomaly above the warm eddy inducing extensive deep and persistent changes in the atmospheric boundary layer thermodynamics. The loss of heat by turbulent processes suggests that this kind of oceanic feature is an important and persistent source of heat for the atmosphere.

  6. Evolution of a Western Arctic Ice Ocean Boundary Layer and Mixed Layer Across a Developing Thermodynamically Forced Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    heat and momentum transfer with the ice-ocean interface. These two observations demonstrate the intricate interplay between momentum, heat , and...summer evolution events: 1. Modulated shortwave radiative input to the ocean 2. Shoaled the ocean boundary layer increasing ocean heat storage 3... transfer in a stratified oceanic boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., 92(C7), 6977–7986, doi:10.1029/JC092iC07p06977. McPhee, M. G., 1992: Turbulent heat

  7. INTEGRATED STRATIGRAPHY FROM THE CONTRADA FORNAZZO SECTION, MONTE INICI, WESTERN SICILY, ITALY: PROPOSED G.S.S.P. FOR THE BASAL BOUNDARY OF THE TITHONIAN STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIULIO PAVIA

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a definition of the lower boundary stratotype of the Tithonian Stage in the Upper Jurassic succession of Monte Inici, Western Sicily. The upper member of the Rosso Ammonitico Fm. is 27 m thick and shows a typical nodular-calcareous lithofacies; its lower beds have been sampled for biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic purposes. Though the succession is affected by high stratigraphic condensation, the resulting hiatuses have been shown to be below biochronological resolution and thus do not hinder any biostratigraphic definition. The biostratigraphic analysis has been based on the rich ammonite assemblages in which the common genus Hybonoticeras is the index-key for characterizing the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary. Four ammonite biozones have been identified; the basal Tithonian one is defined by the assemblage of Hybonoticeras gr. hybonotum and Haploceras staszycii. The recorded calcareous nannofossil bioevents allow recognition of the V. stradneri and C. mexicana Zones, whose boundary is located a little below the identified Tithonian lower boundary. The paleomagnetic record shows normal polarity in the S. darwini/V. albertinum Zone and mainly reverse polarity in the H. beckeri and H. hybonotum Zones, with three minor normal polarity intervals; the lower boundary of the Tithonian falls in the oldest of these intervals. The integrated multidisciplinary stratigraphic information gathered from the Contrada Fornazzo section defines the lower boundary of the H. hybonotum Zone at the base of Bed 110, and supplies elements of chrono-correlation sufficient to regard this section as a possible G.S.S.P. of the Tithonian Stage.

  8. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resonant Excitation of Boundary Layer Instability of DC Arc Plasma Jet by Current Modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Vladimír; Hrabovský, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2011), s. 827-838 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : dc arc jet * plasma jet oscillations * boundary layer instability * frequency spectra Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/v160841757161758/

  10. Assessing the Influence of Western Boundary Ozone Inflow for the Pacific Northwest Using the AIRPACT-4 Air-Quality Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. K.; Chung, S. H.; Herron-Thorpe, F. L.; Lamb, B. K.; Zhang, R.; Mount, G. H.; Emmons, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    The AIRPACT project has provided state, local and tribal air quality managers in the Pacific and Inland Northwest with state-of-the-art near-real time air quality forecasts, beginning in 2001 (Vaughan et al., 2004). Air-quality modeling is also an important tool for evaluating strategies for complying with the NAAQS, especially as the ozone standard is likely to be tightened from 75 ppb to 60 - 70 ppb. For the Pacific Northwest a perennial issue is the significance of trans-boundary transport effects on air quality. Under the EPA Exceptional Events Policy, for example, a nominal exceedance can be excluded from design value calculation if it can be credibly ascribed to long-range transport (LRT); air-quality modeling is an accepted tool for making a case that LRT contributes to an exceedance, and thus qualifies as an Exceptional Event. Also, evidence is accumulating that local air pollution should sometimes be viewed in the context of baseline pollution levels, and that these baseline levels are influenced by LRT (Wigder et al., 2013). AIRPACT4, a WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ air quality modeling system, uses chemical boundary conditions from global MOZART4 model runs that assimilate MOPITT/TERRA satellite CO (Herron-Thorpe et al., 2012). Here we use a non-reactive tracer species version of CMAQv4.7.1 to develop a chemical climatology describing trans-boundary ozone contributions (across the western boundary only) to the ozone background of the Pacific Northwest, including ozone input to the domain from trans-Pacific transport originating in Asia. Discrete tracers are assigned to the boundary condition ozone from each of the 21 model layers. The modeling results are analyzed for ozone-season months to determine: 1) monthly statistics on the ratio of trans-boundary tracer ozone to standard AIRPACT4 ground level ozone, and 2) the contribution of trans-boundary tracer ozone to episodes of high ozone concentration. Preliminary results will be presented along with discussion of

  11. Current status, distribution, and conservation of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) in midwestern and western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Sheffield

    1997-01-01

    The Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) inhabits open prairie grassland habitat in the midwestern and western US and Canada. For several years now, numbers of this species in North America have been declining at an alarming rate. Currently, Burrowing Owls are listed as endangered in Canada and threatened in Mexico. In the United States, the...

  12. Interaction on boundary of current-conducting and glass-forming phases in cermet films under annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulishova, O.I.; Zyrin, A.V.; Ismalgaliev, R.K.; Izmajlov, Sh.Z.; Kovylyaev, V.V.; Shevchuk, N.V.; Shcherbak, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    The electron-probe microanalysis permits investigating the interaction on the boundary of current-conducting and glass-binding phases in cermet films without noble metals on the base of ruthenium oxide. The performed studies along with experiments on model microsections subject to annealing in different media have shown the differences in the process of formation of structure and properties of cermet resistive elements as well as a significance of the oxidation process of current-conducting phase in formation of high working characteristics of cermet resistors on the base of hexaborides of the rare-earth elements

  13. Global stability of plasmas with helical boundary deformation and net toroidal current against n=1,2 external modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardela, A.; Cooper, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we resume a numerical study of the global stability of plasma with helical boundary deformation and non null net toroidal current. The aim was to see whether external modes with n=1,2 (n toroidal mode number) can be stabilized at values of β inaccessible to the tokamak. L=2,3 configurations with several aspect ratios and different numbers of equilibrium field periods are considered. A large variety of toroidal current densities and different pressure profiles are taken into account. Mercier stability is also investigated. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs

  14. Stratigraphy, plankton communities, and magnetic proxies at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Pieniny Klippen Belt (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michalík, J.; Reháková, D.; Grabowski, J.; Lintnerová, O.; Svobodová, Andrea; Schlögl, J.; Sobien, K.; Schnabl, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2016), s. 303-328 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09979S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : J/K boundary * pelagic limestones * microfauna * nannoplankton * stable C and O isotopes * magnetic susceptibility * northern Tethys Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2016

  15. Influence of vortex-vortex interaction on critical currents across low-angle grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J.; Leonhardt, S.; Kronmüller, H.

    2001-01-01

    Low-angle grain boundaries with misorientation angles θ<5° in optimally doped thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-δ are investigated by magneto-optical imaging. By using a numerical inversion scheme of Biot-Savart's law, the critical current density across the grain boundary can be determined with a spatial resolution of about 5μm. Detailed investigation of the spatially resolved flux density and current density data shows that the current density across the boundary varies with varying local flux density. Combining the corresponding flux and current pattern, it is found that there exists a universal dependency of the grain boundary current on the local flux density. Considering the magnetic vortex-vortex interaction in and in the vicinity of the grain boundary, a model is developed that is able to describe the experimental data.

  16. Western Interventions in Current Wars: Political Justification and Civil Society´s Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Bueno Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, it seems to be an agreement in Western countries in favor of values included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On the other hand, Western countries initiate or intervene in armed conflicts outside their territories, which implies actions contrary to such values. This article examines this apparent contradiction: it describes briefly the international context of contemporary conflicts and it refers to the just-war tradition in order to analyze both the position of the Charter of the United Nations and the justifications given by Western countries. Moreover, the arguments used by the US and the Spanish Governments to justify their interventions in the Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2008 wars, and the responses of civil society are considered.

  17. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  18. Transient, Small-Scale Field-Aligned Currents in the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer During Storm Time Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R.; Sergeev, V. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Varsani, A.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report on field-aligned current observations by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft near the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) during two major substorms on 23 June 2015. Small-scale field-aligned currents were found embedded in fluctuating PSBL flux tubes near the Separatrix region. We resolve, for the first time, short-lived earthward (downward) intense field-aligned current sheets with thicknesses of a few tens of kilometers, which are well below the ion scale, on flux tubes moving equatorward earth ward during outward plasma sheet expansion. They coincide with upward field-aligned electron beams with energies of a few hundred eV. These electrons are most likely due to acceleration associated with a reconnection jet or high-energy ion beam-produced disturbances. The observations highlight coupling of multiscale processes in PSBL as a consequence of magnetotail reconnection.

  19. Estimating boundary currents from satellite altimetry: A case study for the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Shankar, D.; Birol, F.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    A methodology to derive surface geostrophic current from a newly released altimetric sea-level data set is presented. TOPEX/Poseidon data were first completely reprocessed from Geophysical Data Records using new algorithms accommodating marginal...

  20. The Current State of European Studies in North America and of Scholarly Publishing in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacken, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Relates how scholarly publishing in Western Europe feeds into North America. Discusses globalization, regionalism, and particularism; new models and research methodology; Biblio-Darwinism (survival of the fittest publishing languages) and the language of the imprint; differing academic infrastructures of Europe; booming scholarly-title production;…

  1. Ensemble perturbation smoother for optimizing tidal boundary conditions by assimilation of High-Frequency radar surface currents – application to the German Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available High-Frequency (HF radars measure the ocean surface currents at various spatial and temporal scales. These include tidal currents, wind-driven circulation, density-driven circulation and Stokes drift. Sequential assimilation methods updating the model state have been proven successful to correct the density-driven currents by assimilation of observations such as sea surface height, sea surface temperature and in-situ profiles. However, the situation is different for tides in coastal models since these are not generated within the domain, but are rather propagated inside the domain through the boundary conditions. For improving the modeled tidal variability it is therefore not sufficient to update the model state via data assimilation without updating the boundary conditions. The optimization of boundary conditions to match observations inside the domain is traditionally achieved through variational assimilation methods. In this work we present an ensemble smoother to improve the tidal boundary values so that the model represents more closely the observed currents. To create an ensemble of dynamically realistic boundary conditions, a cost function is formulated which is directly related to the probability of each boundary condition perturbation. This cost function ensures that the boundary condition perturbations are spatially smooth and that the structure of the perturbations satisfies approximately the harmonic linearized shallow water equations. Based on those perturbations an ensemble simulation is carried out using the full three-dimensional General Estuarine Ocean Model (GETM. Optimized boundary values are obtained by assimilating all observations using the covariances of the ensemble simulation.

  2. Fuzzy boundaries: color and gene flow patterns among parapatric lineages of the western shovel-nosed snake and taxonomic implication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin A Wood

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of lineage diversity is increasingly important, as species distributions are becoming more reduced and threatened. During the last century, the subspecies category was often used to denote phenotypic variation within a species range and to provide a framework for understanding lineage differentiation, often considered incipient speciation. While this category has largely fallen into disuse, previously recognized subspecies often serve as important units for conservation policy and management when other information is lacking. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic subspecies hypotheses within shovel-nosed snakes on the basis of genetic data and considered how evolutionary processes such as gene flow influenced possible incongruence between phenotypic and genetic patterns. We used both traditional phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses to infer range-wide genetic structure and spatially explicit analyses to detect possible boundary locations of lineage contact. Multilocus analyses supported three historically isolated groups with low to moderate levels of contemporary gene exchange. Genetic data did not support phenotypic subspecies as exclusive groups, and we detected patterns of discordance in areas where three subspecies are presumed to be in contact. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, we suggested that species-level diversity is underestimated in this group and we proposed that two species be recognized, Chionactis occipitalis and C. annulata. In addition, we recommend retention of two subspecific designations within C. annulata (C. a. annulata and C. a. klauberi that reflect regional shifts in both genetic and phenotypic variation within the species. Our results highlight the difficultly in validating taxonomic boundaries within lineages that are evolving under a time-dependent, continuous process.

  3. Fuzzy boundaries: color and gene flow patterns among parapatric lineages of the western shovel-nosed snake and taxonomic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A; Fisher, Robert N; Vandergast, Amy G

    2014-01-01

    Accurate delineation of lineage diversity is increasingly important, as species distributions are becoming more reduced and threatened. During the last century, the subspecies category was often used to denote phenotypic variation within a species range and to provide a framework for understanding lineage differentiation, often considered incipient speciation. While this category has largely fallen into disuse, previously recognized subspecies often serve as important units for conservation policy and management when other information is lacking. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic subspecies hypotheses within shovel-nosed snakes on the basis of genetic data and considered how evolutionary processes such as gene flow influenced possible incongruence between phenotypic and genetic patterns. We used both traditional phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses to infer range-wide genetic structure and spatially explicit analyses to detect possible boundary locations of lineage contact. Multilocus analyses supported three historically isolated groups with low to moderate levels of contemporary gene exchange. Genetic data did not support phenotypic subspecies as exclusive groups, and we detected patterns of discordance in areas where three subspecies are presumed to be in contact. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, we suggested that species-level diversity is underestimated in this group and we proposed that two species be recognized, Chionactis occipitalis and C. annulata. In addition, we recommend retention of two subspecific designations within C. annulata (C. a. annulata and C. a. klauberi) that reflect regional shifts in both genetic and phenotypic variation within the species. Our results highlight the difficultly in validating taxonomic boundaries within lineages that are evolving under a time-dependent, continuous process.

  4. A Mesoscale Model-Based Climatography of Nocturnal Boundary-Layer Characteristics over the Complex Terrain of North-Western Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stefano; De Wekker, Stephan F J; Knievel, Jason C

    Nocturnal boundary-layer phenomena in regions of complex topography are extremely diverse and respond to a multiplicity of forcing factors, acting primarily at the mesoscale and microscale. The interaction between different physical processes, e.g., drainage promoted by near-surface cooling and ambient flow over topography in a statically stable environment, may give rise to special flow patterns, uncommon over flat terrain. Here we present a climatography of boundary-layer flows, based on a 2-year archive of simulations from a high-resolution operational mesoscale weather modelling system, 4DWX. The geographical context is Dugway Proving Ground, in north-western Utah, USA, target area of the field campaigns of the MATERHORN (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program) project. The comparison between model fields and available observations in 2012-2014 shows that the 4DWX model system provides a realistic representation of wind speed and direction in the area, at least in an average sense. Regions displaying strong spatial gradients in the field variables, thought to be responsible for enhanced nocturnal mixing, are typically located in transition areas from mountain sidewalls to adjacent plains. A key dynamical process in this respect is the separation of dynamically accelerated downslope flows from the surface.

  5. Multiscale wind cycles and current pulses at the Black Sea eastern boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. Currently, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as

  6. Sensitivity of quantitative precipitation forecasts to boundary layer parameterization: a flash flood case study in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zampieri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Montserrat-2000' severe flash flood event which occurred over Catalonia on 9 and 10 June 2000 is analyzed. Strong precipitation was generated by a mesoscale convective system associated with the development of a cyclone. The location of heavy precipitation depends on the position of the cyclone, which, in turn, is found to be very sensitive to various model characteristics and initial conditions. Numerical simulations of this case study using the hydrostatic BOLAM and the non-hydrostatic MOLOCH models are performed in order to test the effects of different formulations of the boundary layer parameterization: a modified version of the Louis (order 1 model and a custom version of the E-ℓ (order 1.5 model. Both of them require a diagnostic formulation of the mixing length, but the use of the turbulent kinetic energy equation in the E-ℓ model allows to represent turbulence history and non-locality effects and to formulate a more physically based mixing length. The impact of the two schemes is different in the two models. The hydrostatic model, run at 1/5 degree resolution, is less sensitive, but the quantitative precipitation forecast is in any case unsatisfactory in terms of localization and amount. Conversely, the non-hydrostatic model, run at 1/50 degree resolution, is capable of realistically simulate timing, position and amount of precipitation, with the apparently superior results obtained with the E-ℓ parameterization model.

  7. Critical current behaviour of YBCO thin films described by vortex pinning on low-angle domain boundaries and vortex creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchanskiy, I.A.; Pan, A.V.; Fedoseev, S.A.; Shcherbakova, O.V.; Dou, S.X.

    2012-01-01

    A pinning potential for vortices was introduced assuming plastic pinning of vortex lattice on chains of out-of-plane individual edge dislocations that form low-angle domain boundaries in high quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films. Using this pinning potential with the classical Kim-Anderson vortex creep approach a model for critical current dependence on field has been successfully developed. The model shows a plausible description of J c (B a ) over the entire field range. Electrical field criterion is incorporated providing the ability to compare measurements made with different criteria (including different measurement techniques). Applicability of this model has been verified by experimental data obtained by direct transport and magnetisation measurements on high quality films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Pinning potential obtained from the fitting procedure is consistent with theoretical predictions. The model showed that the effective pinning landscape changes under influence of external conditions.

  8. Active tectonic deformation of the western Indian plate boundary: A case study from the Chaman Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupa, Wanda E.; Khan, Shuhab D.; Huang, Jingqiu; Khan, Abdul S.; Kasi, Aimal

    2017-10-01

    Collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in two spatially offset subduction zones, the Makran subduction zone to the south and the Himalayan convergent margin to the north. These zones are linked by a system of left-lateral strike-slip faults known as the Chaman Fault System, ∼1200 km, which spans along western Pakistan. Although this is one of the greatest strike-slip faults, yet temporal and spatial variation in displacement has not been adequately defined along this fault system. This study conducted geomorphic and geodetic investigations along the Chaman Fault in a search for evidence of spatial variations in motion. Four study areas were selected over the span of the Chaman Fault: (1) Tarnak-Rud area over the Tarnak-Rud valley, (2) Spinatizha area over the Spinatizha Mountain Range, (3) Nushki area over the Nushki basin, and (4) Kharan area over the northern tip of the Central Makran Mountains. Remote sensing data allowed for in depth mapping of different components and faults within the Kohjak group. Wind and water gap pairs along with offset rivers were identified using high-resolution imagery and digital-elevation models to show displacement for the four study areas. The mountain-front-sinuosity ratio, valley height-to-width-ratio, and the stream-length-gradient index were calculated and used to determine the relative tectonic activity of each area. These geomorphic indices suggest that the Kharan area is the most active and the Tarnak-Rud area is the least active. GPS data were processed into a stable Indian plate reference frame and analyzed. Fault parallel velocity versus fault normal distance yielded a ∼8-10 mm/yr displacement rate along the Chaman Fault just north of the Spinatizha area. InSAR data were also integrated to assess displacement rates along the fault system. Geodetic data support that ultra-slow earthquakes similar to those that strike along other major strike-slip faults, such as the San Andreas Fault System, are

  9. Currents and upwelling along the Latium coasts in the Central Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rossi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, springtime coastal currents along the Latium coast and their relation to external forcings, mainly wind stress curl and atmospheric pressure, are analysed. As a main result, we find that hydrographical measurements reveal currents parallel to the bottom isobaths, but with isopycnal sloping upwards towards the coast, suggesting the importance of upwellings in determining the coastal currents. This is confirmed by thermal satellite data showing the presence of a ~10-km-wide patch of cold water east of Mount Argentario, i.e. a cyclonic vortex. The current meter data give rather small values of the time-averaged alongshore velocities (~2 cm s–1 for most current meters and ~3 cm s–1 for the current meter placed immediately off the Argentario and also smaller values for the offshore velocities. The correlation between these two types of currents is rather poor; this is also due to the variability characteristic of a wind-induced upwelling. Finally, we obtain a value of 0.74 for the correlation between the alongshore current (first mode of Empirical Orthogonal Functions decomposition and the wind stress if a 23-h time lag is assumed.

  10. New details of bio- and magnetostratigraphical correlations in the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary interval: Lókút (Transdanubial Range, Hngary), Veliky Kamenets (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Ukraine), Barlya (Western Balkan, Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grabowski, J.; Bakhmutov, V.; Haas, J.; Krobicki, M.; Lakova, I.; Petrova, S.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, Petr; Stoykova, K.; Sobien, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120 (2017), s. 100-100 ISSN 1017-8880. [International Symposium on the Cretaceous /10./. 21.08.2017-26.08.2017, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : magnetostratigraphy * Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary interval * Transdanubian Range * Pieniny Klippen Belt * Western Balkan Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. Repeated granitoid intrusions during the Neoproterozoic along the western boundary of the Saharan metacraton, Eastern Hoggar, Tuareg shield, Algeria: An AMS and U-Pb zircon age study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B.; Liégeois, J. P.; Nouar, O.; Derder, M. E. M.; Bayou, B.; Bruguier, O.; Ouabadi, A.; Belhai, D.; Amenna, M.; Hemmi, A.; Ayache, M.

    2009-09-01

    The N-S oriented Raghane shear zone (8°30') delineates the western boundary of the Saharan metacraton and is, with the 4°50' shear zone, the most important shear zone in the Tuareg shield. It can be followed on 1000 km in the basement from southern Aïr, Niger to NE Hoggar, Algeria. Large subhorizontal movements have occurred during the Pan-African orogeny and several groups of granitoids intruded during the Neoproterozoic. We report U-Pb zircon datings (laser ICP-MS) showing that three magmatic suites of granitoids emplaced close to the Raghane shear zone at c. 790 Ma, c. 590 and c. 550 Ma. A comprehensive and detailed (158 sites, more than 1000 cores) magnetic fabric study was performed on 8 plutons belonging to the three magmatic suites and distributed on 200 km along the Raghane shear zone. The main minerals in all the target plutons do not show visible preferential magmatic orientation except in narrow shear zones. The AMS study shows that all plutons have a magnetic lineation and foliation compatible with the deformed zones that are zones deformed lately in post-solidus conditions. These structures are related to the nearby mega-shear zones, the Raghane shear zone for most of them. The old c. 793 Ma Touffok granite preserved locally its original structures. The magnetic structures of the c. 593 Ma Ohergehem pluton, intruded in the Aouzegueur terrane, are related to thrust structures generated by the Raghane shear zone while it is not the case of the contemporaneous plutons in the Assodé-Issalane terrane whose structures are only related to the subvertical shear zones. Finally, the c. 550 Ma granite group has magnetic structure related to the N-S oriented Raghane shear zone and its associated NNE-SSW structures when close to them, but NW-SE oriented when further. These NW-SE oriented structures appear to be characteristic of the late Neoproterozoic evolution of the Saharan metacraton and are in relation to the convergence with the Murzuq craton. This

  12. Managing carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning: Current practices in the Western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by 15 electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without federal climate regulation in the US, the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of US electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  13. Greater Role of Geostrophic Currents on Ekman Dynamics in the Western Arctic Ocean as a Mechanism for Beaufort Gyre Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M.; Zhong, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Seven different methods, with and without including geostrophic currents, were used to explore Ekman dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean for the period 1992-2014. Results show that surface geostrophic currents have been increasing and are much stronger than Ekman layer velocities in recent years (2003-2014) when the oceanic Beaufort Gyre (BG) is spinning up in the region. The new methods that include geostrophic currents result in more realistic Ekman pumping velocities than a previous iterative method that does not consider geostrophic currents and therefore overestimates Ekman pumping velocities by up to 52% in the central area of the BG over the period 2003-2014. When the BG is spinning up as seen in recent years, geostrophic currents become stronger, which tend to modify the ice-ocean stress and to cause an Ekman divergence that counteracts wind-driven Ekman convergence in the Canada Basin. This is a mechanism we have identified to play an important and growing role in stabilizing the Ekman convergence and therefore the BG in recent years. This mechanism may be used to explain three scenarios that describe the interplay of changes in wind forcing, sea ice motion, and geostrophic currents that control the variability of the Ekman dynamics in the central BG during 1992-2014. Results also reveal several upwelling regions in the southern and northern Canada Basin and the Chukchi Abyssal Plain which may plays a significant role in biological processes in these regions.

  14. Greater Role of Geostrophic Currents in Ekman Dynamics in the Western Arctic Ocean as a Mechanism for Beaufort Gyre Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenli; Steele, Michael; Zhang, Jinlun; Zhao, Jinping

    2018-01-01

    Seven different methods, with and without including geostrophic currents, were used to explore Ekman dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean for the period 1992-2014. Results show that surface geostrophic currents have been increasing and are much stronger than Ekman layer velocities in recent years (2003-2014) when the oceanic Beaufort Gyre (BG) is spinning up in the region. The new methods that include geostrophic currents result in more realistic Ekman pumping velocities than a previous iterative method that does not consider geostrophic currents and therefore overestimates Ekman pumping velocities by up to 52% in the central area of the BG over the period 2003-2014. When the BG is spinning up as seen in recent years, geostrophic currents become stronger, which tend to modify the ice-ocean stress and moderate the wind-driven Ekman convergence in the Canada Basin. This is a mechanism we have identified to play an important and growing role in stabilizing the Ekman convergence and therefore the BG in recent years. This mechanism may be used to explain three scenarios that describe the interplay of changes in wind forcing, sea ice motion, and geostrophic currents that control the variability of the Ekman dynamics in the central BG during 1992-2014. Results also reveal several upwelling regions in the southern and northern Canada Basin and the Chukchi Abyssal Plain which may play a significant role in physical and biological processes in these regions.

  15. Identifications of the polar cap boundary and the auroral belt in the high-altitude magnetosphere: a model for field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1975-01-01

    By means of the Ogo 5 Goddard Space Flight Center fluxgate magnetometer data the polar cap boundary is identified in the high-altitude magnetosphere by a sudden transition from a dipolar field to a more taillike configuration. It is inferred that there exists a field-aligned-current layer at the polar cap boundary. In the night side magnetosphere the polar cap boundary is identified as the high-latitude boundary of the plasma sheet. The field-aligned current flows downward to the ionosphere on the morning side of the magnetosphere and upward from the ionosphere on the afternoon side. The basic pattern of the magnetic field variations observed during the satellite's traversal of the auroral belt is presented. Currents flow in opposite directions in the two field-aligned-current layers. The current directions in these layers as observed by Ogo 5 in the high-altitude magnetosphere are the same as those observed at low altitudes by the polar-orbiting Triad satellite (Armstrong and Zmuda, 1973). The magnetic field in the region where the lower-latitude field-aligned-current layer is situated is essentially meridional. A model is presented in which two field-aligned-current systems, one at the polar cap boundary and the other on the low-latitude part of the auroral belt, are main []y connected by ionospheric currents flowing across the auroral belt. The existence of field-aligned currents deduced from the Ogo 5 observations is a permanent feature of the magnetosphere. Intensifications of the field-aligned currents and occurrences of multiple pairs of field-aligned-current layers characterize the disturbed conditions of these regions

  16. Watermass structure and current system in the equatorial western Indian Ocean during August, 1985

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Reddy, G.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    . At the equator, currents were computed using Montgomery's method. Westerly flows near Equator and easterly flows on either side of the equator are deduced. The presence of the Arabian Sea surface water, the Red Sea water, and Pacific low salinity water is noticed...

  17. Water Resource Impacts Embedded in the Western US Electrical Energy Trade; Current Patterns and Adaptation to Future Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E. A.; Herron, S.; Qiu, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources are a key element in the global coupled natural-human (CNH) system, because they are tightly coupled with the world's social, environmental, and economic subsystems, and because water resources are under increasing pressure worldwide. A fundamental adaptive tool used especially by cities to overcome local water resource scarcity is the outsourcing of water resource impacts through substitutionary economic trade. This is generally understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as ';virtual water' trade. This work employs generalized CNH methods to reveal the trade in water resource impacts embedded in electrical energy within the Western US power grid, and utilizes a general equilibrium economic trade model combined with drought and demand growth constraints to estimate the future status of this trade. Trade in embedded water resource impacts currently increases total water used for electricity production in the Western US and shifts water use to more water-limited States. Extreme drought and large increases in electrical energy demand increase the need for embedded water resource impact trade, while motivating a shift to more water-efficient generation technologies and more water-abundant generating locations. Cities are the largest users of electrical energy, and in the 21st Century will outsource a larger fraction of their water resource impacts through trade. This trade exposes cities to risks associated with disruption of long-distance transmission and distant hydrological droughts.

  18. Prototyping global Earth System Models at high resolution: Representation of climate, ecosystems, and acidification in Eastern Boundary Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.; Stock, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The world's major Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) such as the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) are critically important areas for global fisheries. Computational limitations have divided past EBC modeling into two types: high resolution regional approaches that resolve the strong meso-scale structures involved, and coarse global approaches that represent the large scale context for EBCs, but only crudely resolve only the largest scales of their manifestation. These latter global studies have illustrated the complex mechanisms involved in the climate change and acidification response in these regions, with the CCLME response dominated not by local adjustments but large scale reorganization of ocean circulation through remote forcing of water-mass supply pathways. While qualitatively illustrating the limitations of regional high resolution studies in long term projection, these studies lack the ability to robustly quantify change because of the inability of these models to represent the baseline meso-scale structures of EBCs. In the present work, we compare current generation coarse resolution (one degree) and a prototype next generation high resolution (1/10 degree) Earth System Models (ESMs) from NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in representing the four major EBCs. We review the long-known temperature biases that the coarse models suffer in being unable to represent the timing and intensity of upwelling-favorable winds, along with lack of representation of the observed high chlorophyll and biological productivity resulting from this upwelling. In promising contrast, we show that the high resolution prototype is capable of representing not only the overall meso-scale structure in physical and biogeochemical fields, but also the appropriate offshore extent of temperature anomalies and other EBC characteristics. Results for chlorophyll were mixed; while high resolution chlorophyll in EBCs were strongly enhanced over the coarse resolution

  19. Bootstrap current control studies in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator using the free-plasma-boundary version of the SIESTA MHD equilibrium code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Rodriguez, H.; Reynolds-Barredo, J. M.; Sanchez, R.; Tribaldos, V.; Geiger, J.

    2018-02-01

    The recently developed free-plasma-boundary version of the SIESTA MHD equilibrium code (Hirshman et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 062504; Peraza-Rodriguez et al 2017 Phys. Plasmas 24 082516) is used for the first time to study scenarios with considerable bootstrap currents for the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. Bootstrap currents in the range of tens of kAs can lead to the formation of unwanted magnetic island chains or stochastic regions within the plasma and alter the boundary rotational transform due to the small shear in W7-X. The latter issue is of relevance since the island divertor operation of W7-X relies on a proper positioning of magnetic island chains at the plasma edge to control the particle and energy exhaust towards the divertor plates. Two scenarios are examined with the new free-plasma-boundary capabilities of SIESTA: a freely evolving bootstrap current one that illustrates the difficulties arising from the dislocation of the boundary islands, and a second one in which off-axis electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) is applied to compensate the effects of the bootstrap current and keep the island divertor configuration intact. SIESTA finds that off-axis ECCD is indeed able to keep the location and phase of the edge magnetic island chain unchanged, but it may also lead to an undesired stochastization of parts of the confined plasma if the EC deposition radial profile becomes too narrow.

  20. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies......This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....

  1. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    2001-05-01

    precipitation (AO is mapped to the dawn periphery of the Central Plasma Sheet (CPS; the soft small scale structured precipitation (SSSL is mapped to the outer magnetosphere close to the magnetopause, i.e. the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL. In the near-noon sector, earthward fluxes of soft electrons, which cause the Diffuse Red Aurora (DRA, are observed. The ion energies decrease with increasing latitude. The plasma spectra of the DRA regime are analogous to the spectra of the Plasma Mantle (PM. In the dawn sector, the large-scale field-aligned currents flow into the ionosphere at the SSSL latitudes (Region 1 and flow out at the AO or DAZ latitudes (Region 2. In the dawn and dusk sectors, the large-scale Region 1 and Region 2 FAC generation occurs in different plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere. The dawn and dusk FAC connection to the traditional Region 1 and Region 2 has only formal character, as FAC generating in various magnetospheric plasma domains integrate in the same region (Region 1 or Region 2. In the SSSL, there is anti-sunward convection; in the DAZ and the AO, there is the sunward convection. At PM latitudes, the convection is controlled by the azimuthal IMF component (By . It is suggested to extend the notation of the plasma pattern boundaries, as proposed by Newell et al. (1996, for the nightside sector of the auroral oval to the dawn sector.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasma convection

  2. Structure of the auroral precipitation region in the dawn sector: relationship to convection reversal boundaries and field-aligned currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    electrons and isotropic ion precipitation (AO is mapped to the dawn periphery of the Central Plasma Sheet (CPS; the soft small scale structured precipitation (SSSL is mapped to the outer magnetosphere close to the magnetopause, i.e. the Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL. In the near-noon sector, earthward fluxes of soft electrons, which cause the Diffuse Red Aurora (DRA, are observed. The ion energies decrease with increasing latitude. The plasma spectra of the DRA regime are analogous to the spectra of the Plasma Mantle (PM. In the dawn sector, the large-scale field-aligned currents flow into the ionosphere at the SSSL latitudes (Region 1 and flow out at the AO or DAZ latitudes (Region 2. In the dawn and dusk sectors, the large-scale Region 1 and Region 2 FAC generation occurs in different plasma domains of the distant magnetosphere. The dawn and dusk FAC connection to the traditional Region 1 and Region 2 has only formal character, as FAC generating in various magnetospheric plasma domains integrate in the same region (Region 1 or Region 2. In the SSSL, there is anti-sunward convection; in the DAZ and the AO, there is the sunward convection. At PM latitudes, the convection is controlled by the azimuthal IMF component (By . It is suggested to extend the notation of the plasma pattern boundaries, as proposed by Newell et al. (1996, for the nightside sector of the auroral oval to the dawn sector.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; plasma convection

  3. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  4. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  5. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  6. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, 115th Congressional Districts within Current County and Equivalent for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  7. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, 115th Congressional Districts within Current County and Equivalent for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  8. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  9. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined New England City and Town Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  10. Series Information File for the 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Secondary School District, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  11. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  12. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  13. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  14. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States,1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  15. Trophic modeling of Eastern Boundary Current Systems: a review and prospectus for solving the “Peruvian Puzzle”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc H. Taylor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Current systems (EBCSs are among the most productive fishing areas in the world. High primary and secondary productivity supports a large biomass of small planktivorous pelagic fish, “small pelagics”, which are important drivers of production to the entire system whereby they can influence both higher and lower trophic levels. Environmental variability causes changes in plankton (food quality and quantity, which can affect population sizes, distribution and domi-nance among small pelagics. This variability combined with impacts from the fishery complicate the development of management strategies. Consequently, much recent work has been in the development of multispecies trophic models to better understand interdependencies and system dynamics. Despite similarities in extent, structure and primary productivity between EBCSs, the Peruvian system greatly differs from the others in the magnitude of fish catches, due mainly to the incredible production of the anchovy Engraulis ringens. This paper reviews literature concerning EBCSs dynamics and the state-of-the-art in the trophic modeling of EBCSs. The objective is to critically analyze the potential of this approach for system understanding and management and to adapt existing steady-state models of the Peruvian system for use in (future dynamic simulations. A guideline for the construction of trophodynamic models is presented taking into account the important trophic and environmental interactions. In consideration of the importance of small pelagics for the system dynamics, emphasis is placed on developing appropriate model compartmentalization and spatial delineation that facilitates dynamic simulations. Methods of model validation to historical changes are presented to support hypotheses concerning EBCS dynamics and as a critical step to the development of predictive models. Finally, the identification of direct model links to easily obtainable abiotic parameters is

  16. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  17. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  18. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  19. The anthropogenic nature of present-day low energy rivers in western France and implications for current restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, L.; Viel, V.; Rollet, A. J.; Delahaye, D.

    2015-12-01

    As in other European countries, western France has seen an increase in river restoration projects. In this paper, we examine the restoration goals, methods and objectives with respect to the long-term trajectory and understanding of the contemporary dynamics of the small low energy rivers typical of the lowlands of Western Europe. The exhaustive geomorphological, paleoenvironmental and historical research conducted in the Seulles river basin (Normandy) provides very accurate documentation of the nature and place of the different legacies in the fluvial systems we have inherited. The sedimentation rate in the Seulles valley bottom has multiplied by a factor of 20 since the end of the Bronze Age and has generated dramatic changes in fluvial forms. Hydraulic control of the rivers and valley bottoms drainage throughout the last millennium has channelized rivers within these deposits. The single meandering channel which characterizes this river today is the legacy of the delayed and complex effects of long term exploitation of the river basin and the fluvial system. Bring to light that the "naturalness" of the restored rivers might be questioned. Our research emphasizes the gap between the poor knowledge of the functioning of these rivers and the concrete objectives of the restoration works undertaken, including dam and weir removal. Account of the long-term history of fluvial systems is required, not only to produce a pedagogic history of the "river degradation" but more fundamentally (i) to situate the current functioning of the fluvial system in a trajectory to try to identify thresholds and anticipate the potential turning points in a context of climate and land use change, (ii) to understand the role of morphosedimentary legacies on the current dynamics, (iii) to open the discussion on reference functioning or expected states and (iv) to open discussion on the sustainability of ecological restoration. To conclude, we point out the necessity to take into account the

  20. [Early suspension of private practice: the current trends for general practitioners in three counties in western France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delansorne, Fanny; Buis, Hélène; Robino, Stéphane; Tomas, Josiane; Huez, Jean-François; Fanello, Serge

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a census of general practitioners in order to better understand their early withdrawal from primary care practice and to assess the impact of such withdrawal on current medical demography. The study covers the withdrawals from January 2000 to December 2005 in three western French counties. Data were collected through the district councils of the practitioners'guild, followed by a questionnaire filled in by 75 doctors. The participation rate was 60%. The study reveals that only 29% of these withdrawals are due to retirement. More than one in two doctors left to pursue another paid employment, and more than 25% chose to relocate their practice in a different area of the county. Two thirds of them were practicing in rural or semi-rural locations. Less than half, 47%, were replaced by a successor. General practitioners surveyed did not stop all professional medical care provision and service activities. Their careers are complex, and they are mobile professionals. The main reasons for suspending their activities in a given location were essentially related to the difficulties they had in dealing with their work loads and in maintaining a healthy work-life balance. They have noted that they will leave a range of possibilities open, either looking for private practice or not, exploring the possibility of primary care or not; the basis of their decision is whether a new position will correspond to their desire of mobility and meet their needs for more free.

  1. Quantifying the relationship between the plasmapause and the inner boundary of small-scale field-aligned currents, as deduced from Swarm observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Balázs; Lühr, Hermann

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of the equatorward boundary of small-scale field-aligned currents (SSFACs) and investigates the relation between this boundary and the plasmapause (PP). The PP data used for validation were derived from in situ electron density observations of NASA's Van Allen Probes. We confirmed the findings of a previous study by the same authors obtained from the observations of the CHAMP satellite SSFAC and the NASA IMAGE satellite PP detections, namely that the two boundaries respond similarly to changes in geomagnetic activity, and they are closely located in the near midnight MLT sector, suggesting a dynamic linkage. Dayside PP correlates with the delayed time history of the SSFAC boundary. We interpreted this behaviour as a direct consequence of co-rotation: the new PP, formed on the night side, propagates to the dayside by rotating with Earth. This finding paves the way toward an efficient PP monitoring tool based on an SSFAC index derived from vector magnetic field observations at low-Earth orbit.

  2. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  3. Response of the polar cap boundary and the current system to changes in IMF observed from the MAGSAT satellite in the southern hemisphere during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.P.; Burrows, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field vector residuals observed from the Magsat satellite have been used to obtain the dependence of the polar cap boundary and the current system on IMF for quiet and mildly disturbed conditions. The study has been carried out for the summer months in the Southern Hemisphere. ''Shear reversals'' (SRs) in vector residuals indicative of the infinite current sheet approximation of the field-aligned currents (FACs) indicate roughly the polar cap boundary or the poleward boundary of the plasma sheet. This is also the poleward edge of the region 1 FACs. The SR is defined to occur at the latitude where the vector goes to minimum and changes direction by approximately 180 0 . It is found that SRs mainly occur when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has a southward-directed Bsub(z) component and in the latitude range of about 70 0 -80 0 . SRs in the dusk sector occur predominantly when the azimuthal component Bsub(y) is positive and in the dawn sector when Bsub(y) is negative, irrespective of the sign of Bsub(z). These results agree with the known merging process of IMF with magnetopause field lines. When SRs occur on both dawn and dusk sectors, the residuals over the entire polar cap are nearly uniform in direction and magnitude, indicating negligible polar currents. Similar behaviour is observed during highly disturbed conditions usually associated with large negative values of Bsub(z). Forty-one Magsat orbits with such SRs are quantitatively modelled for preliminary case studies of the resulting current distribution. It is found that SRs, in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, for the current vectors and the magnetic vector residuals (perturbations relative to the unperturbed field) occur at almost the same latitudes. The electrojet intensities range from 1.2 x 10 4 to 6.5 x 10 5 A (amperes). A preliminary classification of polar cap boundary crossings characterized by vector rotations rather than SRs also shows that they tend to

  4. The Seismic Broad Band Western Mediterranean (wm) Network and the Obs Fomar Pool: Current state and Obs activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Davila, Jose Martin; Buforn, Elisa; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun; Mattesini, Mauricio; Caldeira, Bento; Hanka, Winfried; El Moudnib, Lahcen; Strollo, Angelo; Roca, Antoni; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Dahm, Torsten; Cabieces, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean (WM) seismic network started in 1996 as an initiative of the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), with the collaboration of the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) of Potsdam. A first broad band seismic station (SFUC) was installed close to Cádiz (South Spain). Since then, additional stations have been installed in the Ibero-Moghrebian region. In 2005, the "WM" code was assigned by the FDSN and new partners were jointed: Evora University (UEVO, Portugal), the Scientifique Institute of Rabat (ISRABAT, Morocco), and GFZ. Now days, the WM network is composed by 15 BB stations, all of them with Streckaisen STS-2 or STS-2.5 sensors, Quanterra or Earthdata digitizers and SeiscomP. Most them have co-installed a permanent geodetic GPS stations, and some them also have an accelerometer. There are 10 stations deployed in Spanish territory (5 in the Iberian peninsula, 1 in Balearic islands and 4 in North Africa Spanish places) with VSAT or Internet communications, 2 in Portugal (one of them without real time), and 3 in Morocco (2 VSAT and 1 ADSL). Additionally, 2 more stations (one in South Spain and one in Morocco) will be installed along this year. Additionally ROA has deployed a permanent real time VBB (CMG-3T: 360s) station at the Alboran Island. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), ROA and UCM have acquired six broad band "LOBSTERN" OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), conforming the OBS FOMAR pool. Three of them with CMG-40T sensor and the other with Trillium 120. These OBS were deployed along the Gibraltar strait since January to November 2014 to study the microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. In September 2015 FOMAR network has been deployed in SW of the San Vicente Cape for 8 months as a part of

  5. Conditions for the occurrence of intense turbidity currents in the benthic boundary layer over a sloping bottom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhmur, VV

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of density currents over the continental slope of the ocean is investigated with allowance for the entrainment of the bottom sediments and background liquid in motion. A simple criterion is proposed for determining the possibility of evolving initially weak density currents into bottom

  6. A new artificial diet for western corn rootworm larvae is compatible with and detects resistance to all current Bt toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing one or more genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) is a growing concern for farmers, regulatory agencies, the seed industry, and researchers alike. Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is a pest of corn (Zea mays L.)...

  7. Zoogeography of the San Andreas Fault system: Great Pacific Fracture Zones correspond with spatially concordant phylogeographic boundaries in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottscho, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an ultimate tectonic explanation for several well-studied zoogeographic boundaries along the west coast of North America, specifically, along the boundary of the North American and Pacific plates (the San Andreas Fault system). By reviewing 177 references from the plate tectonics and zoogeography literature, I demonstrate that four Great Pacific Fracture Zones (GPFZs) in the Pacific plate correspond with distributional limits and spatially concordant phylogeographic breaks for a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals, including invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These boundaries are: (1) Cape Mendocino and the North Coast Divide, (2) Point Conception and the Transverse Ranges, (3) Punta Eugenia and the Vizcaíno Desert, and (4) Cabo Corrientes and the Sierra Transvolcanica. However, discussion of the GPFZs is mostly absent from the zoogeography and phylogeography literature likely due to a disconnect between biologists and geologists. I argue that the four zoogeographic boundaries reviewed here ultimately originated via the same geological process (triple junction evolution). Finally, I suggest how a comparative phylogeographic approach can be used to test the hypothesis presented here. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Numerical simulation of electron-beam-induced current near a silicon grain boundary and impact of a p-n junction space charge region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkish, R.; Altermatt, P.P.; Heiser, G. [Photovoltaics Special Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 2052 Sydney (Australia)

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) near a vertical silicon grain boundary are demonstrated. They are compared with an analytical model which excludes the effect of carrier generation other than in the bulk base region of a solar cell structure. We demonstrate that in a wide range of solar cell structures recombination in the space charge region (SCR) significantly affects the EBIC results and hence needs to be included in the data evaluation. Apart from these findings, simulations of a realistic silicon solar cell structure (thick emitter, field-dependent mobility, etc.) are demonstrated.

  9. The Carboniferous-Permian boundary in the central western Argentinean basins: paleontological evidences El límite Carbonífero-Pérmico en las cuencas del centro oeste de Argentina: evidencias paleontológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A Cisterna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The central western Argentinean basins of Río Blanco, Calingasta-Uspallata and western Paganzo, enclose the most complete marine successions used for examining the Carboniferous-Permian boundary in Gondwana. A detailed review of the key stratigraphical sections has allowed the identification of the latest Carboniferous assemblages; NBG, Interval megafloristic Zone and DM (Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata Palynological Zone in the lower part, and the earliest Permian T-S (Tivertonia jachalensis-Streptorhynchus inaequiornatus invertebrate Zone and FS (Pakhapitesfusus-Vittatina subsaccata Palynological Zone in the upper part. This diagnostic mega/microflora and marine invertebrate paleontological evidence provides a biostratigraphical framework for the definition of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary inside the basins of central western Argentina.Las cuencas del centro oeste de Argentina, Río Blanco, Calingasta-Uspallata y el sector oeste de la cuenca Paganzo, contienen las secuencias marinas más completas para el estudio del límite Carbonífero-Pérmico en Gondwana. Un estudio detallado de secciones estratigráficas claves ha permitido la identificación de las asociaciones megaflo-rísticas NBG y de Intervalo, y de la palinozona DM (Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata, del Carbonífero Tardío, en la parte inferior de dichas secciones; en tanto, en la parte media superior de las secciones estudiadas, se han identificado la biozona de invertebrados T-S (Tivertonia jachalensis-Streptorhynchus inaequiornatus y la palinozona FS (Pakhapites fusus-Vittatina subsaccata, ambas asignadas al Pérmico Temprano. El registro de estas asociaciones diagnósticas de mega/microflora e invertebrados marinos provee un esquema bioestratigráfico integrado que permite ubicar el límite Carbonífero-Pérmico en las cuencas del centro oeste de Argentina.

  10. Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a rotating channel with convective boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available The present article has been arranged to study the Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed. Keywords: Rotating frame, Hall current, Joule heating, Convective conditions, Wall properties

  11. Geometry and structure of the pull-apart basins developed along the western South American-Scotia plate boundary (SW Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, F. D.; Tassone, A.; Isola, J. I.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    The South American-Scotia plate boundary is a left-lateral fault system which runs roughly E-W for more than 3000 km across the SW Atlantic Ocean and the Tierra del Fuego Island, reaching to the west the southern Chile Trench. Analyses of a large dataset of single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired offshore has allowed to map the trace of the plate boundary from Tierra del Fuego to the Malvinas Trough, a tectonic depression located in the eastern part of the fault system, and to reconstruct the shape and geometry of the basins formed along the principal displacement zone of the fault system. Three main Neogene pull-apart basins that range from 70 to 100 km in length, and from 12 to 22 km in width, have been identified along this segment of the plate boundary. These basins have elongated shapes with their major axes parallel to the ENE-WSW direction of the fault zone. The sedimentary architecture and the infill geometry of the basins suggest that they represent mostly strike-slip dominated transtension basins which propagated from E to W. The basins imaged by seismic data show in some cases geometrical and structural features linked to the possible reactivation of previous wedge-top basins and inherited structures pertaining to the external front of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust compression belt, along which the South American-Scotia fault system has been superimposed. It is suggested that the sequence of the elongated basins occur symmetrically to a thorough going strike-slip fault, in a left-stepping geometrical arrangement, in a manner similar to those basins seen in other transcurrent environments.

  12. The Use of Online Current Awareness Services by Natural Sciences and Engineering Faculty at Western Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Carrie C.; Eckel, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every commercial database that covers natural sciences and engineering offers some type of current awareness (CA) service that provides regular updates to users on current literature in a selected field of interest. Current awareness services include e-mail alerts, tables of contents, and RSS feeds. This study was designed to find out what…

  13. A boundary-value inverse model and its application to the calculation of tidal oscillation systems in the Western South Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda-Alonso, S.

    1991-01-01

    A Cauchy-Riemann problem is solved for the case of the linearized equations for long waves. The initial-values are amplitudes and phases measured at the coast. No boundary values are made use of. This inverse-problem is solved by starting the calculations at the coast and continuing outwards to the open ocean in a rectangular areas with one side at the coast and the other three at the open ocean. The initial values were expanded into the complex plane to get a platform to perform with the calculations. This non-well-posed problem was solved by means of two different mathematical techniques for comparison. The results produced with the inverse model were compared with those produced with a 'classical' model initialized at the three open boundaries with the results of the inverse model. The oscillating systems produced by both models were quite similar, giving validity to this invese modeling approach which should be a useful technique to solve problems when only initial values are known. (orig.)

  14. The Importance and Current Limitations of Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Retrieval from Space for Land-Atmosphere Coupling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Schaefer, A.

    2016-12-01

    There is an established need for improved PBL remote sounding over land for hydrology, land-atmosphere (L-A), PBL, cloud/convection, pollution/chemistry studies and associated model evaluation and development. Most notably, the connection of surface hydrology (through soil moisture) to clouds and precipitation relies on proper quantification of water's transport through the coupled system, which is modulated strongly by PBL structure, growth, and feedback processes such as entrainment. In-situ (ground-based or radiosonde) measurements will be spatially limited to small field campaigns for the foreseeable future, so satellite data is a must in order to understand these processes globally. The scales of these applications require diurnal resolution (e.g. 3-hourly or finer) at land-PBL coupling and water and energy cycles at their native scales. Today's satellite sensors (e.g. advanced IR, GEO, lidar, GPS-RO) do not reach close to these targets in terms of accuracy or resolution, and each of these sensors has some advantages but even more limitations that make them impractical for PBL and L-A studies. Unfortunately, there is very little attention or planning (short or long-term) in place for improving lower tropospheric sounding over land, and as a result PBL and L-A interactions have been identified as `gaps' in current programmatic focal areas. It is therefore timely to assess how these technologies can be leveraged, combined, or evolved in order to form a dedicated mission or sub-mission to routinely monitor the PBL on diurnal timescales. In addition, improved PBL monitoring from space needs to be addressed in the next Decadal Survey. In this talk, the importance of PBL information (structure, evolution) for L-A coupling diagnostics and model development will be summarized. The current array of PBL retrieval methods and products from space will then be assessed in terms of meeting the needs of these models, diagnostics, and scales, with a look forward as to how

  15. Structure and Geochemistry of the Continental-Oceanic Crust Boundary of the Red Sea and the Rifted Margin of Western Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Y.; Furnes, H.; Schoenberg, R.

    2009-12-01

    The continental-oceanic crust boundary and an incipient oceanic crust of the Red Sea opening are exposed within the Arabian plate along a narrow zone of the Tihama Asir coastal plain in SW Saudi Arabia. Dike swarms, layered gabbros, granophyres and basalts of the 22 Ma Tihama Asir (TA) continental margin ophiolite represent products of magmatic differentiation formed during the initial stages of rifting between the African and Arabian plates. Nearly 4-km-wide zone of NW-trending sheeted dikes are the first products of mafic magmatism associated with incipient oceanic crust formation following the initial continental breakup. Gabbro intrusions are composed of cpx-ol-gabbro, cpx-gabbro, and norite/troctolite, and are crosscut by fine-grained basaltic dikes. Granophyre bodies intrude the sheeted dike swarms and are locally intrusive into the gabbros. Regional Bouger gravity anomalies suggest that the Miocene mafic crust represented by the TA complex extends westward beneath the coastal plain sedimentary rocks and the main trough of the Red Sea. The TA complex marks an incipient Red Sea oceanic crust that was accreted to the NE side of the newly formed continental rift in the earliest stages of seafloor spreading. Its basaltic to trachyandesitic lavas and dikes straddle the subalkaline-mildly alkaline boundary. Incompatible trace element relationships (e.g. Zr-Ti, Zr-P) indicate two distinct populations. The REE concentrations show an overall enrichment compared to N-MORB; light REEs are enriched over the heavy ones ((La/Yb)n > 1), pointing to an E-MORB influence. Nd-isotope data show ɛNd values ranging from +4 to +8, supporting an E-MORB melt source. The relatively large variations in ɛNd values also suggest various degrees of involvement of continental crust during ascent and emplacement, or by mixing of another mantle source.

  16. Examining historical and current mixed-severity fire regimes in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C Odion

    Full Text Available There is widespread concern that fire exclusion has led to an unprecedented threat of uncharacteristically severe fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. These extensive montane forests are considered to be adapted to a low/moderate-severity fire regime that maintained stands of relatively old trees. However, there is increasing recognition from landscape-scale assessments that, prior to any significant effects of fire exclusion, fires and forest structure were more variable in these forests. Biota in these forests are also dependent on the resources made available by higher-severity fire. A better understanding of historical fire regimes in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America is therefore needed to define reference conditions and help maintain characteristic ecological diversity of these systems. We compiled landscape-scale evidence of historical fire severity patterns in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests from published literature sources and stand ages available from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program in the USA. The consensus from this evidence is that the traditional reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes are inaccurate for most forests of western North America. Instead, most forests appear to have been characterized by mixed-severity fire that included ecologically significant amounts of weather-driven, high-severity fire. Diverse forests in different stages of succession, with a high proportion in relatively young stages, occurred prior to fire exclusion. Over the past century, successional diversity created by fire decreased. Our findings suggest that ecological management goals that incorporate successional diversity created by fire may support characteristic biodiversity, whereas current attempts to "restore" forests to open, low-severity fire conditions may not align with historical reference conditions in

  17. Examining historical and current mixed-severity fire regimes in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Dennis C; Hanson, Chad T; Arsenault, André; Baker, William L; Dellasala, Dominick A; Hutto, Richard L; Klenner, Walt; Moritz, Max A; Sherriff, Rosemary L; Veblen, Thomas T; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread concern that fire exclusion has led to an unprecedented threat of uncharacteristically severe fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws) and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. These extensive montane forests are considered to be adapted to a low/moderate-severity fire regime that maintained stands of relatively old trees. However, there is increasing recognition from landscape-scale assessments that, prior to any significant effects of fire exclusion, fires and forest structure were more variable in these forests. Biota in these forests are also dependent on the resources made available by higher-severity fire. A better understanding of historical fire regimes in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America is therefore needed to define reference conditions and help maintain characteristic ecological diversity of these systems. We compiled landscape-scale evidence of historical fire severity patterns in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests from published literature sources and stand ages available from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program in the USA. The consensus from this evidence is that the traditional reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes are inaccurate for most forests of western North America. Instead, most forests appear to have been characterized by mixed-severity fire that included ecologically significant amounts of weather-driven, high-severity fire. Diverse forests in different stages of succession, with a high proportion in relatively young stages, occurred prior to fire exclusion. Over the past century, successional diversity created by fire decreased. Our findings suggest that ecological management goals that incorporate successional diversity created by fire may support characteristic biodiversity, whereas current attempts to "restore" forests to open, low-severity fire conditions may not align with historical reference conditions in most ponderosa

  18. The definition of the western boundary of the Guarani Aquifer System (Gran Chaco, Argentina): technical or conventional; Definicion del limite occidental del Sistema Acuifero Guarani (Gran Chaco, Argentina): tecnico o convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodello, E. A.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-11-01

    Unlike the eastern, northern and southern borders of the Guarani aquifer system (GAS), which extends beneath considerable regions of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, the western boundary, within the Gran Chaco, has no clear hydrogeologic definition that can be recognized at either the surface or subsurface. For this reason, the precise location of the aquifer in this area is open to many different possibilities, depending upon the factors or interests involved. Thus technical specialists have proposed locations that include or exclude, according to their own criteria, large sections of the Argentine Gran Chaco, the management and use of which, from an administrative point of view, imply diverse economic consequences. The Lomadas de Otumpa, located near the border between the Santiago del Estero and Chaco provinces, are gently sloping hills, rising to a height of no more than 110 m above the wide expanse of surrounding plains comprising the Gran Chaco. They trend NNE and are 200 km long and from 20 to 80 km in width, reflecting the presence of the regional Otumpa alignment. The Lomadas de Otumpa are clearly defined at the surface and thus they allow a geographical boundary to be imposed on the GAS sequences according to: i) their notable structural features at the surface, and ii) the close matching of the thinning and/or absence of the associated sedimentary record underground. Because the definition of the limits of the GAS has an influence on its evaluation, management, use and conservation, both at a technical and administrative level, it is of great importance to ascertain its hydrogeologic boundaries. (Author)

  19. Reducing Error Bars through the Intercalibration of Radioisotopic and Astrochronologic Time Scales for the Cenomanian/Turonian Boundary Interval, Western Interior Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, S. R.; Siewert, S. E.; Singer, B. S.; Sageman, B. B.; Condon, D. J.; Obradovich, J. D.; Jicha, B.; Sawyer, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    We develop a new intercalibrated astrochronologic and radioisotopic time scale for the Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) boundary interval near the GSSP in Colorado, where orbitally-influenced rhythmic strata host bentonites that contain sanidine and zircon suitable for 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating. This provides a rare opportunity to directly intercalibrate two independent radioisotopic chronometers against an astrochronologic age model. We present paired 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ages from four bentonites spanning the Vascoceras diartianum to Pseudaspidoceras flexuosum biozones, utilizing both newly collected material and legacy sanidine samples of Obradovich (1993). Full 2σ uncertainties (decay constant, standard age, analytical sources) for the 40Ar/39Ar ages, using a weighted mean of 33-103 concordant age determinations and an age of 28.201 Ma for Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs), range from ±0.15 to 0.19 Ma, with ages from 93.67 to 94.43 Ma. The traditional FCs age of 28.02 Ma yields ages from 93.04 to 93.78 Ma with full uncertainties of ±1.58 Ma. Using the ET535 tracer, single zircon CA-TIMS 206Pb/238U ages determined from each bentonite record a range of ages (up to 2.1 Ma), however, in three of the four bentonites the youngest single crystal ages are statistically indistinguishable from the 40Ar/39Ar ages calculated relative to 28.201 Ma FCs, supporting this calibration. Using the new radioisotopic data and published astrochronology (Sageman et al., 2006) we develop an integrated C/T boundary time scale using a Bayesian statistical approach that builds upon the strength of each geochronologic method. Whereas the radioisotopic data provide an age with a well-defined uncertainty for each bentonite, the orbital time scale yields a more highly resolved estimate of the duration between stratigraphic horizons, including the radioisotopically dated beds. The Bayesian algorithm yields a C/T time scale that is statistically compatible with the astrochronologic and radioisotopic data

  20. The Western South Atlantic Ocean in a High-CO2 World: Current Measurement Capabilities and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Letícia C.; Kikuchi, Ruy K. P.; Horta, Paulo A.; Ito, Rosane G.; Müller, Marius N.; Orselli, Iole B. M.; Lencina-Avila, Jannine M.; de Orte, Manoela R.; Sordo, Laura; Pinheiro, Bárbara R.; Bonou, Frédéric K.; Schubert, Nadine; Bergstrom, Ellie; Copertino, Margareth S.

    2016-03-01

    An international multi-disciplinary group of 24 researchers met to discuss ocean acidification (OA) during the Brazilian OA Network/Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (BrOA/SOLAS) Workshop. Fifteen members of the BrOA Network (www.broa.furg.br) authored this review. The group concluded that identifying and evaluating the regional effects of OA is impossible without understanding the natural variability of seawater carbonate systems in marine ecosystems through a series of long-term observations. Here, we show that the western South Atlantic Ocean (WSAO) lacks appropriate observations for determining regional OA effects, including the effects of OA on key sensitive Brazilian ecosystems in this area. The impacts of OA likely affect marine life in coastal and oceanic ecosystems, with further social and economic consequences for Brazil and neighboring countries. Thus, we present (i) the diversity of coastal and open ocean ecosystems in the WSAO and emphasize their roles in the marine carbon cycle and biodiversity and their vulnerabilities to OA effects; (ii) ongoing observational, experimental, and modeling efforts that investigate OA in the WSAO; and (iii) highlights of the knowledge gaps, infrastructure deficiencies, and OA-related issues in the WSAO. Finally, this review outlines long-term actions that should be taken to manage marine ecosystems in this vast and unexplored ocean region.

  1. The Current Status of the Distribution Range of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Mendoza, O; Armendáriz-Toledano, F; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, G; Negrón, José F; Zúñiga, G

    2017-09-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric morphometric analysis of seminal rod shape to evaluate its reliability for identifying this species with respect to other members of the Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex. Our results provide 30 new records, with 26 distributed in the Sierra Madre Occidental and 4 in the Sierra Madre Oriental. These records extend the known distribution range of D. brevicomis to Durango and Tamaulipas states in northern Mexico. Furthermore, we find high geographic variation in size and shape of the seminal rod, with conspicous differences among individuals from different geographical regions, namely west and east of the Great Basin and between mountain systems in Mexico. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  2. Current practices in library/informatics instruction in academic libraries serving medical schools in the Western United States: a three-phase action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan D; Heskett, Karen M; Henner, Terry; Tan, Josephine P

    2013-09-04

    To conduct a systematic assessment of library and informatics training at accredited Western U.S. medical schools. To provide a structured description of core practices, detect trends through comparisons across institutions, and to identify innovative training approaches at the medical schools. Action research study pursued through three phases. The first phase used inductive analysis on reported library and informatics skills training via publicly-facing websites at accredited medical schools and the academic health sciences libraries serving those medical schools. Phase Two consisted of a survey of the librarians who provide this training to undergraduate medical education students at the Western U.S. medical schools. The survey revealed gaps in forming a complete picture of current practices, thereby generating additional questions that were answered through the Phase Three in-depth interviews. Publicly-facing websites reviewed in Phase One offered uneven information about library and informatics training at Western U.S. medical schools. The Phase Two survey resulted in a 77% response rate. The survey produced a clearer picture of current practices of library and informatics training. The survey also determined the readiness of medical students to pass certain aspects of the United States Medical Licensure Exam. Most librarians interacted with medical school curricular leaders through either curricula committees or through individual contacts. Librarians averaged three (3) interventions for training within the four-year curricula with greatest emphasis upon the first and third years. Library/informatics training was integrated fully into the respective curricula in almost all cases. Most training involved active learning approaches, specifically within Problem-Based Learning or Evidence-Based Medicine contexts. The Phase Three interviews revealed that librarians are engaged with the medical schools' curricular leaders, they are respected for their knowledge and

  3. A Futures Orientation in the Australian Curriculum: Current Levels of Teacher Interest, Activity and Support in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Mark; Bruce, Neville

    2014-01-01

    The soon to be implemented Australian Curriculum aims to integrate a futures orientation across subject areas. Guidelines and support for this specific initiative are being finalized. Only a little is known about the current teaching of a futures orientation or of secondary teacher interest, understanding and support for this important but…

  4. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  5. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  6. Electron-beam-induced current study of hydrogen passivation on grain boundaries in multicrystalline silicon: Influence of GB character and impurity contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Deren; Xi Zhenqiang; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of grain boundary (GB) character and impurity contamination level on the hydrogen passivation of GBs in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) were studied by means of an electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) technique. In mc-Si with a low contamination of Fe, the 300K EBIC contrast of all kinds of GBs in the H-passivated state was weak and similar to that in the as-grown state. The 100K EBIC contrast of Σ (Σ=3, 9, and 27) GBs decreased about 75-80%, whereas that of random and small-angle GBs decreased about 35-40%. Due to the different impurity gettering ability of different GBs, the variation in 100K EBIC contrast has suggested that the effect of H-passivation depends on both the GB character and impurity contamination level. In the mc-Si with heavy contamination of Fe, at both 300 and 100K, the EBIC contrast of both Σ (Σ=3) and random GBs decreased but the ratio was <40%, suggesting that the H-passivation is mainly affected by the impurity contamination level. on

  7. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory and allied networks, the makings of nascent Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning System in Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Glen; Mencin, David; Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Meertens, Charles; Phillips, David; Blume, Fredrick; Berglund, Henry; Fox, Otina; Feaux, Karl

    2016-04-01

    The NSF-funded GAGE Facility, managed by UNAVCO, operates approximately ~1300 GNSS stations distributed across North and Central America and in the circum-Caribbean. Following community input starting in 2011 from several workshops and associated reports,UNAVCO has been exploring ways to increase the capability and utility of the geodetic resources under its management to improve our understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including properties of seismic, volcanic, magmatic and tsunami deformation sources. Networks operated by UNAVCO for the NSF have the potential to profoundly transform our ability to rapidly characterize events, provide rapid characterization and warning, as well as improve hazard mitigation and response. Specific applications currently under development include earthquake early warning, tsunami early warning, and tropospheric modeling with university, commercial, non-profit and government partners on national and international scales. In the case of tsunami early warning, for example, an RT-GNSS network can provide multiple inputs in an operational system starting with rapid assessment of earthquake sources and associated deformation, which leads to the initial model of ocean forcing and tsunami generation. In addition, terrestrial GNSScan provide direct measurements of the tsunami through the associated traveling ionospheric disturbance from several 100's of km away as they approach the shoreline,which can be used to refine tsunami inundation models. Any operational system like this has multiple communities that rely on a pan-Pacific real-time open data set. Other scientific and operational applications for high-rate GPS include glacier and ice sheet motions, tropospheric modeling, and better constraints on the dynamics of space weather. Combining existing data sets and user communities, for example seismic data and tide gauge observations, with GNSS and Met data products has proven complicated because of issues related to metadata

  8. Nitrogen uptake and regeneration in a frontal region of the Algerian current (western Mediterranean Sea): new evaluation of new production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentilhomme, V.; Raimbault, P.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake and regeneration of four forms of nitrogen (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , NH 4 + and urea) have been studied, in the euphotic layer of a frontal area (Algerian current), in relation with hydrological, chemical and biological parameters. In this area vertical stratification is pronounced; a deep chlorophyll maximum at the bottom of the euphotic layer is present. Results show the importance of measuring urea uptake and regeneration in the study of nitrogen cycling, because this component can be regenerated as rapidly as ammonia, and is a source of nitrogen for phytoplankton. Other results show the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in the euphotic layer, and particularly at the base of this layer. This nitrification is a source or in situ regenerated nitrate, and could lead to a wrong estimation of the new production estimation. In the deep chlorophyll maximum, there is a maximum of nitrogen primary production but not a maximum of new production. In fact, regenerated production is the most important process over the whole euphotic layer of the Algerian basin. (authors). 56 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Are CH2O measurements in the marine boundary layer suitable for testing the current understanding of CH4 photooxidation?: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, V.; von Glasow, R.; Fischer, H.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2002-02-01

    On the basis of a data set collected during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) campaign 1999, we investigated the formaldehyde (CH2O) budget in the southern Indian Ocean (SIO). With a photochemical box model we simulated the contribution of methane and nonmethane volatile organic compounds to the CH2O budget. To identify the reactions and model constraints that introduce the largest uncertainties in the modeled CH2O concentration, we carried out a local sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo method was used to assess the global error of the model predictions. According to this analysis the 2σ uncertainty in the modeled CH2O concentration is 49%. The deviation between observed (200 +/- 70 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) (2σ)) and modeled (224 +/- 110 pptv (2σ)) daily mean CH2O concentration is 12%. However, the combined errors of model and measurement are such that deviations as large as 65% are not significant at the 2σ level. Beyond the ``standard'' photochemistry we analyzed the impact of halogen and aerosol chemistry on the CH2O concentration and investigated the vertical distribution of CH2O in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Calculations with the Model of Chemistry Considering Aerosols indicate that, based on the current understanding, halogen chemistry and aerosol chemistry have no significant impact on the CH2O concentration under conditions encountered in the SIO. However, a detailed investigation including meteorological effects such as precipitation scavenging and convection reveals an uncertainty in state-of-the-art model predictions for CH2O in the MBL that is too large for a meaningful test of the current understanding of CH4 photooxidation.

  10. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    -centric boundary (Filippelli 2008, Handoh and Lenton 2003). However, human alteration of the P cycle has multiple potential boundaries (figure 1), including P-driven freshwater eutrophication (Smith and Schindler 2009), the potential for world P supply to place an ultimate limit on food production (Smil 2000, Childers et al 2011), and depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions (MacDonald et al 2011). Carpenter and Bennett revisit the P boundary from the freshwater eutrophication perspective. Given the extraordinary variation in freshwater ecosystems across the globe, this is a challenging task, but the authors strengthen their analysis by using three different boundaries with relevance to eutrophication, along with two water quality targets and a range of estimates of P flow to the sea. In doing so, they make a compelling case that if freshwater eutrophication is indeed a Rubicon, we have already crossed it. Importantly, Carpenter and Bennett go beyond the calculation of new boundaries to make broader points about humanity's relationship with the P cycle. Disruptions of both the P and N cycles are mostly about our need for food (Galloway et al 2008, Cordell et al 2009), but unlike N, P supplies are finite and irreplaceable. Environmental concerns aside, we can fix all the N2 from the atmosphere we want—but deplete our economically viable P reserves and we're in trouble. Figure 1 Figure 1. Human alteration of the global P cycle has multiple possible boundaries. These include the environmental risks posed by freshwater eutrophication and marine anoxic events, and the food security risks that come from depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions, as well as finite global supplies of high-value mineral P reserves. Photo credits beyond authors: upper left, Shelby Riskin; upper right, Pedro Sanchez. In effect, Carpenter and Bennett argue that among P's multiple boundaries, the one for freshwaters is less forgiving of our current activities (but no less important) than is

  11. Biogeography of the Oceans: a Review of Development of Knowledge of Currents, Fronts and Regional Boundaries from Sailing Ships in the Sixteenth Century to Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, Imants G.

    2014-06-01

    The development of knowledge of global biogeography of the oceans from sixteenthcentury European voyages of exploration to present-day use of satellite remote sensing is reviewed in three parts; the pre-satellite era (1513-1977), the satellite era leading to a first global synthesis (1978-1998), and more recent studies since 1998. The Gulf Stream was first identified as a strong open-ocean feature in 1513 and by the eighteenth century, regular transatlantic voyages by sailing ships had established the general patterns of winds and circulation, enabling optimisation of passage times. Differences in water temperature, water colour and species of animals were recognised as important cues for navigation. Systematic collection of information from ships' logs enabled Maury (The Physical Geography of the Sea Harper and Bros. New York 1855) to produce a chart of prevailing winds across the entire world's oceans, and by the early twentieth century the global surface ocean circulation that defines the major biogeographic regions was well-known. This information was further supplemented by data from large-scale plankton surveys. The launch of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, specifically designed to study living marine resources on board the Nimbus 7 polar orbiting satellite in 1978, marked the advent of the satellite era. Over subsequent decades, correlation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll data with in situ measurements enabled Longhurst (Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, New York 1998) to divide the global ocean into 51 ecological provinces with Polar, Westerly Wind, Trade Wind and Coastal Biomes clearly recognisable from earlier subdivisions of the oceans. Satellite imagery with semi-synoptic images of large areas of the oceans greatly aided definition of boundaries between provinces. However, ocean boundaries are dynamic, varying from season to season and year to year. More recent work has focused on the study of variability of

  12. Deglacial to Holocene history of ice-sheet retreat and bottom current strength on the western Barents Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantzsch, Hendrik; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Horry, Jan; Grave, Marina; Rebesco, Michele; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution sediment echosounder data combined with radiocarbon-dated sediment cores allowed us to reconstruct the Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture of the Kveithola Trough and surrounding Spitsbergenbanken. The deposits display the successive deglacial retreat of the Svalbard-Barents Sea Ice Sheet. Basal subglacial till indicates that the grounded ice sheet covered both bank and trough during the Late Weichselian. A glaciomarine blanket inside the trough coinciding with laminated plumites on the bank formed during the initial ice-melting phase from at least 16.1 to 13.5 cal ka BP in close proximity to the ice margin. After the establishment of open-marine conditions at around 13.5 cal ka BP, a sediment drift developed in the confined setting of the Kveithola Trough, contemporary with crudely laminated mud, an overlying lag deposit, and modern bioclastic-rich sand on Spitsbergenbanken. The Kveithola Drift shows a remarkable grain-size coarsening from the moat towards the southern flank of the trough. This trend contradicts the concept of a separated drift (which would imply coarser grain sizes in proximity of the moat) and indicates that the southern bank is the main sediment source for the coarse material building up the Kveithola Drift. This depocenter represents, therefore, a yet undescribed combination of off-bank wedge and confined drift. Although the deposits inside Kveithola Trough and on Spitsbergenbanken display different depocenter geometries, time-equivalent grain-size changes imply a region-wide sediment-dynamic connection. We thus relate a phase of coarsest sediment supply (8.8-6.3 cal ka BP) to an increase in bottom current strength, which might be related to a stronger Atlantic Water inflow from the Southeast across the bank leading to winnowing and off-bank export of sandy sediments.

  13. Germination responses to current and future temperatures of four seeder shrubs across a latitudinal gradient in western Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Daniel; Luna, Belén; Moreno, José M

    2017-01-01

    Species differ in their temperature germination niche. Populations of a species may similarly differ across the distribution range of the species. Anticipating the impacts of climate variability and change requires understanding the differential sensitivity to germination temperature among and within species. Here we studied the germination responses of four hard-seeded Cistaceae seeders to a range of current and future temperatures. Seeds were collected at sites across the Iberian Peninsula and exposed or not exposed to a heat shock to break dormancy, then set to germinate under four temperature regimes. Temperatures were varied daily and seasonally, simulating the temperature range across the gradient, plus an increased temperature simulating future climate. Time to germination onset and cumulative germination at the end of each season were analyzed for the effects of temperature treatments, seasons, and local climate (temperature of the germination period, T gp ) at each site. T gp was a significant covariate of germination in all species but Cistus populifolius. Temperature treatments significantly affected Cistus ladanifer, C. salviifolius, and Halimium ocymoides. Germination occurred in simulated autumn conditions, with little germination occurring at later seasons, except in unheated seeds of H. ocymoides. Exposure to a heat shock changed the sensitivity to temperature treatments and the relationships with T gp . Germination responses to temperature differ not only among species but also within species across their latitudinal range. The responses were idiosyncratic and related to the local climate of the population. This germination variability complicates generalizing the impacts of climate variability and climate change. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian plate: The late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 51 01 53 D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A.; Gratzer, R. [Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter Tunner Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Abu Hamad, A.M.B. [Geology Department, University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2010-01-07

    During the late Permian (Kungurian to Kazanian) a Neotethyan rift basin evolved at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate, in what is called today the Dead Sea Valley of western Jordan. The break-up of Pangaea was accompanied by low-sinuosity sandy braided- to meandering-fluvial drainage systems which were fed by the uplift of the Arabian Shield and by poorly aerated swamps and ponds that concentrated plant debris of the Cathaysian floral province in the Um Irna Formation. These proximal wet fan sediments are overlain by a dry fan characterized by extensive reddish floodplain deposits, anastomosing channel systems and paleosols. The wet fan is underlain by Cambrian sandstones. These units serve as the top and bottom seals of the OM-bearing system of the Um Irna Formation. The sedimentary rocks of the OM-bearing Um Irna Formation underwent supergene, diagenetic and epigenetic hydrothermal alteration under an elevated geothermal gradient. The temperature increased from the time of deposition of the wet to the time of deposition of the dry fan and caused remobilization of manganese already pre-concentrated in the Cambrian footwall rocks of the rift basin. The anomalous heat regime may be accounted for as a predecessor stage of the Dead Sea Rift which is still active today. Oil seeps are found along faults and fractures near this deep-seated lineamentary fault zone. The deposition and alteration of the organic matter in this late Permian rift are of great consequence for oil generation in the region. Organic petrographic investigations revealed that organic-rich terrestrial carbonaceous and coal rich sediments of mainly of type III kerogen are dominant in the Um Irna Formation. In addition, aquatic liptinite rich sedimentary input (fresh water lake and/or lacustrine swamp) of type I kerogen is also noted. Coal derived organic matter occurs in the form of coaly particles with ranks from subbituminous A to high volatile bituminous C. Higher plant-derived macerals as

  15. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Areas for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  16. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Areas for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  17. How current is western Marxism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Rapic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core argument of the article is that Engels in his late thought dealing with Marx’s critique of political economy developed an approach to theory of bourgeois capitalist society, Within this society, on the one hand, the money and its accumulation through capital has a constitutive role of social formation and intrinsic function of creating political power. On the other hand, this theory develops rational value aspect of bourgeois law. Engels avoids the monism of Marx’s The Capital by analyzing systemic relationship between capitalist market and state administration from the beginning of modern age to his own time and noticing a progress in this relationship. Author maintains that, despite the fragmented character of Engels’s theory, it shows a connection with Weber’s theory of money and his understanding of modern process of rationalization. Author develops his thesis by contrasting Engels’s approach to that of Marx and later development of these themes in works of Lukács, Horkheimer, Adorna and Habermasa.

  18. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  19. The role of education for current, former and never-smoking among non-western immigrants in Norway. Does the pattern fit the model of the cigarette epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedøy, Tord Finne

    2013-01-01

    The aim was (1) to investigate the association between education and smoking status (current, former and never-smoking) among non-western immigrants in Norway and (2) examine if these associations fit the pattern predicted by the model of the cigarette epidemic. Data came from the Oslo Health Study and the Oslo Immigrant Health study (2000-2002). The first included all Oslo citizens from seven selected birth cohorts. The second included all Oslo citizens born in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Vietnam and Sri Lanka. 14,768 respondents answered questions on smoking, education and relevant background variables (over-all response rate 43.3%). Two gender specific multinomial logistic regression models with smoking status [current, former or never-smoker (reference)] as dependent variable were computed and predicted probabilities of smoking status among groups with different levels of education were calculated. Smoking prevalence among men ranged from 19% among Sri Lankans to 56% among Turks. Compared to the smoking prevalence among Norwegian men (27%), smoking was widespread among Iranians (42%) and Vietnamese (36%). Higher education was associated with lower probability of current smoking among all male immigrant groups except Sri Lankans. Never having smoked was positively associated with education among Pakistani and Norwegian men. Among women, education was higher than for other levels of education. The probability of being a never-smoker was high among Turkish and Iranian women with primary education. High smoking prevalence among Turkish and Iranian men highlights the importance of addressing smoking behaviour in subgroups of the general population. Smoking was almost non-existent among Pakistani, Vietnamese and Sri Lankan women and indicates strong persistent social norms against smoking.

  20. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    of temporal and material variables have been applied as a means of exploring the processes leading to their socioconceptual anchorage. The outcome of this analysis is a series of interrelated, generative boundary principles, including boundaries as markers, articulations, process-related devices, and fixation...

  1. Changing Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...

  2. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work...

  3. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  4. On the discontinuous nature of the Mozambique Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutjeharms, J.R.E.; Biastoch, A.; van der Werf, P.M.; Ridderinkhof, H.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a spatially continuous western boundary current in the Mozambique Channel has historically been based on erroneous interpretations of ships' drift. Recent observations have demonstrated that the circulation in the Channel is instead dominated by anti-cyclonic eddies drifting poleward.

  5. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  6. [Analysis on the current situation of neglected rural children aged 0 - 6 years and its impact factors in the western areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-yu; Zhong, Zhao-hui; Pan, Jian-ping; Wang, Ying-xiong; Zhong, Yin; Yang, Xin; Hu, Chen; Cai, Lin-li; Xu, Ya

    2012-02-01

    To learn the current neglected situation and its impact factors on rural children in two provinces in Western China. The investigation was conducted by using multistage stratified cluster sampling method in some parts of the Shanxi province and the city of Chongqing. 1488 subjects, aged from 0 to 6, were recruited in the present study. Results showed that the total prevalence rates of neglected rural children in the two research sites were 31.59% and 48.32 respectively. No significant difference was found on the prevalence of neglected for boys and girls (χ(2) = 0.86, U = 1.51, P > 0.05). The degrees of negligence in the older children showed a significant increase than in the younger children (χ(2) = 13.36, F = 33.45, P children families, both in terms of prevalence and degree of negligence. Our data demonstrated the degrees of negligence in children whose parents were away from home, were higher than the children whose parents stayed with them (χ(2) = 30.30, U = 6.76, P children were as follows: parents were away from home (OR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.20 - 1.97); structure of the family (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.16 - 1.65); father's occupation (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.78 - 0.97); schooling of the children's mother (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.07 - 1.52); relationship between children and their fathers (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.07 - 1.91) etc. The situation of negligence in children living in the rural areas, were serious in Shanxi and Chongqing provinces, which called for the strengthening on the publicity and education of the issue. School and the society should also pay more attention to this problem.

  7. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  8. Water Resources Status and Availability Assessment in Current and Future Climate Change Scenarios for Beas River Basin of North Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S. P.; Thakur, P. K.; Garg, V.; Nikam, B. R.; Chouksey, A.; Dhote, P.; Bhattacharya, T.

    2016-10-01

    The water resources status and availability of any river basin is of primary importance for overall and sustainable development of any river basin. This study has been done in Beas river basin which is located in North Western Himalaya for assessing the status of water resources in present and future climate change scenarios. In this study hydrological modelling approach has been used for quantifying the water balance components of Beas river basin upto Pandoh. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model has been used in energy balance mode for Beas river basin at 1km grid scale. The VIC model has been run with snow elevation zones files to simulate the snow module of VIC. The model was run with National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) forcing data (Tmax, Tmin, Rainfall and wind speed at 0.5degree resolution) from 1 Jan. 1999 to 31 Dec 2006 for calibration purpose. The additional component of glacier melt was added into overall river runoff using semi-empirical approach utilizing air temperature and glacier type and extent data. The ground water component is computed from overall recharge of ground water by water balance approach. The overall water balance approach is validated with river discharge data provided by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB) from 1994-2014. VIC routing module was used to assess pixel wise flow availability at daily, monthly and annual time scales. The mean monthly flow at Pandoh during study period varied from 19 - 1581 m3/s from VIC and 50 to 1556 m3/sec from observation data, with minimum water flow occurring in month of January and maximum flow in month of August with annual R2 of 0.68. The future climate change data is taken from CORDEX database. The climate model of NOAA-GFDL-ESM2M for IPCC RCP scenario 4.5 and 8.5 were used for South Asia at 0.44 deg. grid from year 2006 to 2100. The climate forcing data for VIC model was prepared using daily maximum and minimum near surface air temperature, daily precipitation and

  9. WATER RESOURCES STATUS AND AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT IN CURRENT AND FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR BEAS RIVER BASIN OF NORTH WESTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Aggarwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The water resources status and availability of any river basin is of primary importance for overall and sustainable development of any river basin. This study has been done in Beas river basin which is located in North Western Himalaya for assessing the status of water resources in present and future climate change scenarios. In this study hydrological modelling approach has been used for quantifying the water balance components of Beas river basin upto Pandoh. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC model has been used in energy balance mode for Beas river basin at 1km grid scale. The VIC model has been run with snow elevation zones files to simulate the snow module of VIC. The model was run with National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP forcing data (Tmax, Tmin, Rainfall and wind speed at 0.5degree resolution from 1 Jan. 1999 to 31 Dec 2006 for calibration purpose. The additional component of glacier melt was added into overall river runoff using semi-empirical approach utilizing air temperature and glacier type and extent data. The ground water component is computed from overall recharge of ground water by water balance approach. The overall water balance approach is validated with river discharge data provided by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB from 1994-2014. VIC routing module was used to assess pixel wise flow availability at daily, monthly and annual time scales. The mean monthly flow at Pandoh during study period varied from 19 - 1581 m3/s from VIC and 50 to 1556 m3/sec from observation data, with minimum water flow occurring in month of January and maximum flow in month of August with annual R2 of 0.68. The future climate change data is taken from CORDEX database. The climate model of NOAA-GFDL-ESM2M for IPCC RCP scenario 4.5 and 8.5 were used for South Asia at 0.44 deg. grid from year 2006 to 2100. The climate forcing data for VIC model was prepared using daily maximum and minimum near surface air temperature, daily

  10. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  11. Yanai waves in the western equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, A.; Shankar, D.; McCreary, J.P.; Vinayachandran, P.N.

    ; interference between the interior and boundary responses results in a complex surface pattern that propagates eastward and has nodes. Yanai waves are also forced by instabilities primarily during June/July in a region offshore from the western boundary (52...

  12. (abstract) Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Exchange Current at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    The microscopic mechanism of the alkali ion-electron recombination reaction at the three phase boundary zone formed by a porous metal electrode in the alkali vapor on the surface of an alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) ceramic has been studied by comparison of the expected rates for the three simplest reaction mechanisms with known temperature dependent rate data; and the physical parameters of typical porous metal electrode/BASE/alkali metal vapor reaction zones. The three simplest reactions are tunneling of electrons from the alkali coated electrode to a surface bound alkali metal ion; emission of an electron from the electrode with subsequent capture by a surface bound alkali metal ion; and thermal emission of an alkali cation from the BASE and its capture on the porous metal electrode surface where it may recombine with an electron. Only the first reaction adequately accounts for both the high observed rate and its temperature dependence. New results include crude modeling of simple, one step, three phase, solid/solid/gas electrochemical reaction.

  13. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  14. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  15. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary line between eastern and central zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.5 Boundary line between eastern and central zones. (a) Minnesota-Michigan-Wisconsin. From the junction of the western boundary of the State of Michigan with the boundary between the United States and...

  16. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan

    1998-01-01

    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  17. CURRENT STATE OF FISHERIES AND ASSESSMENT OF FISH STOCKS IN THE WESTERN MIDDLE OF THE CASPIAN SEA. PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF THE FISH RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To aim is to assess stocks and the fisheries of aquatic biological resources in the western part of the middle Caspian Sea and perspectives for the use of their resource potential.Methods. On the basis of the literature sources and our own data on the fish inventory in the western part of the Middle Caspian, we discuss possible reasons for emerging environmental, economic and other problems in the use of biological resources.Results. The main negative factors are the large-scale poaching, resulting in a catastrophic reduction in stocks of sturgeon and other valuable fish species of the Caspian Sea, a natural penetration of alien organisms (Mnemiopsis and overfishing of some species. The potential danger is large-scale development of oil and gas fields in the Caspian Sea, which can lead to even worse situation for the biological resources of the sea.Conclusions. In order to preserve the biological resources of the sea it is necessary to create conditions for steadily developing fishing and fish processing enterprises, thus ensuring the satisfaction of the constant demand for fish products and an increase in the revenue base of the budget and the well-being of the Russian population.

  18. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  19. Projected changes to South Atlantic boundary currents and confluence region in the CMIP5 models: the role of wind and deep ocean changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, G. M.; Gupta, A. Sen; Taschetto, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The South Atlantic (SA) circulation plays an important role in the oceanic teleconnections from the Indian, Pacific and Southern oceans to the North Atlantic, with inter-hemispheric exchanges of heat and salt. Here, we show that the large-scale features of the SA circulation are projected to change significantly under ‘business as usual’ greenhouse gas increases. Based on 19 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 there is a projected weakening in the upper ocean interior transport (stress curl over this region. The reduction in ocean interior circulation is largely compensated by a decrease in the net deep southward ocean transport (>1000 m), mainly related to a decrease in the North Atlantic deep water transport. Between 30° and 40°S, there is a consistent projected intensification in the Brazil current strength of about 40% (30%-58% interquartile range) primarily compensated by an intensification of the upper interior circulation across the Indo-Atlantic basin. The Brazil-Malvinas confluence is projected to shift southwards, driven by a weakening of the Malvinas current. Such a change could have important implications for the distribution of marine species in the southwestern SA in the future.

  20. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-03-12

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

  1. Hourly surface currents measured by high frequency Wellen radars off western Oahu, Hawaii, from September 2002 to May 2003 (NODC Accession 0013113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A pair of High Frequency Wellen radars (WERA) shore-based at southwest Oahu (Ko'Olina) and northwest Oahu (Kaena), Hawaii measured surface currents over a nine-month...

  2. Hourly surface currents measured by High Frequency (HF) Wellen radars (WERA) off western Oahu, Hawaii, from September 2002 to May 2003 (NODC Accession 0013113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A pair of High Frequency Wellen radars (WERA) shore-based at southwest Oahu (Ko'Olina) and northwest Oahu (Kaena), Hawaii measured surface currents over a nine-month...

  3. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-05-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of knowledge of these fundamentals is given

  4. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  5. Crossing Boundaries in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    across cultures, languages, organizational boundaries, time zones and geographical distances. The paper revises a framework of boundary spanning leadership practices developed for MNCs and adapts it to an offshore outsourcing context. It also contributes with reflections on how imbalances of resources......Western companies´ offshore outsourcing is increasingly being replaced by strategic partnerships that require closer collaboration between client and vendor. This paper addresses the question: How does a vendor company from an emergent market deal with inter-organizational boundary spanning...

  6. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  7. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-05-01

    A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

  8. The detection of boundaries in leaky aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Geological faults in sedimentary basins can affect the regional and local groundwater flow patterns by virtue of their enhanced permeability properties. Faults can be regarded as vertical flow boundaries and potentially important routes for radionuclide migration from a theoretical radioactive waste repository. This report investigates the hydraulic testing methods currently available which may be used to locate vertical hydraulic discontinuities (boundaries) within an aquifer. It aims to define the theoretical limitations to boundary detection by a single pumping test, to determine the optimum design of a pumping test for locating boundaries, and to define the practical limitations to boundary detection by a pumping test. (author)

  9. Atmospheric Signature of the Agulhas Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwinkwa Njouodo, Arielle Stela; Koseki, Shunya; Keenlyside, Noel; Rouault, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Western boundary currents play an important role in the climate system by transporting heat poleward and releasing it to the atmosphere. While their influence on extratropical storms and oceanic rainfall is becoming appreciated, their coastal influence is less known. Using satellite and climate reanalysis data sets and a regional atmospheric model, we show that the Agulhas Current is a driver of the observed band of rainfall along the southeastern African coast and above the Agulhas Current. The Agulhas current's warm core is associated with sharp gradients in sea surface temperature and sea level pressure, a convergence of low-level winds, and a co-located band of precipitation. Correlations among wind convergence, sea level pressure, and sea surface temperature indicate that these features show high degree of similarity to those in the Gulf Stream region. Model experiments further indicate that the Agulhas Current mostly impacts convective rainfall.

  10. Boundary Spanners in Global Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Western companies’ outsourcing of projects to emergent markets is increasingly being replaced by strategic partnerships that require close collaboration between clients and vendors. This study focuses on interorganizational boundary-spanning activities in the context of global information...... client relationships and coordinating highly complex projects. We analyze vendor managers’ narratives of their collaboration with a European client in a long-term project, which is presented as a strategic partnership in an outsourcing 3.0 mode. The study offers a rich and conceptualized account of those......-spanning activities that are reported. The analysis demonstrates the coexistence of transactive and transformative modes of collaboration in the studied case. It reveals both the importance of partner status and the impact of that status on the forms of boundary-spanning activities in which the partners engage...

  11. The current status of coral reefs and their vulnerability to climate change and multiple human stresses in the Comoros Archipelago, Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowburn, B; Samoilys, M A; Obura, D

    2018-05-31

    Coral bleaching and various human stressors have degraded the coral reefs of the Comoros Archipelago in the past 40 years and rising atmospheric CO 2 levels are predicted to further impact marine habitats. The condition of reefs in the Comoros is poorly known; using SCUBA based methods we surveyed reef condition and resilience to bleaching at sites in Grande Comore and Mohéli in 2010 and 2016. The condition of reefs was highly variable, with a range in live coral cover between 6% and 60% and target fishery species biomass between 20 and 500 kg per ha. The vulnerability assessment of reefs to future coral bleaching and their exposure to fishing, soil erosion and river pollution in Mohéli Marine Park found that offshore sites around the islets south of the island were least likely to be impacted by these negative pressures. The high variability in both reef condition and vulnerability across reefs in the Park lends itself to spatially explicit conservation actions. However, it is noteworthy that climate impacts to date appear moderate and that local human pressures are not having a major impact on components of reef health and recovery, suggesting these reefs are relatively resilient to the current anthropogenic stresses that they are experiencing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Holographic heat current as Noether current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2017-09-01

    We employ the Noether procedure to derive a general formula for the radially conserved heat current in AdS planar black holes with certain transverse and traceless perturbations, for a general class of gravity theories. For Einstein gravity, the general higher-order Lovelock gravities and also a class of Horndeski gravities, we derive the boundary stress tensor and show that the resulting boundary heat current matches precisely the bulk Noether current.

  13. Event boundaries and anaphoric reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is currently being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  14. Ecomorphological characterization of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids (Rodentia from south-western Europe since the latest Middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary (MN 7/8–MN13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Gomez Cano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are the most speciose group of mammals and display a great ecological diversity. Despite the greater amount of ecomorphological information compiled for extant rodent species, studies usually lack of morphological data on dentition, which has led to difficulty in directly utilizing existing ecomorphological data of extant rodents for paleoecological reconstruction because teeth are the most common or often the only micromammal fossils. Here, we infer the environmental ranges of extinct rodent genera by extracting habitat information from extant relatives and linking it to extinct taxa based on the phenogram of the cluster analysis, in which variables are derived from the principal component analysis on outline shape of the upper first molars. This phenotypic “bracketing” approach is particularly useful in the study of the fossil record of small mammals, which is mostly represented by isolated teeth. As a case study, we utilize extinct genera of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids, ranging from the Iberoccitanian latest middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary, and compare our results thoroughly with previous paleoecological reconstructions inferred by different methods. The resultant phenogram shows a predominance of ubiquitous genera among the Miocene taxa, and the presence of a few forest specialists in the two rodent groups (Murinae and Cricetidae, along with the absence of open environment specialists in either group of rodents. This appears to be related to the absence of enduring grassland biomes in the Iberian Peninsula during the late Miocene. High consistency between our result and previous studies suggests that this phenotypic “bracketing” approach is a very useful tool.

  15. Ecomorphological characterization of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids (Rodentia) from south-western Europe since the latest Middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary (MN 7/8–MN13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Blanco, Fernando; Menéndez, Iris; Álvarez-Sierra, María A.; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are the most speciose group of mammals and display a great ecological diversity. Despite the greater amount of ecomorphological information compiled for extant rodent species, studies usually lack of morphological data on dentition, which has led to difficulty in directly utilizing existing ecomorphological data of extant rodents for paleoecological reconstruction because teeth are the most common or often the only micromammal fossils. Here, we infer the environmental ranges of extinct rodent genera by extracting habitat information from extant relatives and linking it to extinct taxa based on the phenogram of the cluster analysis, in which variables are derived from the principal component analysis on outline shape of the upper first molars. This phenotypic “bracketing” approach is particularly useful in the study of the fossil record of small mammals, which is mostly represented by isolated teeth. As a case study, we utilize extinct genera of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids, ranging from the Iberoccitanian latest middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary, and compare our results thoroughly with previous paleoecological reconstructions inferred by different methods. The resultant phenogram shows a predominance of ubiquitous genera among the Miocene taxa, and the presence of a few forest specialists in the two rodent groups (Murinae and Cricetidae), along with the absence of open environment specialists in either group of rodents. This appears to be related to the absence of enduring grassland biomes in the Iberian Peninsula during the late Miocene. High consistency between our result and previous studies suggests that this phenotypic “bracketing” approach is a very useful tool. PMID:28966888

  16. The wide Benguela Current constitutes the eastern boundary current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    influenced by the geographically extensive, wind-driven coastal upwelling along ... wind speeds. Eddy kinetic energy is enhanced in the Subtropical Convergence zone and is highest in the general vicinity of ... The main disadvantage of this.

  17. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  18. Slovenian-Croatian boundary: backgrounds of boundary-making and boundary-breaking in Istria regarding the contemporary boundary dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Josipovič

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Boundary-making in Istria is an old undertaking. It has actually never ceasesed, not even today. Istrian peninsula has thus undergone substantial boundary shifts during the last couple of centuries (especially after the Venetian demise in 1797. But Istria carries its worldwide fame also due to one of probably the harshest disputes on the post-war European grounds – the Trieste territory dispute. In author's perspective, this dispute is one of the four main corner-stones of the current Slovenian-Croatian boundary dispute. The remaining three include the Kozler's boundary around Dragonja (Rokava River, the ungraspable notions of Austrian censuses in Istria, and the narratives of partisan settlements on military jurisdiction. However, there are other very important aspects which significantly shaped the development of the dispute, but we will focus at assessing the importance of the aforementioned ones. In this sense, the analysis of the effects of the outcome of the Trieste dispute and its implications to the contemporary interstate dispute is set forth. By unveiling its material and consequently its psychological effects upon the contemporary bilateral relations, its analyses simultaneously reveals backgrounds of never answered question, why Kozler's proposed linguistic boundary around Dragonja (Rokava River turned out to become a boundary of national character. Though nowadays disputed, there is absolutely no chance for both involved parties to substantially draw away from once decisively drawn line of a layman. Despite the fierce battle of words in Slovenian public media on whether should the interstate boundary be placed on Mirna (Quieto or Dragonja Rivers, it will be argued here that the actual choice of the Valley of Dragonja as a boundary is by all means Slovenian. The arguments are based on extensive analyses of cartographic materials, relevant literature, documents, and statistical data.

  19. Slovenian-Croatian boundary: backgrounds of boundary-making and boundary-breaking in Istria regarding the contemporary boundary dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Josipovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary-making in Istria is an old undertaking. It has actually never ceasesed, not even today. Istrian peninsula has thus undergone substantial boundary shifts during the last couple of centuries (especially after the Venetian demise in 1797. But Istria carries its worldwide fame also due to one of probably the harshest disputes on the post-war European grounds – the Trieste territory dispute. In author's perspective, this dispute is one of the four main corner-stones of the current Slovenian-Croatian boundary dispute. The remaining three include the Kozler's boundary around Dragonja (Rokava River, the ungraspable notions of Austrian censuses in Istria, and the narratives of partisan settlements on military jurisdiction. However, there are other very important aspects which significantly shaped the development of the dispute, but we will focus at assessing the importance of the aforementioned ones. In this sense, the analysis of the effects of the outcome of the Trieste dispute and its implications to the contemporary interstate dispute is set forth. By unveiling its material and consequently its psychological effects upon the contemporary bilateral relations, its analyses simultaneously reveals backgrounds of never answered question, why Kozler's proposed linguistic boundary around Dragonja (Rokava River turned out to become a boundary of national character. Though nowadays disputed, there is absolutely no chance for both involved parties to substantially draw away from once decisively drawn line of a layman. Despite the fierce battle of words in Slovenian public media on whether should the interstate boundary be placed on Mirna (Quieto or Dragonja Rivers, it will be argued here that the actual choice of the Valley of Dragonja as a boundary is by all means Slovenian. The arguments are based on extensive analyses of cartographic materials, relevant literature, documents, and statistical data.

  20. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  1. Interorganizational Boundary Spanning in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    , and which skills and competencies they draw on in their efforts to deal with emerging cross-cultural issues in a way that paves ground for developing a shared understanding and common platform for the client and vendor representatives. A framework of boundary spanning leadership practices is adapted...... to virtuality and cultural diversity. This paper, which draws on a case study of collaborative work in a global software development project, focuses on key boundary spanners in an Indian vendor company, who are responsible for developing trustful and sustainable client relations and coordinating complex...... projects across multiple cultures, languages, organisational boundaries, time zones and geographical distances. It looks into how these vendor managers get prepared for their complex boundary spanning work, which cross-cultural challenges they experience in their collaboration with Western clients...

  2. Western Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this data...

  3. Current Western Reactions to Mass Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    hypotheses regarding the question why a movement has not been formed. The chapter produces support for the hypotheses that a lack of anger, a lack of hope for change, the ab-stractness of the issue, a lack of a common antagonist and a perceived shrinking importance of privacy are influential variables...

  4. Meso- and small-scale vertical motions in the deep Western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haren, Hans van, E-mail: hans.van.haren@nioz.n [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Netherlands)

    2011-01-21

    Acoustic reflections on particles larger than a few mm are compared with optical background data of bioluminescence at the ANTARES neutrino telescope site in the deep North-western Mediterranean Sea. Periodic increases of these data are associated with increases in horizontal and downward vertical currents. The observations provide unique knowledge of some oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean. Several periodicities are distinguished: seasonal, with large increase during spring, 20-day, which is associated with a meandering continental boundary current, 1-17.6 h, evidencing deep internal waves.

  5. Accelerated sea level rise and Florida Current transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change in transport over the last decade; however, a nonlinear trend extracted from empirical mode decomposition (EMD suggests a 3 Sv decline in mean transport. This decline is consistent with observed tide gauge records in Florida Bay and the straits exhibiting an acceleration of mean sea level (MSL rise over the decade. It is not known whether this recent change represents natural variability or the onset of the anticipated secular decline in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC; nonetheless, such changes have direct impacts on the sensitive ecological systems of the Everglades as well as the climate of western Europe and eastern North America.

  6. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  7. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  8. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  9. Properties of the Agulhas Current's Inshore Front During The Shelf Agulhas Glider Experiment (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, M.; Swart, S.; Goschen, W.

    2016-02-01

    The response of coastal and shelf regions to changes in the Agulhas Current remains poorly studied. This is partly due to observational challenges associated with sampling western boundary currents. Cross-shelf exchange in such energetic current systems occurs through a range of meso- ( 50-200 km) and sub-meso (sample the energetic inshore regions of the Agulhas Current at a high spatial (100's of meters to 3km - well within the sub-mesoscale range) and temporal (0.5-4 hourly) resolution. In April 2015, two SeaGliders were deployed off Port Elizabeth (34S) at the inshore edge of the Agulhas Current as part of the Shelf Agulhas Glider Experiment (SAGE), testing for the very 1st time the feasibility of operating autonomous platforms in this highly turbulent and energetic western boundary current system. For a period of approximately two months, the Seagliders provided continuous observations at the inshore boundary of the Agulhas Current at an unprecedented spatial resolution. Observations from the Seagliders showed that at the inshore edge of the Agulhas Current, both surface and depth averaged currents are aligned in a south-west / north- east direction, with stronger flows encountered over deeper regions of the shelf, when the gliders are closer to the Agulhas Current. In the absence of large meanders, the mean flow at the inshore boundary of the Agulhas Current is characterised by strong shear with a counter current flowing in opposite direction to the mean current field. Instances of counter currents occur 45% of the time in the surface flow and 54% of the time in the depth-averaged record. More than 80% of return flow occurrences occur when glider is in water depth of less than 200m.

  10. Spanning organizational boundaries to manage creative processes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne; Lettl, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In order to continue to be innovative in the current fast-paced and competitive environment, organizations are increasingly dependent on creative inputs developed outside their boundaries. The paper addresses the boundary spanning activities that managers undertake to a) select and mobilize...... creative talent, b) create shared identity, and c) combine and integrate knowledge in innovation projects involving external actors. We study boundary spanning activities in two creative projects in the LEGO group. One involves identifying and integrating deep, specialized knowledge, the other focuses...... actors, and how knowledge is integrated across organizational boundaries. We discuss implications of our findings for managers and researchers in a business-to-business context...

  11. On boundary superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.

  12. Displaced trajectories: The evolution of boundaries in late prehistoric Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    boundaries requires basic cognitive abilities for spatial memory and mental imagery; as well as the practical ability to navigate existing environmental and social constraints in order to produce new ones. Therefore, a long-term cultural perspective on boundary construction, with a focus...... on the archaeological record, can reveal how artificial boundary structures emerge, and in turn how particular structured cultural environments scaffold cognition and social cooperation in a long-term perspective. This paper addresses the evolution of boundaries as a method of land division across north-western Europe...

  13. /sup 226/Ra in the western Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.

    1987-09-01

    /sup 226/Ra profiles have been measured in the western Indian Ocean as part of the 1977-78 Indian Ocean GEOSECS program. These profiles show a general increase in deep and bottom water Ra concentration from the Circumpolar region to the Arabian Sea. A deep Ra maximum which originates in the Arabian Sea and in the Somali basin at about 3000 m depth spreads southward into the Mascarene basin and remains discernible in the Madagascar and Crozet basins. In the western Indian Ocean, the cold Antarctic Bottom Water spreads northward under the possibly southward-flowing deep water, forming a clear benthic front along the Crozet basin across the Southwest Indian Ridge into the Madagascar and Mascarene basins. The Antarctic Bottom Water continues to spread farther north to the Somali basin through the Amirante Passage at 10/sup 0/S as a western boundary current. The benthic front and other characteristic features in the western Indian Ocean are quite similar to those observed in the western Pacific where the benthic front as a distinctive feature was first described by Craig et al. Across the Mid-Indian Ridge toward the Ceylon abyssal plain near the triple junction, Ra profiles display a layered structure, reflecting the topographic effect of the mid-ocean ridge system on the mixing and circulation of the deep and bottom waters. Both Ra and Si show a deep maximum north of the Madagascar Basin. Linear relationships between these two elements are observed in the deep and bottom water with slopes increasing northward. This suggests a preferential input of Ra over Si from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Sea and also from the flank sediments of the Somali basin.

  14. Mapping the ocean current strength and persistence in the Agulhas to inform marine energy development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, I

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available sensing - Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler - Natal pulses U N C O R R EC TE D PR O O F 1 Mapping the Ocean Current Strength 2 and Persistence in the Agulhas to Inform 3 Marine Energy Development 4 I. Meyer, L. Braby, M. Krug and B. Backeberg 5... International Publishing AG 2017 Z. Yang and A. Copping (eds.), Marine Renewable Energy, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-53536-4_8 1 A u th o r P ro o f U N C O R R EC TE D PR O O F 16 Current. Western boundary ocean currents have become an area of focus (Duerr and 17...

  15. Diffusion mechanisms in grain boundaries in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A critical review is given of our current knowledge of grain-boundary diffusion in solids. A pipe mechanism of diffusion based on the well-established dislocation model seems most appropriate for small-angle boundaries. Open channels, which have atomic configurations somewhat like dislocation cores, probably play a major role in large-angle grain-boundary diffusion. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain-boundary diffusion. The diffusion and computer modeling experiments are consistent with a vacancy mechanism of diffusion by a rather well-localized vacancy. The effective width of a boundary for grain-boundary diffusion is about two atomic planes. These general features of grain-boundary diffusion, deduced primarily from experiments on metals, are thought to be equally applicable for pure ceramic solids. The ionic character of many ceramic oxides may cause some differences in grain-boundary structure from that observed in metals, resulting in changes in grain-boundary diffusion behavior. 72 references, 5 figures

  16. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  17. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  18. Boundary-Layer & health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  19. Benthic boundary layer modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to study the factors which control the height of the benthic boundary layer in the deep ocean and the dispersion of a tracer within and directly above the layer. This report covers tracer clouds of horizontal scales of 10 to 100 km. The dispersion of a tracer has been studied in two ways. Firstly, a number of particles have been introduced into the flow. The trajectories of these particles provide information on dispersion rates. For flow conditions similar to those observed in the abyssal N.E. Atlantic the diffusivity of a tracer was found to be 5 x 10 6 cm 2 s -1 for a tracer within the boundary layer and 8 x 10 6 cm 2 s -1 for a tracer above the boundary layer. The results are in accord with estimates made from current meter measurements. The second method of studying dispersion was to calculate the evolution of individual tracer clouds. Clouds within and above the benthic boundary layer often show quite different behaviour from each other although the general structure of the clouds in the two regions were found to have no significant differences. (author)

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  1. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  2. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making activities fall within the spectrum of social entrepreneurship. To become an important stream in the entrepreneurship literature, social entrepreneurship needs to be properly defined and it requires a theoretical framework that links it to the theory of entrepreneurship. This article builds on the literature to define social entrepreneurship, discusses the boundaries of socially-oriented entrepreneurial activities, and positions the social entrepreneur in the spectrum of entrepreneurship.

  3. Is boundary extension emotionally selective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménétrier, Emmanuelle; Didierjean, André; Vieillard, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    When they have to memorize a picture, people usually build a memory trace including more extensive boundaries than the original picture, a phenomenon known as boundary extension or BE. This article looks at whether the emotion category expressed (i.e., happiness, pleasure, irritation, or anger) by actors in short films could have an influence on the BE effect. The results showed that positively valenced emotions (happiness, pleasure) led to an extension effect, while the negatively valenced ones (anger, irritation) did not produce any significant memory distortion. The arousal dimension of emotions had no significant effect on BE. The current results were discussed in the light of previous studies on the links between BE and emotions.

  4. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  7. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  8. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  9. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  10. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  11. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  12. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  13. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  14. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  15. HUC 8 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  16. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  17. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct imaging of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronsky, R.

    1979-09-01

    There are currently two types of microscopes which, in principle, are capable of imaging atom positions at grain boundaries. One, the field ion microscope (FIM), yields a projection of the specimen surface (approximately stereographic) by field ionization of an imaging gas at protruding atom sites, and provides topographic information in high-index pole regions which may be interpreted atom-by-atom. The other, a transmission electron microscope (TEM), yields a projection (approximately linear) of the entire specimen thickness by electron optical imaging, and provides atomic resolution detail throughout the illuminated area. In this paper, both methods are described and compared, using examples from practical materials systems

  19. The energetic ion substorm injection boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The substorm injection boundary model has enjoyed considerable success in explaining plasma signatures in the near-geosynchronous region. However, the injection boundary has remained primarily a phenomenological model. In this paper the authors examine 167 dispersionless energetic ion injections which were observed by AMPTE CCE. The radial and local time distribution of the events as a function of Kp is qualitatively similar to that envisioned in the injection boundary model of Mauk and McIlwain (1974). They argue that particles observed during dispersionless injections are locally energized during the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet. Therefore they identify the injection boundary, as derived from the spatial distribution of dispersionless injections, with the earthward edge of the region of the magnetotail which undergoes current sheet disruption during the substorm expansion phase. The authors show that this qualitative model for the generation of the injection boundary can provide an explanation for the dispersionless nature, the double spiral shape, and the Kp dependence of the boundary

  20. 'Pushing the boundaries of interpretation': The link between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Pushing the boundaries of interpretation': The link between the nature and purpose of missionary records and the underutilisation of the Roman Catholic missionary ... The article uses the author's experience with Roman Catholic missionary archives in South-western as a window through which to project into the general ...

  1. A case study: Fish production in the integrated farming system of the Black Thai in Yen Chau district (Son La province) in mountainous North-western Vietnam - current state and potential

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbronn, Silke

    2009-01-01

    Son La province is located in mountainous north-western Vietnam and belongs to the poorest regions of the country. In the valleys of this province, fish farming is one of the major activities among farmers who belong to the ethnic Black Thai minority. Up until now, the aquaculture system practiced here has not been scientifically investigated. There is generally very little data available regarding the aquaculture of resource-poor farmers in Southeast Asia. This lack of information can be par...

  2. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  3. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer on a wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.N.; Mittal, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the Hall and ionslip currents on the gas-dynamic boundary layer are investigated in view of the increasing prospects for using the MHD principle in electric power generation. The currents are included in the analysis using the generalized Ohm's law (Sherman and Sutton, 1964), and the resulting two nonlinear coupled equations are solved using a modification in the method suggested by Nachtsheim and Swigert (1965), Dewey and Gross (1967), and Steinheuer (1968). Solutions are presented for the incompressible laminar boundary-layer equations in the absence and the presence of the load parameter, and for the pressure gradient parameter for flow separation

  5. Boundary condition histograms for modulated phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benakli, M.; Gabay, M.; Saslow, W.M.

    1997-11-01

    Boundary conditions strongly affect the results of numerical computations for finite size inhomogeneous or incommensurate structures. We present a method which allows to deal with this problem, both for ground state and for critical properties: it combines fluctuating boundary conditions and specific histogram techniques. Our approach concerns classical as well as quantum systems. In particular, current-current correlation functions, which probe large scale coherence of the states, can be accurately evaluated. We illustrate our method on a frustrated two dimensional XY model. (author)

  6. Endoscopic submucosal dissection in the West: Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Michael X; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was first conceptually described almost 30 years ago in Japan and is now widely practiced throughout East Asia. ESD expands the boundaries of endoscopic resection (ER) by allowing en bloc resection of large early neoplastic lesions within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This offers advantages over other ER techniques by facilitating definitive histological staging and curative treatment of early cancer in selected cases. Indeed, the experience of ESD in Eastern countries is significant, and excellent outcomes from high-volume centers are reported. The potential benefits of ESD are recognized by Western endoscopists, but its adoption has been limited. A number of factors contribute to this, including epidemiological differences in GIT neoplasia between Western and Eastern populations and limitations in training opportunities. In this review, we discuss the role of ESD, its current status and the future in Western endoscopic practice. © 2017 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Assessing cortical and subcortical changes in a western diet mouse model using spectral/Fourier domain OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernucci, Marcel T.; Norman, Jennifer E.; Merkle, Conrad W.; Aung, Hnin H.; Rutkowsky, Jennifer; Rutledge, John C.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2017-02-01

    The Western diet, causative in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, has recently been associated with the development of diffuse white matter disease (WMD) and other subcortical changes. Yet, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms by which a high-fat diet can cause WMD. Mechanistic studies of deep brain regions in mice have been challenging due to a lack of non-invasive, high-resolution, and deep imaging technologies. Here we used Optical Coherence Tomography to study mouse cortical/subcortical structures noninvasively and in vivo. To better understand the role of Western Diet in the development of WMD, intensity and Doppler flow OCT images, obtained using a 1300 nm spectral / Fourier domain OCT system, were used to observe the structural and functional alterations in the cortex and corpus callosum of Western Diet and control diet mouse models. Specifically, we applied segmentation to the OCT images to identify the boundaries of the cortex/corpus callosum, and further quantify the layer thicknesses across animals between the two diet groups. Furthermore, microvasculature alterations such as changes in spatiotemporal flow profiles within diving arterioles, arteriole diameter, and collateral tortuosity were analyzed. In the current study, while the arteriole vessel diameters between the two diet groups was comparable, we show that collateral tortuosity was significantly higher in the Western diet group, compared to control diet group, possibly indicating remodeling of brain vasculature due to dietary changes. Moreover, there is evidence showing that the corpus callosum is thinner in Western diet mice, indicative of tissue atrophy.

  9. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  10. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

  11. Minnesota County Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  12. Boundaries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.

  13. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  14. Conformal boundary loop models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling

  15. Energy principle with included boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Earlier comments by the author on the limitations of the classical form of the extended energy principle are supported by a complementary analysis on the potential energy change arising from free-boundary displacements of a magnetically confined plasma. In the final formulation of the extended principle, restricted displacements, satisfying pressure continuity by means of plasma volume currents in a thin boundary layer, are replaced by unrestricted (arbitrary) displacements which can give rise to induced surface currents. It is found that these currents contribute to the change in potential energy, and that their contribution is not taken into account by such a formulation. A general expression is further given for surface currents induced by arbitrary displacements. The expression is used to reformulate the energy principle for the class of displacements which satisfy all necessary boundary conditions, including that of the pressure balance. This makes a minimization procedure of the potential energy possible, for the class of all physically relevant test functions which include the constraints imposed by the boundary conditions. Such a procedure is also consistent with a corresponding variational calculus. (Author)

  16. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  17. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Tanner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  18. Regional Climate Modelling of the Western Iberian Low-Level Wind Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Semedo, Álvaro

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is one the less studied boundary layer wind jet features in the Eastern Boundary Currents Systems (EBCS). These regions are amongst the most productive ocean ecosystems, where the atmosphere-land-ocean feedbacks, which include marine boundary layer clouds, coastal jets, upwelling and inland soil temperature and moisture, play an important role in defining the regional climate along the sub-tropical mid-latitude western coastal areas. Recently, the present climate western Iberian CLLJ properties were extensively described using a high resolution regional climate hindcast simulation. A summer maximum frequency of occurrence above 30% was found, with mean maximum wind speeds around 15 ms-1, between 300 and 400m heights (at the jet core). Since the 1990s the climate change impact on the EBCS is being studied, nevertheless some lack of consensus still persists regarding the evolution of upwelling and other components of the climate system in these areas. However, recently some authors have shown that changes are to be expected concerning the timing, intensity and spatial homogeneity of coastal upwelling and of CLLJs, in response to future warming, especially at higher latitudes, namely in Iberia and Canaries. In this study, the first climate change assessment study regarding the Western Iberian CLLJ, using a high resolution (9km) regional climate simulation, is presented. The properties of this CLLJ are studied and compared using two 30 years simulations: one historical simulation for the 1971-2000 period, and another simulation for future climate, in agreement with the RCP8.5 scenario, for the 2071-2100 period. Robust and consistent changes are found: 1) the hourly frequency of occurrence of the CLLJ is expected to increase in summer along the western Iberian coast, from mean maximum values of around 35% to approximately 50%; 2) the relative increase of the CLLJ frequency of occurrence is higher in the north off western Iberia

  19. High resolution projections for the western Iberian coastal low level jet in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Semedo, Alvaro

    2017-09-01

    The Iberian coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is one of the less studied boundary layer wind jet features in the Eastern Boundary Currents Systems (EBCS). These regions are amongst the most productive ocean ecosystems, where the atmosphere-land-ocean feedbacks, which include marine boundary layer clouds, coastal jets, upwelling and inland soil temperature and moisture, play an important role in defining the regional climate along the sub-tropical mid-latitude western coastal areas. Recently, the present climate western Iberian CLLJ properties were extensively described using a high resolution regional climate hindcast simulation. A summer maximum frequency of occurrence above 30 % was found, with mean maximum wind speeds around 15 ms-1, between 300 and 400 m heights (at the jet core). Since the 1990s the climate change impact on the EBCS is being studied, nevertheless some lack of consensus still persists regarding the evolution of upwelling and other components of the climate system in these areas. However, recently some authors have shown that changes are to be expected concerning the timing, intensity and spatial homogeneity of coastal upwelling, in response to future warming, especially at higher latitudes, namely in Iberia and Canaries. In this study, the first climate change assessment study regarding the Western Iberian CLLJ, using a high resolution (9 km) regional climate simulation, is presented. The properties of this CLLJ are studied and compared using two 30 years simulations: one historical simulation for the 1971-2000 period, and another simulation for future climate, in agreement with the RCP8.5 scenario, for the 2071-2100 period. Robust and consistent changes are found: (1) the hourly frequency of occurrence of the CLLJ is expected to increase in summer along the western Iberian coast, from mean maximum values of around 35 % to approximately 50 %; (2) the relative increase of the CLLJ frequency of occurrence is higher in the north off western Iberia; (3

  20. Teaching the Western.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan, John H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the content of a course on the genre of western films that was utilized as a film study and a U.S. cultural history credit. Describes in detail the film, "Winchester '73," and addresses other films utilized in the course. States that the course also focuses on the development of the western genre. (CMK)

  1. Western Slope Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epis, R.C.; Callender, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A conference on the geology and geologic resources of the Western Slope of western Colorado and eastern Utah is presented. Fourteen papers from the conference have been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. These papers covered such topics as uranium resources, oil shale deposits, coal resources, oil and gas resources, and geothermal resources of the area

  2. An overview of US refinery configurations and operations (within western Canada supply orbit) : Who currently uses bitumen and SCO? Just how much heavy oil/bitumen is it possible to accept?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    A list of US refiners, names and locations that take relatively major heavy crude oil and synthetic crude oil (SCO) volumes from Western Canada was provided. It was suggested that in the near future, production of Canadian heavy crude will not be constrained by supply limits but rather by refinery process capabilities. An overview of refining capacity and heavy oil processing capacity by PADD in kbpsd was presented. The Northern Tier US States (PADD II, PADD IV and Washington/Oregon in PADD V) constitute a total of 4.4 million bpcd refining capacity at 95 per cent utilization. Of this, about 3.4 million bpcd is in PADD II. Montana in PADD IV is the only area dependent solely on Canadian heavy crude supplies. Main competition for Canadian heavy crude comes from Alaska, Mexico, and Venezuela. 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Law of 22 April 2005 on patients' rights and the end of life in France: setting the boundaries of euthanasia, with regard to current legislation in other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clin, Bénédicte; Ophélie, Ferrant

    2010-10-01

    The term 'euthanasia' is not clearly defined. Euthanasia is evoked in many aspects of terminal care: interruption of curative treatment at the end of life, palliative care or the act of deliberately provoking death through compassion. A law on 'patients' rights and the end of life', promulgated in France on 22 April 2005, led to changes in the French Code of Public Health. In this work, we have first outlined the key provisions of this law and the changes it has brought, then we have compared current legislation on the subject throughout Europe, where a rapid overview of current practice in terminal patient care revealed four different types of legislation: the first authorizes euthanasia (in the sense of provoking death, if this choice is medically justified), the second legalizes 'assisted suicide', the third, which is sometimes referred to as 'passive euthanasia', consists of the non-administration of life-sustaining treatment and, finally, the fourth prohibits euthanasia in any form whatsoever. In the last section, we have attempted to clarify the as yet indistinct notion of 'euthanasia' in order to determine whether the conception of terminal care in the Law of 22 April 2005 was consistent with that put forward by the philosopher Francis Bacon, who claimed that, 'The physician's role is to relieve pain, not only when such relief can lead to healing, but also when it can proffer a calm and trouble-free death, thus putting an end to the suffering and the agony of death' (modern adaptation of the original quote).

  4. Reactor pressure boundary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Lee, B. S.

    2002-04-01

    With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database

  5. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  6. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  7. Regional boundaries study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavatsky, S.; Phaneuf, P.; Topaz, D.; Ward, D.

    1978-02-01

    The NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) has elected to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its existing regional boundary alignment because of the anticipated future growth of nuclear power generating facilities and corresponding inspection requirements. This report documents a management study designed to identify, analyze, and evaluate alternative regional boundary configurations for the NRC/IE regions. Eight boundary configurations were chosen for evaluation. These configurations offered alternatives ranging from two to ten regions, and some included the concepts of subregional or satellite offices. Each alternative configuration was evaluated according to three major criteria: project workload, cost, and office location. Each major criterion included elements such as management control, program uniformity, disruption, costs, and coordination with other agencies. The conclusion reached was that regional configurations with regions of equal and relatively large workloads, combined with the concepts of subregional or satellite offices, may offer a significant benefit to the Office of Inspection and Enforcement and the Commission and are worthy of further study. A phased implementation plan, which is suitable to some configurations, may help mitigate the disruption created by realignment

  8. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary......, IT designers and project managers should attend to the specific ways in which boundaries are inevitably enacted and to the ways in which care is already shared. This will provide them with opportunities to use the potentials of new identities and concerns that emerge from changing the organisation...

  9. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the (delta)-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  10. Legal boundary conditions for direct marketing of 'green current' according to EEG 2012; Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Direktvermarktung von ''Gruenstrom'' nach dem EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Daniel [Landgericht Koeln (Germany); Osborne Clarke, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Energierecht

    2012-07-01

    The new direct marketing regime of the EEG 2012 provides incentives for operators of renewables-based systems to leave the fixed reimbursement scheme and integrate their systems in the markets, especially in the context of marketing of regulating power. However, it remains to be seen if this will reduce the cost of regulating energy supply, or at least keep it at the current level. In any case, plant operators should be careful in choosing their direct marketers and other partners and consultants. Simultaneous supply of regulating power is attractive especially for controllable and in some cases also for fluctuating renewable energy sources. This does comply with the priority principle and also with the prohibition of double marketing as is clearly stated in SEction 8 No. 3a.

  11. Diamagnetic boundary layers: a kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    A kinetic theory for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma such as those observed in the solar wind is presented. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary, one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers, in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases in which the magnetic field intensity and/or direction changed across the layer were considered. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii and the field changed smoothly , although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. The results are consistent with the observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU. (Auth.)

  12. Coral record of variability in the upstream Kuroshio Current during 1953-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Yi; Hsin, Yi-Chia; Liu, Weiguo; Shi, Zhengguo; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2017-08-01

    The Kuroshio Current (KC), one of the most important western boundary currents in the North Pacific Ocean, strongly affects regional hydroclimate in East Asia and upper ocean thermal structure. Limited by few on-site observations, the responses of the KC to regional and remote climate forcings are still poorly understood. Here we use monthly coral δ18O data to reconstruct a KC transport record with annual to interannual resolution for the interval 1953-2004. The field site is located in southern Taiwan on the western flank of the upstream KC. Increased (reduced) KC transport would generate strong (weak) upwelling, resulting in relatively high (low) local coral δ18O. The upstream KC transport and downstream transport, off Tatsukushi Bay, Japan, covary on interannual and decadal time scales. This suggests common forcings, such as meridional drift of the North Equatorial Current bifurcation, or zonal climatic oscillations in the Pacific. The intensities of KC transport off southeastern and northeastern Taiwan are in phase before 1990 and antiphase after 1990. This difference may be due to a poleward shift of the subtropical western boundary current as a response to global warming.Plain Language SummaryThe connection between climate and oceanic circulation has long been recognized, particularly with regard to western boundary currents such as the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio Current (KC). These systems play a crucial role in transferring solar energy from the subtropical regions to the poles. As we begin to experience the impacts of global climate change, it is critical that we understand the affect global change has on variability leading to significant changes in the structure and heat transport of such currents. Current knowledge of the KC is limited to observations over individual 10 year periods or to paleorecords of very low resolution (one sample per roughly 1000 years). Neither data set allows for a detailed understanding of the natural variability of the KC

  13. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  14. Characteristics of monsoonal circulation over the western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J; Chen, E

    1980-01-01

    In this article the meteorological observations on ships four times daily in the area between 0 to 46/sup 0/N, 90 to 155/sup 0/E has been utilized. The grid 2 x 2 degrees along coastal waters, and 5 x 5 degrees over the open sea have been used. Here the monsoon currents over the western Pacific are calculated and analyzed and a brief discussion is given. The following three criteria were obtained: (1) The monsoon current over the western Pacific between winter and summer changed almost in opposite directions with April and October being the transitional months. In general the wind direction change from summer to winter went from the coastal waters to the open sea. (2) After the discussion about the duration and the prevailing wind directions, the following was determined: during the winter monsoon period, the 25/sup 0/N latitudinal line may be regarded as the boundary from October to March when the winter wind directions inclined N (NW or N) to the north of that line; but to the south of it NE winds prevailed. However, the durations were quite different in different regions, ranging from five to nine months. Owing to the topographic influence of the Taiwan Strait, the duration of the NE wind lasted nine months. The 25/sup 0/N line may also be applied for summer monsoons; over the eastern open ocean from the Gulf of the Bohai Sea and the Japanese islands the southerly winds lasted about nine months, but in the Taiwan Strait they lasted only two months. (3) During the winter monsoon period, the region of strong winds which encircled the continent was over the open ocean to the east of the Japanese islands and the Philippines. However, it was not as near to the shore line as in the winter season, and the frequency of strong winds was somewhat more on the southern side of the 25/sup 0/N line.

  15. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  16. Interactive Cadastral Boundary Delineation from Uav Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelinck, S.; Höfle, B.; Koeva, M. N.; Yang, M. Y.; Vosselman, G.

    2018-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are evolving as an alternative tool to acquire land tenure data. UAVs can capture geospatial data at high quality and resolution in a cost-effective, transparent and flexible manner, from which visible land parcel boundaries, i.e., cadastral boundaries are delineable. This delineation is to no extent automated, even though physical objects automatically retrievable through image analysis methods mark a large portion of cadastral boundaries. This study proposes (i) a methodology that automatically extracts and processes candidate cadastral boundary features from UAV data, and (ii) a procedure for a subsequent interactive delineation. Part (i) consists of two state-of-the-art computer vision methods, namely gPb contour detection and SLIC superpixels, as well as a classification part assigning costs to each outline according to local boundary knowledge. Part (ii) allows a user-guided delineation by calculating least-cost paths along previously extracted and weighted lines. The approach is tested on visible road outlines in two UAV datasets from Germany. Results show that all roads can be delineated comprehensively. Compared to manual delineation, the number of clicks per 100 m is reduced by up to 86 %, while obtaining a similar localization quality. The approach shows promising results to reduce the effort of manual delineation that is currently employed for indirect (cadastral) surveying.

  17. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  18. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  19. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning......: whether an innovation idea is created internally or externally and whether an innovation process relies on external knowledge resources. This yields four possible types of innovation, which represent the nuanced variation of outside-in innovations. Using historical data from Canada for 1945...

  20. Western Mountain Initiative - Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    unprecendented severity in the western United States, extensive tree mortality from outbreaks of bark beetles climatic stressors (Goals 1.1, 1.3) and identification of critical areas (Goal 1.2). Causal mechanisms

  1. Information dynamics of boundary perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragness, Haley; Hansen, Niels Christian; Vuust, Peter

    It has long been noted that expert musicians lengthen notes at phrase boundaries in expressive performance. Recently, we have extended research on this phenomenon by showing that undergraduates with no formal musical training and children as young as 3 years lengthen phrase boundaries during self...... uncertain than low-entropy contexts. Because phrase boundaries tend to afford high-entropy continuations, thus generating uncertain expectations in the listener, one possibility is that boundary perception is directly related to entropy. In other words, it may be hypothesized that entropy underlies...... on predictive uncertainty to the timing domain, as well as potentially answer key questions relating to boundary perception in musical listening....

  2. Computer Simulation Western

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)

  3. Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet boundary layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned Currents (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet boundary layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet boundary layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet boundary layer should include the ring current as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.

  4. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  5. Local and social facets of planetary boundaries: right to nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, Helena; Kuisma, Miia; Kuokkanen, Anna; Mikkilä, Mirja; Linnanen, Lassi

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient flows exceed the planetary boundaries. The boundaries and the current excesses vary spatially. Such variations have both an ecological and a social facet. We explored the spatial variation using a bottom-up approach. The local critical boundaries were determined through the current or accumulated flow of the preceding five years before the planetary boundary criteria were met. Finland and Ethiopia served as cases with contrasting ecology and wealth. The variation in excess depends on historical global inequities in the access to nutrients. Globally, the accumulated use per capita is 2300 kg reactive nitrogen (N r ) and 200 kg phosphorus (P). For Finland, the accumulated use per capita is 3400 kg N r and 690 kg P, whereas for Ethiopia, it is 26 kg N r and 12 kg P. The critical N boundary in Finland is currently exceeded by 40 kg cap −1 a −1 and the accumulated excess is 65 kg cap −1 a −1 , while the global current excess is 24 kg cap −1 a −1 and there is space in Ethiopia to increase even the accumulated flow. The critical P boundary is exceeded in Finland and (although less so) in Ethiopia, but for contrary reasons: (1) the excessive past inflow to the agrifood system in Finland and (2) the excessive outflow from the agrifood system triggered by deficits in inflow and waste management in Ethiopia. The critical boundaries set by Finnish marine systems are lower and those set by freshwaters are higher than the planetary boundaries downscaled per capita. The shift to dominance of internal loading in watercourses represents a tipping point. We conclude that food security within the safe boundaries requires global redistribution of nutrients in residues, soils and sediments and of rights to use nutrients. Bottom-up assessments reveal local dynamics that shed new light on the relevant boundary criteria and on estimates and remedies. (letter)

  6. Using eddy geopotential height to measure the western North Pacific subtropical high in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Bo; Zhou, Tianjun

    2018-01-01

    The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is crucial to the East Asian summer climate, and geopotential height ( H) is widely used to measure the WPNSH. However, a rapidly rising trend of H in the future is projected by the models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Diagnoses based on the hypsometric equation suggest that more than 80% of the rise in H are attributable to zonal uniform warming. Because circulation is determined by the gradient of H rather than its absolute magnitude, the spatially uniform rising trend of H gives rise to difficulties when measuring the WNPSH with H. These difficulties include an invalid western boundary of WNPSH in the future and spurious information regarding long-term trends and interannual variability of WNPSH. Using CMIP5 model simulations and reanalysis data, the applicability of a metric based on eddy geopotential height ( H e ) to the warming climate is investigated. The results show that the H e metric outperforms the H metric under warming climate conditions. First, the mean state rainfall- H e relationship is more robust than the rainfall- H relationship. Second, the area, intensity, and western boundary indices of WNPSH can be effectively defined by the H e = 0-m contour in future warming climate scenarios without spurious trends. Third, the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is more closely related to the H e -based WNPSH indices. We recommend that the H e metric be adopted as an operational metric on the WNPSH under the current warming climate.

  7. Free-boundary stability of straight stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Cary, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The sharp-boundary model is used to investigate the stability of straight stellarators to free-boundary, long-wavelength modes. To correctly analyze the heliac configuration, previous theory is generalized to the case of arbitrary helical aspect ratio (ratio of plasma radius to periodicity lengths). A simple low-β criterion involving the vacuum field and the normalized axial current is derived and used to investigate a large variety of configurations. The predictions of this low-β theory are verified by numerical minimization of deltaW at arbitrary β. The heliac configuration is found to be remarkably stable, with a critical β of over 15% determined by the lack of equilibrium rather than the onset of instability. In addition, other previously studied systems are found to be stabilized by net axial plasma current

  8. Addressing therapeutic boundaries in social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginory, Almari; Sabatier, Laura Mayol; Eth, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is the leading social networking website, with over 500 million users. Prior studies have shown an increasing number of housestaff accessing the site. While Facebook can be used to foster camaraderie, it can also create difficulties in the doctor-patient relationship, especially when boundaries are crossed. This study explored the prevalence of such boundary crossings and offers recommendations for training. An anonymous voluntary survey regarding Facebook use was distributed to current psychiatry residents through the American Psychiatric Association (APA) listserv. Of the 182 respondents, 95.7% had current Facebook profiles, and 9.7% had received friend requests from patients. In addition, 18.7% admitted to viewing patient profiles on Facebook. There is a substantial utilization of Facebook among psychiatric residents as compared with prior studies. Specific guidance regarding social media websites and the potential for ethical difficulties should be offered to trainees. © 2012 Guilford Publications, Inc.

  9. Challenging the Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2004-01-01

    To many people, challenging the boundaries between the traditional disciplines in foreign language studies means doing cultural studies. The aim of this article is to pull in a different direction by suggesting how the interface between linguistics and literature may be another fertile field...... to explore in the study and teaching of foreign languages. Not only may linguistics and literature be employed to shed light on each other, the insights gained may furthermore prove useful in a broader context in our foreign language studies. The article begins with a brief introduction to literary...... linguistics in general and to Hallidayan linguistics in particular. The theoretical framework thus laid out, it is exemplified how Halliday's theory of language may be employed in the analysis of literature. The article concludes by considering the possible status of literary linguistics in a broader...

  10. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  11. Transcending Organizational Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelum, Louise Tina Brøns

    by applying the engaged scholarship approach, thereby providing a methodological contribution to both port and business model research. Emphasizing the interplay of intra- and inter-organizational business model innovation, the thesis adds insight into the roles of port authorities, business model trends......This thesis explores how processes of business model innovation can unfold in a port authority by transcending organizational boundaries through inter-organizational collaboration. The findings contribute to two fields of academic inquiry: the study of business model innovation and the study of how...... the roles of port authorities evolve. This contribution is made by combining the two fields, where the study of business model innovation is used as an analytical concept for understanding the evolution of port authorities, and where the study of port authorities is used as a contextual setting...

  12. Superfluid Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, G W; Parker, N G; Barenghi, C F

    2017-03-31

    We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

  13. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  14. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  15. Current components, water pressure, physical, and other data from moored current meters, pressure gauges, and CTD casts from CHARTER/FISHING BOATS and other platforms from the Bering Sea - Coastal Waters of Western Alaska and other locations from 1989-05-14 to 1989-10-06 (NODC Accession 9000278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current components, water pressure, physical, and other data were collected from moored current meters, pressure gauges, and CTD casts from CHARTER/FISHING BOATS and...

  16. New Mexico County Boundaries (2007FE, TIGER, Current)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  17. Perturbed solutions of fixed boundary MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portone, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the fixed boundary plasma MHD equilibrium problem is solved by the finite element method; then, by perturbing the flux at the plasma boundary nodes, linear formulae are derived linking the variation of several plasma parameters of interest to the variation of the currents flowing in the external circuits. On the basis of these formulae it is shown how it is possible to efficiently solve two central problems in plasma engineering, namely (1) the optimization of the currents in a given set of coils necessary to maintain a specified equilibrium configuration and (2) the derivation of a linear dynamic model describing the plasma axisymmetric displacement (n = 0 mode) about a given magnetic configuration. A case study-based on the ITER reference equilibrium magnetic configuration at burn-is analysed both in terms of equilibrium currents optimality as well as axisymmetric stability features. The results obtained by these formulae are also compared with the predictions of a non-linear free boundary code and of a linear, dynamic model. As shown, the formulae derived here are in good agreement with such predictions, confirming the validity of the present approach. (author)

  18. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birss, V.; Chuang, K.

    2006-01-01

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  19. Computation of airfoil buffet boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, L. L., Jr.; Bailey, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    The ILLIAC IV computer has been programmed with an implicit, finite-difference code for solving the thin layer compressible Navier-Stokes equation. Results presented for the case of the buffet boundaries of a conventional and a supercritical airfoil section at high Reynolds numbers are found to be in agreement with experimentally determined buffet boundaries, especially at the higher freestream Mach numbers and lower lift coefficients where the onset of unsteady flows is associated with shock wave-induced boundary layer separation.

  20. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  1. Diversified boundaries of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    We analyze diversification of boundaries of local firms in developing countries under the economic globalization. The globalization has an aspect of homogenization of the world economy, but also has another aspect of diversification through international economic activities. Focusing on boundary-level of the firm, this article shows that the diversification from a comparison with boundaries of foreign firms in developed countries is brought by a disadvantage of technology deficit and a home a...

  2. Conformal boundaries of warped products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2006-01-01

    In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....

  3. Fragmented coastal boundary layer induced by gap winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Rui M. A.; Iglesias, Isabel; Sala, Iria; Vieira, Rui R.; Bastos, Luísa

    2015-04-01

    The oceanic impact of offshore-localized winds in the NW Iberian Peninsula was studied. Satellite and in situ observations showed the formation of plumes protruding offshore from the coast. To study the dynamics of such episodes tee Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave- Sediment Transport Modeling System (COAWST) was used to reproduce the coastal conditions of the nortwestern Iberian Peninsula, allowing the concurrent representation of local winds, waves, currents, and rivers runoff. The use of coupled models is of outmost importance in order to accurately study the impact of the local winds on the coastal currents. The NW Iberian Peninsula has prominent capes, promontories and submarine canyons, which produce persistent hydrodynamic features. Thus far, the scientific literature shows that the western Iberian rivers produce a recurrent combined plume often denominated as the Western Iberian Buoyant Plume (WIBP) which increases the stratification of the water column and produces a vertical retention mechanism that keeps the biological material inshore. The WIBP extends northward along the coast (over the inner-shelf), and forms a front with the warmer and more saline surface (offshore) waters. However during episodes of strong offshore winds this coastal boundary layer is broken interrupting the WIBP. Coastal orography allows the formation of down-valley winds that produce coastal jets, promoting the offshore transport of pollutants, larvae and sediments. Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments: Numerical model solutions were calculated at CIIMARs HPC unit, acquired and maintained by FCT pluriannual funds (PesTC/Mar/LA0015/2013), and RAIA (0313-RAIA-1-E) and RAIA.co (0520-RAIACO-1-E) projects. The NICC (POCTI/CTA/49563/2002) project provided databases for this work. Rui Caldeira was supported by funds from the ECORISK project (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000054), co-financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference

  4. The Boundary Function Method. Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    The boundary function method is proposed for solving applied problems of mathematical physics in the region defined by a partial differential equation of the general form involving constant or variable coefficients with a Dirichlet, Neumann, or Robin boundary condition. In this method, the desired function is defined by a power polynomial, and a boundary function represented in the form of the desired function or its derivative at one of the boundary points is introduced. Different sequences of boundary equations have been set up with the use of differential operators. Systems of linear algebraic equations constructed on the basis of these sequences allow one to determine the coefficients of a power polynomial. Constitutive equations have been derived for initial boundary-value problems of all the main types. With these equations, an initial boundary-value problem is transformed into the Cauchy problem for the boundary function. The determination of the boundary function by its derivative with respect to the time coordinate completes the solution of the problem.

  5. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  6. The influence of the magnetic boundary conditions on the nature of astrophysical convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.M.; Murphy, J.O.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of employing two forms of the boundary conditions for the magnetic field disturbance, H, are demonstrated. The appropriate conditions on H for current-free boundaries can be written as DHt-aH=0. The second case uses the conditions DH=0 at the lower and upper boundaries

  7. Grain Boundaries From Theory to Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Priester, Louisette

    2013-01-01

    Grain boundaries are a main feature of crystalline materials. They play a key role in determining the properties of materials, especially when grain size decreases and even more so with the current improvements of  processing tools and methods that allow us to control various elements in a polycrystal. This book presents the theoretical basis of the study of  grain boundaries and aims to open up new lines of research in this area. The treatment is light on mathematical approaches while emphasizing practical examples; the issues they raise are discussed with reference to theories. The general approach of the book has two main goals: to lead the reader from the concept of ‘ideal’ to ‘real’ grain boundaries; to depart from established knowledge and address the opportunities emerging through "grain boundary engineering",  the control of morphological and crystallographic features that affect material properties. The book is divided in three parts:  I ‘From interganular order to disorder’ deals wit...

  8. Boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, Roger E.; Pearce, Paul A.; Petkova, Valentina B.; Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2000-01-01

    We develop further the theory of Rational Conformal Field Theories (RCFTs) on a cylinder with specified boundary conditions emphasizing the role of a triplet of algebras: the Verlinde, graph fusion and Pasquier algebras. We show that solving Cardy's equation, expressing consistency of a RCFT on a cylinder, is equivalent to finding integer valued matrix representations of the Verlinde algebra. These matrices allow us to naturally associate a graph G to each RCFT such that the conformal boundary conditions are labelled by the nodes of G. This approach is carried to completion for sl(2) theories leading to complete sets of conformal boundary conditions, their associated cylinder partition functions and the A-D-E classification. We also review the current status for WZW sl(3) theories. Finally, a systematic generalisation of the formalism of Cardy-Lewellen is developed to allow for multiplicities arising from more general representations of the Verlinde algebra. We obtain information on the bulk-boundary coefficients and reproduce the relevant algebraic structures from the sewing constraints

  9. Problems of matter-antimatter boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1975-01-01

    This paper outlines the problems of the quasi-steady matter-antimatter boundary layers discussed in Klein-Alfven's cosmological theory, and a crude model of the corresponding ambiplasma balance is presented: (i) at interstellar particle densities, no well-defined boundary layer can exist in presence of neutral gas, nor can such a layer be sustained in an unmagnetized fully ionized ambiplasma. (ii) Within the limits of applicability of the present model, sharply defined boundary layers are under certain conditions found to exist in a magnetized ambiplasma. Thus, at beta values less than unity, a steep pressure drop of the low-energy components of matter and antimatter can be balanced by a magnetic field and the electric currents in the ambiplasma. (iii) The boundary layer thickness is of the order of 2x 0 approximately 10/BT 0 sup(1/4) meters, where B is the magnetic field strength in MKS units and T 0 the characteristic temperature of the low-energy components in the layer. (Auth.)

  10. Collaboration in Healthcare Through Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to our understanding of how boundary work is practiced in healthcare settings. Previous studies have shown how boundaries are constantly changing, multiple, and co-existing, and can also be relatively stable cognitive and social distinctions between individuals and groups...

  11. African boundary politics: a case of Ethiopian-Eritrean boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the boundary discord between Ethiopia and Eritrea over the region around Badme which started as a result of artificial boundaries created by the Italian imperialists. The study depicts the evolution of Italian colonialism in Ethiopia between 1936 and 1941. It exposes the differentials existing between the ...

  12. The influence of convective current generator on the global current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Morozov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical generalization of classical model of the global circuit with taking into account the convective current generator, working in the planetary boundary layer was considered. Convective current generator may be interpreted as generator, in which the electromotive force is generated by processes, of the turbulent transport of electrical charge. It is shown that the average potential of ionosphere is defined not only by the thunderstorm current generators, working at the present moment, but by the convective current generator also. The influence of the convective processes in the boundary layer on the electrical parameters of the atmosphere is not only local, but has global character as well. The numerical estimations, made for the case of the convective-unstable boundary layer demonstrate that the increase of the average potential of ionosphere may be of the order of 10% to 40%.

  13. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  14. A Case Study of the MBA Market in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, James E.; Armstrong, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    The Western Australia market for master's-level business administration education (MBA) is examined, particularly relating to the University of Western Australia. An overview of current Australian MBA market conditions is given; and the history, competitive environment, structure, admission policy, tuition, and student financial aid of the…

  15. Container configuration influences western larch and big sagebrush seedling development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Mehdi. Aghai

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.), a woody shrub, and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.), a deciduous conifer, are among many western North American species that have suffered a decline in presence and natural regeneration across their native ranges. These species are economically, ecologically, and intrinsically valuable, therefore many current...

  16. Shifting boundaries in telecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Elkjær, Bente

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Telecare is a growing practice defined as diagnosis, treatment and monitoring among doctors, nurses and patients, which is mediated through ICT and without face-to-face interaction. The purpose of this article is to provide empirically based knowledge about the organization of the use of ...... to clinical decision makers. The notion of ‘paradoxical accountability’ is developed to account for this dilemma. Keywords (max 8) Telecare, infrastructure, practice oriented analysis, healthcare professionals, accountability, boundaries Paper type Case study......Purpose Telecare is a growing practice defined as diagnosis, treatment and monitoring among doctors, nurses and patients, which is mediated through ICT and without face-to-face interaction. The purpose of this article is to provide empirically based knowledge about the organization of the use...... of ICT and dilemmas of this increasingly common practice in healthcare. Findings Telecare embraces new standards and possibilities for professional responsibility and accountability for nurses, but also alters the relationship between doctors and nurses. This leads to a dilemma we characterize...

  17. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  18. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  19. Boundary methods for mode estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, William E., Jr.; Ulug, Batuhan; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    1999-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of Boundary Methods (BMs), a collection of tools used for distribution analysis, as a method for estimating the number of modes associated with a given data set. Model order information of this type is required by several pattern recognition applications. The BM technique provides a novel approach to this parameter estimation problem and is comparable in terms of both accuracy and computations to other popular mode estimation techniques currently found in the literature and automatic target recognition applications. This paper explains the methodology used in the BM approach to mode estimation. Also, this paper quickly reviews other common mode estimation techniques and describes the empirical investigation used to explore the relationship of the BM technique to other mode estimation techniques. Specifically, the accuracy and computational efficiency of the BM technique are compared quantitatively to the a mixture of Gaussian (MOG) approach and a k-means approach to model order estimation. The stopping criteria of the MOG and k-means techniques is the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC).

  20. New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land

  1. How Firms Make Boundary Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report findings from an analysis of 234 firm boundary decisions that a manufacturing firm has made during a 10 year period. Extensive interviews with all major decision makers located both at the headquarters and subsidiaries allow us to examine (a) who was involved in each boundary decision...

  2. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  3. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  4. Boundary Drawing in Clinical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    The aim of this paper is to show how health care professionals temporarily dissolve and redraw boundaries in their everyday work, in order to coordinate clinical work and facilitate collaboration in patient pathways. Boundaries are social constructions that help us make sense of our complex, social...... world. In health care, formal boundaries are important distinctions that separate health care practitioners into medical specialties, professions and organizational departments. But clinical work also relies on the ability of health care practitioners to collaborate around patients in formal...... arrangements or emergent, temporary teams. Focusing on the cognitive and social boundaries we draw to establish identity and connection (to a profession, team or person) the paper shows how health care professionals can use inter-personal relationships to temporarily dismiss formal boundaries. By redrawing...

  5. Prediction of dislocation boundary characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    Plastic deformation of both fcc and bcc metals of medium to high stacking fault energy is known to result in dislocation patterning in the form of cells and extended planar dislocation boundaries. The latter align with specific crystallographic planes, which depend on the crystallographic......) and it is found that to a large extent the dislocations screen each other’s elastic stress fields [3]. The present contribution aims at advancing the previous theoretical analysis of a boundary on a known crystallographic plane to actual prediction of this plane as well as other boundary characteristics....... Crystal plasticity calculations combined with the hypothesis that these boundaries separate domains with local differences in the slip system activity are introduced to address precise prediction of the experimentally observed boundaries. The presentation will focus on two cases from fcc metals...

  6. Brain response to prosodic boundary cues depends on boundary position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eHolzgrefe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosodic information is crucial for spoken language comprehension and especially for syntactic parsing, because prosodic cues guide the hearer’s syntactic analysis. The time course and mechanisms of this interplay of prosody and syntax are not yet well understood. In particular, there is an ongoing debate whether local prosodic cues are taken into account automatically or whether they are processed in relation to the global prosodic context in which they appear. The present study explores whether the perception of a prosodic boundary is affected by its position within an utterance. In an event-related potential (ERP study we tested if the brain response evoked by the prosodic boundary differs when the boundary occurs early in a list of three names connected by conjunctions (i.e., after the first name as compared to later in the utterance (i.e., after the second name. A closure positive shift (CPS — marking the processing of a prosodic phrase boundary — was elicited only for stimuli with a late boundary, but not for stimuli with an early boundary. This result is further evidence for an immediate integration of prosodic information into the parsing of an utterance. In addition, it shows that the processing of prosodic boundary cues depends on the previously processed information from the preceding prosodic context.

  7. Sausage mode stability boundaries: enumeration and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    An axially symmetric sausage mode instability has been observed using particle simulation codes to propagate beams with a high degree of current neutralization. In this report the stability boundaries in terms of the magnitude and location of the return current are delineated for beams with square, Gaussian, and Bennett radial current profiles using the theoretical analysis of others. For the case in which the return current is held fixed as the beam propagates, a detailed comparison is made between the theoretical predictions and the results of the RINGFAST single disk particle simulation code. Agreement between theory and code results is good although the code results do show a slightly larger than predicted unstable region

  8. Seasonal anoxia over the western Indian continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A; Naik, H.; Jayakumar, A; Pratihary, A; Narvenkar, G.; Kurian, S.; Agnihotri, R.; Shailaja, M.S.; Narvekar, P.V.

    The eastern Arabian Sea contains the only eastern-boundary-type upwelling environment in the entire Indian Ocean, albeit on a seasonal basis. During the southwest monsoon, when the surface current flows equatorward, upwelling brings oxygen...

  9. Community Based Milkfish Farming in Tanzania | Mmochi | Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. County and Parish Boundaries, MFRDC has city limit boundaries for all municipalities in Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Middle Flint Regional Development Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — County and Parish Boundaries dataset current as of 2008. MFRDC has city limit boundaries for all municipalities in Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and...

  11. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination

  12. Boundaries of dreams, boundaries of dreamers: thin and thick boundaries as a new personality measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E

    1989-11-01

    Previous work by the author and his collaborators on frequent nightmare sufferers demonstrated that these people had striking personality characteristics which could be called "thin boundaries" in a number of different senses. In order to measure thin and thick boundaries, a 145-item questionnaire, the Boundary Questionnaire, has been developed which has now been taken by over 1,000 persons. Preliminary results are presented indicating that, as predicted a priori, several new groups of nightmare sufferers and groups of art students scored usually "thin," whereas a group of naval officers had usually "thick" boundaries. Overall, thinness on the Boundary Questionnaire correlated highly positively (r = .40) with frequency of dream recall and also significantly (r = .16) with length of sleep.

  13. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    with a threat both abroad and within their homeland societies. Civilians fulfil a ..... we have now with the use of force and forces is their persistent structuring ... advanced equipment remains the main feature of Western military culture. Western.

  14. Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Social Measurement: Advancing Social Work Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kirk A.; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Much of the current neighborhood-based research uses variables aggregated on administrative boundaries such as zip codes, census tracts, and block groups. However, other methods using current technological advances in geographic sciences may broaden our ability to explore the spatial concentration of neighborhood factors affecting individuals and…

  15. Tidal and residual currents across the northern Ryukyu Island chain observed by ferryboat ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Jun; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Nishina, Ayako; Dong, Menghong

    2017-09-01

    Ferryboat Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from 2003 to 2012 are used to estimate the tidal and residual currents across the northern Ryukyu Island chain (RIC) between the islands of Okinawa and Amamioshima. In this region, the M2 tide current is the strongest tidal component, and the K1 tide current is the strongest diurnal tidal component. The corresponding maximum amplitudes are 40 and 34 cm s-1, respectively. After removal of the tidal currents, the mean volume transport, 1.5 ± 2.7 Sv, flows into the East China Sea (ECS) from the western North Pacific through four channels in this area. In an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis performed to clarify the temporal and spatial variability of currents through the four channels, the first two EOF modes account for 71% and 18% of the total variance, respectively. The EOF1 mode shows a clear bottom-intensified mode through the deep channel, which is likely to be formed by the propagation of bottom-trapped long topographic Rossby wave caused by the impingement of westward-propagating mesoscale eddies upon the eastern slope of the northern RIC. The EOF2 mode has significant seasonal variability and may be driven by the wind stress prevailing over the Kuroshio flow region around the northern RIC in October-November. This study provides observational evidence of the water exchanges across the northern RIC, which is essential for constructing a circulation scheme in the North Pacific subtropical western boundary region.

  16. Optimal boundary control and boundary stabilization of hyperbolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gugat, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This brief considers recent results on optimal control and stabilization of systems governed by hyperbolic partial differential equations, specifically those in which the control action takes place at the boundary.  The wave equation is used as a typical example of a linear system, through which the author explores initial boundary value problems, concepts of exact controllability, optimal exact control, and boundary stabilization.  Nonlinear systems are also covered, with the Korteweg-de Vries and Burgers Equations serving as standard examples.  To keep the presentation as accessible as possible, the author uses the case of a system with a state that is defined on a finite space interval, so that there are only two boundary points where the system can be controlled.  Graduate and post-graduate students as well as researchers in the field will find this to be an accessible introduction to problems of optimal control and stabilization.

  17. Western blotting: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is an important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. This process involves the transfer of protein patterns from gel to microporous membrane. Electrophoretic as well as non-electrophoretic transfer of proteins to membranes was first described in 1979. Protein blotting has evolved greatly since the inception of this protocol, allowing protein transfer to be accomplished in a variety of ways.

  18. Suicide and Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; McArthur, Milford

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the cultural roots and transmission of Western suicide and suicidal behaviour. We explored a period of antiquity (mythical Greece-61 CE) and selected accounts of 10 prominent suicides. The precipitating circumstances were tabulated and an assessment made of the most likely attendant emotions. The same process was followed for a recent period (1994-2008), from which 10 suicides were identified. The precipitating circumstances and the attendant emotions were compared. These circumstances and emotions were then compared to statements commonly encountered in clinical practice from people demonstrating suicidal behaviour. Finally, we looked for evidence that these stories (and the response models) had entered Western culture. Precipitating circumstances, loss of a loved one, actual or imminent execution or imprisonment, other losses and public disgrace, and the negative emotions of shame, guilt, fear, anger, grief and sorrow were common to both historical periods. These circumstances and emotions are similar to those commonly expressed by people who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour. There was a clear record (literature, visual arts) of these stories forming part of our cultural heritage. Models of maladaptive responses to certain adverse circumstances are part of Western culture. Suicide as a response to certain circumstances and negative emotions can be traced back more than 2000 years. Cultural change will be necessary to minimize suicide.

  19. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  20. Distributed Tuning of Boundary Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    in the context of a paradoxical tension between the logic of generative and democratic innovations and the logic of infrastructural control. Boundary resources play a critical role in managing the tension as a firm that owns the infrastructure can secure its control over the service system while independent...... firms can participate in the service system. In this study, we explore the evolution of boundary resources. Drawing on Pickering’s (1993) and Barrett et al.’s (2012) conceptualizations of tuning, the paper seeks to forward our understanding of how heterogeneous actors engage in the tuning of boundary...

  1. Easy boundary definition for EGUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.

    1989-01-01

    The relativistic electron optics program EGUN has reached a broad distribution, and many users have asked for an easier way of boundary input. A preprocessor to EGUN has been developed that accepts polygonal input of boundary points, and offers features such as rounding off of corners, shifting and squeezing of electrodes and simple input of slanted Neumann boundaries. This preprocessor can either be used on a PC that is linked to a mainframe using the FORTRAN version of EGUN, or in connection with the version EGNc, which also runs on a PC. In any case, direct graphic response on the PC greatly facilitates the creation of correct input files for EGUN. (orig.)

  2. Easy boundary definition for EGUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R.

    1989-06-01

    The relativistic electron optics program EGUN [1] has reached a broad distribution, and many users have asked for an easier way of boundary input. A preprocessor to EGUN has been developed that accepts polygonal input of boundary points, and offers features such as rounding off of corners, shifting and squeezing of electrodes and simple input of slanted Neumann boundaries. This preprocessor can either be used on a PC that is linked to a mainframe using the FORTRAN version of EGUN, or in connection with the version EGNc, which also runs on a PC. In any case, direct graphic response on the PC greatly facilitates the creation of correct input files for EGUN.

  3. Easy boundary definition for EGUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik)

    1989-06-01

    The relativistic electron optics program EGUN has reached a broad distribution, and many users have asked for an easier way of boundary input. A preprocessor to EGUN has been developed that accepts polygonal input of boundary points, and offers features such as rounding off of corners, shifting and squeezing of electrodes and simple input of slanted Neumann boundaries. This preprocessor can either be used on a PC that is linked to a mainframe using the FORTRAN version of EGUN, or in connection with the version EGNc, which also runs on a PC. In any case, direct graphic response on the PC greatly facilitates the creation of correct input files for EGUN. (orig.).

  4. Sublayer of Prandtl Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of Prandtl boundary layers in the vanishing viscosity limit {ν \\to 0} . In Grenier (Commun Pure Appl Math 53(9):1067-1091, 2000), one of the authors proved that there exists no asymptotic expansion involving one of Prandtl's boundary layer, with thickness of order {√{ν}} , which describes the inviscid limit of Navier-Stokes equations. The instability gives rise to a viscous boundary sublayer whose thickness is of order {ν^{3/4}} . In this paper, we point out how the stability of the classical Prandtl's layer is linked to the stability of this sublayer. In particular, we prove that the two layers cannot both be nonlinearly stable in L^∞. That is, either the Prandtl's layer or the boundary sublayer is nonlinearly unstable in the sup norm.

  5. Boundary Layer Control on Airfoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhab, George; Eastlake, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A phenomena, boundary layer control (BLC), produced when visualizing the fluidlike flow of air is described. The use of BLC in modifying aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils, race cars, and boats is discussed. (KR)

  6. Recognition of boundary feedback systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A system that has been the object of intense research is outlined. In view of that and recent progress of the theory of pseudodifferential boundary operator calculus, the author describes some features that could prove to be interesting in connection with the problems of boundary feedback stabili...... stabilizability. It is shown that it is possible to use the calculus to consider more general feedback systems in a variational setup.......A system that has been the object of intense research is outlined. In view of that and recent progress of the theory of pseudodifferential boundary operator calculus, the author describes some features that could prove to be interesting in connection with the problems of boundary feedback...

  7. HUC 8-11 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  8. Analytic invariants of boundary links

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.

  9. County Boundaries with Shorelines (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — County boundaries with shorelines cut in (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and...

  10. The laminar boundary layer equations

    CERN Document Server

    Curle, N

    2017-01-01

    Thorough introduction to boundary layer problems offers an ordered, logical presentation accessible to undergraduates. The text's careful expositions of the limitations and accuracy of various methods will also benefit professionals. 1962 edition.

  11. On the discontinuous nature of the Mozambique Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmus P.M. de Ruijter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a spatially continuous western boundary current in the Mozambique Channel has historically been based on erroneous interpretations of ships’ drift. Recent observations have demonstrated that the circulation in the Channel is instead dominated by anti-cyclonic eddies drifting poleward. It has therefore been suggested that no coherent Mozambique Current exists at any time. However, satellite and other observations indicate that a continuous current – not necessarily an inherent part of Mozambique Eddies – may at times be found along the full Mozambican shelf break. Using a high-resolution, numerical model we have demonstrated how such a feature may come about. In the model, a continuous current is a highly irregularly occurring event, occurring about once per year, with an average duration of only 9 days and with a vertical extent of about 800 m. Surface speeds may vary from 0.5 m/s to 1.5 m/s and the volume flux involved is about 10 Sv. The continuous current may occasionally be important for the transport of biota along the continental shelf and slope.

  12. Blueprint Site Boundary West Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This draft shapefile was developed for staff of the NOAA Fisheries Service, Pacific Island Regional Office and the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council. These...

  13. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  14. Removing Boundary Layer by Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackeret, J

    1927-01-01

    Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.

  15. Tokamak plasma boundary layer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, T.F.; Kirillov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    A model has been developed for the limiter layer and for the boundary region of the plasma column in a tokamak to facilitate analytic calculations of the thickness of the limiter layers, the profiles and boundary values of the temperature and the density under various conditions, and the difference between the electron and ion temperatures. This model can also be used to analyze the recycling of neutrals, the energy and particle losses to the wall and the limiter, and other characteristics

  16. Seasonality of the Mindanao Current/Undercurrent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiuping; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan; Song, Lina; Liu, Chuanyu; Zhai, Fangguo

    2018-02-01

    Seasonality of the Mindanao Current (MC)/Undercurrent (MUC) system is investigated using moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements off Mindanao (8°N, 127.05°E) and ocean model simulations. The mooring observation during December 2010 to August 2014 revealed that the surface-layer MC between 50-150 m is dominated by annual-period variation and tends to be stronger in spring (boreal) and weaker in fall. Prominent semiannual variations were detected below 150 m. The lower MC between 150 and 400 m is stronger in spring and fall and weaker in summer and winter, while the northward MUC below 400 m emerges in summer and winter and disappears in spring and fall. In-phase and out-of-phase current anomalies above and below 150 m were observed alternatively. These variations are faithfully reproduced by an eddy-resolving ocean model simulation (OFES). Further analysis demonstrates that seasonal variation of the MC is a component of large-scale upper-ocean circulation gyre, while current variations in the MUC layer are confined near the western boundary and featured by shorter-scale (200-400 km) structures. Most of the MC variations and approximately half of the MUC variations can be explained by the first and second baroclinic modes and caused by local wind forcing of the western Pacific. Semiannual surface wind variability and superimposition of the two baroclinic modes jointly give rise to the enhanced subsurface semiannual variations. The pronounced mesoscale eddy variability in the MUC layer may also contribute to the seasonality of the MUC through eddy-current interaction.

  17. Nuclear energy in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, M.; Walker, W.

    1984-01-01

    This is an overview of nuclear energy in Western Europe, as seen by two Western Europeans, attempting to place the topic into the context not only of energy supply but also of industrial relations, institutional structure, and sociocultural factors. Although its main focus is Western Europe, it is sometimes necessary to glance at the wider context, in particular the industrial relations with the United States and Japan. Export markets are also considered, in particular, in the Pacific. The paper does not, however, deal with nonproliferation policies and the possible difference of opinion within Western Europe and between Western Europe and other regions over this topic. (author)

  18. The Community Boundary De-paradoxifyed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsdahl Lauritzen, Ghita; Salomo, Søren

    2012-01-01

    . In order to improve connections and collaborations across interfaces, it is therefore necessary to improve our understanding of the community boundary construct. Existing studies of community boundaries within the user innovation literature predominantly describe boundaries as incentives for user...

  19. Large dunes on the outer shelf off the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique: evidence for the existence of a Mozambique Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Burghard W.; Kudrass, Hermann-Rudolf

    2018-02-01

    The existence of a continuously flowing Mozambique Current, i.e. a western geostrophic boundary current flowing southwards along the shelf break of Mozambique, was until recently accepted by oceanographers studying ocean circulation in the south-western Indian Ocean. This concept was then cast into doubt based on long-term current measurements obtained from current-meter moorings deployed across the northern Mozambique Channel, which suggested that southward flow through the Mozambique Channel took place in the form of successive, southward migrating and counter-clockwise rotating eddies. Indeed, numerical modelling found that, if at all, strong currents on the outer shelf occurred for not more than 9 days per year. In the present study, the negation of the existence of a Mozambique Current is challenged by the discovery of a large (50 km long, 12 km wide) subaqueous dune field (with up to 10 m high dunes) on the outer shelf east of the modern Zambezi River delta at water depths between 50 and 100 m. Being interpreted as representing the current-modified, early Holocene Zambezi palaeo-delta, the dune field would have migrated southwards by at least 50 km from its former location since sea level recovered to its present-day position some 7 ka ago and after the former delta had been remoulded into a migrating dune field. Because a large dune field composed of actively migrating bedforms cannot be generated and maintained by currents restricted to a period of only 9 days per year, the validity of those earlier modelling results is questioned for the western margin of the flow field. Indeed, satellite images extracted from the Perpetual Ocean display of NASA, which show monthly time-integrated surface currents in the Mozambique Channel for the 5 month period from June-October 2006, support the proposition that strong flow on the outer Mozambican shelf occurs much more frequently than postulated by those modelling results. This is consistent with more recent modelling

  20. Understanding perceptual boundaries in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamata, Pablo; Gomez, Enrique J; Hernández, Félix Lamata; Oltra Pastor, Alfonso; Sanchez-Margallo, Francisco Miquel; Del Pozo Guerrero, Francisco

    2008-03-01

    Human perceptual capabilities related to the laparoscopic interaction paradigm are not well known. Its study is important for the design of virtual reality simulators, and for the specification of augmented reality applications that overcome current limitations and provide a supersensing to the surgeon. As part of this work, this article addresses the study of laparoscopic pulling forces. Two definitions are proposed to focalize the problem: the perceptual fidelity boundary, limit of human perceptual capabilities, and the Utile fidelity boundary, that encapsulates the perceived aspects actually used by surgeons to guide an operation. The study is then aimed to define the perceptual fidelity boundary of laparoscopic pulling forces. This is approached with an experimental design in which surgeons assess the resistance against pulling of four different tissues, which are characterized with both in vivo interaction forces and ex vivo tissue biomechanical properties. A logarithmic law of tissue consistency perception is found comparing subjective valorizations with objective parameters. A model of this perception is developed identifying what the main parameters are: the grade of fixation of the organ, the tissue stiffness, the amount of tissue bitten, and the organ mass being pulled. These results are a clear requirement analysis for the force feedback algorithm of a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator. Finally, some discussion is raised about the suitability of augmented reality applications around this surgical gesture.

  1. Thermal Simulations, Open Boundary Conditions and Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Yannis; Florio, Adrien; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Mazur, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    SU(N) gauge theories on compact spaces have a non-trivial vacuum structure characterized by a countable set of topological sectors and their topological charge. In lattice simulations, every topological sector needs to be explored a number of times which reflects its weight in the path integral. Current lattice simulations are impeded by the so-called freezing of the topological charge problem. As the continuum is approached, energy barriers between topological sectors become well defined and the simulations get trapped in a given sector. A possible way out was introduced by Lüscher and Schaefer using open boundary condition in the time extent. However, this solution cannot be used for thermal simulations, where the time direction is required to be periodic. In this proceedings, we present results obtained using open boundary conditions in space, at non-zero temperature. With these conditions, the topological charge is not quantized and the topological barriers are lifted. A downside of this method are the strong finite-size effects introduced by the boundary conditions. We also present some exploratory results which show how these conditions could be used on an algorithmic level to reshuffle the system and generate periodic configurations with non-zero topological charge.

  2. Thermal Simulations, Open Boundary Conditions and Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnier Yannis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available SU(N gauge theories on compact spaces have a non-trivial vacuum structure characterized by a countable set of topological sectors and their topological charge. In lattice simulations, every topological sector needs to be explored a number of times which reflects its weight in the path integral. Current lattice simulations are impeded by the so-called freezing of the topological charge problem. As the continuum is approached, energy barriers between topological sectors become well defined and the simulations get trapped in a given sector. A possible way out was introduced by Lüscher and Schaefer using open boundary condition in the time extent. However, this solution cannot be used for thermal simulations, where the time direction is required to be periodic. In this proceedings, we present results obtained using open boundary conditions in space, at non-zero temperature. With these conditions, the topological charge is not quantized and the topological barriers are lifted. A downside of this method are the strong finite-size effects introduced by the boundary conditions. We also present some exploratory results which show how these conditions could be used on an algorithmic level to reshuffle the system and generate periodic configurations with non-zero topological charge.

  3. Bosonization relations as bag boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, S.; Nielsen, H.B.; Zahed, I.

    1984-10-01

    The more sophisticated bag models of hadrons become, the less precisely they seem to determine the bag radius. Idealizing this situation leads to the concept of exact bag models - ''Cheshire Cat'' models, CCM'S - where the physics is completely insensitive to changes in the bag radius. CCM's are constructed explitly in 1+1-dimensions, where exact bosonization relations are known. In the formalism of bag models, these relations appear as boundary conditions which ensure that the shifting of the bag wall has no physical effect. Other notable features of 1+1-dimensional CCM's are: (i) Fermion number, though classically confined, can escape the bag via a vector current anomaly at the surface. (ii) Essentially the same boundary action works for a variety of models and its symmetries determine those of the external boson fields. Remarkably enough, this 1+1-dimensional boundary action has precisely the same form as the one used in 3+1-dimensional chiral bag models, lending support to the belief that the latter are indeed approximateCCM's. These 1+1-dimensional results are expected to provide useful guidelines in the attempt to, at least approximately, besonize 3+1-dimensional QCD. (orig.)

  4. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  5. On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory......, measurements, and modeling....

  6. On the elastic stiffness of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Hack, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The elastic softening of grain boundaries is evaluated from the starting point of grain boundary energy. Several examples are given to illustrate the relationship between boundary energy and the extent of softening. In general, a high grain boundary energy is associated with a large excess atomic volume in the boundary region. The consequent reduction in grain boundary stiffness can represent a significant fraction of that observed in bulk crystals. (orig.)

  7. Event Boundaries in Memory and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2017-10-01

    Research on event cognition is rapidly developing and is revealing fundamental aspects of human cognition. In this paper, we review recent and current work that is driving this field forward. We first outline the Event Horizon Model, which broadly describes the impact of event boundaries on cognition and memory. Then, we address recent work on event segmentation, the role of event cognition in working memory and long-term memory, including event model updating, and long term retention. Throughout we also consider how event cognition varies across individuals and groups of people and consider the neural mechanisms involved.

  8. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  9. Lyapunov Based Estimation of Flight Stability Boundary under Icing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current fight boundary of the envelope protection in icing conditions is usually defined by the critical values of state parameters; however, such method does not take the interrelationship of each parameter and the effect of the external disturbance into consideration. This paper proposes constructing the stability boundary of the aircraft in icing conditions through analyzing the region of attraction (ROA around the equilibrium point. Nonlinear icing effect model is proposed according to existing wind tunnel test results. On this basis, the iced polynomial short period model can be deduced further to obtain the stability boundary under icing conditions using ROA analysis. Simulation results for a series of icing severity demonstrate that, regardless of the icing severity, the boundary of the calculated ROA can be treated as an estimation of the stability boundary around an equilibrium point. The proposed methodology is believed to be a promising way for ROA analysis and stability boundary construction of the aircraft in icing conditions, and it will provide theoretical support for multiple boundary protection of icing tolerant flight.

  10. The atomic-scale origins of grain boundary superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennycook, S.J.; Chisholm, M.F.; Buban, J.; Browning, N.D.; Prouteau, C.; Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL; Nellist, P.D.

    1998-02-01

    Due to the extremely short coherence lengths of the high-T c superconductors, defects such as grain boundaries are obvious barriers to the flow of supercurrent. Within a few months of the discovery of these materials, it was shown how the critical current dropped four orders of magnitude as the grain boundary misorientation increased from zero to 45 degree. Even today, there is no quantitative understanding of this behavior. A qualitative understanding is however possible through atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and SrTiO 3 bicrystal grain boundaries, combined with bond-valence-sum analysis. The Z-contrast image of a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ low angle grain boundary shows the same kind of reconstructed dislocation cores as seen in SrTiO 3 , containing reconstructions on both the Cu and Y/Ba sublattices. An image of an asymmetric 30 degree boundary in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ shows the same units and unit sequence as expected for SrTiO 3 . YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ boundaries are wavy because of their non-equilibrium growth process, and therefore mostly asymmetric in nature, although small segments have the symmetric structure. It seems reasonable to assume that boundaries of other angles will also have similar structures in these two materials

  11. Determining market boundaries in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godde, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a method of determining market boundaries in preparation of identifying all the competitive forces which a company in the electricity sector must address and deciding on this basis whether it has a dominant position in the market. The study focused in particular on current developments in the German electricity sector, this being the only way to permit a demarcation that accurately reflects the true economic situation. First the question was addressed whether a determination of market boundaries is at all necessary for performing a competitive analysis and in what specific constellations they could play a role. Giving due consideration to the special features of the electricity sector the most preferable market demarcation methods were applied to individual areas of the electricity sector that are of competitive relevance. Efforts were directed at arriving at market boundaries most conducive to the goal of identifying those competitive forces which a company in the electricity sector must address. For this purpose a critical assessment was undertaken of established market demarcation practices in Europe and Germany in order to determine whether ''classical'' market demarcation methods could be applied or whether modifications were needed on account of special features of market structure. The author also describes and discusses alternatives to the established market demarcation methods. She also elucidates methods of determining the boundaries of markets that have emerged as a result of recent developments in the electricity sector, for example through the growth of electricity production from renewable resources, or which are still in the process of formation.

  12. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  13. Assessing increasing susceptibility to wildfire at the wildland-urban fringe in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Much of the western U.S. is increasingly susceptible to wildfire activity due to drier conditions, elevated fuel loads, and expanding urbanization. As population increases, development pushes the urban boundary further into wildlands, creating more potential for human interaction at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), primarily from human ignitions and fire suppression policies. The immediate impacts of wildfires include vulnerability to debris flows, flooding, and impaired water quality. Fires also alter longer-term hydrological and ecosystem behavior. The current study utilizes geospatial datasets to investigate historical wildfire size and frequency relative to the WUI for a range of cities across western North America. California, the most populous state in the U.S., has an extensive fire history. The decennial population and acres burned for four major counties (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Shasta) in California show that increasing wildfire size and frequency follow urbanization trends, with high correlation between the last decade of burned area, urban-fringe proximity, and increasing population. Ultimately, results will provide information on urban fringe communities that are most vulnerable to the risks associated with wildfire and post-fire impacts. In light of evolving land use policies (i.e. forest management and treatment, development at the urban-fringe) and climate change, it is critical to advance our knowledge of the implications that these conditions pose to urban centers, communicate risks to the public, and ultimately provide guidance for wildfire management.

  14. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part I: hypothetical boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A baroclinic shallow-water model is developed to investigate the effect of the orientation of the eastern ocean boundary on the behavior of equatorial Kelvin waves. The model is formulated in a spherical polar coordinate system and includes dissipation and non-linear terms, effects which have not been previously included in analytical approaches to the problem. Both equatorial and middle latitude response are considered given the large latitudinal extent used in the model. Baroclinic equatorial Kelvin waves of intraseasonal, seasonal and annual periods are introduced into the domain as pulses of finite width. Their subsequent reflection, transmission and dissipation are investigated. It is found that dissipation is very important for the transmission of wave energy along the boundary and for reflections from the boundary. The dissipation was found to be dependent not only on the presence of the coastal Kelvin waves in the domain, but also on the period of these coastal waves. In particular the dissipation increases with wave period. It is also shown that the equatorial β-plane approximation can allow an anomalous generation of Rossby waves at higher latitudes. Nonlinearities generally have a small effect on the solutions, within the confines of this model.Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling · Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents

  15. ECOLOGICAL GROWTH BOUNDARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna BLUSZCZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  16. Basic aspects of high-Tc grain boundary devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannhart, J.; Moler, K.A.; Sigrist, M.

    1996-01-01

    Grain boundaries are extensively used as high-quality Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors. Their superconducting characteristics can generally be well described by conventional models of strongly coupled Josephson junctions. Here, we report on highly anomalous critical current vs. magnetic field dependencies of grain boundaries in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . Direct imaging with scanning SQUID microscopy provides evidence of magnetic flux generated by single grain boundaries. Conventional Josephson junction models cannot explain these effects if a superconducting order parameter with a pure s-wave symmetry is assumed. The results have significant implications for our understanding of the properties of grain boundaries in high-T c superconductors and for their applications. (orig.)

  17. Solution of moving boundary problems with implicit boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyano, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm that solves numerically a model for studying one dimensional moving boundary problems, with implicit boundary condition, is described. Landau's transformation is used, in order to work with a fixed number of nodes at each instant. Then, it is necessary to deal with a parabolic partial differential equation, whose diffusive and convective terms have variable coefficients. The partial differential equation is implicitly discretized, using Laasonen's scheme, always stable, instead of employing Crank-Nicholson sheme, as it has been done by Ferris and Hill. Fixed time and space steps (Δt, Δξ) are used, and the iteration is made with variable positions of the interface, i.e. varying δs until a boundary condition is satisfied. The model has the same features of the oxygen diffusion in absorbing tissue. It would be capable of estimating time variant radiation treatments of cancerous tumors. (Author) [es

  18. Using Molecular Genetic Markers to Resolve a Subspecies Boundary: The Northern Boundary of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in the Four-Corner States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    *Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary

  19. The boundary-scan handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at electronics industry professionals, this 4th edition of the Boundary Scan Handbook describes recent changes to the IEEE1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. This updated edition features new chapters on the possible effects of the changes on the work of the practicing test engineers and the new 1149.8.1 standard. Anyone needing to understand the basics of boundary scan and its practical industrial implementation will need this book. Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers;   Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications;   Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards. In particular, addresses: IEEE Std 1149.1                      Digital Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.4                      Analog Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.6                      Advanced I/O Testing IEEE Std 1149.8.1           �...

  20. Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cousteix, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...

  1. Nonlinear Dynamics of Vortices in Different Types of Grain Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhzada, Ahmad [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    As a major component of linear particle accelerators, superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) resonator cavities are required to operate with lowest energy dissipation and highest accelerating gradient. SRF cavities are made of polycrystalline materials in which grain boundaries can limit maximum RF currents and produce additional power dissipation sources due to local penetration of Josephson vortices. The essential physics of vortex penetration and mechanisms of dissipation of vortices driven by strong RF currents along networks of grain boundaries and their contribution to the residual surface resistance have not been well understood. To evaluate how GBs can limit the performance of SRF materials, particularly Nb and Nb3Sn, we performed extensive numerical simulations of nonlinear dynamics of Josephson vortices in grain boundaries under strong dc and RF fields. The RF power due to penetration of vortices both in weakly-coupled and strongly-coupled grain boundaries was calculated as functions of the RF field and frequency. The result of this calculation manifested a quadratic dependence of power to field amplitude at strong RF currents, an illustration of resistive behavior of grain boundaries. Our calculations also showed that the surface resistance is a complicated function of field controlled by penetration and annihilation of vortices and antivortices in strong RF fields which ultimately saturates to normal resistivity of grain boundary. We found that Cherenkov radiation of rapidly moving vortices in grain boundaries can produce a new instability causing generation of expanding vortex-antivortex pair which ultimately drives the entire GB in a resistive state. This effect is more pronounced in polycrystalline thin film and multilayer coating structures in which it can cause significant increase in power dissipation and results in hysteresis effects in I-V characteristics, particularly at low temperatures.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics of Vortices in Different Types of Grain Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzada, Ahmad K.

    As a major component of linear particle accelerators, superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) resonator cavities are required to operate with lowest energy dissipation and highest accelerating gradient. SRF cavities are made of polycrystalline materials in which grain boundaries can limit maximum RF currents and produce additional power dissipation sources due to local penetration of Josephson vortices. The essential physics of vortex penetration and mechanisms of dissipation of vortices driven by strong RF currents along networks of grain boundaries and their contribution to the residual surface resistance have not been well understood. To evaluate how GBs can limit the performance of SRF materials, particularly Nb and Nb3Sn, we performed extensive numerical simulations of nonlinear dynamics of Josephson vortices in grain boundaries under strong dc and RF fields. The RF power due to penetration of vortices both in weakly-coupled and strongly-coupled grain boundaries was calculated as functions of the RF field and frequency. The result of this calculation manifested a quadratic dependence of power to field amplitude at strong RF currents, an illustration of resistive behavior of grain boundaries. Our calculations also showed that the surface resistance is a complicated function of field controlled by penetration and annihilation of vortices and antivortices in strong RF fields which ultimately saturates to normal resistivity of grain boundary. We found that Cherenkov radiation of rapidly moving vortices in grain boundaries can produce a new instability causing generation of expanding vortex-antivortex pair which ultimately drives the entire GB in a resistive state. This effect is more pronounced in polycrystalline thin film and multilayer coating structures in which it can cause significant increase in power dissipation and results in hysteresis effects in I-V characteristics, particularly at low temperatures.

  3. Antimatter Production at a Potential Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Reddy, Dhanireddy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current antiproton production techniques rely on high-energy collisions between beam particles and target nuclei to produce particle and antiparticle pairs, but inherently low production and capture efficiencies render these techniques impractical for the cost-effective production of antimatter for space propulsion and other commercial applications. Based on Dirac's theory of the vacuum field, a new antimatter production concept is proposed in which particle-antiparticle pairs are created at the boundary of a steep potential step formed by the suppression of the local vacuum fields. Current antimatter production techniques are reviewed, followed by a description of Dirac's relativistic quantum theory of the vacuum state and corresponding solutions for particle tunneling and reflection from a potential barrier. The use of the Casimir effect to suppress local vacuum fields is presented as a possible technique for generating the sharp potential gradients required for particle-antiparticle pair creation.

  4. Boundary Transgressions: An Issue In Psychotherapeutic Encounter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boundary transgressions tend to be conceptualized on a continuum ranging from boundary crossings to boundary violations. Boundary crossings (e.g. accepting an inexpensive holiday gift from a client, unintentionally encountering a client in public, or attending a client's special event) are described in the literature as ...

  5. Boundary Spanners as supports of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners.......Boundary Spanners are important agenets of supporting the capacity building of local neighbourhoods and of sustainable social captial the article focuses on the skills and competnces adn role of Boundary Spanners....

  6. Detecting dynamical boundaries from kinematic data in biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shane D.; Tanaka, Martin L.; Senatore, Carmine

    2010-03-01

    Ridges in the state space distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents can be used to locate dynamical boundaries. We describe a method for obtaining dynamical boundaries using only trajectories reconstructed from time series, expanding on the current approach which requires a vector field in the phase space. We analyze problems in musculoskeletal biomechanics, considered as exemplars of a class of experimental systems that contain separatrix features. Particular focus is given to postural control and balance, considering both models and experimental data. Our success in determining the boundary between recovery and failure in human balance activities suggests this approach will provide new robust stability measures, as well as measures of fall risk, that currently are not available and may have benefits for the analysis and prevention of low back pain and falls leading to injury, both of which affect a significant portion of the population.

  7. Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Samet, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the "Chinese haze", was created to describe China's air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20(th) century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries?

  8. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  9. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  10. Astronomically paced changes in deep-water circulation in the western North Atlantic during the middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Lohmann, Gerrit; Sexton, Philip; Zachos, James; Pälike, Heiko

    2018-02-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) currently redistributes heat and salt between Earth's ocean basins, and plays a vital role in the ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Despite its crucial role in today's climate system, vigorous debate remains as to when deep-water formation in the North Atlantic started. Here, we present datasets from carbonate-rich middle Eocene sediments from the Newfoundland Ridge, revealing a unique archive of paleoceanographic change from the progressively cooling climate of the middle Eocene. Well-defined lithologic alternations between calcareous ooze and clay-rich intervals occur at the ∼41-kyr beat of axial obliquity. Hence, we identify obliquity as the driver of middle Eocene (43.5-46 Ma) Northern Component Water (NCW, the predecessor of modern NADW) variability. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C suggest that obliquity minima correspond to cold, nutrient-depleted, western North Atlantic deep waters. We thus link stronger NCW formation with obliquity minima. In contrast, during obliquity maxima, Deep Western Boundary Currents were weaker and warmer, while abyssal nutrients were more abundant. These aspects reflect a more sluggish NCW formation. This obliquity-paced paleoceanographic regime is in excellent agreement with results from an Earth system model, in which obliquity minima configurations enhance NCW formation.

  11. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  12. Boundaries, work and the rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    This position paper takes its starting point in the definitions of work, and of boundaries often found in CSCW and HCI literature. By looking back at the case of parental leave planning and on my writings from the past 10 years, I discuss how these definitions need to be reconsidered, and I...

  13. Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wyper, P. F. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used to approximate photospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer. The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with some flux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs all along the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions that were not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun and heliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slow solar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.

  14. Science beyond the Classroom Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasey, Rosemary; Bianchi, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    There have been many years of innovation in primary science education. Surprisingly, however, most of this has taken place within the confines of the classroom. What primary science has not yet done with universal success is step outside the classroom boundaries to use the school grounds for teaching and learning across all aspects of the science…

  15. Pushing Boundaries while Maintaining Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte

    at the same time. The exploration of transforming practices shows how disturbances in relation to the ‘normal’ practices are created and thus makes invisible conventions which are taken for granted visible. Thus, this paper addresses two types of invisibility: the unnoticed boundary-pushing practices...

  16. Interpersonal boundaries in clinical nursing education: An exploratory Canadian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieber, Mark P; Hagen, Brad

    2009-11-01

    Clinical nursing instructors and students spend considerable time together, and share clinical experiences that can be intense and emotionally charged. Yet despite clinical teaching being so commonplace, little is known about how clinical instructors experience relationships with their students, and how they negotiate interpersonal boundaries within these relationships. In-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with eight clinical nursing instructors in Western Canada, to explore how they defined and constructed interpersonal boundaries with their students during clinical nursing teaching rotations. The data analysis resulted in four major themes: "the fluidity of boundaries", "personal sharing and self-disclosure", "time dependent", and "the touchy topic of touch". All participants agreed that rigid boundaries were occasionally needed to prevent flagrant boundary violations, such as sexual relations with students. However, participants also stated that overall, the unique and complex nature of clinical teaching called for instructors to have fluid and flexible interpersonal boundaries with students. The nature of clinical nursing education may encourage instructors to form relationships with their students that are characterized by flexible and fluid interpersonal boundaries. Clinical nursing instructors may benefit from opportunities to dialogue with trusted colleagues about the unique nature of relationships and boundaries with students during clinical teaching.

  17. Gendered Cultural Identities: The Influences of Family and Privacy Boundaries, Subjective Norms, and Stigma Beliefs on Family Health History Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Jung

    2017-05-25

    This study investigates the effects of cultural norms on family health history (FHH) communication in the American, Chinese, and Korean cultures. More particularly, this study focuses on perceived family boundaries, subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and privacy boundaries, including age and gender, that affect people's FHH communication. For data analyses, hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression methods were employed. The results indicate that participants' subjective norms, stigma beliefs, and perceived family/privacy boundaries were positively associated with current FHH communication. Age- and gender-related privacy boundaries were negatively related to perceived privacy boundaries, however. Finally, the results show that gendered cultural identities have three-way interaction effects on two associations: (1) between perceived family boundaries and perceived privacy boundaries and (2) between perceived privacy boundaries and current FHH communication. The findings have meaningful implications for future cross-cultural studies on the roles of family systems, subjective norms, and stigma beliefs in FHH communication.

  18. On the search for experimentally observed grain boundary phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Hsieh, T.E.

    1987-07-01

    The phase space for a heterogeneous system containing a grain boundary involves a relatively large number of variables (i.e., at least six plus the number of components), and it is therefore conceptually possible to induce a large variety of grain boundary phase transitions by selectively varying these parameters. Despite this, a review of the literature reveals that there have been virtually no clear-cut experimental observations of transitions reported in which the boundary structure has been observed as a function of time under well defined conditions. In current work, we are searching for roughening/faceting transitions and melting transitions for boundaries in Al by hot stage transmission electron microscopy. A clear example of a reversible roughening/faceting transition has been found. No evidence for melting has been found for temperatures as high as 0.96 T/sub m/ (by monitoring GBD core delocalization in several special boundaries with Σ ≤ 13) or 0.999 T/sub m/ (by observing the local diffraction contrast at general boundaries in polycrystalline specimens)

  19. Open boundary condition, Wilson flow and the scalar glueball mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Abhishek; Harindranath, A.; Maiti, Jyotirmoy

    2014-01-01

    A major problem with periodic boundary condition on the gauge fields used in current lattice gauge theory simulations is the trapping of topological charge in a particular sector as the continuum limit is approached. To overcome this problem open boundary condition in the temporal direction has been proposed recently. One may ask whether open boundary condition can reproduce the observables calculated with periodic boundary condition. In this work we find that the extracted lowest glueball mass using open and periodic boundary conditions at the same lattice volume and lattice spacing agree for the range of lattice scales explored in the range 3 GeV≤(1/a)≤5 GeV. The problem of trapping is overcome to a large extent with open boundary and we are able to extract the glueball mass at even larger lattice scale ≈ 5.7 GeV. To smoothen the gauge fields we have used recently proposed Wilson flow which, compared to HYP smearing, exhibits better systematics in the extraction of glueball mass. The extracted glueball mass shows remarkable insensitivity to the lattice spacings in the range explored in this work, 3 GeV≤(1/a)≤5.7 GeV.

  20. Risk perception in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes empirical work on risk perception and some related dimensions, in particular with regard to radiation and nuclear power hazards. Most of the data cited come from a current CEC project in which 5 countries in Western Europe have participated. Models of risk perception are discussed and some generally valid findings concerning risk perception are summarized. Risk is seen to be a primary factor in many policy matters and clearly, to the public, more important than utility considerations. Previously formulated models (the Psychometric Model and Cultural Theory) are found to be deficient and a much more efficient alternative is suggested. It is stressed that risk perception is of interest foremost because it can be of value to decision makers in making difficult policy decisions in matters of risk. Hence, it is important to ask what facets of perceived risk are most strongly related to demand for risk mitigation. It is found that expected severity of consequences of an hazard is the clearly most important dimension. The paper concludes with a brief summary of a case study of Swedish experience with high-level nuclear waste repository siting

  1. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  2. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  3. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  4. Exact Boundary Controllability of Electromagnetic Fields in a General Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, M. M.; Masters, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    We prove exact controllability for Maxwell's system with variable coefficients in a bounded domain by a current flux in the boundary. The proof relies on a duality argument which reduces the proof of exact controllability to the proof of continuous observability for the homogeneous adjoint system. There is no geometric restriction imposed on the domain

  5. Automatic Detection of Myocardial Boundaries in MR Cardio Perfusion Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Luuk; Breeuwer, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases often result in reduced blood perfusion of the myocardium (MC). Recent advances in MR allow fast recordingof contrast enhanced myocardial perfusion scans. For perfusion analysis the myocardial boundaries must be traced. Currently this is done manually. In this paper a method

  6. Mild wear modeling in the boundary lubrication regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the increasing demand for smaller and more efficient systems is increasing the stress put on interacting components. This forces components to operate in the boundary lubrication regime. In this lubrication regime, the normal load put on the components is no longer carried by the

  7. Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, R.C.; Svaasand, L.O.; Tsay, T.; Feng, T.; McAdams, M.S.; Tromberg, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    Using the method of images, we examine the three boundary conditions commonly applied to the surface of a semi-infinite turbid medium. We find that the image-charge configurations of the partial-current and extrapolated-boundary conditions have the same dipole and quadrupole moments and that the two corresponding solutions to the diffusion equation are approximately equal. In the application of diffusion theory to frequency-domain photon-migration (FDPM) data, these two approaches yield values for the scattering and absorption coefficients that are equal to within 3%. Moreover, the two boundary conditions can be combined to yield a remarkably simple, accurate, and computationally fast method for extracting values for optical parameters from FDPM data. FDPM data were taken both at the surface and deep inside tissue phantoms, and the difference in data between the two geometries is striking. If one analyzes the surface data without accounting for the boundary, values deduced for the optical coefficients are in error by 50% or more. As expected, when aluminum foil was placed on the surface of a tissue phantom, phase and modulation data were closer to the results for an infinite-medium geometry. Raising the reflectivity of a tissue surface can, in principle, eliminate the effect of the boundary. However, we find that phase and modulation data are highly sensitive to the reflectivity in the range of 80--100%, and a minimum value of 98% is needed to mimic an infinite-medium geometry reliably. We conclude that noninvasive measurements of optically thick tissue require a rigorous treatment of the tissue boundary, and we suggest a unified partial-current--extrapolated boundary approach

  8. Air-Sea Interaction in the Somali Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T. G.; Rydbeck, A.

    2017-12-01

    The western Indian Ocean is an area of high eddy-kinetic energy generated by local wind-stress curl, instability of boundary currents as well as Rossby waves from the west coast of India and the equatorial wave guide as they reflect off the African coast. The presence of meso-scale eddies and coastal upwelling during the Southwest Monsoon affects the air-sea interaction on those scales. The U.S. Navy's Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to understand and quantify the surface flux, effects on surface waves and the role of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies on ocean-atmosphere coupling in that area. The COAMPS atmosphere model component with 9 km resolution is fully coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) with 3.5 km resolution and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model with 10 km resolution. Data assimilation using a 3D-variational approach is included in hindcast runs performed daily since June 1, 2015. An interesting result is that a westward jet associated with downwelling equatorial Rossy waves initiated the reversal from the southward Somali Current found during the northeast monsoon to a northward flow in March 2016 more than a month before the beginning of the southwest monsoon. It is also found that warm SST anomalies in the Somali Current eddies, locally increase surface wind speed due to an increase in the atmospheric boundary layer height. This results in an increase in significant wave height and also an increase in heat flux to the atmosphere. Cold SST anomalies over upwelling filaments have the opposite impacts on air-sea fluxes.

  9. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  10. Matrix product solution to multi-species ASEP with open boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.; Ragoucy, E.; Vanicat, M.

    2018-04-01

    We study a class of multi-species ASEP with open boundaries. The boundaries are chosen in such a way that all species of particles interact non-trivially with the boundaries, and are present in the stationary state. We give the exact expression of the stationary state in a matrix product form, and compute its normalisation. Densities and currents for the different species are then computed in terms of this normalisation.

  11. Pattern of seismic deformation in the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pondrelli

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic deformation of the Western Mediterranean was studied with the aim of defining the strain pattern that characterizes the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary in this area. Within different sections along the boundary the cumulative moment tensor was computed over 90 years of seismological data. The results were compared with NUVELlA plate motion model and geodetic data. A stable agreement was found along Northern Africa to Sicily, where only Africa and Eurasia plates are involved. In this zone it is evident that changes in the strike of the boundary correspond to variations in the prevailing geometry of deformation, tectonic features and in the percentage of seismic with respect to total expected deformation. The geometry of deformation of periadriatic sections (Central to Southern Apennines, Eastern Alps and the Eastern Adriatic area agrees well with VLBI measurements and with regional geological features. Seismicity seems to account for low rates, from 3% to 31%, of total expected deformation. Only in the Sicily Strait, characterized by extensional to strike slip deformation, does the ratio reach a higher value (79%. If the amount of deformation deduced from seismicity seems low, because 90 years are probably not representative of the recurrence seismic cycle of the Western Mediterranean, the strain pattern we obtain from cumulative moment tensors is more representative of the kinematics of this area than global plate motion models and better identifies lower scale geodynamic features.

  12. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Steve; Miller, George; Frantz, Stephen; Beller, Denis; Morse, Ed; Krahenbuhl, Melinda; Flocchini, Bob; Elliston, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The Western Nuclear Science Alliance (WNSA) was formed at Oregon State University (OSU) under the DOE Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program in 2002. The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program. WNSA has been very effective in meeting these goals. The infrastructure at several of the WNSA university nuclear reactors has been upgraded significantly, as have classroom and laboratory facilities for Nuclear Engineering, Health Physics, and Radiochemistry students and faculty. Major nuclear-related education programs have been inaugurated, including considerable assistance by WNSA universities to other university nuclear programs. Research has also been enhanced under WNSA, as has outreach to pre-college and college students and faculty. The INIE program under WNSA has been an exceptional boost to the nuclear programs at the eight funded WNSA universities. In subsequent years under INIE these programs have expanded even further in terms of new research facilities, research reactor renovations, expanded educational opportunities, and extended cooperation and collaboration between universities, national laboratories, and nuclear utilities.

  13. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  14. Rainfall Effects on the Kuroshio Current East of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chih; Ho, Chung-Ru

    2017-04-01

    Changes of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the open oceans are related to precipitation and evaporation. SSS has been an indicator of water cycle. It may be related to the global change. The Kuroshio Current, a western boundary current originating from the North Equatorial Current, transfers warm and higher salinity to higher latitudes. It flows northward along the east coasts of Luzon Island and Taiwan Island to Japan. In this study, effects of heavy rainfall on the Kuroshio surface salinity east of Taiwan are investigated. Sea surface salinity (SSS) data taken by conductivity temperature depth (CTD) sensor on R/V Ocean Researcher I cruises, conductivity sensor on eight glider cruises, and Aquarius satellite data are used in this study. The rain rate data derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) are also employed. A glider is a kind of autonomous underwater vehicle, which uses small changes in its buoyancy in conjunction with wings to convert vertical motion to horizontal in the underwater without requiring input from an operator. It can take sensors to measure salinity, temperature, and pressure. The TRMM/TMI data from remote sensing system are daily and are mapped to 0.25-degree grid. The results show a good correlation between the rain rate and SSS with a correlation coefficient of 0.86. The rainfall causes SSS of the Kuroshio surface water drops 0.176 PSU per 1 mm/hr rain rate.

  15. Gauging proximities: an inquiry into a possible nexus between Middle Eastern and Western painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emir-Sayers, E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the boundaries between the Middle Eastern Miniature tradition and 20th-century Western philosophy of art. Orhan Pamuk's novel, My Name is Red, provides the initial inspiration for such a project. In order to investigate possible proximities between Middle

  16. Lithological and mineralogical changes observed in a core from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, K.M.; Putra, S.V.S; Rao, Ch.M.

    Lithological and mineralogical studies were carried out on sediments from a 650 cm long core from the north western Bay of Bengal at a depth of 2700 m. These studies demarcate a boundary at 380 cm designated as unit 1 from 0-380 cm and unit 2 from...

  17. Ground Radiometric Method as a Tool for Determining the Surface Boundary of a Buried Bauxitic Karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kareem Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty two ground radiometric measurements along nine traverses within a rectangular network area were taken across a bauxitic karst within the Ubaid Formation (Lower Jurassic in the Western Desert of Iraq. A 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GAD-6 with sodium iodide NaI (Tl crystal (GSP-4S was used in the field to measure the total radioactivity of the surface soil. Soil samples collected from the surface at each measurement point and core samples collected from a test well penetrating the karst were analyzed by Gamma ray spectrometer. The main objective of this study was to detect the hidden bauxitic karst and determine its surface boundary. The radioactivity on the surface of the karst was ranging between 60 and 80 count per second (c/s, while the background radioactivity of the Ubaid Formation, which hosts the karst, was ranging between 100 and150 c/s. Chemical weathering, especially dissolution and leaching moved uranium (238U and thorium(232Th from the overburden downward. Accordingly, these elements have been adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and bauxite buried at a depth of about 5m causing enrichment with radioactivity. The leached overburden lack radioelements, so its radioactivity was less than background radioactivity level. The gamma ray spectroanalysis showed that the radioactivity of 238U and 232Th in the overburden was 0.5 and 3 Bq/Kg, whereas, in the bauxite and flint clay bed, it was 240 and 160 Bq/Kg respectively. Based on the radioactivity anomaly contrast on the surface, an isorad map was plotted and the karst diameter which represents low anomaly was determined to be ranging from 150 to 200m. The current study demonstrates that the ground radiometric method is quite useful for detecting the bauxitic karst and inferring its surface boundaries.

  18. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement

  19. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  20. Plasma boundary phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.

    1989-06-01

    The focus of this review is on processes occurring at the edge, and on the connection between boundary plasma - the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the radiating layer - and central plasma processes. Techniques used for edge diagnosis are reviewed and basic experimental information (n e and T e ) is summarized. Simple models of the SOL are summarized, and the most important effects of the boundary plasma - the influence on the fuel particles, impurities, and energy - on tokamak operation dealt with. Methods of manipulating and controlling edge conditions in tokamaks and the experimental data base for the edge during auxiliary heating of tokamaks are reviewed. Fluctuations and asymmetries at the edge are also covered. (9 tabs., 134 figs., 879 refs.)

  1. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2007-01-01

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  2. Apparitions in western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinani Danijel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbian folk tradition, apparitions represent a special, established and separated category of beliefs, with determined and elaborated passive and active relationship about this supernatural phenomenon. There are a number of beliefs concerning the sole essence of an apparition, periods and places when such phenomenon occurs, and various different features that a person should possess in order (not to communicate with the supernatural; these are accompanied with elaborated religious practice, to prevent or enhance such a meeting/communication. This paper takes apparitions as communications. The greatest number of beliefs is centered on the act of dying and trespasses into the other world, and a special category of deceased, so the analysis is focused on these matters. Based on the literature on the subject, we were able to construct a correct sequence of events leading into peaceful afterlife. When aberrations appear, however, the sequence is diverged, depending on the presence/absence of the mortuary rituals. This conclusion has helped us to decode a message being transferred during the contact with an aberration, and we translate it as a manual for peaceful, eternal, afterlife, which should came about as a result of a traditional norms of behavior and customs. A social function of these rules and customs we found among small communities, where losing a member could jeopardize the existence of a community itself; a social channeling of dying through rituals, reducing the act of dying to its real boundaries of a natural process, as well as a confirmation that a given community is strong enough to overcome the dying crisis, in situations like this, becomes of a vital importance. At the same time, there is an expression and a need to correct deviations from a given community which could pressure a great deal, especially if there is no other way of protection from deviant individuals.

  3. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Åke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social

  4. Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume offers contributions reflecting a selection of the lectures presented at the international conference BAIL 2014, which was held from 15th to 19th September 2014 at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. These are devoted to the theoretical and/or numerical analysis of problems involving boundary and interior layers and methods for solving these problems numerically. The authors are both mathematicians (pure and applied) and engineers, and bring together a large number of interesting ideas. The wide variety of topics treated in the contributions provides an excellent overview of current research into the theory and numerical solution of problems involving boundary and interior layers.  .

  5. Open boundaries for particle beams within fit-simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, M.C. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: balk@temf.tu-darmstadt.de; Schuhmann, R. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, T. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-03-01

    A method is proposed to simulate open boundary conditions for charged particle beams with vcurrent. Further, the simulated field components at the boundary of the calculation domain have to be modified for an undisturbed transmission of the space-charge field. This can be realised by a 'scattered field' formulation. The method is verified by several calculations.

  6. Open boundaries for particle beams within fit-simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balk, M.C.; Schuhmann, R.; Weiland, T.

    2006-01-01

    A method is proposed to simulate open boundary conditions for charged particle beams with v< c in time domain or frequency domain within the Finite Integration Technique (FIT). Inside the calculation domain the moving charged particles are represented by a line current. Further, the simulated field components at the boundary of the calculation domain have to be modified for an undisturbed transmission of the space-charge field. This can be realised by a 'scattered field' formulation. The method is verified by several calculations

  7. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of

  8. Applied thermodynamics: Grain boundary segregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Zheng, L.; Hofmann, S.; Šob, Mojmír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 1462-1484 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : interfacial segregation * Gibbs energy of segregation * enthalpy * entropy * volume * grain boundaries * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  9. Working across Boundaries in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    The paper addresses how insights from the social shaping tradition and political process theory may contribute to an understanding of design as staging of sociotechnical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is purs...... organisational practices. One implication of this approach includes an attention towards what (and how) ar-eas may be rendered open to negotiation and transformation in technological design, implementation, and change processes....

  10. Feynman Integrals with Absorbing Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a formulation of an absorbing boundary for a quantum particle. The formulation is based on a Feynman-type integral over trajectories that are confined to the non-absorbing region. Trajectories that reach the absorbing wall are discounted from the population of the surviving trajectories with a certain weighting factor. Under the assumption that absorbed trajectories do not interfere with the surviving trajectories, we obtain a time dependent absorption law. Two examples are worked ...

  11. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  12. Lovelock action with nonsmooth boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Pablo A.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the variational problem in Lovelock gravity when the boundary contains timelike and spacelike segments nonsmoothly glued. We show that two kinds of contributions have to be added to the action. The first one is associated with the presence of a boundary in every segment and it depends on intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures. We can think of this contribution as adding a total derivative to the usual surface term of Lovelock gravity. The second one appears in every joint between two segments and it involves the integral along the joint of the Jacobson-Myers entropy density weighted by the Lorentz boost parameter, which relates the orthonormal frames in each segment. We argue that this term can be straightforwardly extended to the case of joints involving null boundaries. As an application, we compute the contribution of these terms to the complexity of global anti-de Sitter space in Lovelock gravity by using the "complexity =action " proposal and we identify possible universal terms for arbitrary values of the Lovelock couplings. We find that they depend on the charge a* controlling the holographic entanglement entropy and on a new constant that we characterize.

  13. Voting based object boundary reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Zhang, Like; Ma, Jingsheng

    2005-07-01

    A voting-based object boundary reconstruction approach is proposed in this paper. Morphological technique was adopted in many applications for video object extraction to reconstruct the missing pixels. However, when the missing areas become large, the morphological processing cannot bring us good results. Recently, Tensor voting has attracted people"s attention, and it can be used for boundary estimation on curves or irregular trajectories. However, the complexity of saliency tensor creation limits its applications in real-time systems. An alternative approach based on tensor voting is introduced in this paper. Rather than creating saliency tensors, we use a "2-pass" method for orientation estimation. For the first pass, Sobel d*etector is applied on a coarse boundary image to get the gradient map. In the second pass, each pixel puts decreasing weights based on its gradient information, and the direction with maximum weights sum is selected as the correct orientation of the pixel. After the orientation map is obtained, pixels begin linking edges or intersections along their direction. The approach is applied to various video surveillance clips under different conditions, and the experimental results demonstrate significant improvement on the final extracted objects accuracy.

  14. Boundary determinations for trivariate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchaineau, M; Joy, K I

    1999-01-01

    The trivariate tensor-product B-spline solid is a direct extension of the B-spline patch and has been shown to be useful in the creation and visualization of free-form geometric solids. Visualizing these solid objects requires the determination of the boundary surface of the solid, which is a combination of parametric and implicit surfaces. This paper presents a method that determines the implicit boundary surface by examination of the Jacobian determinant of the defining B-spline function. Using an approximation to this determinant, the domain space is adaptively subdivided until a mesh can be determined such that the boundary surface is close to linear in the cells of the mesh. A variation of the marching cubes algorithm is then used to draw the surface. Interval approximation techniques are used to approximate the Jacobian determinant and to approximate the Jacobian determinant gradient for use in the adaptive subdivision methods. This technique can be used to create free-form solid objects, useful in geometric modeling applications

  15. Coral-inferred Variability of Upstream Kuroshio Current from 1953-2004 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Yi, L.; Shen, C. C.; Hsin, Y. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Kuroshio Current (KC), one of the most important western boundary currents in the North Pacific Ocean, strongly impacts regional climate in East Asia and upper-ocean thermal structure. However, the responses of KC to regional and remote climate forcing are poorly understood owing to lacking of long-term KC observations. Here, we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record from 1953 to 2004 AD derived from monthly skeletal δ18O data of a living coral Porites core, drilled in Nanwan, southern Taiwan (22°N, 121°E), located on the western front of the Upstream KC. The increased/reduced Kuroshio transport would generate stronger/weaker upwelling in Southern Taiwan, which can cause lower/higher SST. Agreement between dynamics of interannual coral δ18O and modern KC data shows that the regional coral δ18O can be used as a promising proxy for Upstream KC intensity. The KC-induced SST anomaly record reveals prominent interannual and decadal variability predominantly controlled by the bifurcation latitude of North Equatorial Current. We also find that the reconstructed KC intensity at east of Taiwan and south of Japan have nearly simultaneous interannual changes, suggesting the same dominant forcing(s) for the entire KC system. Additional work is needed to understand the KC system with respect to the interannual to decadal climate variability and the influences of global warming.

  16. Introduction: Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar; Hashas, Mohammed; de Ruiter, Jan Jaap

    2018-01-01

    by this source of religious authority in the context of the secular-liberal societies of Western Europe since the Second World War and the subsequent migration and refugee flows. At the same time, this research also serves to highlight secular-liberal institutions and their adaptation, or lack thereof......, to the multiculturalism that characterizes Western European states. The social facts of globalization, transnational migration, and various interpretations of secularism have challenged the visibility of religion in the public sphere in Western societies. This has most importantly and urgently required religious...

  17. Bypass transition in compressible boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervegt, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Transition to turbulence in aerospace applications usually occurs in a strongly disturbed environment. For instance, the effects of free-stream turbulence, roughness and obstacles in the boundary layer strongly influence transition. Proper understanding of the mechanisms leading to transition is crucial in the design of aircraft wings and gas turbine blades, because lift, drag and heat transfer strongly depend on the state of the boundary layer, laminar or turbulent. Unfortunately, most of the transition research, both theoretical and experimental, has focused on natural transition. Many practical flows, however, defy any theoretical analysis and are extremely difficult to measure. Morkovin introduced in his review paper the concept of bypass transition as those forms of transition which bypass the known mechanisms of linear and non-linear transition theories and are currently not understood by experiments. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms leading to transition in a disturbed environment, experiments are conducted studying simpler cases, viz. the effects of free stream turbulence on transition on a flat plate. It turns out that these experiments are very difficult to conduct, because generation of free stream turbulence with sufficiently high fluctuation levels and reasonable homogeneity is non trivial. For a discussion see Morkovin. Serious problems also appear due to the fact that at high Reynolds numbers the boundary layers are very thin, especially in the nose region of the plate where the transition occurs, which makes the use of very small probes necessary. The effects of free-stream turbulence on transition are the subject of this research and are especially important in a gas turbine environment, where turbulence intensities are measured between 5 and 20 percent, Wang et al. Due to the fact that the Reynolds number for turbine blades is considerably lower than for aircraft wings, generally a larger portion of the blade will be in a laminar

  18. Pockmark asymmetry and seafloor currents in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, U.; Lazar, M.; Souza, L. A. P.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Mahiques, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Pockmarks form by gas/fluid expulsion into the ocean and are preserved under conditions of negligible sedimentation. Ideally, they are circular at the seafloor and symmetrical in profile. Elliptical pockmarks are more enigmatic. They are associated with seafloor currents while asymmetry is connected to sedimentation patterns. This study examines these associations through morphological analysis of new multibeam data collected across the Santos continental slope offshore Brazil in 2011 (353–865 mbsl). Of 984 pockmarks, 78% are both elliptical and asymmetric. Geometric criteria divide the pockmarks into three depth ranges that correlate with a transition between two currents: the Brazil Current transfers Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water southwestwards while the Intermediate Western Boundary Current transfers Antarctic Intermediate Water northeastwards. It is suggested that the velocity of seafloor currents and their persistence dictate pockmark ellipticity, orientation and profile asymmetry. Fast currents (>20 cm/s) are capable of maintaining pockmark flank steepness close to the angle of repose. These morphological expressions present direct evidence for an edge effect of the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and, in general, provide a correlation between pockmark geometry and seafloor currents that can be applied at other locations worldwide.

  19. On filter boundary conditions in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Most research papers on topology optimization involve filters for regularization. Typically, boundary effects from the filters are ignored. Despite significant drawbacks the inappropriate homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are used, probably because they are trivial to implement. In this paper...

  20. Integrability and boundary conditions of supersymmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Ruihong; Liang Hong

    1996-01-01

    By studying the solutions of the reflection equations, we find out a series of integrable supersymmetric systems with different boundary conditions. The Hamiltonian contains four free parameters which describe the contribution of the boundary terms

  1. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  2. Practical boundary surveying legal and technical principles

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This guide to boundary surveying provides landowners, land surveyors, students and others with the necessary foundation to understand boundary surveying techniques and the common legal issues that govern boundary establishment.  Boundary surveying is sometimes mistakenly considered a strictly technical discipline with simple and straightforward technical solutions.  In reality, boundary establishment is often a difficult and complex matter, requiring years of experience and a thorough understanding of boundary law.  This book helps readers to understand the challenges often encountered by boundary surveyors and some of the available solutions. Using only simple and logically explained mathematics, the principles and practice of boundary surveying are demystified for those without prior experience, and the focused coverage of pivotal issues such as easements and setting lot corners will aid even licensed practitioners in untangling thorny cases. Practical advice on using both basic and advanced instruments ...

  3. Boundary of the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains polygons representing the Iowa Boundary, it was derived from a coverage of county boundaries, called COUNTIES, of the state of Iowa. COUNTIES...

  4. Cal State Park Boundaries 2011/2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a GIS version of California State Park (CSP) operational boundaries and does not represent official property boundary determinations. This GIS version is...

  5. News from the western European invasion front

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity ex...

  6. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  7. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  8. The Western Sahara conflict I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polisario unilaterally declared a "Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic" (27 Feb. 1976). Since .... Furthermore, Frente Polisario managed to keep the Western Sahara question on .... these countries and their fragile ethnic and political balance.

  9. Warm Bias and Parameterization of Boundary Upwelling in Ocean Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessi, Paola; Wolfe, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    It has been demonstrated that Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) are a baroclinic intensification of the interior circulation of the ocean due to the emergence of mesoscale eddies in response to the sharp buoyancy gradients driven by the wind-stress and the thermal surface forcing. The eddies accomplish the heat and salt transport necessary to insure that the subsurface flow is adiabatic, compensating for the heat and salt transport effected by the mean currents. The EBC thus generated occurs on a cross-shore scale of order 20-100 km, and thus this scale needs to be resolved in climate models in order to capture the meridional transport by the EBC. Our result indicate that changes in the near shore currents on the oceanic eastern boundaries are linked not just to local forcing, such as coastal changes in the winds, but depend on the basin-wide circulation as well.

  10. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  11. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  12. Boundary induced nonlinearities at small Reynolds numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbragaglia, M.; Sugiyama, K.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the importance of boundary slip at finite Reynolds numbers for mixed boundary conditions. Nonlinear effects are induced by the non-homogeneity of the boundary condition and change the symmetry properties of the flow with an overall mean flow reduction. To explain the observed drag

  13. 78 FR 15883 - Standard Time Zone Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...] RIN 2105-AE20 Standard Time Zone Boundaries AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... time zone boundaries regulations to reflect changes that Congress made to the Uniform Time Act. The... regulations on standard time zone boundaries, 49 CFR Part 71, need to be updated in order to ensure their...

  14. VT 1990 Census County Boundaries and Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) DemoCensus_CNTY1990 is derived from BoundaryCounty_CNTY250. BoundaryCounty_CNTY250 was derived from BoundaryTown_TB250 (TB250 was archived 6/2003...

  15. Integrable boundary conditions and modified Lax equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    We consider integrable boundary conditions for both discrete and continuum classical integrable models. Local integrals of motion generated by the corresponding 'transfer' matrices give rise to time evolution equations for the initial Lax operator. We systematically identify the modified Lax pairs for both discrete and continuum boundary integrable models, depending on the classical r-matrix and the boundary matrix

  16. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  17. Inside Out: Organizations as Service Systems Equipped with Relational Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jimena Crespo Garrido

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, literature on organizational boundaries is at the center of a heated debate, characterized by a shift from a transactional approach to a broader immaterial perspective centered on the concept of boundless organizations. However, the overestimation of the effects of contemporary dematerialization on business processes can lead to the progressive neglect of the existence of corporate borders. In light of this consideration, the present work aims at proposing a new type of criterion for defining organizational boundaries, halfway between the conception of the firm’s total openness and total closure. To this end, the authors envisage the use of a new interpretive logic defined as “relational”, resulting from the specification of the systemic view (and as the sum of the logic underlying the viable systems approach (VSA. This approach views the definition of boundaries. Therefore, in the large and intricate scenery of the studies dedicated to organizational boundaries, this work contributes to a better understanding of border selection as an interactive and changeable process capable of pushing organizations towards a greater awareness of their strategic dimension. This paper also offers some insights for future research, suggesting that both scholars and professionals investigate, firstly, new frontiers for the identification of organizational boundaries and, secondly, the possible positive repercussions that new organizational redesign modes could determine for a greater competitive success.

  18. A model of anelastic relaxation associated with polygonization boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A model of anelastic relaxation associated with polygonization boundary is proposed in order to explain internal friction peaks and other experimental phenomena observed recently. The model, which is referred to as vacancy-thermal jog model, shows that under conditions of high temperature and low applied stress with lower frequencies of vibration, thermal jog pairs are generated on dislocation segments of the boundaries. These jogs are in saturation with vacancies in the vicinity of them, and the vacancy current due to the concentration gradient of vacancy drifts among the boundaries. As a result, a diffusional creep is produced and a part of energy is dissipated. For vacancy drift, it is required that the thermal jogs emit (absorb) vacancies, which brings climbing bow of segments into operation, and another part of energy is dissipated so that there are two parts of energy dissipated in the strain process connected with polygonization boundary. Based on this point of view, the mathematical expressions of internal friction and modulus defect associated with polygonization boundary were subsequently derived and found to be in satisfactory agreement with experiments. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs

  19. A suitable boundary condition for bounded plasma simulation without sheath resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.E.; Procassini, R.J.; Birdsall, C.K.; Cohen, B.I.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a technique that allows for a sheath boundary layer without having to resolve the inherently small space and time scales of the sheath region. We refer to this technique as the logical sheath boundary condition. This boundary condition, when incorporated into a direct-implicit particle code, permits large space- and time-scale simulations of bounded systems, which would otherwise be impractical on current supercomputers. The lack of resolution of the collector sheath potential drop obtained from conventional implicit simulations at moderate values of ω pe Δt and Δz/λ De provides the motivation for the development of the logical sheath boundary condition. The algorithm for use of the logical sheath boundary condition in a particle simulation is presented. Results from simulations which use the logical sheath boundary condition are shown to compare reasonably well with those from an analytic theory and simulations in which the sheath is resolved

  20. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples, which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base